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Sonntag, Borgnakke and van Wylen

9.4 A reversible adiabatic flow of air in a compressor has increasing P. How about T? Solution: Steady state single flow:
e dq se = si + T + sgen = si + 0 + 0 i so s is constant. Properties for an ideal gas gives Eq.8.23 and for constant specific heat we get Eq.8.29. A higher P means a higher T, which is also the case for a variable specific heat, recall Eq.8.28 for the standard entropy.

9.5 An irreversible adiabatic flow of liquid water in a pump has higher P. How about T? Solution: e dq Steady state single flow: se = si + T + sgen = si + 0 + sgen i so s is increasing. Properties for liquid (incompressible) gives Eq.8.19 where an increase in s gives an increasse in T. 9.6 A compressor receives R-134a at 10oC, 200 kPa with an exit of 1200 kPa, 50oC. What can you say about the process? Solution: Properties for R-134a are found in Table B.5 Inlet state: si = 1.7328 kJ/kg K Exit state: se = 1.7237 kJ/kg K e dq Steady state single flow: se = si + T + sgen i Since s decreases slightly and the generation term can only be positive, it must be that the heat transfer is negative (out) so the integral gives a contribution that is smaller than -sgen.