AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist

Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: 1. Preparation of green sand mould using single piece casting. 2. Preparation of green sand mould for double piece pattern. 3. Preparation of a pattern to a given draft allowance 4. Preparation of stepped pulley pattern of given dimensions 5. Moulding material properties and compositions 5. Preparation of a double welded lap joint by shielded metal arc welding. 6. Preparation of a double welded butt joint by shielded metal arc welding of given dimensions. 7. Preparation of a T- joint by shielded metal arc welding of given dimensions 8. Prepare a model by using blanking and piercing 9. Prepare a model using injection Moulding

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist

Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA

PREPERATION OF GREEN SAND MOULD USING SINGLE PIECE PATTERN AIM: Preparation of green sand mould for given single piece pattern. MATERIAL REQUIRED: Green molding sand, pattern, molding boxes. TOOLS REQUIRED: Rammers, slicks, strike of bar, riddle, shovel, riser, sprue pin etc. DESCRIPTION: A mould can be described as a cavity created in compact sand mass which when filled with molten metal will produce a casting. Obviously it is the impression left behind by a pattern after with drawing the pattern. The cavity obtained will exactly resemble with the external shape and size of pattern. The process of producing this cavity is called molding technique.

PATTERN

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist

Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA

PROCEDURE: 1. First of all a suitable flask is selected. Large enough to accommodate the pattern and allow some space around it for ramming. 2. Sprinkle the parting sand on the floor for partly removal of pattern. The drag part is placed upside down on the floor. 3. The pattern is placed on the floor in side the flask centrally. 4. Molding sand is filled all along the pattern surface and fill up to the level flank rammed properly. Hold the pattern and ram the sand around it. Again fill the sand up to the level of flask and ram it. 5. The excess sand is removed by using strike off bar. also

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist

Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA 6. A small amount of dry loose sand is sprinkled over the top surface and the drag is turned upside down. 7. The cope is placed over the drag and parting sand is sprinkled on the top surface. 8. Runners, riser is put in positions and supported vertically by taking small amount of molding sand around them. 9. The sand is filled in the flask and rammed it. Excess sand is removed and vent hole are made, parting sand is sprinkled around the top surface. 10. Then remove the cope and drag flask gently and carefully without spoiling the mould. 11. Remove the pattern from the flask by slightly shaking pattern in horizontal position along x and y direction. 12. Repairs are then made in the cavity and gates are cut. 13. The cope and drag flasks are assembled together and mould is ready for pouring of molten metal. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Ramming to be done uniformly. 2. Molding flask (cope and drag) is to be assembled with guide pins. RESULT:

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Damergidda (V), Chevella (M), R.R. Dist

Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH, Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008, Accredited by NBA

PREPERATION OF GREEN SAND MOULD FOR DOUBLE PIECE PATTERN AIM: To prepare a green sand mould for the split pin pattern as shown in figure.

MATERIAL REQUIRED: Green molding sand, pattern, molding boxes, parting sand. TOOLS REQUIRED: Rammers, slicks, strike of bar, riddle, shovel, riser, sprue pin etc. DESCRIPTION: A mould can be described as a cavity created in compact sand mass which when filled with molten metal will produce a casting. Obviously it is the impression left behind by a pattern after with drawing the pattern. The cavity obtained will exactly resemble with the external shape and size of pattern. The process of producing this cavity is called molding technique.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.R. 6. Hold the pattern and ram the sand around it. Again fill the sand up to the level of flask and ram it. The drag part is placed upside down on the floor. Accredited by NBA PROCEDURE: 1. Chevella (M).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 2. The excess sand is removed by using strike off bar. The pattern which comes into the drag part. First of all a suitable flask is selected. Dist Approved by AICTE. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 5. Large enough to accommodate the pattern and also allow some space around it for ramming. 4. is placed such that parting surface matching with floor. A small amount of dry loose sand is sprinkled over the top surface and the drag is turned upside down. Sprinkle the parting sand on the floor for easy removal after ramming. R. 3. Affiliated to JNTUH. Govt of A. Molding sand is filled all along the pattern surface and fill up to the level flank rammed properly.

parting sand is sprinkled around the top surface.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Runners. Affiliated to JNTUH. 11. The cope portion pattern is assembled drag pattern with the help of dowel pins. R. 8. Assemble the cope flask. The cope and drag flasks are assembled together and mould is ready for pouring of metal. Molding flask (cope and drag) is to be assembled with guide pins. 12. Excess sand is removed and vent hole are made.R. 13. 10. riser is put in positions and supported vertically by taking small amount of molding sand around them. Accredited by NBA 7. Then remove the cope and drag flask gently and carefully without spoiling the mould. Ramming to be done uniformly. The sand is filled in the flask and rammed it. 2. Dist Approved by AICTE. RESULT: molten DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . PRECAUTIONS: 1. Repairs are then made in the cavity and gates are cut. 9.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Chevella (M). Remove the pattern from the flask by slightly shaking pattern in horizontal position along x and y direction. Govt of A.

A pattern may be differing from an actual component. sawing tools. marking and lay out tools. Accredited by NBA PATTERN MAKING AIM: Prepare a pattern for casting as shown in fig.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . TOOLS REQUIRED: Planning tools. it carries additional projection like core prints etc. Govt of A. Using draft allowance 40 . Affiliated to JNTUH.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). draft allowance.R. That is it carries additional allowance. R. draft allowance like shrinkage allowance. machining allowance. Dist Approved by AICTE. Chevella (M). DESCRIPTION OF PATTERN: A pattern may be a replica model of the desired casting which when packed or embedded in a suitable moulding material produces a cavity called mould.

2. Mark the dimensions on given wooden work piece.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dist Approved by AICTE. Affiliated to JNTUH. Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Accredited by NBA CALCULATIONS: Draft angle=40 Vertical side length of casting=h Increment in length due to draft angle =L+δL+δL =L+2δL Where δL=L+2×h×tan 40 Increment in breadth due to draft angle=b+ δb+ δb =b+2δb Where δb=b+2×h×tan 40 PROCEDURE: 1. R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Calculate the dimension considering draft angle.R. Govt of A.

RESULT: The pattern is prepared by considering draft angle 40. PRECAUTIONS: Top surface of pattern must match with parting surface.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. R.R. Accredited by NBA 3. Dist Approved by AICTE. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Affiliated to JNTUH. Finish the surface of pattern. 4.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Chevella (M). Shape the work piece to the calculated size. Govt of A.

skew chisel. The tool is fed manually to remove UN wanted material from rotating work piece. The work piece is held between centers (head stock and tail stock) and revolved on its own axis. Dist Approved by AICTE.R. head stock and tail stock. scraping tools. On the top of the bed guide way tail stock is mounted and it is free to slide and it can be clamped in any position. Chevella (M). Accredited by NBA PREPARATION OF STEPPED PULLEY PATTERN AIM: Prepare a stepped pulley pattern of given dimensions as shown in fig. The head stock is permanently fixed on the left side of the bed. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . It is simple in construction having three basic parts bed. DESCRIPTION OF LATHE: Wood turning lathe is also called lathe.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. using wood turn lathe. From this machine any axis symmetric component can be produced. R. parting tool. Affiliated to JNTUH. TOOLS REQUIRED: Gauge.

4. 3. Feed the tools manually to get the desired shape. Dist Approved by AICTE. Accredited by NBA PROCEDURE: 1. PRECAUTIONS: Use goggles to protect the eyes from dust. Mark the centers on both end faces. Take the work piece of required length and size.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Govt of A.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 5. 2. R. Fix the work piece between centers. That is live center and dead center. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .R. Affiliated to JNTUH. Rotate the work piece in anti clock wise direction. Check the end faces weather they are perpendicular or not with the rectangular faces. Chevella (M). 6.

Properties of Some refractory materials are Material Silica( SiO) Alumina(Al2O3) Magnesia(MgO) Thoria(ThO2) Ziroconia(ZrO2) Zircon(ZrO2.SiO2) Silicon Carbide(SiC) Graphite Melting point. Accredited by NBA MOULDING MATERAILS A large variety of moulding materials are used in foundries fro manufacturing moulds and cores. X 106/0C 16. At this stage.5 4.R. the sand around the mould cavity is quickly converted into dry sand as the moisture in the sand immediately evaporates due to the heat in the molten metal. Parting sand and Core sand.5 --- Green strength: The moulding sand that contains moisture is termed as green sand. The green sand should have enough strength so that the constructed mould retains its shape.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). System sand (backing sand).5 6. it is called dry sand.0C 1710 2020 2800 3050 2700 2650 ̃ 2700 ̃4200 Coefficient of linear expansion. Dist Approved by AICTE. Affiliated to JNTUH. They are: Moulding sand. Govt of A. Dry strength: When the moisture in the moulding sand is completely expelled. Facing sand.5 3.2 8 13. Rebounded sand. Chevella (M). The properties that are generally required in Moulding materials are Refractoriness: It is the ability of the moulding material to with stand the high temperatures of the molten metal so that is does not cause fusion. it should retain the mould cavity and at the same time withstand the metallostatic forces.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. When molten metal is poured into a mould. R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .5 9.

Shape of the grains may be round.R. The clay as binder. Dist Approved by AICTE. MOULDING SAND COMPOSITION: The main ingredients of any moulding sand are: The silica grains ( SiO2). Affiliated to JNTUH. If these gases are not allowed to escape from the mould. angular and very angular.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Ideally the fusion point of sand s should be about 14500C for cast irons and about 15500C for steels. they would be trapped inside the casting and cause defects. Permeability: During the solidification of a casting. The gases are those which have been absorbed by the metal in the furnace. The size and shapes of these sand grains greatly affect the properties of the moulding sands. and Moisture to activate the clay and provide plasticity SILICA SAND: The sand which forms the major portion of the moulding sand (up to 96%) is essentially silica grains. the moulding sand should also have collapsibility so that during the contraction of the solidified casting. Govt of A. all sizes and shapes of grains are mixed. sub-angular. they should be reusable and should have good thermal conductivity so that heat from the casting is quickly transferred. This gas evolution capability of the moulding sand is termed as permeability.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the rest being the other oxides such as alumina. Besides these specific properties. large amounts of gases are to be expelled from the mould. R. sodium (Na2O+K2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO+CaO). The sand grains may vary in size from a few micrometers to a few millimeters. Accredited by NBA Hot strength: After all the moisture is eliminated. it does not provide any resistance which may result in cracks in the casting. The main source is the river sand which is used with or without washing. The moulding sand should be sufficiently porous so that the gases are allowed to escape from the mould. In the river sand. Chevella (M). the sand would reach a high temperature when the metal in the mould is still in the liquid state. These impurities should be minimized to about 2% since they affect the fusion point of the silica sands. The strength of the sand that is required to hold the shape of the mould cavity then is called hot strength. air absorbed from the atmosphere and steam and other gases that are generated by the moulding and core sands.

96%. It is very expensive. SiO2-2.5%. Of the two. Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Fe2O3-28%. Al2O3-1. In India it is available in the quilon beach of Kerala. Clay: clays are the most generally used binding agents mixed with the moulding sands to provide the strength.92%. Accredited by NBA Zircon sand is basically a zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4). It is generally used to manufacture precision steel castings requiring better surface finish and for precision investment casting. The fusion point is about 18000C. alkalies and other oxides which tend to reduce their refractoriness. R. Dist Approved by AICTE. This is because a part of the water absorbed by clay helps in bonding while the remainder up to a limit helps in improving the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .25%.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). it also used to manufacture heavy steel castings requiring better surface finish. and Al2O3+MgO—25%. CaO-0. Olivine sand contains the minerals fosterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4). The typical composition is ZrO266. Affiliated to JNTUH.5%. The clays besides these basic constituents may also contain some mixtures of lime. It is best suited to austenitic manganese steel castings. Chromite sand is crushed from the chrome ore whose typical composition is Cr2O3-44%. Govt of A. Fe2O3-0. It has a fusion point of about 24000C and also a low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is possible to improve the properties of calcium bentonite by treating it chemically with soda ash (sodium carbonate) Water: clay is activated by water so that it develops the necessary plasticity and strength. The amount of water used should be properly controlled. Sodium bentonites produce better swelling properties-volume increases some 10-20 times. SiO2-30. bentonite can absorb more water which increases its bonding power. There are basically two types of bentonites. because of their low cost and wider utility. The most popular clay types used are Kaolinite or Fire clay ( Al2O32 SiO22H2O) Bentonite (Al2O34 SiO2H2OnH2O) Kaolinite or Fire clay has a melting point of 1750-17870C and Bentonite has a melting temperature range of 1250-13000C. one with sodium as adsorbed ion which is often called western bentonite and the other with calcium ion called southern bentonite.R. high dry strength and high resistance but higher green strength. It is very versatile sand and the same mixture can be used for a range of steels.74% and traces of other oxides.

P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The apparatus is then shaken vigorously such that the following reaction takes place. To test the moisture of a moulding sand a carefully weighted test sample of 50g is dried at a temperature of 1050C to 1100C for 2 hours by which time all the moisture in the sand would have been evaporated. This method of drying completes the removal of moisture in a matter of minutes compared to 2 hours as in the earlier method. Accredited by NBA plasticity but more than that would decrease the strength and formability. The normal percentages of water used are from 2-8.R. A pressure gauge connected to the apparatus would give directly the amount of DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Another moisture teller utilizes calcium carbide to measure the moisture content. The moulding sand should be prepared exactly as is done in the shop on the standard equipment and then carefully enclosed in a closed container to safeguard its moisture content. Affiliated to JNTUH. TESTING SAND PROPERTIES: Sand preparation: tests are conducted on a sample of the standard sand. CaC2+2H2O→C2H2+Ca (OH) 2 The acetylene (C2H2) coming out will be collected in the space above the sand raising the pressure. Govt of A. Alternatively a moisture teller can also be used for measuring the moisture content. In this the sand is dried by suspending the sample on a fine metallic screen and allowing hot air to flow through the sample. Moisture content: moisture is an important element of the moulding sand as it affects many properties. Dist Approved by AICTE. The weight difference in grams when multiplied by 2 would give the percentage of moisture contained in the moulding sand.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). A measured amount of carbide in a container along with a separate cap consisting of measured quantity of moulding sand is kept in the moisture teller care has to be taken before closing the apparatus that carbide and sand do not come into contact. Chevella (M). R. The sample is then weighted.

P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Sand grain size: To find out the sand grain size. To obtain the grain distribution. To calculate the grain fineness. Fig: The sand retained on each of the sieve expressed as a percentage of the total mass can be plotted against the sieve number as in figure. a sand sample which is devoid of moisture and clay such as the one obtained after the previous testing is to be used. Accredited by NBA acetylene generated which is proportional to the moisture present. summed up.R. The dried clay-free sand grains are placed on the top sieve of a sieve shaker which contains a series of sieves one upon the other with gradually decreasing mesh sizes. Clay content: the clay content of moulding sand is determined by dissolving of washing it off the sand. Dist Approved by AICTE. After the stirring. Govt of A. It is possible to calibrate the pressure gauge to directly read the amount of moisture. for a period of five minutes the sample is diluted with fresh water up to a 150mm graduation mark and the sample is left undisturbed for 10 minutes to settle. Affiliated to JNTUH. which gives the grain fineness number. The sand settles at the bottom and the clay particles washed from the sand would be floating in the water. The sieves are shaken continuously for a period of 15min. each sieve has been given a weight age factor as shown in table. which is an indication that all the clay in the moulding sand has been removed.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). This sample is thoroughly stirred. Chevella (M). Now the sand is removed from the flask and dried by heating. After this shaking operation. R. 125mm of this water is siphoned off the flask and it is again topped to the same level and allowed to settle for five minutes. and then divided by the total mass of sample. But more important is the Grain Fineness Number (GFN) which is a quantitative indication of the grain distribution. To determine the clay percentage a 50g sample is dried at 105 to 1100C and the dried sample is taken in a one litre glass flask and added with 475 ml of distilled water and 25ml of a one percent solution of caustic soda (NaOH 25g per litre). The amount retained on each sieve is multiplied by the respective weight age factor. The same can be expressed as DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The difference in weight of the dried sand and 50g when multiplied by two gives the clay percentage in the moulding sand. The above operation is repeated till the water above the sand becomes clear. the sieves are taken apart and the sand left over on each of the sieve is carefully weighed.

25kg is allowed to fall on the sand three times from a height of 50. The standard permeability test is to measure time taken by a 2000cm3 of air at a pressure typically of 980 pa to pass through a standard sand specimen confined in a specimen tube.28/pT Specimen preparation: since the permeability of sand is dependent to a great extent. to produce this size of specimen usually sand of 145 to 175g would be required.08cm P= air pressure.268cm2 T= time in minutes for the complete air to pass through the gaps Inserting the above standard values in to the expression. Affiliated to JNTUH.357. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . g/cm2 A= C/S area of sand specimen=20.8±0. on the degree of ramming. it is necessary that the specimen be prepared under standard conditions. Accredited by NBA GFN=ΣMifi/Σfi Mi =Multiplying factor for the i Table: th sieve. then the permeability number P is obtained by P=VH/p AT Where V= volume of air=2000cm3 H= height of the sand specimen=5. The standard specimen size is 50. we get P=501.8mm. Chevella (M).R. Permeability: the rate of flow of air passing through a standard specimen under a standard pressure is termed as permeability number. Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.8mm.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Dist Approved by AICTE.8mm in diameter and a length of 50. The measured amount of sand is filled in the specimen tube. To get reproducible ramming conditions. R. a laboratory sand rammer is used along with a specimen tube. fi=amount of sand retained on the ith sieve. and a fixed weight of 6.

depending on the sand sample.R. Besides these. Green compression strength: green compression strength or simply green strength generally refers to the stress required to rupture the sand specimen under compressive loading. The stress required to shear the specimen along the axis is then represented as the green shear strength. R. the reading is zero indicating a very soft mould.9kg is indented into the standard sand specimen prepared. Green shear strength: with a sand sample similar to the above test. there are other tests to determine such properties as deformation. The sands that could be tested are green sand. Affiliated to JNTUH. expansion. Since the strength greatly increases with drying. The green strength of sands is generally in the range of 30 to 190kPa. shear and tension. Then from the above equation the permeability number can be calculated. green tensile strength. Accredited by NBA After preparing a test sample of sand as described. The green shear strengths may vary from 10 to 50 kPa. The depth of indentation can be directly measured on the scale which shows units 0 to 100. The compression and shear test involve the standard cylindrical specimen that was used for the permeability test. Chevella (M). A spring loaded steel ball with a mass of 0. Mould hardness: the mould hardness is measured by a method similar to the Brinell hardness test. a different adapter is fitted in the universal machine so that the loading now be made for the shearing of the sand sample. then it is a mould hardness of 100 and when it sinks completely.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). it may be necessary to apply larger stresses than the previous tests. When no penetration occurs. Dry strength: the tests similar to the above can also be carried with the standard specimens dried between 105 and 1100C for 2 hours. The sand specimen is taken out of the specimen tube and is immediately (any delay causes the drying of the sample which increases the strength) put on the strength testing machine and the force required to cause the compression failure is determined. Dry sand of core sand. The range of dry compression strengths found in moulding sands is from 140 to 1800 kPa. Strength: measurement of strength of moulding sands can be carried out on the universal sand strength testing machine. Dist Approved by AICTE. 2000cm3 of air are passed through the sample and the time taken by it to completely pass through the specimen is noted. etc. hot strength. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The strength can be measured in compression. Govt of A.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.

flat of given size. electrode holder. The electrode is coated with flux which prevents oxidation of parent metals. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . THEORY: Arc welding is fusion welding process. Govt of A. welding shield etc. TOOLS REQUIRED: Welding transformer. In this process two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal and electrode will act as filler metal. Accredited by NBA LAP JOINT AIM: Preparation of double welded lap joint as shown in fig using shielded metal arc welding. MATERIAL REQUIRED: 2 M.S. Affiliated to JNTUH.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Chevella (M). Dist Approved by AICTE. electrodes.R. Arc welding is a process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat is obtained from the electric arc between two electrodes. R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. ground clamp. connecting cables. chipping hammer.

P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. RESULT: Lap joint is prepared as shown in fig by using arc welding process.R. The given metallic pieces are prepared to given sizes by filling. based on thickness of metal piece and hold it in the electrode holder. PROCEDURE: 1. Affiliated to JNTUH. 7. The width of lap may be 3 to 5 times the thickness of the plates to be welded. Now given metallic pieces were assembled as shown in fig. Switch on the supply and initiate the arc by either striking arc method or drag. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . gloves in order to protect the human being. grease. The metallic pieces are thoroughly cleaned from rest. R. 5. 2. Maintain constant arc length to have uniform weld bead. select the electrodes. 6. 4. Welds usually run each side of the lap. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Chevella (M). Use goggles. Dist Approved by AICTE. Govt of A. Then the above process is repeated until to reach desired height of the weld. The overlapping portion is called lap. Tack welding to be done before full welding. 3. oil etc. The full welding process is carried after completion of one pass slag is removed from the full weld bed with help of chipping hammer and metallic wire brush. 2. Accredited by NBA LAP JOINT: The lap joint is used in joining two overlapping plates so that edge of each plate is welded to the surface of the other. No edge preparation is required for a lap joint.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).

THEORY: Arc welding is a fusion welding process. Affiliated to JNTUH.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The electrode is coated with flux which prevents oxidation of parent metals. However thicker plates are prepared from both sides. electrodes. Butt joint: the butt joint is join the ends or edges of plates or surfaces located approximately in the same plate with each other. Chevella (M). Accredited by NBA BUTT JOINT AIM: preparation of butt joint as shown in figure using shielded metal arc welding process. ground clamp. MATERIAL REQUIRED: 2M. Govt of A. where heat is obtained from the electric arc between two electrodes. TOOLS REQUIRED: welding transformer. Preparation of edge varies according to the thickness of the material and welding process used. Materials ranging from 9 to 13mm thick that can be welded only from one side should be reduced either as a single V or single U. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Arc welding is the process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat.S Flat pieces of given size. hipping hammer. Dist Approved by AICTE. How ever it is more expensive to prepare U shape. R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. electrode holder. connecting cables.R. The U shaped type of joint is more satisfactory and requires less filler material than V type groove. Light gauge section requires only 90 sheared edges with no spacing between them. In this process two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal and electrode will act filler metal. welding shield etc.

Select suitable range of current for selected dia. Slag is removed from the weld bed. Use goggles. 7. With the metal wire brush or chipping hammer. 9. The metallic pieces are connected to terminals of Trans former. 2. Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH. RESULT: butt joint is prepared as shown in figure by using arc-welding process. Then the above process will be repeated until to fill the groove with weld bed or weld metal. Tak welding to be done before full welding. oil. R. 2. Select electrode dia based on thickness of work piece and hold it on the electrode holder. gloves in order to protect the human body. The given metallic pieces filled to the desired size. Accredited by NBA Procedure: 1. Maintain the constant arc length. Dist Approved by AICTE. On both pieces beveled in order to have V groove.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). 3.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The metallic pieces are thoroughly cleaned from rust grease. Chevella (M). 5. etc. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 6. 4. 8. In full welding process after completion one part before going to second part. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Switch on the power supply and initiates the arc by either striking arc method or touch and drag method.

Edge preparation of vertical member is come as that of the butt joint. The work pieces are cleaned properly from rust. T-JOINT: joint are used to weld two plates or sections whose surfaces are at approximately right angles to each other. Place the electrode in the holder and ensure that all connections are given properly or not. Chevella (M). electrode holder. 3. Assemble the given work pieces as shown in fig. Arc welding is the process of joining two metallic pieces by the application of heat.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). which prevents oxidation of parent metal. welding shield. In this process the two metallic pieces will act as base metal or parent metal. ground clamp. Accredited by NBA T-JOINT AIM: preparation of T-joint as shown in figure using shielded metal arc welding process. oil etc. TOOLS REQUIRED: welding transformer. 4. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH. MATERIAL REQUIRED: two mild steel flats of given size. Dist Approved by AICTE. grease. chipping hammer.R. connecting cables.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. PROCEDURE: 1. electrodes. where heat is obtained from the electric arc. Plates or surfaces should have good fit up in order to ensure uniform penetration and fusion. Required edge preparation is made over the given metallic pieces. Electrode will act as filler metal. wire brush etc. THEORY: Arc welding is a fusion welding process. 2. R. The electrode is coated with flux.

P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. first tack welding is done. 2. 7. 8. apron etc. Switch on the power supply and initiate the arc. PRECATIONS: 1. now full welding is carried after one pass. goggles.R. To protect the welder make use of welding shield. slag is removed from the weld bed by using chipping hammer and wire brush.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). RESULT: T-joint is prepared as shown in fig by using by shielded metal arc welding process. Chevella (M). third passes will be carried until to get the desired height of weld. Govt of A. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . R. gloves. Accredited by NBA 5. 6. Affiliated to JNTUH. Dist Approved by AICTE. then second. Maintain uniform arc length to have uniform weld bed.

magnesium and stainless steel. The inert gas is supplied to the welding zone through the annular path surrounding the tungsten electrode to effectively displace the atmosphere around the weld puddle.15 to 0.the pure tungsten electrodes are less expensive but will carry less current. The TIG welding process can be used for the joining of a number of materials though the most common ones are aluminium. Material gas Stainless steel Aluminium Magnesium DeoxidisedCopper Monel High carbon steel Power sources: Thoriated tungsten Thoriated tungsten DCEN AC or DCEN Argon Argon thoriated tungsten Alltypes Tungsten DCEN AC AC Argon Argon Argon Electrodes Power supply used preferred shielding DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .R. The typical combination of TIG setups to be used with these and other metals are presented in table.40 % zirconia (zirconium oxide). A Typical tungsten inert gas welding setup is shown in fig. The electrodes may also contain 1 to 2 % thoria (thorium oxide) mixed along with the core tungsten or tungsten with 0.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Accredited by NBA TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an inert gas shielded arc welding process using non-consumable electrode. The zirconia added tungsten electrodes are better than pure tungsten but inferior to thoriated tungsten electrodes. it consists of a welding torch at the centre of which is the tungsten electrode. Govt of A. Affiliated to JNTUH. The smaller weld torches may not be provided with circulating cooling water. Chevella (M). R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The thoriated tungsten electrodes carry high currents and are more desirable because they can strike and maintain a stable arc with relative ease. Dist Approved by AICTE.

The DC power supply used for TIG can be either a steady one or more often a step pulsed one.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). DCEP also causes larger heat affected zones and more weld distortion than DCEN. the electrons from the oxide layer would be moving towards the electrode. The other is the peak current used when the actual melting (welding) takes place. useful for welding in out of positions (other than flat position) since it allows for the controlled heating and cooling. the half cycle during which the electrode is positive. But the pulsed DC arc welding provides for proper solidification during the background current period when the torch is moved forward for forming the next spot (bead). as shown in fig. whereas in the other half the electrons from the electrode would be able to easily break the oxide layer on the work piece surface. a large amount of heat is liberated at the electrode itself thereby limiting the maximum current that can be carried by an electrode. Hence. R. The electrons from the oxide layer move towards the positive electrode weakening the surface layer. Similarly. This type of step pulsed DC source is. the arc crater cools. Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) power supplies can be used for TIG welding. as shown in fig. Roughly. In the case of the step pulsed current machine. as a result. an AC arc welding is likely to give rise to a higher penetration than that of DCEP. When DC is used. the low level is called background currents which is used for cooling the weld metal. But when DCEP is used. the electrode is to be flipped away slightly from the arc crater to allow for the cooling of the puddle before it is moved forward again.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Otherwise. the current level is maintained at two levels .R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The DCEP is sometimes utilized to break down the oxides on the surface of the metals such as aluminium. particularly. Accredited by NBA The power sources used are always the constant current type.DCEP is normally used for welding thin metals whereas for deep penetration welds DCEN is used. Affiliated to JNTUH. Chevella (M). The positively charged ions from the electrode would then be able to easily break the surface layer and thus would help in obtaining the fusion. Thus. During the background current period the arc is maintained but very small heat input goes to the weld and. the electrode can be negative (DCEN) or positive (DCEP). the current carrying capacity of a DCEN electrode is about 10 times as high as that of a DCEP electrode. Govt of A. Dist Approved by AICTE. when AC is used. With DCEN more heat is generated near the work piece and consequently the electrode does not get heated to a great extent.

when the electrode is positive and thus maintains the arc continuously. However. This maintains the shielding gas ionized during the period. very high frequency and low current power supply is superimposed on the unbalanced wave. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. It is possible to provide a balanced wave as shown in fig. These capacitors get charged during the time when the electrode is negative. But the TIG welding machine would not behave as normal AC. a highly unstable one. the current continuously changes its direction. by incorporating a large number of capacitors in series to provide the necessary current discharges during the time when the electrode is positive. This permits a higher current carrying capacity for the electrodes. To maintain a steady arc in an un balanced AC welding machine. which is termed as balanced wave since the positive side and the negative side are identical in magnitude. Since less current flows when the electrode is positive. During the period when the electrode is positive. Dist Approved by AICTE.R. Chevella (M). This rectification is an AC cycle during the time when the electrode becomes positive will make the AC arc. R. There are quite a few advantages of an un balanced AC arc welding machine compared to a balanced wave machine. Accredited by NBA When the alternating current (AC) is used for TIG welding. This is termed as ‘Rectification’ and is responsible for the reduced current flow during DCEP portion of the AC wave as shown in fig. which results in better penetration. This is known as unbalanced wave. A typical AC wave form is shown in fig. the electrode tip may pick up the base metal which causes the subsequent sputtering and loss of metal in the electrode tip. as DCEP. less heat is liberated near the electrode. the electron move from flat work piece surface to the small sized tip of the electrode which restricts the flow of electrons.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Affiliated to JNTUH. ELECTRODES: The tungsten electrodes used for the welding should be clean and completely free from any kind of contamination such as molten filler metal. a very high voltage. It is less expensive. Govt of A. If the arc is started by first touching the base metal and withdrawn. A balanced wave maintains a steady arc and therefore is preferred for better removal of the oxide layer is possible. these machines are more expensive compared to the un balanced type. It changes its direction 50 times every second (in 50Hz power supply) such that half the time it is operating as DCEN and rest.

to provide good performance and uniformity of the weld.4 mm near the root. The current setting to be used depends on the type of power supply and the electrode used. Hence. R. since tungsten oxide has a lower melting temperature. it is better to make full round ball at the tip. The typical shapes that can be used are shown in fig. the shielding gas flow should be maintained for some time after extinguishing the arc so that the electrode gets sufficiently cooled in a protective atmosphere rather than in the oxidizing normal atmosphere. Also. once the arc is formed which reduces the effect of current rectification and thus.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Affiliated to JNTUH. Though it is possible to use these electrodes without any tip preparation. the electrode would be made conical as in fig. otherwise the gas flow would become uneven making some part of the puddle not properly shielded and thereby. Govt of A. Pure tungsten electrodes are never made into conical point since the end is likely to melt and contaminate the weld metal. The oxidation occurs when the electrode is allowed to cool in the atmosphere after welding.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Backing of the joint is sometimes preferable. it would be better to prepare the tip since it enhances the weld quality. Electrode diameter Mm 1.0 AC-HF 10-60 Pure tungsten DCEN 15-80 AC-HF 20-80 2% thoriated tungsten AC 20-60 DCEN 25-85 Zirconium tungsten AC-HF 20-80 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .the tip should be pencilpointed as shown in fig. Accredited by NBA Also. For AC welding with high frequency (AC-HF) un balanced machines . The typical ranges of these values used for various electrode sizes are presented in table. The edge preparation is also similar to that of gas welding. Dist Approved by AICTE.R. as shown in fig. The backing plate is removed after the welding is over. stabilises the AC arc. The tungsten electrode tip should be prepared for proper weld penetration. Chevella (M). Instead. With DCEN. so that the HF current gets concentrated and the arc is easily initiated (high frequency current tend to flow through the surface). the electrode may get consumed quickly if it is allowed to be oxidized. causing contamination of the weld joint in that portion.the tip concentricity should be maintained . while grinding . WELDING TECHNIQUE: The welding technique used for TIG is essentially similar to that of the gas welding. with the width being about 3 to 4 times the depth. The metallic backing plates used are provided with a small groove of a depth of the order of 0.

6 2.5 3. Accredited by NBA 1. The sizes of the filler rods are shown in table. The gas flow rate depends on the position of the weld as well as its size.too high gas consumption would give rise to turbulence of the weld metal pool and consequently porous welds. The nozzle or shield size (the diameter of the opening of the electrode to be chosen depends on the shape of the groove to be welded as well as the required gas flow rate).3 50-100 100-160 150-210 200-275 250-350 325-450 20-150 125-225 225-360 360-450 450-720 720-950 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 400-550 600-800 60-120 100-180 160-250 200-320 290-390 340-525 50-160 135-235 250-400 400-500 750-980 750-980 50-150 130-250 225-360 300-450 600-800 600-800 Sometimes filler metals may have to be used depending on the base metal. it may be desirable to protect the root side of the joint by providing a flux or preferably a shroud of inert gas.R. However for thicker sections. R. The size of the filler metal depends on the base metal thickness. Chevella (M).0 5. for various metal thicknesses for aluminium welding. Govt of A.15 4. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . All the parameters for the TIG welding of aluminium are summarised in table .AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).0 6.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Affiliated to JNTUH. The filler metal for TIG (GTAW) welding is generally a bare wire. Because of the use of shielding gases no fluxes are required to be used in inert gas shielded arc welding. Dist Approved by AICTE.

Dist Approved by AICTE. due to the contact resistance at the joint and melts it. J I= electric current. b) The contact resistance between the electrode and the work piece. The high amperage heats the joint.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. a low voltage (Typically 1 V) and very high current (Typically 15. The heat generated in resistance welding can be expressed as H= k l2 R t Where H= the total heat generated in the work. The heat necessary for the melting of the joint is obtained by the heating effect of the electrical resistance of the joint and hence. A t = time for which the electric current is passing through the joint. ohms K= a constant to account for the heat losses from the welded joint. s R= the resistance of the joint.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). It is likely to be released at all of the above-mentioned points. but the only place where a large amount of heat is to be generated to have an effective fusion is at the interface between the two work piece DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . are fusion welding process where only heat is applied in the joint. R. Affiliated to JNTUH. The pressure on the joint is continuously maintained and the metal fuses together under this pressure. the name Resistance welding. The resistance of the joint. d) The resistance of the work piece plates. Chevella (M). Accredited by NBA RESISTANCE WELDING The welding process covered so far. R is a complex factor to know because it is composed of a) The resistance of the electrodes. Govt of A. resistance welding process is a fusion welding process where both heat and pressure are applied on the joint but no filler metal or flux is added.R. c) The contact resistance between two work piece plates. PRINCIPLE: In resistance welding (RW).000 A) is passed through the joint for a very short time (Typically 0. In contrast. The amount of heat released is directly proportional to the resistance.25 s).

Govt of A. the main requirement of the process is the low voltage and high current power supply.1 s. the current. Oxides or other contaminants if present should be removed before attempting resistance welding. to precisely control the time. The force required can be provided either mechanically. Dist Approved by AICTE. since the heat released at those places would not aid in the welding. sophisticated electronic timers are available.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The average resistance may be of the order of 100 micro ohms. The critical variable in a resistance welding process is the contact resistance between the two work piece plates and their resistances themselves.000 A current passing for 0. I need to be precisely controlled for any proper joint.1) = 1000 J This is a typical for the welding of 1 mm thick sheets. The time of the electric supply needs to be closely controlled so that the heat released is just enough to melt the joint and the subsequent fusion takes place due to the force (forge welding) on the joint. The secondary windings are connected to the electrodes which are made of copper to reduce their electrical resistance. With a 10. The actual heat required [26.000) (0.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Accredited by NBA plates.R. since the rougher surfaces have higher contact resistance.5 mm height) would be of the order of 339 J. R. The contact resistance is affected by the surface finish on the plates. Affiliated to JNTUH. The contact resistance also will be affected by the cleanliness of the surface. the rest of the heat is actually utilized in heating the surrounding areas and lost at the other points. hydraulically or pneumatically. the current required would be of the order of tens of thousands of amperes. the heat liberated is H= (10. Therefore. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the rest of the component resistances should be made as small Aas possible. The schematic representation of the resistance welding process is shown in fig. Because of the squaring in the above equation. This is obtained by means of a step down transformer with a provision to have different tapings on the primary side.1] for melting (assuming the weld area as a cylinder of 5 mm diameter and 1. Chevella (M).0001) (0. The lower resistance of the joint requires very high currents to provide enough heat to melt it. as required for different materials. as a result. as shown in fig.

the heat liberated in the lower resistivity metal is less and therefore it is necessary to use an electrode of higher resistivity near this metal or use an electrode diameter of larger contact area near the metal which has higher electrical conductivity. Heat balance: One of the very important characteristics of the resistance welding process is the transfer of heat to the two parts being joined differently so that proper fusion obtained even when the plates are dissimilar from the stand-point of material or thickness. it is necessary to provide an electrode contact area that is smaller near the higher conductivity metal compared to that electrode kept near the lower conductivity metal plate. R. the electrodes should have higher electrical conductivity as well as higher hardness. Accredited by NBA The welding force used has the effect of decreasing the contact resistance and consequently. Similarly while welding a material of higher thermal conductivity to the one with lower conductivity. This eliminates the removal of smaller amount of heat generated in the sheet through the electrode and thus balances the heat. when two dissimilar metals with different electrical resistivities or thermal conductivities are to be joined. Govt of A. Electrodes for resistance welding: The electrode in resistance welding carry very high currents required for fusion as also transmit the mechanical force to keep the plates under pressure and then alignment during fusion. They also help to remove the heat from the weld zone thus preventing overheating and surface fusion of the work. Chevella (M).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). consider the case of two metal pieces of same composition and different thicknesses which are to be joined in a lap joint as shown in fig. Dist Approved by AICTE. For both these purposes. Steels though strong. Affiliated to JNTUH. For example. the proper fusion can be obtained only if there is a proper ‘heat balance’. do not have the conductivity required for electrodes.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Hence copper in alloyed form is generally used for DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . an increase in the welding current for the proper fusion.R. Similarly. This is taken care of by providing an electrode with a smaller contact area at a thinner sheet and a thicker electrode at the thicker sheet together with high current densities for short times.

0%) alloys have the highest electrical conductivity with moderate strengths and therefore are used for welding non-ferrous materials such as aluminum and Mg alloys.8%) alloys have slightly lower electrical conductivities than above but better mechanical strength. to allow for different welding situations.5 to 0. Affiliated to JNTUH. Since a large amount of heat is liberated in the electrodes. Copper chromium (0. These are used for resistance welding of low strength steels such as mild steel and low alloy steels. When cobalt and beryllium are added to copper. R. Hence. The electrode tips are available in a number of different configurations as shown in fig. Copper cadmium (0. it is necessary to cool the electrodes to maintain their strength.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Though pure copper has higher electrical and thermal conductivities. Accredited by NBA making electrodes. Dist Approved by AICTE.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . these are used for welding higher heat resisting alloys such as stainless steels and steels with tungsten and other such alloying elements. To this end cooling water is circulated through the electrodes as shown in fig. Govt of A. it is poor in mechanical properties.R. Chevella (M). its conductivity is decreased to a great extent but the strength is increased.5 to 1.

as shown in fig. out of which one is fixed. a satisfactory weld is obtained when a proper current density (A/sq mm) is maintained. A resistance welding schedule is the sequence of events that normally take place in each of the welds.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The weld time is the time of the current flow through the work pieces till they are heated to the melting temperature. Dist Approved by AICTE. This would not be able to melt the metal and hence there would be no proper fusion. Accredited by NBA RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING The process description made so far is called the resistance spot welding (RSW)or simply spot welding. This is essentially done to join two sheet metal jobs in lap joint forming a smaller nugget at the interface of the two plates. the current density will be lowered and consequently the weld is obtained over a larger area. if the tip becomes upset and the contact area increases. The other position is that of a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder being directly connected to the electrode without any rocker arm. R.R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . For welding large assemblies such as car bodies. Hence the electrode holders and the pneumatic pressurizing system is present in the form of a portable assembly which is taken to the place. This is the simplest type of arrangement. In spot welding. The other electrode is fixed to a rocker arm (to provide mechanical advantage) for transmitting the mechanical force from a pneumatic cylinder. This is the most common resistance welding process. The events are: The squeeze time is the time required for the electrodes to align and clamp the two work pieces together under them and provide the necessary electrical contact. A typical resistance spot welding machine is shown in fig. it essentially consists of two electrodes. compressed air and the cooling water needed for the electrodes is supplied through cables and hoses from the main welding machine to the portable unit. The electric current. Affiliated to JNTUH. Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Govt of A. The current density depends on the contact area between the electrode and the work piecewith the continuous use. portable spot welding machines are used. where the spot is to be made.

the pressure on the electrode is taken off so that the plates can be positioned for the next spot. too long a time for the current flow.R. During this time. the metal under this area would reduce in size under the absence of any such restraining force. compared to that during the melting. Though this is very small. Porosity in spot welds may also develop if the forging pressure is released prematurely. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . R. The use of high welding current for short periods causes excessive heat generation in the weld area. A typical welding schedule whose time elements are measured in terms of the time unit for a cycle of AC. The forging pressure is applied to ensure that during the solidification. specified for simple spot welding. if the spot is done very near the edge. while cooling. Dist Approved by AICTE. The metals expand due to the temperature. it cannot be totally eliminated. but only when a series of spots are to be made in a predetermined pitch. Govt of A. Accredited by NBA The hold time is the time when the pressure is to be maintained on the molten metal without the electric current. too large an electrode force and improper mating surfaces. The welding pressure used depends on the thickness of the metal and the geometry of the weld. It is generally preferable to have the pressure increased by two to three times during solidification phase. However. Surface indentation is also possible sometimes due the repulsion of the molten metal from the weld zone. these welding schedules can be precisely controlled with the modern programmable electronic controllers. The only way in which this can be reduced is to use short duration currents such that heat from the welding zone is not be conducted far beyond. If the pressure is not properly applied immediately after welding or if the pressure is in sufficient. This gives rise to a visible concave depression under the electrode tip. as shown in fig. the pieces are expected to be forge welded.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. But the metal under the electrode tip cannot expand in the axial direction of the electrode. The repulsion of the molten metal may take place. Chevella (M). improper alignment of the work and the electrodes. because of the restraining force.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). The off time is time during which. The off time is not normally. the nugget does not develop any porosity or crack. The main reason for this is the generation of excessive weld heat by a smaller electrode contact area. Affiliated to JNTUH. then the porosity may develop at the centre of the nugget or cracks may form.

The typical equations for welding mild steel up to a thickness of 3.36 × (t1 + t2) cycles : 3937 × (t1+t2) A : 876 × (t1 + t2 ) N Where t1 = thickness of the first plate. Also. Therefore it is necessary that the spots are not made closer than required. Electrode tip diameter: 2. This also reduces the life of the electrode tip. Govt of A. The surface melting of the plate may also be caused by poor electrode cooling.8 times the thickness of the joining members. and as a result. mm t2 = thickness of the second plate. the penetration should be equal from both the sides. some current would be shunted through a weld already made.2 mm are given below. Affiliated to JNTUH. R. Designing of spot weld parameters are essentially based on the sheet thickness being welded. If the spacing becomes small.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The spacing of spots affects the current required for fusion. A depth of penetration less than this would not give rise to enough strength whereas a very high penetration nearing the thickness would bring the nugget outside and disfigure the appearance of the sheet.54 + (t1 + t2) mm Weld time Current Electrode force : 2. Dirty or oxide surfaces on the work piece may interfere with the heat flow into the electrode and thus may allow the top surface to melt. mm DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Chevella (M). higher currents may be required to obtain proper melting.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). even while welding thicker plate to a thinner plate. Dist Approved by AICTE. Accredited by NBA The depth of penetration of the weld would normally vary from 0.3 to 0.

The plasma arc welding closely resembles the TIG process in that it also uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and a shielding gas such as argon. This constriction increases the heat per unit volume of the arc plasma. Dist Approved by AICTE. Chevella (M). the plasma arc is tightly constrained. Accredited by NBA PLASMA ARC WELDING Theory: Plasma is the state of the matter when part of the gas is ionized making it a conductor of electric current.R. Affiliated to JNTUH. This is termed as a transferred arc. A small amount of pure argon gas flow is allowed through the inner orifice surrounding the tungsten electrode to form the plasma gas. R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The arc in PAW is straight and concentrated. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The filler metal if required is fed into the arc as in GTAW process. Procedure:  To initiate the arc in PAW. Govt of A. The main difference is in the construction of the torch. a low current pilot arc is obtained between the electrode and the constricting nozzle which ionizes the plasma gas flowing through the nozzle. In plasma arc welding.  The plasma gas flowing through the constriction reaches a very high temperature and provides a low resistance path to initiate the welding arc between the electrode and the work piece.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).

R. Chevella (M). Therefore the surfaces must be clean and free from contaminants that would prevent adhesion. Dist Approved by AICTE.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. R. Govt of A. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Accredited by NBA BRAZING Theory: The brazing process can be defined as the process to join two metal pieces heated to a suitable temperature by using a filler metal having a liquidus above 427°C and below the solidus of the base metal. To achieve this and to obtain a strong joint. the higher the mechanical strength of the joint will be.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Affiliated to JNTUH. the basis requirement is that the filler metal must be thoroughly wet the base metal surface. Procedure:  The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and fitted closely together. Solid filler may be preplaced on the metal and melted as the metal is heated or it may be applied to the metal after the brazing temperature is reached. two pieces to be joined is not melted.  After that the joint is heated to proper brazing temperature. The greater the degree of adhesion and the inter-diffusion between the molten filler metal and the base metal.  A flux is applied to all surfaces where filler metal is to flow. During brazing. Some diffusion or alloying of the filler metal with the base metal takes place even though the base metal does not reach its solidus temperature.

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Govt of A. The force required to be exerted by the punch in order It can be given by the following formula P=L*t*Ƭ Where p is punching force Ƭ is shear strength in Mpa to shear out the blank from the stock can be estimated from the actual shear area and the shear strength of the material. Piercing: This is also called Punching. Dist Approved by AICTE. R. Normally a blanking operation is will generally follow a piercing operation. It is identical to blanking except of the fact that the punched out portion coming out through the die in piercing is scrap. Chevella (M). The removed portion is called a blank and is usually further processed to be of some use.R.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Affiliated to JNTUH. Accredited by NBA BLANKING AND PIERCING Blanking: It is the process in which the punch removes a portion of the material from the stock which is a strip of sheet metal of the necessary thickness and width. The piercing is making holes in a sheet.

05 to 0. By the extrusion process.75 of diameter) thick with a diameter slightly less than the container is kept between the hot billet and the ram to protect it from the heat and pressure. A dummy block which is a steel disc of about 40mm (0.The equipment consists of a cylinder r a container in to which the heated metal billet is loaded . Chevella (M).P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.The complexity of parts that can be obtained by extrusion is more than that of rolling.acquiring the shape of the opening . It is possible to produce sharp corners and re-entrant angles. Some typical parts that are extruded are shown in fig2 . It is also possible to get shapes with internal cavities in extrusion DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . A typical extrusion process is presented in the Fig1.R.thus forcing in to flow through the die opening . Also extrusion is a single pass process unlike rolling.The extruded metal is then carried by the metal handling system as it comes out of the die. Accredited by NBA EXTRUSION PRINCIPLE Extrusion is the process of confining the metal in a closed cavity and then allowing it to flow from only one opening so that the metal will take the shape of the opening. R. The amount of reduction that is possible in extrusion is large. The operation is identical to the squeezing of tooth paste out of the tooth paste tube. it s possible to make components which have a constant crosssection over any length as can be had by the rolling process.On one end of the container. Affiliated to JNTUH. Generally brittle materials can also be very easily extruded. a plunger or a ram compresses the metal billet against the container walls and the die plate . Dist Approved by AICTE. Govt of A.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).From the other end . the die plate with the necessary opening is fixed . because the die required being very simple and easier to make.

The pressures applied may range from 35 to1000MPa. Dist Approved by AICTE. The extrusion speed depends on the work material.R.Too high an extrusion speed would cause excessive heat generation in the extruded metal causing lateral cracks DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the reduction in area and the extrusion speed. Large diameter.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. Chevella (M). Accredited by NBA by the use of spider dies which are explained later. The flow of the metal in the extrusion process is shown schematically in fig3.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). R. the cylinder and ram are severely affected by the temperature as well as the stresses.05 m/sec.50m/sec. Some of the light alloys may be extruded at a speed of 0.Typical extrusion pressures for various materials are presented in table .Low extrusion ratios are used for intermediate operations when the billets are extruded to a given diameter before the final extrusion .The extrusion pressure for a given material depends on the extrusion temperature.whereas for the copper alloys it may be as high as 4.since hot extrusion involves temperatures in the range of 500 to 1200 depending on the work material extruded. Govt of A. The typical values of the extrusion ratio are 20 to 50. Affiliated to JNTUH.The extrusion ratio is defined as the ratio of cross-sectional area of the billet to that of the extruded section. thin walled tubular products with excellent concentricity and tolerance characteristics can be produced.

The punch slowly descends on the blank and forces it to take the cup shape formed by the end of the punch.R.when the cup reaches counter bored portion of the die. spring loaded pressure pad which moves with the punch. by the time it reaches the bottom of the die . the top edge of the cup formed around the punch expands slightly due to the spring back.for this purpose. and similar articles from metal blanks . a blank holder is normally provided on all deep drawing dies as shown in the fig . Govt of A. shells. This description is true in the case of shallow drawing operation only . is normally used for thicker materials which are less .P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.The The rigid blank holding as in fig likely to wrinkle. Affiliated to JNTUH.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).shallow drawing is defined as that where the cup height is less than half the diameter .Typical tools used for drawing are shown in fig . the cup would be stripped by this counter bored portion. in fig plank through out the operation. Dist Approved by AICTE. R. Chevella (M). When the punch move sin the return stroke. .The plank is first kept on the die plate. The setup is similar to that used in blanking except the punch and die are provided with the necessary rounding at the corners to allow for the smooth flow of the metal during drawing . A more common usage is the spring loaded pressure pad shown.for drawing deeper cups it is necessary to make specific provisions to confine the metal in order to prevent the excess wrinkling of the edges . Accredited by NBA DEEP DRAWING Drawing is the process of making cups. maintains a uniform pressure on the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).This is similar to wrinkles formed on the handkerchief when spread on a tumbler of small size and pushed into it . but that should be much more difficult. Affiliated to JNTUH. Accredited by NBA To understand the problem of the wrinkling.Since.While the material is flowing radially the outer edge gets thicker or wrinkles are formed on the outer edges . the metal shown in the ring 2f the blank gets bent by the punch over the die radius.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. The blank has been divided in to sections 1 to 4. The first contact made by the punch with the blank is over the portion marked 1 which forms the bottom of the cup. Govt of A. It is also possible to draw other sections. there is no deformation of the blank . shallow drawing is relatively simple. consider the drawing of a cup as shown in fig .ductile materials are easier to be drawn in to deeper cups. As explained earlier. Drawing when cup height is more than half the diameter is termed as deep drawing .The limited thickness is controlled by the gap between the rigid blank holder and the die or by the spring pressure in the case of a spring loaded blank holder Too high a blank holder pressure increases the friction and subsequently the drawing load . the bent blank over the die radius gets straightened and the next ring of the metal is bent over the die radius . The restraining force applied on the blank by way of the blank holders stops the blank from increasing in thickness beyond the limit .if there is no restraining force applied on the blank .but makes it to flow radially outward .A lubricant is normally applied over the face of the blank to reduce this friction .along with its blank. R. Upon further movement of the punch. Dist Approved by AICTE.the material needs to be moved radially for the drawing action to takes place . the metal present in each of the rings is distributed over a circle of larger diameter than that of the cup .R. such as rectangle. Chevella (M). In this portion.The example is presented for a circular cup since these are more generally used. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .As the punch further moves down.

an operation DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Ironing is the operation of thinning the side walls and increasing the height.For applications requiring uniform side walls. Accredited by NBA In deep drawing. Affiliated to JNTUH.The materials gets compressed between punch and die which reduces the thickness and increases the height.The wall thickness can be reduced to as much 50% in a single ironing operation.Thedie and punch set used is similar to that of drawing operation except the clearance between the die and punch is smaller than that used in the drawing operation . . Govt of A. R. the side walls increase in thickness as the height is increased. Chevella (M).AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).R. Dist Approved by AICTE. as sown in the fig called ironing is carried out on drawn cups.There would be a slight thinning of metal at the bottom of the corners . because of the radial flow of the material.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. and thus is a severe operation .

in a bent specimen. The disposition of the stresses in a bent specimen is shown in fig 1. Chevella (M). due to the applied forces. in mm K=location of neutral axis from bottom surface = 0. since the materials oppose compression much better than tension. it is necessary to find out the bend allowance which is the arc length of the neutral axis between the bend lines. Accredited by NBA BENDING Bending refers to the operation of deforming a flat sheet around a straight axis where the neutral plane lies.33 when R<2t = 0. Hence to calculate the length required. in mm B=α(R+Kt) DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .P Certified by ISO 9001:2008. in radians R=inside radius of the bend. it is the required length. R. Govt of A.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). the top layers are in tension and bottom layers are in compression as shown. Dist Approved by AICTE. the material is not affected. Bend allowance Where α=bend angle. the neutral axis moves downward. Here. But when the material reaches the plastic stage. The neutral axis should be at the centre when the material is elastically deformed. The plane with no stresses is called the neutral axis. since neutral axis remains constant.5 when R>2t t = sheet thickness. Affiliated to JNTUH. Beyond the bend lines. The nomenclature normally used with bending is shown in figure: 2.R.

depending on the material characteristics. higher is the strain in this zone. Chevella (M).5 t soft materials = t other materials = 3 t spring materials The other aspect to be considered in designing parts from bending is the grain orientation of the sheet which is bent. Affiliated to JNTUH. There is a possibility of cracks appearing at the time of bending if the bending is done along the grains as shown in figure:3. The first one is the wiping die which is used for simple 900 bends only.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.but it is essential to compensate it. Lower the bend radius. the bending is to be done in a direction perpendicular to the grain direction in the metal. being the direction of rolling. because the bend geometry gets affected by the spring back directly. The amount of stretching depends on the sheet thickness and the radius. The bending load may be calculated from the knowledge of material properties and the die characteristics as shown below Fb= KLst2/W Where Fb=bending force. and the punch bends the extended portion of the blank as shown in figure 4. Hence there is a minimum bend radius to be specified. Dist Approved by AICTE. N DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The types of bending methods used are shown in figure:4. Lower the bend radius. The V bending shown in fig b. Spring back in bending is difficult to estimate theoretically . As far as possible.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). Minimum bend radius = 0. These are the ones that are most generally used. can be used fro a wide range of angles as also the 900. Accredited by NBA The outer layers which are under tension should not be stretched too much. Govt of A. But if two bending are to be done on the same sheet at right angles. otherwise there is likelihood of rupture taking place. the grain direction usually is along the length axis. then it may be desirable to make them at 450 to the grain direction so that the risk of cracking is minimized. R. By virtue of the rolled sheets being used for bending. Here the work is held firmly to the die.R.

Affiliated to JNTUH.33 for a wiping die L = Length of the bent part.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.67 for U bending = 0. MPa t = blank thickness. mm W = width between the contact points.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). R. Dist Approved by AICTE. mm s = ultimate tensile strength.20 for die opening of 16t = 0. Govt of A.R. Chevella (M). mm DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .33 for die opening of 8t = 1. Accredited by NBA K= 1.

Dist Approved by AICTE.the mould is opened . R.through a nozzle in to the enclosed mould cavity . curing takes place while the material is under pressure in a heated mould.R. Chevella (M).pressure is maintained until the molding has solidified .P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.Probably y the most outstanding feature of this technique is the speed with which pieces may be produced.the piece is ejected . DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Affiliated to JNTUH. Accredited by NBA INJECTION MOULDING The polymer analogue of die casting for metals is the most widely used technique for fabricating thermoplastic materials. Next .and the entire cycle is repeated . the molten plastic is impelled . The correct amount of pelletized material is fed from a loading hopper in to a cylinder by the motion of a plunger or a ram. Thermosetting polymers may also be injection moulded. which results in a longer cycle times than for thermoplastics. This charge is pushed forward in to a heating chamber.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V).the mould is closed . Govt of A. at which the thermoplastic material melts to form a viscous liquid.Finally .again by ram motion .

polymeric materials may be cast.P Certified by ISO 9001:2008.AL HABEEB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Damergidda (V). harding is a consequence of the actual polymerization or curing process. Casting like metals. for thermosets.First a length of polymer tubing is extruded.For thermoplastics. Govt of A. While still in a semi molten state. Accredited by NBA BLOW MOULDING Blow moulding process for the fabrication of plastic containers is similar to that used for blowing glass bottles (Fig ). Dist Approved by AICTE. as when a molten plastic material is poured in to a mould and allowed to solidify. solidification occurs upon cooling from the molten state. the length is placed in to a two piece mould having the desired container configuration.R. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics may be cast . R. however. Affiliated to JNTUH. forcing the tube walls to conform to the counters of the mould. The hallow piece is formed by blowing or steam under pressure in to the parsion. Chevella (M).

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