CE 374 K – Hydrology

CE 374 K 
Stream and Reservoir Routing
Daene C. McKinney

emptying Storage Max. Storage: A=C dS >0 dt C dS <0 dt dS = I (t ) − Q (t ) dt Q(t ) = f ( H ) Time .Reservoir Routing Reservoir Routing Inflow Discharge g Peak Attenuation Inflow Storage H A Outflow Outflow Lag time To peak Inflow and outflow hydrographs for a small. level-surface reservoir A: I > O O. filling C: I < O.

Q) .) dS = I (t ) − Q(t ) dt Q(t ) Outflow Q (t ) = Outflow O fl Downstream Hydrograph Storage g function is needed S = f ( I .Hydrologic Routing Hydrologic Routing Discharge Discharge I (t ) Transfer Function Inflow Q(t ) = f [x. storage are related Channel: Ch Characteristics: i i x Routing Method: f(.. I (t )] I (t ) = Inflow Upstream Hydrograph Input. output.

Q. L .Relations Between Discharge and Storage Relations Between Discharge and Storage • Flow routing Flow routing – Find a downstream hydrograph given an upstream  hydrograph – Lumped or Distributed Discharge – Lumped dS = I (t ) − Q(t ) Inflow dt – Storage function needed S = f (I . dI dQ . L) dt dt I (t () Outflow Q (t ) . .

Transformation of Hydrographs: Redistribution and Translation di ib i d l i Redistribution Translation Di h Discharge Discharge Peak Attenuation Inflow A Peak Attenuation Inflow A Outflow Lag time To p peak Reservoir Storage C Outflow Lag time To peak Channel Storage C .

Reservoir Routing (Level Pool ) g( ) Discharge Inflow I j +1 dS = I (t ) − Q (t ) dt Outflow Ij S j +1 ( j +1) Δt ( j +1) Δt Sj jΔt jΔt ∫ dS = Q j +1 Qj S j +1 − S j Δt jΔt ∫ Idt − ( j + 1) Δt Time Storage Δt 2 S j +1 Δt = ∫ Qdt I j +1 + I j 2 − Q j +1 + Q j + Q j +1 = I j +1 + I j + Unknown Sj Time 2S j Known Need a function relating S j +1 2 2S + Q. and Q Δt Δt −Qj .

) Level Pool Routing (Cont.) 2 S j +1 Δt + Q j +1 = I j +1 + I j + Unknown Δt Δt −Qj Known From Compute 2 S j +1 2S j + Q j +1 Then compute 2S + Q. and Q Δt Then compute 2 S j +1 Δt − Q j +1 = 2 S j +1 Δt + Q j +1 − 2Q j Q j +1 .Level Pool Routing (Cont.

4 18 457 7 22.560 43.1 38.120 130 680 130.560 87.3 1492.560 43.5 31.560 43.7 36.040 435.560 43.560 .1 1345.560 43.800 261.560 43.600 2S/Dt+Q ( f ) (cfs) Q (cfs) ( f ) 0 0 158 12.560 43 560 43.680 174.3 25.9 Find: Outlet hydrograph .560 43.Level Pool Example Level Pool Example H (ft) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A (ft2) 43.8 308.5 902.2 33.4 40. 348.480 392.560 S (ft3) 0 43.3 1050.7 22 1 606.240 217. 43.920 .4 Qorifice = C d A0 2 gh Detention pond Given: Area = 1 acre Outlet = 18 inch diameter concrete pipe C = 0.560 43.5 754.5 28.8 1197.1 457.360 304.

1 86 8.) Level Pool Example (Cont.2 299.2 178.0 154.7 19.2 309.7 13.0 ⎛ 2 S j +1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ + Q j +1 ⎟⎟ = ⎝ Δt ⎠ Qj (cfs) 0 4.) Time Ti (min) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Ij (cfs) 0 20 40 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ij+IIj+1 (cfs) 0 20 60 100 110 90 70 50 30 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2Sj/dt .3 11.0 15 9 15.4 83.0 261.5 18.2 10.0 126.2 336.9 17.2 344.0 178.6 297.8 104.9 14.8 18.4 151.8 129.0 18.2 331.1 (I j +1 + I j ) + ⎛⎜⎜ ⎞ − Q j ⎟⎟ ⎝ Δt ⎠ 2S j ⎛ 2 S j ++11 ⎞ ⎜⎜ + Q j +1 ⎟⎟ ⇒ Q j ⎝ Δt ⎠ ⎛ 2S j ⎞ ⎜⎜ − Q j ⎟⎟ = ⎝ Δt ⎠ ⎛ 2 S j +1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ + Q j +1 ⎟⎟ − 2Q j ⎝ Δt ⎠ .8 15.2 294.6 12.6 306.0 104.6 207.8 20.2Sj+1/dt + Qj Qj+1 (cfs) (cfs) 0 0 11.0 207.5 12.2 207 4 207.2 273.2 239.0 17.6 71 8 71.4 151.0 54 6 54.0 126.2 273.2 239.4 239 2 239.Level Pool Example (Cont.

) Level Pool Example (Cont.) 70 60 Diischarge (cfs) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time (min) 100 120 140 160 .Level Pool Example (Cont.

5 1 1.Level Pool (Book Example) Level Pool (Book Example) 0 0.5 7 7.5 9 95 9.140 1134 304 920 1221 304.5 6 6.680 496 152.560 153 65.580 955 261.260 1476 392.920 326.900 406 130.5 2 2.5 5 5.480 1393 370.340 235 87 120 87.800 863 239.700 1307 348.820 435.600 1727 Detention pond Given: Area = 1 acre O tl t = 5-ft Outlet 5 ft di diameter t concrete t pipe i Find: Outlet hydrograph 150 100 50 0 0 500 1000 2S/DT+Q 1500 2000 .360 1044 283.5 4 45 4.5 8 8.120 320 108.5 3 3.020 770 217.040 1560 413 820 1643 413.5 10 Q (cfs) 0 3 8 17 30 43 60 78 97 117 137 156 173 190 205 218 231 242 253 264 275 300 250 200 Q H (ft) 2S/Dt+ S Q (ft3) (cfs) 0 0 21.780 76 43.240 678 196 020 196.460 586 174.

0 Storage (ac cre-ft) Time Inflow (min) (cfs) 0 0 10 60 20 120 30 180 40 240 50 300 60 360 70 320 80 280 90 240 100 200 110 160 120 120 130 80 140 40 150 0 160 0 170 0 180 0 190 0 200 0 210 0 Discharge (cfs)) 300 8.) Level Pool Example (Cont.0 4.0 6.0 0.0 10.Level Pool Example (Cont.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (minutes) 140 160 180 200 220 .0 2.) 400 350 Inflow Ij+Ij+1 (cfs) 2Sj/dt-Qj (cfs) 0 0 60 55 180 201 300 379 420 552 540 728 660 927 680 1089 600 1149 520 1134 440 1064 360 954 280 820 200 683 120 555 40 435 0 338 0 273 0 227 0 195 0 169 0 150 2Sj+1/dtQj+1 Outflow (cfs) (cfs) 0 0 60 2 235 17 501 61 799 123 1092 182 1388 230 1607 259 1689 270 1669 267 1 4 1574 2 255 1424 235 1234 207 1020 169 803 124 595 80 435 49 338 33 273 23 227 16 195 13 169 10 250 200 150 Outflow 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 TIme (minutes) 12 0 12.

3 Î Natural stream S = S wedge + S prism = KQ + KX ( I − Q) S = K [ XI + (1 − X )Q ] I Q I −Q Q wedge Q prism i I Receding Flood Wave Q>I Q Q−I I I .Hydrologic River Routing Muskingum Method k h d reach • Wedge storage in reach Wedge storage in reach S Prism = KQ S Wedge = KX ( I − Q) Advancing Flood Wave I>Q K = travel time of peak through the reach X = weight on inflow versus outflow X = 0 Î X  0 Î Reservoir. storage depends on outflow.0 ‐ 0.  no wedge X = 0. storage depends  Reservoir.

) Muskingum Method (Cont.) S = K [ XI + (1 − X )Q] S j +1 − S j = K [ XI j +1 + (1 − X )Q j +1 ] − K [ XI j + (1 − X )Q j ] Recall: S j +1 − S j = I j +1 + I j 2 Δt − Q j +1 + Q j 2 Combine: Q j +1 = C1I j +1 + C2 I j + C3Q j Δt Δt − 2 KX 2 K (1 − X ) + Δt Δt + 2 KX C2 = 2 K (1 − X ) + Δt 2 K (1 − X ) − Δt C3 = 2 K (1 − X ) + Δt C1 = .Muskingum Method (Cont.

 S • For various values of X For various values of X • Choose the one which gives a  loop closest to a straight line loop closest to a straight line • The Slope of this line is K .Muskingum Example Muskingum Example • Estimate K from observed  inflow and outflow  hydrographs • Plot [XI+(1-X)Q] vs.

Muskingum Example Muskingum Example • • River reach ‐ Know inflow and outflow hydrographs Estimate Muskingum Parameters Time (day) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I (cfs) 59 93 129 205 210 234 325 554 627 526 432 400 388 270 162 124 102 81 60 51 Q (cfs) 42 70 76 142 183 185 213 293 397 487 533 487 446 400 360 230 140 115 93 71 .

3 45 47 75 77 87 92 155 161 188 191 195 200 235 247 345 371 443 466 495 499 513 503 470 461 434 429 374 361 320 301 209 198 132 129 108 105 86 83 67 65 .1 0 44 20 72 58 81 116 148 161 186 199 190 280 224 466 319 712 420 846 491 815 523 721 478 649 440 555 387 391 340 239 219 167 136 131 112 97 90 71 69 x*I+(1-x)*Q x*I+(1-x)*Q X = 0.2 X = 0.) Muskingum Example (Cont.) Know inflow and outflow hydrograph I j +1 + I j Q j +1 + Q j S = S + Δ t − Δt j +1 j Compute storage 2 2 Compute  [XI+(1-X)Q] for various values of X • • • Time t (day) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 S x*I+(1-x)*Q S (ft3) X = 0.Muskingum Example (Cont.

3 600 S 500 I like the red one: X = 0.7563x .9735 0 0 100 200 300 xI + (1-x)Q 400 500 600 .2 700 x=0 3 x=0. R2 = 0.102.2.9779 100 y = 1.Muskingum Example (Cont. R2 = 0.617. K = 1.) Muskingum Example (Cont.7429x .27.1 800 x=0.102.7527x . R2 = 0.) 900 x=0.55.98.9728 200 y = 1.7563 400 300 y = 1.

6 139.7 627 49.) Q j +1 = C1I j +1 + C 2 I j + C3Q j t (day) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 17 18 19 20 I (cfs) C1*Ij+1 C2*Ij C3*Qj Q (cfs) 59 0 0 0.7 72.1 173.7 .4 112 0 112.8 49.6 190.0 246.4 91.4 104.1 435.2 292.8 432.3 210 16.1 280.9 80.1 41.3 26.6 25.7 223.3 81 6.4 160.1 323.8 76.7 235.1 162 12.6 400.9 471.) Muskingum Example (Cont.3 93.2 193.6 110.6 36.0 53.3 145.2 60 4.6 235.0 42 93 7.7 36.2 432 33.2 104.6 89.Muskingum Example (Cont.6 120.3 178.0 26.9 519.9 270 21.6 52.2 188.2 388 30.7 400 31.9 528.3 45.0 1 3 175.2 64.1 205 16.0 55.3 325 25.5 77.4 234 18.6 526 41.4 20.0 247.5 219.4 124 9.6 83.3 135.4 205.0 250.2 206.1 51 4.4 153.4 554 43.6 129 10.2 105.7 102 80 8.0 57.

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