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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION 2010-2013
Seminar Report On
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY
Submitted by , ANJU JOHNY S6 E&I
GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE CHERTHALA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION
This is to certify that this seminar titled “OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY” presented by Anju Johny (Reg No:10210197) of Electronics And Instrumentation Engineering , Govt.Polytechnic College , Cherthala in partial fulfillment for the award of Diploma in ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING under Department Of Technical Education , Kerala during the academic year 2012-2013
Internal examiner External examiner
Seminar coordinator Head of section
In the name of Almighty God, I am extremely thankful to our principal Mr. RAJ MOHAN.G who is allowed me to conduct this seminar at college campus which has taught many lessons in the field of public speaking. I take this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. INDULAL.B head of department of electronics and instrumentation engineering and all teaching staffs of government polytechnic college for their valuable support and help.
I extend my special thanks to Mrs. SHAMJI .N. SHAHUL staff in charge , for the pains she took in coordinating the seminar and also for her kind support and help. Last but not least , I express my special thanks to my family and friends , who stood by me and encouraged me.
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY
OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAM OF A FINGERTIP LAYPERSONS EXPLANATION THEORY BASIC PRINCIPLES
4 6 7 8 11 17 18
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
LOW - COHERENCE INTERFEROMETRY OPTICAL AND ACOUSTICAL IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL MEDIA TIME DOMAIN OCT
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
20 24 25 27
FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (FD-OCT)
SPATIALLY ENCODED FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (SPECTRAL DOMAIN OR FOURIER DOMAIN OCT)
TIME ENCODED FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (ALSO SWEPT SOURCE OCT)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
SCANNING MODES SINGLE A-SCAN B-SCAN 3D – OCT
32 32 33 34 35 36 36 39
4.5 4.6 4.7
SINGLE POINT (CONFOCAL) OCT
PARALLEL (OR FULL FIELD) OCT
SMART DETECTOR ARRAY FOR PARALLEL TD -OCT
MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER CONFIGURATION
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 3 47 47 48 49 7 7.3 APPLICATIONS OPHTHALMIC IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL BIOPSY IMAGING WHERE EXCISIONAL BIOPSY IS HAZARDOUS OR IMPOSSIBLE 8 9 CONCLUSION REFERENCES 51 53 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .1 7.2 7.
advances in optics. The latter is based on a classic optical measurement method known as low-coherence interferometry that enables non-invasive. the stratum corneum of glabrous skin (palmoplantar). optical coherence tomography (OCT). the development of high-output broadband light sources.ABSTRACT Histology represents the gold standard for morphological investigation of the skin.or three-dimensional. which could potentially allow the differentiation between benign and malignant tissues. fiber as well as laser technology have enabled the development of a novel non-invasive optical biomedical imaging technique. the epidermis and the upper dermis can usually be identified. cross-sectional imaging of micro structural morphology in biological tissue in situ. might soon enable ultrahigh image resolutions of about 1 micron in order to investigate skin tissue on the cellular level. is non-repeatable on the same site and always requires an iatrogenic trauma. Furthermore. In the past decade. Using conventional OCT with a lateral resolution of 10-15 micron. two. Beyond a high resolution morphology in DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . as well as skin appendages and blood vessels. noninvasive monitoring of cutaneous inflammation.g. though biopsy may alter the original morphology.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 4 1. e. hyperkeratotic conditions and photo adaptive processes is possible by means of OCT. feta second Ti:sapphire laser. For example. high resolution.
the advanced versions of OCT technique might not only lead to significant new insights in skin physiology and pathology. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Functional OCT imaging based on spectroscopy.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 5 OCT images. in particular in cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industry. tissue birefringence. elastography and Doppler flow reveals further information on tissue properties and represents an important progress of OCT technique in the field of dermatology. but also in diagnosis and therapeutic control of cutaneous disorders with respect to non-invasive diagnosis of conditions and monitoring of disease activity in addition to treatment effects over time. tissue characterization by additional local physical parameters. such as the scattering coefficient and refractive index may be of great value. Therefore.
especially of the human eye. where it is used to analyze different layers in a painting. the last lacks millimeter penetration depth. A first two-dimensional in vivo depiction of a human eye fundus along a horizontal meridian based on white light interferometric depth scans was presented at the ICO-15 SAT conference in 1990. optical coherence tomography (OCT) with micrometer resolution and crosssectional imaging capabilities has become a prominent biomedical tissue-imaging technique.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 6 2. First in vivo OCT images – displaying retinal structures – were published in 1993. was investigated by multiple groups worldwide. Medical ultrasonography.Further developed in 1990 by Naohiro Tanno. and in particular since 1991 by Huang et al.. OCT has also been used for various art conservation projects. OCT has critical advantages over other medical imaging systems. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy are not suited to morphological tissue imaging: the first two have poor resolution. it is particularly suited to ophthalmic applications and other tissue imaging requiring micrometer resolution and millimeter penetration depth.INTRODUCTION Starting from white-light interferometry for in vivo ocular eye measurements imaging of biological tissue. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . then a professor at Yamagata University.
Light with broad bandwidths can be generated by using superluminescent diodes (superbright LEDs) or lasers with extremely short pulses (femtosecond lasers). interference of light occurs over a distance of meters.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 7 OCT bases itself upon low coherence interferometry. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . 2.1 OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAM OF A FINGERTIP. thanks to the use of broadband light sources (sources that can emit light over a broad range of frequencies). In OCT. White light is also a broadband source with lower power. this interference is shortened to a distance of micrometers. In conventional interferometry with long coherence length (laser interferometry).
It is effectively ‘optical ultrasound’. Areas of the sample that reflect back a lot of light will create greater interference than areas that don't. but only if light from both arms have travelled the "same" optical distance ("same" meaning a difference of less than a coherence length). A cross-sectional tomograph (B-scan) may be achieved by laterally combining a series of these axial depth scans (Ascan).OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 8 Light in an OCT system is broken into two arms—a sample arm (containing the item of interest) and a reference arm (usually a mirror). called an A-scan. The combination of reflected light from the sample arm and reference light from the reference arm gives rise to an interference pattern. 2. By scanning the mirror in the reference arm. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Any light that is outside the short coherence length will not interfere. is a technique for obtaining sub-surface images of translucent or opaque materials at a resolution equivalent to a low-power microscope. contains information about the spatial dimensions and location of structures within the item of interest. En face imaging at an acquired depth is possible depending on the imaging engine used. imaging reflections from within tissue to provide cross-sectional images. or ‘OCT’.2LAYPERSONS EXPLANATION Optical Coherence Tomography. This reflectivity profile. a reflectivity profile of the sample can be obtained (this is time domain OCT).
The key benefits of OCT are: • • • • Live sub-surface images at near-microscopic resolution Instant.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 9 OCT is attracting interest among the medical community. in OCT. this diffusely scattered light contributes background that obscures an image. rather. direct imaging of tissue morphology No preparation of the sample or subject No ionizing radiation OCT delivers high resolution because it is based on light. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . However. and a small portion of this light that reflects from sub-surface features is collected. scatters off at large angles. because it provides tissue morphology imagery at much higher resolution (better than 10 µm) than other imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound. Thus OCT can build up clear 3D images of thick samples by rejecting background signal while collecting light directly reflected from surfaces of interest. Note that most light is not reflected but. In conventional imaging. An optical beam is directed at the tissue. optical coherence is used to record the optical path length of received photons allowing rejection of most photons that scatter multiple times before detection. rather than sound or radio frequency.
magnetic resonance imaging. No special preparation of a biological specimen is required. It is also important to note that the laser output from the instruments is low – eyesafe near-infra-red light is used – and no damage to the sample is therefore likely. or positron emission tomography do not utilize the echolocation principle. The technique is limited to imaging 1 to 2 mm below the surface in biological tissue.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 10 Within the range of noninvasive three-dimensional imaging techniques that have been introduced to the medical research community. OCT as an echo technique is similar to ultrasound imaging. and images can be obtained ‘non -contact’ or through a transparent window or membrane. Other medical imaging techniques such as computerized axial tomography. because at greater depths the proportion of light that escapes without scattering is too small to be detected. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
3 THEORY BASIC PRINCIPLES FIGURE 2. Colored and monochromatic fringes in a Michelson interferometer: (a) White light fringes where the two beams differ in the number of phase inversions.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 11 2. FORMATION OF FRINGES IN A MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER Figure 3. (b) White light DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
The path difference. This could be a DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . creates a phase difference between them. It is this introduced phase difference that creates the interference pattern between the initially identical waves. the difference in the distance traveled by each beam. called a path. If a single beam has been split along two paths. Most interferometers use light or some other form of electromagnetic wave.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 12 fringes where the two beams have experienced the same number of phase inversions. Typically (see Fig. Each of these beams travels a different route. the well-known Michelson configuration) a single incoming beam of coherent light will be split into two identical beams by a beam splitter (a partially reflecting mirror). the resulting pattern is determined by the phase difference between the two waves—waves that are in phase will undergo constructive interference while waves that are out of phase will undergo destructive interference. then the phase difference is diagnostic of anything that changes the phase along the paths. 1. and are recombined before arriving at a detector. This works because when two waves with the same frequency combine. (c) Fringe pattern using monochromatic light (sodium D lines) See also: Interference (wave propagation) Interferometry makes use of the principle of superposition to combine waves in a way that will cause the result of their combination to have some meaningful property that is diagnostic of the original state of the waves.
while the fringes of Fig. the observer has a direct view of mirror M1 seen through the beam splitter. 2b will be localized on the mirrors. If. M1 and M'2 are tilted with respect to each other. and sees a reflected image M'2 of mirror M2. the fringes of Fig. The central fringe representing equal path length may be light or dark depending on the number of phase inversions experienced by the two beams as they traverse the optical system. If S is an extended source rather than a point source as illustrated. 2a and 2b. Use of white light will result in a pattern of colored fringes (see Fig. 3). parallel. the optical elements are oriented so that S'1and S'2 are in line with the observer. As seen in Fig. The characteristics of the interference pattern depend on the nature of the light source and the precise orientation of the mirrors and beam splitter. the interference fringes will generally take the shape of conic sections (hyperbolas).(See Michelson interferometer for a discussion DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 13 physical change in the path length itself or a change in the refractive index along the path. and the resulting interference pattern consists of circles centered on the normal to M1and M'2. 2a. The fringes can be interpreted as the result of interference between light coming from the two virtual images S'1 and S'2 of the original source S. 2a must be observed with a telescope set at infinity. the fringes near the axis will be straight. 2b. as in Fig. but if M1 and M'2 overlap. In Fig. and equally spaced.
convex lens (L1). 1 Full-field OCT optical setup. reference (REF) and sample (SMP). respectively. The optical setup typically consists of an interferometer (Fig. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Light is split into and recombined from reference and sample arm. broad bandwidth light source. The camera functions as a two-dimensional detector array. Components include: super-luminescent diode (SLD). camera objective (CO). 50/50 beamsplitter (BS).)The principle OCT is white light or low coherence interferometry. a non-invasive three dimensional imaging device is achieved. CMOS-DSP camera (CAM).OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 14 of this. 1. typically Michelson type) with a low coherence. Fig. and with the OCT technique facilitating scanning in depth.
2 Typical optical setup of single point OCT. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 15 Fig. Scanning the light beam on the sample enables non-invasive cross-sectional imaging up to 3 mm in depth with micrometer resolution.
and digital signal processing (DSP). reference mirror (REF). Components include: low coherence source (LCS). Components include: swept source or tunable laser (SS). 4 Spectral discrimination by fourier-domain OCT. diffraction grating (DG) and full-field detector (CAM) act as a spectrometer. digital signal processing (DSP) Fig. reference mirror (REF). sample (SMP). photodetector (PD). beamsplitter (BS). 3 Spectral discrimination by swept-source OCT. sample (SMP).OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 16 Fig. beamsplitter (BS). DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
Because the velocity of light is extremely high. it is necessary to use correlation or interferometry techniques. Low-coherence interferometry was first developed for measuring reflections in fiber optics and optoelectronic devices . while the second beam travels a reference path with a variable path length. Light from a source is directed onto a beam splitter. Low-coherence interferometry measures the echo time delay and intensity of backscattered light by interfering it with light that has traveled a known reference path length and time delay.The first applications of low-coherence interferometry in biomedicine were in ophthalmology to perform precision measurements of axial eye length and corneal thickness. The backscattered light from the sample is interfered with reflected DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 17 3. Cross-sectional images are generated by measuring the echo time delay and intensity of light that is reflected or backscattered from internal structures in tissue. Measurements are performed using a Michelson-type interferometer ( figure 1). the echo time delay cannot be measured directly. and one of the beams is incident onto the sample to be imaged. Instead. One method for measuring the echo time delay of light is to use low-coherence interferometry.PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OCT is analogous to ultrasound imaging but uses light instead of sound.
if low-coherence light or short pulses are used.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 18 light from the reference arm and detected with a photodetector at the interferometer output. an interferometer is used with a broadband (white) light source. 3.COHERENCE INTERFEROMETRY In low-coherence interferometry. The echo time delay and intensity of backscattered. which creates DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . then interference fringes will be observed as the relative path lengths are varied. then interference occurs only when the two path lengths match to within the coherence length of the light. However. If the light source is coherent. The beam of light from the source is split into two at a half mirror.1 LOW .
The coherence length is the maximum length after which the phase of light is still predictable. measuring the field strength of the interfering beams of light. and thus. The light source used here. by the mirror in the reference arm and the sample in the measurement arm. the maximum length after which interference can still be observed. has a short coherence length. however. It is inversely proportional to the width of the lights spectrum. and recombined to create interference before it hits a detector. Since the spectrum of the light used in low coherence interferometer is broad.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 19 a measurement and a reference path. interference is only be observed when the lengths of the measurement and reference arm are matched to within the small coherence length of that light. The light is then reflected. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . usually a photodiode. When used with a monochromatic light source. allowing for very good axial resolution. it would be hard to tell anything from the resulting signal.
2OPTICAL AND ACOUSTICAL IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL MEDIA OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY DOSSIER The light from sites within the sample can be measured by detecting and demodulating the interference output of the interferometer while scanning the reference path length. The optical beam is focused into the sample being imaged. The incident beam is then scanned in the transverse direction. In contrast to conventional microscopy. and the echo time delay and intensity of the backscattered light are measured to yield an axial backscattering profile. The interference signal from the interferometer is the electric-field DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 20 3. Thus high resolution can be achieved independent of the beam focusing conditions. The axial resolution in OCT is determined by the coherence length of the light source. This data set represents the optical backscattering through a cross section of the tissue. the mechanisms that govern the axial and transverse image resolution in OCT are independent. This method is analogous to heterodyne optical detection in optical communications. and the axial backscattering profile is measured at several transverse positions to yield a two dimensional data set. The data is displayed as a logarithmic gray scale or false color image.
In addition. In addition. The coherence length is the spatial width of this field autocorrelation. similar to conventional microscopy. and high resolution may be achieved by using broad bandwidth optical sources.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 21 autocorrelation of the light source. Thus. the envelope of the field autocorrelation is equivalent to the Fourier transform of the power spectrum. The axial resolution is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the light source. For a source with a Gaussian spectral distribution. or the axial resolution. The transverse resolution in the OCT imaging system is determined by the focused spot size as in conventional microscopy. Finally. the axial resolution Hz is: Hz = (2ln2/π)_λ2/Δλ_whereΔz and Δλ are the full-widths-athalf-maximum of the autocorrelation function and power spectrum respectively. the width of the autocorrelation function. and λ is the source center wavelength. the signal DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . is inversely proportional to the width of the power spectrum. the transverse resolution is also related to the depth of focus or the confocal parameter b which is 2zR. High transverse resolution can be obtained by using a large numerical aperture and focusing the beam to a small spot size. two times the Raleigh range: 2zR = πΔx2/2λ Improving the transverse resolution produces a decrease in the depth of focus. The transverse resolution is: Δx = (4λ/π)(f/d) where d is the spot size on the objective lens and f is its focal length.
Higher image acquisition speeds or higher image resolutions require higher optical powers to achieve a given signal to noise ratio. η is the detector quantum efficiency. and hν is the photon energy. The signal to noise ratio scales as the reflected or backscattered power divided by the noise equivalent bandwidth of the detection. NEB is the noise equivalent bandwidth of the detection.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 22 to noise of detection can be calculated using standard techniques from optical communications theory and is given by: SNR =10log(ηP/2hν NEB) where P is the detected power. One of the advantages of OCT is that it can be implemented using compact fiber optic components and integrated with a wide range of medical instruments. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
One arm of the interferometer emits a beam that is directed and scanned on the sample that is being imaged. and the interference at the output is detected with a photodiode. The system shown is configured for high-speed catheter/endoscope based imaging. One arm of the interferometer is interfaced to the measurement instrument and the other arm has a scanning delay line. The system can be interfaced to microscopes. while the other arm of the interferometer is a reference arm with a scanning delay line.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 23 Schematic of OCT instrument based on a fiber-optic implementation of a Michaelson interferometer. as well as catheters and endoscopes. hand held imaging probes. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
it is possible to measure the amount of light reflected by the sample in a specific depth by translating the reference arms mirror in the direction of the reference path while measuring. which is the principle used in Time-Domain (TD) OCT.3 TIME DOMAIN OCT Based on low coherence interferometer. sampled over time. The signal giving the receptivity is.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 24 3. as only light traveling a specific distance creates interference in the detector due to the small coherence length. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
is only achieved when the path difference lies within the coherence length of the light source. 3.e. The envelope of this modulation changes as path length difference is varied. or crosscorrelation in the common case. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . the series of dark and bright fringes. Due to the Fourier relation (Wiener-Khintchine theorem between the auto correlation and the spectral power density) the depth scan can be immediately calculated by a Fourier-transform from the acquired spectra. where the peak of the envelope corresponds to path length matching. i.4 FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (FD-OCT) In frequency domain OCT the broadband interference is acquired with spectrally separated detectors (either by encoding the optical frequency in time with a spectrally scanning source or with a dispersive detector.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 25 In time domain OCT the path length of the reference arm is translated longitudinally in time. This interference is called auto correlation in a symmetric interferometer (both arms have the same reflectivity). the former being an equivalent to the coherence length of the light source and the latter being a function of the optics. like a grating and a linear detector array). The axial and lateral resolutions of OCT are decoupled from one another. A property of low coherence interferometer is that interference.
the makeup of the signal separated by frequency. This feature improves imaging speed dramatically. translating the mirror and then scanning takes too much time to image big areas of the sample in real time.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 26 without movement of the reference arm.sections of samples. Thus. It makes use of the fact that a signal is fully denned not only by how its value changes over time. as before. in the time-. getting the same information about the echo’s magnitude and delay as with TD-OCT. The parallel detection at multiple wavelength ranges limits the scanning range. but also by its spectral information . While the time-domain approach can be used to create 1D or even 2D cross. while the reduced losses during a single scan improve the signal to noise proportional to the number of detection elements. Frequency-Domain (FD) OCT solves this problem. the receptivity of the sample can be measured for all depths at once by measuring the interference not. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . while the full spectral bandwidth sets the axial resolution. but in the frequency domain and then applying the so-called Fourier transform to get from the spectrum information back to the time domain.
instead of using a single photo detector. the signal-to-noise ratio improves by several hundredfold. the interfering light is separated into deferent beams according to wavelength by a dispersive element such as a prism.[dBCP+03] DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . and then detected using a linear detector.5 SPATIALLY ENCODED FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (SPECTRAL DOMAIN OR FOURIER DOMAIN OCT) In spectral/Fourier domain OCT.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 27 3. This method has an additional advantage over techniques using a single photo detector: Since less noninterfering light reaches each part of the detector array.
However. but mostly have an inverse dependence. the large signal to noise advantage of FD-OCT is reduced due the lower dynamic range of stripe detectors in respect to single photosensitive diodes. resulting in an SNR (signal to noise ratio) advantage of ~10 dB at much higher speeds. since dynamic range is not a serious problem at this wavelength range. This is not much of a problem when working at 1300 nm. The drawbacks of this technology are found in a strong fall-off of the SNR. Additionally the dispersive elements in the spectroscopic detector usually do not distribute the light equally spaced in frequency on the detector. However. which cannot take care of the difference in local (pixel wise) bandwidth. Thereby the information of the full depth scan can be acquired within a single exposure. which is proportional to the distance from the zero delay and a sync-type reduction of the depth dependent sensitivity because of limited detection line width. (One pixel detects a quasi-rectangular portion of an optical frequency range instead of a single frequency.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 28 SEFD-OCT extracts spectral information by distributing different optical frequencies onto a detector stripe (line-array CCD or CMOS) via a dispersive element (see Fig. which results in further reduction of the signal quality. the Fouriertransform leads to the sync(z) behavior). Therefore the signal has to be re-sampled before processing. however. the fall-off is not a serious problem with the DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . 4).
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 29 development of new generation CCD or photodiode array with a larger number of pixels. extracted by using spectroscopy. a Laser) in time. as in spectral FD-OCT. Instead.6 TIME ENCODED FREQUENCY DOMAIN OCT (ALSO SWEPT SOURCE OCT) In swept-source frequency domain OCT. Synthetic array heterodyne detection offers another approach to this problem without the need for high dispersion. The resulting interference is then detected with a single photo detector over the span of one DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . it is encoded in time by sweeping the frequency of a light source with narrow spectrum (e. the frequency information is not.g. 3.
The advantage of the swept-source method over using a linear detector array such as a typically silicon-based line-scan camera is that light in wavelength ranges of around 1000nm to 1300nm can be used. Here the advantage lies in the proven high SNR detection technology. since they are less attenuated than the shorter wave lengths used otherwise. Drawbacks are the nonlinearities in the wavelength (especially at high scanning frequencies).e.suited for imaging scattering tissues. so not having to use them is a clear advantage in this case. and Fourier transformed to get the optical echo information.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 30 sweep. 5) becomes simpler than SEFD. the broadening of the line width DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . while swept laser sources achieve very small instantaneous bandwidths (=line width) at very high frequencies (20–200 kHz). The spectrum either filtered or generated in single successive frequency steps and reconstructed before Fouriertransformation. frequency scanning laser) the optical setup (see Fig. Here the spectral components are not encoded by spatial separation. which are well. but the problem of scanning is essentially translated from the TD-OCT referencearm into the TEFD-OCT light source. TEFD-OCT tries to combine some of the advantages of standard TD and SEFD-OCT. Silicon based detectors lack sensitivity in higher wavelength ranges. corrected for sweep nonlinearities. By accommodation of a frequency scanning light source (i. but they are encoded in time.
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 31 at high frequencies and a high sensitivity to movements of the scanning geometry or the sample (below the range of nanometers within successive frequency steps). DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
By moving the beam over the sample in one direction. For DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . SCANNING SCHEMES Focusing the light beam to a point on the surface of the sample under test. [FD08. 2] With a slightly different setup full field scans (Using a CCD-based detector) can be acquired in one go. a cross-sectional image of part of the sample. p. or by moving the sample under test. [DVBB02] No matter what method of sampling is used. which now needs to be visualized.1 SCANNING MODES The signal acquired by doing a single axial scan is called an Amplitude (A) Scan. Many of these scans next to each other give a 3D-OCT scan of a whole area of the sample. called a Brightness (B) Scan. the resulting data set is essentially an array or scalar field of reactance values. Scanning of the sample can be accomplished by either scanning the light on the sample. and recombining the reflected light with the reference will yield an inter ferogram with sample information corresponding to a single A-scan (Z axis only). also called full-field OCT.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 32 4. 4. A linear scan will yield a two-dimensional data set corresponding to a cross-sectional image (X-Z axes scan). whereas an area scan achieves a three-dimensional data set corresponding to a volumetric image (X-Y-Z axes scan). can be acquired.
no information is lost or obscured this way. the OCT scanners output values are first digitized. and patterns or significant changes can easily be spotted. The processing and display works analogous to other medical imaging methods such as MRI or CT imaging. which produce similar data sets.2 SINGLE A-SCAN In the case of a single A-Scan. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . They can then be digitally processed and displayed. Since there is only one direction information. 4. the visualization is trivial: The data for each point can be plotted for depth / time as a bar graph.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 33 this.
so that big differences become more clearly visible.3 B-SCAN For multiple A-Scans in a row. it still isn't hard to visualize the data set. as can be seen in figure . treating the depth on and position of the scanning axis as x. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . As the name already suggests. alternate mappings from the scan values to the pixel color can be used. To allow for better contrast between different values.and y coordinates in an image and plotting the acquired reactance as a gray-scale value already results in a very intuitive visualization in which each column of pixels represents a single A scan.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 34 4.
and allowing the viewer to chose which depth should DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . putting many B-Scans next to each other in a 3D volume. One possible method is simply displaying cross-sections along one axis.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 35 Further processing. While it is possible to draw the acquired data as a set of voxels colored according to the reactance values acquired.4 3D . the visualization process is somewhat more involved.g. this sometimes does not result in very clear images. are used as well. like those used in MR imaging. retinal thickness) is also possible. so other techniques. 4.OCT In 3D-OCT. to automate detection of certain structures or extraction of data (e.
sectional image for all three axial planes going through a certain point and displaying these to give a 3D cross-section of the sample.5 SINGLE POINT (CONFOCAL) OCT Systems based on single point. Whereas conventional OCT produces B-mode (axially-oriented) images like ultrasound DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 36 be displayed. 4. or flying-spot time domain OCT. or allowing the viewer to choose any crosssection plane. Another is showing a cross. must scan the sample in two lateral dimensions and reconstruct a three-dimensional image using depth information obtained by coherence-gating through an axially scanning reference arm (Fig. such as treating it as an isosurface of some adjustable level. or using any of a number of techniques of rendering volumetric data.Tomographic images are obtained by combination of interferometric images recorded in parallel by a detector array such as a CCD camera. and using a novel micro-electro-mechanical system scanner. based on white-light interference microscopy. 2).6 PARALLEL (OR FULL FIELD) OCT Full-field OCT (also called en face OCT) is an original approach of OCT. 4. Two-dimensional lateral scanning has been electromechanically implemented by moving the sample[ using a translation stage.
or by moving the sample under test. Parallel OCT using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera has been used in which the sample is full-field illuminated and en face imaged with the CCD. hence eliminating the electro mechanical lateral scan. A linear scan will yield a twodimensional data set corresponding to a cross-sectional image (X-Z axes scan). using a simple halogen lamp instead of a complex laser-based source. Scanning schemes Focusing the light beam to a point on the surface of the sample under test. Full-field OCT can be used for non-invasive histological studies without sample preparation.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 37 imaging. Full-field OCT is an alternative method to conventional OCT to provide ultrahigh resolution images (~ 1 µm in all 3 dimensions). whereas an area scan achieves a threedimensional data set corresponding to a volumetric image (XY-Zaxesscan). and recombining the reflected light with the reference will yield an interferogram with sample information corresponding to a single A-scan (Z axis only). full-field OCT acquires tomographic images in the end face (transverse) orientation. Scanning of the sample can be accomplished by either scanning the light on the sample. Various studies have been carried out demonstrating the performance of this technology for three-dimensional imaging of ex vivo and in vivo specimens.also called full-field OCT. By stepping the reference mirror and recording successive en face images a DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
Threedimensional OCT using a CCD camera was demonstrated in a phase-stepped technique.[and in a Linnik interferometer with an oscillating reference mirror and axial translation stage. utilizing a pair of CCDs and heterodyne detection. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . using geometric phase-shifting with a Linnik interferometer.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 38 three-dimensional representation can be reconstructed.[ Central to the CCD approach is the necessity for either very fast CCDs or carrier generation separate to the stepping reference mirror to track the high frequency OCT carrier.
Selected applications. Featuring an uncomplicated optical setup (Fig.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 39 4. OCT scan of a retina at 800nm with an axial resolution of 3µm. 3). It is widely used. to obtain high-resolution images of the anterior segment of the DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Optical coherence tomography is an established medical imaging technique. each pixel of the 58x58 pixel smart detector array acted as an individual photodiode and included its own hardware demodulation circuitry. for example. was used to demonstrate full-field OCT.7 SMART DETECTOR ARRAY FOR PARALLEL TD -OCT A two-dimensional smart detector array. fabricated using a 2 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process.
[ and are able to operate in hostile environments whether radioactive. OCT is adaptable to perform both inline and off-line. Fiber-based OCT systems are particularly adaptable to industrial environments. such as Non Destructive Testing(NDT). provide a straightforward method of assessing axonal integrity in multiple sclerosis. Researchers also seek to develop a method that uses frequency domain OCT to image coronary arteries in order to detect vulnerable lipid-rich plaques. which can. Research indicates that OCT may be a reliable tool for monitoring the progression of glaucoma. With high speed data acquisition and sub-micron resolution. Optical coherence tomography is also applicable and increasingly used in industrial applications. OCT systems with feedback can be used to control manufacturing processes. surface and cross-section imaging and volume loss measurements. for example. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . as well as macular degeneration. surface roughness characterization. cryogenic or very hot.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 40 eye and the retina. These can access and scan interiors of hard-toreach spaces. material thickness measurements and in particular thin silicon wafers and compound semiconductor wafers thickness measurements.
bouncing the beams back andrecombining them.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 41 5. MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER Figure 1. The different paths may be of different lengths or be composed of different materials to create interference fringes on a back detector. along with Edward Morley. used this interferometer in the famous Michelson- DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . A Michelson interferometer for use on an optical table. An interference pattern is produced by splitting a beam of light into two paths. Michelson. The Michelson interferometer is the most common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson.
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 42 Morley experiment (1887) in a failed attempt to demonstrate the effect of the hypothetical "aether wind" on the speed of light. and served ultimately as an inspiration for special relativity. Their experiment left theories of light based on the existence of a luminiferous aether without experimental support. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
at point C. Path of light in Michelson interferometer. a source S emits light that hits a beam splitter (in this case.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 43 6. To the observer at point E. so one beam is transmitted through to point B while the other is reflected in the direction of A. CONFIGURATION Figure 2. In Fig 2. surface M. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . a half-silvered mirror). A Michelson interferometer consists of two highly polished mirrors M1 & M2. Both beams recombine at point C' to produce an interference pattern (assuming proper alignment) visible to the observer at point E. M is partially reflective.
the part which misses the detector. Energy is conserved. provided that the path lengths are carefully equalized. and CHARA. a requirement due to the short coherence length of white light (on the order of a micron). and the part which reflected back to the source. NPOI. Principle operational interferometric observatories which use this type of instrumentation include VLTI. The effect of the interference is to alter the share of the reflected light which heads for the detector. because there is a redistribution of energy at the central beam-splitter in which the energy at the destructive sites is re-distributed to the constructive sites.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 44 the effects observed would be the same as those produced by placing surfaces A and B' (the image of B on the surface M) on top of each other. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Astronomical interferometry is principally conducted using Michelson (and sometimes other type) interferometers. 2 shows use of a monochromatic source. Fig. White light can also be used.
OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 45 FIGURE6. As seen in Fig. One interferometer arm is focused DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . a medical imaging technique using low-coherence interferometry to provide tomographic visualization of internal tissue microstructures. TYPICAL OPTICAL SETUP OF SINGLE POINT OCT.1POINT OCT Another application of the Michelson Interferometer is in Optical coherence tomography (OCT). 6. 6. the core of a typical OCT system is a Michelson interferometer.
an entire threedimensional image of the tissue can be reconstructed. Because of the low coherence of the light source. interferometric signal is observed only over a limited depth of sample. X-Y scanning therefore records one thin optical slice of the sample at a time. The other interferometer arm is bounced off a reference mirror. moving the reference mirror between each scan. Reflected light from the tissue sample is combined with reflected light from the reference. By performing multiple scans. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 46 onto the tissue sample and scans the sample in an X-Y longitudinal raster pattern. Recent advances have striven to combine the nanometer phase retrieval of coherent interferometry with the ranging capability of low-coherence interferometry.
which is highly vascular.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 47 7. This image is acquired at a wavelength of 800 nm with a 10 μm resolution and is 250 transverse pixels wide. Although the retina is almost transparent and has extremely low optical backscattering. OCT has had the largest clinical impact in ophthalmology . the high sensitivity of OCT imaging allows extremely weak backscattering features to be visualized. The total retinal thickness as well as the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness can be measured. OPHTHALMIC IMAGING OCT was first applied for imaging of the eye. macular hole. epiretinal DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . age related macular degeneration. The retinal nerve fiber layer is visible as a scattering layer originating from the optic disk and becoming thinner approaching the fovea. The OCT image provides a cross sectional view of the retina with unprecedented resolution and allows detailed structures to be differentiated. Figure 4 shows an example of an OCT image of the normal retina of a human subject . APPLICATIONS 7. and to date. The retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. are visible as highly scattering structures in the OCT image. macular edema.1. Numerous clinical studies have been performed to investigate the feasibility of using OCT for the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal diseases such as glaucoma. central serous chorioretinopathy.
This imaging depth is comparable to the depth DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . 7.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 48 membranes.3 μm wavelengths. One of the most important advances for imaging in optically scattering tissues was the use of longer wavelengths where optical scattering is reduced. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL BIOPSY With recent research advances. image penetration depth of 2 to 3 millimeters can be achieved in most tissues. By performing OCT imaging at 1.OCT is especially promising for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma or diabetic macular edema because it can provide quantitative information about retinal pathology as a measure of disease progression. thus enabling a wide variety of applications in internal medicine and internal body imaging. OCT has the potential to detect and diagnose early stages of disease before physical symptoms and irreversible loss of vision occur.2.Mapping and display techniques have been developed to represent the tomographic data in alternate forms. optic disc pits. such as thickness maps. nontransparent tissues is possible. and choroidal tumors Images can be analyzed quantitatively and processed using intelligent algorithms to extract features such as retinal or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness . in order to aid interpretation. OCT imaging of optically scattering.
The capability to perform in situ and real time imaging could be important in a variety of clinical scenarios including: (1) to perform imaging of tissue microstructure in situations where conventional excisional biopsy would be hazardous or impossible. IMAGING WHERE EXCISIONAL BIOPSY IS HAZARDOUS OR IMPOSSIBLE One class of applications where OCT is especially promising is where conventional excisional biopsy is hazardous or impossible.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 49 over which many biopsies are performed. In ophthalmology. Another scenario where biopsy is not possible is imaging of atherosclerotic plaque morphology in the coronary arteries. and (3) to guide surgical or microsurgical intervention. (2) to reduce the false negative rates caused by sampling errors of conventional biopsy.OCT imaging can be performed repeatedly for screening or to monitor disease progression and response to treatment.Recent research has demonstrated that most DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . In addition.3. 7. and OCT can provide high resolution images of pathology that cannot be obtained using any other technique. retinal biopsy cannot be performed. many diagnostically important changes of tissue morphology occur at the epithelial surfaces of organ lumens.
and calcified plaque are different and provide contrast between different structures and plaque morphologies. adiopse tissue. These structures cannot be resolved with ultrasound. The plaques at highest risk for rupture have a structurally weak fibrous cap. and their micro structural features cannot be determined. The optical scattering properties of lipid. OCT could be a powerful tool for diagnostic intravascular imaging in both risk stratification and guidance of interventional procedures such as atherectomy. These plaque morphologies are difficult to detect by conventional radiologic techniques. Identifying high risk unstable plaques and patients at risk for myocardial infarction is important because of the high percentage of occlusions which result in sudden death. The OCT image and histology show a small intimal layer covering a large atherosclerotic plaque that is heavily calcified and has a relatively low lipid content. Figure 5 shows an example of an unstable plaque morphology from a human abdominal aorta specimen and corresponding histology.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 50 myocardial infarctions result from the rupture of small to moderately sized cholesterol–laden coronary artery plaques followed by thrombosis and vessel occlusion. OCT imaging was performed at 1300 nm wavelength using a super luminescent diode light source with an axial resolution of ∼ 16 μm. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA .
p. Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging method with high resolution. [FD08. due to the low attenuation of sound waves at frequencies typically used in clinical applications.CONCLUSION Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging method with medium penetration and high resolution primarily used in medicine. It has the potential to create live cross-sectional images even of non-transparent tissue at depths of up to 3 millimeters at a resolution of little more than a micrometer.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 51 8. limited by the diffraction of light. with frame rates of several frames per second. In most biological samples. approaching 1 micrometer.1mm to DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . Optical Coherence Tomography has much in common with two other imaging techniques. filling the space between them. The penetration. due to optical scattering. in a way: Ultrasound and Confocal Microscopy. This is achieved by using interferometry to measure optical echoes. However. on the other hand. can provide great imaging depths of up to around 10 centimeters. 3] Ultrasound. which makes confocal microscopy unsuitable for applications where significant imaging depth is required. is very poor. only a few hundred micrometers of depth are achievable. however. these frequencies (Between 3MHz and 40MHz) limit the resolution that can be achieved to around 0.
as OCT is an optical method. with resolutions limited by the bandwidth of the light source used . 3] Optical coherence tomography fills the gap between these two imaging techniques. but the strong attenuation of sound waves at those frequencies in biological tissue limits the depth to about 15 millimeters in that case. [FD08. It is an optical imaging method.and a penetration depth of around 2-3mm. Furthermore.OPTICAL COHERANCE TOMOGRAPHY 52 1mm.typically. catheters or similar instruments. it can easily be integrated with endoscopes. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION GPTC CHERTHALA . better in transparent tissue. providing for simple in-body 3D tissue imaging. Higher frequencies of around 100MHz have been used to achieve resolutions of 15 to 20 micrometers. around 1 micrometer to 15 micrometers . p.
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