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Copyright © 2006 Engineous Software, Inc. All rights reserved. Engineous Software, Inc.

retains all ownership rights to the iSIGHT-FD computer program and its documentation. Use of iSIGHT-FD software is governed by the license agreement accompanying your original media. The iSIGHT-FD source code is a confidential trade secret of Engineous Software, Inc. You many not attempt to decipher, decompile, develop, or otherwise reverse engineer iSIGHT-FD software, or knowingly allow others to do so. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Engineous Software, Inc. Engineous Software, Inc. provides this publication “as is” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties or conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. In no event shall Engineous Software, Inc. be liable for any loss of profits, loss of business, loss of use or data, interruption of business, or for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind, even if Engineous Software has been advised of the possibility of such damages arising from any defect or error in this publication or in the iSIGHT-FD software. Engineous Software, Inc. may revise this publication at any time without notice. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you. Printed in the United States of America. Document Version 2.5, December 2006 FIPER is a registered trademark of Engineous Software, Inc. iSIGHT is a trademark of Engineous Software, Inc. Additional Trademarks: Windows is either a registered trademark or trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/ or other countries. AIX is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation. HP and Hewlett-Packard are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Company. Red Hat and RPM are either a registered trademark or trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Sun and Solaris are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of UNIX Systems Labs. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of Macrovision. Mozilla is a trademark of The Mozilla Organization. Netscape is a trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. Adobe Reader is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

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Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
What is iSIGHT-FD?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The iSIGHT-FD Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runtime Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Line Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 18 18 18 18

Using This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Other Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Conventions Used in This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mouse Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Keyboard Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 20 21 22

Supported Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Contacting Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States and North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 22 23 23 23 23 23

Send Us Your Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Table of Contents

1 iSIGHT-FD Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
What is an iSIGHT-FD Model?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Understanding the Parts of iSIGHT-FD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2 Using the Design Gateway Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Accessing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Connection Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Available Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 28 29 31

Understanding the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Components to the Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Altering Components on the Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulating Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Gateway Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Additional Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 38 38 39 40 41 42 46 48

3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Understanding the Model Development Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a New Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening an Existing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding Components in the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Components to Create a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying Components Within a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Custom Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing Components In a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Referencing Previously Created Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing and Configuring Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing and Changing the Dataflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameter Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 51 54 56 56 56 57 57 59 59 59 62

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Table of Contents Saving a Model or Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Executing a Model or Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Viewing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Model Selector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Other Model Explorer Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulating Model Workflows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Components to the Default Workflow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disabling a Component in the Workflow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manually Adding Workflow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Conditional Workflow Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pausing a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Parallel Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Workflow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Annotations to the Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encapsulating Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulating the Workflow Tab Canvas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying Model Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Independent Copies of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Reference Copies of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Submodels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 65 65 67 68 68 70 71 71 75 75 79 80 82 84 86 86 88 90 99

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Accessing Component Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Accessing Component Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Accessing Component Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Using Referenced Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Understanding Model Reference Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Adding a Referenced Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Workflow . . . . . . .103 Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Dataflow . . . . . . . .104

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Table of Contents Understanding How Referenced Models are Handled by iSIGHT-FD . . . . . . 105 Using the Referenced Model Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Using the Graph Templates Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

4 Using Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Editing Component Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Setting Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting DOE Component Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Excel Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Monte Carlo Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Optimization Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting OS Command Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Word Component Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the DOE Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening the Editor and Using the General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Factors Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Design Matrix Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Post Processing Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Technique-Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Loop Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a For Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a For Array Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a For Each Loop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a While Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Do Until Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Parallel Loop Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Loop Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 118 118 118 119 119 121 122 122 124 127 129 131 133 137 138 143 144 146 150 152 154 156 157

Using the Monte Carlo Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Using the Optimization Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Configuring the Optimization Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Using Technique Tuning Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Using the SDI Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Configuring the SDI Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Understanding Task Component Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 Using the Task Component (Single Option). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Using the Approximation Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Selecting the Technique and Specifying the Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Defining Input and Output Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Setting Technique Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 Setting Error Analysis Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Viewing Coefficients Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Using the Calculator Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 Creating a Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 Using Undeclared Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 Using Array Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Understanding Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Using the COM Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Using the Data Exchanger Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 Overview of the Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 Understanding Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Creating a New Data Exchanger Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Editing an Existing Data Exchanger Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Adding a Read or Write Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Updating a Read or Write Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 Editing a Read or Write Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 Removing a Read or Write Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 Formatting Numbers During a Write Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 Changing the Format of a Section of a Data Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Table of Contents Updating an Existing Section Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigating Between Section Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Java Code Directly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the General Text Format Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Name Value Format Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Table Format Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Vector Format Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Searching a Data Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Advanced Action Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting a Data Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Database Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Database Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting to a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Data and Mapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modifying Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Excel Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Editor and Adding Workbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Station Execution Permissions (FIPER Environment Only) . . . . . . . . Using the iSIGHT Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Component Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Component Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting File Parameter Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the iSIGHT-FD Default Execution Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the iSIGHT File Parser Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the Component Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening the Editor and Determining Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing an Existing Parse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Component Editor to Create a Parse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 283 284 285 292 293 296 298 298 299 300 303 304 305 305 308 309 312 318 320 320 323 330 332 336 337 337 342 348 349 350 351 352 353 363

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Updating an Imported Parse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364 Building a Simcode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 Using the Mail Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Using the MATLAB Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Setting up the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Starting the Editor and Adding Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Defining Mappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372 Defining Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375 Using the OS Command Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377 Setting Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379 Setting Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Setting Required Files Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388 Setting Grid Adapter Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 Understanding Grid Adapter Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393 Using the Pause Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393 Starting the Component and Specifying an Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394 Using the Pause only Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Using the Ask a question Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397 Using the Display parameters Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398 Using the Automatic Resume and Execution Location Options . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Known Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Using the Reference Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Understanding Component Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Accessing the Component and Selecting the Reference Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Referencing a Submodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405 Referencing a Model in the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407 Referencing a Remote Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 Using the Script Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413 Using the Script Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413 Using Dynamic Java. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416 Parameter Data Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 Job Log and Local Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Script Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419

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Table of Contents Resizable Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Using the Simcode Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Accessing and Configuring the Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Using the Word Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Setting Up the Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Setting Station Execution Permissions (FIPER Environment Only) . . . . . . . . 434

5 Using the Task Plan Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Understanding How the Task Plan Affects Model Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Using Process Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Using Activity Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Editing Task Plan Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Copying Created Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Viewing the Entire Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Removing Components from the Task Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Saving the Task Plan Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Understanding the Fast Path Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Accessing Task Plan Components from the Design Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Using Task Plan Components with the Change To Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Using a Task Plan with the FIPER WebTop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

6 Creating and Using Approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 Accessing Approximations of a Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Creating an Automatic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

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Creating a User-Defined Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462 Setting Response Surface Model Technique Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470 Using the Sampling Methods Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477 Editing an Existing Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485 Using Approximations at Runtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 Initializing an Approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489 Viewing Approximation Data After Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493 Visualizing an Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495 Accessing the Visualization Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496 Exploring Your Design Space Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498 Searching the Design Using Specified Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513 Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer . . . . . . . . . .519 Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519 Analyzing Approximation Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520 Copying an Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528 Deleting an Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529

7 Using the Library and Publishing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532 Query Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532 Organization Within the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532 Using the Library Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533 Moving Objects to the Design Gateway (Drag-and-Drop). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535 Using the Search Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537 Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 Publishing a Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540 Publishing a Sub-Model (Component). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544 Setting Object Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545 Retrieving Items From a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 Using Encapsulation to Build a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Table of Contents Removing an Object From the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Published Models and the FIPER WebTop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551

8 Using Model Validation and the Log File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Activating the Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Using the Message Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Viewing Multiple Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Accessing the Log File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

9 Defining and Mapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 Using Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Columns on the Parameters Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating New Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Parameters to Aggregate Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Parameter Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Parameters for Multiple Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sorting and Filtering Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moving Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using File Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Execution with File Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Shared File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substitutions in File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding the Files Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating File Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Input File Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Output File Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations on URL File Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using File Parameters with Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 565 566 567 569 573 575 578 579 579 579 580 581 582 583 585 599 603 605 606

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Mapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624 Understanding Basic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624 Changing Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Changing Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Deleting Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628

10 Using the Command Line Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630 Starting the Command Line Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630 Starting the Command Line Client in Interactive Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631 Using the Command Line Client in Single-command Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632 Typing Command Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632 iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633 Command Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633 Execution and Job Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635 Job Matching Criteria Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638 Publishing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639 Miscellaneous Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641 FIPER Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642 Connection Profile Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642 Job Matching Criteria Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643 Library Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643 FIPER Station Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646 Federation (B2B) Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646 Miscellaneous Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647 Setting Other Command Line Client Logon Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648

11 Understanding Example Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652 Understanding the Organization of the Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652 General Execution Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653 Commercial Tools Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654

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Table of Contents Generic Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Windows Tools Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657

12 Using the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Using the iSIGHT-FD PDF Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Viewing the PDF Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 Searching the Entire iSIGHT-FD Documentation Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 Using the Online Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Browser Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accessing the Help System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tips for Navigating Through the Help System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 663 663 663

Providing Feedback on the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664

13 Understanding FIPER Environment Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 Creating an ACS Connection Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Understanding FIPER Permissions Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 Viewing ACS Connection Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670

A Design Gateway Reference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Window Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Run Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Help Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 672 673 675 677 678 679 679

Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680 Component Title Bar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681

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Right-Click Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681 Tab Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682 Component Palette Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682 Workflow Component Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682 Dataflow Component Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .684 Workflow Arrow Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .684 Keyboard Shortcuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685 Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685 Using Keyboard Shortcuts on HP-UX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687 Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688

B Component Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
DOE Reference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692 Parameter Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692 Full-Factorial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692 Orthogonal Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .693 Latin Hypercube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .694 Optimal Latin Hypercube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695 Central Composite Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .697 Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .698 Monte Carlo Reference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .699 Simple Random Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .699 Descriptive Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .700 Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .702 Understanding Distribution Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .702 SDI Reference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714 Distance to Target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .715 Optimization Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .716 Adaptive Simulated Annealing Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .716 Adaptive Simulated Annealing References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .718 Modified Method of Feasible Directions - ADS Reference Information. . . . . .718 Modified Method of Feasible Directions - ADS References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720 Generalized Reduced Gradient - LSGRG2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .721 Hooke-Jeeves Direct Search Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .721 Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .722 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Table of Contents Sequential Quadratic Programming - NLPQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pointer Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pointer References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NSGA-II Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NCGA Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NCGA References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 722 731 732 733 736

Approximations Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 RBF Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Response Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744

C Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771

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Preface
This book is your guide to creating and using models in iSIGHT-FD via the Design Gateway, as well as using the iSIGHT-FD Examples, and the iSIGHT-FD documentation. Read on to find out more about iSIGHT-FD and how to use this book.

What is iSIGHT-FD?
iSIGHT-FD is a service-oriented product development environment, which provides an open, flexible means to incorporate existing analysis and design tools/methods and make them available to others. It also provides a common, standard way to model your analysis and design process in conjunction with your product data.

The iSIGHT-FD Interfaces
iSIGHT-FD has several main interfaces, which help facilitate collaboration and product development.

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Design Gateway
This interface is the main iSIGHT-FD interface. It allows you to create models, manipulate components, and perform other functions associated with model design and development. For more information on this interface, see Chapter 2 “Using the Design Gateway Interface”.

Runtime Gateway
This interface allows you to control execution and view results. It lets you create graphs and tables, view parameter information, and resubmit models for execution. For more information on the Runtime Gateway, see the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide.

Components
Components are used as building block for models. Excel, Data Exchanger, and Optimization are examples of some of the components that Engineous Software has developed and can be included with iSIGHT-FD. You can also develop your own components to use within the iSIGHT-FD environment. For more information on using Engineous-provided components, see “Using Components” on page 109. For more information on creating custom components, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide.

Command Line Client
The Command Line Client is a console (character mode) program that provides simple text-based access to iSIGHT-FD. For more information on this interface, see Chapter 10 “Using the Command Line Client”.

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Using This Book
This book assumes you are familiar with your operating system and its commands; the definition of directories; the management of user accounts and security access; and your network protocol and its configuration. This book contains the following information: Chapter 1 “iSIGHT-FD Overview” Chapter 2 “Using the Design Gateway Interface” Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway” Chapter 4 “Using Components” Chapter 5 “Using the Task Plan Feature” Chapter 6 “Creating and Using Approximations” Chapter 7 “Using the Library and Publishing Models” Chapter 8 “Using Model Validation and the Log File” Chapter 9 “Defining and Mapping Parameters” Chapter 10 “Using the Command Line Client” Chapter 11 “Understanding Example Files” Chapter 12 “Using the Documentation” Chapter 13 “Understanding FIPER Environment Options” Appendix A “Design Gateway Reference Information” Appendix B “Component Reference Information” Appendix C “Glossary”

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Preface

Other Documentation
iSIGHT-FD Development Guide iSIGHT-FD Getting Started Guide iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide

Conventions Used in This Book
The following sections describe the typographic terminology and other conventions used in this book.

Typographical Conventions
This book uses the following typographical conventions: Convention italics bold Explanation Introduces new terms with which you may not be familiar, and is used occasionally for emphasis. Emphasizes important information. Also indicates button, menu, and icon names on which you can act. For example, click Next. Indicates the name of a file. For operating environments that use case-sensitive filenames (such as UNIX), the correct capitalization is used in information specific to those environments. Also indicates keys or key combinations that you can use. For example, press the ENTER key. monospace monospaced italics iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide Indicates syntax examples, values that you specify, or results that you receive. Indicates names that are placeholders for values that you specify. For example, filename.

UPPERCASE

Conventions Used in This Book Convention forward slash / Explanation Separates menus and their associated commands. For example, Select File / Copy means that you should select Copy from the File menu. The slash also separates directory levels when specifying locations under UNIX. vertical rule | brackets [ ] Indicates an “OR” separator used to delineate items. Indicates optional items. For example, in the following statement: SELECT [DISTINCT], DISTINCT is an optional keyword. Also indicates sections of the Windows Registry. braces { } ellipsis . . .

21

Indicates that you must select one item. For example, {yes | no} means that you must specify either yes or no. Indicates that the immediately preceding item can be repeated any number of times in succession. An ellipsis following a closing bracket indicates that all information in that unit can be repeated.

Mouse Conventions
This action... Click Double-click Right-click Drag SHIFT+Click Means to... Point to an object with the mouse pointer and momentarily press the left mouse button. Press the left mouse button twice. Momentarily press the right mouse button. Press and hold the left mouse button while dragging item(s) to another part of the screen. Click an object to select it; then, press and hold the SHIFT key. Click another object to select the intervening series of objects. Press and hold the CRTL key; then, click a selection. This lets you select or deselect any combination of objects.

CTRL+Click

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Keyboard Conventions
Select menu items by using the mouse or pressing ALT+ the key letter of the menu name or item.

Supported Platforms
For complete details on the supported platforms for iSIGHT-FD v2.5, refer to the following website: http://www.engineous.com/iSIGHT-FDv2.5platforms.pdf

Contacting Technical Support
iSIGHT-FD technical support is available to answer your technical questions. Contact the appropriate office listed below, based on your region. When contacting technical support regarding a problem, please provide the following information: Detailed explanation of the problem Screen captures Copies of logs

United States and North America
Telephone Calling from within the United States Calling from outside the United States E-mail 800-374-9235 919-677-6700 support@engineous.com

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Japan
Telephone Calling from within Japan Calling from outside Japan E-mail 045.477.3300 81.45.477.3300 tech@engineous.co.jp

Korea
Telephone 82.2.3473.5784/5785

Germany
Telephone 49.(0)89.580.088.60

United Kingdom
Telephone 44.115.8759301

France
Telephone 33.0.1.46.91.83.56

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Send Us Your Comments
Engineous Software welcomes your comments regarding the iSIGHT-FD documentation, including hardcopy documentation, PDFs, and online help. Your input is very valuable in the revision and enhancement process. If you have suggestions for improvement, or wish to point out specific errors, please send your comments to: documentation@engineous.com You may also send your comments to our mailing address: Documentation Suggestions Engineous Software 2000 CentreGreen Way, Suite 100 Cary, NC 27513 If you would like a response, please provide the following information: Name Title Company Address Telephone number Email address

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1

iSIGHT-FD Overview
This chapter provides a brief overview of the iSIGHT-FD system, including models and the parts of iSIGHT-FD. It is divided into the following sections: “What is an iSIGHT-FD Model?,” on page 26 “Understanding the Parts of iSIGHT-FD,” on page 26

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Chapter 1 iSIGHT-FD Overview

What is an iSIGHT-FD Model?
An iSIGHT-FD model has the following primary functionality: a representation of your design process a meaningful relationship among tools (the workflow) a specification of data sources and data dependencies a way to define standard best practices These characteristics are stored in a compressed XML file. This file contains references to components and configuration/instance information (properties and parameters) for specific use of each component. Additionally, relationships among the components are also stored in the XML file.

Understanding the Parts of iSIGHT-FD
iSIGHT-FD is a collection of interfaces. The following are discussed in this book: iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway. This interface is the main iSIGHT-FD interface, and allows you to create and manipulate models. iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway. This interface is used for controlling model or component execution and viewing results. This interface is only briefly mentioned in this book. For complete information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Component Editors. These interfaces allow you to set component information as necessary for the model you are creating. Library. This interface allows you to access components (which might not be currently available on the Design Gateway) and published models.

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Using the Design Gateway Interface
This chapter describes the usage of the main iSIGHT-FD interface, the Design Gateway, and some of the options that can be accessed when using it. It is divided into the following sections: “Accessing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway,” on page 28 “Understanding the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway Layout,” on page 31 “Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway,” on page 33 “Setting Preferences,” on page 40

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface

Accessing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway
This section highlights the basic steps for accessing the Design Gateway, as well as command line options that can be used when starting the interface. It is divided into the following parts: “Understanding Connection Profiles” on this page “Starting the Design Gateway,” on page 29 “Using Available Command Line Options,” on page 31

Understanding Connection Profiles
Connection profiles allow you to determine the type of environment you will use for your iSIGHT-FD session. By default, iSIGHT-FD is run with the Standalone connection profile. However, if you have access to the FIPER environment, you can use connection profiles to connect to a specific ACS. Numerous ACS machines can be defined, but you can only connect to one ACS at a time. When you start an iSIGHT-FD interface, the Logon dialog box appears, allowing you to determine your session environment. The following two types of connections are available: Standalone. This option, available at any time whether you have access to an ACS in the FIPER environment or not, connects you to the local Library on your current machine, and does not establish a connection with an ACS. This connection profile is provided, by default, with iSIGHT-FD and does not need to be created. FIPER ACS Connection. This option connects you to an ACS in the FIPER environment, and provides access to a remote Library. It also requires you to enter your user name (user ID) and password, if security is enabled on the ACS. Important: In order to connect to a WebSphere-based FIPER ACS, you need to install client files into your iSIGHT-FD directory. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Getting Started Guide.

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If you do not see a connection profile that corresponds to the correct ACS machine, you can create the necessary connection profile as described in “Creating an ACS Connection Profile,” on page 667. Note: Although you may have multiple connection profiles defining connections to multiple systems acting as an ACS, you can only actually connect to one ACS at a time. For more information on configuring an ACS, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination.

Starting the Design Gateway
To start the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway: 1. Execute the gateway program using one of the following options: Windows: Click the Start button; then, point to All Programs, iSIGHT-FD 2.5, and click Design Gateway. From a command prompt, navigate to the iSIGHT-FD installation directory (if necessary); then, execute the gateway file. This file is located in one of the following directories, based on your operating system:

• Windows: <isight-fd_install_directory>\bin\win32 • UNIX/Red Hat Linux: <isight-fd_install_directory>/bin
When executing from the command prompt, you can also use several command line arguments. For more information, see “Using Available Command Line Options,” on page 31. The Logon dialog box appears.

2. Select the connection profile desired from the corresponding drop-down list. For more information on connection profiles, see “Understanding Connection Profiles,” on page 28. 3. Click OK. The software continues to load. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface Note: If you are using the software for the first time, a message may appear about publishing components to the Library. You must click Yes. You will not see this message the next time you start the Design Gateway. Also, you will not see this message if you are connecting to an ACS in the FIPER environment. The Design Gateway appears. In the following example, no model has been specified.

Note: At start-up, you can have iSIGHT-FD load the last model you had open in the Design Gateway. For more information on setting this option, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40. 4. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Understanding the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway Layout,” on page 31 “Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway,” on page 33 “Setting Preferences,” on page 40

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Using Available Command Line Options
Several command line options can be used in conjunction with the gateway command when starting iSIGHT-FD from the command prompt. For a complete list of these options, see “Command Line Options,” on page 688.

Understanding the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway Layout
Figure 2-1 highlights the major parts of the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway. Figure 2-1. The iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway Layout

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface The following main components make up the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway: Menu Bar. The menu bar contains numerous options for the construction and manipulation of a model. For a complete list of menu options, see “Menu Options,” on page 672. Toolbar. The toolbar consists of the row of buttons that allow you to create models, save models, execute models, and access your Library. For a complete list of toolbar options, see “Toolbar Buttons,” on page 680. Model Selector. This option, and the corresponding Model Properties button, allows you to choose which loaded model you are viewing in the Design Gateway and allows you to set properties for the selected model. It is part of the Model Explorer. For more information, see “Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer,” on page 64. Model Explorer. This area displays the components that make up your model. You can use this area to switch between components. For example, when you are viewing the Parameters tab, you can change which component’s parameters you are currently viewing using the Model Explorer. Component Palette. This area stores icons representing access to components that can be directly added to your model. The Drivers tab and Activities tab appear by default, and contain Engineous-supplied components. You may add custom tabs to this area (as described in “Adding Tabs,” on page 38). Component Title Bar. This area contains the name of the component currently being viewed, as well as buttons for altering or executing the component. For more information on using these buttons, see “Component Title Bar Buttons,” on page 681. Canvas. This area exists on the Workflow (Workflow tab canvas) and Dataflow (Dataflow tab canvas) tabs, and displays a graphic version of your model workflow and dataflow. Model Validation Switch. When activated (switch in the up position), iSIGHT-FD automatically detects problems with your model formulation and notifies you of the problem on the Message Bar. For more information, see “Activating the Option,” on page 554. Message Bar. This area displays error messages from Model Validation and other status information. For more information, see “Using the Message Bar,” on page 555.

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Validation Buttons. These buttons provide quick access to problems discovered during model validation. For more information, see “Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons,” on page 557. Log Button. This button opens the Log Viewer dialog box, which allows you to view the Design Gateway log file. For more information, see “Accessing the Log File,” on page 558. Server Information Button. This button provides access ACS connection information if you are connected to the FIPER environment. If you are using iSIGHT-FD in desktop mode (Standalone connection profile), this button is disabled. For more information, see “Viewing ACS Connection Information,” on page 670.

Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway
There are several quick customization options available on the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway. For detailed customization options, contact Engineous Professional Services. The following topics are discussed: “Adding Components to the Design Gateway” on this page “Altering Components on the Palette,” on page 38 “Adding Tabs,” on page 38 “Manipulating Tabs,” on page 39

Adding Components to the Design Gateway
To add a component to the Component Palette: 1. Click the Design Gateway Component Palette tab that will hold the new component icon.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface In the following example, the Activities tab has been selected.

2. Perform one of the following actions: Click the Add... button on the right side of the Component Palette tab. Click the Library button on the Design Gateway toolbar.

Select Library from the View menu.

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Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway The Library dialog box appears. Your Library’s appearance (specifically, the directory structure) will most likely differ slightly from the one shown below.

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3. Navigate to the folder that contains the component you want to add. Note: To access an Engineous-supplied component, click the Engineous Components option on the left side of the dialog box.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface 4. Click the component to select it. The component is highlighted. In the following example, the Script component has been selected.

5. Perform one of the following actions: Click the Add to Palette button at the bottom of the Library dialog box. The component is added to the tab you selected in step 1. You can move the Library dialog box to verify that the component was added to the Design Gateway. Click the Add button on the toolbar at the top of the dialog box. The component is added to the tab you selected in step 1. You can move the Library dialog box to verify that the component was added to the Design Gateway. Drag and drop the component from the Library dialog box to the desired tab on the Design Gateway. You may need to move the Library dialog box to see the location where you want to drop the component. Note: For additional information on using the Library dialog box, see “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533.

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In the following example, the Script component has been added to the Activities tab.

6. Click Done to close the Library dialog box. For more information on using components, see “Using Components,” on page 109.

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Altering Components on the Palette
Once components are added to the Component Palette, you can manipulate them in several ways. To manipulate a component on the palette: 1. Verify that the tab containing the component you want to manipulate is selected; then, right-click the component icon. A menu appears. 2. Select one of the following options: Copy To. This option reveals a submenu, which allows you to select which tab will receive a copy of the component icon. Move To. This option reveals a submenu, which allows you to select which tab will receive the component icon. The component is removed from the previous tab. Remove. This option removes the component icon from the tab. It still remains in the Library, and can be added at a later time.

Adding Tabs
To add a new tab: 1. Click the <New> tab. The Create New Tab dialog box appears.

Note: You can also right-click on a tab to create a new tab. For more information, see “Manipulating Tabs,” on page 39. 2. Type the name of the new tab in the text box; then, click OK. The new tab is added to the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway immediately to the left of the <New> tab.

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Customizing the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway In the following example, a new tab called “Custom” has been created.

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Manipulating Tabs
Once a tab is added to the Design Gateway, it can be manipulated in numerous ways including, but not limited to, changing its name, adding a new tab, or moving an existing tab. To manipulate the Design Gateway tabs: 1. Right-click on the tab. A submenu appears. 2. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Rename Tab. This option allows you to change the name of the existing tab. Add New Tab. This option is the same as clicking the <New> tab as described in “Adding Tabs,” on page 38. Once the tab is named, it is inserted to the left of the <New> tab, at the end of the tab list.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface Insert New Tab. This option is similar to the Add New Tab option. However, instead of adding the tab to the end of the tab list, it adds it to the immediate left of the tab that was right-clicked in step 1. Move Tab to. This option allows you to move the tab to a location specified by the submenu that appears. The submenu options are based on the number of tabs you currently have on your Design Gateway, as well as the location of the tab selected for moving. Delete Tab. This option deletes the selected tab. You must confirm the option by clicking OK on the Delete Confirmation dialog box.

Setting Preferences
The preferences allow you to set certain default behaviors in the Design Gateway and for select components. Note: The same preferences are also available from the Runtime Gateway. Any change to the preferences accessed from either the Design Gateway or the Runtime Gateway impacts the other interface. For more information on the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box,” on page 41 describes how to access the Preferences dialog box, which lists all available preference options. “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42 describes how to set preferences for the Design Gateway (and Runtime Gateway). “Setting Additional Preferences,” on page 46 describes how to set additional preferences, such as approximations, mail server settings, and the local results database. “Setting Component Preferences,” on page 48 describes how to set preferences for certain components.

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Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box
To access the interface that allows you to set iSIGHT-FD preferences: 1. Select Preferences from the Edit menu. The Preferences dialog box appears.

2. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42. This section describes the options that effect the Gateway (Design and Runtime) including the working directory, parameter settings, and execution options. “Setting Additional Preferences,” on page 46. This section describes options such as default Approximation technique, local database settings, and mail server information. “Setting Component Preferences,” on page 48. This section describes available component-based preferences.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface

Setting Gateway Preferences
The Gateway preferences allow you to specify preferences for numerous aspects of the iSIGHT-FD Gateway (Design and Runtime) including the following: General preferences Parameter options Execution Sounds To set gateway preferences: 1. Access the Preferences dialog box as described in “Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box,” on page 41. 2. Verify that FIPER Gateway is selected on the left side of the dialog box; then, set the following options as desired: Working Directory. You can specify your default directory, which will be the default directory when you save or open a component.You can type the full path directly into the corresponding text box, or you can navigate to the directory using the Browse... button. Load last open model on start-up. When activated, iSIGHT-FD will automatically take you to the last model you had open on the Design Gateway. If this option is not selected, iSIGHT-FD, on start-up, will take you directly to the Design Gateway with the default model loaded. The default model is an empty Task component. Show dialog when components are added to the palette. When this option is selected, a verification dialog box appears every time a component is added to the Design Gateway from the Library. For more information on using the Library, see “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533. Default Browser. This option allows you to set the location for your system’s default web browser. The browser is used for viewing iSIGHT-FD’s online help. You can type the full path to the browser directly into the corresponding text box, or you can navigate to the directory using the Browse... button.

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Create sub directories under model execution directory. When this option is selected, sub directories are created under the model execution directory specified in Model Properties. The default is true. For more information on setting the model execution directory, see “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. Use default locale as the decimal separator. To support full internationalization, iSIGHT-FD allows you to control how you want the decimal to appear throughout the interface. iSIGHT-FD uses the decimal setting from the locale in which the operating system is currently running by default. However, if you are running in a locale that uses a “,” for the decimal, but you still want the decimal to appear as a “.” (or vice-versa), you can explicitly set the decimal separator to be used with this option. This option is useful for globalized organizations who run their computers on different locales (in different countries), yet want everyone to use a consistent decimal separator. 3 Click Parameters on the left side of the dialog box; then, set the following options as desired: Auto copy child parameters to parent. When activated, any parameter added to a child component (a component within a process component) is automatically added to the parent component. For example, if a Calculator component is added within a Monte Carlo component, and a parameter is added to the Calculator component, the parameter is automatically added to the Monte Carlo component as well. Auto map matching parameters. This option creates an automatic mapping between two components that have the same name and comparable properties. This automatic mapping only occurs if the components are siblings (share the same parent component) or have a parent-child relationship. Adjust parameter modes for invalid mappings. If this option is selected, when you manually create a mapping from one parameter to another, if the parameters have modes that are invalid for mapping, one of the parameters is automatically adjusted to be an “inout” parameter, making the mapping valid. For example, if you map from an input parameter of one component to another input parameter of a component within that workflow, it will change the mode of the first parameter to be “inout”. In doing so, the first parameter’s value can be properly mapped to the second component.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface Type, Value, and Mode drop-down lists. When changes are made to a parameter that is mapped to/from other parameters, iSIGHT-FD can automatically adjust the corresponding attributes of the mapped parameters to maintain consistency. For example, if you change a parameter's datatype from Real to String, any mappings to/from other Real parameters would be invalid until those parameters were also changed to Strings. You may also want corresponding changes made when a value is changed or the mode is changed. Preferences are available for whether you want iSIGHT-FD to always automatically make the changes to mapped parameters, never automatically make the changes (forcing a manual change), or to prompt you before automatically making changes to allow you to abort the changes. Array Resizability. This drop-down list allows you to determine what happens to the “Dimensions are resizable” option (available when creating or editing an array parameter) when you map an array parameter to another array parameter and the setting of this option doesn't match (i.e., one is a fixed size and one is resizable). You can decide to always make the two settings match, to never make them match (essentially leaving them unchanged), or to prompt you to make a decision on a case-by-case basis. Array Dimensions. This drop-down list allows you to determine array parameter behavior between two mapped array parameters when an array size is altered. You can choose to have the array size always updated in the other parameter, never updated, or you can be prompted to update the array size on a case-by-case basis. Show File type encoding on the Files tab. This option allows you to display the type of encoding used when reading/writing a file parameter. The information appears on the Design Gateway Files tab. You specify the type of coding when you create a file parameter. For more information, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. How many digits ... Specify how many digits will appear after the decimal point in real numbers. Changing the setting alters the example that appears immediately below the option, showing you exactly how the numbers will appear. 4. Expand the Execution folder on the left side of the dialog box; then, click the General option.

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Setting Preferences 5. Set the following options as desired:

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Minimize the Design Gateway on job submission. When you execute your model, the Design Gateway is minimized on your screen, leaving only the Runtime Gateway visible. For more information on the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Show dialog when model execution produces errors. When selected, iSIGHT-FD will display a dialog box containing error information if an error occurs during model execution. Default Runtime Logging Level. This setting allows you to determine what information is sent to your iSIGHT-FD log file. Components create different levels of log messages. You can define the minimum log information setting (Debug), and you will receive information on that particular level, and all other levels above it. The following options are available:

• Debug. These messages are intended for debugging system or component
code. These messages are generally meaningful only to the program developers, not to end users. This level can produce a large quantity of messages which can affect system performance. This is the lowest level. Using this setting will send all five types of messages to your log file.

• Info. These messages contain routine status or other informational items
that are not generally significant.

• Warning. These messages indicate a condition of which the end user
should be aware, but does not generally indicate a failure.

• Error. These messages indicate an error condition that was caused by the
end user, operational data, or some other condition that can be corrected.

• SysError. These messages indicate a software system failure. It may
indicate that some part of the infrastructure has become unusable (for example, a database has gone down), or it may indicate a programming error. These errors should be reported to system administrators for analysis. This is the highest level. Using this setting will send only SysError messages to your log file. Local execution multitasking level. This setting controls the maximum number of work items (component executions) that will be executed simultaneously (i.e., in parallel) at a given level of a multi-level model when running in desktop (Standalone) mode. This limit is provided and enforced so iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface that the local machine CPU is not overwhelmed by more work than it can handle at any given time. If the local machine is a multi-processor machine, it is very possible that you will want to increase this value to allow more work to be done in parallel, resulting in the job being completed more quickly. 6. Click Parameter Selection on the left side of the dialog box; then, set the largest number of parameters that will appear on the Runtime Gateway History and Parameter tabs using the Max# of parameters text box. You can also specify whether or not file parameters will appear on these two tabs using the Show File Parameter option. Note: You can add any parameters to those tabs at a later time using the Configure button, which is located on both tabs. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. 7. Click Sounds on the left side of the dialog box; then, set the actions that you want to play a sound. 8. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Setting Additional Preferences
The other available preferences allow you to specify preferences for numerous items within iSIGHT-FD including the following: Approximations File Directories Mail Server Local Results Database Permissions (default settings) To set gateway preferences: 1. Access the Preferences dialog box as described in “Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box,” on page 41. 2. Click Approximations; then, specify the default technique that will always be selected when using the Approximation Wizard. This option does not set the default technique for the Approximation component.

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3. Click File Directories on the left side of the dialog box; then, define the symbolic names and actual local directory names for the Design Gateway. The “Shared File System” feature of iSIGHT-FD allows iSIGHT-FD to adjust how it references a shared file. This adjustment is necessary due to the fact that Shared or Network file systems are often named differently on different machines. Instead of using an absolute path, which will be incorrect on some machines, this option allows the file to be referenced as a path relative to a “Symbolic Root Directory”. On each machine, the symbolic root directory is set to the location where that machine mounts the shared file system. Each time the file is referenced by the Design Gateway, the local symbolic root value is used to build the absolute path to the file that is appropriate for that machine. For more information on this option, see “Component Execution with File Parameters,” on page 580. 4. Click Mail Server on the left side of the dialog box; then, set the following options as desired. These options are related to the Mail component. If you specify this information here, it will automatically be added to any Mail component that you use (so you don’t have to manually enter it each time you use the component). The following options can be specified: Email Server. The name of your e-mail server. Email User Name. Your user name in your e-mail system. Email Address. Your full e-mail address. Note: For more information on these settings, contact your local system administrator. 5. Click Local Results Database on the left side of the dialog box; then, set your database preferences. These preferences allow you to set database information for storing execution results. When this option is deactivated, execution results are stored in the local file. You can clear the contents of your database at any time by clicking the Clear all data... button. Important: This button deletes all tables from the current database and should be used with caution.

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Chapter 2 Using the Design Gateway Interface For more information on the other database settings that are available, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Getting Started Guide. 6. Click Default Permissions on the left side of the dialog box. The Default Permissions options appear. These permissions are specifically for use with an ACS in the FIPER environment. For more information, see “Understanding FIPER Permissions Options,” on page 668. 7. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Setting Component Preferences
Some components give you the ability to set custom default options for specific settings. Currently, only the following components have preference options: DOE Excel Monte Carlo Optimization OS Command Word To set component preferences: 1. Access the Preferences dialog box as described in “Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box,” on page 41. 2. Expand the Components folder on the left side of the dialog box; then, set any of the available component default settings. For more information, see “Setting Component Preferences,” on page 117. 3. Click OK to close the dialog box.

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3

Creating Models Using the Design Gateway
This chapter describes how to use the Design Gateway to create models, including creating workflows, adding components, and executing. It is divided into the following sections: “Understanding the Model Development Sequence,” on page 50 “Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer,” on page 64 “Manipulating Model Workflows,” on page 68 “Copying Model Information,” on page 86 “Accessing Component Information,” on page 100 “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101 “Using the Graph Templates Tab,” on page 106

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway

Understanding the Model Development Sequence
The following sequence represents the necessary steps for the creation of a basic iSIGHT-FD model. More complex models may involve more steps, or may consist of only a few of these steps that are greatly expanded upon. The basic steps for model development are as follows: “Creating a New Model,” on page 51 “Opening an Existing Model,” on page 54 “Finding Components in the Library,” on page 56 “Adding Components to Create a Workflow,” on page 56 “Copying Components Within a Workflow,” on page 56 “Creating Custom Workflows,” on page 57 “Changing Components In a Workflow,” on page 57 “Referencing Previously Created Models,” on page 59 “Editing and Configuring Components,” on page 59 “Viewing and Changing the Dataflow,” on page 59 “Setting Parameter Information,” on page 62 “Saving a Model or Component,” on page 62 “Executing a Model or Component,” on page 63 “Viewing Results,” on page 64 You will not always use every step. However, they are presented here for easy reference.

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Creating a New Model
By default, a new model loaded in the Design Gateway has a Task root component. However, you can also specify that a new model use a different root component. To create a new model: 1. Choose one of the following options: Select New (Default) from the File menu. This option creates a new model, with a parent level Task component. You can also use the empty model that automatically appears in the Design Gateway. Proceed to step 6.

Select New... from the File menu.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway The Root Component Selection dialog box appears, allowing you to choose the parent level component from a list of components.

2. Select the component you want to use as the root component. 3. (optional) Type the name of the model in the Model Name text box. You can specify the model name at any time as described in “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. 4. Click OK once your selection is made.

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Understanding the Model Development Sequence 5. The new model is created in the Design Gateway. If you specify a name for the model in step 3, the model name appears in the Model Selection area on the left side of the interface. In the following example, a DOE component has been selected as the parent component, and no model name has been defined.

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6. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on your model design: “Finding Components in the Library,” on page 56. If a component you want to add is not present on the Component Palette, you must add it from the Library. “Adding Components to Create a Workflow,” on page 56. If a component you want to add is present on the Component Palette, you can add it to your model.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway

Opening an Existing Model
You have two ways to open existing models in the Design Gateway: Opening a model saved to your local disk Opening a model published to your Library

Opening a Model From the Disk
To open a model from the local hard drive: 1. Select Open from Disk... from the Design Gateway File menu. The Open dialog box appears. 2. Navigate to the model; then, click it to select it. 3. Click Open. The model is loaded into the Design Gateway. Note: On Windows platforms, you can also open a model file by dragging-and-dropping the *zmf file from Windows Explorer onto the Design Gateway.

Opening a Model From a Library
Models opened from a Library must first be published to the Library. For more information on publishing models, see “Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions,” on page 539. To open a model from the current Library: 1. Select Open from Library... from the Design Gateway File menu. Note: You can also drag-and-drop models from the Library into the Design Gateway. However, you must access the Library in a different manner from the menu option described in the previous step. For more information, see “Moving Objects to the Design Gateway (Drag-and-Drop),” on page 535.

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Understanding the Model Development Sequence The Library dialog box appears.

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2. Navigate to the model you want to use; then, click it to select it. If you cannot locate the correct model, verify that you are connected to the proper Library, or contact the individual who published the model for more information. In the following example, the I-beam example model has been selected.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway 3. (optional) Click the View Details button or Permissions... button to view additional model information. 4. (FIPER ACS environments only) Click the Edit Permissions... button to view the access permissions for the selected object. For more information on permissions, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. 5. Click Open. The model is loaded into the Design Gateway.

Finding Components in the Library
Components are the building blocks of models, and are used to create a model workflow. You can store components on your Design Gateway Component Palette for easy access. From this palette, the components are simply selected and added to the model workflow. However, not all components are automatically added to the Component Palette. Some Engineous-supplied components, as well as any custom components you create, are stored, at first, in the Library. These components can be easily added to your Design Gateway’s Component Palette for use in models. For more information, see “Adding Components to the Design Gateway,” on page 33.

Adding Components to Create a Workflow
The process of creating a workflow involves dragging component icons from the Component Palette and dropping them on the Workflow tab canvas. Once components are added, if necessary, you can alter the workflow arrows that connect the components, and create conditional and parallel workflows. For more information on working with workflows, see “Manipulating Model Workflows,” on page 68.

Copying Components Within a Workflow
You can copy components that you have already created and reuse them in other portions of your model workflow. You can either create true copies of components, referenced copies of components (which are “linked” to the original component), or

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you can use submodels. For more information on these options, see “Copying Model Information,” on page 86.

Creating Custom Workflows
iSIGHT-FD attempts to automatically create workflows when you add and remove components. However, there may be times when you need to customize the workflow for your model, such as when creating conditional or parallel workflows. For more information, see “Manipulating Model Workflows,” on page 68.

Changing Components In a Workflow
After a component has been added to a workflow, it can be changed to another component of the same type (process or activity) without removing the old component and inserting a new one using the traditional drag-and-drop method. Note: You cannot change components that are referenced (either from the current model or separate referenced models). For more information on these referencing options, see either “Copying Model Information,” on page 86 or “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. To change a component in a workflow (using the right-click option): 1. Right-click the component that you want to change. 2. Highlight Change To in the menu that appears; then, click the New... option. The Select New Component dialog box appears, listing the new component options.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Note: If you have already changed the component at least once, the menu that appears will list the old component setting(s), if you told iSIGHT-FD to save these old components (see step 4 below), and an option to edit the setting(s) list. 3. Select the component that will replace the existing component. If you are changing a process component, only process components are listed. At the same time, if you are changing an activity component, only activity components are listed. You cannot change a process component into an activity component, or vice versa. 4. Set the following options, as desired: Copy existing parameters to new component. Select this option if you’d like to carry over all parameters from the old component to the new component you are about to create. Delete existing component. Select this option if you want the existing component permanently removed and replaced with this new component. If you do not select this option, the existing component will be retained, and you can change back to it at any time. 5. Click OK. You are returned to the Workflow tab, and the process component has been changed. You can repeat this step as many times as necessary, replacing components any number of times. However, each time you replace a component, the old component selection appears on the Change to menu (unless you selected to delete the old component in step 4 above). For example, if you change an Optimization component to a DOE component, right-clicking on the new DOE component and selecting Change to would display the following two options: New... and Optimization. You can edit the list of old component settings by selecting the Edit List... option on the Change to menu. The Edit Surrogates dialog box appears, allowing you to delete components that you don’t want appearing on the Change to menu. Note: You can also drag-and-drop a new component from the Component Palette directly onto an existing component. This action opens the Specify Action dialog box, which allows you to determine how the component will be used. You can change the existing component, encapsulate the existing component inside of the new component, or add the new component as a child component of the existing component. For more information on encapsulation, see “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82.

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Referencing Previously Created Models
You can add previously created, published models to help create a new model or update an existing model. These models are then inserted into your workflow as referenced models. For more information on using referenced models, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101.

Editing and Configuring Components
The process of editing and configuring components can be divided into three distinct steps. Depending on the needs of your model, you may or may not need to complete each step: 1. Set up the component using its editor. For more information, see Chapter 4 “Using Components”. 2. Define parameter information for the component (see Chapter 9 “Defining and Mapping Parameters” for more information). 3. Set graph and table information prior to execution or after execution. For more information, see “Using the Graph Templates Tab,” on page 106.

Viewing and Changing the Dataflow
The Dataflow tab displays a visual representation of how the data in the model flows from one component to the other. The information is displayed on the tab’s canvas, similar to the Workflow tab. Note: Several options are available if you right-click components on the Dataflow tab. These options are the same as those available on the Workflow tab. For more information, see “Right-Click Menu Options,” on page 681.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway To view and change the dataflow information: 1. Click the Dataflow tab. The Dataflow tab canvas is displayed. The example below shows the Spring Samples model in the <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models\generic directory.

2. Set the display options for the tab, as desired: . This button allows you to show or hide the grid that appears behind the information on the Workflow and Dataflow tabs. By default, the button is depressed, which displays the grid. . This button allows you to show or hide the file parameter mappings displayed on the Dataflow tab. By default, the button is depressed, which means the associated mappings are displayed. . This button allows you to show or hide the parameter mappings (non-file parameters) displayed on the Dataflow tab. By default, the button is depressed, which means that the associated mappings are displayed.

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Note: You can have both parameter buttons depressed (activated) at the same time. However, you cannot turn off (raise) both options. One must always be active. 3. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: If desired, you can manually define the dataflow using the Dataflow Link button . Double-click an existing dataflow link to view parameter mappings for the link. Once you connect two components, or double-click an existing mapping, the Parameter mapping dialog box appears, allowing you to adjust the dataflow between the components. In the example below, the dataflow with the arrow pointing to Spring DOE has been selected.

Mappings are often automatically defined if parameter information matches. However, you can manually define mappings, if desired. For more information, see “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624.

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Setting Parameter Information
Parameter information is set using the Parameters, Files, and Mapping tabs. For complete information on using these tabs, see Chapter 9 “Defining and Mapping Parameters”.

Saving a Model or Component
Both models and components can be saved. The following procedures describe how to save a model or component to your local disk. However, you can also publish a model or component to your Library, which saves the same information but in a different manner. For more information on publishing, see “Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions,” on page 539.

Saving a Model
To save a model, simply perform one of the following actions: Select Save from the File menu to save the model with its current name. If the model is new, and you have not yet specified a name, a dialog box appears asking for this information. You can also click the toolbar to save your model. button on the Design Gateway

Select Save As... from the File menu to save the model with a new name. The model is saved.

Saving a Component
To save a component: 1. Right-click on the component you want to save. 2. Select Save As from the menu that appears; then, specify the name and location for the component. The component is saved. Note: Components are saved as model files (*.zmf), and, once reopened, are displayed by themselves in the Design Gateway. For information on using a saved component to create a model, see “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Executing a Model or Component
There are multiple ways to execute in iSIGHT-FD. Although you can initiate execution from the Design Gateway, execution is controlled and viewed using the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway, which appears once you begin to run your model or component. For more information on executing a model or component as well as using the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Note: If you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment, you can also manipulate and control model execution using the Command Line Client. The Command Line Client is a simple, text-based interface that provides access to most functions of the FIPER ACS. For more information on using this interface, see Chapter 10 “Using the Command Line Client”. The following options to start your execution are available: The button on the Design Gateway toolbar can be used to execute either the entire model or the selected component. Clicking the button itself executes the model. Clicking the arrow next to the button allows you to determine if the model or the component is executed, or if you want to use the configure and run options. For more information on the configure and run options, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. The button on the Component Title Bar can be used to execute the selected component in the workflow. Clicking the button itself executes the component. Clicking the arrow next to the button allows you to use the configure and run options. For more information on the configure and run options, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Note: Selecting and executing the root component (the top-level component) runs the entire model, and is, in essence, the same as using the button described above. Right-click a component in workflow; then, point to Run and select one of the two options that appear. This menu option behaves the same way as the button described above. You can either immediately execute the selected component or use the configure and run options. For more information on the configure and run options, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Note: Selecting and executing the root component (the top-level component) runs the entire model, and is, in essence, the same as using the button described above.

Viewing Results
Results of a model execution can be viewed using the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway. The following main options are available from this interface: View input and output parameter values. Edit input values and submit multiple model executions simultaneously. View multiple runs of a component within a given model execution. Create graphs and tables of results for a selected component. Organize and navigate graphs and tables. Create multiple pages of graphs and tables. For more information on viewing model execution results, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide.

Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer
Providing model information is essential when using referenced models in iSIGHT-FD. Without certain model information (such as a name for the model), publishing cannot be accomplished, and the model cannot be referenced. Also, you can use the model properties options to control which parameters used by the model can be accessed and altered when the model is referenced.

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Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer This section is divided into the following topics: “Using the Model Selector” on this page “Setting Model Properties” on this page “Using the Other Model Explorer Options,” on page 67

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Using the Model Selector
The Model Selector provides not only an easy way to tell which model you are currently viewing, but it also allows you to quickly switch between loaded models. The name of the current model (as defined by the model properties) appears on the button itself. For more information on naming models, see “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. Note: You can also use the Windows menu on the Design Gateway toolbar to switch between loaded models. To change the current model using the Model Selector: 1. Click the button. A list of currently opened models appears. If you are viewing a model that has yet to be named, the button would be labeled “Untitled”. 2. Select the model you wish to view. The model information appears on the Design Gateway. Remember, only models that have been loaded into iSIGHT-FD appear on this list. For more information on opening models, see “Opening an Existing Model,” on page 54.

Setting Model Properties
The Model Properties options allow you to provide a name for your models, which makes the model easier to find once it is published to a Library. Since published models can be used as referenced models in other models, this process is essential when using iSIGHT-FD’s model referencing capabilities. Furthermore, you can define which parameters in the model will be exposed when the model is referenced.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway To set model properties: 1. Verify that the currently loaded model is the one whose properties you wish to edit. If not, select the correct model using the Model Explorer. 2. Select Model Properties from the Design Gateway Edit menu, or click the button adjacent to the Model Selector. The Model Properties dialog box appears.

This dialog box is divided into three tabs: General, Publish Info, and Execution. 3. Specify the following model information, as desired, in the corresponding text boxes: Model Name. This represents both the name of the model as it will appear on the Model Selector and how it will be named when published to the Library. Model Version. Enter the version number for the model. Model Description. Enter a brief description of the model. 4. Click the Publish Info tab; then, determine which parameters will be exposed (accessible) when the model is referenced in another model using one of the following options: Click the Use all root component parameters check box to expose all of the listed parameters. Clear (if necessary) the Use all root component parameters check box; then, individually select the parameters that will be exposed from the list at the bottom of the dialog box.

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Selecting and Editing Models Using the Model Explorer Note: For more information on referenced models, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. 5. Click the Execution tab; then, set the following options, as desired:

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Model Run Directory. Enter the directory in which all work items should execute. If a directory is entered at the model level, iSIGHT-FD will check to see if any components in the model have their execution directories explicitly set. If any are found, a dialog box appears prompting you to override that setting with the model level setting. If you specify a model run directory, the Create sub directories option becomes accessible. Select this option to create sub directories under the execution directory. The default value for this option can be changed in the Preferences options. For more information, see “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42. Use a fixed seed. The seed can be fixed by clicking this check box and specifying the seed manually in the corresponding text box. If this check box is not activated, the seed is determined randomly. 6. Click OK. The properties are saved.

Using the Other Model Explorer Options
Many other options are available when using the model explorer. These options are described below: Right-click a component (after first left-clicking it to highlight it). This action opens a menu that provides access to the same options that are available when you right-click a component on the Workflow or Dataflow tab. For more information on each option, see “Right-Click Menu Options,” on page 681. Note: Some options are not accessible when right-clicking the root (top-level) component, such as the Cut and Delete options. Double-click a component to open its editor. For more information, see Chapter 4 “Using Components”. Left-click a component to select it; then, left click the component again. A cursor appears allowing you to rename the component. You can also right-click the component and select the Rename option. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Manipulating Model Workflows
The process of creating a workflow involves dragging component icons from the Component Palette and dropping them on the Workflow tab canvas. Once components are added, if necessary, you can alter the workflow arrows that connect the components, and create conditional and parallel workflows. You can also specify places in the workflow where pauses will take place, copy existing components and reuse them in the workflow, and encapsulate existing components within process components. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Adding Components to the Default Workflow” on this page “Disabling a Component in the Workflow,” on page 70 “Manually Adding Workflow Arrows,” on page 71 “Setting Conditional Workflow Options,” on page 71 “Pausing a Workflow,” on page 75 “Creating a Parallel Workflow,” on page 75 “Deleting Workflow Arrows,” on page 79 “Adding Annotations to the Workflow,” on page 80 “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82 “Manipulating the Workflow Tab Canvas,” on page 84

Adding Components to the Default Workflow
In the following example, we’ll add a Monte Carlo component to an empty (new default) model, then we’ll add an Excel component to the Monte Carlo component. Note: If the component you want to add is not displayed on the Component Palette, you need to add it from the Library. For more information, see “Adding Components to the Design Gateway,” on page 33.

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Manipulating Model Workflows To create a workflow: 1. Click the Drivers tab.

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2. Click the Monte Carlo component icon; then, drag it until it is over the proper place in the workflow. The workflow arrow is highlighted when the component is placed on top of it. 3. Release your mouse button. The component is added to the workflow.

4. Click the Activities tab; then, repeat the drag and drop process with the Excel component icon, placing it on the workflow arrow beneath the Monte Carlo component. Note: This step assumes that you have set your Design Gateway to view the contents of process components. The button must be depressed. For more information on how to adjust this setting, see “Manipulating the Workflow Tab Canvas,” on page 84.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Your workflow should appear as shown below.

Disabling a Component in the Workflow
You can disable any component in your workflow. The workflow process continues after the disabled component as if the component was not in the workflow. Therefore, no run data will be available for the disabled component and all mappings will be ignored. To disable a component: 1. Right-click the component you want to disable in the workflow. 2. Select Disable from the menu that appears. The component appears grayed out in the workflow. 3. To enable the component, right-click on the component; then, select Enable from the menu. Note: Referenced components cannot be disabled.

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Manually Adding Workflow Arrows
If necessary, you can manually add workflow arrows to connect components in a workflow. This option is especially useful for creating parallel workflows. For more information on parallel workflows, see “Creating a Parallel Workflow,” on page 75. To manually connect two components: 1. Click the Workflow Link button to the left of the Workflow tab canvas. When to .

placed over the canvas, your mouse pointer changes from

2. Click the component that will be the “from” component; then, drag your mouse pointer to the “to” component. An arrow appears along the path of your mouse pointer. 3. Click the “to” component. The Workflow tab canvas is reconfigured to show a connection between the two components. 4. Click the Select button to return to the normal mouse pointer.

Setting Conditional Workflow Options
Conditional workflows allow you to control a section of your workflow. You can set up an execute condition, which allows you to set parameter information to determine if the execution should continue. You can also set the workflow to always execute or never execute.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway To set conditional workflow options: 1. Verify that the model you want to configure is loaded into the Design Gateway. The following example shows the I-Beam example which can be found in the following directory: <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models\generic Note: The I-Beam example includes workflow annotations. The workflow annotations are hidden for clarity in the following examples. For more information on workflow annotations, see “Adding Annotations to the Workflow,” on page 80.

2. Right-click the section of the workflow that you want to set conditions for; then, select Edit Condition from the menu that appears.

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3. Click one of the following radio buttons: Always execute. This setting is the default. The workflow will always be executed. Proceed to step 7. Never execute. This option stops the workflow from being executed. The rest of the workflow is still executed. Proceed to step 7. Conditionally execute. This option allows you to specify parameter information for controlling the workflow. Proceed to the next step. 4. Select a parameter from the drop-down list. You can select any output parameter, in/out parameter, or output file parameter. 5. Specify the condition using the second drop-down list. 6. Determine whether you want the right side of the condition to be a constant or a parameter using the corresponding radio buttons; then, type the constant in the text box or select the parameter from the drop-down list that appears. Note: If you set up a conditional, and that condition fails, the rest of the workflow is not executed. 7. (optional) Customize the label for the workflow altering the text string in the Label text box. The specified label will appear below the workflow arrow on the Design Gateway Workflow tab.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Be aware of the following actions that automatically populate this text box: If you select the Never execute option in step 3, the text string Don’t execute is added to the Label text box. You can change this label, if desired. If you select the Conditionally execute option in step 3, the parameter selected in the drop-down list below the Conditionally execute radio button is added to the Label text box. You can change this label, if desired. 8. Click OK. You are returned to the Design Gateway, and your condition is labeled (if applicable). In the following example, a conditional workflow has been set up after the Calculator component called Condition1.

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Pausing a Workflow
It is possible to pause your workflow execution at a certain point to review specific data. If the data is satisfactory (by the means that you define), you can then have the workflow execution continue. iSIGHT-FD provides a component for this functionality - the Pause component. Simply add this component to the point in your workflow where you want the execution pause to occur. For more information on using this component, see “Using the Pause Component,” on page 393.

Creating a Parallel Workflow
Creating parallel workflows allows you to specify components that execute at the same time (in parallel) during the execution of your model. The models that execute in parallel must be subcomponents of a main component. In the following procedure, a sample parallel workflow is created using the I-Beam example from the <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models\generic directory. Note: The I-Beam example includes workflow annotations. The workflow annotations are hidden for clarity in the following examples. For more information on workflow annotations, see “Adding Annotations to the Workflow,” on page 80. Note: You can view an existing parallel workflow in an actual sample problem by viewing the AirplaneSizingDOE.zmf file in your <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models\generic directory.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway To set up a parallel workflow: 1. Verify that the model you want to configure is loaded into the Design Gateway. Again, the following example shows the I-Beam example.

In this example, you will create a parallel workflow within the Compute all Beam Elements Loop component. 2. Click the Activities tab on the Design Gateway; then, drag any component into the area below the Loop component and above the Calculator and Script components in the subflow.

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Manipulating Model Workflows In the following example, an Excel component has been added to the canvas.

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Now you need to create the actual parallel workflow for this new component. 3. Click the Workflow Link button 4. Click the Start icon subflow. on the left side of the Workflow tab.

to the left of the Calculator icon in the Loop component

5. Drag your mouse pointer to the newly added Excel component; then, click the Excel component.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway A partial parallel workflow is created.

6. Click the Workflow Link button; then, click the Excel component. 7. Drag your mouse pointer to the Stop icon to the right of the two Script icons in the Loop component subflow; then, click the Stop icon.

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Manipulating Model Workflows The parallel workflow has been created.

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8. Add additional components to the parallel workflow, as desired, by dragging and dropping the components on the workflow arrows on either side of the newly added parallel workflow. 9. (optional) Set any conditions for the new workflow. For more information, see “Setting Conditional Workflow Options,” on page 71.

Deleting Workflow Arrows
You can remove workflow arrows from the Workflow tab canvas by right-clicking the arrow you want to delete; then, selecting Delete from the menu that appears.

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Adding Annotations to the Workflow
You can add annotations to the workflow components and to the workflow edges. An edge is defined as the workflow arrows connecting the components within the workflow. This feature is useful because other users can view the annotations. The annotations are saved with the model. If a model is copied, the annotations are also copied. The annotations can be viewed (or hidden) from the Runtime Gateway. However, they cannot be edited or removed from this interface. For more information about the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. To add an annotation to a component or edge: 1. Select the component or edge. 2. Click the button to the left of the workflow.

The Annotation Editor dialog box appears.

3. Enter the information that will be displayed in the large Note text box. 4. To change the background color of the annotation, select a color from one of the three tabs in the Color area: Swatches, HSB, and RGB.

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Manipulating Model Workflows 5. Click OK. The Annotation is added to the workflow.

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6. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Move the annotation: Click the annotation to highlight it; then, drag the annotation to its new location. The corresponding arrow is updated accordingly. View a large annotation: Double-click the annotation to view the text in the Annotation Editor dialog box. Since there is a limit to the amount of information the annotation can display directly on the Workflow tab, this option allows you to view the information in its entirety. Edit an existing annotation: Double-click the annotation to launch the Annotation Editor dialog box. Change the annotation, as desired; then, click OK. The annotation is updated. To Remove the annotation: Select the annotation; then, click the button to the left of the workflow. You can also use the Delete key on your keyboard. To Hide all of the annotations, click the button to the left of the workflow. Clicking the button again brings the annotations back into view. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Encapsulating Components
The process of encapsulating components allows you to put existing workflow components into a new process component. For example, if you’ve configured an Excel component, and you now want to place that component into a new DOE component, you can accomplish this task using encapsulation. Note: You can also drag-and-drop a component from the Component Palette onto an existing component to encapsulate it. To encapsulate a component: 1. Select the component or components on the Workflow tab canvas that you wish to encapsulate. In the following example, we have chosen an Excel component, which is within a Task component.

2. Verify that the Excel component is selected (the component that will be encapsulated); then, select Encapsulate from the Edit menu.

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Manipulating Model Workflows Note: You can also right-click the component to be encapsulated and select Encapsulate from the menu that appears. The Root Component Selection dialog box appears.

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3. Select the process component that you wish to contain the existing component or components; then, click OK. The new process component is added to the Workflow tab canvas, and the existing component is moved within the new component. In the following example, an Optimization component has been selected to encapsulate the existing Excel component.

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Manipulating the Workflow Tab Canvas
When you drag and drop a component into the Workflow tab canvas, it is usually automatically added to your workflow. However, you can use the buttons to the left of the canvas to further manipulate both the workflow itself, and how the workflow appears in the canvas. The following options are available: . This button controls how process components are displayed. When activated, the child components contained in a process component are displayed below the parent component. When deactivated, only the parent process component is displayed. You must double-click on the parent component to display its contents. Note: This display feature only affects process components below the main component. For example, the main Task component displays its child components. However, a Monte Carlo component within the main task would need to be double-clicked to display its components. . This button represents the typical usage setting when using the canvas, and allows you to select components and workflow arrows. You should use this button when you are working in a different mode, and wish to return the mouse pointer to its default setting. For example, if you were zooming in on the canvas using the dynamic zoom button , and you have achieved your desired zoom factor and . want to select a component, click this button. The mouse pointer is reset to

. This button (Pan) allows you to pan the canvas. When clicked, the mouse pointer changes, and clicking a part of the canvas “grabs” it. Any mouse movement after the “grab” relocates the canvas. . This button allows you to manually draw a workflow to connect two components. After clicking this button, click on the first component, and then drag the mouse pointer to the next component. Once you reach the next component, click that component. If allowed, a workflow is now created between the two components. For more information, see “Manually Adding Workflow Arrows,” on page 71. . This button is a dynamic zoom. If you click this button, and then click inside the canvas, the mouse pointer changes to a magnifying glass. Moving the pointer iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Manipulating Model Workflows down zooms in on the canvas, while moving the pointer up zooms out on the canvas.

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. This button zooms in on the canvas, using the current center of the canvas as the focal point (the center is the midpoint on the canvas, not the midpoint based on your current workflow). . This button zooms out from the canvas, using the current center of the canvas as the focal point (the center is the midpoint on the canvas, not the midpoint based on your current workflow). . This button fits your workflow to the current size of the canvas. It achieves this goal either by shrinking or expanding the workflow, based on the size of the workflow and the size of the canvas. . This button resets all scaling and zooming to their original position. . This button (Airplane View) allows you to easily navigate large models that don't completely fit in the Workflow tab canvas. When clicked, a zoomed out view of the model workflow appears in a small window. You can pan around the entire model (as described in the previous option) inside of this window. . This button allows you to add annotations to the current workflow. For more information about working with annotations, see “Adding Annotations to the Workflow,” on page 80. . This button deletes the selected annotation from the current workflow. . This button allows you to hide or show the annotations that appear on the current workflow. . This button allows you to show or hide the grid that appears behind the information on the Workflow and Dataflow tabs. By default, the button is depressed, which displays the grid.

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Copying Model Information
You can copy components that you have already created and reuse them in other portions of your model workflow. There are several options available for completing this task. These options are described in the sections listed below. You can also reference published models in your current model. For more information, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Creating Independent Copies of Components” on this page. This option is useful if you want to create a copy of a component, but then alter the copied component separate from the original. “Creating Reference Copies of Components,” on page 88. This option is useful if you want to create an exact copy of a component that remains the same as the original (is referenced), even if the original (or the copy) is changed. “Using Submodels,” on page 90. This option is useful if you plan on creating a referenced component and adding it to multiple places in your model, but you don’t know the exact place where you will add the copies. “Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model,” on page 99. This section describes changes to your workflow that occur when referencing components or using submodels. Note: In the following procedures, the I-Beam example from the <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models\generic directory is used. The I-Beam example includes workflow annotations. The workflow annotations are hidden for clarity in the following examples. For more information on workflow annotations, see “Adding Annotations to the Workflow,” on page 80.

Creating Independent Copies of Components
You can copy an existing component and create an independent version of that component. Once created, no link exists between the two components. Although they are exactly the same at the time they are created, you can alter one without making changes to the other, as desired. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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This option is useful if you are making single-use copies of components, and the copies need to contain the essence of the original component, but must not affect the original when they are changed in any way. To create an independent copy of a component: 1. Right-click the component that you want to copy; then, select Copy from the menu that appears. Note: You can also click the Copy button on the toolbar.

2. Right-click the workflow arrow that represents the location for the copied component; then, select Paste Copy from the menu that appears. Note: You can also click the Paste Copy button on the toolbar.

A copy of the component is added to the workflow. In the following example, the component labeled Compute a, ix, iy was copied to the Loop component subflow.

No other changes are made to the workflow by iSIGHT-FD. Any changes made to either component will not be reflected in the other component. If you want to create a copy of the component that links the two components, automatically

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway updating one when changes are made to the other, see “Creating Reference Copies of Components,” on page 88.

Creating Reference Copies of Components
You can create an exact copy of a component that remains the same as the original, even if the original (or the copy) is changed. If multiple referenced copies are made, changes to the original component or any copy updates all of the components. This concept (where the components are permanently linked) is known as referenced components. The process of creating referenced copies of components employs the Reference component. This component is automatically configured and placed in your workflow when the referenced copy is pasted into your model. Also, the original component is now considered an internal submodel, and is listed on the left side of the Design Gateway (Model Explorer) in the submodel node. For more information on how this effects the workflow impact, see “Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model,” on page 99. Note: If you wish to reference a component numerous times, and you don’t yet know all of the places in your model where you will use the referenced component, it is recommended that you make the component a submodel explicitly. This process creates a submodel using the component, but it does not automatically reference the component in the workflow. Basically, you are simply getting it ready for future use. For more information, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90. For additional information on referencing concepts within iSIGHT-FD, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101.

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1. Right-click the component that you want to copy; then, select Copy from the menu that appears. Note: You can also click the Copy button on the toolbar.

2. Right-click the workflow arrow that represents the location for the copied component; then, select Paste Reference from the menu that appears. A referenced copy of the component is added to the workflow, and Reference components are added and configured for both the original and the copy. In the following example, the component labeled Compute a, ix, iy was copied to the Loop component subflow.

Any changes made to either component are made to the other component. If you want to create a copy of the component that created a non-referenced copy of the component, see “Creating Independent Copies of Components,” on page 86.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Notice also that a new item labeled Submodels has been created in the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway. Expanding this item reveals that it contains the referenced component.

3. Proceed to “Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model,” on page 99 for more information on the workflow impact of using referenced components, such as information on the Submodels node, the Reference component itself, and the limitations placed on referenced components.

Using Submodels
Submodels are portions of the current model that are designated for use in other parts of the model. This designation allows a single instance of a component to be easily used in numerous places in your workflow. Any changes made to the original component(s) that comprises the submodel are automatically seen everywhere that the submodel is used. For example, if you create a submodel of a Calculator component and reference it in three different places in your model, a change to the component in any of the locations is reflected in each of the other locations. This option is useful if you know you want to use a component in many different places in your workflow, but iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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you do not yet know where all the instances will reside. For instructions on creating a submodel, see “Creating a Submodel” on this page. You can create submodels using either process or activity components. If you create a submodel of a process component, all of the components that are contained within its subflow are included, and changes to these subflow components are reflected in all locations that this subflow references. For example, if you create a submodel of a Loop component that contains a Calculator component, changes to either of the components are reflected in all referenced instances. When you add submodels to your workflow, you typically insert a Reference component into your workflow in the desired location, and then specify the submodel to be referenced using the component editor. This option gives you the ability to update parameter values within the Reference component. For more information, see “Adding Submodels Using the Reference Component Editor,” on page 93. However, you can quickly add submodels, without using the Reference component editor. This option allows you to quickly add submodels to your workflow if no parameter changes are necessary within the Reference component editor. The Reference component is automatically configured. For more information, see “Adding Submodels Using the Model Explorer,” on page 96. As with components, you can add an independent copy of a submodel to your workflow. Once added, this copy is separated from the original submodel. For more information, see “Adding Non-Referenced Copies of Submodels,” on page 98.

Creating a Submodel
Before you can use a submodel in your model, you must first create the submodel, specifying which existing components will be included. In general, when process components are made into submodels, they also contain all of the activity components in their subflow. When an individual activity component is made into a submodel, only that particular activity component is included. You cannot create a submodel that contains multiple activity components without using a process component.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Furthermore, the following items cannot be made into submodels: Any Reference component. A referenced component, since it is already a submodel. The top level component. This action is considered referencing a model. For more information, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. To create a submodel: 1. Right-click the component that you want to make a submodel; then, select Make Submodel from the menu that appears. A reference component is added at the location of the component, and a dotted line runs from below the Reference component to the original component. In the following example, a Data Exchanger component has been made into a submodel.

At this point, your model and its workflow are basically unchanged. You have simply designated the selected component for future use as a referenced component.

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Copying Model Information 2. Proceed to one of the following sections for information on using the submodel within your model: “Adding Submodels Using the Reference Component Editor” on this page “Adding Submodels Using the Model Explorer,” on page 96 “Adding Non-Referenced Copies of Submodels,” on page 98

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Adding Submodels Using the Reference Component Editor
Once you have defined the necessary submodels, you can add them into your workflow. This process involves manually adding a Reference component to your workflow, and then using the Reference component’s editor to designate the desired submodel for use. This procedure gives you the ability to update parameter values within the Reference component itself. Note: iSIGHT-FD can be made to automatically add and configure the Reference component. For more information, see “Adding Submodels Using the Model Explorer,” on page 96. To add a submodel using the Reference component editor: 1. Verify that the submodel you wish to use is listed in the Submodels node in the Design Gateway Model Explorer. If you need to create the submodel, see “Creating a Submodel,” on page 91. 2. Drag and drop the Reference component icon from the Component Palette to the desired location in your workflow. If the Reference component is not currently on your component palette, you must add it from the Library (as described in “Adding Components to the Design Gateway,” on page 33). 3. Double-click the Reference component icon in your workflow.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway The component editor appears.

4. Click the Choose Model... button. The Select Reference Model dialog box appears.

5. Expand the Internal Submodels directory on the left side of the dialog box; then, select the submodel you want to use.

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Copying Model Information For more information on the other options available with the Select Reference Model dialog box, see “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401.

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6. Click the Select Model button. You are returned to the Reference component editor, and submodel parameter information is now displayed at the bottom of the editor.

7. Update the parameter values or file information, as desired. For more information on parameters used in this component, see “Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model,” on page 99. 8. Click OK.

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Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway You are returned to the Design Gateway, and the Reference component and the selected submodel now appear in the workflow.

Adding Submodels Using the Model Explorer
If you use the Model Explorer to add a defined submodel to your workflow, iSIGHT-FD automatically adds and configures a Reference component for the submodel. This procedure is useful for quick integration of a submodel, where no parameter changes in the Reference component are necessary. You can, however, access the Reference component editor after it is added, if desired.

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1. Right-click the submodel you want to add in the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway; then, select Copy from the menu that appears. 2. Right-click the workflow arrow that represents the location for the submodel; then, select Paste Reference from the menu that appears. Note: You can also create a non-referenced (independent) copy of a submodel. For more information, see “Adding Non-Referenced Copies of Submodels” on this page. The submodel is added to the workflow. In the following example, a Data Exchanger component submodel has been used.

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Adding Non-Referenced Copies of Submodels
As with components, you can add an independent copy of a submodel to your workflow. Once added, this copy is separated from the original submodel. Changes to either the copy or the original have no impact on the other. Also, since you are creating an independent copy, the copy of the submodel appears simply as a component in your workflow, not as a Reference component/component combination. To add an independent copy of a submodel: 1. Right-click the submodel you want to add in the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway; then, select Copy from the menu that appears. 2. Right-click the workflow arrow that represents the location for the submodel; then, select Paste Copy from the menu that appears. Note: You can also click the Paste Copy button on the toolbar.

An independent copy of the submodel is added to the workflow. In the following example, a Data Exchanger component submodel has been used.

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Understanding the Impact of Referencing on the Model
The following information should be noted with regard to the impact of single component referencing and submodels on your model workflow: When you create a referenced component by copying an existing component and pasting by reference, a Reference component is added for both the original and the referenced component. Once an existing component is used to create a referenced copy (and is automatically given a Reference component designation as described in the previous item), you cannot “unreference” the component. Deleting the associated Reference component deletes it and the underlying component. You can, however, create a non-reference copy of the reference component and then delete the referenced version of the component. The Reference component is used for all internal model referencing, including referenced copies of components and submodels. The Reference component can also be used to reference models published in your Library and models in partner Libraries when using an ACS in the FIPER environment with the B2B option. For more information, see “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401. When you create a referenced component or a submodel, a new node labeled Submodels appears on the Design Gateway Model Explorer. This node not only provides a list of all submodels, but it allows you to perform such actions as copying or deleting a submodel. The following items cannot be made into submodels: Any Reference component. A referenced component, since it is already a submodel. The top level component. This action is considered referencing a model. For more information, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. When a component is used by reference, the Reference component automatically holds copies of all the parameters of the component being referenced so that they can be driven directly by the individual references. Changes made to the parameters in the component are automatically reflected in the reference components that refer to it.

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Accessing Component Information
There are several different ways to access component information. Although specific information about different component editors is not discussed in this section, a general overview is provided concerning the options for accessing both component properties and component editors. This section is divided into the following topics: “Accessing Component Properties” on this page “Accessing Component Editors,” on page 101 For more information about using individual components, see “Using Components,” on page 109.

Accessing Component Properties
To access component properties, perform any of the following actions: Click the component; then, select Component / Properties from the Design Gateway View menu. Click the component; then, click the Component Properties button Component Title Bar. on the

Right-click the component on either the Workflow tab or in the Model Explorer; then, select Properties from the menu that appears. For more information on setting properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113.

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Accessing Component Editors
To access component editors, perform any of the following actions: Double-click the component icon on the Workflow tab or in the Model Explorer. Click the component; then, select Component / Editor from the Design Gateway View menu. Click the component; then, click the Component Editor button Component Title Bar. on the

Right-click the component on either the Workflow tab or in the Model Explorer; then, select Edit from the menu that appears. For more information component editors and the options they contain, see Chapter 4 “Using Components”.

Using Referenced Models
This section discusses how to use existing, published models as part of your model. It is divided into the following topics: “Overview,” on page 102 “Understanding Model Reference Options,” on page 102 “Adding a Referenced Model,” on page 103 “Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Workflow,” on page 103 “Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Dataflow,” on page 104 “Understanding How Referenced Models are Handled by iSIGHT-FD,” on page 105 “Using the Referenced Model Component,” on page 105

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Overview
iSIGHT-FD has the ability to capture an organizations’ best practices in the form of process models. These models can be stored, versioned, and reused to build larger processes. Process models can encapsulate known and tested design processes, and then be easily reused (referenced) in other processes without in-depth understanding of the process details. This concept is known as the “encapsulation” of processes (not to be confused with the Encapsulation option available in iSIGHT-FD). The mechanism in iSIGHT-FD to support process encapsulation and reuse is known as models by reference or referenced models. The concept is that one model (the “local” model) makes use of another pre-existing model (the “remote model”) by including the remote model in the local model. The models are “linked” at the parameter level. In other words, the local model “drives” the remote model by supplying values for its input parameters, and reading its output parameters. Conceptually, the local model just holds a reference to the remote model (it is not copied), and the remote model becomes just one more execution element (component) in the local model. You can also reference portions of the current model for use within that model (as opposed to referencing the entire model). For more information, see “Copying Model Information,” on page 86.

Understanding Model Reference Options
iSIGHT-FD offers three distinct “reference” options, all of which are defined in a similar manner. The three options are as follows: Internal. This type of references involves sub-parts (submodels) of the model being reused within the model itself. External. This type of reference specifies a model and version in the Library. The external model is distinct from the local model. The external model must have been published to the Library before it can be configured as a reference in the local model. Federated. This type of references uses a model and version in a Library at a partner site (both you and the partner site must be connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment). The term “partners” refers to separate FIPER installations which may be inside or outside your organization. Partner sites are identified and

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configured by the ACS administrator. A federated reference must name the partner, model library name, and version. Note that federated references name models which do not exist in the local users Library - they exist only at the partner site. For more information on FIPER federation, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide.

Adding a Referenced Model
The basic process for adding a referenced model to your model involves the following three basic steps: 1. Add a Reference component to your model, at the point in your workflow where you want the referenced model analyzed. If the Reference component is not available on your Design Gateway, you need to add it from the Library as described in “Adding Components to the Design Gateway,” on page 33. 2. Configure the Reference component to use the desired reference model. For more information on using this component, see “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401. Once the referenced model is defined, your workflow is updated to show the model, if and only if you have the proper permissions. Federated (B2B) references do not show the referenced model’s workflow. For more information on how referenced models effect your workflow, see “Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Workflow” on this page. 3. View the referenced model information, as desired. This action is handled using the Reference component editor. For more information on using this editor, see “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401.

Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Workflow
A dotted line appears from the Reference component to the underlying referenced model, providing a visual cue as to the nature of the items below the Reference component. This feature is demonstrated in Figure 3-1 on page 104.

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104 Chapter 3 Creating Models Using the Design Gateway Figure 3-1. Referenced Model Visualization

The referenced model may retain all of its details when it appears in the local model, including its complete subflow, root component name, parameters, icons, etc., based on your permissions and the nature of the referenced model. You can also access the component editors for components in the referenced model, view parameter mappings, etc.

Understanding the Impact of Referenced Models On Your Dataflow
If you are creating submodels using existing components, the mappings for the existing components are changed. Mappings to and from the original component are now mapped to the Reference component created when the original component is turned into a submodel. Data is passed through the Reference component to the submodel.

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Understanding How Referenced Models are Handled by iSIGHT-FD
The following items should be noted to better understand how iSIGHT-FD handles certain aspects of referenced models: The Reference component takes on the same input and output parameters as the referenced model (that is, when a referenced model is selected, the component adds exactly corresponding input and output parameters to its own component instance). Also, the referenced parameter names are always the referenced model parameter names. Note: If you do not want to use the referenced model parameter names in the local model, you can use the Mapping tab to change the parameter setup. The Reference component maintains a link to the referenced model by storing the referenced model name, version, and partner ID (for B2B references) as properties. The referenced model can be replaced by any model that has like-named parameters at the root. In other words, the referenced model parameters are recognized by name, so any model with the same root parameter names can be substituted. In effect, the root parameter names of the model define its “interface”. Any models with the same “interface” can be substituted.

Using the Referenced Model Component
For complete details on using the Reference component to specify a referenced model or view model information, see “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401.

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Using the Graph Templates Tab
Although graphs and tables are viewed using the Runtime Gateway, you can define graphs and tables prior to execution using the Graph Templates tab on the Design Gateway. This tab is shown below.

In essence, you create empty graphs or tables, which are then automatically transferred to the Runtime Gateway at execution, and populated with model data as appropriate. Important: Graphs and tables created on this tab are saved with your model, and can be accessed the next time the model is loaded into iSIGHT-FD. Graphs and tables created on the Runtime Gateway are not saved with the model, and must be recreated the next time the model is opened. If you create a graph or tab that uses a parameter which is later deleted, you are informed about the now invalid graph or tab in the Design Gateway Message Bar at the bottom of the interface. Also, the graph is not generated by the Runtime Gateway during execution.

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For more information on using this tab, and on the Runtime Gateway in general, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. You can also view this information in the Runtime Gateway online help. To access this help interface, select Runtime Gateway from the Design Gateway View menu to open the Runtime Gateway interface; then, select Contents from the Runtime Gateway Help menu.

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4

Using Components
This chapter describes the usage of the Engineous-supplied components that are included with a standard iSIGHT-FD installation. It is divided into the following sections: “Introduction,” on page 110 “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113 “Setting Component Preferences,” on page 117 “Using the DOE Component,” on page 122 “Using the Loop Component,” on page 143 “Using the Monte Carlo Component,” on page 158 “Using the Optimization Component,” on page 173 “Using the SDI Component,” on page 205 “Understanding Task Component Options,” on page 221 “Using the Task Component (Single Option),” on page 222 “Using the Approximation Component,” on page 223 “Using the Calculator Component,” on page 239 “Using the COM Component,” on page 244 “Using the Data Exchanger Component,” on page 249 “Using the Database Component,” on page 305 “Using the Excel Component,” on page 320

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110 Chapter 4 Using Components “Using the iSIGHT Component,” on page 336 “Using the iSIGHT File Parser Component,” on page 349 “Using the Mail Component,” on page 366 “Using the MATLAB Component,” on page 368 “Using the OS Command Component,” on page 377 “Using the Pause Component,” on page 393 “Using the Reference Component,” on page 401 “Using the Script Component,” on page 413 “Using the Simcode Component,” on page 420 “Using the Word Component,” on page 430

Introduction
Components are an essential part of model construction. Numerous components have been developed by Engineous Software, and are included with iSIGHT-FD. These components are accessed using the Design Gateway, but each has a different editor and options that can be configured. All iSIGHT-FD components can be divided into two types: process and activity. Process components are components that are designed to contain a workflow, which is executed some number of times depending on the component’s own specific logic, essentially “driving” the execution of that workflow (thus, they are also sometimes referred to as drivers or design drivers). This chapter discusses six Engineous-supplied process components, DOE, Loop, Monte Carlo, Optimization, SDI, and Task. An activity component is a component designed to perform some end functionality, sometimes invoking and interacting with an external application that is completely external and unknown to iSIGHT-FD. Approximation, Data Exchanger, and Excel are all examples of applications that would comprise activity components.

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Introduction The following list provides a brief overview of the components described in this chapter. All components are activity components unless otherwise noted.

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Note: The components available to you may differ slightly based on your iSIGHT-FD license. DOE. This component is a process component that allows you to use Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to improve your design. Loop. This component is a process component capable of repeatedly executing subflows based on conditions. Monte Carlo. This component is a process component that allows you to use the Monte Carlo Quality Engineering Method (QEM) to improve your design. Optimization. This component is a process component that provides access to numerous optimization techniques to improve your design. SDI. This component is a process component that uses Stochastic Design Improvement (SDI), which is a Monte Carlo simulation-based iterative procedure, to improve a design. Task. This component is a simple process component that always executes a subflow once, unlike other process components that may execute a subflow numerous times. It also allows you to create a Task Plan. For more information on using the Task Plan, see Chapter 5 “Using the Task Plan Feature”. Approximation. This component provides a means of creating an analysis component based on the data generated previously by an external tool and saved in a data file. Calculator. This component allows you to define computations that are not provided by a separate part of your model. COM. This component provides direct access to the Windows operating system (through COM objects). Data Exchanger. This component allows you to move data between iSIGHT-FD parameters and text files easily and efficiently. Database. This component allows you to retrieve data from an existing database and use the data inside an iSIGHT-FD model.

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112 Chapter 4 Using Components Excel. This component allows you to map parameters and execute macros using information from an Excel spreadsheet. iSIGHT. This component allows you to use previously created iSIGHT description files in your iSIGHT-FD model. iSIGHT File Parser. This component allows an iSIGHT-FD model to use file parsing programs (FDL) created using the iSIGHT Advanced Parser. This feature is mostly to aid in converting iSIGHT models into iSIGHT-FD models. Mail. This component allows you to send e-mail messages containing parameter information. This is often used to send a “job done” notification for a job that may have run for many days. MATLAB. This component allows you to send data to MATLAB, execute commands/scripts, and retrieve data from MATLAB. OS Command. This component allows you to execute a command that is specific to your operating system. Pause. This component provides a mechanism for inserting pre-defined pauses within a workflow and optionally performing various interactive activities during the pause. Reference. This component allows you to reference internal models and submodels for use in your current model. It is also the primary means of enabling Federation (Business-to-Business) capabilities in the FIPER environment. It allows you to select a model that resides at a partner organization (which has a FIPER ACS) and insert a reference to it within your own workflow. Script. This component allows you to execute Java code in your model. It is used to perform calculations that are too complex for the Calculator component, such as those involving loops or conditional statements. Simcode. This component is an OS Command component surrounded by two Data Exchanger components, and is used to run simulation codes that read and write text files inside FIPER models. Word. This component allows you to populate Word document files (*.doc) with the values of iSIGHT-FD parameters.

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Editing Component Properties
Component properties, such as execution delay time, affinities for execution, and icon usage on the Design Gateway, can be set using the Properties dialog box. To edit the properties of any component: 1. Select the component whose properties you want to edit; then, click the Properties button , or select Properties from the Design Gateway View/Component menu. The Properties dialog box appears.

This example shows an Excel component’s properties. The properties are the same for all activity components. The dialog box is divided into five tabs: Execution, Affinities, Icon, Description, and Details. Note: Once open, the Properties dialog box can be toggled between different components by selecting a new component on the Design Gateway Model Explorer. If you want the component that is currently displayed to always be displayed no matter what component is selected on the Model Explorer, click the Lock check box at the bottom of the dialog box. 2. Set the following options on the Execution tab: Delay before execution. This option allows you to set a length of time that the component will wait before it executes. This is typically used for demos or load testing. Timeout. Execution of the component will stop when this time limit is reached. If set to 0, no timeout limit is enforced. Typically, you would only set

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114 Chapter 4 Using Components this property if you are concerned that this component could encounter problems during execution that would not allow it to complete and return. If it is necessary to set this limit, it should be set to a time much greater than the expected normal time for execution so that the component is not incorrectly terminated. Keep execution directory. When components execute, they create a temporary directory and temporary files. Usually, the directory and files are automatically deleted following execution. However, you can use this drop-down list to determine if the temporary directory and files are always retained, never retained, or only retained when a run (execution) fails. Maximum number of retries. This option controls the number of times iSIGHT-FD attempts to execute a component if it fails. It is a very useful property for scenarios in which a component requires a license or other computer resources that might not be available at the current time, but that might be available upon subsequent attempts. If the model is being executed in the FIPER environment, FIPER will attempt to execute the component on a different FIPER Station if one is available. Maximum parallel batch size. This option sets the maximum number of design points (subflow executions) that a process component can submit if it supports parallel execution. If the Automatic check box is selected, iSIGHT-FD will automatically determine the best number of executions to run in parallel. This is the recommended setting. If you do not select the Automatic check box, you must enter the maximum number of design points to be run in parallel. The value must be greater than or equal to one (1). Note: Some process components may run fewer subflows than the maximum; and some process components may run only a single subflow at a time. Refer to the process component documentation for details on parallel execution options. Runtime folder (local execution only). By default, iSIGHT-FD creates a separate, temporary working directory to execute each component. In fact, if a single component in your model is executed multiple times (e.g., in a loop or design driver), each individual execution of that component is executed in its own temporary working directory. This structure allows for complete and safe parallel execution of the component so it can be executed multiple times iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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simultaneously, avoiding file collisions. However, there are times when a component must run in a specific directory on a system. In these cases, you should set this option to that specific location, realizing that doing so most likely means any attempt to execute this component in parallel will lead to errors related to file collisions. 3. Click the Affinities tab. This tab contains information that helps a component running in an ACS environment find the proper FIPER Station (and in doing so, a remote computer) for execution. Note: The affinities for the FIPER Station are set in the station.properties file in the FIPER installation directory. For more information on using FIPER Stations, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination. 4. Set any of the following options (in some cases, these options are automatically set) for execution in the FIPER environment: Operating System. Specify the type of operating system that the component will search for when executing using the corresponding drop-down list. You can choose either Windows or UNIX (UNIX also includes Red Hat Linux). Name. Specify the name of the operating system that the component will search for when executing using the corresponding drop-down list. For example, you can specify Windows NT, Windows 2000, or Windows XP. Note: This option is disabled if the Any option is selected from the Operating System drop-down list. Version. Specify the version number of the operating system/name combination that the component will search for when executing using the corresponding drop-down list. Note: This option is disabled if the Any option is selected from either the Operating System or Name drop-down lists. Station Name. Specify the name of the machine that the component will search for when executing. Other. Specify any additional information that the component must search for during execution. You can use this setting for custom keywords. Any character string can be used. Only Stations that have this matching keyword defined as an affinity are used during execution.

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116 Chapter 4 Using Components Group Name. You can define a group to execute various components (within the same level of the model hierarchy) on the same machine simply by specifying a name for the group. For any defined group, iSIGHT-FD will determine which FIPER Station to execute those components on based on the combination of all of the other affinities for all components in the group. For example, if component A is specified to run only on Windows, component B specifies an “Other” affinity of “CAE”, and both A and B specify the group “groupAB”, then iSIGHT-FD will only select a FIPER Station that is running on Windows and that says it supports “CAE” on which to execute both components A and B. If no Station exists to support the combined affinities, none of the components in the group will be executed and the job will fail for this reason. 5. Click the Icon tab; then, change the default icon, if desired. 6. Click the Description tab; then, enter a text description of the component. You can enter any desired text. 7. Click the Details tab. This tab shows you information about the component type. The information displayed includes the component’s full name, display name, version number, icon, and description. 8. Set the When Loading Model Use option. This option and its associated drop-down list gives you the ability to specify which version of the component to use, if the component has more than one published version in the Library. You can set this option for each component in your model. When the model is reloaded, the version of the component that is fetched from the Library is based on this setting. The following options are available: The Latest Version. This option always loads the most recent version of the component from the Library. It is the default setting. This Specific Version. This option always loads the version specified in the Version field (to the left of the drop-down list) when the selection is originally made. 9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the dialog box open.

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Setting Component Preferences
Some components give you the ability to set custom default options for specific settings. Currently, only the following components have preference options: DOE Excel Monte Carlo Optimization OS Command Word To set component preferences: 1. From the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway, select Preferences from the Edit menu. The Preferences dialog box appears. 2. Expand the Components folder on the left side of the dialog box; then, select the component whose preferences you wish to set. 3. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Setting DOE Component Preferences,” on page 118 “Setting Excel Component Preferences,” on page 118 “Setting Monte Carlo Component Preferences,” on page 118 “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119 “Setting OS Command Component Preferences,” on page 119 “Setting Word Component Preferences,” on page 121

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Setting DOE Component Preferences
The following preference options are available with the DOE component: Default Technique. Determine which technique will automatically appear every time the component editor for a newly inserted component is first opened. For more information on this option, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the DOE Component,” on page 122.

Setting Excel Component Preferences
The following preference options are available with the Excel component: Default workbook close option. Determine the default behavior for the Excel workbook that is referenced with the component. You can choose to leave the workbook open after execution, or to close it after each job or after the full execution of the component. For more information on this option, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the Excel Component,” on page 320.

Setting Monte Carlo Component Preferences
The following preference options are available with the Monte Carlo component: Default Sampling Technique. Determine which sampling technique will automatically appear every time the component editor for a newly inserted component is first opened. For more information on this option, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the Monte Carlo Component,” on page 158.

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Setting Optimization Component Preferences
The following preference options are available with the Optimization component: Default Technique. Determine which technique will automatically appear every time the component editor for a newly inserted component is first opened. Scaling Method. Determine if you want to use the automatic method for handling scaling. If this option is not selected, manual scaling is used. For more information on this option, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the Optimization Component,” on page 173.

Setting OS Command Component Preferences
The OS Command component preference options allow you to add, edit, and delete interpreters (shells) used to execute extended commands. To add an interpreter, see “Adding Interpreters,” on page 119. You can also determine if you want to use the Grid Plugin for LSF. This option is explained below. Enable use of the Grid Plugin. Check this option if you want to enable the Grid Plugin on the OS Command and Simcode editors.

Adding Interpreters
To add an interpreter: 1. Click the Scripts tab.

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120 Chapter 4 Using Components The tab contents appear.

2. Click the Add button located on the right side of the dialog box. 3. Type a name for the interpreter in the Name text box. The name is displayed in the OS Command Type drop-down list on the OS Command component editor. Note: The names of the interpreters should be unique (i.e., no duplicates). 4. Type the full path to the interpreter in the Executable text box. You can also choose the executable by clicking the Browse... button and navigating to the interpreter. 5. Type the interpreter extension in the Extension text box. For example, Windows batch files need to have the extension of “bat”. 6. Type any default arguments for the interpreter in the Arguments text box. Note: During the execution of the component, the executable for the interpreter is loaded from the OS Command preferences. If the interpreter is unavailable in the preferences, then the executable information from the component is used. An error message is generated if the interpreter is not found during execution of the component.

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7. Set the available options in the affinities area. These options are located in the bottom half of the dialog box and are used to control which FIPER Stations may execute the component when using an ACS in the FIPER environment. You can specify the host name, operating system, software, or other information pertaining to the component. For more information about the affinities, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. 8. Click OK to save your changes. For more information on these options, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the OS Command Component,” on page 377. You can also delete or edit existing interpreters. To delete an interpreter, select the interpreter from the list; then, click the Delete button. To edit the preferences for an interpreter, select the interpreter from the list; then, change the appropriate information.

Setting Word Component Preferences
The following preference options are available with the Word component: Default document close option. Determine the default behavior for the Word file that is created with the component. You can choose to leave the file open after execution, or to close it after each job or after the full execution of the component. Note: If you have not added the Word component to your Component Palette, this preference option will not appear on your Preferences dialog box. For more information on this option, and all other options available with this component, see “Using the Word Component,” on page 430.

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Using the DOE Component
This section describes how you can use conventional Design of Experiments capabilities in iSIGHT-FD. It is divided into the following parts: “Overview” on this page “Opening the Editor and Using the General Tab,” on page 124 “Using the Factors Tab,” on page 127 “Using the Design Matrix Tab,” on page 129 “Using the Post Processing Tab,” on page 131 “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 133 “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 137 “Setting Technique-Specific Options,” on page 138 Note: This component has default preferences which you can set based on your needs. For more information, see “Setting DOE Component Preferences,” on page 118.

Overview
Design of Experiments is a general term that refers to any of the many formal methods available for setting parameter values in a set of experiments. In iSIGHT-FD, a DOE experiment is defined as an execution of the workflow defined within the DOE component. You can use the DOE component in iSIGHT-FD for the following purposes: assessing the impact of input parameters on output parameters identifying significant parameter interactions analyzing a design space and providing a rough estimate of an optimal design (which can then be used as a starting point for numerical optimization) creating a database that can be used to generate Response Surface Models

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Understanding Design of Experiments
You do not need to have knowledge of DOE, or extensive knowledge of the design problem, to use DOE capabilities. However, you should know the following: parameters you want to study (i.e., the input parameters that may impact performance/quality) number of experiments or trials you can afford to run output quantities of interest (i.e., those that in some way represent the performance/quality of the product) overall goal of the study (e.g., estimation of an optimal design, response surface approximation, etc.)

Available Techniques
The following Design of Experiments techniques are available in iSIGHT-FD (although all techniques listed below may not be included in your installation): Central Composite Design Data File Full Factorial Latin Hypercube Optimal Latin Hypercube Orthogonal Arrays Parameter Study For more detailed information on these techniques, see “DOE Reference Information,” on page 692. Note: Techniques can be added to the DOE component by publishing new “DOE Technique” plug-ins to the Library. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide.

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Opening the Editor and Using the General Tab
To open the DOE component editor and use the General tab: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The editor is divided into four tabs: General, Factors, Design Matrix, and Post Processing. The General tab allows you to select a technique, set technique options, and set general DOE execution options (see step 2). The Factors tab allows you to select factors to study for your design. The Design Matrix tab provides options for viewing and modifying the generated design matrix. The Post Processing tab allows you to specify actions taken after running your set of experiments. The options available on each of these tabs are defined in greater detail in the following sections. 2. Select the desired technique using the DOE Technique button. The technique’s options appear in the Technique Options area, and information about the technique appears in the Technique Description area on the right side of the editor. Note: You can set default behavior for this option using the component preferences as described in “Setting DOE Component Preferences,” on page 118. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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3. Review the information in the Technique Description area to determine if the selected technique is suitable for your specific problem. For additional information on the technique, see “DOE Reference Information,” on page 692. 4. Set the options for your technique as desired in the Technique Options area. For more information on these options, see “Setting Technique-Specific Options,” on page 138; then, return to this section. 5. Set the following options in the Execution Options area of the General tab: Execute DOE design points in parallel. If selected, all of the design points defined by the design matrix will be submitted for execution simultaneously. You may need to clear (deselect) this option if components within the DOE subflow have license limitations or other requirements that mandate only one execution at a time. Action when design point fails. If a design run fails during execution of the DOE technique, you can choose to have iSIGHT-FD ignore the failed run, fail the entire execution, retry the failed run (a specific number of times), or replace the failed run by re-executing with a specified percentage modification of the failed run. 6. Click the Advanced Options... button. The Advanced Execution Options dialog box appears.

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126 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Set the following options, as desired: Execute designs in random order. Select this option if you want the design points defined by the design matrix to be executed in random order. Note: For computer simulations, which are deterministic, the order of execution should have no bearing on the results. This option is provided primarily for cases in which the design matrix is going to be exported for use in physical experiments where randomness can alter the results through the influence of noise (unknown) effects. Execute subflow only once. If selected, the subflow executes only one time. This is useful in models that need to turn the driver logic on/off parametrically. This option is also helpful in debugging the process. Read response values from file (don’t execute subflow). Select this option if you do not want the DOE component to actually execute an iSIGHT-FD subflow for each design point, but to instead read the response values for each design point from a specified file. You can locate the file using the Browse... button. The format of the file must be a first row with parameter names and each subsequent row containing the values for the parameters for that design point. This feature is useful for when you have a complete data set (input and output values) already compiled and simply want to use DOE as a post-processing tool. This capability is more directly accessible using the Data File technique and selecting the File contains responses option. For more information on this technique, see “Setting Technique-Specific Options,” on page 138. Allow the following to be turned off by parameters. This option allows you to de-activate (turn off) the selected types of design parameters (factors, responses) using input parameters to the DOE components. If this option is selected, boolean input parameters will be created in an Active Factors/Active Responses aggregate under the Mapped Options and Attributes aggregate parameter. The parameters are selected by default. If any of the parameters are not selected at runtime, then those design parameters will not be used during execution.

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Using the Factors Tab
To use the DOE component’s Factors tab: 1. Click the Factors tab. The contents of the tab appear.

The tab presents a table of available input parameters to select as factors to study, along with columns for attributes to specify for each factor. The attributes to specify are determined by the DOE technique being used. 2. Select the parameters you want to define as factors to study by clicking the check box that corresponds to the parameter. To add all the selected parameters as factors, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. If no parameters are selected, you will be prompted to add all parameters as factors. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. Note that arrays and aggregates themselves cannot be selected. You must open them (click the ) and select scalar members. 3. Change any of the default values, which are provided for all attributes for a selected factor, as desired. Note: Depending on the technique, a change in one of the columns might automatically update any other columns that are related.

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128 Chapter 4 Using Components Although each technique defines the appropriate set of attributes for a factor, the following set of attributes are common among many of the techniques. # Levels. This attribute is the number of levels at which you wish to study the factors. A change to this attribute will automatically readjust the Levels for this factor. Levels. This attribute is a space-separated list of the levels at which to study the factor. The related attributes are updated once you click in a different cell. Lower/Upper. These attributes are lower/upper levels for the factor. A change to one of these attributes will automatically calculate new levels evenly distributed between the Lower and Upper values. Relation. This attribute specifies whether the Levels should be interpreted as values or as %/difference (diff.) from a specified Baseline. Baseline. This attribute is the value to be used for converting Levels into values when the Relation is “%” or “diff.” Other factor attributes specific to individual techniques can be found in “Setting Technique-Specific Options,” on page 138. 4. Select the Update factor baselines to current values when executing option at the bottom of the tab if you want the baseline values updated to the current parameter values before executing. If iSIGHT-FD previously modified a parameter, this option allows for automatic updating of the baseline of all factors to the current parameter values in iSIGHT-FD, prior to executing the DOE technique, which will re-adjust the values to be studied appropriately. The default is to have this option deactivated, retaining user-defined settings. This option is useful if the DOE technique is executed after another element of the workflow that might change the parameter values (for example, after an Optimization component), so that the DOE study can be performed around the new design point. Note: You can also set variable options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 137.

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Using the Design Matrix Tab
To use the DOE component’s Design Matrix tab: 1. Click the Design Matrix tab. The contents of the tab appear.

This tab displays the design matrix generated for the technique selected (“Opening the Editor and Using the General Tab,” on page 124) and the factors selected and attributes specified on the Factors tab (“Using the Factors Tab,” on page 127). 2. (Optimal Latin Hypercube technique only). Click the Generate button to create your design matrix. This ability to manually generate your matrix is present since this process can take a significant amount of time. The Design Matrix Generation Status dialog box appears, showing you how the matrix generation is progressing.

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130 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: If you do not manually generate the design matrix in the component editor, it will automatically be generated as part of the execution. 3. (Optimal Latin Hypercube technique only) Examine the information displayed on the Status dialog box; then, click the Close button once the matrix has been created. If you click the Close button before the optimization of the design matrix is complete, the resulting design matrix will be the last one generated during the optimization process. 4. (Orthogonal Arrays technique only) Click the Options... button to display any options available for generating the design matrix. When using Orthogonal Arrays, the factors are automatically assigned to columns in a way that minimizes confounding with interaction effects. Preference is given to factors in the order they were defined. 5. Select how you want the design matrix displayed using the Show button. You can display the design matrix as values (the actual values to be set at execution) or levels (the level number as generated by the technique algorithm). 6. Perform any of the following actions, as desired, to manipulate the design matrix: Deactivate a single design point. Click any row number to deactivate that design point so that it will not be executed (a icon appears). You can also click the button at the top of the design matrix, or right-click the design matrix and select the Skip selected design point(s) option from the menu that appears. Deactivate all design points. To deactivate all design points in the design matrix, highlight all of the design points and click the button. You can also right-click the design matrix and select Skip all design points from the menu that appears. Note: Deactivating design points is useful when it is known that a specific set of values in the design matrix represents a design that cannot be evaluated for whatever reason. Activate a design point. To activate a design point that has been set to be skipped, click the icon that represents the design point. The row number reappears. You can also click the button at the top of the design matrix, or right-click the design point and select Activate selected design point(s) from the menu that appears.

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matrix, highlight all of the design points and click the button. You can also right-click the design matrix and select Activate all design points from the menu that appears. Copy the design matrix. This option copies the design matrix to the clipboard so that is can be pasted elsewhere (for example, in a text file). This option can be accessed using the Copy button above the design matrix or by right-clicking the design matrix and selecting Copy design matrix from the menu that appears. Save the design matrix. Saves the design matrix to a file. This option can be accessed by clicking the Save button above the design matrix or by right-clicking the design matrix and selecting Save... from the menu that appears.

Using the Post Processing Tab
To use the DOE component’s Post Processing tab: 1. Click the Post Processing tab. The contents of the tab appear.

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132 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Select the output parameters you want to define as responses by clicking the check box that corresponds to the parameter. To add all the selected parameters as responses, click the button at the bottom of the tab. If no parameters are selected, you will be prompted to add all parameters as responses. To deselect all the parameters, click the button.

Note: While the number of response quantities specified has no effect on the cost of executing the experiments, and only slightly affects the cost of analyzing results, you should be careful to focus on key quantities that directly relate to the performance/quality of the product to specify as responses. This action eases the interpretation of results in making design decisions. 3. If desired for a given response, specify an objective (minimize or maximize) and any appropriate weighting factor in the corresponding columns. This setting allows you to screen for the most influential factors, and to estimate an optimal design. It is also used to determine the “best” point of all the designs executed. Note: You can also set response options using the button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 137. 4. Set the following post execution options: Calculate basic statistics. This option calculates the minimum and maximum mean, standard deviation, and range of all of the data for each factor or response. Perform regression analysis. This option performs linear regression analysis to determine the main effects of each factor on each response. Write experiment data to a file. This option allows you to write all of the DOE run data to the specified file after execution. Use the Browse... button to specify this file. Click the Output file parameter ’DOE Results.Data Set’ check box to also provide this data as an output file parameter (called “Data Set”) in the DOE Results output parameter. 5. Click OK to close the editor and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the editor open.

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Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters
The configuration (technique options, design parameter attributes, and execution options) of a design driver-type component is stored in the property information for the component. However, you can drive these options and attributes by parameters. For example, the number of points in a Latin Hypercube design matrix can be driven by a parameter in a previous component. To map an option to a parameter: 1. Open the DOE component editor. 2. Perform one of the following actions: To map a technique option value to a parameter, proceed to step 3. To map an execution option to a parameter, proceed to step 7. To map a factor or response attribute to a parameter, proceed to step 11. 3. Click the value in the Value column for the technique option whose value you want to map. The value is highlighted. 4. Right-click the value; then, select the Map this value to a parameter option. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

5. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the technique option name is used); then, click OK.

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134 Chapter 4 Using Components Once mapped, an icon appears next to the technique option’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 6. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 15. 7. Right-click one of the following execution options in the bottom left corner of the editor: Execute DOE design points in parallel Execute subflow only once (you need to click the Advanced Options... button to gain access to this option) 8. Select the Map this value to a parameter option.

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The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

9. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the execution option name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, an icon appears next to the execution option. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 10. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 15. 11. Determine if you want to map a factor or response attribute; then, click the appropriate tab on the component editor. 12. Right-click the attribute you want to map. A menu appears.

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136 Chapter 4 Using Components 13. Perform one of the following options: If you want to apply the mapping to only the selected parameter, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected option. If you want to apply the mapping to all the parameters, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option. An icon appears next to the attribute’s value. You can click the icon to view or change the parameter name.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. Note: You can remove these mappings at any time. Simply right-click the appropriate parameter attribute; then, select the Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected or Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option, depending on how you originally mapped the attribute. 14. Click OK to close the component editor and return to the Design Gateway. 15. Click the Parameters tab. 16. Locate the new aggregate parameter called Mapped Attributes and Options parameter; then, click the icon to expand the parameter. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the DOE Component The new parameters appear, which will be mapped into the appropriate attributes/options at the beginning of execution.

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Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters
You can add, remove, and edit attributes for multiple design parameters (factors, design variables, responses, objectives, etc.) at the same time. To edit attributes for multiple factors/responses: 1. Select the parameters you want to add/remove/edit on either the Factors or Post Processing tab. To add all the selected parameters as factors, click the Check button ( button on the Post Processing tab) at the bottom of the tab. If no parameters are selected, you will be prompted to add all parameters as factors. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button ( button on the Post Processing tab).

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138 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Click the Edit... button ( button on the Post Processing tab) at the bottom of the component editor. The Edit dialog box appears. In the following example, a parameter on the Factors tab is being edited.

3. Update the listed values, as desired. Only options with defined values appear on this dialog box. 4. Click OK. The values are updated for all the parameters that were selected.

Setting Technique-Specific Options
This section defines options that are specific to the technique you selected in “Opening the Editor and Using the General Tab,” on page 124. Each technique subsection is further divided into two parts. The first part describes technique-specific options. The second part describes factor-specific options. See any of the following sections for complete information: “Setting Central Composite Technique Options,” on page 139 “Setting Data File Technique Options,” on page 139 “Setting Full-Factorial Technique Options,” on page 140 “Setting Latin Hypercube Technique Options,” on page 141 “Setting Optimal Latin Hypercube Options,” on page 141 “Setting Orthogonal Array Technique Options,” on page 142 “Setting Parameter Study Technique Options,” on page 143

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Setting Central Composite Technique Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Central Composite is selected: Technique tab options: None Factor tab options: Alpha. The Lower and Upper levels specify the two levels at which a 2-level full-factorial study is performed. The center point is also studied. The Alpha option is a ratio defining two other points (also known as “star points”) at which to study the given factor. For example, Alpha set to 0.25 indicates the factor is to be studied at points 1/4 of the way from the baseline to the lower and upper levels. Alpha set to 1.6 indicates the factor is to be studied 50% beyond the lower and upper levels. For example, Lower = 5, Upper = 20, Baseline = 10, and Alpha = 0.25 results in Levels = {5, 8.75, 10, 12.5, 20}. Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Setting Data File Technique Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Data File is selected: Technique tab options: File. The first step in setting Data File technique options is to select the file that you want to use with the technique. Click the button to specify the file that contains the values you want to use. The Configure File Parameter dialog box appears. Select the file to be used. If you want the current file contents to be used, set the type to InModel, otherwise select File or URL and provide the appropriate path information. You can also specify a file that data will be written to. For more information on using file parameters, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. Contains Levels. Select this check box if your data file contains levels instead of actual values. If this is selected, additional factor attributes will be available (Lower, Upper, Relation, Baseline) to define how to calculate values from the levels. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

140 Chapter 4 Using Components Transposed. Select this check box if you want to use a data file in which each row represents a set of values for the parameter whose name is the first item in that row (thus, the file is “transposed” from the standard format in which each column represents a parameter and its values). A transposed data file must have the parameter name as the first item in the row (enclosed in quotes if spaces exist), and each row must have the same number of values in it. Use Header Row. Select this check box if your data file has a header row containing the factor names. Header Row. Specify which row contains the names of your factors by entering its corresponding number. Data Starts on Row. Specify the row in your file where the data begins by entering its corresponding number. If you are using a header row, the specified row must be greater than the header. File contains responses. Select this option if you do not want the DOE component to actually execute an iSIGHT-FD subflow for each design point, but to instead read the response values for each design point from a specified file. The format of the file must be a first row with parameter names and each subsequent row containing the values for the parameters for that design point. This feature is useful for when you have a complete data set (input and output values) already compiled and simply want to use DOE as a post-processing tool. Factor tab options: Column. If you have specified not to use a header row to find factors in the file, you must provide the column number for each factor. Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Setting Full-Factorial Technique Options
There are no options available for this technique. Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

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Setting Latin Hypercube Technique Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Latin Hypercube is selected: Technique tab options: Number of Points. Enter the number of points that you want to study. For each defined factor, the levels are defined by uniformly distributing this number of points between specified lower and upper values. These levels are then randomly combined with levels of the other factors to define each design point to execute. Use a fixed seed. If desired, specify a fixed seed to use for determining the random combinations of factor levels. Note: A fixed seed can also be set and used for the entire model. If a fixed seed is set for the model and also defined separately in DOE, then the one in DOE will be used. If a fixed seed is set for the model and this option is not selected, then the sequence of random numbers will be based on the model’s random seed (and thus is still reproducible). For information on setting a fixed seed, see “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42. Factor tab options: None Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Setting Optimal Latin Hypercube Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Optimal Latin Hypercube is selected: Technique tab options: Number of Points. Enter the number of points that you want to study. For each defined factor, the levels are defined by uniformly distributing this number of points between specified lower and upper values. These levels are then randomly combined with levels of the other factors to define each design point to execute.

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142 Chapter 4 Using Components Max Time to Optimize (minutes). Enter the maximum amount of time (in minutes) that the component can optimize. Once this time limit is reached, the optimization stops. Use a fixed seed. The seed can be fixed by clicking this check box and specifying the seed manually in the corresponding text box. If this check box is not activated, the seed is determined randomly. Note: A fixed seed can also be set and used for the entire model. If a fixed seed is set for the model and also defined separately in DOE, then the one in DOE will be used. If a fixed seed is set for the model and this option is not selected, then the sequence of random numbers will be based on the model’s random seed (and thus is still reproducible). For information on setting a fixed seed, see “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42. Factor tab options: None. Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Setting Orthogonal Array Technique Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Orthogonal Array is selected: Technique tab options: The Orthogonal Array technique allows you to select one of the following options from the Array drop-down list to specify the array size (and thus, the resolution) to use for the experiment: 2-Level: L8, L16, L32, L64, L128, L256 3-Level: L27, L81, L243 Mixed: L12, L18, L36, L54 Plackett-Burman: PB12, PB20, PB24, PB28, PB36 Only those arrays that are appropriate for the current number of factors (and number of levels) will appear in this list. Note: The Orthogonal Array technique will allow you to specify a mixed number of levels for the factors, and will automatically use the appropriate array to iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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accommodate your settings, possibly modifying the basic structure of the array to ensure orthogonality. You can always manually choose a larger array, if desired. Factor tab options: None Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Setting Parameter Study Technique Options
The following options are available on the Technique and Factors tabs when Parameter Study is selected: Technique tab options: Run baseline point. Select this option if you want an additional point to be executed in which all factors are set to their Baseline values. Including a baseline design point allows for the Parameter Study technique to be used exactly as a simple finite differencing technique for sensitivity calculations (i.e., the effective difference caused by each factor is independently varied by some small difference from a baseline design). Factor tab options: None Return to step 5 on page 125 for information on using the other options and tabs on the DOE component editor.

Using the Loop Component
The Loop component is a process component capable of executing subflows based on conditions. The Loop component has five main options (or types of loops): For. This loop type is used to execute subflows while continuously incrementing the value of a selected parameter. For Array. This loop type is used to execute subflows for each element of one or more arrays, and accumulate subflow results into one or more arrays.

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144 Chapter 4 Using Components For Each. This loop type is used to execute subflows while iterating through a list of values for a selected parameter. While. This loop type is used to execute subflows as long as a specified condition is met. Do Until. This loop type is used to execute subflows until a condition is satisfied. The number of executions is not constant. Important: This component is subject to certain limitations. You should review these limitations before attempting to create a loop. For more information on these limitations, see “Understanding Loop Limitations,” on page 157. The available loop types differ in the way the conditions are expressed. This section describes the options available for each type of loop. Proceed to any of the following sections for more information: “Creating a For Loop” on this page “Creating a For Array Loop,” on page 146 “Creating a For Each Loop,” on page 150 “Creating a While Loop,” on page 152 “Creating a Do Until Loop,” on page 154 “Understanding Parallel Loop Execution,” on page 156 “Understanding Loop Limitations,” on page 157

Creating a For Loop
This loop will iterate through a sequence of values of the selected parameter and execute the subflow at each iteration. To create a For Loop: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components, and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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Using the Loop Component The Component Editor dialog box appears.

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2. Verify that For is displayed on the Loop Type button. 3. Select a parameter using the Parameter drop-down list, or create a new parameter using the button.

Note: Only parameters of type Real or Integer can be used in a For loop. The selected parameter's value is altered during every run from a starting value (the From option) to a final value (the To option) incremented in steps with a specified value (the Increment option). 4. Select Parameter or Constant using the From button; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box. This setting represents your starting value. Note: If you choose to select a parameter, the to add a new parameter. button appears. Click the button

5. Select Parameter or Constant using the To button; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box. This setting represents your final value.

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146 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: If you choose to select a parameter, the to add a new parameter. button appears. Click the button

6. Select Parameter or Constant using the Increment button; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box. The Increment value, if the Constant option is selected, can be either a positive value or a negative value. Zero (0) is not a valid value for this option. Note: The Increment value can be a real or integer value. Note: If you choose to select a parameter, the to add a new parameter. button appears. Click the button

7. Click the Action when a run fails drop-down list to determine the action iSIGHT-FD should take if a subflow fails. If Fail Loop is selected, the Loop component will fail when the subflow fails. If Ignore run and Continue is selected, the run continues after a failed subflow. This option applies to both parallel and sequential execution. 8. Set the Execute all iterations in parallel option using the corresponding check box. If selected, all of the subflows will be submitted for execution simultaneously (in parallel). If not selected, the subflows are executed one after the other (sequentially). 9. Select OK to close the editor, save your changes, and return to the Design Gateway. Note: For information on how parameters other than the arrays behave for sequential and parallel For loops, see “Understanding Parallel Loop Execution,” on page 156.

Creating a For Array Loop
This loop will iterate once for each element of the array(s). Element 0 of each array is copied into the associated subflow parameter, the subflow is run, and then the process is repeated for element 1, and so on. This type of loop is the only one that can save the results of loops run in parallel.

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Using the Loop Component To create a For Array Loop: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components, and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears. 2. Click the Loop Type button; then, select the For Array option. The editor is updated to show the loop’s options.

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3. Select an array parameter using the Array Parameter drop-down list, or create a new array parameter using the button.

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148 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Select the mapping direction of the array parameter using the corresponding button. The following options are available: To subflow. Elements of the array are copied to a scalar variable in the subflow before the subflow is executed. This setting is the default for an input array parameter. To/From subflow. Each element of the array is copied into a variable in the subflow, the subflow is run, and the resulting value of the scalar variable is copied back into the array element. This setting is the default for an array with mode in/out. From subflow. The value the scalar variable is copied into an element of the array after the subflow runs. This setting is the default for an output array parameter. 5. Select the subflow parameter using the Subflow Parameter drop-down list, or create a new scalar parameter using the button.

6. Click the button to add your selection to the table in the center of the editor. The loop will iterate through these values. Note: You can delete an item from the table by selecting the item and clicking the button. By default, the loop will execute once for each element of the first array. If there is only one array, or all of the arrays are the same size, this is an obvious behavior. If there are several arrays and arrays have different sizes, the loop will execute once for each element of the smallest array. The extra elements in the other arrays are not used or modified. If you wish to set the number of loops, see step 11. 7. (optional) Repeat step 3 through step 6 for additional arrays. There is no limit to the number of arrays that can be mapped by one For Array loop. 8. Click the Design Matrix button to view the values that will be used for each subflow run.

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Using the Loop Component The For Array Design Matrix dialog box appears.

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Only the input and in/out mappings are shown. The first column is the run number, and the other columns are the values of the scalar subflow variables for that run. 9. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the Loop component editor. 10. Click the Action when a run fails drop-down list to determine the action iSIGHT-FD should take if a subflow fails. If Fail Loop is selected, the Loop component will fail when the subflow fails. If Ignore run and Continue is selected, the run continues after a failed subflow, but the run is ignored and no results are returned for it. This option applies to both parallel and sequential execution. 11. Click the Limit the number of loops check box if you want to limit the number of loops. You would normally use this option if some earlier step in the workflow filled in only part of the array(s) and you want to process only those parts. The number of times the loop runs can be set to a constant or the value of an input integer parameter. Once you have clicked the check box, you can use the corresponding drop-down list to select a constant or parameter, and then fill in the constant value or the name of the input parameters. You can use the button to create a new parameter as the loop limit. Only input integer parameters are allowed.

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150 Chapter 4 Using Components 12. Set the Execute all iterations in parallel option using the corresponding check box. If selected, all the subflows will be submitted for execution simultaneously (in parallel). If not selected, the subflows are executed one after the other (sequentially). 13. Select OK to close the editor, save your changes, and return to the Design Gateway. Note: For information on how parameters other than the arrays behave for sequential and parallel For Array loops, see “Understanding Parallel Loop Execution,” on page 156. The output arrays are correctly assigned values from the subflow for both sequential and parallel execution. Note: In the subflow of a For Array loop, the array index being processed can be obtained from the parameter “Run #”. You will need to adjust for the fact that the run counter starts at 1, but the array indexes start at 0. It may be convenient to include a calculator component in the subflow with the following expression: N = Run-1 then, map parameter “Run #” in the loop to parameter “Run” in the calculator. Note: Array parameters can vary in size at runtime. If a resizable input or in/out array is used in a For Array loop, the actual size at runtime will be used to determine the number of loops. If a resizable output array is used, its size will be adjusted at runtime to match the number of loops.

Creating a For Each Loop
This loop will iterate through a list of values of the selected parameter and execute the subflow at each iteration. The values in the list can be either predefined constants or values of other parameters. The difference between this loop and the For Loop option is the following: The value list contains any set of values, which are not necessarily evenly spaced. String and Boolean data types can also be used, not just Integers and Reals.

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Using the Loop Component To create a For Each Loop: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components, and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears. 2. Click the Loop Type button; then, select the For Each option. The editor is updated to show the loop’s options.

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3. Select a parameter using the Parameter drop-down list, or create a new parameter using the button.

Note: Parameters of type Real, Integer, String, and Boolean can be used in a For Each loop. The selected parameter's value is altered during every run from the values list specified. This values list is determined in the next step. 4. Select Parameter or Constant from the button in the middle of the editor; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box.

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152 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: All values in the list must match the data type of the selected iteration parameter. For example, a parameter of type Boolean will only accept boolean values. 5. Click the button to add your selection to the Values List in the center of the editor. The loop will iterate through these values. Note: You can delete an item from the Values List by selecting the item and clicking the button.

6. Repeat step 4 and step 5 for each item you want to add to the Values List. 7. Use the Up button and Down button Values List, if necessary. to rearrange the information in the

8. Click the Action when a run fails drop-down list to determine the action iSIGHT-FD should take if a subflow fails. If Fail Loop is selected, the Loop component will fail when the subflow fails. If Ignore run and Continue is selected, the run continues after a failed subflow. This option applies to both parallel and sequential execution. 9. Set the Execute all iterations in parallel option using the corresponding check box. If selected, all of the subflows will be submitted for execution simultaneously (in parallel). If not selected, the subflows are executed one after the other (sequentially). 10. Select OK to close the editor, save your changes, and return to the Design Gateway. Note: For information on how parameters other than the arrays behave for sequential and parallel For Each loops, see “Understanding Parallel Loop Execution,” on page 156.

Creating a While Loop
This loop will first check a condition and, if satisfied, will keep executing the subflow while the condition is satisfied. Multiple conditions can be combined into one logical expression. The number of iterations is determined at runtime.

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Using the Loop Component To create a While Loop: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components, and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears. 2. Click the Loop Type button; then, select the While option. The editor is updated to show the loop’s options.

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Now you need to create an expression to add to the Conditions area (at the bottom of the editor) using constants, parameters, or both. This component will execute the subflows as long as the expression evaluates to true. Complex expressions can also be created using Logical AND and OR expressions. Furthermore, the grouping of logical conditions is supported. 3. Select a parameter using the Parameter drop-down list, or create a new parameter using the button.

4. Click the Condition button; then, select your desired condition from the list that appears. 5. Select Parameter or Constant from the button below the Condition button; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

154 Chapter 4 Using Components 6. Click the the editor. button to add your selection to the Conditions area in the center of

Note: You can delete a condition from the Conditions area by selecting the condition and clicking the button.

7. Repeat step 3 through step 6 for each condition you want to add to the Conditions area. 8. In the Conditions area, click the AND/OR column for any condition except the first one listed; then, select AND or OR from the menu that appears based on the type of condition you are creating. By default, once a second condition is added to the list, the AND operator is selected. Your conditional expression may never be satisfied in some cases. In such cases, you can limit the number of iterations by setting the value for maximum iterations. 9. Use the Up button necessary. and Down button to rearrange the conditions, if

10. Click the Maximum number of iterations check box; then, set the number of maximum iterations in the corresponding text box. 11. Select OK to close the editor, save your changes, and return to the Design Gateway.

Creating a Do Until Loop
This loop will first execute the subflow once, and then check the condition and will continue executing the subflow until the condition is satisfied. Multiple conditions can be combined into one logical expression. To create a Do Until Loop: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components, and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears. 2. Click the Loop Type button; then, select the Do Until option. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the Loop Component The editor is updated to show the loop’s options.

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Now you need to create an expression to add to the Conditions area (at the bottom of the editor) using constants, parameters, or both. This component will execute the subflows until the expression evaluates to true. Complex expressions can also be created using Logical AND and OR expressions. Furthermore, the grouping of logical conditions is supported. 3. Select a parameter using the Parameter drop-down list, or create a new parameter using the button.

4. Click the Condition button; then, select your desired condition from the list that appears. 5. Select Parameter or Constant from the button below the Condition button; then, based on your selection, either select a parameter using the corresponding drop-down list, or enter a constant in the adjacent text box. 6. Click the the editor. button to add your selection to the Conditions area in the center of

Note: You can delete a condition from the Conditions area by selecting the condition and clicking the button.

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156 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Repeat step 3 through step 6 for each condition you want to add to the Conditions area. 8. In the Conditions area, click the AND/OR column (the first column) for any condition except the first one listed; then, select AND or OR from the menu that appears based on the type of condition you are creating. By default, once a second condition is added to the list, the AND operator is selected. The conditional expression may never be satisfied in some cases. In such cases, you can limit the number of iterations by setting the value for maximum iterations. 9. Use the Up button necessary. and Down button to rearrange the conditions, if

10. Click the Maximum number of iterations check box; then, set the number of maximum iterations in the corresponding text box. 11. Select OK to close the editor, save your changes, and return to the Design Gateway.

Understanding Parallel Loop Execution
When a loop component is set to execute all iterations in parallel (For, For Array, or For Each loop), the behavior of in/out parameters is substantially different then when the iterations are run sequentially. When the iterations are run sequentially, each iteration sees the value of in/out parameters as they are updated by previous iterations. When the iterations are run in parallel, all iterations see the value the in/out parameter had when the Loop component started, ignoring any changes made by other iterations. For example, assume a For Loop that increments parameter i from 1 to 5, and has an in/out parameter n initially set to 0. The subflow consists of a calculator that evaluates the expression: n = n+i. If the loop is run sequentially, n will take on the values 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 at the end of each iteration. The final value of n is 15. If the iterations are run in parallel, each subflow sees the input value of n as 0, so the output values are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the final value of n is 5.

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Understanding Loop Limitations
The Loop component has the following limitations: The component does not allow the selection of other parameter types (other than the selected parameter type) for expression formation or value substitution. For example, a For Each loop that has a condition parameter is of type Real does not allow selection of a parameter of type Integer as one of its values. It can only select another parameter of type Real. Proper loop execution requires that the parameters (iteration parameter in For and For Each loops, and condition parameters in While and Do Until loops) are properly mapped between the parent loop and its subflows. After creating a new loop component, make sure that the mappings are created correctly. In order for While and Do Until loops to function properly, all parameters that are used in the conditions and that are expected to change their values during iterations must be of mode Input/Output. In this case their value will be preserved from one iteration to another by the loop component. For example, when creating a While loop with the condition (N < 10), and a calculator in the subflow with the expressing N=N+1, you must ensure that parameter N is of mode Input/Output in both the loop component and the calculator component. If this is not done, parameter N’s value will always be reset back to the initial value at every execution of the calculator, and the loop will end up executing infinitely or until it reaches the maximum number of iterations. For all loops except For Array, the values of all output or in/out parameters after the loop finishes are taken from the last iteration (highest run number, not the last iteration to finish). Only the output array(s) of a For Array loop allow the values of other iterations to be mapped to subsequent components.

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Using the Monte Carlo Component
The design driver capability available for iSIGHT-FD includes a Monte Carlo simulation component. Monte Carlo simulation is used to address uncertainty or randomness (stochastic properties) of a design problem. Using this component, a product or process is simulated randomly, given the stochastic properties of one or more random variables, to characterize the statistical nature of the responses (outputs) of interest. Instructions on using the Monte Carlo simulation component in iSIGHT-FD are provided in this section. Note: This component has default preferences which you can set based on your needs. For more information, see “Setting Monte Carlo Component Preferences,” on page 118. To configure the Monte Carlo component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

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The editor is divided into three tabs: General, Random Variables, and Responses. The General tab offers setup options, and options related to the sampling technique. The Random Variables tab allows for the selection and configuration of the random variables. The Responses tab allows for the selection and configuration of the response parameters. 2. Click the Sampling Technique button; then, select the technique you want to use from the drop-down list that appears. The sampling technique’s options appear directly below the Sampling Technique button, and information about the technique appears in the Sampling Technique Description area on the right side of the editor. Sampling techniques in the Monte Carlo component are implemented as “plug-ins”. As such, they are extendable by creating new plug-ins for new sampling techniques. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. Note: You can set default behavior for this option using the component preferences as described in “Setting Monte Carlo Component Preferences,” on page 118. The sampling technique plug-ins currently available in iSIGHT-FD are the following: Simple Random Sampling. This method is the default selection, and is the most commonly used sampling method. Sample points for simulation are generated randomly and independently. Descriptive Sampling. This method is the recommended method. Fewer simulations are generally required to estimate the statistical characteristics of the system behavior. For more detailed information on these sampling techniques, see “Monte Carlo Reference Information,” on page 699. 3. Set the following options in the Sampling Technique Options area, which vary based on your selected sampling technique: Number of Simulations. Determine the number of simulations to be executed. The default number is 1000 for simple random sampling, and 100 for descriptive sampling. A higher number of simulations specified generally results in an increase in the accuracy level of statistical predictions. Use a fixed seed. The seed can be fixed by clicking this check box and specifying the seed manually in the corresponding text box. If this check box is not activated, the seed is determined randomly. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

160 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Set the following options in the Execution Options area, as desired: Execute Monte Carlo sample points in parallel. Select this option if you'd like the sample points defined by the Monte Carlo simulation to be executed in parallel. Note that the convergence check interval may limit the number of sample points that are executed in parallel to batches that are the size specified for this convergence check interval. After execution, reset to mean value point and run. With this option selected (default), after execution of all Monte Carlo simulation points, the random variables will be set to their mean values and the Monte Carlo subflow will be executed one additional time. In this case, the Monte Carlo parameters (inputs and outputs) will be left at the values calculated for this “mean value point”. If this option is not selected, the Monte Carlo parameters after execution will be left at the values associated with the last (random) Monte Carlo simulation point. Convergence Check Interval. This integer value specifies the frequency at which the convergence of the Monte Carlo response statistics (low order mean and standard deviation) are checked. The default setting requires the convergence of response statistics to be checked after every 25 sample points. Decreasing this value may result in premature convergence; since the sample points are random, or in random order/combinations, sufficient sample points are needed to determine if the response statistics are accurately estimated. Convergence Tolerance. This value is the Monte Carlo termination criterion, which specifies the fractional change in response mean and standard deviation that will allow the simulation to be terminated before reaching the specified number of simulations. For example, if you want the simulation process to stop if the change in the response statistics goes below 5 percent, enter a value of 0.05 in the corresponding text box. Convergence is checked after each set of simulations defined by the Convergence Check Interval (by default, after each set of 25 simulations). The default Convergence Tolerance is 0.001. Note: You can map these settings to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166.

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5. (optional) Click the Advanced Options... button; then, set either of the following options: Execute subflow only once. If selected, the subflow executes only one time. This is useful in models that need to turn the driver logic on/off parametrically. This option is also helpful in debugging the process. Note: You can map this setting to a parameter. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166. Allow the following to be turned off by parameters. This option allows you to de-activate (turn off) the selected types of design parameters (random variables, responses) using input parameters to the Monte Carlo components. If this option is selected, boolean input parameters will be created in an Active Random Variables/Active Responses aggregate under the Mapped Options and Attributes aggregate parameter. The parameters are selected by default. If any of the parameters are not selected at runtime, then those design parameters will not be used during execution. 6. Click the Random Variables tab. The contents of the tab appear.

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162 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Select the parameters you want to use as random variables by clicking the check box that corresponds to the parameter. To select all parameters, click the button at the bottom of the tab. If no parameters are selected, you will be prompted to add all parameters as random variables. To deselect all the parameters, click the button. Once you select a random variable, its name is displayed in the Distribution Information area, and the rest of the tab is activated.

8. Set any of the following options, some of which vary based on your distribution selection: Click the Distribution button to set the probability distribution option for the random variable. Like sampling techniques, random variable distributions are implemented as “plug-ins” used by the Monte Carlo component. They are extendable by creating new “plug-ins” for new distributions. The distribution plug-ins currently available in iSIGHT-FD are the following:

• • • •

Exponential Gumbel - largest Gumbel - smallest Lognormal

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• • • •

Normal Triangular Uniform Weibull

Note: For more information on these distribution options, see “Understanding Distribution Types,” on page 702. Mean. This distribution parameter represents the measure of central tendency of a random variable. Its default setting is the current value of the parameter. Standard Deviation. This distribution parameter represents the measure of dispersion of a random variable. Its default setting is 10% of the mean value. Note: You can map this setting to a parameter. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166. Coeff. of Variation. This distribution parameter is the value of the standard deviation divided by the mean for the random variable. The default value is 0.1. Lambda (Exponential distribution only). This distribution parameter is the scale parameter for the exponential distribution, and is equal to one over the mean value and/or one over the standard deviation (mean and standard deviation are equal for the exponential distribution). Alpha (Gumbel, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions). This distribution parameter is the location parameter for the Gumbel and lognormal distributions, and is the scale parameter for the Weibull distribution. Beta (Gumbel, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions). This distribution parameter is the scale parameter for the Gumbel distributions, and is the shape parameter for the Lognormal and Weibull distributions. Low (Triangular and Uniform distributions). This distribution parameter is the lower limit for the triangular and uniform distributions. Mode (Triangular distribution only). This distribution parameter is the shape parameter of the triangular distribution, representing the peak of the triangle. High (Triangular and Uniform distributions). This distribution parameter is the upper limit for the triangular and uniform distributions. Truncate Distribution Tail(s). Activate this option if you wish to truncate a distribution tail, or both the lower and upper tail. Upon selection, entries iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

164 Chapter 4 Using Components appear for Lower and Upper, referring to the lower tail and the upper tail. Specify the location at which the distribution is to be truncated. Values of the distribution below the Lower truncation value and above the Upper truncation value will not be sampled. The distribution preview graphs are updated to display the effects of truncation. Note: You can use the button to edit the information for multiple random variables. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 172. 9. Review the preview graphs on the right side of the tab. These graphs are automatically updated based on changes made to the selected random variables distribution properties. A legend below the graph explains the color coding. The graphs display the following information: Probability Density. This graph shows the actual shape of the selected distribution with regard to the probability density function. Cumulative Distribution. This graph shows the actual shape of the selected distribution with regard to the cumulative distribution function. 10. Set the Update random variable mean values to current parameter values before execution option. This option, at the bottom of the tab, allows for automatic updating of mean values of all random variables to the current parameter values in this component, prior to executing the Monte Carlo component. The default is to have this option deactivated, and to retain settings. If you want to automatically change the settings to the current point when the Monte Carlo component is executed, click this check button to activate it. This option is useful if the Monte Carlo component is executed after another component, and parameter values are taken from the previous component. 11. Click the Responses tab.

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Using the Monte Carlo Component The contents of the tab appear.

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The output parameters are listed on this tab. 12. Select the output parameters you want to use as responses by clicking the corresponding check boxes. To select all parameters, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. If no parameters are selected, you will be prompted to add all parameters as responses. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. 13. Set the response’s options, as necessary for your simulation: Lower Limit. If a response value is specified in the Lower Limit column for a response, the probability of response values greater than that lower limit will be calculated and reported after all simulations are complete. Upper Limit. If a response value is specified in the Upper Limit column for a response, the probability of response values less than that upper limit will be calculated and reported after all simulations are complete. Note: If both Lower and Upper limits are specified the Total probability between the limits is also reported. This response probability can be used to characterize the reliability of that response with respect to remaining between the limits. The total probability of failure with respect to the specified limits can be determined by subtracting the total probability from one.

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166 Chapter 4 Using Components Percentile. If a percentile value (a value between 0 and 1) is specified in the Percentile column for a response, the response value corresponding to that percentile of the resulting response distribution will be reported after all simulations are complete. Note: When you move your mouse pointer over or click a specific column, the graph that represents that value is outlined on the right side of the tab. The graph not only gives you a visual aid, but provides text information about the individual settings. Note: You can also set response options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 172. 14. (optional) If desired, map any of these response attributes to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters” on this page. 15. Click OK to close the editor and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the editor open.

Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters
The configuration (technique options, execution options, and design parameter attributes) of a design driver-type component is stored in the property information for the component. However, you can drive these options and attributes by parameters. For example, the number of simulations in a Monte Carlo component can be driven by a parameter in a previous component. To map an option to a parameter: 1. Open the Monte Carlo component editor. 2. Perform one of the following actions: To map a technique option value to a parameter, proceed to step 3. To map an execution option to a parameter, proceed to step 7. To map a random variable to a parameter, proceed to step 11. To map a response attribute to a parameter, proceed to step 15.

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3. Click the value in the text box for the technique option whose value you want to map. The value is highlighted. 4. Right-click the value; then, select Map this value to a parameter option. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

5. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the technique option name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, an icon appears next to the technique option’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the parameter name.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 6. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 18.

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168 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Right-click any of the following execution options in the bottom left corner of the editor: Execute Monte Carlo sample points in parallel After execution, reset to mean value point and run Convergence Check Interval (right-click in the text box) Convergence Tolerance (right-click in the text box) Execute subflow only once (you need to click the Advanced Options... button to gain access to this option) 8. Select the Map this value to a parameter option. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

9. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the execution option name is used); then, click OK.

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Once mapped, an icon appears next to the execution option. You can click this button to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 10. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 18. 11. Click the Random Variables tab. 12. Right-click in the Standard Deviation text box; then, click Map this value to a parameter. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

13. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the Standard Deviation option name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, an icon appears next to the tuning

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170 Chapter 4 Using Components parameter’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the parameter name.

14. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 18. 15. Click the Responses tab. 16. Right-click the attribute you want to map. A menu appears. 17. Perform one of the following options: If you want to apply the mapping to only the selected parameter, select the Map <Attribute_Name>to a parameter for selected option. If you want to apply the mapping to all the parameters, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option.

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An icon appears next to the tuning parameter’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. Note: You can remove these mappings at any time. Simply right-click the appropriate parameter attribute; then, select the Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected or Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option, depending on how you originally mapped the attribute. 18. Click OK to close the component editor and return to the Design Gateway. 19. Click the Parameters tab. 20. Locate the new aggregate parameter called Mapped Attributes and Options parameter; then, click the icon to expand the parameter.

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172 Chapter 4 Using Components The new mappings appear.

Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters
You can add, remove, and edit attributes for multiple design parameters (factors, random variables, responses, etc.) at the same time. To edit attributes for multiple design parameters: 1. Select the parameter(s) you want to add/remove/edit on either the Random Variables or Responses tab. To select all parameters, click the button (Check button on the Responses button

tab) at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the (Uncheck button on the Response tab).

2. Click the button (Edit... button on the Response tab) at the bottom of the component editor.

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3. Update the listed values, as desired. Only options with defined values appear on this dialog box. 4. Click OK. The values are updated for all the parameters that were selected.

Using the Optimization Component
The Optimization component in iSIGHT-FD is a basic optimization design driver, which has all required functionality for performing simple optimization studies on problems of a various nature. This implementation of the Optimization component allows execution of any single optimization algorithm from the following list: Adaptive Simulated Annealing Hooke-Jeeves Direct Search Method Generalized Reduced Gradient - LSGRG2 Modified Method of Feasible Directions - MMFD Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm - MIGA Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm - NCGA Sequential Quadratic Programming - NLPQL Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II Pointer Automatic Optimizer Note: All of the algorithms listed above may not be included in your installation, depending on your license.

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174 Chapter 4 Using Components The list of available optimization algorithms includes the best algorithms from several major classes of optimization algorithms, such as gradient-based numeric techniques, direct search techniques, and exploratory techniques. This approach assures that most of the needs of the optimization design engineer area are covered by this Optimization component. For detailed information on each of these techniques, as well as their parameters, see the remaining topics in this section. Note: This component has default preferences which you can set based on your needs. For more information, see “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119. This section is divided into the following topics: “Configuring the Optimization Component” on this page “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183 “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 187 “Using Technique Tuning Parameters,” on page 188

Configuring the Optimization Component
To configure the Optimization component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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The dialog box is divided into four tabs: Technique, Design Variables, Constraints, and Objectives. The Technique tab is specific to the technique you decide to use (see step 2). The three remaining tabs are used for specifying parameters as design variables, constraints, and objectives, as well as setting their corresponding attributes. 2. Click the Optimization Technique button; then, select the technique you want to use from the drop-down list that appears. The technique’s tuning parameters appear directly below the Technique button, and information about the technique appears in the Technique Description area on the right side of the editor. Note: You can set the default selection for the optimization technique using the component preferences as described in “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119.

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176 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Set the following execution options, if available, in the Execution Options area: Execute in parallel. This option controls how the design points will be executed during optimization. (This option is not available for all techniques.) If selected, design points will be executed in parallel, in small batches. The size of the batch depends on the number of selected Design Variables for numerical techniques or the size of the population for exploratory techniques. Re-execute optimum design point. This option forces the optimization component to re-execute the optimum design point after the end of optimization. Re-executing is recommended if there are some output parameters that are not directly involved in optimization, but their values depend on the values of Design Variables (e.g., output file parameters). Use automatic variable scaling. If this option is selected, Design Variables will be scaled using their respective ranges (i.e., distances between their upper and lower bounds). The Scale Factor column will be removed from the Variables page of the dialog, since the values of scale factors will be automatically calculated. Note: You must define all upper and lower bounds (or allowed values) for all design variables when this option is selected. If some design variables do not have bounds, you will not be able to use this option. You can set default selection for this option using the component preferences as described in “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119. Note: You can map these settings to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183. 4. (optional) Click the Advanced Options... button; then, set either of the following options: Execute subflow only once. If selected, the subflow executes only one time, and constraints, objectives, and penalty values are calculated. This is useful in models that need to turn the driver logic on/off parametrically. This option is also helpful in debugging the process. Allow the following items to be turned off by parameter. This option allows you to disable some design parameters at runtime by using parameters. When this option is selected, a set of special “switch” variables are created. By changing the values of these special variables, you can disable their corresponding design parameters. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the Optimization Component You can select the any of the following:

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• Design Variables • Constraints • Objectives
5. Review the information in the Optimization Technique Description area. For additional information on the technique, see “Optimization Reference Information,” on page 716. 6. Set the tuning parameter values for your technique in the Optimization Technique Options area. Note: You can map tuning parameter settings to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183. For more information on these options, see one of the following sections: “Using Adaptive Simulated Annealing Tuning Parameters,” on page 189 “Using Hooke-Jeeves Tuning Parameters,” on page 192 “Using Generalized Reduced Gradient Tuning (LSGRG2) Parameters,” on page 194 “Using Modified Method of Feasible Directions Parameters,” on page 196 “Using Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters,” on page 197 “Using Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters,” on page 200 “Using Sequential Quadratic Programming (NLPQL) Tuning Parameters,” on page 201 “Using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II Tuning Parameters,” on page 203 “Using Pointer Automatic Optimizer Tuning Parameters,” on page 204

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178 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Click the Variables tab. The contents of the tab appear.

The list of parameters on this tab includes all parameters of modes Input and In/Out from the Optimization component, and also parameters of the same modes from the subflow components, if they are not mapped to any parameters of the Optimization component. 8. Perform any of the following actions, which vary based on your model design: Determine which parameters you wish to use as variables by selecting the corresponding check boxes in the first column. Selecting a subflow parameter as a variable will, at a later time, create a corresponding parameter in the Optimization component. Only parameters of type real, integer, and string can be variables. You can also select all of the listed variables (including array elements) using the Check button at the bottom of the tab. Specify the lower bound for the variables in the corresponding column. This setting is required if you are using the automatic scaling component preference. For more information, see “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119. Alter the initial value in the Value column.

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Note: This column is not available for Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm, since the initial design point is not used by this algorithm. Warning: The initial values of the variables will be overridden at the execution time if the Optimization component is a child component of another process component (for example, a Task component). Therefore, to change the initial values of variables, you must change the corresponding parameter values in the parent (Task) component. Warning: Changing initial values of variables essentially changes their values in the main Design Gateway window. These changes are immediate and cannot be reversed by clicking Cancel on the Optimization Component editor. Specify the upper bound for the variables in the corresponding column. This setting is required if you are using the automatic scaling component preference. For more information, see “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119. Type a comma separated list of allowed values in the Allowed Values column. If you enter allowed values, the lower and upper bounds are erased, and vice versa. Entering a list of allowed values creates a discrete variable, and tells the Optimization component that only these values can be used during optimization. The optimization algorithm will view this variable as an integer parameter with the range of values 0,1,2,...,N-1, where N is the length of the allowed values list. Set the scale factor for the variable in the corresponding column. Scale factors are used to bring variable values to the same order of magnitude to improve the efficiency of the optimizers. Note: This column does not appear if you use the automatic scaling component preference. For more information, see “Setting Optimization Component Preferences,” on page 119. (Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm technique only) Set the value in the Gene Size column. This value controls the number of bits N in all genes used for encoding the value of each variable. Every bit of the gene can change its value between 0 and 1. The total number of possible combinations in every gene is then 2^N. This number of combinations determines the minimum change in the value of any design variable during all genetic operations - take the allowed range of values for a design variable, and divide it by the total number of combinations. To increase the minimum change in design variable values

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180 Chapter 4 Using Components (i.e., to decrease the number of possible bit combinations when the allowed range of design variable values is small), decrease the gene size. Note: You can also set variable options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 187. 9. (optional) If desired, map any of these variable attributes to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183. 10. Click the Constraints tab. The constraints for your problem are displayed.

The list of parameters on this tab includes all parameters of mode Output from the Optimization component, and also parameters of mode Output from the subflow components, if they are not mapped to any parameters in the Optimization component. When any subflow parameter is selected as a constraint, a corresponding parameter is created in the Optimization component. 11. Perform any of the following options, which vary based on your model design: Determine which parameters you wish to use as constraints by selecting the corresponding check boxes in the first column. You can also select all of the listed constraints (including array elements) using the Check button at the bottom of the tab. Set the lower and upper bound of a constraint in the corresponding columns. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the Optimization Component Set the constraint’s target in the corresponding column.

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Set the constraint’s scale and weight factors in the corresponding columns. Scale factors are used to bring constraint values to the same order of magnitude to improve the efficiency of the optimizers. Weight factors are used to change the importance of various constraints. Note: You can also set constraint options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 187. 12. (optional) If desired, map any of these constraint attributes to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183. The value of each constraint is calculated as follows: Constraint Value (Lower Bound) = (LB-Parm)*W/S Constraint Value (Upper Bound) = (Parm-UB)**W/S Constraint Value (Target) = (Parm-T)**W/S where LB is the lower bound value, UB is the upper bound value, T is the target value, Parm is the parameter value, W is the weight factor, and S is the scale factor. 13. Click the Objectives tab. The contents of the tab appear.

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182 Chapter 4 Using Components The list of parameters on this tab includes all parameters of mode Output from the Optimization component, and also parameters of the same modes from the subflow components, if they are not mapped to any parameters in the Optimization component. Also, design variables (selected on the Variables tab) are included in the list of parameters. 14. Perform any of the following actions, which vary based on your model design: Determine which parameters you wish to use as objectives by selecting the corresponding check boxes in the first column. You can also select all of the listed objectives (including array elements) using the Check button at the bottom of the tab. When a subflow parameter is selected as an objective, a corresponding parameter is created in the Optimization component. The value of the objective function is calculated as a sum of all objective components with corresponding weight and scale factors: Objective = Sum (OBJi * Wi / Si) where OBJi is the i-th objective component (parameter), Wi is the corresponding weight factor, and Si is the corresponding scale factor. Click the Direction column to specify whether or not you want to minimize or maximize the objective. A drop-down list appears, allowing you to alter the specification. Set the objective’s scale and weight factors in the corresponding columns. Note: You can also set objective options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 187. 15. (optional) If desired, map any of these objective attributes to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 183. 16. Click OK to close the editor and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the editor open.

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Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters
The configuration (technique options, design parameter attributes, and execution options) of a design driver-type component is stored in the property information for the component. However, you can drive these options and attributes by parameters. For example, the maximum number of iterations in an Optimization component can be driven by a parameter in a previous component. To map an option to a parameter: 1. Open the Optimization component editor. 2. Perform one of the following actions: To map a technique option to a parameter, proceed to step 3. To map an execution option to a parameter, proceed to step 7. To map a variable, constraint, or objective attribute to a parameter, proceed to step 11. 3. Click the value in the Value column for the tuning parameter whose value you want to map. The value is highlighted. 4. Right-click the value; then, select the Map this value to a parameter option. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

5. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the technique option name is used); then, click OK.

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184 Chapter 4 Using Components Once mapped, an icon appears next to the technique option’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again in order to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 6. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 15. 7. Right-click any of the following execution options in the bottom left corner of the editor: Execute in parallel Re-execute optimum design point Use automatic variable scaling Execute subflow only once (you need to click the Advanced Options... button to gain access to this option) 8. Select the Map this value to a parameter option.

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The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

9. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the turning parameter name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, a button appears next to the execution option. You can click this button to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 10. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 15. 11. Determine if you want to map a variable, constraint, or objective attribute; then, click the appropriate tab on the component editor.

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186 Chapter 4 Using Components 12. Right-click the attribute you want to map. A menu appears. Note: If there is no value defined for the attribute, the menu does not appear. You must first create the attribute by typing a value and pressing the ENTER key. 13. Perform one of the following options: If you want to apply the mapping to only the selected parameter, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected option. If you want to apply the mapping to all the parameters, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option. An icon appears next to the tuning parameter’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as special aggregate parameter. Note: You can remove these mappings at any time. Simply right-click the appropriate parameter attribute; then, select the Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected or Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option, depending on how you originally mapped the attribute. 14. Click OK to close the component editor and return to the Design Gateway. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the Optimization Component 15. Click the Parameters tab. 16. Locate the new aggregate parameter called Mapped Attributes and Options parameter; then, click the icon to expand the parameter. The new parameters appear.

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Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters
You can edit attributes for multiple design parameters (factors, design variables, responses, objectives, etc.) at the same time. To edit attributes for multiple design parameters: 1. Select the parameters you want to edit on either the Variables, Constraints, or Objectives tab. To select all parameters on a particular tab, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. 2. Click the Edit... button at the bottom of the component editor.

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188 Chapter 4 Using Components The Edit dialog box appears. In the following example, a parameter on the Variables tab is being edited.

3. Update the listed values, as desired. Only options with defined values appear on this dialog box. 4. Click OK. The values are updated for all the parameters that were selected.

Using Technique Tuning Parameters
This section describes the different tuning parameters for each optimization technique provided with iSIGHT-FD. Review one of the following topics for more information: “Using Adaptive Simulated Annealing Tuning Parameters,” on page 189 “Using Hooke-Jeeves Tuning Parameters,” on page 192 “Using Generalized Reduced Gradient Tuning (LSGRG2) Parameters,” on page 194 “Using Modified Method of Feasible Directions Parameters,” on page 196 “Using Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters,” on page 197 “Using Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters,” on page 200 “Using Sequential Quadratic Programming (NLPQL) Tuning Parameters,” on page 201 “Using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II Tuning Parameters,” on page 203 “Using Pointer Automatic Optimizer Tuning Parameters,” on page 204

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Using Adaptive Simulated Annealing Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when ASA is selected: Max Number of Generated Designs. Maximum number of generated designs during optimization. This number does not account for the 5 initial designs used by the algorithm to determine the starting temperature of the cost function. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10000. Other possible values are 1. Number of Designs for Convergence Check. A simple convergence check is implemented in the ASA algorithm. The cost value of each accepted design is compared to the cost value of the best design found so far. If the two values differ by less than Convergence Epsilon for N consecutive times (where N is Number of Designs for Convergence Check), optimization is terminated. The type of value is integer. The default value is 5. Other possible values are 2. Convergence Epsilon. Maximum difference of cost value between each accepted design and the best design found so far, to indicate that optimization is converged. The convergence criterion must be satisfied for N consecutive time (where N is Number of Designs for Convergence Check). The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0E-8. Other possible values are 0. Relative Rate of Parameter Annealing. Relative speed of reducing parameter temperatures during optimization. Reducing the value down from 1.0 will allow parameter temperatures to stay high for a longer time (more variation within generated designs). Increasing the value up from 1.0 will reduce parameter temperatures faster (less variation in the generated designs). The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Relative Rate of Cost Annealing. Relative speed of reducing cost function temperature during optimization. Reducing the value down from 1.0 will allow cost temperature to stay high for a longer time (more generated designs are accepted by the algorithm). Increasing the value up from 1.0 will reduce cost temperature faster (more generated designs are rejected by the algorithm). The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Relative Rate of Parameter Quenching. Parameter quenching is a process of rapid reduction of the parameter temperatures and in effect overrides the slow annealing process and turns it into a fast quenching process. Using quenching considerably reduces the variability of the generated designs, making finding a global optimum less likely and greatly increases chances of convergence to a local iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

190 Chapter 4 Using Components optimum. Increasing the value up from 1.0 will activate the rapid parameter temperature reduction. Reducing the value down from 1.0 will greatly extend the time required to reduce parameter temperature for convergence. Use quenching only if you want to considerably speed up or slow down the convergence of the algorithm. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Relative Rate of Cost Quenching. Cost quenching is a process of rapid reduction of the cost temperatures and in effect overrides the slow annealing process and turns it into a fast quenching process. Using quenching considerably reduces the acceptance probability, reducing the chances of finding a global optimum and greatly increasing the chances of convergence to a local optimum. Increasing the value up from 1.0 will activate the rapid cost temperature reduction. Reducing the value down from 1.0 will greatly extend the time required to reduce cost temperature for convergence. Use quenching only if you want to considerably speed up or slow down the convergence of the algorithm. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Max Number of Failed Designs. Maximum number of consecutive design analysis failures before the algorithm terminates. Due to the random nature of the algorithm, it is possible to generate designs that cannot be handled by the analysis code(s). Such occasional failures are ignored by the ASA algorithm. If the failures become persistent, the algorithm will stop executing. The type of value is integer. The default value is 5. Other possible values are 1. Init Param Temperature. Initial parameter temperature. This parameter can be used to extend or reduce the execution time of the algorithm without changing the nature of the search. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Reanneal Parameters. When the algorithm comes to a stagnation point, it may be beneficial to re-start the annealing process again using the best design point found so far. If this option is set to yes, ASA algorithm will employ several criteria to determine when a reannealing of parameters must be performed. One of the criteria is Num of Generated Designs Before Reannealing. Another criterion is Num of Accepted Designs Before Reannealing. The most effective criterion is Min Ratio of Accepted Designs for Reannealing. The default setting is yes. Reanneal Cost Function. When the algorithm comes to a stagnation point, it may be beneficial to re-start the annealing process again using the best design point found so far. If this option is set to yes, ASA algorithm will employ several criteria iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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to determine when a reannealing of cost function must be performed (same criteria as for parameter reannealing). One of the criteria is Num of Generated Designs Before Reannealing. Another criterion is Num of Accepted Designs Before Reannealing. The most effective criterion is Min Ratio of Accepted Designs for Reannealing. The default setting is yes. Num of Gener Designs Before Reannealing. When the number of generated designs reaches this value, reannealing of parameter and/or cost function temperatures will be performed, if allowed by the previous options. The type of value is integer. The default value is 1000. Other possible values are 1. Num of Accepted Designs Before Reannealing. When the number of accepted designs reaches this value, reannealing of parameter and/or cost function temperatures will be performed, if allowed by the previous options. The type of value is integer. The default value is 100. Other possible values are 1. Min Ratio of Accepted Designs for Reannealing. When the ratio of the number of accepted designs to the number of generated designs reaches this value, reannealing of parameter and/or cost function temperatures will be performed, if allowed by the previous options. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0E-6. Other possible values are 0. Rel Gradient Step for Param Reannealing. During reannealing, parameter temperatures are increased in proportion to their effect on the cost function. To determine the effect of each parameter (design variable) on the cost function, gradients of the cost function are calculated using the finite differencing method. This parameter controls the value of the parameter step used for gradient calculation. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.001 (0.1 percent). Other possible values are 0. Penalty Base. The ASA algorithm evaluates the goodness of a design point using the combined value of the objective function and penalty function. When calculating the penalty function of the design, Penalty Base can be used for all designs that violate at least one constraint. This allows the technique to better differentiate feasible designs with a slightly higher objective function from infeasible designs with a slightly lower objective function. The total penalty function is calculated as follows: Penalty = PenaltyBase + PenaltyMultiplier * Sum (VIOLATIONi * Wi / Si) ^ PenaltyExponent,

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192 Chapter 4 Using Components where VIOLATIONi is the i-th constraint violation value, Wi is the corresponding weight factor, and Si is the corresponding scale factor. PenaltyBase is set to zero if no constraints are violated. The default value is 0.0. Penalty Multiplier. This parameter is used to increase or decrease the effect of the total constraint violations on the measure of the design goodness. The default value is 1000.0. Penalty Exponent. This parameter can be used to increase or decrease the non-linearity of the effect of the total constraint violations on the penalty function value. The default value is 2. Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Use fixed random seed. If this option is selected, the random number generator used by the optimization algorithm is seeded using the specified fixed seed value. All executions of the Optimization component will use exactly the same sequence of random numbers and, therefore, will produce exactly the same design points. This arrangement is useful for debugging the optimization process when it is necessary to reproduce the same sequence of design points. If this option is not selected, the random number generator is seeded by using the clock time at the moment of execution. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Hooke-Jeeves Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when Hooke-Jeeves is selected: Max Iterations. This parameter sets the maximum number of iterations you want the optimizer to run. An iteration, in this technique, includes the following actions. Starting with the current base point, each design variable is perturbed up or down (cost: one or two runs per variable), and any improvements are saved. The accumulated change is used to determine the next base point. The default value is 10. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Max Evaluations. This parameter sets the maximum number of evaluations. The default is 100. Relative Step Size. This parameter determines the initial step size during the design perturbations as a fraction of the parameter value (i.e., if a design variable has a starting value of 1.0 and Relative Step Size is 0.5, the initial perturbation will be 0.5). The default value is 0.5. Step Size Reduction Factor. This parameter sets the step size reduction factor. It should be set to a value between 0.0 and 1.0. Larger values give greater probability of convergence on highly nonlinear functions, at a cost of more function evaluations. Smaller values reduce the number of evaluations (and the program running time), but increase the risk of nonconvergence. The default value is 0.5. Termination Step Size. This parameter sets the termination step size. When the algorithm begins to make less and less progress on each iteration, it checks this parameter. If the step size is below Termination Step Size, the optimization terminates, and returns the current best estimate of the optimum. Larger values of Termination Step Size (e.g., 1.0E-4) have a quicker running time, but a less accurate estimate of the optimum. Smaller values of Termination Step Size (e.g., 1.0E-7) have a longer running time, but a more accurate estimate of the optimum. The default value is 1.0E-6. Penalty Base. Hooke-Jeeves algorithm evaluates the goodness of a design point using the combined value of the objective function and penalty function. When calculating the penalty function of the design, Penalty Base can be used for all designs that violate at least one constraint. This allows the technique to better differentiate feasible designs with a slightly higher objective function from infeasible designs with a slightly lower objective function. The total penalty function is calculated as follows: Penalty = PenaltyBase + PenaltyMultiplier * Sum (VIOLATIONi * Wi / Si) ^ PenaltyExponent, where VIOLATIONi is the i-th constraint violation value, Wi is the corresponding weight factor, and Si is the corresponding scale factor. PenaltyBase is set to zero if no constraints are violated. The default value is 0.0. Penalty Multiplier. This parameter is used to increase or decrease the effect of the total constraint violations on the measure of the design goodness. The default value is 1000.0.

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194 Chapter 4 Using Components Penalty Exponent. This parameter can be used to increase or decrease the non-linearity of the effect of the total constraint violations on the penalty function value. The default value is 2. Max Failed Runs. This parameter is used to set the maximum number of failed subflow evaluations that can be tolerated by the optimization technique. If the number of failed runs exceeds this value, the optimization component will halt execution. Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Generalized Reduced Gradient Tuning (LSGRG2) Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when LSGRG2 is selected: Max Iterations. This parameter sets the maximum number of design iterations you want the optimizer to run. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1. Convergence Epsilon. This parameter sets the convergence criterion for LSGRG2. If the relative change in objective function is smaller than Convergence Epsilon for a number of iterations, or the necessary Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions are satisfied to within Convergence Epsilon, optimization is terminated. The default value is 0.0010. Rel Step Size. This parameter sets the value of the relative gradient step size for LSGRG2 when calculating gradients by finite differencing. The absolute step value is calculated by LSGRG2 as follows: dx = (1+x)*GradientStepSize where x is the current value of a design variable. Note that, for small values of x, GradientStepSize becomes the absolute value of the step (when x = 0). For large iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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values of x, GradientStepSize becomes the relative step size (when x >> 1). In general, the best value for GradientStepSize is sqrt(eps), where eps is the relative error in the computed function values (simcode outputs), such as if function values are available to full double precision (eps=1e-16), GradientStepSize should be about 1e-8. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.0010. Other possible values are 0. Convergence Iterations. This parameter sets the number of iterations used in the convergence check (see definition of Convergence Epsilon above). The type of value is integer. The default value is 3. Other possible values are 1. Binding Constraint Epsilon. This parameter sets the value of the threshold for binding constraints. If a constraint is within this epsilon of its bound, it is assumed to be binding. This parameter may have a strong effect on the speed of the optimization convergence. Increasing it can sometimes speed convergence (by requiring fewer Newton iterations during a one-dimensional search), while decreasing it occasionally yields more accurate solution, or gets optimization moving if the algorithm gets “stuck.” Values larger than 1e-2 should be treated cautiously, as should values smaller than 1e-6. The type of the value is real. The default value is 1.0E-4. Other possible values are 0. Phase 1 Objective Ratio. This parameter sets the ratio of the true objective value to the sum of constraint violations to be used as the objective function during the so-called Phase 1 of optimization. LSGRG2 uses the Generalized Reduced Gradient method, which is designed to work in the feasible domain. If the initial design is not feasible, the first step is to obtain a feasible point from which feasibility is maintained thereafter. This is known as Phase 1 of optimization with LSGRG2. The Phase 1 objective function is the sum of the constraint violations plus, optionally, a fraction of the true objective. This optimization phase terminates either with a message that the problem is infeasible or with a feasible solution. If an infeasibility message is produced, the program may have become stuck at a local minimum of the Phase 1 objective (or too large a part of the true objective was incorporated), and the problem may actually have feasible solutions. The suggested remedy, if you suspect that this is so, is to choose a different starting point (or reduce the proportion of the true objective) and try again. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0. Max Failed Runs. This parameter is used to set the maximum number of failed subflow evaluations that can be tolerated by the optimization technique. If the number of failed runs exceeds this value, the optimization component will halt execution. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

196 Chapter 4 Using Components Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Save Technique Log. Most optimization techniques create a log file of information/messages as they run. This information can be useful for determining why an optimizer took the path that it did or why it converged. Some of these log files can get extremely large, so they are not stored with the run results by default. Select this option if you want to store the log with the run results (as a file parameter) for later viewing. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Modified Method of Feasible Directions Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when MMFD is selected: Max Number of Iterations. An iteration consists of two phases. In the first phase, a plausible search direction is computed from the gradient of the objective function and constraints at the current design point. In the second phase, new designs are evaluated along the selected direction (cost: one run per design) until no improvements are found, or until a constraint is violated. The two phases are repeated until the specified convergence requirements are met. This option controls how many of these pairs of phases will take place. The type of value is integer. The default value is 40. Relative Gradient Step. This parameter sets the relative finite difference step size to be used by the optimizer, when calculating gradients using finite difference techniques. The default value is 0.01 (1 percent). Min Abs Gradient Step. This parameter sets the smallest (minimum) absolute value of the finite difference step when calculating gradients. It prevents a step from being too small when a parameter value is near zero. The default value is 0.001.

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Absolute Convergence Criterion. This parameter is a termination criterion. If the objective does not change by more than this value in successive iterations, then optimization is terminated. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.001. Rel Convergence Criterion. This parameter is a termination criterion. If the fractional (relative) change in objective value is smaller than the value of this criterion for several successive iterations, the optimization is terminated. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.001 (0.1% of the objective value). Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Save Technique Log. Most optimization techniques create a log file of information/messages as they run. This information can be useful for determining why an optimizer took the path that it did or why it converged. Some of these log files can get extremely large, so they are not stored with the run results by default. Select this option if you want to store the log with the run results (as a file parameter) for later viewing. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when Multi-Island GA is selected: Sub-Population Size. Size of each island population. The total population is spread out equally between the islands. The size of the total population depends on the number of islands and the size of sub-population. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1. Number of Islands. The number of islands. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1. Number of Generations. Number of generations that will be evaluated by the algorithm. Each generation includes sub-populations on all islands. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1.

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198 Chapter 4 Using Components Rate of Crossover. Percentage of designs (expressed as a fraction) in each generation that will be subjected to the “crossover” operation. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0 and 1.0. Rate of Mutation. Probability of mutation of every gene (0 or 1 character within a chromosome) of every individual. Mutation changes the value of the gene to the opposite (0 becomes 1, and vice versa). The type of value is real. The default value is 0.01. Other possible values are 0 and 1.0. Rate of Migration. Percentage of designs (expressed as a fraction) of each island's population that will be migrated to another island when migration occurs. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.5. Other possible values are 0 and 0.5. Interval of Migration. Number of generations between each migration. The default value is 5. Elite Size. Number of best individuals carried over from the parent generation to the child generation in each subpopulation. The type of value is integer. The default value is 1. Other possible values are 0. Rel Tournament Size. Percentage of designs (expressed as a fraction of the sub-population) randomly selected from each sub-population, from which the best individual is then selected for the child generation. Tournament selection allows for duplicate copies of individuals to be selected for the child generation. Tournament size cannot be below 1, so if the relative tournament size is too small, the resulting size of the design subset (tournament) will be adjusted to be at least 1. The tournament size of 1 means that the child generation is selected randomly: first 1 design is selected randomly to create the tournament, then the best (the only one) individual is selected from the tournament. The maximum tournament size is equal to the size of the sub-population. In this case, the child generation will consist entirely of duplicates of the best individual from the parent generation. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.5. Other possible values are 0 and 1.0. Penalty Base. Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm evaluates the goodness of a design point using the combined value of the objective function and penalty function. When calculating the penalty function of the design, Penalty Base can be used for all designs that violate at least one constraint. This option allows you to better differentiate feasible designs with slightly higher objective function from infeasible designs with a slightly lower objective function. The total penalty function is calculated as follows:

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where VIOLATIONi is the i-th constraint violation value, Wi is the corresponding weight factor, and Si is the corresponding scale factor. PenaltyBase is set to zero if no constraints are violated. The default value is 0.0. Penalty Multiplier. Penalty Multiplier is used to increase or decrease the effect of the total constraint violations on the measure of the design goodness. The default value is 1000.0. Penalty Exponent. Penalty Exponent can be used to increase or decrease the non-linearity of the effect of the total constraint violations on the penalty function value. The default value is 2. Max Failed Runs. This parameter is used to set the maximum number of failed subflow evaluations that can be tolerated by the optimization technique. If the number of failed runs exceeds this value, the optimization component will halt execution. Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Default Variable Bound (Abs Val). This value will be used as the upper and lower bound for all variables without bounds. For lower bound, this value will be multiplied by -1 (negative value). It is important for MIGA to have bounds for all variables because the algorithm works by dividing the range of each variable into a very large number of steps. Use fixed random seed. If this option is selected, the random number generator used by the optimization algorithm is seeded using the specified fixed seed value. All executions of the Optimization component will use exactly the same sequence of random numbers and, therefore, will produce exactly the same design points. This arrangement is useful for debugging the optimization process when it is necessary to reproduce the same sequence of design points. If this option is not selected, the random number generator is seeded by using the clock time at the moment of execution.

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200 Chapter 4 Using Components Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when NCGA is selected: Population Size. This parameter controls the number of individuals in each generation during execution of the NCGA algorithm. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1. Number of Generations. This parameter controls the number of generations to be analyzed by the NCGA algorithm. The type of value is integer. The default value is 20. Other possible values are 1. Crossover Type. This parameter controls the type of crossover operation - one point crossover or two point crossover. The default value is 1. Other possible value is 2. Crossover Rate. This parameter controls the probability of crossover operation for each individual in every generation during execution of NCGA algorithm. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0. Other possible values are 0 and 1.0. Use Optimal Mutation Rate. This parameter controls whether or not NCGA will use the optimum mutation rate value calculated internally. The default value is true (yes). Other possible value is false (no). Mutation Rate. This parameter specifies the probability of mutation for each individual. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.01. Other possible values are 0 and 1.0. Gene Size. This parameter controls the size of the gene used to represent each individual. The type of value is integer. The default value is 20. Other possible values are 1 and 63. Save Technique Log. Most optimization techniques create a log file of information/messages as they run. This information can be useful for determining why an optimizer took the path that it did or why it converged. Some of these log

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files can get extremely large, so they are not stored with the run results by default. Select this option if you want to store the log with the run results (as a file parameter) for later viewing. Use initialization file. This parameter controls whether or not the algorithm will use a data file for the initial generation. The default value is false (no). Other possible value is true (yes). Initialization File. This parameter specifies the name of the data file to be used for initial generation. Iterations for Constraint Violation. This parameter specifies the number of attempts that NCGA will make in order to satisfy constraints when any individual in the offspring generation violates constraints. The design, in this case, is gradually moved back to the previous design known to not violate any constraints. The type of value is integer. The default value is 0. Other possible values are 0. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Sequential Quadratic Programming (NLPQL) Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when NLPQL is selected: Max Iterations. This parameter sets the maximum number of design iterations you want the optimizer to run. The type of value is integer. The default value is 10. Other possible values are 1. Termination Accuracy. This parameter sets the termination criterion for NLPQL. The stopping algorithm of NLPQL uses several alternative convergence checks, with the main convergence parameter based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker necessary optimality condition and the complementary slackness. Termination accuracy is applied in such a way that the scale of the objective and constraint parameters has little or no effect on the convergence check. The accuracy of the gradients calculation must be considered when selecting the value of Termination Accuracy. If the simcode outputs are accurate up to 8-10 digits, and the calculated gradients have at least 7 accurate digits, then the recommended value for Termination Accuracy is 1.0E-7. If the gradient’s accuracy iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

202 Chapter 4 Using Components is lower, the value of Termination Accuracy must be increased to 1.0E-5...1.0E-4. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0E-6. Other possible values are 0 and 0.1. Rel Step Size. This parameter sets the relative finite difference Step size for the creation of the linear model. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.0010 (0.1 percent). Other possible values are 0.0. Min Abs Step Size. This parameter sets the minimum absolute finite difference Step for the creation of the linear model. The type of value is real. The default value is 1.0E-4. Other possible values are 0.0. Max Failed Runs. This parameter is used to set the maximum number of failed subflow evaluations that can be tolerated by the optimization technique. If the number of failed runs exceeds this value, the optimization component will halt execution. Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Save Technique Log. Most optimization techniques create a log file of information/messages as they run. This information can be useful for determining why an optimizer took the path that it did or why it converged. Some of these log files can get extremely large, so they are not stored with the run results by default. Select this option if you want to store the log with the run results (as a file parameter) for later viewing. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

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Using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when NSGA-II is selected: Population Size (even value). This parameter controls the number of individuals in each generation during execution of the NSGA-II algorithm. The type of value is integer. The default value is 50. Other possible values are even integers 6 and 100. Number of Generations. This parameter controls the number of generations to be analyzed by the NSGA-II algorithm. The type of value is integer. The default value is 100. Other possible values are 1 and 1000. Crossover Probability. This parameter controls the probability of the crossover operation for each individual of every generation during execution of the NSGA-II algorithm. The type of value is real. The default value is 0.9. Other possible values are 0.5 and 1.0. Crossover Distribution Index. This parameter allows you to specify a preference to having offspring individuals close to or far from the parent individuals. Increasing the value will result in offspring individuals being closer to the parents. The type of value is real. The default value is 20.0. Other possible values are 0.5 and 100. Mutation Distribution Index. This parameter allows you to specify a preference to having offspring individuals close to or far from the parent individuals. Increasing the value will result in offspring individuals being closer to the parents. The type of value is real. The default value is 100.0. Other possible values are 0.5 and 500. Use fixed random seed. If this option is selected, the random number generator used by the optimization algorithm is seeded using the specified fixed seed value. All executions of the Optimization component will use exactly the same sequence of random numbers and, therefore, will produce exactly the same design points. This arrangement is useful for debugging the optimization process when it is necessary to reproduce the same sequence of design points. If this option is not selected, the random number generator is seeded by using the clock time at the moment of execution.

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204 Chapter 4 Using Components Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using Pointer Automatic Optimizer Tuning Parameters
The following tuning parameters are available on the Technique tab when Pointer is selected: Maximum allowable job time (hr). This parameter represents the time that Pointer has to complete a job. Pointer will use all the time you give it, even if it finds the global optimum early on. The longer it is stuck without finding an improvement, the more radical changes it will try. Accepts a real input greater than 0.0. The default value is 1.0. Average analysis time (sec). This parameter is the average wall clock time it takes to run a single simulation, including all iSIGHT-FD-related overhead (for file parsing, etc.) Pointer takes the ratio of allowable job time and average simulation time to estimate how many simulations it will be able to do and adjusts its search strategy accordingly. Accepts a real input greater than 0.0. The default value is 1.0. Topography type. The default value is nonlinear. The following options are available: linear. This option assumes that objectives and constraints are linear combinations of the design variables. smooth. Indicates that the function is differentiable everywhere and contains no discrete steps, but could still contain multiple local minima. rough. Indicates that the function is not necessarily smooth, but only contains small scale discontinuities or noise. discontinuous. Indicates that the design space could contain large scale discrete steps, and points where the function is not differentiable. nonlinear. The only assumption made is that objectives and constraints are not linear combinations of the design variables (i.e., the problem is not a linear one). unknown. No assumptions have been made about the nature of the design space. Failed Run Penalty Value. This parameter represents the value of the Penalty parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30.

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Failed Run Objective Value. This parameter represents the value of the Objective parameter that is used for all failed subflow runs. The default value is 1.0E30. Save Technique Log. Most optimization techniques create a log file of information/messages as they run. This information can be useful for determining why an optimizer took the path that it did or why it converged. Some of these log files can get extremely large, so they are not stored with the run results by default. Select this option if you want to store the log with the run results (as a file parameter) for later viewing. Use fixed random seed. If this option is selected, the random number generator used by the optimization algorithm is seeded using the specified fixed seed value. All executions of the Optimization component will use exactly the same sequence of random numbers and, therefore, will produce exactly the same design points. This arrangement is useful for debugging the optimization process when it is necessary to reproduce the same sequence of design points. If this option is not selected, the random number generator is seeded by using the clock time at the moment of execution. Return to step 7 on page 178 for information on using the other tabs on the Optimization component editor.

Using the SDI Component
The design driver capability available for iSIGHT-FD includes a SDI component. Stochastic Design Improvement (SDI) is a Monte Carlo simulation-based iterative procedure for improving a design. At each iteration step, a Monte Carlo sample including design variables (controllable) and random variables (not controllable) is taken and an improved design is chosen from among the Monte Carlo “cloud” of points. The improved design is chosen based on defined response targets, with penalty associated with violation of defined response limits. The number of iterative steps is pre-specified, with a “termination threshold distance” allowing early termination if the new design is within a threshold distance of the target.

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Configuring the SDI Component
To configure the SDI component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway,” on page 49. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The editor is divided into four tabs: General, Design Variables, Random Variables, and Responses. The General tab offers execution options and a description of SDI. The Design Variables tab allows for the selection and configuration of the design variables. The Random Variables tab allows for the selection and configuration of the random variables. The Responses tab allows for the selection and configuration of the response parameters.

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Using the SDI Component 2. Set the execution mode in the Execution Options area:

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Improve Design. This mode implements the Stochastic Design Improvement algorithm to move the current design closer to the desired response targets. Improve Design is the default mode. Analyze Design. This mode simply performs a Monte Carlo simulation around the current design point (current parameter values), varying only random variables. Note: The Design Variables tab is not displayed when Analyze Design is selected. 3. Set the following execution options, if available: Number of SDI Steps. Specify the number of new designs chosen and new sample sets executed. Each step produces a new “best” design point unless no improvement (no points closer to the target) greater than the Termination Threshold Distance is identified. The default is five steps. Number of Samples per Step. Specify the number of Monte Carlo samples to be performed at each SDI iteration. The samples are taken across the distributions of the random variables and local range of the design variables. Since the goal is to find a design closer to the targets, not to calculate response statistics, a large sample set is not necessary. The default is 16 samples. Termination Threshold Distance. This option is the percent change in distance below which the SDI process will terminate early (before all steps executed). The default is 10%. If the difference between the previous distance to the target and the new closest distance to the target is not more than 10% of the previous distance, the SDI process is terminated. In this case, the change in distance and associated change in performance cannot be distinguished from the noise associated with uncontrollable, uncertain random variables. Caution should be taken when reducing the value of this option. (Analyze Design only) Number of Simulations. Determine the number of simulations to be executed. The default number is 100. A higher number of simulations specified generally results in an increase in the accuracy level of statistical predictions.

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208 Chapter 4 Using Components Execute sample points in parallel. Select this option of you’d like the sample points for each SDI step or the complete sample set in Analyze Design mode to be executed in parallel. Note: The number of CPUs available may limit the number of sample points that are actually executed in parallel. Use a fixed seed. The seed can be fixed by clicking this check box and specifying the seed manually in the corresponding text box. If this check box is not activated, the seed is determined randomly. Note: You can map the values of these settings (with the exception of Use a fixed see) to a parameter. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166. 4. (optional) Click the Advanced Options... button; then, set either of the following options: Execute subflow only once. If selected, the subflow executes only one time. This is useful in models that need to turn the driver logic on/off parametrically. This option is also helpful in debugging the process. Note: You can map this setting to a parameter. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166. Allow the following to be turned off by parameters. This option allows you to de-activate (turn off) the selected types of design parameters (design variables, random variables, responses) using input parameters to the SDI component. If this option is selected, boolean input parameters will be created in an Active Design Variables/Active Random Variables/Active Responses aggregate under the Mapped Options and Attributes aggregate parameter. The parameters are selected by default. If any of the parameters are not selected at runtime, then those design parameters will not be used during execution. 5. Perform one of the following: If you selected Improve Design mode, proceed to step 6. If you selected Analyze Design, proceed to step 10. 6. Click the Design Variables tab.

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Using the SDI Component The contents of the tab appear.

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7. Select the parameters you want to use as design variables by clicking the check box that corresponds to the parameter. To select all parameters, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. 8. Specify the lower and upper bounds and initial value for each design variable. Unlike optimization, SDI requires lower and upper bounds for each design variable. The sample ranges at each step for SDI are determined by the range of the design variable, the number of steps, and the current value of the design variable. The initial value of the design variable is the current value of the parameter by default. The default bounds are +/- 10% of the initial value. Note: You can also set variable options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 220. 9. (optional) If desired, map the lower and upper bound variable attributes to parameters. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 166. 10. Click the Random Variables tab.

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210 Chapter 4 Using Components The contents of the tab appear.

11. Select the parameters you want to use as random variables by clicking the check box that corresponds to the parameter. To select all parameters, click the button at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the button.

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Using the SDI Component Once you select a random variable, its name is displayed in the Distribution Information area, and the rest of the tab is activated.

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12. Set any of the following options, some of which vary based on your distribution selection: Click the Distribution button to set the probability distribution option for the random variable. Like sampling techniques, random variable distributions are implemented as “plug-ins” used by the SDI component. They are extendable by creating new “plug-ins” for new distributions. The distribution plug-ins currently available in iSIGHT-FD are the following:

• • • • • • • •

Exponential Gumbel - largest Gumbel - smallest Lognormal Normal Triangular Uniform Weibull

Note: For more information on these distribution options, see “Understanding Distribution Types,” on page 702.

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212 Chapter 4 Using Components Mean. This distribution parameter represents the measure of central tendency of a random variable. Its default setting is the current value of the parameter. Standard Deviation. This distribution parameter represents the measure of dispersion of a random variable. Its default setting is 10% of the mean value. Note: You can map this setting to a parameter by right-clicking it and selecting Map this value to a parameter. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears, allowing you to name the parameter. The parameter is then viewable on the Parameters tab (inside of the Mapped Attributes and Options aggregate parameter). Once mapped, a icon appears next to the option, which you can click to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping. For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters,” on page 216. Coeff. of Variation. This distribution parameter is the value of the standard deviation divided by the mean for the random variable. The default value is 0.1. Lambda (Exponential distribution only). This distribution parameter is the scale parameter for the exponential distribution, and is equal to one over the mean value and/or one over the standard deviation (mean and standard deviation are equal for the exponential distribution). Alpha (Gumbel, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions). This distribution parameter is the location parameter for the Gumbel and lognormal distributions, and is the scale parameter for the Weibull distribution. Beta (Gumbel, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions). This distribution parameter is the scale parameter for the Gumbel distributions, and is the shape parameter for the Lognormal and Weibull distributions. Low (Triangular and Uniform distributions). This distribution parameter is the lower limit for the triangular and uniform distributions. Mode (Triangular distribution only). This distribution parameter is the shape parameter of the triangular distribution, representing the peak of the triangle. High (Triangular and Uniform distributions). This distribution parameter is the upper limit for the triangular and uniform distributions. Truncate Distribution Tail(s). Activate this option if you wish to truncate a distribution tail, or both the lower and upper tail. Upon selection, entries

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appear for Lower and Upper, referring to the lower tail and the upper tail. Specify the location at which the distribution is to be truncated. Values of the distribution below the Lower truncation value and above the Upper truncation value will not be sampled. The distribution preview graphs are updated to display the effects of truncation. Note: You can also set variable options using the button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 220. 13. Review the preview graphs on the right side of the tab. These graphs are automatically updated based on changes made to the selected random variables distribution properties. A legend below the graph explains the color coding. The graphs display the following information: Probability Density. This graph shows the actual shape of the selected distribution with regard to the probability density function. Cumulative Distribution. This graph shows the actual shape of the selected distribution with regard to the cumulative distribution function. 14. Set the Update random variable mean values to current parameter values before execution option. This option, at the bottom of the tab, allows for automatic updating of mean values of all random variables to the current parameter values in this component, prior to executing the SDI component. The default is to have this option deactivated, and to retain settings. If you want to automatically change the settings to the current point when the SDI component is executed, click this check button to activate it. This option is useful if the SDI component is executed after another component, and parameter values are taken from the previous component. 15. Click the Responses tab.

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214 Chapter 4 Using Components The contents of the tab appear.

The output parameters are listed on this tab. 16. Select the output parameters you want to use as responses by clicking the corresponding check boxes. To select all parameters, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. 17. Set the response’s options, as necessary for your simulation: Target. Specify the desired goal target value for all responses that define performance of the system. The SDI process will attempt to move the design towards the specified targets. Note: The target is not needed when the execution mode is “Analyze Design”. Additionally, for highly correlated responses, a target should only be defined for one response in the correlated set so as not to over determine the problem. Target Type. Select the type of the reponse goal for all responses with a Target value defined (Target Type is required when a target value is entered). The Target Type determines how the distance from the target is calculated and how the SDI iterations proceed.

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Using the SDI Component Three options are available for Target Type:

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• Hard (= target). Select this target type if the goal is to keep the response as
close as possible to the specified target.

• Soft (<= target). Select this target type if the goal is to get the response
value equal to or below the target value. In this case, if the response value goes below the target, the response will be removed from the distance calculation; the response will not be moved back towards the target if it goes below the target.

• Soft (>= target). Select this target type if the goal is to get the response
value equal to or above the target value. In this case, if the response value goes above the target, the response will be removed from the distance calculation; the response will not be moved back towards the target if it goes above the target. Lower Limit. If a response value is specified in the Lower Limit column for a response, it will be used to assess penalty on the calculation of the distance from the target. For all design points with response value below the lower limit, the distance will be penalized, effectively removing the design point from consideration as a new best design. Also, the probability of response values greater than the lower limit will be calculated and reported after all simulations are complete. Upper Limit. If a response value is specified in the Upper Limit column for a response, it will be used to assess penalty on the calculation of the distance from the target. For all design points with response value above the upper limit, the distance will be penalized, effectively removing the design point from consideration as a new best design. Also, the probability of response values less than the upper limit will be calculated and reported after all simulations are complete. Note: If both Lower and Upper limits are specified, then the Total probability between the limits is also reported. Percentile. If a percentile value (a value between 0 and 1) is specified in the Percentile column for a response, the response value corresponding to that percentile of the resulting response distribution will be reported after all simulations are complete.

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216 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: You can also set response options using the Edit... button at the bottom of the editor. For more information, see “Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters,” on page 220. 18. (optional) If desired, map any of the response attributes to parameters (with the exception of Target Type). For more information, see “Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters” on this page. 19. Click OK to close the editor and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the editor open.

Mapping Options and Attributes to Parameters
The configuration (technique options, execution options, and design parameter attributes) of a design driver-type component is stored in the property information for the component. However, you can drive these options and attributes by parameters. For example, the standard deviation random variable attribute in a SDI component can be driven by a parameter in a previous component. To map an option to a parameter: 1. Open the SDI component editor. 2. Perform one of the following actions: To map an execution option to a parameter, proceed to step 3. To map a random variable attribute to a parameter, proceed to step 7. To map a design variable or response attribute to a parameter, proceed to step 11. 3. Click the value in the Value column for the execution option whose value you want to map. The value is highlighted. Note: You can also map the Execute subflow only once option. Click on Advanced Options... to access this option.

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4. Right-click the value; then, select the Map this value to a parameter option. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

5. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the execution option name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, an icon appears next to the execution option. You can click this button to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the mapping.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. 6. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 14. 7. Click the Random Variables tab. 8. Right-click in the Standard Deviation text box; then, click Map this value to a parameter. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

218 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: Standard Deviation is the only random value attribute that can be mapped. The Select a Parameter dialog box appears prompting you to enter the name of a parameter to which you want to map.

9. Type a name for the parameter (by default, the Standard Deviation attribute name is used); then, click OK. Once mapped, an icon appears next to the tuning parameter’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name. You can also right-click on the setting again to remove the parameter name.

10. Click Apply to save your changes; then, proceed to step 14. 11. Determine if you want to map a Design Variable or a Response attribute; then, click the appropriate tab on the component editor. In the example below, a Design Variable is being mapped. 12. Right-click the variable you want to map. A menu appears.

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Using the SDI Component 13. Perform one of the following options: If you want to apply the mapping to only the selected parameter, select the Map <Attribute_Name>to a parameter for selected option. If you want to apply the mapping to all the parameters, select the Map <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option.

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An icon appears next to the variable’s value. You can click this icon to view or change the parameter name.

The parameter(s) you have just created will appear in the Design Gateway Parameters tab as a special aggregate parameter. Note: You can remove these mappings at any time. Simply right-click the appropriate parameter attribute; then, select the Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for selected or Remove mapping of <Attribute_Name> to a parameter for all option, depending on how you originally mapped the attribute. 14. Click OK to close the component editor and return to the Design Gateway. 15. Click the Parameters tab.

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220 Chapter 4 Using Components 16. Locate the new aggregate parameter called Mapped Attributes and Options parameter; then, click the icon to expand the parameter. The new mappings appear.

Editing Attributes for Multiple Parameters
You can edit attributes for multiple design parameters (random variables, design variables, responses, objectives, etc.) at the same time. To edit attributes for multiple design parameters: 1. Select the parameter(s) you want to edit on the Design Variables, Random Variables or Responses tab. To select all parameters, click the Check button at the bottom of the tab. To deselect all the parameters, click the Uncheck button. 2. Click the Edit... or button at the bottom of the component editor.

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Understanding Task Component Options The Edit dialog box appears. In the following example, a parameter on the Random Variables tab is being edited.

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3. Update the listed values, as desired. Only options with defined values appear on this dialog box. 4. Click OK. The values are updated for all the parameters that were selected.

Understanding Task Component Options
The Task Component is a simple component that always executes a subflow once, unlike other components (such as Loop) that may execute a subflow numerous times. This component also grants access to the Task Plan feature, which allows you to apply a design driver or sequence of design drivers to a workflow of analysis tools. Access to this feature is based on your iSIGHT-FD license. For more information, contact your Engineous Software representative. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: Task component only (no Task Plan): “Using the Task Component (Single Option),” on page 222 Task component with Task Plan feature: Chapter 5 “Using the Task Plan Feature”

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Using the Task Component (Single Option)
The Task Component is a simple component that always executes a subflow once, unlike other components (such as Loop) that may execute a subflow numerous times. Depending on your iSIGHT-FD license, you either have a single option or numerous options available with this component. The single option is Fast Path execution.

This option, when selected, will ensure that the Task component executes without being dispatched to a FIPER Station when the Gateway is connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. When the Task is simply used to create a hierarchical structure in your model, this option allows you to avoid the sometimes unnecessary overhead incurred by dispatching it to another machine to execute. Note: If file parameters are defined for the Task, this option cannot be enabled since the files must be processed. This component also grants access to the Task Plan feature, which allows you to apply a design driver or sequence of design drivers to a workflow of analysis tools. Access to the Task Plan feature is based on your iSIGHT-FD license. Contact your Engineous Software representative for more information. If your license grants access to this feature, see Chapter 5 “Using the Task Plan Feature” for usage information.

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Using the Approximation Component
The Approximation component in iSIGHT-FD is a means of creating an analysis component based on the data generated previously either by iSIGHT-FD or by an external tool and saved in a data file. Using the Approximation component, you can generate a mathematical model of your data, which can then be used for quick and efficient design studies or optimization in iSIGHT-FD. The complexity and sophistication of the mathematical model can be controlled by choosing the desired approximation technique and its options. The following two approximation techniques are available in iSIGHT-FD: RBF Model - a neural network-based approximation technique Response Surface Model - a polynomial-based approximation technique For detailed information on each of these techniques, as well as their parameters, see the remaining parts in this section. Proceed to one of the following topics for more information: “Selecting the Technique and Specifying the Data File” on this page “Defining Input and Output Parameters,” on page 227 “Setting Technique Options,” on page 231 “Setting Error Analysis Options,” on page 234 “Viewing Coefficients Data,” on page 236

Selecting the Technique and Specifying the Data File
To configure the Approximation component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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224 Chapter 4 Using Components The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The editor is divided into six tabs: Technique, Data File, Parameters, Technique Options, Error Analysis Options, and View Data. Note: The Technique Options tab is hidden if you choose the RBF Model option because RBF Models do not have any technique options. 2. Verify that the Technique tab is selected; then, choose the technique you want to use from the Approximation technique drop-down list. Information about the technique appears in the Technique Description area. 3. (optional) Review the information in the Technique Description area. 4. Click the Data File tab.

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Using the Approximation Component The contents of the tab appear.

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The Data File type is Sampling Points by default. You may also use a previously saved coefficients data file from another approximation with the same number of input and output parameters. Proceed to one of the following sections: To use a sampling points data file, proceed to step 5. To use a coefficients data file, proceed to step 8.

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226 Chapter 4 Using Components 5. Type the name and path of the data file directly into the corresponding text box, or click the Browse... button and navigate to the file with data for approximation construction. The file must contain parameter names on the first line, and data points on each line after that.

6. After entering the data file, determine how iSIGHT-FD will handle the file using one of the following options: Static file. When this option is selected, the data in the file never changes. iSIGHT-FD will read it once and save in memory for future use. However, if the contents of the file change, you can instruct iSIGHT-FD to re-read the file using the Re-read File button. Dynamic file. When this option is selected, the data in the file can change. iSIGHT-FD will read it every time before initialization. If you are executing using an ACS in the FIPER environment, the file must be accessible via the absolute path or shared file system. File parameter. When this option is selected, iSIGHT-FD will create a file parameter in the component, which can be mapped to receive data from another file parameter at the time of execution. 7. Proceed to step 10.

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Using the Approximation Component 8. Select Coefficients Data from the Data File Type drop-down list. The options for the Coefficients Data File appear.

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9. Type the name and path of the data file directly into the corresponding text box, or click the Browse... button and navigate to the file with data for approximation construction. Note: If you use a coefficients data file, the Technique Options tab is not available. 10. Click Apply to save your changes. 11. Proceed to “Defining Input and Output Parameters” on this page.

Defining Input and Output Parameters
To define input and output parameters for your approximation: 1. Click the Parameters tab.

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228 Chapter 4 Using Components The contents of the tab appear.

This tab allows you to set the list of input and output parameters of the approximation by selecting them from the list of available parameters. If you previously created parameters for this component using either the Design Gateway or this editor, the parameters will appear in the two lists on this tab. You can add new parameters to your component by scanning the first line of the data file. 2. Click the Scan... button.

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Using the Approximation Component The Parameters in Data File dialog box appears.

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All parameter names found on the first line of the data file are displayed in the table on this dialog box. You can select any number of parameters to be used as inputs or outputs. You do not have to select all of the parameters in the data file. 3. Determine if the parameters will be input or output parameters using either of the following options, as desired: Select parameters individually using the check boxes in the corresponding columns. Select multiple parameters by first highlighting several rows in the parameter list; then, click the appropriate Check all selected rows check box at the bottom of the dialog box. 4. Click OK.

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230 Chapter 4 Using Components You are returned to the Parameters tab, and the selected parameters are displayed as specified (input or output).

5. Verify that the correct parameters are selected for use with your approximation. You can choose individual parameters, or use the Check button to use all of the listed input or output parameters. 6. Click Apply to save your changes. 7. Perform one of the following actions: Proceed to “Setting Technique Options,” on page 231 if you are using the Response Surface Model technique and wish to define specific options. This tab is not available is you selected the Coefficient Data option on the Data File tab. For more information on where to set this option, see “Selecting the Technique and Specifying the Data File,” on page 223. Proceed to “Setting Error Analysis Options,” on page 234 if you wish to set a particular option (other than the default) for the error analysis. Proceed to “Viewing Coefficients Data,” on page 236 if you wish to view the approximation’s internal coefficient data. Click OK to close the editor.

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Setting Technique Options
If you choose to create a Response Surface Model, then the Technique Options tab appears, allowing you to set specific tuning parameters. If you are using the RBF Model technique, proceed to “Setting Error Analysis Options,” on page 234. To set Response Surface Model technique options: 1. Click the Technique Options tab. The contents of the tab appear.

2. Set the Polynomial Order option. This option controls the order of the polynomials used by the Response Surface Model. The following options are available: Linear. This option makes all outputs linear functions with respect to inputs. This option is recommended if you want to study first order (linear) effects of the inputs on the outputs. Quadratic. If this option is selected, the polynomials for all outputs will contain linear terms, as well as all quadratic terms and all two-way interactions of the inputs. This option is the recommended choice unless you know that the

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232 Chapter 4 Using Components outputs are either linear or highly non-linear with respect to the inputs. Quadratic polynomials also behave well in optimization. Cubic. If this option is selected, the polynomials for all outputs will contain, in addition to all linear and quadratic terms, all pure cubic terms. No three-way interactions are included. Cubic polynomials require more design points in the data file. They are recommended only for highly non-linear output functions, when it is known that quadratic polynomials do not provide an accurate approximation of the outputs. Quartic. If this option is selected, the polynomials for all outputs will contain, in addition to all linear and quadratic terms, pure cubic terms and pure 4-th order terms. No three-way or four-way interactions will be included. The same recommendations that apply to cubic polynomials also apply to quartic ones. In practice, it is rarely necessary to use quartic polynomials. Cubic and quartic polynomials may inhibit the optimization process by creating numerous false local minima. 3. Perform one of the following actions: If you want to use term selection for your approximation, proceed to step 4. If you do not want to use term selection for your approximation, proceed to “Setting Error Analysis Options,” on page 234. 4. Set the Select the following number of best terms from polynomial option. Click the corresponding check box if you want to activate the polynomial term selection; then, specify the number in the adjacent text box. If this option is selected, iSIGHT-FD will perform polynomial term selection and select the specified number of best terms. Note: This value must be lower than the total number of polynomial terms displayed at the top of the tab (to the right of the Polynomial Order button) and higher than zero. You can use Term Selection to remove some polynomial terms with low significance, which can improve reliability of your approximation.

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5. Select one of the following options from the Term selection method drop-down list: Sequential Replacement. This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the RSM are minimized at every step. After adding a new polynomial term, iSIGHT-FD will try to find a replacement for each of the selected terms that can reduce the fitting errors further. The fitting errors are checked via the Residual Sum of Squares (sum of squared errors at all design points):

Here are exact output values, are approximate output values, n is the number of design points used for RSM. Stepwise(Efroymson). This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the RSM are minimized at every step. A new term is added if the following condition is satisfied:

After adding a new term, iSIGHT will examine all selected terms and will delete one or more terms for which the following condition is satisfied:

In these formulae, p is the number of polynomial terms, n is the number of designs used for RSM, F-ratio to drop a term. is the F-ratio to add a term, and is the

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234 Chapter 4 Using Components The latter two values can be controlled using the text boxes that appear under the Term Selection Method menu when Stepwise (Efroymson) is selected:

• F-ratio to drop term. This is the maximum value of F-ratio to drop a
polynomial term from RSM.

• F-ratio to add term. This is the minimum value of F-ratio to add a new
polynomial term to RSM. Two-At-A-Time Replacement. This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the RSM are minimized at every step. After adding a new polynomial term, iSIGHT-FD will consider all possible replacements for 1 or 2 of the selected terms that can reduce the fitting errors further. Then the best replacement combination is found and the terms are replaced and the next best term is selected and added. The process is repeated at every step until the maximum number of terms is selected. This method has a better chance of finding the best approximation than the two previous methods, but it is more expensive computationally. Exhaustive Search. This method generates all possible combinations of polynomial terms and then finds the best combination that produces the minimum fitting errors. This method is the most expensive computationally and can take a very long time for a large number of design points and large numbers of inputs and outputs. 6. Click Apply to save your changes. 7. (optional) Proceed to “Setting Error Analysis Options” on this page.

Setting Error Analysis Options
The Error Analysis Points tab allows you to determine the type of error analysis method used for the current approximation. To set the error analysis method: 1. Click the Error Analysis Options tab.

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Using the Approximation Component The contents of the tab appear.

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2. Select one of the following from the Error Analysis Method drop-down list: No Error Analysis. No error analysis will be performed on the current approximation. Proceed to step 8. Separate Datafile. This method compares exact and approximate output values for each data point. Proceed to step 3. Cross-Validation. This method selects a subset of points from the main data set, removes each point one at a time, re-calculates co-efficients, and compares exact and approximate output values at each removed point. Proceed to step 6. 3. Type the name and path of the data file directly into the corresponding text box, or click the Browse... button and navigate to the file with data for approximation construction. The file must contain parameter names on the first line, and data points on each line after that.

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236 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. After entering the data file, determine how iSIGHT-FD will handle the file using one of the following options: Static file. When this option is selected, the data in the file never changes. iSIGHT-FD will read it once and save in memory for future use. However, if the contents of the file change, you can instruct iSIGHT-FD to re-read the file using the Re-read File button. Dynamic file. When this option is selected, the data in the file can change. iSIGHT-FD will read it every time before initialization. If you are executing using an ACS in the FIPER environment, the file must be accessible via the absolute path or shared file system. 5. Proceed to step 8. 6. In the text box, type the number of points from the total number of sampling points you want to use for cross-validation error analysis. 7. Click the Use a fixed random seed for selecting points check box and specify a seed value to use for the random generator when determining the set of sample points to be executed. This option allows you to reproduce the approximation with the same set of points later, if desired. 8. Click Apply to save your changes. 9. (optional) Proceed to “Viewing Coefficients Data” on this page.

Viewing Coefficients Data
If your approximation is initialized, you can access its internal data using the View Data tab. Otherwise, you must first initialize your approximation before viewing the internal data. To access the approximation’s coefficients data: 1. Click the View Data tab.

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Using the Approximation Component The contents of the tab appear.

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Note: You may see a message stating that changes have been made to your configuration. Click Yes to save the changes. If the approximation is not initialized upon opening this tab, your tab will appear as shown above. If your approximation is initialized, internal data appears on the tab, as shown after step 2 below. 2. If desired, click the Initialize Now... button to initialize the approximation immediately; then, click Yes to confirm the initialization, which will allow you to view coefficient data for your approximation. This action initializes the approximation using the settings you have specified. Note: You can click OK to save the configuration of your Approximation component without initializing it. If you then submit your iSIGHT-FD model for execution, the Approximation component will be initialized automatically before the first evaluation.

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238 Chapter 4 Using Components Once your approximation is initialized, its internal data (coefficients, design points, etc.), which vary depending on the type of approximation you selected, are displayed on the tab.

3. Perform any of the following options, as desired: Click the Save Data... button if you want to save the internal approximation data to a file. Specify the name and location of the file using the Select File dialog box that appears. Click the Clear Data button if you want to reset your approximation (clear all internal data from the approximation); then, click Yes to verify the data removal. The approximation will become uninitialized, and the initialization message and button reappear on the tab. Return to step 2 to initialize the approximation again.

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Using the Calculator Component 239 Click the Error Analysis... button to open the Approximation Error Analysis tool. The Error Analysis button is only available if error analysis was performed on the approximation. For more information on using this interface, see “Analyzing Approximation Errors,” on page 520. Click the Visualize... button to open the Approximation Viewer tool. For more information on using this interface, see “Visualizing an Approximation,” on page 495. 4. Click OK to close the editor and save your changes. Click Apply to save your changes, but keep the editor open.

Using the Calculator Component
The Calculator component is used to define computations that are not provided by a separate part of your model. It can be used to solve mathematical expressions, and it supports all major mathematical operations.

Creating a Calculation
To use the Calculator component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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240 Chapter 4 Using Components The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The editor is comprised of the following components: Expression text box. This item is the large text box that occupies the top half of the editor. It is where expressions are displayed and edited. Each expression must occupy a single line of text. Parameters list. This area, on the bottom left half of the dialog box, contains a list of available parameters. You can select parameters from this area to use in your expressions. You can use the drop-down list at the top of the area to determine what parameters are displayed in the list. All parameters are displayed by default. Calculator buttons. These buttons, in the middle of the bottom half of the dialog box, are arranged to resemble a standard calculator. Functions list. This list, on the bottom right half of the dialog box, contains a list of functions that may be helpful in defining your expressions. You can use the drop-down list at the top of the area to determine what functions are displayed in the list. Also, if you place your mouse pointer over a function, information about the function is displayed in a pop-up tool tip. Status bar. This item, at the bottom of the dialog box, just above the OK button, displays messages associated with using the Calculator component.

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Using the Calculator Component 241 The calculation can be as long as necessary. However, if your calculation exceeds the viewable area, you must scroll sideways or up and down to view all of the calculation. 2. Enter your calculations by typing the calculation in the expression text box or by using any of the following methods: To insert a declared parameter: Double-click the parameter in the Parameters list to add it to the Expression text box. You can also select the parameter and click the Add button beneath the Parameters list. (You can also use undeclared parameters in your expression. For more information, see “Using Undeclared Parameters,” on page 242.) Note: Array variables can also be used with statistical functions. For more information, see “Using Array Parameters,” on page 243. To insert a function call: Double-click a function in the Functions list to add it to the Expression text box. You can also select the item and click the Add button. To insert a number or an operator: Use the Calculator buttons or the number buttons on your keyboard to enter expression information. If you are entering multiple expressions, each expression must be placed on a separate line in the Expression text box. Important: There are some limitations with regard to variable names in calculations. For more information, see “Understanding Limitations,” on page 244. 3. If necessary, edit the calculation directly in the editing text box. Note: You can add comments to your calculations by starting the line with the # symbol or the // symbol. You can change selected single or multiple lines into comments by pressing the CTRL key and the # key (be sure to hold the SHIFT key also) or the / key. The same action on lines that are already commented will remove the comment symbols from those lines.

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242 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Once the calculation is finalized, you can choose one of the following options, if desired: Click the Calculate Now button to execute the calculation and display the result at the bottom of the dialog box, unless an error exists in the expression. To view a more detailed result, click the Show Results button next to the result or double-click the result itself to open the Calculation Results dialog box. Click OK to close this dialog box. Click the Clear button to remove all of the contents in the Expression text box; then, click Yes to verify the action. 5. Perform one of the following options: Press ENTER; then, return to step 2 to add additional expressions to this component. Click OK to close the editor.

Using Undeclared Parameters
Any undeclared parameter on the right side of an expression is created as an iSIGHT-FD input parameter when OK or Apply is clicked. Any undeclared parameter on the left side of an expression is created as an iSIGHT-FD output parameter. If an undeclared array parameter element is added to the expression (for example, outvar = invar[1][2], where invar is not a declared array parameter), a new array parameter is created dynamically when OK or Apply is clicked. The size of the new array parameter is the maximum size of the individual element used in any expression. If an array parameter already exists, and you enter an array element that is outside the bounds of the existing array parameter, you will be prompted to confirm the recreation of the array parameter when OK or Apply is clicked.

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Using the Calculator Component 243

Using Array Parameters
While individual array elements can always be used as single quantities within calculations, you can also use entire array parameters themselves with statistical functions. In the following example, a parameter called arr1 is used in the calculation:

The following limitations/behaviors should be noted with respect to using array parameters in calculations: Array functions do not support array slices. You can only pass one array parameter, such as sum(arr1). You can pass multiple scalar variables, such as sum(s1,s2,s3,…). Only arrays of numeric datatype (real, integer) are available for use in calculations. Only the following statistics functions are supported when using arrays: sum - the sum of all elements of the arrays min - the minimum value of all elements in the array max - the maximum value of all elements in the array mean - the mean value of all elements in the array stddev - the standard deviation of all array elements from the mean

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244 Chapter 4 Using Components absSum - the sum of the absolute values of all elements in the array absMax - the maximum of the absolute values of all elements in the array absMin - the minimum of the absolute values of all elements in the array

Understanding Limitations
The following limitations exist for variables used in Calculator component expressions: Invalid characters in the variable names: ~,`, !, @, #, %, ^, &, *, -, +, =, {, }, [, ], \, |, \\, /, <, >, . (period), , (comma), / , ?, " The variable name must start with a non-numeric character. For example, a parameters named “3var” is invalid. Instead, the variable should be called “var3” or just “variable.” Any iSIGHT-FD variable that does not conform to this format is not displayed in the available list of parameters. A variable that contains a space in its name must be surrounded by single quotes in the expression. For example, a parameter called variable one would have to be entered in the expression as 'variable one'. Using array variables: For more information on the limitations associated with array variables, see “Using Array Parameters,” on page 243.

Using the COM Component
The purpose of the COM component is to interact with COM (Command Object Model) objects that have been registered to the Windows operating system. Important: Using this component requires an understanding of COM objects, which are not covered in this book. In particular, you must know the name of the COM object you want to interact with and the properties and functions that it provides. For more information on COM objects, refer to your Windows operating system documentation.

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Using the COM Component This component allows you to perform the following functions:

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Get COM object property. This option allows you to set an iSIGHT-FD parameter value from a COM object property value. Set COM object property. This option allows you to set a COM object property value from an iSIGHT-FD parameter value. COM object method / function execution. This option allows you to execute functions provided by the COM object and map the return values to iSIGHT-FD parameters. To use the COM component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

2. Type the COM object name in the COM Object text box. You must know the name of the object you are going to use. There is currently no way to browse the set of registered COM objects for selecting.

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246 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Specify the operation you want to perform using the Operation button: Get (proceed to step 4) Method/Function (proceed to step 7) Set (proceed to step 13) 4. Specify the property to get in the corresponding text box; then, select the iSIGHT-FD parameter whose value you want to set from this property from the Parameter to set return value to drop-down list or specify a new parameter using the button. For more information on creating parameters, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566. 5. Click the button to add the new operation to the list in the Operations area.

6. Proceed to step 16. If you are using the Method/Function option, the editor appears as shown below.

7. Specify the method or function to call in the corresponding text box.

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8. Select the iSIGHT-FD parameter to set the return value to from the corresponding drop-down list. Note: You can create a new parameter in which to store this value using the button. For more information on creating parameters, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566. 9. Define arguments to pass to the function in the Arguments area. If you select Constant: Specify the constant in the text box below the drop-down list; then, click the list in the Arguments area. button. The argument is added to the small

If you select Parameter: Select the parameter you want to use from the second drop-down list, or create a new parameter using the button; then, click the

button. The argument is added to the small list in the Arguments area. 10. Customize the list of arguments using the following methods: Use the arguments. Use the buttons in the Arguments area to rearrange the order of the button in the Arguments area to delete an argument.

11. Click the button at the bottom of the left side of the editor. The specified operation is added to the list in the Operations area. 12. Proceed to step 16.

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248 Chapter 4 Using Components If you are using the Set option, the editor appears as shown below.

13. Specify the COM property to set in the corresponding text box. 14. Specify whether you are setting the COM property from an iSIGHT-FD parameter value or from a constant using the Value to set to drop-down list; then, select the parameter from the drop-down list or type the value of the constant in the text box. Note: You can create a new parameter in which to store this value using the button. For more information on creating parameters, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566. 15. Click the button to add the new operation to the list in the Operations area.

16. (optional) Click Apply at any time to save your changes. Repeat the appropriate previous steps to add more operations as desired. 17. Use the and operations. buttons in the Operations area to specify the order of the list of button

Note: You can delete an operation by highlighting it and clicking the below the operations list. 18. Click OK to close the editor.

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Using the Data Exchanger Component
The Data Exchanger allows you to move data between iSIGHT-FD parameters and text files easily and efficiently. The value of a parameter can be written into the file, or data in the file can be read and used to set the value of a parameter. There are many options for how the data to be read or written is located, and for automatically handling structured data: vectors and tables of numbers, and name/value lists. One and two dimensional array parameters can be read or written using a single operation. The Data Exchanger can process multiple files at one time, allowing data to be copied directly from one file to another, or to use a read-only file to look up reference data. Data can be read from and written to the same file when necessary. General programming commands written in Java can be inserted between the data exchanger actions in order to perform a calculation, loop over multiple data items, and even to recover from processing errors. The Data Exchanger is most frequently used to prepare input files for external programs and to extract data from program output files. It can be used by itself in an iSIGHT-FD workflow, and is also included as part of the Simcode component. The Simcode component consists of an input Data Exchanger to prepare input for the command, an OS Command to execute the command, and an Output Data Exchanger to extract data from the program's output files. One advantage of the Simcode component is that the files are prepared, processed, and read in the same step, avoiding any need to transfer files over the network during distributed processing. The information about the Data Exchanger Component is divided into the following main sections: “Overview of the Editor,” on page 250 “Understanding Terminology,” on page 261 “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262 “Editing an Existing Data Exchanger Program,” on page 269 “Adding a Read or Write Statement,” on page 269 “Updating a Read or Write Operation,” on page 276 “Removing a Read or Write Operation,” on page 279

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250 Chapter 4 Using Components “Formatting Numbers During a Write Operation,” on page 279 “Changing the Format of a Section of a Data Source,” on page 281 “Updating an Existing Section Format,” on page 282 “Navigating Between Section Formats,” on page 283 “Editing Java Code Directly,” on page 284 “Using the General Text Format Option,” on page 285 “Using the Name Value Format Option,” on page 292 “Using the Table Format Option,” on page 293 “Using the Vector Format Option,” on page 296 “Searching a Data Source,” on page 298 “Creating Markers,” on page 298 “Using Advanced Action Types,” on page 300 “Filtering Parameters,” on page 303 “Deleting a Data Source,” on page 304

Overview of the Editor
This section is divided into the following topics: “Understanding the Main Interface Layout,” on page 251 “Understanding Secondary Interfaces,” on page 259

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Understanding the Main Interface Layout
A sample Data Exchanger editor is displayed below, with the main sections labeled.

The Data Exchanger is divided into the following major areas: Toolbar (page 252) Actions List (page 253) Data Source Area (page 254) Parameter Read/Write Area (page 257) Swipe Details Area (page 257) Parameter List (page 258) Status Bar (page 258)

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Toolbar
The toolbar located at the top of the editor displays buttons for most of the actions available from the right-click menus. Some actions can be accessed only from the toolbar. . Opens a Find dialog to search for a string in the data source (file). . Edits the selected action. . Deletes the selected action(s). . Closes the current data source. . Opens a new data source (file). . Creates a new section from the selected lines. . Marks a location in a General Text region. Searches for the currently selected text, or prompts for a search string if no text is selected. For more information, see “Creating Markers,” on page 298. . Inserts a calculation action. Calculations evaluate expressions and assign the value to a parameter. For more information, see “Using the Calculation Editor,” on page 300. . Inserts a conditional action (if/else statement). . Inserts a For Loop action. For more information, see “Using the For Loop Editor,” on page 302. . Inserts a While Loop action. . Inserts a comment into the list of actions. . Inserts arbitrary Java statements as an action. These statements are immediately executed. The next time the actions are reset, the Java code may be split into multiple actions if the editor recognized some of the statements. . Edits full Java source of the actions. Opens a text area where the full Java text of all the actions is displayed. You can edit this Java code, including cut/copy/paste iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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using the standard keyboard actions. When the edit dialog is closed, the Java code is split into actions and re-executed.

The List of Actions
The Actions List shows the actions the Data Exchanger will take. Each action is shown in a shorthand notation for the actual Java code that is executed. (The Full Java Code view shows the actual Java code.) The first entry in the list is always a comment (cannot be deleted or edited). The purpose of this comment is to select it in order to insert an action before all the other actions. There are up to three distinguished actions, each marked differently: The currently selected statement is shown with a blue background. This is the statement associated with the last parameter or highlight clicked, and is the statement associated with the Swipe editor. Almost any selection anywhere in the editor changes the currently selected statement. Note: Multiple actions may be selected by holding the SHIFT key and clicking or holding the CTRL key and clicking in the Actions List. The only actions you can take when multiple actions are selected is to delete the action by clicking the button or cut/copy the actions using CTRL-X or CTRL-C. The point where new actions will be inserted is indicated with a red line. New statements are inserted between existing actions. Selecting an action in the list sets the insertion point to be just after that action. Selecting parameters or highlights does not change the insertion point. The next action to be executed is indicated with a blue arrow in the right margin. This arrow is only visible when single-stepping through the actions. Right-clicking an action displays a menu that allows you to edit, cut, copy, or delete the action(s). If you cut/copy an action, there will also be a Paste entry for re-inserting the action(s). You can also cut/copy/paste actions with the standard keyboard actions: CTRL-X, CTRL-C, and CTRL-V. There is also a Run to this statement entry that is useful when debugging the actions. Selecting this entry single-steps the list of actions until the current statement is at or after the selected action.

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Executing Actions
Typically, an action is executed as soon as it is inserted. Changing the value of a parameter that is used in the Data Exchanger causes the whole list of actions to be re-executed. There are controls at the bottom of the Actions List for controlling execution. The controls include the following: . Stops execution. This button is only enabled when actions are being executed. . Re-executes all actions . Executes only the next action (the one with the blue arrow). . Resets the program and sets the Next Action arrow to the top of the list. You have to reset the actions before you can single-step. It can be useful to reset the list of actions and step through them one at a time to see what each action does. When single-stepping, read or calculation actions will immediately update the value of the affected parameter. You can also step through a Loop to see what happens each time through.

The Data Source Area
This area displays the contents of the file being processed. There is a separate tab for each file, allowing multiple files to be open at once. There is also a tab labeled <New>, which, when clicked, allows you to create a new data source. You must select text from the file and then a parameter in order to define a read or write action. The action is executed as soon as it is created: the value of the parameter is updated with the text read, or the file is updated with the parameter value written, allowing you to see how the file and parameters will look when the Data Exchange is run. The text is highlighted in various colors to indicate how the text is to be processed. The following color scheme is used: Green: data being read into a parameter. Pink: data being written from parameters

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Yellow: sub-sections of the current section. If you format part of a file as a table and click outside the table, the table will be yellow and the rest of the file will be white. Gray: the area outside of the currently selected section. If you format part of a text file as a table and then select the table, the table will be white and everything outside the table will be gray. Clicking a gray or yellow section navigates through the sections. Clicking in a green or pink highlighted area selects the read or write action and the parameter. Right-clicking in the data area displays a menu of actions as shown below.

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256 Chapter 4 Using Components The area selected determines the actions that are available. All actions except Load Sample File and Edit Format are also available on the toolbar. Load Sample File. Loads a new data file to test how the parsing instructions will act on it. Edit Section Details. Changes the details of how the section (or whole file) is parsed. This is mostly used to change the delimiters that separate words. Edit Selected Statement. Edits the currently selected statement. This is usually a read or write statement. If no read/write is selected, then it can be the section. Edit Format. Allows you to set a format to control how a number is printed. Find (General text format only). Opens a find dialog to search for text. Marker (General text format only). Opens a find dialog to search for a string, and remembers where it was found. This marker can then be used as an anchor for subsequent read/write operations. Insert Read. Creates a read action. This action works in the same manner as the read button on the command bar. If a read action is currently selected, this action converts the read into a write action. Insert Write. Creates a write action. This action works in the same manner as the write button on the command bar. If a write action is currently selected, this action converts the write to a read action. New Section. Creates a new section from the currently selected text. Remove read/write instruction. Removes the selected read or write instruction. This is the same as the button.

Delete Section. Deletes the currently selected section, or the whole file if the current selection is the whole file. Close Data Source. Removes the whole file, regardless of the section currently selected.

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The Parameter Read/Write Area
This area allows you to type a new parameter name or select an existing parameter using the Parameter text box and corresponding drop-down list. You can use the drop-down list to select an existing parameter, array parameter element, or member of an aggregate parameter. You can also type the name of an existing or new parameter, or of an existing array element. The background of the parameter area changes to indicate the status of the parameter: White: the box is empty or contains the name of an existing, unused parameter. Yellow: the box contains the name of a new parameter that does not exist yet. Green: the box contains an existing parameter that is being read from the file. Pink: the box contains an existing parameter that is being written to the file. Also, buttons are present that allow you to create a read or write operation. The button for the default operation for this file is highlighted with a black border. Read is the default operation for files that are being read (“Output parse”), and Write is the default operation for files being written (“Input parse”). The current operation (read or write of a parameter) can be removed by clicking the Unbind button .

The Swipe Details Area
This area contains all of the information required to describe the current selection in the Data Source area. The swipe details data is live; any change to the data is reflected immediately by the Data Source area selection, and any change to the selection immediately updates the details. The type of Swipe Details area (general text, name value, table, or vector) is determined by the currently selected section type. The swipe area is always displayed. You can hide it by clicking the down arrow located below the Parameter Read/Write area. Changes to text fields in the swipe area do not take effect until after you press the ENTER key on your keyboard.

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The List of Parameters
This list, on the right side of the editor, shows parameter names, an icon to indicate if the parameter was used for a read or write operation, and the parameter value. This list contains all parameters for the Data Exchanger, all parameters for the simcode the data exchanger is part of, and also all parameters from the parent and sibling components that could be mapped to this component. Using a parameter from a parent or sibling component automatically maps it to the data exchanger component when the editor is closed. Clicking the icon in the Op (operation) column is a shortcut to read or write that parameter. The button cycles through the available options. You cannot delete the parameter binding by simply using the operation column, you must use the right-click menu or click the Unbind button in the Parameter Read/Write area.

Right-clicking a parameter opens the standard Parameter menu, with entries for editing the parameter details, and cut/copy/paste parameters options. You can also use the List of Parameters to create new parameters (the a member to an aggregate parameter (the button). button), add

button), or delete a parameter (the

You can change the name, mode, value, or data type of an existing parameter by clicking in the appropriate cell of the List of Parameters table. The List of Parameters behaves similarly to the Parameters tab on the main Design Gateway interface. However, you cannot select multiple parameters on the Data Exchanger editor. Additionally, parameters do not appear on the Parameters tab until the OK or Apply button on the Data Exchanger editor is clicked.

Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the interface displays various messages about the status of the Data Exchanger editor. General progress messages are in gray, and warning messages, especially about invalid data during a read, are in yellow. Error messages are in red (or pink).

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Note: When the Full Java Code view is open and there is an error in the Java code, the error message is displayed on the Status Line of the main editor interface. Because of this, when you open the Java Code view, you should position it above the editor interface so the status line is still visible.

Understanding Secondary Interfaces
The following secondary interfaces are present in the Data Exchanger editor: “Full Java Code View” on this page “New Data Source Wizard,” on page 260 “Section Format Wizard,” on page 260

Full Java Code View
This interface is accessed using the Java Source button. It consists of a text edit dialog box that allows you to view or edit the full Java source code for the Data Exchanger program. When this Java code viewer is opened, the main Data Exchanger editor is inaccessible. When this dialog box is closed, the Java code is completely re-parsed, as you may have made major changes to the code. You can use this view to add Java programming statements to the program executed by the Data Exchanger. The normal cut, copy, and paste keys work, allowing Java code to be copied to/from a Java Development environment. Any errors in the Java code will be highlighted in pink, and an error message will be displayed on the Status Line of the main Data Exchanger editor.

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260 Chapter 4 Using Components The image below displays the full Java code view.

Note: The Javadocs that are shipped with iSIGHT-FD are located in the javadocs folder in the iSIGHT-FD installation directory.

New Data Source Wizard
This interface is accessed by clicking the large button in the center of the Data Source area, clicking the New tab, or clicking the New Data Source button . It provides options for defining a data source. For more information on this wizard, see “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262.

Section Format Wizard
This interface is accessed by clicking the New Section Format button in the Parameter Read/Write area. It allows you to adjust the selection, and then apply a formatter to the selection. For more information on this wizard, see “Changing the Format of a Section of a Data Source,” on page 281.

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Understanding Terminology
Two terms are used throughout this component description to describe actions taken by the user of the component. Both of these terms are used when describing the highlighting of data in the Data Source area. These terms are: swipe. This action involves highlighting data by clicking your mouse button, dragging it across the desired data, and then releasing the mouse button. The behavior of swiping text depends on the current section format. For the General Text format (the most common one), swiping across several columns selects exactly those characters (fixed column, fixed length). Swiping down selects multiple whole lines. For the Vector format, a swipe selects multiple elements of the vector. For the Table format, a swipe may select all or part of a row, a column, or a sub-table. click. This action involves placing your mouse pointer on a particular location in the Data Source area and clicking the button a set number of times (single-clicking, double-clicking, and triple-clicking). For the General Text format, a single click selects the current word or item, a double-click selects the current word, and a triple-click selects the whole line. For all other formats, a click selects the current item and double and triple-clicks have no additional effect. Note: For the general text tool, selecting a word with a click and selecting characters with a swipe results in very different behaviors. When a word is selected, the data will be located at runtime by counting the number of words from the beginning of the line, no matter how long those words may be. When characters are selected, the characters at exactly those positions on the line will be used - if something earlier on the line became longer, the data will no longer fit within the swipe. It is not recommended that you swipe characters of text except when reading or writing data to be processed by a FORTRAN formatted read or write operation. The Swipe Details area tells you if the data was selected by word or by characters.

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Creating a New Data Exchanger Program
The first step in using the Data Exchanger is to open a file to work with. Additional files can be opened later using the same process. To start the editor and open a file: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

2. Click the large button in the center of the dialog box to begin the process of defining a data source.

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Note: The Exchanger Wizard is different for the input and output parses of the Simcode component, even though the rest of the Data Exchanger editor is the same for Data Exchanger and Simcode components.

3. Determine how the file is to be used. The following two options are available: Read a File (proceed to step 4). This is used to read data from a file output by an external program, and is sometimes called an Output Parse because an output file is being read. Write to File (proceed to step 7). Writes parameter values to a file that will be used as Input to an external program. This is sometimes referred to as an Input Parse. 4. Specify the sample file that will be used in the Sample file to use when designing Data Exchange text box. You can type the name of this file directly, or navigate to it using the Browse... button. This file must already exist. 5. Specify the name of the file to read at runtime in the second text box. Simply enter the name of the file. If you browsed to the file in step 4, this text box is automatically filled using the name of the specified file. Instead of typing a file name, you can select an existing file parameter. The file specified by the parameter will be used. Note: If you type the name of a file, an Input file parameter is created that references the named file. This file parameter can be mapped from an earlier component in the workflow that produces the file. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

264 Chapter 4 Using Components 6. Proceed to step 9. 7. (optional) Specify the template file to update. The Template file is optional; if no template is given, the Data Source area will initially be blank. The whole file will be created by writing parameter values. Note: An Input file parameter is created for the Template file. This parameter has the same name as the file being written, with “Tmpl” appended. While the template file is usually fixed, it is possible to map another file parameter to the Template file parameter, allowing the Template to vary at runtime. 8. Specify the file to write at runtime, or select an existing file parameter. If you browsed to the file in step 7, this text box is automatically filled using the name of the specified file. Note: If a file name was typed, an Output file parameter is created. The parameter name is the same as the name of the file being written, but with periods converted to underscores. This file parameter can be mapped to subsequent components in the workflow. For the Input Data Exchanger of a Simcode component, only one file parameter is created, since the OS Command part of the simcode directly reads the file from the working directory. In this case, the file parameter has the same name as the sample file, and has mode input. 9. Set the encoding option using the corresponding drop-down list. This option allows you to explicitly specify the encoding the file parameter is to use when converting between bytes and characters. In a Locale (a system setting that includes the language, number formats, and character set in use) that uses multi-byte characters (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), there is a default encoding used to convert bytes into characters. Most text files will be written using this encoding, but sometimes it is necessary to specify this encoding. For additional information on encoding, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. Note: This setting is visible only if the Show File Type Encoding option on the Files tab is selected on the Parameters preference dialog. For more information about this option, see “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42.

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Select the general layout of the text in the file. The following options are available: General Text. This format is for text with no particular structure. Fields are located by searching for words or phrases. For more information on using this format option, see “Using the General Text Format Option,” on page 285. Name/Value. This format is for data that is organized as a list of Name/Value pairs where the name is the first word on the line and there is a delimiter (space or some punctuation) between the name and the value. Fields are located by matching names. This option is used only with specially formatted data; however it does allow the variable names to be automatically selected based on the field names. For more information on using this format option, see “Using the Name Value Format Option,” on page 292. Table. This format is for tables and lists of numbers. Fields are addressed by row number (line) and column number. This option can be used with files in any format as long as the line numbers never change; the number of entries on each line does not have to be the same. The cells in the table may be separated by delimiters (usually space or comma), or the table columns can be defined by absolute character position (sometimes useful for reading packed FORTRAN formatted data). The Table format allows whole columns, rows and arrays to be read into Array parameters in one operation. For more information on using this format option, see “Using the Table Format Option,” on page 293.

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266 Chapter 4 Using Components Vector. This format is for data organized as a list of values separated by spaces or punctuation. Fields are numbered sequentially through the whole section. The Vector format allows one-dimensional arrays to be read in one operation. The values can span multiple lines. This option is often used for FORTRAN list-directed input. For more information on using this format option, see “Using the Vector Format Option,” on page 296. 11. Select the option that is best suited to the file you are using; then, perform one of the following options: For General Text, Table, and Vector formats: Click Finish. The file is displayed in the Data Source area as a new tab. Proceed to the section that describes the usage of the format you selected (these sections are identified in the previous step of this procedure). For the Name Value format: Click Next. The Name/Value format requires additional configuration, but allows all items to be automatically read into similarly named parameters. The Name/Value Delimiter screen appears.

12. Select the delimiter that you want to use for your file. Once a selection is made, the highlighted information in the Sample Text area is updated, if necessary. The name fields are highlighted in orange, and the value fields in green.

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Note: The wizard attempts to select the best delimiter automatically. For this reason, the highlighted screen often appears immediately after clicking the Next button from the File Format screen (step 11). The following information should be considered when selecting the delimiter: Verify that only the data you want is included in the Value field. Sometimes it is necessary to use a multi-character delimiter (such as “:=”) to make sure that the right data is in the values. Empty lines and lines that do not have the delimiter are ignored. 13. Click Next. The Map Item Names to Parameters screen appears. This screen allows all of the entries in the Name/Value file to be automatically read or written to/from parameters with the same name as the Name field of the item.

14. Edit the parameter information, as desired. The following options are available: Select parameters that will be read from or written to using the Op column. You can select or de-select individual parameters by clicking the Op column for that parameter, or you can select all of the listed parameters using the Read All or Write All buttons. You can also clear the selection of every parameter using the Clear All button. If the file is open for reading, the Op column toggles between Read and No Operation (an empty box). If the file is open for writing, you have the option to read or write the item, and the Op column toggles through the sequence Write ( ), Read, and No Operation. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

268 Chapter 4 Using Components When the Op column is empty (No Operation), no parameter is created and no data is read or written. The name/value item is ignored (though you can operate on it later using the main Data Exchanger editor). Change the name of a parameter. Note: Changing the name of a parameter does not change the name of the name/value field it will be read from or written to. When writing, you can change the initial value of the parameter by editing the Value column of the table. Change the mode of a parameter (the available options are Input, Output, In/Out, and Local). Change the type setting of the parameter. The Wizard guesses at the data type based on the data in the Template or Sample file. This is sometimes wrong: If the sample file contains a number without a fractional part, the Wizard guesses it is of type Integer, when it perhaps should be type Real. If the value is not a single number or word, the Wizard assumes it is text data and selects the data type String. Often such entries actually contain a number followed by a comment, or a vector of numbers. Such items can be handled by creating a General Text or Vector section on top of the value. For now, de-select the name/value item by clicking in the Op column until it is blank. The read/write for that item will have to be set up later using the main Data Exchanger editor. For additional information on setting parameter information, see Chapter 9 “Defining and Mapping Parameters”. 15. Click Finish. The file is loaded into the Data Exchanger component. 16. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange,” on page 270 “Creating a Bottom-Up Data Exchange,” on page 274

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Editing an Existing Data Exchanger Program
To edit an existing data exchanger program: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears, and the existing data exchanger program is loaded. The program is executed, displaying the data sources in tabs in the Data Source area. The code insertion point is left at the end of the program, the last section referenced is selected in the Data Source area, and the Swipe Details area (if open) shows the selection details for this section. The GUI is left as it was after the last read or write was created. This controls the selected parameter, the contents of the Swipe Details panel, and the selected File tab. Note: If the program is no longer correct (usually because a parameter used by the program has been deleted), the Java code view (described on page 284) will open, and the first error will be highlighted in pink. 2. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Updating a Read or Write Operation,” on page 276 “Updating an Existing Section Format,” on page 282

Adding a Read or Write Statement
The main operation for the Data Exchanger is reading or writing a parameter. This section describes how a Read or Write is created. Setting up a Read or a Write requires that the parameter and the data be selected. The data is selected by clicking or swiping in the Data Source area, or by entering details in the Swipe Details area. The parameter can be selected using the Parameter List or the drop-down list in the Parameter Read/Write area. A new parameter can be created by typing its name in the Parameter Read/Write area and then creating a Read or Write operation. The Read or Write operation is then created by clicking on the Read ( ) or Write ( ) Button.

In general, the data and parameter selections are independent, and can be selected in either order. See below for some special-case details, however. The read or write button is not enabled until both a Parameter and some Data have been selected. There iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

270 Chapter 4 Using Components are several shortcuts for creating Read or Write operations to speed up the process. These are described in detail below. The same parameter can be read or written more than once. While reading into a parameter several times is rarely useful, writing the same value in multiple places is often required. To write the same parameter value more than once: 1. Select the location to write the data to. 2. Select the parameter in the Parameter text box. Do not select the parameter in the parameter list. Doing so will move the selection to the other location the parameter is written. 3. Click the button.

There is no limit to the number of places a parameter can be read/written, including reading a parameter in one data source and writing it in another in the same data exchanger. The process for creating a Read or Write is slightly different depending on whether the parameters are created before the Data Exchanger editor is opened (Top Down) or are created by the Data Exchanger editor (Bottom Up). “Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange” on this page. This type of exchange assumes that your parameters have already been created in iSIGHT-FD before the Data Exchanger editor is opened. There is also a shortcut method for this type of exchange, which is described in “Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange (Shortcut),” on page 273. “Creating a Bottom-Up Data Exchange,” on page 274. This type of exchange assumes that no parameters exist, and that they will be created as the data exchange program is created).

Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange
This type of exchange assumes that all required parameters have already been created in iSIGHT-FD prior to the Data Exchanger editor being opened. Note: A file opened as read-only supports only read operations, not write operations. In this case, the Write button is disabled on the editor, and it is not a selectable option in

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the Op column in the Parameter List area. On the other hand, a file opened for writing supports both read and write operations. Important: The Parameter List will show all parameters that belong to the Data Exchanger component itself, the Parent component of the Data Exchanger, and any Sibling components that are before or after the Data Exchanger in the workflow. When a parameter from the Parent or Sibling components is read or written, a parameter with the same name is created in the Data Exchanger component and the appropriate parameter mappings are created. The parameters and mappings are not created until the OK or Apply button on the editor is clicked. If the Cancel button is clicked, no parameters are created and all work done since the editor was opened is discarded. To create a top-down data exchange: 1. Select some data in the data source viewer using one of the following methods: Single-clicking. The single-click action has different functionality based on the format your data source is using. For the General Text format, a single-click selects an entire item, word, or number, including any leading spaces. For example, clicking a number that is preceded by five spaces would highlight the spaces and the number. For Name Value, Table, and Vector formats, a single-click selects the entire item clicked. Double-clicking these sections is identical to single-clicking. Triple-clicking. The triple-click action selects the entire line that currently contains the cursor. Swiping. This option allows for the selection of an item or a range of data. The selected item or range is displayed in the Swipe Details area at the bottom of the editor. 2. (optional) Adjust the swipe details. For more information on using the swipe details options, see one of the following sections: “Using the General Text Format Option,” on page 285 “Using the Name Value Format Option,” on page 292 “Using the Table Format Option,” on page 293 “Using the Vector Format Option,” on page 296

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272 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Select the parameter to represent the data using one of the following methods: Select a parameter from the Parameter drop-down list or type the name of an existing parameter. Click a parameter in the Parameter List area. The parameter name appears in the Parameter text box. Note: If the chosen parameter is already used in a read or write statement, the selected data will be un-selected and the Data Source area will be scrolled to show where the parameter is used. In this case, it is necessary to select a parameter and then select the data. Type the name of an existing parameter in the Parameter text box. You can type the name of a scalar parameter, the name of an aggregate member, or the name of an array element. For more information, see “The Parameter Read/Write Area,” on page 257. 4. Apply the new read or write statement using one of the following methods: Click the Read or Write button adjacent to the Parameter text box.

Right-click in the Data Source area; then, select Insert Read or Insert Write from the menu that appears. Click in the Parameter box and press the ENTER key on your keyboard. Click the Op column in the parameter list until the desired option appears. This option defaults to read-only for a read-only data source, and toggles from write to read for read/write data sources. The correct default operation is always initially displayed. The statement is executed. If this is a Read operation, the data is highlighted in green and the parameter's value is updated. If this is a Write operation, the data is replaced with the value of the parameter and the result is highlighted in pink. 5. Perform one of the following actions: Proceed to “Updating a Read or Write Operation,” on page 276 for information on altering an existing statement. Return to step 1 to define more data source information.

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Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange (Shortcut)
It is possible to read or write using an existing parameter with only two mouse clicks. To perform this shortcut: 1. Single-click on the word to read/write in the Data Source View area. 2. Click the Op column in the Parameter List that corresponds to the parameter you want to use. The default behavior is to cycle through the options, where the first choice in the cycle sequence is based on how the source is opened. Clicking on the Op column will select the parameter and create the Read or Write operation in one action. If the File is open for reading, a Read operation will be created. If the File is open for writing, a Write operation will be created. Note: This procedure only works if the parameter has not been previously used in a Read or Write operation. If the parameter has already been used, clicking on the Op column will select the location originally read/written, and then attempt to change a write to a read (a read is not changed). To create a second read/write for a parameter already used once, you must: Select the parameter from the Parameter List or the drop-down list in the Parameter Read/Write area. Select the data to read/write. Click on the Read/write button. 3. Perform one of the following actions: Proceed to “Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange,” on page 270 for information on the full process for creating a statement. Proceed to “Updating a Read or Write Operation,” on page 276 for information on altering an existing statement. Return to step 1 to define more data source information using this shortcut method.

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Creating a Bottom-Up Data Exchange
Note: A file opened for read-only supports only read operations. A file opened for write supports both read and write operations. This type of data exchange assumes that no parameters exist, and the parameters will be created as the data exchange program is created. The Data Type and Default Value of the parameter (as well as the size of an Array parameter) is determined by examining the data that was selected. To create a top-down data exchange: 1. Select some data in the data source viewer using one of the following methods: Single-clicking on the Word (General Text format) or item (Table, Vector, Name/Value formats). Triple-clicking. The triple-click action selects the entire line that currently contains the cursor. Swiping. This option allows for the selection of an item or a range of data. The selected item or range is displayed in the Swipe Details area at the bottom of the editor (if it is displayed). 2. (optional) Adjust the swipe details. For more information on using the swipe details options, see one of the following sections: “Using the General Text Format Option,” on page 285 “Using the Name Value Format Option,” on page 292 “Using the Table Format Option,” on page 293 “Using the Vector Format Option,” on page 296 Type the name of the parameter in the Parameter text box. The parameter text box will switch to a yellow background to indicate that this is the name of a new parameter. You can create a member of new or existing aggregate parameters by typing a parameter name containing a period. For example, typing “a.b” will create the aggregate parameter “a” with member “b”. Subsequently typing “a.c” will add member “c” to the aggregate “a”.

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You cannot create an array by typing the name of an array element (for example, x[5]). If you attempt to do so, a warning message will be displayed in the Status Line. If you need to create an array, click on the Create Parameter button ( below the Parameter List and fill out the Create Parameter dialog. Note: When using the Table or Vector tool, you can create an entire array by selecting multiple numbers and typing a parameter name into the Parameter text box. Shortcut: Normally you would click in the Parameter text box before typing the parameter name. This step is not necessary. Instead, after clicking in the Data Source area, press the TAB key to move to the Parameter text box. Even pressing the TAB key is optional; if you start typing after clicking or swiping in the Data Source area, the cursor will automatically jump to the Parameter text box. 3. Apply the new read or write statement using one of the following methods: Click the Read or Write button adjacent to the Parameter text box. )

Press the ENTER key on your keyboard after typing a new name in the Parameter text box. This option uses the default read/write operation for the exchanger. The parameter is created and selected, the read or write is created, the statement is executed, and the data is highlighted. Note that only one mouse click (to select the data) and one extra keystroke (the ENTER key) is required to create the parameter and read or write it. Of course, this is in addition to typing the parameter name. 4. Adjust the Parameter settings. The parameter is created using default settings based on the type of operation (read or write) and the selected data. The fundamental rules are: If the operation is a READ, the parameter has mode OUTPUT; if the operation is a WRITE, the parameter has mode INPUT. If one word, cell, or item is selected, the parameter is Scalar. If multiple values are selected with the Table or Vector formats, an Array parameter is created. The size of the array will exactly match the size of the selection. See “Using the Table Format Option,” on page 293 below for more information.

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276 Chapter 4 Using Components The data type is selected to match the type of data selected. If the selection includes only one block of digits (and leading or trailing spaces), the data type is Integer. If the selection looks like a real number (-99.99e-99]), the data type is Real. In all other cases the data type is String. Note: Selecting data such as “12 34” will use the data type String, not an array of 2 integers as you might hope. The initial value of the parameter is the same as the selected data (with leading and trailing spaces removed). After creating the read or write, you can edit the parameter settings in the Parameter List. The setting most likely to need changing is the Data Type, though sometimes the Mode may need to be changed to INOUT. To edit the parameter settings, click in the Name, Value, Mode, or Type column to enable editing (for the name or value) or to show a drop-down list of choices (Value and Type). To change the operation from a write to a read, click in the Op column of the Parameter list, or click the Read button next to the Parameter name box. Note: You can change the size of an array parameter (or make any other change to any parameter) by right-clicking on the parameter and selecting Properties from the menu. 5. Perform one of the following actions: Proceed to “Updating a Read or Write Operation” on this page for information on altering an existing statement. Return to step 1 to define more data source information.

Updating a Read or Write Operation
Editing the swipe for an existing statement is performed using the Swipe Details area. When the swipe for an existing Read or Write is changed, the new data will be immediately highlighted in blue in the Data Source area. The read or write operation will not be updated until you press ENTER in the Swipe Details area.

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Right-click in the Actions or Data viewer; then, select Edit Selected Statement Double-click the read/write action in the actions view To change the read/write operation: 1. Select a read or write operation by clicking on the parameter in the parameter list, or by clicking on the highlighted data (pink or green) in the Data Source area. Clicking on a Parameter scrolls the Data Source area so the first read or write of the Parameter is visible. The data read or written (already highlighted in green or pink) is then emphasized by a blue border. Clicking on Read or Write data similarly highlights the data with a blue border. The associated parameter is then selected in the Parameter List. In either case, the details of the Data selection are displayed in the Swipe Details area. 2. Perform one of the following options to change the operation: Click the Read button or Write button in the Parameter Read/Write area to change a read operation to a write or a write to a read. This option is only available if the Data Source is open for writing. If the Data Source is open for reading, then Read is the only available operation. Click the Op column in the Parameter to toggle between read and write operations. Again, this only works if the Data Source is open for Writing. Right-click the Op column in the Parameter List; then, select Read Parameter or Write Parameter from the menu that appears. To change the data being read or written: 1. Select the Read or Write by clicking on the highlight in the Data Source area or by clicking on the Parameter in the Parameter List. 2. Edit the Swipe details in the Swipe Details area. Any change to the swipe location will immediately be displayed as a blue box in the Data Source area. The Read or iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

278 Chapter 4 Using Components Write operation will not be updated until you press ENTER in the Swipe Details area. The most common reason to change the Swipe Details is to alter the search string used to locate the data in the General Text format. For more information, see “Using the General Text Format Option,” on page 285.

Editing a Read or Write Statement
To edit a read or write statement: 1. Select a data highlight in the Data Source area, or click an action from the Actions List to select the statement you want to edit. 2. Right-click on the data highlight or action; then, select Edit Selected Statement from the menu that appears. The Write Parameter dialog box appears. Note: If you selected a read statement, then the Read Parameter dialog box appears.

The dialog box is divided into three tabs: Parameter, General Text Swipe, and Edit Read/Write Format. Parameter. Allows you to select a different parameter to change a write to a read statement (or a read to a write statement). General Text Swipe. Allows you to edit the swipe information. The swipe information is different for each section format. For more information on editing the swipe information, see “Adjusting a Basic Swipe,” on page 287.

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Edit Read/Write Format. Allows you to change how the data is formatted. For more information, see “Formatting Numbers During a Write Operation” on this page. 3. Click OK to save your changes and return to the editor.

Removing a Read or Write Operation
To remove a read or write operation, select the operation by clicking on the highlight in the Data Source area or by selecting the Parameter in the Parameter List. Then do one of the following: Click on the button in the Parameter Read/Write Area.

Right-click on the highlight in the Data Source area and select the last menu item Remove Read/Write Instruction from the pop-up menu. Select the read/write action in the Actions List, then click the toolbar. button on the

Select the read/write action; right-click, then select Delete Statement. Note: Deleting a parameter using the button below the Parameter List will also remove all read/write instructions involving that parameter.

Formatting Numbers During a Write Operation
The Data Exchanger has the ability to format numbers during a Write Operation. The Formatting abilities of the FORTRAN, C, and Java languages are all supported. To format a number being written: 1. Select the Write operation by clicking on the Pink highlight in the Data Source area or by selecting the Parameter in the Parameter List, or by selecting the action in the Actions List. If you select the Parameter, verify that the correct Write operation is selected; it will be surrounded by a blue line.

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280 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Right-click on the Highlight in the Data Source area or on the action in the Actions List. Select the menu item Edit Format from the pop-up menu. This will open the Edit Read/Write Format dialog box. Note: Do not select the menu item Edit Section Details; its function is described below. You can also access the Editor format dialog by double-clicking the action to open the Read/Write editor, and then clicking the Format tab. 3. Select the type of format from the pull-down on the Edit Read/Write Format dialog box. The following types of formats are supported: <No Format>: Used to remove a format from an existing formatted write statement. The data will be read or written using the default Java rules for numbers. The Java rules always use a period as the decimal point and do not allow thousands of separators. DecimalFormat: Uses the Java class java.text.DecimalFormat to format the number. This is (broadly) similar to COBOL pictures: # for an optional digit, 0 for a required digit, “,” for a thousands separator, “.” for the decimal point. Extra text before or after the number format is included in the output. FORTRAN: Enters one format specifier as would be used in a FORTRAN formatted WRITE statement. Some examples are “F5.3”, “I10”, or “E12.4”. The numeric format may be preceded by a text string (enclosed in single quotes) or by a spacing “X” specifier. C printf: Enters a C-language printf format string that contains one format specifier (“%4d”, “%5.2f”, or “%12.5e”). Extra characters before or after the format specifier are included in the output. Java Code: Enters a Java expression with a type of java.text.Format. The value of the parameter will be passed to the “format(Object)” method of this object. This option is for very advanced users. Note: Setting a write format when writing an Array using the Vector or Table format, the output format is applied separately to each element of the array. While it is possible to set a format on a Read operation, doing so almost never works as desired and is strongly discouraged.

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Changing the Format of a Section of a Data Source
You can change the format of a section of the data you are using for your data exchange. For example, if you created a data exchange using the General Text format, you can then specify a small section of that data using the Vector format, if desired. To format a section: 1. Select the data to be formatted in the Data Source area. Usually this involves selecting several lines. This can be done easily by dragging the mouse down the page. You can also select multiple lines by clicking on the first line and shift-clicking on the last line. 2. Click the New Section Format button Wizard appears. . The New Section Format Chooser

Applying a formatter is very similar to adding a data source (as described in “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262). Again, there are two independent groups of data: the section (the swipe) and the formatter details. The swipe settings are taken from the Swipe Details area of the Data Exchanger editor. The format options are identical to those in the wizard used for creating a data source. For more information, see “Updating an Existing Section Format,” on page 282.

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282 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Select the new format from the Formats area. The General Text, Table, and Vector formats do not have any additional options to set. The Name/Value option has additional options that can be defined. For more information on these options, see “Using the Name Value Format Option,” on page 292. 4. Click Finish. The wizard is closed, and a new format is colored white in the Data Source area. You can now insert Read and Write statements using the new format. 5. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on the type of statement you are creating in the section: “Creating a Top-Down Data Exchange,” on page 270 “Creating a Bottom-Up Data Exchange,” on page 274

Updating an Existing Section Format
To update an existing section format: 1. Select the data to be updated in the Data Source area, or click a bound parameter in the Parameter List to select the corresponding data. 2. Right-click the Data Source area; then, select Edit Section Details from the menu that appears. The Edit Section Format dialog box appears. It is divided into three tabs.

Note: This dialog box differs (the tab contents are altered) based on the current format selected. 3. Edit the details used to construct the format using the first tab. This step is most often used to change the delimiters between elements. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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4. Click the Advanced tab; then, set the mode to either RANDOM or SEQUENTIAL. The default is always RANDOM. Using SEQUENTIAL mode on large files is more efficient, but may interfere with how the editor operates. 5. Click the third tab. This tab changes the file if the top-level section (the whole file) is selected. If a sub-section is selected, this tab lets you update the boundaries of the section.

Navigating Between Section Formats
When the data exchange program contains multiple nested section formatters, it will be necessary to navigate between these in order to select the parent formatter for a new statement. This task is accomplished by navigating directly in the Data Source area. There are tabs at the top of the Data Source area for each data source. Selecting a tab will switch the display to that data source. Selecting a tab also displays the section of that data source that was most recently used. Once the correct data source is selected, you can navigate by clicking on the data. The current section is always highlighted in white. Any sub-sections are highlighted in yellow. Read and Write statements are colored in green/pink. Any text outside the current section (in a parent section) is highlighted in gray. Clicking a yellow highlight will move the focus to the sub-section, turning the yellow area white, and the previous white area gray. Clicking the gray area will navigate to the parent section, turning the gray area white and the previous white area yellow.

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Editing Java Code Directly
You can edit the java code directly using the Java Source Code dialog box. To access this interface and manually edit the java code: 1. Click the Java Source button on the end of the toolbar.

The Java Source Code dialog box appears.

The full Java source code is generated and displayed in this dialog box, and the code can be edited directly. 2. Edit the code, as desired. You can copy and paste text between this dialog box and an external Java development tool using the standard keyboard commands (CTRL-X, CTRL-C, and CTRL-V). 3. Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog box. The Java code is checked for errors while it is being saved. If there are any errors, the first error is highlighted in pink, a description of the error is displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the Data Exchanger editor, and the Java Source Code dialog will not close. You must either correct the error, or click Cancel to discard all changes.

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Using the General Text Format Option
There are three ways of swiping information using the general text format: New basic swipe. This type of swipe involves highlighting a portion of text in your file and then mapping it to a parameter. It does not involve the usage of the Swipe Details section of the Data Exchanger component. For more information, see “Performing a Basic Swipe” on this page. Adjust a basic swipe. This type of swipe requires the use of the Swipe Details area, and involves only one line in your file (whether it is the whole line or only part of the line). For more information, see “Adjusting a Basic Swipe,” on page 287. Advanced swipe of a group of lines. This type of swipe requires the use of the Swipe Details area, and involves using more than one line in your text file. For more information, see “Performing an Advanced Swipe,” on page 289.

Performing a Basic Swipe
The following example shows a simple file that has been loaded into the Data Exchanger component. It has been specified as a file to be read by the component.

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286 Chapter 4 Using Components To perform a basic swipe: 1. Click or swipe the desired data in the text file. For more information on the differences between these two ways to select data, see “Understanding Terminology,” on page 261. 2. Specify the parameter that will correspond to this information from the text file using one of the following methods: Type a new parameter name in the Parameter text box. Use the Parameter drop-down list (to the right of the Parameter text box) to select an existing parameter. 3. Click the Read or Write button (based upon the usage you specified for the file in “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262). The parameter is added to the Parameter List on the right side of the component editor.

4. Click Apply to save your changes.

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Adjusting a Basic Swipe
A swipe is defined by a line (a find action plus an offset or line number) and either part of a line or a range of lines. You can tweak this information for a basic swipe using the General Data Swipe area. To adjust a basic swipe: 1. Verify that the General Data Swipe appears near the bottom of the editor. If not, click on the down arrow button located under the Parameters Read / Write area.

2. Click the parameter in the Parameter List that is bound to the swipe that you want to update. The swipe information appears in the General Data Swipe area. 3. Select one of the following options from the first drop-down list: Find. This option allows you to locate a specific string in the data. If you need to locate a string, proceed to step 4. Line. This option allows you to specify the information to be highlighted. If you have located the information, proceed to step 6.

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288 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Perform the following steps to locate data using the Find option: Select String or Regexp (Regular Expression) from the drop-down list in the center of the General Data Swipe area. Regular expressions are a way to specify patterns that match similar strings. For example, the regular expression ‘a *b’ matches an ‘a’, zero or more spaces, and a ‘b’. A detailed description of regular expressions can be found in the Java 1.4 Manual pages for class java.util.regex.Pattern, in the Perl language manual, or in any of a number of books on Regular Expressions. Set the Offset Lines option. This option allows you to tell the component to add lines before or after the location of the found data. Negative numbers select a line before the matched line, while positive numbers select a line after the matched line. Add text to the Find text box. Once a text string is added to this text box, the matching item in the text file is automatically highlighted. You can adjust where the search starts with the From drop-down list. There are three options:

• Start of File. Starts the search from the beginning of the file. This is the
default.

• Current. Starts the search from where the last read/write occurred. This
can be much more efficient when working near the end of a large file. Be aware of where the statement will be inserted in the list of actions – the “last read or write” is the last one before the new statement – which can be an unexpected value if the insertion point is not at the end of the list of actions.

• End of File. Starts the search backwards from the end of the file.
5. Select Line from the drop-down list. The line number of the data appears. It is automatically updated, based on the results of the Find operation. Normally, the line number is relative to the start of the file, but you can specify a line number as an offset from the current location or as a negative offset from the end of the file. 6. Verify that the correct line is highlighted. You can change the line number in the Line text box, if necessary. You can also enter an expression or click the expression button to open an expression editor. The matching item in the text file is automatically highlighted.

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7. Refine the selected data using the following options from the drop-down list at the bottom of the General Data Swipe area: Whole Line. This option highlights the entire line in the file that contains the information specified. Word #. This option highlights the specified word number in the text file. The count is based on the number of words from the left margin. Character. This option highlights the characters in the specified range, which is specified in the corresponding text boxes. 8. Click Apply to save your changes.

Performing an Advanced Swipe
An advanced swipe is a swipe that comprises more than one line in your file. Such swipes are almost always used to define sections of the file with different formats, though they can also be used to read large string values. In order to define this type of swipe, you must use the Group tab in the General Data Swipe area. To perform an advanced swipe: 1. Verify that the General Data Swipe area appears at the bottom of the editor. If it doesn’t, click the down arrow button located below the Parameters Read/Write area. The Swipe Details area appears near the bottom of the editor. 2. Click the Group tab in the General Data Swipe area.

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290 Chapter 4 Using Components A new group of options appears.

This tab is divided into two subtabs: the Start subtab the End subtab The Start subtab is displayed by default.

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3. Select Line or Find from the drop-down list, based on how you want to specify the area in the text file where your swipe fill begins. Selecting Line allows you to specify a particular line in the file, enter an expression, or open an expression editor. Selecting Find allows you to specify a group of characters as the starting point. 4. Perform one of the following actions, based on the selection you made in step 3. If you selected the Line option, enter the number of the line you want to mark the beginning of your swipe. You can also enter an expression or click the expression button to open an expression editor.

If you selected Find, select String or RegExp (regular expression) from the adjacent drop-down list; then, enter the text you wish to start from in the corresponding text box. You can also enter an offset, which is the number of lines before or after the search string to start the section. 5. Click the End subtab; then, use the options to set where your swipe will end. These steps are similar to those described in step 3 and step 4, however, it is slightly more complex. While a Start search starts from the beginning of the file, an End search starts from the line selected by the Start tab. The start line # option is from the start of the file. The End line # option is from the start line (0 = 1 line, 1 = 2 lines). 6. Click Apply to save your changes.

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Using the Name Value Format Option
A sample of the component editor with the Name Value Swipe area displayed is shown below.

To use the name value format option: 1. Select the Name or Item # from the drop-down list to determine how to locate the item in your text file. 2. Select the item itself from the second drop-down list. The contents of this drop-down list are determined by your selection in step 1. 3. Type a new parameter name in the Parameter text box, or select an existing parameter from the drop-down list. If you create a new parameter, it is added to the Parameter List on the right side of the dialog box. If you choose an existing parameter, the parameter is highlighted in the list. 4. Click Apply to save your changes. Only one item can be read/written at a time. You can also apply a section format to the value of a Name/Value item. It is particularly useful to use the Vector format in order to read an array from the value. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Note: It is not currently possible to write new entries into a Name/Value section. You can only read or write the value of an existing name/value item.

Using the Table Format Option
A sample of the component editor with the Table Swipe area displayed is shown below.

The Table format is useful in that it can read/write a whole (one dimensional or two-dimensional) array at once. A new parameter is created having as many elements as the swipe. To read/write an existing array, you must have a swipe exactly as large as the array parameter or the parameter must be resizable. For more information on resizable arrays, see “Using Parameters,” on page 564. The format can read/write a cell (scalar), a whole or portion of a row or column (a one dimensional array), or a sub-table (a two dimensional array).

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294 Chapter 4 Using Components To use the table format option: 1. Type a parameter name in the Parameter text box, or select an existing parameter from the drop-down list. 2. Set the table swipe coordinates. The first two text boxes represent the starting point for the swipe. The second two text boxes represent the ending point for the swipe. The end is left empty to indicate the swipe has a length of one in that dimension. Note the following information: Leaving the column field blank in the start coordinates highlights the entire referenced row. Similarly, leaving the start row field blank selects the entire column. Blank rows are not highlighted if selected using the table swipe coordinates. 3. Click the Read button or Write button exchange you are performing. 4. Click Apply to save your changes. If your selection covers more than one cell in a table and you type a new parameter name, the parameter is created as an array as big as the swipe. You can select a cell of the table by clicking in it. Triple-clicking will select a whole row. You can select a row, column, or sub-table by dragging the mouse from one end to the other (for a sub-table, drag from one corner to another). Note: When selecting a column by dragging, what matters is which word on the line you start and end the drag in, not what character position on the line. If the widths of the columns vary a great deal, it may be difficult to end the drag in the same relative column as it started in. When you release the mouse button after dragging a column, the blue selection highlight will shrink to just the selected column(s). If too many columns are selected, adjust the selection using the Table Swipe details panel. , based on the type of data

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Reading Fixed-Format Tables With Touching Columns
There is a facility for reading fixed-format tables where the columns touch each other with no intervening spaces or punctuation. To configure a fixed format table: 1. Create a table format section using the wizard. 2. Select the table format in the component editor; then, right-click the white area of the Data Source area. 3. Select Edit Section Details from the menu that appears. The Edit Section Format dialog for a Table Format opens.

4. Click the Fixed Columns tab. The contents of the tab appear.

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296 Chapter 4 Using Components 5. Type in the column boundaries in the text box; then, click OK. Note that the numbers are the character position on which each column ends. The example shown above creates four columns, each five characters wide: Column 1- Characters 1 through 5 Column 2 - Characters 6 through 10 Column 3 - Characters 11 through 15 Column 4 - Characters 16 through 20

Using the Vector Format Option
A sample of the component editor with the Vector Swipe area displayed is shown below.

The Vector format is similar to the Table format in that it can read/write a whole (one dimensional) array at once. In both formats, a new parameter is created having as many elements as the swipe. To read/write an existing array, you must have a swipe exactly as large as the array parameter, or the array must be resizable.

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1. Type a parameter name in the Parameter text box, or select an existing parameter from the drop-down list. 2. Enter the swipe start and end point. The points are highlighted as you enter the information. Each item is considered a cell, and the count is made from left to right, and from top to bottom.

3. Click the Read button or Write button exchange you are performing. 4. Click Apply to save your changes.

, based on the type of data

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Searching a Data Source
To search for a text string in your data source: 1. Verify that the correct data source is loaded in the Data Source area. 2. Click the Find button at the top of the editor.

The Find dialog box appears.

3. Enter the text string you want to search for in the text box; then, click Next. The string, if found in the data source, is highlighted in orange in the Data Source area. 4. Perform one of the following actions: Click Next to locate the next instance of the specified text string. Click Clear to search for a new text string. Click Close to close the Find dialog box and return to the Data Exchanger editor. The General Text format uses the search string as the Find target for swipes as long as the swipe is close to the find string (currently within ten lines). To set the search target for the general text tool to a string on the screen, select the text to use as the search target; then, click on the Find button menu. , or right-click and select Find from the pop-up

Creating Markers
Markers are used to search for a string, and to remember where the string was found. Then, the marker can be used as an anchor for subsequent read/write operations. There are two ways to create a marker.

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Using the Data Exchanger Component To create a marker: 1. Select a General Text section; then, click the The Marker dialog box opens. button on the toolbar.

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2. Enter the variable name, the section to search, a string to search for, and where to begin the search. 3. Click OK. or 1. Select some text on the line where you want the marker. 2. Click the button on the toolbar.

The marker is created immediately. It searches for the selected text in the selected section, and uses the selected text (with punctuation changed to underscores) as the marker name.

Using Markers
If you simply click on a word in a General Text section that is after a marker, the word will be located at runtime as a certain number of lines after the marker. You can also select a marker from the From drop-down list on the General Text Swipe editor, when in Line mode (not in Find mode). Note: If you are using markers, there is little reason to use the FIND mode of the General Text swipe editor, since the Markers handle searching.

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Using Advanced Action Types
The toolbar includes the following advanced options: . Calculation. Performs a calculation and assigns the result to a parameter. For more information, see “Using the Calculation Editor” on this page. . If. Creates a conditional statement. An editor opens for specifying the conditional test. This editor is the same as the Calculation editor (above) except you only type an expression (such as “i < 10”) instead of a complete assignment statement. . For. Creates a For Loop. For more information, see “Using the For Loop Editor,” on page 302. . While. Create a While loop. An editor opens for specifying the condition to test at the start of each loop. This is identical to the editor for an If statement. . Comment. Adds a comment to the list of actions. . Java. Adds arbitrary Java code as an action. When you click OK, the Java code is checked for errors. Note that a single block of Java code could be split into multiple actions.

Using the Calculation Editor
The Calculation editor is used when creating or editing a calculation action. It consists of a text area for entering expressions, and an operation bar (at the bottom) for selecting and inserting parameters, operators, and functions. Click the button on the toolbar to open the Calculation Editor. The Edit Calculation dialog box appears.

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The Calculator editor is similar to the Calculator component. For more information about the Calculator component, see “Using the Calculator Component,” on page 239. There are a few differences that include the following: The Calculator component uses lists and buttons whereas the Calculation editor uses menus to keep the dialog smaller. A Data Exchanger calculation can contain multiple statements, but there must be a semicolon after each statement (except the last). The Calculator component allows one statement per line even without semicolons. The Calculation Editor allows full Java statement syntax, including expressions as subscripts of arrays, and calling methods on parameters (which are type com.engineous.sdk.vars.Variable). This includes Java auto increment/decrement operators (++ and --) and the operation assign operators, such as ‘i +=1;’. Subscripts of array parameters can use either Java notation ‘arr[i][j]’ or FIPER syntax ‘arr[i,j]’. In the Calculation editor, an array parameter can be resized either by calling the ‘array.setDimSize(size)’ method or with the ‘resize(array,size)’ function. It is not currently possible to change the size of an array in the Calculator component. The Calculator component prohibits certain characters in parameter names, and puts single quotes around parameters containing spaces. The Calculation editor renames parameters by replacing all punctuation and spaces with underscores. Be aware that if you select a parameter, such as ‘strength/weight ratio’ and click the button, it will be inserted into the calculation as ‘strength_weight_ratio’. Note: The same calculation editor dialog is used for IF and WHILE statements, and to enter expressions for row and column numbers in the Vector and Table tools. The only difference is that a calculation must contain assignment statements, whereas the other uses must be an expression that does not assign the value to a parameter.

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302 Chapter 4 Using Components The following are examples of calculations: Increment the value of an integer parameter ‘i’. All of the following are equivalent: i++ i+=1 i=i+1 Set an element of array parameter ‘array’ to a complex expression. The subscript is one less than the integer parameter ‘i’. array[i-1] = array[i] * cos(x) Change the size of array ‘outArray’ to be twice as large as the array ‘inArray’: resize(outArray, size(inArray) *2)

Using the For Loop Editor
This loop will iterate through a sequence of values of the selected parameter and execute the subflow at each iteration. To open the For Loop editor: 1. Click the button to open the For Loop editor.

The Edit For Statement dialog box appears.

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2. Click the appropriate tab: Simple or Advanced. The tab selected controls the statement. Switching tabs tries to convert from the simple form to the advanced form (always works) or from advanced to simple (only works in a restricted subset of cases). Simple. The Simple tab allows you to edit a parameter, initial value, final value, and increment (similar to the For Loop component). This is the basic ‘for i = 1 to 10 by 1’ type loop. Advanced. The Advanced tab allows you to edit the initialization, condition, and update expressions. This is the complete Java (or C or C++): ‘for (i = 1, j = 10; xx[i]; i++, j--)’ For loop. 3. Click the button at the end of each text box to open a calculation editor. The editor can be used to build an expression for the corresponding text box based on parameters, operators, and functions. A line of instructions at the top of the calculation editor indicates the type of expression expected (e.g., assignment, integer value, logical condition). 4. Click OK to save your changes and return to the editor.

Filtering Parameters
To alter the view of the parameters in the Parameter List: 1. Click the Filter... button at the bottom of the Parameter List. The Edit Parameter Filtering Options dialog box appears.

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304 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Set the check buttons, as desired. Activating a check box causes the corresponding parameters to be shown in the Parameter List. 3. Click OK. You are returned to the Data Exchanger editor, and your Parameter List is updated.

Deleting a Data Source
You can remove any unwanted data source (in essence, one of the tabs in the Data Source area) at any time. To delete a data source from the Data Source area: 1. Click the tab that corresponds to the data source that you want to delete. The contents of the data source appear in the Data Source area. 2. Do one of the following: Right-click anywhere in the Data Source area; then, select Delete Selection from the menu that appears. Click the button on the toolbar.

Right-click in the Data viewer; then, select Close Data Source from the menu that appears. 3. Click OK to confirm the action. The data source is deleted. Keep in mind the following actions that will occur when you use the Delete/Close options in the Data Exchanger component: The button/Close Data Source menu option always close the current data source. The button/Delete Statement menu option delete a data source, section, or other action depending on the selection. The Delete Section option (accessed by right-clicking in the Data Source area) deletes the current section, or the data source if the current section is the data source.

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Deleting a section also deletes all read and write statements inside that section, and closing a data source deletes all sections, reads, and writes in that data source. Deleting an 'if', 'while' or 'for' action ONLY deletes the selected action and the associated end indicator “}”. Any other statements that were inside the block are left in place. To delete an 'if', 'for' or 'while' action and everything inside it, you must select all the actions by clicking on the start action and shift-clicking on the end indicator. Actions can be moved into or out of a loop or if block by using the cut/paste feature.

Using the Database Component
The Database component allows you to communicate with an existing database from within your environment. In general, the component has the following capabilities: Allows you to define templates in the Design Gateway that determine which values are read and written during runtime. Writes the values obtained during execution back to the database, allowing the component to act as an interface to any database. Supports multiple databases including DB2, Oracle, MS Access, MySQL, and SQL Server.

Understanding Database Settings
This section describes settings that may be necessary to specific databases when using the Database component. It also discusses how to modify the iSIGHT-FD Class Path, if necessary. Proceed to one of the following topics: “Database-Specific Settings,” on page 306 “Modifying the iSIGHT-FD Class Path,” on page 307

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Database-Specific Settings
Depending on the database you are using, the following changes need to be made in order to use the Database component. For more information, refer to your database documentation or contact your local database administrator. MS Access The primary column should be set to YES. Some MS Access databases may need the Windows ODBC setting to create the database. For database license distribution, set the environment to the user database classpath. Oracle The Database component is a general usage database. If you use a special Oracle datatype such as CLOB, you need to put the ojdbc14.jar file in the Oracle directory. You also need to add this file with the full path to the iSIGHT-FD class path. For more information on adding the file, see “Modifying the iSIGHT-FD Class Path,” on page 307. DB2 If you are trying to connect to a remote DB2 database, you need to select the following driver from the driver drop-down list when connecting to a database using iSIGHT-FD: com.ibm.db2.jcc.DB2Driver You also need to add the following files with the full path to the iSIGHT-FD class path. For more information on adding the files, see “Modifying the iSIGHT-FD Class Path,” on page 307.

• db2jcc.jar • db2jcc_license_cisuz.jar • db2jcc_license_cu.jar

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If you are trying to connect to a Microsoft SQL Server database, you need to download the following file: Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Driver for JDBC You also need to add the following files with the full path to the iSIGHT-FD class path. For more information on adding the files, see “Modifying the iSIGHT-FD Class Path,” on page 307.

• msbase.jar • mssqlserver.jar • msutil.jar
You need a valid user name and password.

Modifying the iSIGHT-FD Class Path
Proceed to one of the following sections, based on your operating system: “Modifying on Windows” on this page “Modifying on UNIX/Red Hat Linux” on this page

Modifying on Windows
To modify the iSIGHT-FD class path: 1. Using a text editor, open the fiperenv.bat file, which is located in the bin\win32 sub-directory in your iSIGHT-FD installation directory. 2. Locate the set DBJars= line in the file. 3. Add the full class path after set DBJars=. Do no enter a space after the equal sign. The following is an example: setDBJars=C:\oracle\ora92\jdbc\lib\ ojdbc14.jar; C:\Program Files\IBM\SQLLIB\java\db2jcc.jar 4. Save and close the fiperenv.bat file.

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Modifying on UNIX/Red Hat Linux
To modify the iSIGHT-FD class path: 1. Using a text editor, open the fiperenv.bat file. 2. Locate the DBJars="" line in the file. 3. Enter the full class path file name in the quotation marks after the equal sign. Do not enter a space after the equal sign. The following is an example: DBJars="/users/ora92/jdbc/lib/ ojdbc14.jar; /users/IBM/SQLLIB/java/db2jcc.jar 4. Save and close the fiperenv.bat file.

Limitations
The following known limitations should be noted prior to using the Database component: The component only allows you to interact with the database tables. No other database objects are available. Furthermore, the component does not support procedure executions. The datatypes supported are as follows: string, text, varchar, int, double, float, and decimal. Invalid characters in the variable names: ~,`, !, @, #, %, ^, &, *, -, +, =, {, }, [, ], \, |, \\, /, <, >, . (period), , (comma), / , ?, “ The variable name must start with a non-numeric character. For example, a parameters named “3var” is invalid. Instead, the variable should be called “var3” or just “variable.” Any iSIGHT-FD variable that does not conform to this format is not displayed in the available list of parameters. A variable that contains a space in its name must be surrounded by single quotes in the expression. For example, a parameter called variable one would have to be entered in the expression as 'variable one'.

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Connecting to a Database
To start using the Database component, you must first connect to the database. To connect to the database: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Database Component Editor screen appears as shown below.

2. Click the Configure DB connection...

button.

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310 Chapter 4 Using Components The Connection Details screen appears as shown below.

3. To make a successful connection, you enter the following information: Type of Database. Choose the database from the corresponding drop-down list. Supported databases include DB2, Oracle, MS Access, MySQL, and SQL Server. Once the database has been selected, iSIGHT-FD will automatically fill in any default values for the remaining settings (if available). Once you specify the type of database, the options necessary for a connection are activated. If the options listed below are not accessible then they are not needed. Service/Database Name. Enter the appropriate service name, depending on the database. Host Name/Instance Name. Enter the name of the host machine to which the component should connect. Port. Enter the port number to which the component should connect. User Name. Enter the user name for the database. Password. Enter the password for the corresponding user name. Driver. Use the Browse... button to locate the driver for the database you selected. Class name. Enter the class name that is included in the driver file. The class name must match the driver file. 4. Click Connect.

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Using the Database Component The database information is loaded into the editor.

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The type of database and the service/database name are displayed at the top of the editor. The database tables in the schema are show on the left side of the editor. Note: A message appears if the connection information you entered is incorrect. 5. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Viewing Data and Mapping Parameters,” on page 312 describes how to view the table data, and how to map the data to iSIGHT-FD parameters. “Modifying Queries,” on page 318 describes how to change an existing database query.

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Viewing Data and Mapping Parameters
After you connect to the database, you can use the Database component to view information and map data to iSIGHT-FD parameters. To view data and map parameters: 1. Verify that you are connected to the appropriate database, as described in “Connecting to a Database,” on page 309. 2. Select a table; then, click the Show Data table is displayed. button. The data from the selected

The right side of the editor shows the selected columns with all the rows of the table. 3. Click the icon to the left of a table to expand it.

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Using the Database Component Additional information appears.

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The following information may be displayed for the selected table: A icon represents the primary key of the table. This column cannot be mapped. A icon represents various columns with datatypes supported by iSIGHT-FD that can be mapped. A icon represents columns with datatypes not supported by iSIGHT-FD. The data in these columns cannot be displayed or mapped. 4. Select the column(s) or row(s) from the current table that represent the data that will be used in or replaced by iSIGHT-FD. Be aware of the following issues with regard to data selection: If multiple columns and rows are selected with the same datatype, an aggregate or array variable is created. If multiple columns and rows are selected with different datatypes, an aggregate variable is created. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

314 Chapter 4 Using Components If multiple columns and only one row are selected with the same datatype, an aggregate or array variable is created. If multiple columns and only one row are selected with different datatypes, an aggregate or multi scalar variable is created. If only one column and multiple rows are selected, an array variable is created. If only one column is selected, a scalar variable is created. 5. Determine how you want to map your parameters. The following options are available: To map individual parameters manually, by selecting data in the corresponding table, proceed to step 6. To map parameters based on existing column information, proceed to step 10. To map a new record to the database table, proceed to step 14. 6. Specify the iSIGHT-FD parameter that will be mapped to the selected data using one of the following techniques: Select an existing parameter from the Parameter drop-down list. Click the button to create a new parameter. For more information on creating new parameters, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566. 7. Select the mapping direction for the parameter. The following two options are available: . This option updates the database data. . This option retrieves data from the database. 8. Click the button.

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Using the Database Component The parameter mapping is added to the table at the bottom of the editor.

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The table at the bottom of the editor displays the various parameters created. The columns in the table show the parameter name, mode of the parameter, the table from which the rows are selected, column names, and the query formed by the selected rows. Note: You can remove an existing mapping by selecting it in the table at the bottom of the editor; then, click the button. 9. Proceed to step 18. 10. Select the data you wish to map from the database table. You can select individual cells, or you can select an entire column by clicking on the column’s header. 11. Click the button. The Select dialog box appears.

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316 Chapter 4 Using Components 12. Select the appropriate parameter attribute; then, click OK. The data is mapped and added to the table at the bottom of the editor.

13. Proceed to step 18. 14. Select the data you wish to map from the database table. You can select individual cells, or you can select an entire column by clicking on the column’s header. 15. Click the button. The Column and value dialog box appears.

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Using the Database Component 16. Perform one of the following actions: To select a constant: Type a value in the text box.

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To select a parameter: Select Parameter from the drop-down list to the right of a text box; then, select a parameter from the list of parameters that appears in the corresponding text box. 17. Click OK to return to the editor. The data is mapped and added to the table at the bottom of the editor.

Note: The name iSIGHT-FD assigns to the new mapping (e.g., $D, $I) cannot be edited. Note: You can remove a record from the database by selecting a cell in the database table row; then, click the button. 18. Return to step 5 if you want to map additional parameters, or click OK to save the changes and close the editor. Click Apply to save the changes without closing the editor. Note: A SQL exception will be thrown at runtime if you entered invalid values into the database. The exception appears in the runtime log. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Modifying Queries
You can modify a query formed by mapping the row data to a parameter. To modify a query in the database: 1. Select the mapping whose query you want to edit from the table at the bottom of the editor. 2. Click the Edit button in the bottom right corner of the editor. The Advanced Query dialog box appears.

The text of the query is displayed in the Modify Query area at the top of the dialog box. Each query is broken into independent parts and displayed on a single line. You can select a line and modify the corresponding query accordingly. 3. Perform any of the following options, as desired: Remove a line from the query by clicking it; then, click the Remove from Query button. Select any query at the top of the dialog box; then, click the buttons provided at the bottom of the Modify Query area to insert the corresponding text.

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Using the Database Component These buttons help you to form the query string and are listed below:

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• • • • • •

( AND OR NOT ) WHERE

Use the ORDER BY button to list the query in ascending or descending order. Use the option in the Add where clause area to create a Where clause connecting the column names and a constant or parameter, depending on the selection from the corresponding drop-down list. Once created, add the clause to the query by clicking the Add to Query button. Determine the number of rows the query should fetch in the corresponding text box. Review the updated query in the Final Query area at the bottom of the dialog box. This area is for viewing purposes only and is not editable. 4. (optional) Click the Check Query button to verify the correctness of the query in terms of syntax. If any syntax mistakes are found, a dialog appears with the message “The query is incorrect”. 5. (optional) Click the Manual Edit button to manually edit the query. A warning message appears, stating that this option is at your own risk. Important: This procedure is not supported, and any problems caused by manual query editing cannot be remedied by Engineous Software. Use with option with extreme caution. 6. Click OK to save the query and close the editor. The editor will not close if the query is incorrect. Instead, an error message appears. You are returned to the Database component editor.

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Using the Excel Component
The Excel component allows interaction with Microsoft Excel workbooks. The two main functions of this component are: parameter mapping macro execution Parameter mapping includes mapping iSIGHT-FD parameter values to Excel cell values and mapping Excel cell values to iSIGHT-FD parameter values. Both scalars and arrays can be used. Macro execution includes running Excel predefined macro methods and functions. Note: This component has default preferences which you can set based on your needs. For more information, see “Setting Excel Component Preferences,” on page 118.

Starting the Editor and Adding Workbooks
To start the editor and add workbooks: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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Using the Excel Component 321 The Component Editor dialog box appears.

Once the editor is opened, you need to specify an Excel workbook with which to interact. 2. Click the button. The Open dialog box appears.

3. Navigate to the Excel workbook you want to use; then, click the Open button. Note: If a message appears regarding the existence of Named Cells, this means that iSIGHT-FD has detected that the workbook contains names/tags associated with certain cells, an indication that these might be items of importance. In this case, you can do some instant parameter mapping. Click Yes to map the parameters now. Click No to map them manually at a later time or to not map them at all. For more information on mapping these parameters manually, and on this option in general, see “Named Cells/Ranges Mapping,” on page 328.

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322 Chapter 4 Using Components The workbook is loaded into the editor.

The workbook is displayed in an Excel emulator so that it resembles the actual workbook. However, if the original workbook contained figures or graphics, they are not displayed in the emulator, and no information about any defined calculations is available. Important: Once loaded into the Excel editor, any modification made to the original workbook will not appear in the Excel editor’s emulator unless the reload button ( ) is clicked or the editor is closed and re-opened. Also, no direct interaction is possible with the workbook using the emulator. It is for display and selection purposes only. You can load multiple workbooks into the editor using the method described in step 2 and step 3. The Current Workbook button allows you to switch between workbooks. To remove a workbook, select it using the Current Workbook drop-down list; then, click the button. Once you confirm your desire to delete the workbook, it is removed from the editor, and any mappings defined to/from that workbook are also removed. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the Excel Component 323 4. Click the Store workbook in the model check box if you’d like the workbook saved as part of the iSIGHT-FD model file. This option may be useful if you wish to allow this component to be distributed for execution on any Windows machine without requiring that the workbook file exist on that machine. Once the workbook has been loaded, you can map parameters or set macro information. 5. Proceed to one of the following sections: See “Mapping Parameters” on this page for information on how to set up parameter mappings to and from Excel cells. See “Using Advanced Options,” on page 330 for information on macros, execution order, save options, and execution visibility.

Mapping Parameters
There are three different ways to map iSIGHT-FD parameters to and from an Excel workbook using the Excel component editor: Direct cell mapping. This type of mapping allows you to select a single cell to map to or from an iSIGHT-FD scalar parameter or array element, or to select a range of cells to map to/from an iSIGHT-FD array parameter of the same size. For more information, see “Direct Cell Mapping,” on page 324. Name-Value mapping. This type of mapping allows you to select a 2-by-n or n-by-2 region of cells that represent name-value pairs and automatically define mappings using those names. For more information, see “Name-Value Mapping,” on page 326. Named Cells/Ranges mapping. This type of mapping allows you to quickly create mappings based on information pre-defined in the Excel workbook prior to loading it into the iSIGHT-FD Excel component. For more information, see “Named Cells/Ranges Mapping,” on page 328.

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Direct Cell Mapping
To directly map the values in cells to/from iSIGHT-FD parameters in the Excel component editor: 1. Select the workbook cells that you want to map. Note: You can select a single cell to map to an iSIGHT-FD scalar parameter, or a continuous block of cells to map to an iSIGHT-FD array parameter of the same size. 2. Determine the name for the mapped parameter using one of the following methods: To map an existing iSIGHT-FD parameter, click the Parameter drop-down list and select the parameter. To map a new iSIGHT-FD parameter, type the name of the new iSIGHT-FD parameter in the Parameter text box. You can also click the define a new parameter in more detail. button to

3. Select the mapping direction. The following two options are available: . This option maps the value from an iSIGHT-FD parameter to Excel. . This option maps the value from Excel to an iSIGHT-FD parameter. 4. Click the Add Mapping button .

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Using the Excel Component 325 The mapping is added to the list at the bottom of the editor. The parameter mode, type, and value are set automatically. In the following example, we mapped the value from a parameter to the cell A3.

Note: You can delete a listed mapping by selecting it and clicking the Remove Mapping button . 5. Perform one of the following options: Return to step 1 for any additional direct cell mappings. Proceed to “Name-Value Mapping,” on page 326 for information on mapping name-value parameters, which provides instructions for a quick way of defining mappings for ranges in the Excel spreadsheet that contains names and values in adjacent cells. Proceed to “Named Cells/Ranges Mapping,” on page 328 for information on mapping named cells/ranges parameters, which provides instructions for a quick way of defining mappings for cells that have been named in the Excel spreadsheet.

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326 Chapter 4 Using Components Proceed to “Using Advanced Options,” on page 330 to set macro, execution order, save options, or execution visibility options. Click OK to close the editor.

Name-Value Mapping
To quickly define mappings for ranges that contain names and values in adjacent cells: 1. Select the range of workbook cells that you want to map, which contains both the names for the parameters you are mapping and the associated values. The selected range must contain either 2 rows or 2 columns, with the names of the parameters assumed to be in the left or top cells. In the following example, we are mapping five parameters: Length, FlangeWidth, Height, FlangeThickness, and Web Thickness, whose values are in cells A3 through E3, respectively.

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Using the Excel Component 327 2. Select the mapping direction. The following two options are available: . This option maps the value from an iSIGHT-FD parameter to Excel. . This option maps the value from Excel to an iSIGHT-FD parameter. 3. Click the Add Name-Value Mapping button . Scalar parameters are automatically created based on the names in the selected range and are mapped to the corresponding adjacent value cells. Your mappings are added to the list at the bottom of the editor.

Note: You can delete a listed mapping by selecting it and clicking the Remove Mapping button . You can also sort the listed mappings by clicking the column heading of the column that you want to sort by. Sorting the listed mappings does not affect the order of execution of those mappings, which is controlled on the Advanced tab as described in “Using Advanced Options,” on page 330.

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328 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Verify that the mapping direction is set properly for each parameter as described in step 2. If it is not, you can change the mapping direction using the drop-down menu provided in the Action column for that mapping. 5. Perform one of the following options: Return to step 1 for any additional mappings. Proceed to “Direct Cell Mapping,” on page 324 for information on mapping. Proceed to “Named Cells/Ranges Mapping” on this page for information on mapping named cells/ranges parameters, which provides instructions for a quick way of defining mappings for cells that have been named in the Excel spreadsheet. Proceed to “Using Advanced Options,” on page 330 to set macro, execution order, save options, or execution visibility options. Click OK to close the editor.

Named Cells/Ranges Mapping
This type of parameter is mapped based on information pre-defined in the Excel workbook prior to loading it into the iSIGHT-FD Excel component. Cells and ranges can be labeled within Excel, and this information can be mapped into your iSIGHT-FD component. For more information on using named cells or ranges, refer to your Excel documentation or online help. To map named cells/ranges parameters: 1. Perform one of the following actions: If you have just loaded an Excel workbook, and the Named Cells Found dialog box appeared, click Yes. If you are working with an already loaded Excel file and want to invoke the Named Cells/Ranges dialog, click the button.

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Using the Excel Component 329 The Named Cells/Ranges dialog box appears.

2. Select the named cells that you would like to be automatically mapped. You can choose a single mapping, multiple mappings, or all mapping using the Select All button. 3. (optional) Change the default action of the mappings by selecting a new action using the button; then, click the Change button.

4. Click OK. The new mappings are listed at the bottom of the Excel editor. 5. Perform one of the following options: Proceed to “Direct Cell Mapping,” on page 324 for information on mapping parameters. Proceed to “Name-Value Mapping,” on page 326 for information on mapping named cells/ranges parameters, which provides instructions for a quick way of defining mappings for cells that have been named in the Excel spreadsheet. Proceed to “Using Advanced Options,” on page 330 to set macro, execution order, save options, or execution visibility options. Click OK to close the editor.

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Using Advanced Options
The advanced options for the Excel component include using macros, setting action execution order, saving the modified workbook, and determining execution visibility. To use the advanced options: 1. Click the Advanced tab. The advanced options are displayed. Important: If no macros are present in the workbook you loaded into the Excel component editor, all macro options are disabled.

2. Select a macro using the Macro button.

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Using the Excel Component 331 3. If applicable, set the available macro options. If no macros are present in the workbook you loaded into the editor, the macro options are disabled. a. Specify an iSIGHT-FD parameter for the return value (if applicable). b. Specify the macro arguments using the Arguments button. Note that you can supply arguments as either constants or iSIGHT-FD parameter values. c. Click the Add Macro button .

The macro is added to the list on the right side of the tab.

4. If necessary, modify the action execution order using the the Action Execution Order list.

and

buttons below

5. Click the Save Excel file after execution check box if you’d like changes that were made to the Excel file during execution to be saved. You can type the path and file name into the corresponding text box, or you can click the Browse... button and navigate to the file. By default, the current path and file name are automatically added to the text box.

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332 Chapter 4 Using Components 6. Click the File Parameter button if you’d like to include the file as an output file parameter from the Excel component. This button toggles between a depressed (active) and raised (disabled) position. By default, it is disabled. 7. Click the Show Excel during execution check box at the bottom of the tab if you want Excel to be visible when you execute your model. 8. Click the Close workbook check box if you want Excel to close the opened workbook (when not selected, Excel and the workbook remain open after the model is executed); then, use the corresponding drop-down list to determine when Excel should close. The following options are available: when job completes. This option closes the workbook after the entire iSIGHT-FD execution is completed. after each execution. This option closes the workbook after each execution of Excel. Excel may be executed numerous times during a single job. Note: You can set default behavior for this option using the component preferences as described in “Setting Excel Component Preferences,” on page 118. 9. Click the Re-use open workbook of same name check box if you want the component to use the same workbook that was open for a previous component in the model. This option allows you to modify (or extract data from) the same workbook. If this option is not selected, which is the default, each component will open its own copy of the workbook. 10. Click OK to close the editor.

Setting Station Execution Permissions (FIPER Environment Only)
If you are connected to and executing using a FIPER Station (via an ACS in the FIPER environment), you must have launch and activation permissions with Excel if you are running your job on a FIPER Station (specifically if the Station is being run as a service). These steps are not necessary if you are executing using the standard iSIGHT-FD desktop (Standalone) execution.

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Using the Excel Component 333 To set Excel permissions: 1. Click the Start button; then, click the Run... option. The Run dialog box appears. 2. Type dcomcnfg in the Open text box; then, click OK. The Component Services dialog box appears.

3. Click Component Services on the left side of the dialog box. Folder options appear on the right side of the dialog box.

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334 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Double-click the Computers folder; then, double-click the My Computer icon. Additional folders appear.

5. Double-click the DCOM Config folder. The contents of the folder appear.

6. Right-click the Microsoft Excel Application icon; then, select Properties from the menu that appears.

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Using the Excel Component 335 The Microsoft Excel Application Properties dialog box appears.

7. Click the Security tab. The contents of the tab appear.

8. Click the Customize radio button in the Launch and Activation Permissions area; then, click the Edit... button. The Launch Permission dialog box appears. 9. Click the Add... button. The Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box appears. 10. Type the necessary username (be sure to include the computer/domain name) in the Enter object names to select text box. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

336 Chapter 4 Using Components 11. Click the Check Names button to verify that the username you entered is valid. You can also search for the name using the Advanced... button. 12. Click OK. You are returned to the Launch Permission dialog box, and the username you entered now appears in the list at the top of the dialog box. 13. In the Permission for <username> area; click the following check boxes in the Allow column: Local Launch Local Activation 14. Click OK. You are returned to the Microsoft Excel Application Properties dialog box. 15. Click OK. You are returned to the Component Services dialog box. 16. Close the dialog box. 17. Proceed to “Starting the Editor and Adding Workbooks,” on page 320 for information on using the component.

Using the iSIGHT Component
The iSIGHT component allows you to use iSIGHT description files in iSIGHT-FD models. For additional information on iSIGHT, refer to the iSIGHT User’s Guide. This guide is included on the iSIGHT 9.0 CD. The iSIGHT component is only supported in iSIGHT 9.0.5 or higher. Engineous recommends that you have iSIGHT 9.0 installed to use this component.

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Understanding Component Limitations
The following should be noted prior to using the iSIGHT component: The iSIGHT component does not guarantee support for execution when the temporary execution directory contains spaces, semicolons (;), or ampersands (&). While many iSIGHT description files are known to execute properly when directories contain spaces, all combinations of options have not been tested. On Windows, the default temporary directory for iSIGHT-FD execution is in the “Documents and Settings” directory, which contains spaces. For information on how to change this directory setting, see “Changing the iSIGHT-FD Default Execution Directory,” on page 348.

Setting the Component Options
To use the iSIGHT component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

Important: If instead of the editor you receive a message stating that iSIGHT 9.0 must be installed to use the iSIGHT component, iSIGHT is not currently installed

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338 Chapter 4 Using Components in the system path. You must install iSIGHT 9.0 in the system path for iSIGHT-FD to use this component. 2. Click the Browse... button to select the description file you want to use. The Select Description File dialog box appears. 3. Select the description file you want to use; then, click Open. The description file’s parameters are displayed. This example is using the beamMin.desc file.

4. (optional) Click the Edit... button to set the description file’s file parameter settings. The description file information is saved as an iSIGHT-FD file parameter so that it can be mapped from one component to another. For more information on these settings, see “Setting Input File Parameter Information,” on page 342. For more information on parameter mapping, see “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624. 5. Use the iSIGHT Run Mode button to set the desired run mode. For more information on these modes, refer to the iSIGHT User’s Guide. 6. Select the parameters that you want to expose as iSIGHT-FD parameters in your model by clicking the corresponding check boxes. You can select all user-defined parameters in a list using the Select All button at the bottom of the column. Note: Parameters shown with a gray background color are iSIGHT-specified parameters. 7. Click the Support Files tab.

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Using the iSIGHT Component The contents of the tab appear.

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8. Specify the support files for iSIGHT in the area on the left side of the tab using any of the following options: To add a file, click the button. The file parameter wizard appears, which helps you specify the support file you need. After it is specified, the file is displayed on the tab. For more information on using this wizard, see “Creating File Parameters,” on page 585. To delete a file, select the file you want to delete; then, click the You can select multiple files to delete at once. button.

To change a file’s settings, select the file whose information you wish to alter; then, click the Edit... button. The Configure File dialog box appears. The settings for each support file are saved as an iSIGHT-FD file parameter so that they can be mapped from one component to another. For more information on these settings, see “Setting Input File Parameter Information,” on page 342. For more information on parameter mapping, see “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624.

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340 Chapter 4 Using Components 9. Specify the files to be read from iSIGHT in the area on the right side of the tab: To add a file, click the button. The file parameter wizard appears, which helps you specify the support file you need. After it is specified, the file is displayed on the tab. For more information on using this wizard, see “Creating File Parameters,” on page 585. To delete a file, select the file you want to delete; then, click the You can select multiple files to delete at once. button.

To change a file’s settings, select the file whose information you wish to alter; then, click the Edit... button. The Configure File dialog box appears. The settings for each output file are saved as an iSIGHT-FD file parameter so that they can be mapped from one component to another. For more information on these settings, see “Setting Output File Parameter Information,” on page 346. For more information on parameter mapping, see “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624. 10. Click the Description File tab. The description file is shown in MDOL format.

11. Review the file in MDOL, if desired. Note: No changes can be made to the MDOL from this tab. 12. Click the Execution Options tab.

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Using the iSIGHT Component The contents of the tab appear.

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13. Set the available execution options, as desired: Retry iSIGHT license check ... times, at intervals of .... This option allows you to set the component to check for an available iSIGHT license after a specific number of minutes or seconds. You would want to set this option when the number of iterations exceeds the number of licenses you have. For example, if you wish to run an iSIGHT component inside of a DOE component, and the task will run 200 iterations but you only have 10 licenses, the task run may fail because you have run out of licenses. You can avoid this problem by retrying the license check, which allows you to take advantage of iSIGHT’s 10x parallelism instead of having the job run sequentially. Show iSIGHT during execution. This option is useful only for demos and gaining access to iSIGHT’s Oversight graphics application after a run. It allows you to set whether or not iSIGHT appears when the component is executed. Do not use this option unless you set the affinities to run the job on your workstation. Close iSIGHT after execution. This option allows you to specify whether or not you want to keep iSIGHT open after execution, if you have set iSIGHT to be shown during execution. Do not use this option unless you set the affinities to run the job on your workstation. Reinitialize iSIGHT for each execution. This option is useful for ensuring that data from previous runs does not influence the next run. It allows you to iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

342 Chapter 4 Using Components update parameter information from the previous execution prior to the next execution of the component. 14. Click OK to close the editor.

Setting File Parameter Information
Several locations on the component editor (represented by Edit... buttons) allow you to access file parameter information. This information can be manipulated directly from the component editor or from the Design Gateway Files tab. For more information on using the Files tab, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. This section is divided into the following parts, based on the type of file parameter you are using: “Setting Input File Parameter Information” on this page “Setting Output File Parameter Information,” on page 346 Note: If you are not sure as to the type of file parameter you are using, refer to the text and graphic at the top of the Configure File dialog box. It discusses the parameter type and shows a graphic representation of how the parameter is used.

Setting Input File Parameter Information
To set output file parameter information from the component editor: 1. Access the Configure File dialog box by clicking one of the Edit... buttons on the component editor. These buttons are available adjacent to the Description File text box and on the Support Files tab.

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Using the iSIGHT Component The Configure File dialog box appears.

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The Source area configures the source of the data. For a mapped input file parameter, this information is overridden by parameter mapping. It may still be convenient to configure a data source, just in case the user runs this component alone (not as part of a larger workflow). 2. Click the Location drop-down list; then, select one of the following four options for the data source: <None>. The data source is not configured. This setting is the default for new input file parameters. Having no configuration is normal for a file that will be mapped from another component in the workflow. If such a file parameter is not mapped, or the component is run by itself, the component receives an empty file. File. The data is stored in a regular file on the file system. You can click the Browse button to select the file.

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344 Chapter 4 Using Components The Select File dialog box appears as shown below.

In addition to the usual controls for navigating directories and selecting files, the radio buttons in the Path Options area allow you to select how the file should be referenced. The following options are available:

• Absolute path. This option is used to locate the file, which works for local
execution and when the file is on a shared drive that is mounted on the same place on all computers. This option is the default.

• Runtime directory. This option indicates that the directory containing the
file is to be ignored and the file will be found in the runtime working directory. This setting is rarely useful for input file parameters.

• Shared file system. This option is used when the file is on a shared file
system that is mounted in different places on different machines. For more information, see “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581. In Model. The contents of the file will be stored inside the iSIGHT-FD model. iSIGHT-FD takes care of transferring the data to where the component is being executed. This option is the most convenient because it eliminates any concerns about shared file systems or parallel execution. Model files, however, are limited in size. Generally in-model files should not be larger than a few hundred thousand characters (about 2000 lines). The absolute limit is dependent on the amount of available memory, but is usually around 5 MB. Click the Reload From... button to select the file to be copied into the model, or to re-load a modified file into an existing model. URL. Allows you to specify a file residing on a server. All forms of URLs supported by Java may be used, though http: is the most common form. You may specify the amount of time to wait for the server to respond, or “0” to wait iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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until the underlying protocol times out. Note that a URL type file parameter with a file: URL is equivalent to a File-type file parameter. 3. Click the Preview… button (at the bottom of the Read From area) to display the contents of the selected file. For In Model file parameters, the contents of the file can be edited from the Preview dialog box; for other types it cannot be edited. 4. Specify the file type using the corresponding drop-down list. You can specify a file as Binary or Text. 5. (For Text files only) Click the Encoding drop-down list; then, specify the encoding to use when converting between bytes and characters. In a Locale (a system setting that includes the language, number formats, and character set in use) that uses multi-byte characters (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), there is a default encoding used to convert bytes into characters. Most text files will be written using this encoding, but sometimes it is necessary to specify this encoding. For additional information on encoding, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. 6. Select one of the following options from the Destination area of the Files tab. These options allow you to choose where the data will be put while the component runs: Fixed file name. This option should be used if the component expects its input in a specific place. Fill in the file name in the text box provided, or browse to the file you want. Normally, this will be a simple file name with no path, indicating a file in the runtime working directory. An absolute path may be used in the odd case of a program that demands that its input be in a specific directory, though such a file parameter is not safe for parallel or distributed execution. Automatic. This option is used most often. When activated, the iSIGHT-FD system assigns a name to the file and passes that name to the component. 7. Click OK to save your changes and return to the component editor.

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Setting Output File Parameter Information
To set output file parameter information from the component editor: 1. Access the Configure File dialog box by clicking the Edit... button on the Support Files tab, below the Output Files list. The Configure File dialog box appears.

As for Input file parameters, the bottom of the Files tab for an Output file parameter has Read From and Write To areas. 2. Specify the file information in the File name text box. The name specified is the name the file will have in the working directory during component execution. Usually this is a simple file name, indicating that the file will be written to the runtime working directory. An absolute path can be used in the odd case of a program that insists on writing its output to a specific directory, though such a file parameter is not safe for distributed or parallel execution. This text box may be left blank. However, iSIGHT-FD will assign a name for the output file and pass that name to the component during execution. 3. Specify the file type using the corresponding drop-down list. You can specify a file as Binary or Text. 4. (For Text files only) Click the Encoding drop-down list; then, specify the encoding to use when converting between bytes and characters. In a Locale (a system setting that includes the language, number formats, and character set in use) that uses multi-byte characters (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), there is a default iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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encoding used to convert bytes into characters. Most text files will be written using this encoding, but sometimes it is necessary to specify this encoding. For additional information on encoding, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. 5. In the Destination area, specify where the data will be put after the component finishes running. The following three options are available in this area: iSIGHT File Manager. iSIGHT-FD takes care of storing the contents of the file as part of the run results. This option is the simplest one, and it is the default. There is, however, a limit to the size of a file saved this way; usually the limit is around 4 MB. The data is physically stored in the Run Results database. Specific location. The data is copied from the working directory to the specified location. This setting must be an absolute path, since there is no concept of a “working directory” after the component finishes executing. The file name substitutions described in “Substitutions in File Names,” on page 582 can be used to file the data in locations of your choice. If there are no substitutions, the same file will be written by every run and the model is not safe for parallel execution. Note: If the File Name text box in the Read From area is left empty and the Specific location option is selected, the data will not be written to the runtime working directory. Instead, the absolute path described in the Write To area will be passed to the component, and the component can write the data directly to the specified location. This option is more efficient for very large output files, though it can be difficult to configure for parallel and distributed execution. None. The data is not copied after the component executes. Instead, the absolute path to the Read From area is stored in the results database. If the Read From name is a simple file name (not an absolute path), the data is written to the working directory, which is normally deleted after the component finishes executing. In this case, the file is effectively discarded after the component executes, and cannot be mapped to subsequent components or viewed from the Runtime Gateway. Note: Files in the runtime working directory cannot be mapped to subsequent components using the None option, even if the Keep Execution Directory property is checked. In order to use this option with file mapping, the Read From location must be an absolute path or a relative path on a shared file system.

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348 Chapter 4 Using Components If the Read From name is an absolute path, the component will presumably write to this location and iSIGHT-FD will pass the location on to subsequent components. This behavior is equivalent to the case of the note under the Specific Location option above; the component writes directly to an absolute path and iSIGHT-FD never copies the data. 6. Click OK to save your changes and return to the component editor.

Changing the iSIGHT-FD Default Execution Directory
To change the default iSIGHT-FD execution directory (to eliminate any “directories with spaces” problems), perform one of the following actions: Change the TEMP environment variable on your system so that it points to a directory that doesn’t contain spaces or special characters (; or &). Important: If multiple users access your system, changing environment variables will affect each user. It is recommended that you contact your local system administrator before changing your variable settings. Edit the iSIGHT-FD startup file (fiperenv) as described below (based on your operating system): Windows: Open the <isight-fd_install_directory>\bin\win32\ fiperenv.bat file; then, locate the line containing the following string: -Dfiper.system.temp. Change the setting to a directory that doesn’t contain spaces; then, save and close the file. UNIX/Red Hat Linux: Open the <isight-fd_install_directory>/bin/fiperenv file; then, locate the line containing the following string: -Dfiper.system.temp. Change the setting to a directory that doesn’t contain spaces; then, save and close the file. Note: If you are submitting your job to run through an ACS in the FIPER environment, the temporary directory you see at design time has no bearing upon the temporary directory that exists at runtime. The runtime directory is determined by the individual FIPER Station installations. You will receive warnings for each execution of the iSIGHT component if it executes on a FIPER Station whose temporary directory

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contains spaces. For more information on using FIPER Stations, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination.

Using the iSIGHT File Parser Component
When working with other programs or components in iSIGHT-FD it is sometimes necessary to use the Data Exchanger to move parameter values to and from a file. In iSIGHT, similar work was performed by the Advanced Parser and Fast Parser. The iSIGHT File Parser component is now available to aid in the importing of models and programs that make use of the older parsers or in the creations of new ones. Currently, the iSIGHT File Parser component only allows you to make use of the Advanced Parser in iSIGHT. File Description Command (FDC) files and the instruction segments of description files can be used to move data between iSIGHT-FD parameters and files. This section explains how to make use of pre-existing parses and how to edit them. While it is possible to create new parses with this component, this feature is not covered, in detail, in this section. For more information regarding the workings of the FDC files, refer to the iSIGHT User’s Guide. This section is divided into the following topics: “Overview of the Component Editor,” on page 350 “Understanding Terminology,” on page 351 “Opening the Editor and Determining Usage,” on page 352 “Importing an Existing Parse,” on page 353 “Using the Component Editor to Create a Parse,” on page 363 “Updating an Imported Parse,” on page 364 “Building a Simcode,” on page 365

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Overview of the Component Editor
The component editor has two views. The view that you see is based on the type of parse you are creating or editing. The following example shows how the editor appears when working with an input parse.

The following items comprise the editor: Type Chooser. This area, in the top left corner of the editor, determines the mode of the parse (input or output). Any bi-directional code is handled internally and does not have to be specified. Actions. This group of buttons, in the upper right corner of the editor, provides the basic commands available to the user to produce, edit, and test the parse.

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Using the iSIGHT File Parser Component Necessary Files. This area, on the left side of the editor and divided into tabs, displays the files that are required and constitute the parse. These files can be selected or created, edited, or viewed.

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iSIGHT-FD Parameters. This area, on the right side of the editor, displays a list of the parameters that the component deems necessary for the parse. The parameters are placed into the component so that iSIGHT-FD has access to them.

Understanding Terminology
A simcode consists of a flow of parameters into an input parser the produces a file that is the input for an OS Command component that has a file as output that is used by the output parse to return parameters back to iSIGHT-FD. The following terminology for individual parse types is used with iSIGHT-FD: Template. The file, used with input parses, that indicates the format for the produced file. Input FDC. The file, used with input parses, that describes how the parameters should be written to the produced file. Produced. The file that is better known as the input file, because it is the file that is created by the parse that is used as the input for some other component (typically OS Command in iSIGHT-FD). Input Parameters. The parameters whose values come from iSIGHT-FD and are placed into the produced file. Output. The file, used with output parses, that was produced by another component (typically OS Command in iSIGHT-FD) and that is used as input for the current parse. Output FDC. The file, used with output parses, that describes how to get the parameters from within the output file. Output Parameters. The parameters whose values come from the output and are brought into iSIGHT-FD.

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Opening the Editor and Determining Usage
When you initially open the component editor, a wizard appears, allowing you to determine how you will import or create your parse, and the type of parse you are creating. To open the editor and determine your parse: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The iSIGHT File Parser Component Wizard dialog box appears.

The wizard is the first thing to appear when you open the editor of a newly added component. The initial screen presents you with three choices to determine how you will import or create your parse.

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Using the iSIGHT File Parser Component 2. Determine how you want to obtain your FDC file. The following options are available:

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Use an existing FDC located in an iSIGHT Description File. Proceed to “Importing a Parse from a Description File” on this page for more information on using this option. Use an existing FDC located in an iSIGHT FDC File. Proceed to “Importing a Parse from an FDC File,” on page 357 for more information on using this option. Create a new FDC via an editor. Proceed to “Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser,” on page 362 for more information on using this option.

Importing an Existing Parse
There are several ways to import a single parse into iSIGHT-FD. You can use the component’s wizard to perform any of the following actions: “Importing a Parse from a Description File” on this page “Importing a Parse from an FDC File,” on page 357 “Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser,” on page 362 You can also use the component editor itself to create or import a parse. For more information, see “Using the Component Editor to Create a Parse,” on page 363.

Importing a Parse from a Description File
A description file (*.desc) is an MDOL-based file used by iSIGHT to build a design. Within these files are segments where entire parses are defined. By selecting a description file, you are given the names of these parses and their contents. To import a parse from a description file: 1. Access the component wizard and select the appropriate option as described in “Opening the Editor and Determining Usage,” on page 352. 2. Click Next. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

354 Chapter 4 Using Components The Select a description file screen appears.

3. Click the Browse button; then, specify the description file that contains the parse you want to use. 4. Click Next. The Select a FDC from the list below screen appears.

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5. Click the parse you want to use on the left side of the screen. Information about the parse is displayed on the right side of the screen.

The wizard uses the description file to fill in the component as best as it can. Also, any files listed are provided, and the component will attempt to determine all of the necessary parameters. 6. Click Finish.

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356 Chapter 4 Using Components The component editor appears.

7. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Click the Launch Wizard button to reopen the wizard. Click the Launch Advanced Parser button to open the iSIGHT Advanced Parser interface. For more information, see “Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser,” on page 362. Click the Preview Parse button to view the parse, if you are working with an input parse. If all of the necessary information is present (FDC file, template, parameters with desired values, etc.) then the Produced tab displays what the file would look like for the parse. If a produced file is not specified, the parse is still previewed, however, you are warned that you need to specify the file before execution.

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If you are working with an input parse, and all the necessary information is present (the “output” file is populated with the desired values/info, FDC file, as well as the parameters that you expect to get back from the parse), then the preview enters the values of the parameter table. Manually alter the parse or its parameter settings. For more information, see “Updating an Imported Parse,” on page 364.

Importing a Parse from an FDC File
A FDC file (*.fdc) is a file that consists of commands written in the File Description Language. This type of file requires supporting files to work, and the particular files are determined by the type of parse. Therefore, for an input parse, you must choose the FDC file itself, and specify the file name (or actual file on disk) that it will produce. You may also choose the template file that is required by this FDC. To import a parse from an FDC file: 1. Access the component wizard and select the appropriate option as described in “Opening the Editor and Determining Usage,” on page 352. 2. Click Next. The Select a parse mode screen appears.

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358 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Select one of the following mode options: Input. An input parse takes the variables and their values in iSIGHT-FD and makes use of the FDC instructions to produce a file that is used as an input for a particular program. If this parse is bi-directional, it will also make changes to the variables values. Output. An output parse takes the output file of a particular program and makes use of the FDC instructions to extract the iSIGHT-FD variables and their values. If this parse if bi-directional, it will also make use of some variables and their values in iSIGHT-FD. 4. Click Next. The Select the FDC from a file screen appears.

5. Click the Browse button; then, specify the FDC file you want to use.

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6. (optional) Edit the parse by clicking the Edit check box and changing the parse, as desired; then, click the Save button. 7. (Input parses only) Click Next. The Select a Template from a file screen appears.

The template file is optional when writing an FDC, but is still very common and should be included if available.

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360 Chapter 4 Using Components 8. (Input parses only) Click the Browse button; then, specify the FDC file you want to use. Information about the file appears on the right side of the screen. 9. Click Next. The Select the “Input/Output File” from a file screen appears. The exact title of this screen varies depending on the type of parse you selected in step 3.

10. Click the Browse button; then, specify the output file you want to use. Information about the file appears on the right side of the screen. 11. (optional) Edit the output file by clicking the Edit check box and changing the file, as desired; then, click the Save button.

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13. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Click the Launch Wizard button to reopen the wizard. Click the Launch Advanced Parser button to open the iSIGHT Advanced Parser interface. For more information, see “Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser,” on page 362. Click the Preview Parse button to view the parse, if you are working with an input parse. If all of the necessary information is present (FDC file, template, parameters with desired values, etc.) then the Produced tab displays what the file would look like for the parse. If a produced file is not specified, the parse is still previewed, however, you are warned that you need to specify the file before execution.

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362 Chapter 4 Using Components If you are working with an input parse, and all the necessary information is present (the “output” file is populated with the desired values/info, FDC file, as well as the parameters that you expect to get back from the parse), then the preview enters the values of the parameter table Manually alter the parse or its parameter settings. For more information, see “Updating an Imported Parse,” on page 364.

Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser
You can create a brand new parse to suit your needs. There are two options to this ends. If there is a working copy of at least iSIGHT 8.0.3 on your local machine, then you can run the File Parser from the component and anything that you do and save in that program will end up in the iSIGHT-FD model. If this is not available to you, you may instead use the simple text editors located in the component. To create a new parse: 1. Access the component wizard and select the appropriate option as described in “Opening the Editor and Determining Usage,” on page 352. 2. Click Next. If you have iSIGHT installed on your system, the iSIGHT file parser is available screen appears.

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3. Determine the type of parse you want to create (input or output) using the options near the bottom of the screen. 4. Click Finish to launch the iSIGHT Advanced Parser. Once you have completed the new parse, it will be added to the iSIGHT-FD File Parser component. For more information on using the iSIGHT Advanced Parser, refer to the iSIGHT User’s Guide that was included with your iSIGHT media.

Using the Component Editor to Create a Parse
Any of the files, parameters, or even the type of parse can be changed or imported using the editor itself. To import a parse into the component requires the same basic steps involved in importing a parse via an FDC file in the wizard. To import a parse using the component editor: 1. Access the component editor; then, select the type of parse you want to create using the Parse Type drop-down list. 2. Click the Browse button on each of the tabs on the left side of the editor; then, specify the file for that part of the parse. You can select either an FDC file or a description file. If a description file is selected, you are given the option of choosing a single FDC file from within the description file. Once you select the FDC file, the component tries to determine all the parameters that are necessary, but, just like when using the wizard, it is a good idea to make sure that the parameters needed are present. Note: It is possible to create a new parse by either using the simple text editors on the left side of the editor. Also, you can start the iSIGHT Advanced Parser, if it is available on your local machine (using the Launch Advanced Parser button).

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Updating an Imported Parse
You can update your imported parse using any of the following methods, as desired: Update the parameter information on the right side of the editor by either adding new parameters, deleting existing parameters, or adding new members to aggregate parameters. You can also sort the parameter information by clicking the column headings. For more information on using parameters, see “Using Parameters,” on page 564. Manually change parse information directly in the text boxes on the left side of the editor. Click the Edit check box near the bottom of the editor and make your changes; then, click the Save button. Click the Launch Wizard button to open the wizard, which helps guide you through importing a parse. For more information, see “Importing an Existing Parse,” on page 353. Click the Launch Advanced Parser button to open the iSIGHT Advanced Parser interface. For more information, see “Creating a New Parse using iSIGHT’s Advanced Parser,” on page 362. Click the Preview Parse button to view the parse, if you are working with an input parse. If all of the necessary information is present (FDC file, template, parameters with desired values, etc.) then the Produced tab displays what the file would look like for the parse. If a produced file is not specified, the parse is still previewed, however, you are warned that you need to specify the file before execution. If you are working with an input parse, and all the necessary information is present (the “output” file is populated with the desired values/info, FDC file, as well as the parameters that you expect to get back from the parse), then the preview enters the values of the parameter table

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Building a Simcode
As of the current release of iSIGHT-FD, there is not “all-in-one” simcode support for iSIGHT File Parses. For this reason, a simcode must be manually built in your model. To accomplish this task, you must create an input parse, a command (using the OS Command component), and an output parse as shown below.

Once you create this arrangement, you need to create two mappings in order for the model to work. First, you must map the produced file of the input parse to the input file of the OS Command component. Second, you must map the output file of the OS Command component to the output file of the output parse (remember it’s an input to the parse, it’s just called an “output file”). Once these basic steps are complete, you can configure the driver as necessary for the given model.

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Using the Mail Component
The purpose of the mail component is to send e-mail notification of the status/progress of an executing iSIGHT-FD job. iSIGHT-FD parameter values can be included in the body of the e-mail message, and iSIGHT-FD file parameters or files from a disk can be added as attachments. The component can be configured to send a message to multiple recipients. To use the Mail component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The editor is designed to conform to typical e-mail program standards. 2. Enter the name of the mail server in the Mail Server text box; then, type the sender’s address in the From text box.

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Using the Mail Component 367 Note: You can automate this step by specifying the information in the iSIGHT-FD Preferences. Once specified, the Mail Server and From text boxes are automatically populated when the Mail component editor is accessed. For more information on setting these preferences, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40. 3. Enter a subject in the corresponding text box. 4. Add e-mail addresses to the recipients list. You can use the three common e-mail recipient specifications: To, Cc, and Bcc. You may also use commas to separate multiple recipients on a single line. Note: You can click the To text label to access the Cc and Bcc options. 5. Type a text message in the large text box. 6. Use one of the following methods to send parameter information: Add a parameter as part of the message body (proceed to step 7) Add a file parameter as an attachment (proceed to step 11) Note: Only file parameters can be added as attachments. 7. Select the parameter from the Parameter to insert drop-down list at the bottom of the component editor. 8. Place the cursor in the message body at the location where you’d like the parameter information to be displayed; then, click the parameter is added to the message body. button. The name of the

The parameter value will be displayed in place of the parameter name in the recipient’s e-mail. Note: If you wish to add multiple parameters in the format “name = value” to the message body, click the button; then, select the parameters that you want to add using the Select Parameter dialog box. Click OK when your selection is complete. 9. Repeat step 7 and step 8 for each parameter you wish to send. Note: The e-mail will be sent once the component is executed, whether independently or within the model. If you want to send the e-mail immediately while in the editor, click the Send Now button 10. Proceed to step 13. .

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368 Chapter 4 Using Components 11. Click the Attachment tab ; then, perform one of the following actions: button; then,

To add an existing file parameter as an attachment, click the select the file parameter from the dialog box that appears.

To add a file from a disk as an attachment, click the button and navigate to the file. Note that a file parameter will be created for the selected file. Note: To remove an attached file parameter, select it; then, click the 12. Repeat step 11 for each file you wish to send. 13. Click OK to close the editor. button.

Using the MATLAB Component
The MATLAB component allows iSIGHT-FD to interact with the MATLAB software package from The MathWorks, Inc. The primary functions of this component are to send data to MATLAB, execute commands/scripts, and retrieve data from MATLAB. Because this component is interacting directly with a MATLAB engine, anything that you could do in MATLAB itself you can invoke from iSIGHT-FD using the MATLAB component.

Setting up the Environment
Because the MATLAB component must programmatically interact with the MATLAB software, it is important to make sure your environment is set up properly to allow for this.

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Specifically, iSIGHT-FD will look for the following system environment variables to add them to the system path to ensure that the necessary MATLAB files can be found at execution time: MATLAB=<full path to the location of the bin directory in your MATLAB installation> (for example, c:\software\MATLAB7\bin) MATLAB_SHLIB=<full path to the location of the directory containing the MATLAB shared libraries in your MATLAB installation> (for example, c:\software\MATLAB7\bin\win32) If these system environment variables are not defined, the locations noted above must already be on the system path in order for the component to work properly.

Starting the Editor and Adding Actions
To start the component editor and add actions: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

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370 Chapter 4 Using Components The MATLAB component allows for actions to be defined in any one of three phases: Initialize. Actions that will be executed only the very first time that this component executes within a job (model execution). This phase is useful for when you need to initialize/create a variable or load some functions into the MATLAB session and only need it done one time at the very beginning. Execution Order. Actions that will be executed every time this component executes. Finalize. Actions that will be executed only when the MATLAB session is shutting down. Since the component can be configured to leave MATLAB open after the job completes, these actions might not get run at the end of the job, but may instead be invoked later when iSIGHT-FD is cleaning up persistent components. The standard usage is simply to define actions in the Execution phase. By default, the MATLAB component will start with three pre-defined actions in the Execution phase to represent the most common usage: Input Mappings for defining mappings from iSIGHT-FD parameter values to MATLAB variables. Commands for defining the command to execute. Output Mappings for mapping MATLAB variable values back to iSIGHT-FD parameters. Note: These default actions are simply provided for convenience and can be deleted or renamed as desired. They are empty to start with and the details of each of these must be filled out as needed. Now you can define additional actions. 2. Click the tab that corresponds to the phase for which you need to create actions.

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. The Action Type Selection dialog box appears.

4. Click the button that corresponds to the action type (Mapping or Command) that you want to create; then, click OK. A new action of the specified type will be created and displayed in the actions table.

The actions table presents the following information for each action: Use?. Specifies whether or not this action should be executed. This option allows you to leave your actions defined, but turn them on and off as desired. Type. Specifies if the action is a Mapping or a Command. Identifier. A unique name identifying the action. This option can be modified directly in the table. 5. Use the and arrows located below the table to change the order of the button. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

actions. You may also delete actions by clicking the

372 Chapter 4 Using Components 6. (Optional) Edit the details of any action by selecting it in the actions table and using the panel displayed on the right side of the component editor. You can use this panel to configure the properties of the action. Proceed to the following sections for details on how to edit actions: For information on how to set up the mapping parameters, see “Defining Mappings” on this page. For more information on how to enter a series of MATLAB commands, including the use of MATLAB M-Scripts, see “Defining Commands,” on page 375. 7. Click the Show MATLAB during execution check box if you do not wish to have MATLAB running in the background. When checked, MATLAB is launched and is viewable during the execution of your model. Note: If you clear this check box (telling iSIGHT-FD to hide MATLAB during execution), but you have instructed MATLAB to produce a plot, the plot will still appear during execution. 8. Click the When to close MATLAB drop-down list to choose when MATLAB should close; then select one of the following options: Never. The component will never attempt to close the MATLAB session. It must be closed manually. When job completes. The MATLAB session will remain open and be re-used during the entire duration of the job (model execution) and will be closed after the job completes. After each execution. A new MATLAB session will be started, used, and shut down every time this component executes. 9. Click OK to save all changes and close the editor.

Defining Mappings
Mapping actions are how iSIGHT-FD passes information to and retrieves information from MATLAB. A single mapping action can (and typically does) involve mapping more than just one parameter to/from MATLAB. All that is required to define a mapping is to specify the iSIGHT-FD parameter and the MATLAB variable name involved in the mapping. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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1. Set up an action type as described in “Starting the Editor and Adding Actions,” on page 369. 2. Select the Mapping action for which you want to define the mappings in the actions table on the left side of the editor. An area for defining the mappings appears on the right side of the editor.

Note: You can edit the name used to identify the Mapping action in the Mappings text box at the top of this panel. Now you can add a mapping. 3. Select an existing iSIGHT-FD parameter from the drop-down list above the Mapping table or type the name of a new parameter in the text box to create the entry directly. Note: By default, if you type in the name of a new parameter, a scalar parameter of type “real” will be created. If you want to define a new parameter that is something other than a scalar “real” parameter, click on the iSIGHT-FD parameter. button to create a new

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374 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Select a mapping direction using the button.

The arrow pointing from the parameter icon to the MATLAB icon represents a mapping from the iSIGHT-FD parameter to the MATLAB variable. The arrow pointing to the parameter icon from the MATLAB icon represents a mapping to the iSIGHT-FD parameter from the MATLAB variable 5. Click the button to add a parameter. The new parameter is added to the table as shown below.

Note: If an iSIGHT-FD parameter has not been specified, a message appears informing you to select an iSIGHT-FD parameter. A row appears in the Mapping table with the iSIGHT-FD parameter, the mapping arrow, and the name of the MATLAB variable. By default the name of the MATLAB variable is the same as the name of the iSIGHT-FD parameter with the exception that spaces are replaced with “_”. You can modify the name of the MATLAB variable as needed directly in the table.

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If an entire iSIGHT-FD array parameter (as opposed to just a single element of the array) is selected, the entire contents of the array are mapped to the MATLAB variable (for mappings defined to MATLAB) or set from the MATLAB variable (for mappings defined from MATLAB). If the iSIGHT-FD array parameter is defined as “resizable”, mappings from a MATLAB variable are automatically adjusted the size of the array to match the size of the MATLAB variable (mappings to a MATLAB variable will send the entire contents based on the current array parameter size). 6. (Optional) Click the button to delete a mapping.

7. Click Apply to save changes.

Defining Commands
While defining Mappings allows you to pass information to/from MATLAB, the Commands are what allow you to invoke the desired functions within MATLAB. Commands can simply be typed directly in or loaded from a MATLAB M-Script file. Note: The MATLAB component will automatically set the current directory in the MATLAB session to be the working directory for the component. If you want it set to some other directory, you will need to provide an explicit “cd” command in your set of MATLAB commands. Additionally, a variable called “ESI_MATLAB_rundir” is automatically set in the MATLAB session to allow you to refer to the working directory of the component, if necessary. To define commands using the component: 1. Set up an action type as described in “Starting the Editor and Adding Actions,” on page 369. 2. Select the Command action for which you want to define the specific commands in the actions table on the left side of the editor.

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376 Chapter 4 Using Components An area for defining the commands appears on the right side of the editor.

Note: You can edit the name used to identify the Command action in the Command text box at the top of this panel. 3. Either type commands directly into the large text box on the right side of the editor or click the Open... button to load the commands from an existing MATLAB M-Script file. Note: The commands loaded from an M-Script file will be whatever the contents are at that point in time. They will not be re-loaded at any point later if that file is modified. Important: You must check for syntactical errors in the given commands. iSIGHT-FD will not check for proper syntax before execution. 4. Click Apply to save changes.

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Using the OS Command Component 377

Using the OS Command Component
The OS Command component allows you to execute single line operating system commands and multi line (shell) scripts. The OS Command component is also used as part of the Simcode component. In essence, the Simcode component is an OS Command component surrounded by two Data Exchanger components. For more information on using the Data Exchanger component, see “Using the Data Exchanger Component,” on page 249. For more information on the Simcode component, see “Using the Simcode Component,” on page 420. Note: This component has default preferences which you can set based on your needs. For more information, see “Setting OS Command Component Preferences,” on page 119. To start the editor and specify a command: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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378 Chapter 4 Using Components The Component Editor dialog box appears.

2. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on the tab you need to use: Basic tab. This tab allows you to specify the command and argument, and any I/O redirection. It can also be used to set affinities to control which FIPER Stations the command is executed on when using an ACS in the FIPER environment. For more information on the options on the Basic tab, see “Setting Basic Options,” on page 379. Advanced tab. This tab allows you to set conditions which indicate that the program has failed. You can also direct standard output or standard error to the job log, and indicate that a failed run should be retried. For more information on the options on the Advanced tab, see “Setting Advanced Options,” on page 385. Required Files tab. This tab is used to specify the files that must be placed in the working directory before the command is run, and the files to save from the working directory. When the component is part of a Simcode component, it also lists the files passed by the input and output file parses. For more

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Using the OS Command Component 379 information on the options on the Required Files tab, see “Setting Required Files Options,” on page 388. Grid tab. This tab is used to access the Grid Adapter. This tab appears only if a LSF grid adapter license is found. Currently, only the LSF grid adapter is supported. The Grid Adapter allows OS Command and Simcode components to submit command-line simcode runs to an LSF v6.1 grid via bsub. For more information on the Grid Adapter, see “Setting Grid Adapter Options,” on page 389.

Setting Basic Options
The OS Command component supports two types of commands: Single line commands and arguments. For more information about single line command options, see “Setting Single Line Command Options” on this page. Multi line (shell) scripts. For more information on the multi line options, see “Setting Multi Line Script Options,” on page 382. The OS Command preference page lists the available interpreters, and allows you to add interpreters. For more information about the OS Command preferences, see “Setting OS Command Component Preferences,” on page 119.

Setting Single Line Command Options
To set the basic options for your single line command: 1. Select Command from the Type drop-down list. 2. Click the Find Program... button; then, navigate to the executable you want to use. You can also type the name of the executable directly into the text box below the Find Program... button. Note: You can type a simple command name, such as “nastran,” if you know the program is already on the PATH of the FIPER Station. Otherwise, you must enter the full path to the executable.

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380 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Type the rest of the command line following the program name. The syntax used for the command line is a subset of that used by the Microsoft Windows Command line (cmd.exe) or the UNIX Borne Shell (sh): Separate arguments with spaces. Enclose arguments that contain spaces in single or double quotes. Use < to supply standard input to the program from a file. Follow the < with the name of the file, or by inserting a file parameter (see the example below). A space between the < and the file name is optional. Use > to direct standard output of the program to a file. If standard output is not redirected, it is lost. Use 2> to redirect the standard error stream to a file. By default, standard error is also sent to the job log. Use 2>&1 to redirect standard error to the same file as standard output. This setting is only useful if standard output is also redirected into a file. Note: Other shell or cmd.exe punctuation such as “|” (pipe), “&&” or “;” (multiple commands), and “&” (background) are not supported. For example, to run the program myprog with arguments a and b c d, reading input from the file sample.txt and writing output to the file bar.txt, the command line would look like:
myprog a "b c d" <sample.txt >bar.txt

4. Click the Distribute Executable check box to copy the executable file into the model. The program name turns green to indicate the program is in the model. The program will be copied into the working directory before the command is run. To undistribute the executable, clear the Distribute Executable check box. If the program has changed on disk, you can update the copy stored in the model by clearing and then checking the Distribute Executable check box. The Distribute Executable feature is only appropriate for small programs. Larger programs, and programs that require a network license, must be pre-installed on the FIPER Station.

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Using the OS Command Component 381 Note: You cannot directly execute Windows built-in commands, such as DIR or COPY. To run such commands, use the cmd command and the arguments /C and copy. For example:
cmd /c dir dir1

5. Click the Verify Commands button to check the syntax of the command line. If there is a syntax error (such as a missing quote or no file name after >), an error message appears describing the problem. If the command is valid, a dialog box pops up that shows how the command line will be interpreted - what the command name is, where arguments are split, and any I/O redirection. The dialog box will show the VALUE of substituted parameters, instead of their name. The Command Preview text box, located near the top of the tab, displays how the command will be issued during runtime. Any error in the command line will also be shown in the Command Preview text box. 6. You may insert a parameter as an argument by selecting the parameter from the Parameter drop-down list; then, click the Insert button . The parameter name is added to the Arguments text box at the current cursor position and is highlighted in green, indicating that the value will be substituted at runtime. To quickly add a new parameter, type the parameter name in the Parameter box and click on the button. The new parameter will have data type String, but this can be changed on the Parameters tab on the Design Gateway. To delete a parameter from the arguments list, click on the parameter and press the Backspace key. If a parameter value might contain spaces, you should put double quotes around the parameter reference (for example, “parm 1”). For a file parameter, the absolute path to the file is substituted into the command line. This can be very useful for programs that expect the name of their input file on the command line. It is not necessary to put quotes around substituted file parameters. File names are never split, even if they contain spaces. File parameters can be used after the I/O redirection symbols <, >, or 2> to redirect input/output to/from the file parameter. Note: You can create a new parameter using the button. For more information, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566.

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382 Chapter 4 Using Components 7. Set the available options in the Affinities area. These options are used to control which FIPER Stations may execute the component when using an ACS in the FIPER environment. You can specify the host name, operating system, software, or other information pertaining to the component. The Affinity options behave exactly the same as the Affinities on the Component Properties editor. For more information on the properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. 8. Perform one of the following options: Proceed to “Setting Advanced Options,” on page 385 for information on using the Advanced tab. The advanced tab allows you to set options for error reporting, reattempting execution, return codes, and coprocesses. Proceed to “Setting Required Files Options,” on page 388 for information on specifying files that are necessary for the command you are executing. Click OK to close the editor.

Setting Multi Line Script Options
To set the basic options for your multi line script: 1. Select the appropriate interpreter from the Type drop-down list. Information for five interpreters is provided by default: Bash, Korn Shell, C Shell, T Shell, and Windows Batch. You can add or modify the list of available interpreters using the OS Command Preferences. For more information about the preferences, see “Setting OS Command Component Preferences,” on page 119.

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Using the OS Command Component 383 The multi line component editor dialog box appears.

2. Type any interpreter arguments in the Command Arguments text box. These arguments precede the script file in the argument list for the interpreter. Note: Any additional arguments to Windows cmd.exe must come before the required ‘/C’ option. 3. Type any script arguments in the Script Arguments text box. 4. Edit the script in the Editor text box in the middle of the tab. All commands you could type at the command line for the given interpreter are valid. The script you type is passed to the interpreter as-is, after expanding any parameter substitutions. You can remove all contents of the text box at any time using the Clear Script button. 5. You may insert a parameter as an argument by selecting the parameter from the Parameter drop-down list; then, click the Insert button . The parameter name is added to the Arguments text box at the current cursor position and is highlighted in green, indicating that the value will be substituted at runtime. To quickly add a new parameter, type the parameter name in the Parameter box and click on the iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

384 Chapter 4 Using Components button. The new parameter will have data type String, but this can be changed on the Parameters tab on the Design Gateway. To delete a parameter from the arguments list, click on the parameter and press the Backspace key. If a parameter value might contain spaces, you should put double quotes around the parameter reference (for example, “parm 1”). For a file parameter, the absolute path to the file is substituted into the command line. This can be very useful for programs that expect the name of their input file on the command line. It is not necessary to put quotes around substituted file parameters. File names are never split, even if they contain spaces. File parameters can be used after the I/O redirection symbols <, >, or 2> to redirect input/output to/from the file parameter. Note: You can create a new parameter using the button. For more information, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566. 6. (optional) Click the Load Script... button to load a pre-existing script from a file. 7. Edit the affinities for the component. The affinities for the selected interpreter are set to the values provided in the preferences. Changing the affinities does not affect the preferences. For more information about the properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. 8. Perform one of the following options: Proceed to “Setting Advanced Options,” on page 385 for information on using the Advanced tab. The advanced tab allows you to set options for error reporting, reattempting execution, return codes, and coprocesses. Proceed to “Setting Required Files Options,” on page 388 for information on specifying files that are necessary for the command you are executing. Click OK to close the editor.

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Setting Advanced Options
To set the advanced options for the OS Command component: 1. Click the Advanced tab. The advanced options appear.

The Consider execution failed if area is used to determine what conditions should indicate that the program has failed. If none of the boxes are checked, the program will be considered to succeed no matter how it exits. Note: If the program cannot be found, the component will always be considered to have failed.

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386 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Set the following options, as desired: Return code is other than. Select this option if you want to define the return codes for successful completion of the execution. You can type multiple return codes separated by commas (“1,2,5” means consider return codes of 1, 2, or 5 as success), or a range of numbers separated by a colon (“0:9” means any return code from 0 to 9 inclusive indicates success). These can be combined to specify multiple ranges (“0:9, 21:30”). Negative return codes are also allowed (though few programs return them). This option is deactivated by default. There is output to the Standard Output stream. When this option is selected, if the command produces any output to standard output, the run will be considered a failure and the workflow will be aborted. This option is rarely used. Note that this option is independent of whether standard output has been redirected or not (described above). It is also independent of whether standard error is also logged (described below). There is output to the Standard Error stream. When this option is selected, if the command produces any output to the standard error stream, the run will be considered a failure and the rest of the workflow will be aborted. This option is usually set for UNIX programs. This option is selected by default. Execution takes longer than. This option allows you to set a time limit (in seconds) after which execution is deemed to have failed. The default timeout is 300 seconds (5 minutes). A timeout of 0 means don't check runtime. This option is a duplicate of the Timeout option on the component Properties panel. For more information about component properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. 3. In the Log Output area, set the following options, as desired: Log Standard Error. If checked, any messages the program writes to standard error will also be logged to the job log. This option is checked by default. This option can help you determine why the program didn't run as expected. This option (and those below) are in addition to whether standard error is redirected to a file, and whether output to standard error is to be considered a sign that the program failed. Log Standard Output. If checked, any messages to standard output will also be sent to the job log. Using this option is not recommended, as many programs can produce a lot of output, and log messages are relatively expensive. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using the OS Command Component 387 Log at most. In order to prevent a program that writes a lot of messages to standard output or standard error from flooding the job log, this option can be used to limit the amount of text that is logged. Only the number of lines specified by this option will be logged. If more lines are produced, only the first and last few lines are logged and all lines in the middle are discarded. The number of lines taken from the start and end of the file are each half of the value specified here, so the total number of lines logged is the given value. Note: Lines are logged as they are produced by the program. This characteristic can be very useful if the program writes a couple of lines and then executes for a long time. You can see the status messages in the job log before the program finishes. 4. In the Retry Execution after Failure area, set the following options, as desired: Maximum number of retries. This option allows you to set a number of re-executions to attempt. Zero (“0”) retries means that you want to run the program only once. One (“1”) retry means try one more time if the first attempt fails. Wait time for retry. This option allows you to set an amount of time between the re-execution attempts. Retry only if failed within. This option allows you to limit re-execution to runs when the previous execution failed within the specified amount of time. If the program ran longer than this number of seconds, and then failed, no further retries are attempted. The retry options are mostly for cases where a program may fail due to an external condition, such as a web server being down, that can be expected to correct itself in a short time. These options are typically used to retry execution if a program fails because all licenses are in use. Note: The Maximum number of retries option on the Component Properties panel is in addition to the number of retries on the OSCommand editor. The OSCommand retries are done first (in FIPER, on the same FIPER Station), and then the component retries (in FIPER, on a different FIPER station). For more information about component properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. 5. Set the options in the X-Windows Display area. These settings allow you to activate the UNIX X-Display interface. Click the Use X-Display check box to

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388 Chapter 4 Using Components activate the option; then, specify the host name in the corresponding text box. This host name can be either a domain name (unix.development.com) or an IP address. This option is only used for UNIX X-Windows programs that fail to run unless an X-Windows display is available. The specified display must be available at runtime. 6. Click OK to close the editor, or proceed to “Setting Required Files Options” on this page.

Setting Required Files Options
To set the required files options for your component: 1. Click the Required Files tab. The required files options appear.

This tab is used to list files that need to be accessible when the command is run. Any files parsed by the Data Exchange portion of a Simcode will automatically be listed here. The information on this tab is a duplicate of the information on the

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Using the OS Command Component 389 Files tab of the Design Gateway. It is presented here as a convenience. For more information on using the Files tab, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. Warning: Deleting a file used to redirect a standard IO stream will result in a syntax error in the command. Deleting a file parsed by the Data Exchanger will delete all parsing instructions for that file. 2. Add files needed for execution to the list in the middle of the tab using one of the following methods, based on the file type: If you want to add all existing file parameters from the parent task, click the button. button. button. button.

To add an input file parameter, click the To add an output file parameter, click the

Note: To delete a file, verify that it is highlighted and click the

3. Edit the values of the file parameters to set the type, file name, and the Read From and Write To options for the file. You can also change the name or mode of a file parameter, but this is rarely useful. The information on this tab is the same as the Files tab on the Design Gateway, and is included here for convenience. Note that the Files tab will not be updated until the OK or Apply button on the editor is clicked. For more information on file parameters, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. 4. Click OK to close the editor, or proceed to “Setting Grid Adapter Options” on this page.

Setting Grid Adapter Options
The Grid Adapter allows you to submit Simcode jobs to batch queues on a computing grid. Currently, grid adapters are provided only for Platform LSF batch queues. The LSF Grid Adapter submits the job to the LSF batch queue using the LSF bsub command. Note: It is recommended that you review the limitations listed in “Understanding Grid Adapter Limitations,” on page 393 before using the Grid Adapter.

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390 Chapter 4 Using Components To set Grid Adapter options: 1. Click the Grid tab. The Grid Adapter options appear.

2. Select LSF from the Grid System drop-down list. Currently, only LSF is supported. Note: The grid tab will not appear if there are no grid adapters available.

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Using the OS Command Component 391 The LSF options appear.

Now you can specify how the grid job is submitted. 3. (optional) Click the Command is Script File check box. If you activate this option, the script defined on the Basic tab is assumed to be a compatible LSF script that will be spooled to the batch system and executed by LSF as a sequence of commands. The script type must be compatible with the target system. Additionally, on UNIX systems, the “#!...” syntax must be used within the script to specify the script’s execution shell. The Script Type selected on the Basic tab is ignored in this scenario.

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392 Chapter 4 Using Components 4. Enter the following information, as desired. You can edit one or all of the values. You can also accept the default values. Queue. Specifies the queue where the job should run. You can obtain the available queue names from the LSF “bqueues” command. Refer to the bsub “-q” option on the man page. Hosts. Lists the candidate hosts (space-separated) where the job should run. Refer to the bsub “-m” option for more information. Resources. Specifies the resource requirements for the LSF job. Refer to the bsub “-R” option for more information. If necessary, you can also set Advanced options for the LSF adapter: 5. (optional) Click the Advanced... button. The Additional Grid Options dialog box appears.

6. Type the commands in the large text area. Enter any additional options to LSF’s bsub using standard bsub command-line option syntax (see bsub man page). Line breaks are ignored, so these commands can be space-separated and/or on separate lines. 7. Click OK to return to the component editor. 8. Click OK to save your changes and close the editor. Click Apply to save your changes, but leave the editor open.

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Understanding Grid Adapter Limitations
The following limitations should be noted with regard to the Grid Adapter: Only LSF v6.1 is supported in iSIGHT-FD 2.5. Direct and unrestricted access to run the LSF commands is required. Only command-line codes are supported. If it is necessary to transfer input/output files to/from the grid, this must be done through the “-f” advanced option (see bsub man page), if available. If it’s not available, then another mechanism must be used. Jobs can only be submitted under the security credentials of the job submitter in iSIGHT-FD. The job status will be 0 for LSF’s “DONE” status or 1 for any other LSF job status. Fail on stdout/stderr functionality will never generate a failure if the LSF plug-in is used, since stdout/stderr will be returned to the submitting user in an e-mail by default (LSF’s default behavior). You can override this behavior with the LSF advanced options on the Advanced tab. The relevant bsub options are –o, -oo, -e, -eo.

Using the Pause Component
The Pause component provides a mechanism for inserting pre-defined pauses within a workflow and optionally performing various interactive activities during the pause. The Pause component has three primary functions: Pause only (with various options for when to resume) Ask a question Display parameters for review and possible modification Each of these has different options for configuring how it should behave as part of the workflow. The options are discussed in the following sections. Also, before using this component, be sure to review “Known Issues,” on page 401. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

394 Chapter 4 Using Components

Starting the Component and Specifying an Action
To start the Pause component and specify an action: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

2. Select one of the following options from the Action drop-down list: Pause only. This option causes the workflow to pause and wait until the specified criteria are met, the Continue button on the provided dialog box is clicked, or the specified resume time expires. For more information on this option, see “Using the Pause only Action,” on page 395. Ask a question. This option causes the workflow to pause and a specified question displays. The workflow is paused until the answer is provided and the the OK button is clicked, or the specified resume time expires. For more information on this option, see “Using the Ask a question Action,” on page 397. Display parameters. This option causes the workflow to pause and a specified set of parameters displays, allowing for changes to the parameter values before

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the workflow proceeds. For more information on this option, see “Using the Display parameters Action,” on page 398.

Using the Pause only Action
If you select this action, the component editor appears as shown below:

To specify the options for this action: 1. Set the Show a dialog while paused option. When this option is selected, a dialog box appears when the Pause component is executed in the workflow. The dialog box may contain any of the following items, based on how the other options for this action are set: A message appears indicating the workflow has been paused. A Continue button to manually continue the workflow. A message about the file that must be found in the local file system (and optionally what text it must contain) before continuing the execution, if this option has been set. For more information on this option, see step 2. A countdown to the automatic resumption is provided, if this option has been set. For more information on this option, see step 5.

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396 Chapter 4 Using Components 2. Set the Resume as soon as this file exists option. When this option is selected, the workflow pauses until the specified file exists. You can type the path and file information directly into the corresponding text box, or you can navigate to the file using the Browse... button. You can also define text that must exist within the file using the option in step 3. 3. Set the Only if this text is found option. This option is activated for use if the Resume as soon as this file exists option is selected. You can use this option to specify text that must exist in the specified file in order for the workflow to resume, and you can determine if the case of the text is important using the Ignore Case check box. 4. Set the Resume as soon as email arrives option. When this option is selected, the workflow pauses until an email from the specified email address is received. If you only want to resume if the subject of the email contains certain text, type that text into the Subject contains text box. Note: Click the Mail Options button to specify the information to use to connect to the mail server and the details of your email account. 5. See “Using the Automatic Resume and Execution Location Options,” on page 399 for information on the resume options available as well as determining where the Pause component (and associated interface) should be executed when used in a distributed environment (using an ACS in the FIPER environment). 6. Click OK to close the editor.

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Using the Ask a question Action
If you select this action, the component editor appears as shown below:

To specify the options for this action: 1. Type the question that will be asked in the Question text box. 2. In the Possible Answers area, select one of the following options from the first drop-down list: User will pick from a set. Selecting this option allows you to control the possible answers to the question, and how the answers are presented. Proceed to step 3 for more instructions. User will type anything. Selecting this option provides a text box for typing an answer. Proceed to step 5. 3. Update the Specify possible answers list to correspond with your question. The answers of “Yes” and “No” are provided by default. You can specify as many options as necessary by clicking in the last empty row of the table to provide a new option. 4. Determine how the answers will be selected using the Display as drop-down list. You can specify radio buttons or a drop-down menu.

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398 Chapter 4 Using Components 5. Specify the information for the answer parameter using the Parameter to contain answer drop-down list. By default, a parameter called “answer” is provided. You can change the name of the parameter directly in the corresponding text box. You can also change the parameter’s properties, or create a new parameter, using the button. 6. See “Using the Automatic Resume and Execution Location Options,” on page 399 for information on the resume options available as well as determining where the Pause component (and associated interface) should be executed when used in a distributed environment (using an ACS in the FIPER environment). 7. Click OK to close the editor.

Using the Display parameters Action
If you select this action, the component editor appears as shown below:

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1. Select the parameters that you want displayed during execution from the list that appears. You can select individual parameters or you can use the Select All button to select every displayed parameter. The list shows all of the parameters available in the current workflow. Selected parameters have a icon in the first column of the list. Values for the selected parameters will be presented in a separate dialog box during execution and can be modified as a means of interactively influencing the design. 2. See “Using the Automatic Resume and Execution Location Options” on this page for information on the resume options available as well as determining where the Pause component (and associated interface) should be executed when used in a distributed environment (using an ACS in the FIPER environment). 3. Click OK to close the editor.

Using the Automatic Resume and Execution Location Options
The Pause component provides some general options for if/when the workflow should automatically resume. Set the Automatically resume after option. If activated, any pause in the workflow will automatically end once the specified (after option) time limit or clock time (at time option) is reached. The at time option is useful for deferring execution of various parts of the workflow until a time at which computing resources are known to be available or a certain user is available to perform some interactive process within the workflow. Note that if the specified time of day is already passed, the workflow will resume immediately. If the after option is used, the countdown time is displayed during execution so that you will know how much time remains before it automatically resumes. If the at time option is used, the time when the execution will resume is displayed. You will be able to resume the execution at any time by clicking the Continue button on the dialog box that appears during execution. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

400 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: If you do not want the Pause component to automatically resume, simply clear (uncheck) this option. Clearing this option will also set the general Timeout option on this component to “0” (meaning it will never timeout). For more information on component properties, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. If your model is to be executed within a distributed environment using the FIPER ACS, you can set the execution location for this Pause component using the Execute on drop-down list. When executing on your desktop (in Standalone mode), the Pause component will execute on your local computer. The following options are available: computer job was submitted from. The Pause component, and any associated interface, will execute on the computer from which the job was initially submitted. Select this option if your intent is to have the person executing the model also be the one prompted with any questions or parameter lists, or just to monitor the status of the pause. Since this option is the most typical scenario, it is the default setting. specified FIPER Station. The Pause component will execute on the computer that serves as the FIPER Station specified in the provided text box. any FIPER Station. The Pause component will execute on any available FIPER Station as selected by the FIPER ACS.

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Known Issues
When using the Automatically resume at time option during daylight savings time (DST), the Pause component uses the incorrect time on Windows systems that do not have the “Automatically adjust clock for daylight savings changes” option enabled on the Windows Date and Time Properties dialog box. This interface is accessed by double-clicking the clock in the system tray; then, clicking the Time Zone tab. The option is at the bottom of the tab. If daylight savings is in effect in the current time zone, but this Windows option is not enabled, iSIGHT-FD uses a time value which is incorrect by one hour. This issue affects the Pause component’s ability to resume execution at a specific time of day. When executing in a distributed environment on a FIPER Station, the Pause component editor might initially come up behind other windows. On Windows operating systems, an item is provided in the Windows Task bar to provide access to the editor at all times.

Using the Reference Component
The Reference component allows you to integrate a previously created and published model into your current model. This previously created model can be stored in your Library or in the Library of a remote partner. You can also choose a submodel of the current model, that was created using the Design Gateway, as a referenced object. The remote partner access feature is the primary means of enabling FIPER Federation (Business-to-Business) capabilities. It allows you to select a model that resides at a partner organization (which has a FIPER ACS) and insert a reference to it within your own workflow. When this component is executed as part of your workflow, iSIGHT-FD makes the appropriate connection to the partner FIPER ACS (which executes the remote model), and receives the outputs from that remote execution. With this capability, various organizations can collaborate on an overall product design by contributing analysis and design results from their own specialty areas of responsibility, while still maintaining the proprietary nature of their data and methods.

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402 Chapter 4 Using Components For more information on using FIPER Federation, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide. For more information on other referencing options, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101.

Understanding Component Prerequisites
The following prerequisites apply when using the Reference component: iSIGHT-FD's underlying Federation capability is provided and governed by the FIPER ACS. Thus, to take advantage of this capability, both organizations involved in the collaboration must have the full FIPER environment (ACS) installed; B2B functionality is not available running iSIGHT-FD in a Standalone mode. In addition, these ACS installations must use the same application server product (for example, WebSphere-to-WebSphere or WebLogic-to-WebLogic), due to the way the communication and transfer of information is carried out. For more information on installing the ACS, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination. For two FIPER-enabled organizations to collaborate, they must register each other as “partners” so that the necessary connection protocols can be established. Partner registration is performed as a FIPER administrator function and can be done at any time. For more information on defining a FIPER partner, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide. For an organization to share a model with another organization, it must publish it to the Library, and select the option to “Share this model with other FIPER environments”, specifying the necessary information to identify the FIPER partner(s) to share this model with. For more information on publishing models, see “Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions,” on page 539. The remainder of this section assumes that the aforementioned prerequisites have been met.

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Accessing the Component and Selecting the Reference Type
To access the Reference component and select the type of reference to use: 1. Verify that the Reference component is selected in the workflow area; then, double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

2. Click the Choose Model... button.

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404 Chapter 4 Using Components The Select Reference Model dialog box appears.

This dialog box shows three top-level categories, which represent all the places a model reference can be made. The first category (Internal Submodels) is a single level that shows all the internal submodels currently defined in your model. The root component icon and name are shown for each submodel. Important: Submodels must be created from the Design Gateway before they can be used within the Reference component. For more information on how to create submodels as well as the benefits of using submodels, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90. The second category (FIPER Library) is a Library browser which shows models published to the local Library. The third category (Remote Partner) shows a two-level subtree. The first level displays all the partners known to the ACS, and for each partner, the list of models you are authorized to use. For more information on configuring FIPER’s federation capability, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide.

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3. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on the type of model you want to reference: “Referencing a Submodel” on this page “Referencing a Model in the Library,” on page 407 “Referencing a Remote Model,” on page 409

Referencing a Submodel
This option allows you to reference an internal submodel currently defined in your model. Submodels must be created from the Design Gateway before they can be used within the Reference component. For more information, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90. To reference a submodel in the current model: 1. Access the Select Reference Model dialog box as described in “Accessing the Component and Selecting the Reference Type,” on page 403. 2. Expand the Internal Submodels option on the left side of the dialog box. The available submodels are listed.

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406 Chapter 4 Using Components Important: Submodels must be created from the Design Gateway before they can be used within the Reference component. For more information on how to create submodels, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90. 3. Click the submodel to select it. The submodel’s information appears on the right side of the dialog box.

4. Verify that you have selected the correct submodel; then, click the Select Model button.

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5. (optional) As desired, change any values for the input and output parameters. 6. Click OK to close the editor. The submodel is added to your workflow. For more information on submodels, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90.

Referencing a Model in the Library
This option allows you to reference a model in the current Library, for both standalone and ACS connections. To reference a model in your Library: 1. Access the Select Reference Model dialog box as described in “Accessing the Component and Selecting the Reference Type,” on page 403. 2. Expand the FIPER Library option on the left side of the dialog box; then, navigate to the location of the model you want to use (if necessary). 3. Click the model to select it.

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408 Chapter 4 Using Components The model’s information appears on the right side of the dialog box.

Note: The parameters that are displayed in the model are specified using the model properties. For more information, see “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. 4. Verify that you have selected the correct model; then, click the Select Model button. You are returned to the Reference component editor, and the selected model’s information now appears on the editor.

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6. Click OK to close the editor. The model is added to your workflow. For more information on how reference models are handled by iSIGHT-FD, and how the workflow is effected, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101.

Referencing a Remote Model
This option allows you to reference a model in a partner (remote) ACS. To reference a model in a partner’s Library: 1. Access the Select Reference Model dialog box as described in “Accessing the Component and Selecting the Reference Type,” on page 403. 2. Expand the Remote Partner option on the left side of the dialog box. A list of FIPER partners that have been defined for your organization is displayed. In the following example, the administrator had defined one partner (partner1) that can be accessed from the local ACS.

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410 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Expand the partner that possesses the model you want to use. The available models are displayed.

When a partner is selected, a remote query is made to get a list of all models on the remote ACS that have shared attributes matching the local ACS domain and the logged on user ID. Note: If your FIPER environment does not yet have any partners established, the Partners list will be empty and you will not be able to proceed. Refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide for information on defining partners for your FIPER environment. 4. Click the model you want to use.

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The model information, including name, version, and parameters, is loaded. You are also informed if no models are present in the Library.

Note: The parameters that are displayed in the model are specified using the model properties. For more information, see “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. 5. Verify that you have selected the correct submodel; then, click the Select Model button.

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412 Chapter 4 Using Components You are returned to the Reference component editor, and the selected model’s information now appears on the editor.

The inputs and outputs of the remote service are read and used to populate the inputs and outputs of the local Reference component. The default values for inputs were taken from the default values defined in the remote service. 6. (optional) As desired, change any values for the input and output parameters. 7. Click OK to close the editor. For more information on how reference models are handled by iSIGHT-FD, and how the workflow is effected, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. For more information on FIPER federation capabilities, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide. Note: Federated Reference models are not expanded/visible. You cannot see the internal parts of the model (i.e., components, workflow, dataflow, parameters).

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Using the Script Component
The Script component allows you to execute Java code in your model. This section is divided into the following topics: “Using the Script Component” on this page “Using Dynamic Java,” on page 416 “Parameter Data Types,” on page 417 “Job Log and Local Directory,” on page 418 “Script Execution,” on page 419 “Resizable Arrays,” on page 419 “Limitations,” on page 419

Using the Script Component
To use the Script component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”.

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414 Chapter 4 Using Components The Component Editor dialog box appears.

The upper section of the dialog box lists the available parameters. The lower section shows the script. 2. Alter parameter information displayed in the Available Parameters list, if desired. The existing parameters for this script and for the components around it in the workflow are displayed at the top of the editor. You can perform any of the following options: Add new parameters using the button.

Add a new parameter as a member of the selected aggregate parameter using the button.

Note: This button is only active if an aggregate parameter is selected in the Available Parameters list. Delete existing parameters using the button.

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Name. This column shows the name of the parameter and the array/aggregate hierarchy. Java Variable. This column shows the name that the parameter has inside of the script. This is initially the same as the Parameter name, with punctuation and spaces converted to underscores ( _ ). You can edit the Variable name and change the name used in the script if you wish. Value. This column shows the current parameter value. You can edit this entry to change the initial value of the parameter. Mode. This column shows the mode of the parameter (input, in/out, output, or local). If the parameter is not used by the script, the mode the parameter has in the model (the mode it would have if mapped to the component) is shown. Java Type. This column shows the declared type the parameter variable will have in the script. You can select a different type using the pull-down menu. The available types are described in more detail below. Note: Arrays are followed by [ ] in this column indicating that the Java variable is an array. 3. Type your script in the Enter your Java script here text box. The Script consists of Java statements, such as you would see inside the body of a Java method. A surrounding Class or Method declaration is not needed or allowed. Here are some examples:
System.out.println("My Script runs."); for (i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { total += array[i]; } jobLog.logInfo("The total is " + total);

It is not necessary to declare variables before using them. All of the parameters are pre-declared. Other variables (such as “i” above) can be used as long as the first reference is an assignment. Parameters are referenced in the script by just typing their variable name (from the Variable column). You can also insert a reference to a parameter by selecting the parameter and clicking the button.

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416 Chapter 4 Using Components Simple functions can be declared and called. Here is a trivial example:
int fact(int x) { return x == 0 ? 1 : x * fact(x-1); } fact_X = fact(X);

4. Click the Check Syntax button to verify the syntax of your script. Any messages about the script are displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the editor. Any syntax errors in the script are highlighted in pink. The pink error highlight won't go away until you fix the error and click the Check Syntax button again. Note: You can click the Details... button to get more information on a syntax error. 5. Repeat this procedure, as desired, until your Java script is complete. 6. Click OK to close the editor.

Using Dynamic Java
The Script component uses the Dynamic Java interpreter to run the script. The script is executed statement-by-statement from the top down, meaning that classes, methods, and variables must be declared before they are first used. In addition to supporting normal Java statements and expressions, Dynamic Java extends the Java language in the following ways: You can write classes in the script and create instances of them. You can write functions using the Java method declaration syntax. For example:
int factorial(int i) { if (i <= 0) return 1; else return i * fact(i-1); } intVar2 = factorial(intVar1);

Note that a function cannot be called until after it is defined. Also, the body of the function does not have access to global variables or parameters, only to the function arguments. So, for example, it would be an error to try to reference intVar1 inside the body of factorial.

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Variables do not need to be declared if the first use of the variable is an assignment. The variable is implicitly declared with the type of the right-hand expression. Thus the statement: s = xxx.toString(); declares variable s as type String. Import statements can be interspersed with statements in the script, as long as the Import statement occurs before the symbols it imports are used. For additional documentation on Dynamic Java, refer to the following website: http://koala.ilog.fr/djava/

Parameter Data Types
A Parameter can be used in the Script in several different ways. The default is to represent the parameter as its primitive type: Real as “double” Integer as “int” Boolean as “boolean” String as “java.lang.String” The value of the parameter is copied into the Java variable before the script starts, and the value of the Java variable is copied back into the Parameter after the script finishes (for parameters with mode Output and In/Out only). A Parameter can also be put into the script as a “Value” object. For example, a Real parameter could be represented by a RealValue. Value objects have methods like “setValue(String)” or “getAsReal()”. The advantage of a Value is that there is no need to copy the contents out to the parameter - any change to the Value immediately updates the associated Parameter. Value objects can also be updated inside functions, allowing you to emulate the C-language pass-by-reference operator “&”.

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418 Chapter 4 Using Components A parameter can also be put into the script as a Variable object. Using the Variable allows access to additional information beyond just the value. You can get the parameter name, mode, data type. Members of aggregate Parameters can be accessed in this way:
abc = AggParm.getMember("abc");

Array Parameters are added to the script as an array of the primitive type, an array of Value objects, or an ArrayVariable.

Job Log and Local Directory
In addition to the normal Parameters, there are three special variables you can use in your script: jobLog. Used to log messages to the iSIGHT-FD job log. The standard usage is: jobLog.logWarn("Warning - things are going wrong!"); Note: System.out and System.err are directed to the gateway.log file when an iSIGHT-FD model is run (and to the Station log file when the model is run via FIPER). The jobLog variable is the preferred way to report messages from a Script. localDir. A java.io.File that points to the component's working directory. Any temporary files needed by the script should be written to this directory. A useful idiom for creating a temporary file is:
stream = new FileOutputStream(new File(localDir, "temp.dat")); stream.write(myData); stream.close();

runtimeEnv. The complete runtime environment of the Script component. This can be used to access the JobID, UserID, etc. For a full list of the methods on this object, refer to the RuntimeEnv.html Javadoc file in the following iSIGHT-FD installation directory: <isight-fd_install_directory>/javadocs/com/engineous/sdk/runtime These variables cannot be renamed or deleted.

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Script Execution
The script is evaluated by statement at runtime until the last statement completes. When the last statement completes, the Script component is considered to have finished successfully. If any statement gets an error, or the script throws an uncaught exception, the Script component is considered to have failed. The standard exception to throw to indicate a failure is RtException. For example, if (! resultsUsable) throw new RtException (“The results are not usable x=”+x);

Resizable Arrays
Array parameters can change size at runtime. You can find the size of array parameters by using one of the following methods: If the Java Type is ‘double[ ]’ or ‘RealValue[ ]’, use the java .length operator: N= array.length; If the Java Type is ArrayVariable, use the size( )method (for a 1-dimensional array) or the getDimSize1(int) method for a multi-dimensional array: Ncolumns= array2D.getDimSize1(2); For more information, refer to the ArrayVariable.html file in the following iSIGHT-FD installation directory: <isight-fd_install_directory>/javadocs/com/engineous/sdk/vars

Limitations
The Script component cannot be used to create new parameters or to change the type of an existing parameter.

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Using the Simcode Component
The Simcode component is, in essence, an OS Command component surrounded by two Data Exchanger components. It is used to wrap an external program that reads and writes files for use in iSIGHT-FD models. The input data exchanger is used to update an input file (such as a NASTRAN input deck) with values taken from parameters. The OS Command portion runs an external program (or a script that calls multiple programs). Finally, the output data exchanger examines the files written by the program and extracts values into parameters. The big advantage of using the Simcode component over separate Data Exchanger and OS Command components is that copying of the input and output files between machines is avoided; the files are created, used, and (unless saved) discarded in one step. Note: This section provides a brief overview of the parts of the Simcode component editor. For more detailed information on using the Data Exchanger component, see “Using the Data Exchanger Component,” on page 249. For more detailed information on using the OS Command component, see “Using the OS Command Component,” on page 377. For more information on using the Grid Adapter, see “Setting Grid Adapter Options,” on page 389. For more technical information on setting up a simcode, contact your Engineous Software representative.

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Accessing and Configuring the Component
To access and configure the Simcode component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

There are three tabs at the top of the editor, one each for the Input data exchanger, the OS Command, and the Output data exchanger. Each of these tabs also has sub-tabs containing additional options. 2. Specify the command and arguments on the Command tab. For more information on using this tab, see “Using the OS Command Component,” on page 377. This tab is essentially an embedded OS Command component.

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422 Chapter 4 Using Components 3. Click the Input tab. The contents of the tab appear.

This tab is used to define the input data sources for the simcode. 4. Click the large button in the center of the dialog box to begin the process of defining a data source.

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Using the Simcode Component The Select Data Source screen appears.

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5. Select the source of the data you want to update in the input file parse. The following three options are available: Update a template file. An existing template file will be updated at runtime. Proceed to step 4 on page 263. Write a new file from scratch. A new file will be created at runtime. Proceed to step 12 on page 425. Modify an existing file parameter. An existing file parameter will be modified at runtime. Proceed to step 10 on page 424. 6. Click Next. The Select Template File screen appears:

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424 Chapter 4 Using Components Note: An Input file parameter is created for the Template file. While the template file is usually fixed, it is possible to map another file parameter to the Template file parameter, allowing the template to vary at runtime. 7. Enter the template file into the text box or use the Browse button to locate the file. 8. Select one of the following: Store content of the template in the model. This option allows for the model to be self-contained – it can be run even if the file is subsequently deleted. However, the file must be explicitly re-loaded (using the Files tab on the Design Gateway) to pick up any changes made to the file after the model is created. Read template from this file for every run. The model will reference the file on disk every time the simcode executes. This option is faster, saves space for large files, and causes the model to see any changes to the file the next time it is run. However, it can prevent distributed execution of the model, and the model becomes unusable if the file is deleted. 9. Continue to step 12 on page 425. 10. Click Next. The Select File Parameter screen appears.

11. Select the file parameter that will provide the template data that will be updated by the input file parse. This file parameter can already be part of the Simcode component, or it can be an output from another component earlier in the workflow.

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13. Enter the file name or use the Browse button to locate the file. iSIGHT-FD automatically fills in the text with the simple name of the file (the name with the path removed). This is the name the file will have at runtime. The name defaults to the name of the template file. The File Format options dialog box appears. For more information on using this dialog box, see “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262.

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426 Chapter 4 Using Components 14. Click the Output tab. The contents of the tab appear.

This tab is used to read data for the output data sources for the simcode. 15. Click the large button in the center of the dialog box to begin the process of defining a data source.

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Using the Simcode Component The Select Sample File screen appears.

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16. Enter an example of the output file format or use the Browse button to locate the file. This file format is used when setting up the parse. 17. Enter the local file or use the Browse button to locate the file. This file is the one that OSCommand will write to during runtime. iSIGHT-FD automatically fills in the text with the simple name of the file (the name with the path removed). This simple name is the name the file will have at runtime. The name defaults to the name of the template file. 18. Click Next. The Output Destination screen appears.

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428 Chapter 4 Using Components 19. Select where the data will be stored after the file is parsed. The three options available are: Store with Job Results. Don’t store the file. The file cannot be mapped to other components. Write to a file. You will need to enter the name of the file or use the Browse button to locate the file. 20. Click Next. The File Format screen appears. For more information on the File Format screen, see “Creating a New Data Exchanger Program,” on page 262. 21. Click OK to close the editor.

Additional Information
The following additional information should be noted when using the Simcode component: Files set up on the Required Files subtab of the Command tab are available for use by the Input and Output tabs. Select the parameter associated with the file from the File to Read at Runtime or File to Write at Runtime drop-down lists on the Open Data Source wizard of the Input or Output tab. The input files set up by the input file parse and the output files passed by the output parse can be substituted into the command line, and can be used to redirect standard input or output of the command.

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The absolute path to the file will be substituted into the Runtime command text box.

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Using the Word Component
The Word component is used to populate Word document files (*.doc) with the values of iSIGHT-FD parameters. The component can create a new document, or it can be used to modify an existing Word document. You can also execute any macros that are defined as part of the Word document.

Setting Up the Component
To use the Word component: 1. Double-click the component icon to start the component editor. For more information on inserting components and accessing component editors, see Chapter 3 “Creating Models Using the Design Gateway”. The Component Editor dialog box appears.

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Using the Word Component 431 2. Determine if you want to use an existing Word document as a template, or create a new one: To use an existing Word document, click the Browse... button in the Starting Document area; then, navigate to the document you want to use. Word is started and the document is opened. When an existing document is opened, it is copied into the system temporary directory and all modifications are made to that document. The original document remains unchanged. To create a new Word document, click the button in the Starting Document area. Word is started on your system, and a new file is loaded. Note: Only one document can be opened using the component. When an additional new document is created, or another existing document is opened, the previously opened document is closed. Important: If you manually close the Word document that was opened by the component editor, the editor is not notified. You must click OK to close the editor and then re-open it. Now you need to map the desired iSIGHT-FD parameters to the Word document. 3. Highlight the area in the Word document where you want the parameter value to appear. Note: You can insert parameter values into a formal Word table in the document by selecting the desired cell location(s). 4. Bring the component editor back into the foreground. 5. Perform one of the following actions, based on how you want to map parameters to the Word document: If you want to map parameters individually and control their exact location in the Word document, proceed to step 6. If you want to create a “<name>=<value>” list that contains all available parameters, proceed to step 12.

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432 Chapter 4 Using Components 6. Select a parameter from the Parameter to insert drop-down list in the Instructions area. Note: You can also create a new parameter using the you can map the parameter into the Word document. button. Once created,

7. For scalar parameters, if you want the parameter to be inserted in the format “<name> = <value>”, click the Insert as <name> = <value> check box. Otherwise, only the parameter value will be inserted. Note: You can insert the contents of a file (image files only) into the Word document by selecting an appropriate file parameter. 8. For array parameters, specify the starting index and ending index of part of the array that you want inserted. The parameter value for every specified element will be inserted with a line break between each element. 9. Click the button. The parameter is mapped, and the parameter name is displayed in the Word document in highlighted text. 10. Repeat step 6 and step 9 for each parameter you want to map. 11. Proceed to step 13. 12. Click the button. A name-value pair table is added to the Word document in the location specified. All supported parameters in the component are listed. 13. If you want to execute any macros that are defined within the specified Word document, perform the following steps: a. Click the Macros tab in the Instructions area of the editor. b. Select a macro that you want to execute (only those that are specified to be public will be presented). c. Specify any arguments that must be supplied to the macro. d. Click the button to add the macro to the list. You can also click the button to remove a macro). Note: Macros will be executed after any parameter mappings that have been defined.

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Using the Word Component 433 14. (optional) To save the updated Word document following execution, click the Also save to disk check box in the Document Produced area; then, specify a location for the file in the corresponding text box. You can either type a location, or navigate to a location using the Browse button. Note: The modified Word document will be provided as an output file parameter from this component even if you choose not to save it to a specific location on your disk. 15. Determine if you want the Word document visible during the model execution using the Show Word during execution check button. 16. Click the Close Word document check box if you want Word to close the opened document (when not selected, Word and the document remain open after the model is executed); then, use the corresponding drop-down list to determine when Word should close. The following options are available: when job completes. This option closes the document after the entire iSIGHT-FD execution is completed. after each execution. This option closes the document after each execution of Word. Word may be executed numerous times during a single job. Note: You can set default behavior for this option using the component preferences as described in “Setting Word Component Preferences,” on page 121. 17. Click OK to close the editor. Note: If you created a new document in step 2, you are asked to specify the location on your system where the document should be saved. If you do not specify a name and location for the new document, the file is added to the component as a file parameter with a default name provided by the component. During execution, the parameters mapped to the Word document are replaced by their respective values. After execution, the Word document is provided as a New/Modified output file parameter from this component.

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Setting Station Execution Permissions (FIPER Environment Only)
If you are connected to and executing using a FIPER Station (via an ACS in the FIPER environment), you must have launch and activation permissions with Word if you are running your job on a FIPER Station (specifically if the Station is being run as a service). These steps are not necessary if you are executing using the standard iSIGHT-FD desktop (Standalone) execution. To set Word permissions: 1. Click the Start button; then, click the Run... option. The Run dialog box appears. 2. Type dcomcnfg in the Open text box; then, click OK. The Component Services dialog box appears.

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Using the Word Component 435 3. Click Component Services on the left side of the dialog box. Folder options appear on the right side of the dialog box.

4. Double-click the Computers folder; then, double-click the My Computer icon. Additional folders appear.

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436 Chapter 4 Using Components 5. Double-click the DCOM Config folder. The contents of the folder appear.

6. Right-click the Microsoft Word Document icon; then, select Properties from the menu that appears. The Microsoft Word Document Properties dialog box appears.

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Using the Word Component 437 7. Click the Security tab. The contents of the tab appear.

8. Click the Customize radio button in the Launch and Activation Permissions area; then, click the Edit... button. The Launch Permission dialog box appears. 9. Click the Add... button. The Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box appears. 10. Type the necessary username (be sure to include the computer/domain name) in the Enter object names to select text box. 11. Click the Check Names button to verify that the username you entered is valid. You can also search for the name using the Advanced... button. 12. Click OK. You are returned to the Launch Permission dialog box, and the username you entered now appears in the list at the top of the dialog box. 13. In the Permission for <username> area; click the following check boxes in the Allow column: Local Launch Local Activation 14. Click OK. You are returned to the Microsoft Word Document Properties dialog box. 15. Click OK. You are returned to the Component Services dialog box.

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438 Chapter 4 Using Components 16. Close the dialog box. 17. Proceed to “Setting Up the Component,” on page 430 for information on using the Word component.

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5

Using the Task Plan Feature
This chapter describes how to use the iSIGHT-FD Task Plan feature. It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 440 “Understanding How the Task Plan Affects Model Structure,” on page 440 “Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options,” on page 443 “Editing Task Plan Components,” on page 446 “Copying Created Components,” on page 447 “Viewing the Entire Workflow,” on page 448 “Removing Components from the Task Plan,” on page 449 “Saving the Task Plan Configuration,” on page 450 “Understanding the Fast Path Option,” on page 450 “Accessing Task Plan Components from the Design Gateway,” on page 451 “Using Task Plan Components with the Change To Option,” on page 452 “Using a Task Plan with the FIPER WebTop,” on page 454

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Overview
This feature allows you to easily apply a design driver (DOE, optimization, etc.) or sequence of design drivers to the workflow that has been defined for a Task (which will be referred to as the “analysis” workflow). This functionality, known as a Task Plan, can be accessed via any Task component in an iSIGHT-FD workflow, and is set up using the component's editor. Once created, you can execute the Task Plan in its entirety, or simply execute the analysis workflow one time.

Understanding How the Task Plan Affects Model Structure
A Task Plan is constructed by building a workflow on top of the Task that represents the analysis process. Structurally, the model changes to accommodate this new structure by inserting levels above the Task to contain the components of the Task Plan. Also, a new subcategory is added to the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway, showing the components defined within the Task Plan itself. For more information, see “Accessing Task Plan Components from the Design Gateway,” on page 451. Once you create and save a Task Plan, the fundamental structure of your model is permanently changed. You cannot remove this new structure. Even if you completely remove the components created in the Task Plan, the structure of the model will still exist in its new, changed state. For a more simplified presentation, the Design Gateway hides some of the intermediate layers that exist merely to support the required model structure. Note that even though the structure of the model has changed, you can still execute the original workflow (the analysis workflow) by itself without the Task Plan. This process is described in “Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options,” on page 443.

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Using Process Components
Every process component that is added to the Task Plan automatically has a reference to the analysis Task added as its subflow. Thus, the analysis workflow (as originally defined in the Design Gateway) is executed numerous times as governed by each process component in the Task Plan. Figure 5-1 illustrates the impact that adding process components to a Task Plan has on the model structure. Figure 5-1. How Process Components in a Task Plan Affects the Model Workflow

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Using Activity Components
If an activity component is added to the Task Plan, it is simply executed at the same level as the other components in the Task Plan, and, unlike process components, does not execute the analysis workflow, as shown in Figure 5-2. Figure 5-2. How Activity Components in a Task Plan Affects the Model Workflow

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Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options
Creating a Task Plan involves creating components for eventual use in the Task Plan and specifying which of these components will actually be used during execution. You can create as many components as you wish, but use only a select few for your model execution. These unused components are saved and can be used at a later time. Components can be easily added and removed to adjust your Task Plan workflow. For example, you can create numerous Optimization components, each using a different optimization technique. To create a Task Plan and set execution options: 1. Verify that you have created a model that contains a Task component in the proper location for creating a Task Plan. 2. Double-click the Task component. The component editor appears.

There are two execution options you can set directly from the Task component editor. Both of these options have a direct impact on how your Task Plan is executed and if it is executed at all.

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444 Chapter 5 Using the Task Plan Feature To set execution options, select one of the following Task Plan execution options at the top of the Task editor: Execute the Analysis flow once. When this option is selected, the original workflow of the Task (analysis flow) is executed a single time, ignoring any Task Plan that might be defined. Note: The Task Plan portion of the editor is not accessible when this option is selected. Execute the specified Task Plan. When this option is selected, the components specified in the Task Plan are executed in the defined order, with any process component executing the analysis workflow as its subflow. When the Execute the specified Task Plan option is selected, the portion of the editor for defining the Task Plan is enabled. It contains two subtabs: Task Plan and Model View. The Task Plan tab is used to create, edit, and alter your Task Plan. Once you have created a Task Plan and specified which components will be used during execution, you can use the Model View tab to view the entire model workflow layout to gain a better understanding of what components will actually be executed. For more information on your workflow, see “Understanding How the Task Plan Affects Model Structure,” on page 440. The first step in creating a Task Plan is to create components that can be used in the Task Plan. These components do not necessarily have to be added to the workflow, but they can be added to it at any time after they are created. 3. Click one of the following buttons to add a component to the Task Plan: . This button adds a DOE component. . This button adds a Monte Carlo component. . This button adds an Optimization component. . This button adds an SDI component. . This button allows you to add any component (process or activity) by selecting from a list of components found in the Library. For more information on how activity and process components are handled in the workflow, see “Understanding How the Task Plan Affects Model Structure,” on page 440. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options 445 The selected component is added to the Available Components list with a default name.

Now that the component has been created, you can edit it or add it to the workflow. Important: In its current state (in the Available Components list) the component is not included in the workflow. However, it is saved by iSIGHT-FD and can be configured. 4. Edit the components using the components’ editors as described in “Editing Task Plan Components,” on page 446. 5. Add components to the model workflow by selecting the desired component(s); then, click the button. The component is added to the Task Plan Execution button.

list. You can also remove components using the

6. Move the components added to the Task Plan Execution list using the buttons to create the desired Task Plan workflow. The components are executed in the order in which they appear in this list, with the top component being executed first. Note You can edit, rename, or delete the component by right-clicking the component in the Available Components and Task Plan Execution lists.

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Editing Task Plan Components
Once a component is created, regardless of its inclusion in the workflow, you can access its component editor. To edit a Task Plan component: 1. Click the component that you want to edit in either the Available Components list or Task Plan Execution list. The component is selected. 2. Click the button beneath the list containing the selected component. The component’s editor appears. You can also double-click any component in either list to access its editor. 3. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on the component you are editing: “Using the DOE Component,” on page 122 “Using the Monte Carlo Component,” on page 158 “Using the Optimization Component,” on page 173 “Using the SDI Component,” on page 205 For any other component, see the appropriate section in Chapter 4 “Using Components”.

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Copying Created Components
You can create exact copies of any component that you have added to the Task Plan. To copy a Task Plan component: 1. Verify that the component you want to copy has been selected and is highlighted. In the following example, we’ll be copying a DOE component.

2. Click the

button at the bottom of the Available Component list.

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448 Chapter 5 Using the Task Plan Feature A copy of the component is added to the list.

Note: You can also copy components in the Task Plan Execution list using the button at the bottom of that list. However, the copies are added to the Available Components list. You can then move them to the Task Plan Execution list, if desired. 3. Save your changes to the Task Plan. For more information, see “Saving the Task Plan Configuration,” on page 450.

Viewing the Entire Workflow
The Task component editor provides a means for viewing the impact that the Task Plan has on the workflow of the model. This visual representation is provided on the Model View subtab. This subtab is for viewing purposes only. You cannot directly edit the workflow using this tab. To view the entire workflow including the Task Plan components: 1. Access the Task component editor as described in “Creating a Task Plan and Setting Execution Options,” on page 443. 2. Click the Model View subtab on the editor. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Removing Components from the Task Plan The contents of the tab appear.

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3. Use the buttons on the left side of the tab, as desired, to alter the presentation of the model layout (you cannot directly alter the actual workflow from this tab). For more information on these buttons, see “Manipulating the Workflow Tab Canvas,” on page 84.

Removing Components from the Task Plan
You can remove a component from the model workflow, and thereby stop it from being used during model execution. The component will still be available for later use. You can also remove a component from the Task Plan in its entirety. Use the button to remove a component from the workflow. The component is moved from the Task Plan Execution list to the Available Components list. You can confirm the component’s removal using the Model View subtab. This component is still available for later use, and can again be added to the workflow at any time. Use the button to delete the component from the Task Plan. Deleting the component from the Task Plan completely deletes the component and any settings you have made to the component. However, you can still add a component of the same type back into the Task Plan and reconfigure it. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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Saving the Task Plan Configuration
The iSIGHT-FD Task Plan feature allows you to create multiple components that can be added at any time to create a Task Plan. However, you are not required to use any of the components to create a Task Plan. They can simply be stored for future use (in the Available Components column). If you click OK or Apply to save a Task Plan where no components have been added to the Task Plan Execution list, the following warning message appears.

Click Yes to change the execution mode to execute the Analysis one time. If you click No and leave the editor set to execute an empty Task Plan, when execution occurs the Task component will simply complete without executing anything.

Understanding the Fast Path Option
The following option always existing on the Task component editor, regardless of whether or not you have access to the Task Plan functionality: Fast Path execution. This option, when selected, will ensure that the Task component executes without being dispatched to a FIPER Station when iSIGHT-FD is connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. When the Task is simply used to create a hierarchical structure in your model, this option allows you to avoid the sometimes unnecessary overhead incurred by dispatching it to another machine to execute. Note: If file parameters are defined for the Task component, this option cannot be enabled since the files must be processed.

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Accessing Task Plan Components from the Design Gateway
Once you create and save a Task Plan, the Model Explorer feature on the Design Gateway is reorganized to show the new model structure. The model is divided into two subcategories: Analysis and Task Plan. The Analysis subcategory refers to the original workflow of the Task component. The Task Plan subcategory refers to the workflow of design drivers that will be applied to the Analysis. Figure 5-3. Task Plan and the Impact on the Model Explorer

The components that make up each part of the model are listed within these subcategories. Only Task Plan components that will be used during model execution (those that have been added to the Task Plan Execution list) are displayed in the Model Explorer.

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452 Chapter 5 Using the Task Plan Feature You can directly access any listed component’s editor by double-clicking it on the Model Explorer. You also have access to other options when you right-click a component (Rename, Publish, etc.). For more information on using these options, see “Using the Other Model Explorer Options,” on page 67.

Using Task Plan Components with the Change To Option
Process components that are part of a Task Plan, whether they are actually used in the Task Plan or simply available components, are also made available in the list of Change To components in the Change To menu. This option allows you to define all of the process components within a Task Plan and change the Task Plan into one of the process components so that only it is executed, leaving the Task Plan intact. For example, if within a Task Plan you defined a DOE followed by an Optimization followed by a Monte Carlo and had completely configured the details of those components, you can use any of them independently without modifying the Task Plan Execution list. To use a Task Plan component with the Change To option: 1. Define the process components you want to use in the Task Plan; then, click OK to close the Task component editor. 2. Click the Task component in the workflow. The component is selected. 3. Right-click the component; then, select Change To from the menu that appears. The components that you configured in the Task Plan are available in the displayed list of components. 4. Select the component that you want to change to. The workflow changes to just having the selected process component running the analysis task. You can change back to the Task Plan option at any time and the contents of the Task Plan remain intact. In addition to the process components of a Task Plan being available using the Change To option, any process components that had been previously defined as available to Change To on a Task will be made available for use within the Task Plan.

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This feature is the exact opposite of the functionality previously described. For example, if you defined a model in which a DOE component ran some subflow and then decided that you wanted to instead run a Task Plan on that subflow, you can use the Change To option to switch the DOE component to a Task component, open the Task component editor to define a Task Plan, and use the previously defined DOE component within the Task Plan. To select a previously defined component using the Change To option: 1. Create or open a model that contains a process component running a subflow. 2. Click the process component in the workflow. The component is selected. 3. Right-click the component; then, select Change To from the menu that appears. Additional options appear. 4. Click the New... option. The Select New Component dialog box appears. 5. Click the Task option; then, click OK. The original process component is replaced with a Task component in your workflow. 6. Double-click the Task component. The Task component editor appears. Notice that the original process component appears in the Available Components list and can be used in your Task Plan. Note: You can change the Task component back to the original process component at any time using the Change To option. This capability is available no matter how many process components you have defined using the Change To option. All of the process components are made available within the Task Plan editor for use in the Task Plan.

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Using a Task Plan with the FIPER WebTop
There are limitations to using Task Plans with the FIPER WebTop (which is available if you are using an ACS in the FIPER environment). Task Plans cannot be edited in the WebTop. However, the components they contain have the same level of editing provided by the WebTop. The formulation of DOE, Optimization, and Monte Carlo components can be edited. The WebTop model tree shows the full content of the model as it actually exists, making no attempt to hide the intermediate layers required by the Task Plan. For more information on the editing options available with the FIPER WebTop, refer to the FIPER WebTop Guide.

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6

Creating and Using Approximations
This chapter describes how to create and use Approximations in iSIGHT-FD. It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 456 “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457 “Creating an Automatic Approximation,” on page 458 “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462 “Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File,” on page 477 “Editing an Existing Approximation,” on page 485 “Using Approximations at Runtime,” on page 487 “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489 “Viewing Approximation Data After Initialization,” on page 493 “Visualizing an Approximation,” on page 495 “Analyzing Approximation Errors,” on page 520 “Copying an Approximation,” on page 528 “Deleting an Approximation,” on page 529

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Overview
Approximations in iSIGHT-FD serve to replace a specific component during runtime execution of a model. Approximations can also be used to gain an insight into the behavior of the component which they approximate by examining the two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphs in the Approximation Viewer. Approximations work by building a simplified mathematical models for the selected component using multiple data points. The data points for approximations can be obtained either by executing the approximated component multiple times, or by reading a data file with previously analyzed points. The process of building the mathematical model using data points is called initialization. After an approximation is initialized, it can be evaluated and used at runtime to replace the approximated component. Multiple approximations can be created, initialized, and viewed for any iSIGHT-FD component, but only one of them can be used at runtime. To use an approximation at runtime, you must activate it before submitting the model for execution. When an approximation is created for a process component (i.e., Task, DOE, Optimization, Monte Carlo, Loop), the subflow of the component is approximated, such that when the process component executes the subflow, the active approximation is executed instead. If there are multiple components in the subflow (i.e., multiple simcodes, calculations, etc.), they all are replaced by one approximation. All approximations for the selected component can be accessed via the Approximations dialog box that can be opened either from the Approximations button on the Component Title Bar or via the right-click menu. Approximations are created and edited using the Approximation Wizard. Details about all of the above actions are described in the remaining sections of this chapter. iSIGHT-FD has a separate component called the Approximation component, which should not be confused with the regular approximations described in this chapter. The Approximation component is based on using an approximation that is not attached to any other component, but rather is constructed from a data file. An Approximation component is therefore a self-contained unit, which can be used anywhere within the iSIGHT-FD model, contrary to the regular approximations, which are always attached to a specific component. For more information about the Approximation component, see “Using the Approximation Component,” on page 223.

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Accessing Approximations of a Component
As mentioned in the previous section, all approximations are created for a specific component, either an activity or a process component. To access existing approximations of a component or to create new approximations, you must select the component first; then open the Approximations dialog box. The Approximations dialog box allows you to create, edit, delete, view error analysis, and visualize an approximation. The following two methods can be used to access component approximations: Click the component on either the Workflow tab or use the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway. Once the component is selected, click the Approximations button on the Component Title Bar to access the Approximations dialog box. This interface provides you with access to all options available with regular approximations. Right-click the component on the Workflow tab or the Model Explorer; then, select Approximations from the menu that appears to access the Approximations dialog box. This interface provides you with access to all options available with regular approximations. The following example shows the Approximations dialog box for the case when no approximations exist for the selected component called Compute a, ix, iy.

Important: If you are selecting a Task Plan component, you must select the component using the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway. These components do not appear in the model workflow.

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Creating an Automatic Approximation
iSIGHT-FD has two approximation algorithms (or techniques): Response Surface Model and RBF Model. Either one of these techniques can be used when creating an approximation. If you do not want to learn the details of these approximation techniques, you can create an Automatic approximation. When this option is selected, iSIGHT-FD will use a preconfigured Response Surface Model with most of the options set to the appropriate values. Only input and output parameters and their properties will have to be configured manually. To create a new approximation automatically: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Click the New... button on the right side of the dialog box.

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Creating an Automatic Approximation The Approximation Wizard dialog box appears.

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3. Type a custom name for the approximation in the Name of approximation text box, if you want to change the default name. 4. Verify that the Automatic radio button is selected; then, click Next. The Input and Output Parameters screen appears.

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460 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations If the approximation is created for an activity component, all parameters of the component are displayed on the page. If the approximation is created for a process component, all parameters mapped to the subflow are displayed, along with all parameters from the subflow that are still not mapped to the parent. Selecting the latter parameters will result in automatic creation of corresponding parameters in the process component. 5. Determine which parameters you want to use for your approximation. You can select or deselect individual parameters by clicking the check box in the first column in both the Inputs and Outputs area, or you can click the Check or Uncheck buttons to automatically select (or deselect) all of the listed parameters. Note: For any inputs that are not selected, the values for these inputs will have no effect on the outputs evaluated from the approximation. Similarly, if you do not select one of the output parameters, its value will remain constant during execution of the approximation. 6. Click Next. The Sampling Options screen appears.

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These options let you determine the number of random sampling points that will be used. The following options are available: Specify a number of point in the sample points text box. This number must be at or above the minimum required number of points specified in the text message above the entry box. Have iSIGHT-FD use a time limit for determining the number of points. iSIGHT-FD will keep executing for the specified duration of time. Note: If less than the minimum required number of points is executed, iSIGHT-FD will continue executing sampling points until the requirement is met. Click the Use a fixed random seed check box and specify a seed value to use for the random number generator when determining the set of sample points to be executed. This option allows you to reproduce the approximation with the same set of points later, if desired. Click the Execute design points in parallel if you want to execute your initialization points in parallel. This option should only be used if you are using a multi-CPU system or if you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. 7. Click Next. The Sampling Range screen appears.

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462 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 8. Alter the Lower and Upper values for the listed input parameters, as desired. These bounds will determine the design space where the random points will be generated by iSIGHT-FD. 9. Click Finish. A message appears prompting you to initialize the approximation. 10. Perform one of the following actions: Click Yes to initialize the approximation. Proceed to “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Click No to return to the Approximation dialog box.

Creating a User-Defined Approximation
iSIGHT-FD has two approximation techniques: Response Surface Model and RBF Model. When creating a user-defined approximation, you can pick the technique that you want to use and control all options used by the approximation technique. If you want to create an approximation automatically (where iSIGHT-FD specifies many of these options for you), proceed to “Creating an Automatic Approximation,” on page 458. You can also create an approximation based on a previously saved coefficient file. For more information on using a coefficient file, proceed to “Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File,” on page 477. To create a new user-defined approximation using the wizard: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

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Creating a User-Defined Approximation 2. Click the New... button. The Approximation Wizard dialog box appears.

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3. Type a custom name for the approximation in the Name of approximation text box, if you want to change the default name. 4. Click the User Defined radio button; then, click Next. The Approximation Technique screen appears.

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464 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 5. Select the technique you want to use from the Approximation technique drop-down list. The following options are available: RBF Model. Radial Basis Functions (RBF) are a type of neural network employing a hidden layer of radial units and an output layer of linear units, and characterized by reasonably fast training and reasonably compact networks. For more information, see “RBF Model,” on page 737. Response Surface Model. Response Surface Models (RSM) in iSIGHT-FD use polynomials of low order (from 1 to 4) to approximate response of an actual analysis code. For more information, see “Response Surface Model,” on page 744. Note: These techniques are plug-ins that have been created by Engineous Software and included with your iSIGHT-FD installation. You can create your own approximation technique plug-ins using the Generator. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. 6. Click Next. The Input and Output Parameters screen appears.

7. Determine which parameters you want to use for your approximation. You can select or deselect individual parameters by clicking the check box in the first column in both the Inputs and Outputs area, or you can click the Check or Uncheck buttons to automatically select (or deselect) all of the listed parameters.

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8. Perform one of the following actions, based on the approximation technique you are using: RBF Model: Proceed to step 9. Response Surface Model: Proceed to “Setting Response Surface Model Technique Options,” on page 470. 9. Click Next. The Sampling Options screen appears.

10. Select one of the following options from the Sampling method drop-down list: Random Points. iSIGHT-FD generates the required number of random points around the current point and executes an analysis at every point. Data File. The model uses a data file to get data for model construction. DOE Matrix. iSIGHT-FD uses Design of Experiments (DOE) to determine the set of points to evaluate. 11. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on your selection above: “Using the Random Points Sampling Method,” on page 473 “Using the Data File Sampling Method,” on page 474 “Using the DOE Matrix Sampling Method,” on page 476

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466 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 12. Click Next. If you have selected the Random Points sampling option, the Sampling Range screen appears.

Note: If you selected the DOE Matrix sampling option, the Input Attributes screen will display a table of Factor Attributes, where each input parameter of the approximation is presented as a DOE Factor. Depending on the selected DOE technique, the table will contain different columns. For more information about the DOE Matrix sampling option, see “Using the DOE Matrix Sampling Method,” on page 476. 13. (Random Points sampling method only). Determine how you want to define the sampling region using one of the following options: Absolute Values. This option defines the region by using absolute bounds for each inputs parameter. You need to specify the Lower and Upper values for each parameter in the corresponding columns. Relative to Baseline. This option defines the region by applying relative move limits to the baseline values in both direction. You need to specify the baseline, move limit percentage, and minimum move limit for each parameter in the corresponding columns. 14. Alter the Lower and Upper values for the listed parameters, as desired.

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Creating a User-Defined Approximation 15. Click Next. The Error Analysis Method screen appears.

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16. Determine the error analysis method for the approximation: Separate data set. This method compares exact and approximate output values for each data point. Proceed to step 17. Cross-validation. This method selects a subset of points from the main data set, removes each point one at a time, re-calculates coefficients, and compares exact and approximate output values at each removed point. Proceed to step 20. No error analysis. Proceed to step 23.

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468 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 17. Click Next. The Error Analysis Sampling Options screen appears.

18. Select one of the following options from the Sampling method drop-down list: Random Points. iSIGHT-FD generates the required number of random points around the current point and executes an analysis at every point. Data File. The model uses a data file to get data for model construction. DOE Matrix. iSIGHT-FD uses Design of Experiments (DOE) to determine the set of points to evaluate. Depending on your choice, a different set of options appears. These options are similar to the options set on the Sampling Options screen. For more information about the Sampling methods, see “Using the Sampling Methods Options,” on page 473. 19. Proceed to step 23.

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Creating a User-Defined Approximation 20. Click Next. The Cross-Validation Options screen appears.

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21. In the text box, type the number of points from the total number of sampling points that you want to use for cross-validation error analysis. 22. Click the Use a fixed random seed for selecting points check box and specify a seed value to use for the random number generator when determining the set of sample points selected for cross-validation. This option allows you to reproduce the approximation with the same set of points later, if desired. 23. Click Finish. A message appears prompting you to initialize the approximation. 24. Perform one of the following actions: Click Yes to initialize the approximation. Proceed to “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Click No if you want to save the approximation and wait until later to initialize. You are returned to the Approximations dialog box.

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Setting Response Surface Model Technique Options
Several technique options can be configured when using the Response Surface Model Approximation technique. To set Response Surface Model technique options: 1. Access the Technique Options screen as described in “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462. The screen appears as shown below.

2. Select the polynomial order of the model using the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Linear. This option is the recommended value when the outputs are known to be linear with respect to the inputs. This option requires the smallest number of design points for initialization, but it will produce larger errors for non-linear output functions. Quadratic. This option is the recommended value for most cases and provides the best approximation performance to cost ratio. Quadratic RSM provides the best optimization performance for smooth exact functions.

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Cubic. If this option is selected, the model polynomial will have all quadratic terms, and only pure cubic terms (i.e., no mixed interaction terms of 3rd order are included). This option is recommended when the outputs are highly non-linear functions of the inputs. This option requires more design points for initialization than Quadratic. Quartic. If this option is selected, the model polynomials will have all quadratic terms, only pure and cubic terms, and only pure 4th order terms (i.e., no interaction terms of 3rd and 4th order are included). The same recommendations listed under Cubic apply to Quartic approximations. Be aware that using Quartic polynomials in optimization may create undesired local minima. 3. You can use Term Selection to remove some polynomial terms with low significance, which can improve reliability for your approximation and reduce the number of required design points. Perform one of the following actions: To use Term Selection: Click the Select the following number of best terms from polynomial check box; then, specify the number of best terms that you want selected in the corresponding text box. To skip Term Selection: Proceed to step 5. 4. Select one of the following options from the Term selection method drop-down list: Sequential Replacement. This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the Response Surface Model are minimized at every step. After adding a new polynomial term, iSIGHT-FD will try to find a replacement for each of the selected terms that can reduce the fitting errors further. The fitting errors are checked using the Residual Sum of Squares (sum of squared errors at all design points):

Here are exact output values, are approximate output values, n is the number of design points used for the Response Surface Model. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

472 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations Stepwise (Efroymson). This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the RSM are minimized at every step. A new term is added if the following condition is satisfied:

After adding a new term, iSIGHT-FD will examine all selected terms and will delete one or more terms for which the following condition is satisfied:

In these formulae, p is the number of polynomial terms, n is the number of designs used for the Response Surface Model, is the F-ratio to add a

term, and is the F-ratio to drop a term. The latter two values can be controlled using the text boxes that appear under the Term Selection Method menu when Stepwise (Efroymson) is selected:

• F-ratio to drop term. This is the maximum value of F-ratio to drop a
polynomial term from RSM.

• F-ratio to add term. This is the minimum value of F-ratio to add a new
polynomial term to RSM. Two-At-A-Time Replacement. This method of polynomial term selection starts with the constant and then adds polynomial terms one at a time so that the fitting errors of the Response Surface Model are minimized at every step. After adding a new polynomial term, iSIGHT-FD will consider all possible replacements for 1 or 2 of the selected terms that can reduce the fitting errors further. Then the best replacement combination is found and the terms are replaced and the next best term is selected and added. The process is repeated at every step until the maximum number of terms is selected. This method has a better chance of finding the best model than the two previous methods, but it is more expensive computationally. Exhaustive Search. This method generates all possible combinations of polynomial terms and then finds the best combination that produces the minimum fitting errors. This method is the most expensive computationally

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and can take a very long time for a large number of design points and large numbers of inputs and outputs. 5. Return to step 9 in “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462.

Using the Sampling Methods Options
This section discusses the various sampling methods that are available when creating an approximation. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Using the Random Points Sampling Method” on this page “Using the Data File Sampling Method,” on page 474 “Using the DOE Matrix Sampling Method,” on page 476

Using the Random Points Sampling Method
To define options for the Random Points sampling method: 1. Access the Random Points options as described in “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462. The options appear as shown below.

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474 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 2. Select the number of points for the approximation. The following options are available: Specify a number of points in the sample points text box. This number must be at or above the minimum required number of points specified in the text message above the entry box. Specify a time limit using the As many points as possible in option. You can set a time limit (in second, minutes, or hours) that iSIGHT-FD will use for determining the number of points. iSIGHT-FD will keep executing for the specified duration of time. Note: If less than the minimum required number of points is executed, iSIGHT-FD will continue executing sampling points until the requirement is met. 3. Click the Use a fixed random seed check box and specify a seed value to use for the random number generator when determining the set of sample points to be executed. This option allows you to reproduce the approximation with the same set of points later, if desired. 4. Click the Execute design points in parallel if you want to execute your initialization points in parallel. This option should only be used if you are using a multi-CPU system or if you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. 5. Perform one of the following steps, based on your location in the wizard: To complete the Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 12 on page 466. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 23 on page 469. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for approximations that use a coefficient file: Return to step 12 on page 482.

Using the Data File Sampling Method
To define options for the Data File sampling method: 1. Access the Data File options as described in “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462.

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Creating a User-Defined Approximation The options appear as shown below.

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2. Click the Browse... button to locate the file you want to use. The Select File dialog box appears. 3. Locate the file; then, click the Select button. You are returned to the Sampling Options screen, and your file appears in the large text box adjacent to the Browse... button. 4. Specify the type of file you selected using the following options: Static file. Select this option if the data in the file never changes. The file will be read once and saved in memory for future use. Note: If you later access the Approximation Wizard to view the approximation you are creating, the Re-read File button is activated. Clicking this button allows the wizard to scan the file for changes since it was first read and placed into memory. Dynamic file. Select this option if the data in the file can change. The file will be read prior to every initialization. If you are executing on an ACS in the FIPER environment, the file must be accessible via the absolute path or shared file system. For more information, see “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581. File parameter. iSIGHT-FD will create a pre-configured file parameter named “Initialization Data for <Approx_Name>” in the component. You can map iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

476 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations this file parameter to receive data from another component at run time. The approximation will then use this data for initialization. 5. Perform one of the following steps, based on your location in the wizard: To complete the Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 12 on page 466. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 23 on page 469. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for approximations that use a coefficient file: Return to step 12 on page 482.

Using the DOE Matrix Sampling Method
To define options for the DOE Matrix sampling method: 1. Access the DOE Matrix options as described in “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462. The options appear as shown below.

2. Select the technique you want to use from the Technique drop-down list. The technique’s options appear at the bottom of the screen.

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3. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information on the technique options (no options exist for the Central Composite or Full Factorial options): “Setting Data File Technique Options,” on page 139 “Setting Latin Hypercube Technique Options,” on page 141 “Setting Optimal Latin Hypercube Options,” on page 141 “Setting Orthogonal Array Technique Options,” on page 142 “Setting Parameter Study Technique Options,” on page 143 4. Click the Execute design points in parallel if you want to execute your initialization points in parallel. This option should only be used if you are using a multi-CPU system or if you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. 5. Perform one of the following steps, based on your location in the wizard: To complete the Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 12 on page 466. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for User Defined approximations: Return to step 23 on page 469. To complete the Error Analysis Sampling Options settings for approximations that use a coefficient file: Return to step 12 on page 482.

Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File
You can create an approximation using a previously saved file with coefficient data. For more information on how to save coefficient data from another approximation, see one of the following sections: If your approximation is not yet initialized, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. If you approximation is already initialized, see “Viewing Approximation Data After Initialization,” on page 493. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

478 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations To create an approximation using a coefficient data file: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Click the New... button. The Approximation Wizard dialog box appears.

3. Type a custom name for the approximation in the Name of approximation text box, if you want to change the default name. 4. Click the Previously Saved radio button; then, click the Browse... button to locate the file you want to use. The Select File dialog box appears.

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5. Locate the file; then, click the Select button. You are returned to the Approximation Wizard, and your file appears in the large text box adjacent to the Browse... button. 6. Click Next. The Approximation Technique screen appears.

This screen shows the technique that was used in the original approximation. Note: You cannot change the technique. If you change the technique, then the coefficient data file is not used. Instead, a user-defined approximation is created.

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480 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 7. Click Next. The Input and Output Parameters screen appears.

This screen shows the input and output parameters that were used in the original approximation. Note: You cannot change the Input and Output parameters. If you change the parameters, then the coefficient file is not used. Instead, a user-defined approximation is created.

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Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File 8. Click Next. The Error Analysis Method screen appears.

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9. Determine the error analysis method for the approximation: Separate data set. This method compares exact and approximate output values for each data point. Proceed to step 10. Cross-validation. This method selects a subset of points from the main data set, removes each point one at a time, re-calculates coefficients, and compares exact and approximate output values at each removed point. Proceed to step 16. No error analysis. Proceed to step 19.

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482 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 10. Click Next. The Error Analysis Sampling Options screen appears.

11. Select one of the following options from the Sampling method drop-down list: Random Points. iSIGHT-FD generates the required number of random points around the current point and executes an analysis at every point. Data File. The model uses a data file to get data for model construction. DOE Matrix. iSIGHT-FD uses Design of Experiments (DOE) to determine the set of points to evaluate. Depending on your choice, a different set of options appear. These options are similar to the options set on the Sampling Options screen. For more information about the Sampling methods, see “Using the Sampling Methods Options,” on page 473. 12. Click Next.

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Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File If you have selected the Random Points sampling option, the Sampling Range screen appears.

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Note: If you selected the DOE Matrix sampling option, the Input Attributes screen will display a table of Factor Attributes, where each input parameter of the approximation is presented as a DOE Factor. Depending on the selected DOE technique, the table will contain different columns. For more information about the DOE Matrix sampling option, see “Using the DOE Matrix Sampling Method,” on page 476. 13. (Random Points sampling method only). Determine how you want to define the sampling region using one of the following options: Absolute Values. This option defines the region by using absolute bounds for each inputs parameter. You need to specify the Lower and Upper values for each parameter in the corresponding columns. Relative to Baseline. This option defines the region by applying relative move limits to the baseline values in both direction. You need to specify the baseline, move limit percentage, and minimum move limit for each parameter in the corresponding columns. 14. Alter the Lower and Upper values for the listed parameters, as desired. 15. Proceed to step 19.

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484 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 16. Click Next. The Cross-Validation Options screen appears.

17. In the text box, type the number of points from the total number of sampling points that you want to use for cross-validation error analysis. 18. Click the Use a fixed random seed for selecting points check box and specify a seed value to use for the random number generator when determining the set of sample points selected for cross-validation. This option allows you to reproduce the approximation with the same set of points later, if desired. 19. Click Finish. A message appears prompting you to initialize the approximation. 20. Perform one of the following actions: Click Yes to initialize the approximation. Proceed to “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Click No if you want to save the approximation and wait until later to initialize. You are returned to the Approximations dialog box.

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Editing an Existing Approximation
Once an approximation has been created, you can alter it, as necessary, using the Approximation Wizard. To edit an existing approximation using the wizard: 1. Select a component (that contains an approximation) as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Verify that the approximation you want to edit is selected (highlighted); then, click the Edit... button. The Approximation Wizard appears.

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486 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The wizard allows you to change any of the approximation information originally set when the approximation was created. 3. (optional) Type a new name for the approximation in the Name of approximation text box. This name is used to locate the approximation if you attempt to access it at a later time. 4. (optional) Change the creation mode for the approximation using the radio buttons on the initial wizard screen. 5. Click Next. 6. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information on all of the available options, based on the creation mode you are using for the approximation: Automatic option: “Creating an Automatic Approximation,” on page 458 User Defined option: “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462 Previously Saved option: “Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File,” on page 477 7. (Initialized approximations only) If the approximation you are editing has already been initialized, and you have not changed any parameter settings on the Input and Output Parameters screen, then a Sampling Data Set screen appears (in addition to the screens expected for the creation mode selected).

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Using Approximations at Runtime This screen allows you to preserve existing sampling data. 8. Choose one of the following options:

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Use existing sampling data. This option is disabled if the approximation is changed in such a way that more points are required. Preserve existing sampling data and generate additional points. Delete existing sampling data and generate a new data set. Note: If the approximation you are editing used error analysis, an Error Analysis Data Set screen appears. The options are similar to the ones described here. 9. Click Finish once you have viewed the remaining wizard screens. A screen appears allowing you to initialize the approximation. 10. Perform one of the following: Click Yes to initialize the approximation. Continue to “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Click No if you want to save the approximation and wait until later to initialize. You are returned to the Approximations dialog box.

Using Approximations at Runtime
If you have created one or more approximations for a component, you can activate one of the approximations to specify that it be used at runtime by iSIGHT-FD. You can have multiple approximations defined for a component. However, only one of these approximations can be “active” at any one time. The active component is the one that is used during model execution. You can still edit, visualize, or analyze errors for any defined approximation at design time. Furthermore, changing from one active approximation to another does not delete the previously active approximation, it simply “turns it off” as far as model execution is concerned. You can easily change the active approximation that is currently being used during model execution using the Approximations dialog box.

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488 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations To switch the currently activate approximation model: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

A list of current approximations for the selected component is displayed. If an approximation is currently activated, a check mark appears in the Activated column on the left side of the dialog box. If no check marks appear, the approximations are all deactivated. 2. Click the check box in the Activated column that corresponds to the approximation you want to activate. If a different approximation was selected, it is automatically unselected. Note: You can also clear all of the check boxes in the Activated column to deactivate all of the defined approximations. In this case, iSIGHT-FD will not use any approximation at runtime and will execute the component. 3. Click Close to return to the Design Gateway. If you deactivated an approximation, notice that the approximation icon is now grayed-out. This change is your visual cue that the approximation will not be used during execution.

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Initializing an Approximation

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Initializing an Approximation
You can initialize your approximation immediately after creating it, or you can initialize it after it has been created. Approximations can also be initialized automatically at runtime when you submit a model for execution. To initialize an approximation using the wizard: 1. Access the approximation initialization screen. This step differs depending on whether or not you are creating a new approximation or editing an existing approximation: If you are creating a new approximation, the Initialization screen automatically appears at the end of the Approximation wizard screens (after you have configured all of the other options). Proceed to step 4. If you are accessing an existing approximation, proceed to step 2. 2. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

3. Verify that the approximation you want to initialize is selected (highlighted); then, click the Initialize... button.

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490 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The Approximation Initialization dialog box appears.

4. Review the information on the dialog box; then, click the Initialize Now... button to start the initialization process. If you click Close at this time you will be returned to the Approximations dialog box. The Initialization Status screen appears.

This screen not only displays the status of the initialization (using the bar at the top of the screen), but it also provides access to data points, error analysis points, log messages, and coefficients data. Data points are added to the table as soon as they

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are executed by iSIGHT-FD. Coefficient Data contents are displayed only after the initialization is complete. When initialization is complete, the screen appears as shown below.

5. Perform any of the following actions, as desired, once the initialization completes: Re-initialize the approximation. For more information, proceed to step 6. Click the Data Points tab to view the values for input and output parameters for each sample point. Click the Error Analysis Points tab to view the values for input and output parameters for each error analysis point. Click the Log Messages tab to view all log messages associated with the initialization. You can filter the log messages using the Log Filter drop-down list. For more information on the different log levels, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40. Click the Coefficients Data tab to view the resulting coefficients calculated from generating the approximation. Click the Save Data... button to save either your data points, error points, or coefficient data to a text file for viewing in another program. You can only save one set of points at a time. If you save the coefficient data, you can also use it when created another approximation. For more information, see “Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File,” on page 477. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

492 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations Click the Clear Data button (and confirm the operation by clicking Yes on the warning message that appears) to delete the current initialization data. Click the Error Analysis... button to access the Approximation Error Analysis dialog box. For more information on using this interface and accessing it separate from the Approximation Wizard, see “Analyzing Approximation Errors,” on page 520. Click the Visualize... button to access the Approximation Viewer dialog box. For more information on using this interface, and accessing it separate from the Approximation Wizard, see “Visualizing an Approximation,” on page 495. 6. (Re-initialization only) Click the Re-initialize button. The Re-Initialize Approximation dialog box appears.

This dialog box allows you to add or delete sampling points. 7. Select one of the following options: Preserve existing sampling data and generate additional random points using the same input sampling ranges. Enter the amount of additional random points in the corresponding text box. Delete existing sampling points and generate new random points after reducing the input sampling ranges. Enter the percentage that you want to reduce the input sampling by in the corresponding text box. Invoke Approximation Wizard to edit the configuration of the approximation.

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8. Click OK. If you chose one of the first two options above, the approximation is re-initialized. If you chose the third option, the Approximation Wizard appears. 9. Perform one of the following actions based on your selection in step 7: If you chose to re-initialize the approximation, return to step 5 on page 491 for more information on the available post-initialization options. For more information on editing the approximation using the wizard, see “Editing an Existing Approximation,” on page 485

Viewing Approximation Data After Initialization
Once you have defined an approximation and initialized it, you have the ability to quickly re-access the information that appears immediately following the initialization. This information includes data points, error analysis points, coefficient data, as well as additional options. Following successful initialization, the Initialize... button is replaced with a View Data... button, which gives you easy access to this information. To view approximation data: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

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494 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations Notice that the Initialize... button has been replaced with the View Data... button. If the Initialize... button is still present, then your approximation has not been initialized. For more information, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. 2. Click the View Data... button on the Approximations dialog box. The Approximation Initialization dialog box appears, showing you the approximation information.

3. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Click the Re-initialize button to re-initialize the approximation. Proceed to step 6 on page 492 for more information. Click the Data Points tab to view the values for input and output parameters for each sample point. Click the Error Analysis Points tab to view the values for input and output parameters for each error analysis point. Click the Log Messages tab to view all log messages associated with the initialization. You can filter the log messages using the Log Filter drop-down list. For more information on the different log levels, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40. Click the Coefficients Data tab to view the resulting coefficients calculated from generating the approximation.

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Click the Save Data... button to save either your data points, error points, or coefficient data to a text file for viewing in another program. You can only save one set of points at a time. If you save the coefficient data, you can also use it when created another approximation. For more information, see “Creating an Approximation Using a Coefficient File,” on page 477. Click the Clear Data button (and confirm the operation by clicking Yes on the warning message that appears) to delete the current initialization data. Note: If you use this option and then do not immediately re-initialize the approximation, the Initialize... button replaces the View Data... button when the Approximations dialog box is accessed. Click the Error Analysis... button to access the Approximation Error Analysis dialog box. For more information on using this interface and accessing it separate from the Approximation Wizard, see “Analyzing Approximation Errors,” on page 520. Click the Visualize... button to access the Approximation Viewer dialog box. For more information on using this interface, and accessing it separate from the Approximation Wizard, see “Visualizing an Approximation” on this page.

Visualizing an Approximation
The Visualization option allows you to interact with an initialized approximation model and observe, graphically, how changing the input values affects the output values and the shape of the output function. It also provides you with both a manual and automatic means to explore your design space using the approximation. Note: If the model is not initialized, the visualization interface cannot be accessed. You must first initialize the approximation to visualize it. For more information on this process, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. This section is divided into the following topics: “Accessing the Visualization Interface,” on page 496 “Exploring Your Design Space Manually,” on page 498 “Searching the Design Using Specified Criteria,” on page 513 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

496 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations “Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer,” on page 519 “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519

Accessing the Visualization Interface
To visualize an approximation using the Approximation dialog box: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Select the approximation you want to visualize from the list; then, click the Visualize... button. This button is only active if the selected approximation has been initialized. For more information, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Note: You can also access this interface from the Approximation Wizard after initialization by clicking the Visualize... button. For more information, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489.

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Visualizing an Approximation The Approximation Viewer dialog box appears.

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The Approximation Viewer is divided into two tabs: Graphs and Design Search. These tabs provide access to two distinct ways of exploring your design space using the approximation. 3. Proceed to one of the following sections, based on how you want to explore your design space: To manually view your design and change values (the Graphs tab), see “Exploring Your Design Space Manually,” on page 498. To automatically search the design using certain criteria (the Design Search tab), see “Searching the Design Using Specified Criteria,” on page 513.

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498 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations To set the original component’s parameter values based on those set in the Approximation Viewer, see “Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer,” on page 519. To compare output values, see “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519.

Exploring Your Design Space Manually
You can manually alter your approximation using the options on the Approximation Viewer’s Graphs tab. For more information on the Design Search tab, see “Searching the Design Using Specified Criteria,” on page 513. The Graphs tab is shown below.

This tab is divided into two panels: a panel on the left that presents the inputs and outputs of the approximation with their corresponding values, and a panel on the right

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that contains the graphs for visualizing the approximation. These panels are described in more detail below. The left side of the Approximation Viewer displays the following information (on the Slider View tab): Sliders for each approximation input parameter. You can move the slider bars to change the input values. Value bars showing approximation output values. These values change according to the input values you enter. Table View tab. This tab allows you to view input and output information in a table. Modify Range text box. You can change the input range (lower/upper limits) by typing a new number directly in this text box. The number represents a percentage modification from the original range for each input. Reset Range button. This button allows you to reset the input values and the input range to their original values. The right side of the Approximation Viewer displays the following information: A selected (main) graph in an enlarged form for easier interaction. Graph controls for working with the large graph to the left of the graph. These options change according to the type of graph selected (two-dimensional, three-dimensional, or effects). A set of drop-down lists to modify the parameters being displayed in the main graph. Thumbnail images of all graphs created at a given time in the Graph Palette area at the bottom of the right side of the interface. The selected graph has a border around it. For more information on using the Graphs tab, proceed to one of the following sections: “Adjusting Input and Output Values Using the Slider View,” on page 500 “Adjusting Input and Output Values Using the Table View,” on page 502 “Using the Approximation Graphs,” on page 504 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

500 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations “Creating New Graphs,” on page 507 “Customizing the Graph Palette,” on page 508 “Exporting a Graph,” on page 509 “Setting Graph Options,” on page 509 “Setting Viewer Preferences,” on page 512

Adjusting Input and Output Values Using the Slider View
The Slider View allows you to select and modify different input values by moving the input sliders to the left or to the right. The output value bars will change based on the input values changed using the sliders. At the same time, changing the input values will cause the main graph and thumbnail graphs on the right side of the interface to change. This view is recommended for beginner users who want to observe how the graph changes over a range of input values. To adjust input and output values using the Slider View: 1. Verify that the Slider View tab is selected from the bottom left corner of the Approximation Viewer.

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Visualizing an Approximation The interface appears as shown below.

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2. Change any input value to see the effects on the output values of the model using one of the following methods: Move the slider for the corresponding input. The value changes in the text box directly above the slider. By default, the sliders allow you to change the input value over the range of data that was used to construct the approximation. Change the input value directly in the text box that corresponds to the desired input. If you need to set a value outside of the range defined by the slider, you can type the value directly into the text box above the slider. 3. Observe how the output values on the value bars change. The actual values of the output parameters are displayed next to their names. When you change an input value (either using the slider or directly typing a value), the selected point on the graph corresponding to the value (highlighted blue point in 2-D graphs) also changes. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

502 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 4. (optional) Click the Set component parameters button to transfer the updated parameter values to their corresponding parameters in the iSIGHT-FD component for which the approximation was created. For more information, see “Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer,” on page 519. 5. (optional) Click the Compare with actual... button to see how the approximate design compares with the actual design. For more information, see “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519.

Adjusting Input and Output Values Using the Table View
The Table View allows you to modify the input values, which, in turn, changes the resulting output values and graphs. This option is recommended for experienced users who want to look at the graph created from specific input/output combinations. It allows you to enter different specific input points quickly and observe the behavior. You can also sort the table rows and easily find the largest and smallest output parameters for a given design point. To adjust input and output values using the Table View: 1. Verify that the Table View tab is selected from the bottom left corner of the Approximation Viewer.

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2. Change any input value by entering a new value directly in the Value column of the Inputs table. The output values will automatically change accordingly. The values in the Name, Min, and Max columns cannot be edited. 3. (optional) Sort the columns. You can sort the data by clicking any of the column headings. For example, clicking the Value heading will sort based on the value data. An arrow appears in the heading that you click. Clicking the arrow allows you to switch the sorting type between increasing and decreasing sorts.

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504 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 4. (optional) Click the Set component parameters button to transfer the updated parameter values to their corresponding parameters in the iSIGHT-FD component for which the approximation was created. For more information, see “Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer,” on page 519. 5. (optional) Click the Compare with actual... button to see how the approximate design compares with the actual design. For more information, see “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519.

Using the Approximation Graphs
You can create 2D, 3D, and Effects graphs for your approximation. The 2D and 3D graphs are created by evaluating the approximation at multiple points and show the behavior of the approximated output parameters with respect to the input parameters. You can observe the relative effects of the inputs on the outputs using the graphs. When an Effects graph is created, a DOE process is performed and the normalized effects are calculated from regression results. The DOE is performed within a local region of the approximation (+/-10% of the total range centered around the current selected point). The graph is only updated (a new DOE process executed) when a new design point is selected. Graphs are displayed on the right side of the Approximation Viewer providing a visual representation of your approximation. They can be viewed in a number of ways, can be altered by changing input values on the left side of the interface, and can be changed by selecting different parameter combinations to display and modifying various graph options. Note: Remember that the graphs are created using values from the approximation, not from actual values from executing the component. The actual behavior of the output parameters of the component will be different to some degree, depending on the errors of the approximation. To assess this difference, see “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519. When the Approximation Viewer dialog box is brought up for the first time, a few initial graphs are automatically created using the first two input parameters and the first output parameter. The main graph always shows one of the created graphs and the thumbnails at the bottom of the dialog show all available graphs, with the selected graph being the one that is shown in the main graph area.

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The drop-down lists under the main graph allow you to change the selected parameters for the displayed graph. You can create new graphs at any time and delete existing ones. To use the approximation graphs: 1. Specify the type of graph you want to display using the Graph Type drop-down list. The following options are available: 2-D. The graph represents a “slice” (cross-section) of the multidimensional surface of the selected output function. It is obtained by fixing all input values at their baseline values, and varying the selected input parameter across its entire range. 3-D. The graph is a three-dimensional view of the surface that shows the values of the output parameter depending on the values of any 2 input parameters. All input parameters except the selected two on the graph are held constant at their current values. Effects. The graph is similar to a DOE Pareto Plot, and shows the relative effects of each input on an output. 2. Select the input(s) and output you wish to view on the main graph using the Input and Output drop-down lists below the main graph area. The type and number of drop-down lists that appear is based on the type of graph selected. For example, if you select an Effects graph, only a single Output drop-down list appears. No input drop-down list is available. The main graph is automatically updated when you change the value of one of the inputs using the sliders. The vertical dashed line on the graph marks the current value of the input parameter in the X axis for 2D graphs. The range of all axes is set automatically based on the minimum and maximum values of the approximation inputs. 3. Use any of the following controls to manipulate the graph directly: Reset. This button resets the ranges of input parameters and returns the graph to its original configuration and appearance. . This button allows you to select a point on the graph and then view the values of input and output parameters by clicking on the graph. The coordinates of the selected point are displayed directly below the graph itself (the coordinates appear no matter what cursor mode you are using). Also, iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

506 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations when a point is selected, the input sliders and output value bars on the left side of the interface are updated. . This button allows you to zoom in on any area of a two-dimensional or three-dimensional chart. You can click and drag to select a specific area for the zoom action. This will zoom in on that zone or part of the graph which allows you to observe (concentrate or narrow down) on a certain zone. . This button allows you to pan a graph. Once selected, simply click the graph and move your mouse. The graph is moved in a similar manner. This functionality is only supported for two-dimensional graphs. . This button allows you to rotate a three-dimensional graph. Once selected, simply click a graph and move your mouse. The graph is rotated in a similar manner. By rotating the graph, X, Y, and Z rotation axes values also change. These values are displayed in the text boxes in the Rotation area. Rotation text boxes. These settings allow you to optimize the rotation by either entering values into the X, Y, and Z text boxes, or by clicking the buttons to increase or decrease the values of a particular axis. By changing these values (using either method described above), the graph rotates accordingly. Scale text box. Scaling allows you to limit the area of the graph to a smaller fraction of the total space defined by the minimum and maximum values of the inputs. 4. Click the Auto-fit z-axis check box to change the behavior of the graph when you scale the graph. When this option is selected, the Z-Axis range of the main graph will always match the range of the displayed data. If not selected, the graph’s Z-Axis is not modified when it is scaled. 5. Use the Axis drop-down lists below the main graph to change the current graph. For three-dimensional graphs, the input X-Axis value and the input Y-Axis values cannot be the same. Note: The Y-Axis for a three-dimensional graph displays input values whereas the Y-Axis for a two-dimensional graph displays output values.

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Visualizing an Approximation 6. Proceed to any of the following sections for more information on using the Approximation Viewer: “Creating New Graphs” on this page “Customizing the Graph Palette,” on page 508 “Exporting a Graph,” on page 509 “Setting Graph Options,” on page 509 “Setting Viewer Preferences,” on page 512

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7. Click OK when you are done viewing the approximation. You are returned to the Approximations dialog box.

Creating New Graphs
By default, two graphs are created by the Approximation Viewer. However, you can create as many additional graphs as you wish. To add a new graph: 1. Verify that the tab which will hold the new graph is selected on the Graph Palette. You can use an existing tab or create a new one. For more information, see “Customizing the Graph Palette,” on page 508. 2. Click the button on the right side of the Graph Palette. The Create Graphs dialog box appears.

3. Choose the type of graph you want to create (2D, 3D, or Effects) using the tabs near the top of the dialog box. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

508 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 4. Perform one of the following actions, based on the type of graph you are creating: 2D and 3D Graphs. Select the parameters that will represent each axis from the Axis lists. Selecting multiple parameters for a single axis will create multiple graphs. You can also click the Select All button to create a graph for each listed parameter. Effects Graph. Select the output parameter(s) that will be included on the graph. You can select multiple parameters. You can also click the Select All button to create multiple graphs simultaneously (one for each output selected). 5. Click OK. The graph is added to the selected tab in the Graph Palette.

Customizing the Graph Palette
The Graph Palette allows you to create new tabs, create graphs, move graphs to different tabs, and delete graphs. Remove a graph from a tab using one of the following methods: Select the thumbnail image; then, click the button.

Right-click on the graph; then, select Remove from the menu that appears. Move a graph to another tab: Right-click the graph you want to move and select the Move to option; then, select the new tab for the graph from the list that appears. The graph is moved to the selected tab. Copy a graph to another tab: Right-click the graph you want to copy and select the Copy to option; then, select the new tab for the graph from the list that appears. The graph is copied to the selected tab. Create a new tab to hold graphs. Click the <New> tab. A tab is automatically inserted to the left of the <New> tab. The new tab is named automatically and cannot be changed.

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Exporting a Graph
You can use graphs created in iSIGHT-FD in another application using the exporting and copy functions. To exporting or copy a graph: 1. Right-click the main graph. 2. Select one of the following options from the menu that appears: Export / Export to Image. This option exports the graph to an image file (*.jpeg, *.jpg, *.png). You will be prompted to select the file to which you want the graph exported. Export / Export to Text File. This option exports the graph data file to a text file (*.txt). You will be prompted to select the text file to which you want the graph data to be exported. Export/ Export to Excel. (Windows platforms only) This option exports the graph image and data to an Excel file. Copy / Copy Image. This option copies the graph image to the system clipboard. Once copied, you can paste the graph in another document or imaging software by right-clicking and selecting Paste from the menu that appears. Copy / Copy Data. This option copies the data in the graph to the system clipboard. Once copied, you can paste the data in another software application by right-clicking and selecting Paste from the menu that appears.

Setting Graph Options
There are several options available to change the look of a graph. To specify graph appearance options: 1. Right-click on the main graph; then, select Options from the menu that appears. The Graph Options dialog box appears.

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510 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations 2. Perform one of the following actions: If you are working with a three-dimensional graph, proceed to “Setting Three-Dimensional Graph Options” on this page. If you are working with a two-dimensional graph, proceed to “Setting Two-Dimensional Graph Options,” on page 511.

Setting Three-Dimensional Graph Options
If you are working with a three-dimensional graph, the following dialog box appears.

Set the following options, as desired: The Chart Surface tab allows you to specify different combinations of options. Select different combinations until you find one that best suits your needs. The Chart Projection tab allows you to set Contoured and Zoned options for the floor and ceiling of the graph. The Axes tab allows you to set options for the axis (X, Y, Z) currently selected from the list on the left side of the tab. The Legend tab allows you to show the legend for the graph. If selected, the legend appears to the right of the graph.

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Setting Two-Dimensional Graph Options
If you’re working with a two-dimensional graph, the following dialog box appears:

Set the following options, as desired: The Data Series tab allows you to change the default settings for the shape, size, and color of the graph ticks. The following options are available: Symbol Shape. Changes all of the ticks on the graph. The default is a circle. Symbol Color. Changes all the colors of the ticks on the graph. The default is red. Shape Size. Changes the size of the ticks. The default is 5 pixels. Highlight Symbol Shape. Changes the highlighted symbol shape. The default is a circle. Highlight Shape Color. Changes the highlighted symbol shape color. The default is blue. Highlight Shape Size. Changes the size of the highlighted shape. The default is 5 pixels. Line Width. Changes the line width. The default is 1 pixel. Line Color. Changes the line color. The default is red. The Axes tab allows you to set options for the axis (X, Y) currently selected from the list on the left side of the tab. There are no XY and XZ gridlines for two-dimensional graphs.

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Setting Viewer Preferences
The Approximation Viewer preferences allow you to change certain graph preferences such as default input/output displays, default graph resolution for three-dimensional/ two-dimensional graphs, default graph dimensions, and three-dimensional graph default settings. Changing these preferences automatically changes the settings the next time you open the Approximation Viewer. By using these preference options, you won’t have to manually change the settings every time you open the interface. For example, if you only want to use the Table View, then setting this option as the default will cause the interface to open in with the Table View tab selected each time it is opened. To set Approximation Viewer preferences: 1. Click the button on the right side of the Graph Palette. The Global Preferences dialog box appears.

2. You can change the following preference settings, as desired: Use the Default input/output display drop-down list to determine if the Slider View tab or Table View tab will be selected when the Approximation Viewer is opened. Use the Default graph dimensions drop-down list to determine if a two-dimensional or three-dimensional graph will be displayed when the Approximation Viewer is opened. Set the Graph resolution (2D) options. The default for the large two-dimensional graph resolution is 50. Similarly, you can change the thumbnail image (Small) resolution. Important: Increasing the resolution may slow down performance. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Visualizing an Approximation Set the Graph resolution (3D) options. The default for the large three-dimensional graph resolution is 20. Similarly, you can change the thumbnail image (Small) resolution. Important: Increasing the resolution may slow down performance.

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Three-dimensional graph default options. This set of options allows you to choose mesh surface and/or contours as well as the contour levels. 3. Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog box.

Searching the Design Using Specified Criteria
A new “search” capability has been added that assists you in finding a design meeting specified criteria. You set these criteria using the Design Search tab on the Approximation Viewer. If you wish to examine your design by manually changing parameter values, see “Exploring Your Design Space Manually,” on page 498 for details. For more information on this feature, see one of the following sections: “Setting Your Criteria and Searching the Design” on this page “Setting the Design Search Options,” on page 517

Setting Your Criteria and Searching the Design
You can search your design for certain criteria. The Approximation Viewer allows you to determine which objectives and constraints to use in the search, as well as settings for these parameters that should be used. To automatically search your design: 1. Access the Approximation Viewer as described in “Accessing the Visualization Interface,” on page 496. 2. Click the Design Search tab.

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514 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The contents of the tab appear.

3. Select objectives or constraints for your design search using the tabs at the top of the interface. Once selected, you can manually set the following information for your design search: Objectives:

• Direction. You can set whether you want to maximize or minimize the
selected objective. Constraints:

• Lower Bound. This setting is represented by a red line in the graphs at the
bottom of the interface.

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• Upper Bound. This setting is represented by a red line in the graphs at the
bottom of the interface.

• Target. This setting is represented by a green line in the graphs at the
bottom of the interface. By default, all of the design variables are selected. However, you can alter this setting using the Design Variables tab. The initial settings are based on the range displayed on the Graphs tab (the initial tab displayed when the Approximation Viewer is opened). Any changes made using the Design Variables tab are transferred to the Graphs tab. 4. (optional) Set the search options as described in “Setting the Design Search Options,” on page 517. These options allow you to set the Optimization technique (and options) for the search as well as graph update options. Note: When approximations are created on Optimization components, the Optimization technique and options defined within the Optimization component are used for the design search. Otherwise, a default optimization plan is created. 5. Click the Search button.

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516 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The search is performed, and the interface is updated to show the results of the search.

6. Once the search is complete, perform any of the following options, as desired: Update the constraints and objectives criteria to refine your search. Rearrange the graphs at the bottom of the interface to focus on a particular input or output. You can move a particular graph by clicking it and using the buttons. Click any point in a graph to view the corresponding point in all of the other graphs. Manually update the value of any design variable and add it to the existing graphs by changing the setting in the Value column on the Design Variables tab; then, click the Add point button. The new point you defined is added to

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the graphs. You can also change the values for the Design Variables using the sliders on the Graphs tab. This feature is useful if you want to examine how a specific known set of input values effects the objectives and constraints. Note: To clear all points from the graph and return the graphs to their original form, click the button.

If you’ve updated any of the search criteria, re-execute the search using the Search button. Click the Set component parameters button to transfer the updated parameter values to their corresponding parameters in the model. For more information, see “Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer,” on page 519. Click the Compare with actual... button to see how the approximate design compares with the actual design. For more information, see “Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs,” on page 519.

Setting the Design Search Options
You can specify optimization and graph options when using the design search feature. To set the design search options: 1. Click the Options... button on the right side of the interface.

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518 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The Options dialog box appears, showing the Technique tab.

2. Select the optimization technique that will be used for the design search from the Technique drop-down list; then, set the technique’s tuning parameters. For more information on selecting optimization techniques and setting their tuning parameters, see “Configuring the Optimization Component,” on page 174. Note: When approximations are created on Optimization components, the Optimization technique and options defined within the Optimization component are used for the design search by default (this setting can be modified). For all other components, a default optimization plan is created. 3. Click the General tab; then, set the Update design space graphs during optimization option on the General tab. If this option is selected, all graphs on the Graphs tab are updated at each new point during the design search (optimization). Using this option slows the process down, but can be very useful in tracking the path of the search through the design space as opposed to just viewing the history of values (i.e., the graphs shown on the Design Search tab). 4. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the Approximation Viewer.

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Setting Component Input Values from the Approximation Viewer
The Approximation Viewer now provides a way to take the current set of input values and set them as the values for the input parameters of the component that the approximation represents. To set the component input values: 1. Click the Set component parameters button at the bottom of the Approximation Viewer. The Set Parameters dialog box appears, informing you that the component parameter (input) values have been updated. 2. Click OK. You can verify that the values for the component that the approximation represents have been modified using the Parameters tab on the Design Gateway.

Comparing Actual and Approximation Outputs
The Approximation Viewer can take the current set of inputs values and run the exact analysis that the approximation represents. This feature allows you to see a comparison of output values in order to check for accuracy. To compare outputs: 1. Click the Compare with actual... button.

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520 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations After executing the actual analysis (which may take some time), the Approximate vs. Actual dialog box appears.

2. View the data and verify the accuracy of the output values. 3. (optional) Sort the data by clicking either the Approximate or Actual column headers. 4. Click Close to return to the Approximation Viewer.

Analyzing Approximation Errors
The iSIGHT-FD approximation error analysis dialog box provides a visual representation of the quality of an approximation model for each response. The total error is calculated for each response using one of four different approaches (average error, maximum error, root mean square error, R2), and is presented visually for each response using four different visuals: Actual vs. predicted fit Residual scatter Residual frequency Total Error bar chart

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The error is calculated based on a number of sample points specifically allocated for error analysis. These points are defined in the Approximation Wizard. For more information, see “Creating an Automatic Approximation,” on page 458 or “Creating a User-Defined Approximation,” on page 462, depending on how you created your approximation. The approximation error types, visuals, and use of the dialog box are discussed in this section. To analyze approximations using the wizard: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Select the approximation that you want to analyze; then, click the Error... button. This button is only active if the selected approximation has been initialized. For more information, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489. Note: You can also access this interface from the Approximation Wizard after initialization by clicking the Error Analysis... button. For more information, see “Initializing an Approximation,” on page 489.

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522 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations The Approximation Error Analysis dialog box appears.

The Approximation Error Analysis dialog box displays the following information: A table of error values for each output parameter, with a drop-down list of error types, and an entry box for setting the acceptable level of error for the selected error type. Outputs with errors exceeding the acceptable level are highlighted in red. A tabbed notebook panel with graphical representation of error information for one or more output parameters (responses). Note: Changing the selected error type or acceptance level on the left side of the dialog box does not change the information displayed on the right side of the dialog box, except for possibly highlighting the graphs of those responses that violate the acceptance level. 3. Select the desired error type from the Error Type drop-down list. Error analysis types are implemented as “plug-ins”. As such, they are extendable by creating new plug-ins for new error analysis techniques. For more information on creating plug-ins, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide.

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The error analysis plug-ins currently available in iSIGHT-FD are the following: Average. The differences between the actual (workflow execution) and predicted (approximation model execution) values for all errors samples are averaged and then normalized by the range of the actual values for each response. The value is thus a fraction of the response data range for the error sample points. Normalizing the error value allows the error level of different responses with different magnitudes to be compared with respect to approximation model quality of predictions. Maximum. The maximum difference between the actual (workflow execution) and predicted (approximation model execution) values for all error samples is taken for this error type, and normalized by the range of the actual values for each response The value is thus a fraction of the response data range for the error sample points. Normalizing the error value allows the error level of different responses with different magnitudes to be compared with respect to approximation model quality of predictions. Root Mean Square. The squared differences between the actual (workflow execution) and predicted (approximation model execution) values for all errors samples are averaged. The square root is then taken and the result is normalized by the range of the actual values for each response. The value is thus a fraction of the response data range for the error sample points. Normalizing the error value allows the error level of different responses with different magnitudes to be compared with respect to approximation model quality of predictions. R-Squared. The coefficient of determination is calculated based on the error samples. The coefficient of determination always ranges between 0 and 1, where 1 represents a perfect fit (or no prediction error). 4. Specify the acceptance level for the selected error type in the Acceptance Level text box. The acceptance level defines the cutoff value for the selected error type that distinguishes a response with acceptable fit (acceptable approximation quality) versus a response with unacceptable fit (unacceptable approximation quality). For the Average, Maximum, and Root Mean Square error types, low values are desired, and so the Acceptance Level is an upper limit; reported error values greater than the acceptance level will be flagged in red in the table of response and in the plots as unacceptable approximation quality. The default Acceptance Level is 0.2 for Average and Root Mean Square, and 0.3 for Maximum.

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524 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations For R-Squared, high values are desired, and so the Acceptance Level is a lower limit; reported error values less than the acceptance level will be flagged in red in the table of response and in the plots as unacceptable approximation quality. The default Acceptance Level for R-Squared is 0.9. 5. Verify that the Response Fit tab is selected on the right side of the interface. The response fit plots present actual versus predicted response values for each response. The diagonal line represents a perfect fit (predicted = actual). If all points fall on or close to the diagonal line, the approximation model predicts well based on the error points. If the plot background is colored red, the response error is unacceptable based on the defined acceptance level. The blue horizontal line mean response value determined using the actual error sample data. 6. Perform any of the following actions to view individual plot information: To view one response fit plot in greater detail, select the response from the drop-down list that appears when the Show button above the plots is selected. To return to all response plots, select All Responses from Show drop-down list. Double-click a response plot to enlarge that single plot, and double-click again to return to all response plots. 7. Click the Residual tab.

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Analyzing Approximation Errors Additional plots appear.

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8. Review the residual plots for each response. The residual plots present the difference between the actual and predicted values for all error sample points for each response. The horizontal blue line at 0 represents 0 residual or 0 prediction error (predicted = actual). These plots can be used to identify outliers (points significantly further from the blue 0 residual line) or trends in the residuals (ideally residuals should be random, not increasing or decreasing or following a discernible shape with increasing response values). 9. Perform any of the following actions to view individual plot information: To view one response residual plot in greater detail, select the response from the drop-down list that appears when the Show button above the plots is selected. To return to all response plots, select All Responses from Show drop-down list. Double-click a response plot to enlarge that single plot, and double-click again to return to all response plots. 10. Click the Residual Frequency tab.

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526 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations Additional plots appear.

11. Review the residual frequency plots for each response. The residual frequency plots present the residuals (the difference between the actual and predicted values for all error sample points for each response) as a frequency of occurrence, from 0 to the maximum residual. These plots allow the distribution of the residuals to be reviewed (are more of the residuals close to 0 or closer to the maximum residual, constant across the range of residuals or is there a peak, etc.). 12. Perform any of the following actions to view individual plot information: To view one response residual frequency plot in greater detail, select the response from the drop-down list that appears when the Show button above the plots is selected. To return to all response plots, select All Responses from Show drop-down list. Double-click a response plot to enlarge that single plot, and double-click again to return to all response plots. 13. Click the Total Error tab.

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Analyzing Approximation Errors Some bar charts appear.

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14. Review the total error bar charts. The last plot tab on the Approximation Error Analysis dialog box displays the total error for all responses in the form of a bar chart. The data in the top graph is the same as the data presented numerically in the response table to the left. The second bar chart (bottom) displays the standard deviation of the errors (standard deviation of the differences between the actual and predicted values) for all error sample points. This plot gives an indication of the spread of the error across the sample range for each response. The results presented in the Approximation Error Analysis dialog box - the numerical error values from the error plug-ins and the visual representations of the approximation error - are used to review the approximation prediction capabilities and access the usability of the approximation model as a surrogate for the component(s) for which it approximates.

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528 Chapter 6 Creating and Using Approximations If the approximation quality is deemed unacceptable for one or more responses, a new approximation can be created using the following suggestions: Higher order RSM, or change to RBF approximation model type. The design space may be more nonlinear than the selected approximation model type. Increased number of sample points. A highly nonlinear design space may require a larger number of points than the default or previously selected number of sampling points to approximate the space accurately. Decreased range of inputs. A highly nonlinear and high dimensional space may be very difficult to approximate over a large range (or may require an impractical number of sample points). Reducing the sample range can improve the ability to approximate the space with sufficient accuracy. 15. Click Close to exit the interface.

Copying an Approximation
After you have created an approximation, you can create a copy of it. The copy is a replica of the original approximation. To copy an approximation: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Verify that the approximation you want to copy is selected (highlighted); then, click the Copy button. A new approximation is created with “Copy” added to the end of the approximation’s name.

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Deleting an Approximation
If you no longer have need for an approximation that is attached to a component, you can permanently remove it from iSIGHT-FD. Note: If you want to disable an approximation and prevent it from executing at runtime, you can simply deactivate that approximation. For more information on this option, see “Using Approximations at Runtime,” on page 487. To delete an approximation using the wizard: 1. Select a component as described in “Accessing Approximations of a Component,” on page 457. The Approximations dialog box appears.

2. Verify that the approximation you want to delete is selected (highlighted); then, click the Delete button. The name of the approximation (as it appears in the list) is defined when the approximation is created. A warning message appears. 3. Click OK. The approximation is deleted, and is no longer accessible from the Approximations dialog box.

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7

Using the Library and Publishing Models
This chapter describes how to use the Library to store and retrieve models and components. It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 532 “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533 “Moving Objects to the Design Gateway (Drag-and-Drop),” on page 535 “Using the Search Options,” on page 537 “Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions,” on page 539 “Retrieving Items From a Library,” on page 550 “Using Encapsulation to Build a Model,” on page 550 “Removing an Object From the Library,” on page 550 “Published Models and the FIPER WebTop,” on page 551

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Overview
The Library is a repository for a set of iSIGHT-FD tool definitions used within a given iSIGHT-FD installation, including, but not limited to, models, components, and other plug-in information. This section provides a brief overview of the different parts of the Library dialog box.

Query Methods
iSIGHT-FD Libraries support several content query methods. The most basic is the fetch, which retrieves one published item by full and exact name (either a specified version or the latest version). When connected to the FIPER environment, iSIGHT-FD Libraries support multiple versions of a published item. When an item is published under a given name, and an item of the same type already exists under that name, a fresh version number is assigned to the new item (publication is disallowed if the item is of a different type). Conversely, any specified version of a given item may be removed from the Library (if not already removed). When a published item is fetched from a Library, the most recent version of that item will be retrieved. Versioning is not supported when iSIGHT-FD is run in Standalone mode.

Organization Within the Library
Items in the Library are organized according to an hierarchical naming scheme. Each published item is given a distinct name whose lexical structure is based on the Java “package” naming scheme (a sequence of sub-names separated by periods). There are two types of tool definitions in the Library: Model. A hierarchical organization of configured tool instances assembled to represent and perform a specific computation. Metamodel. An implementation of a specific type of iSIGHT-FD tool from which users may create as many instances as necessary. The Library’s basic tool set consists entirely of metamodels divided into four main categories: Components. These implement specific types of computation. They are further subdivided into activity components (e.g., Calculator and Excel), which iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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are self-contained, and process components (e.g., Task and DOE), which may contain and drive other components. Data types. These hold distinct classes of iSIGHT-FD parameter values and maintain the internal consistency of those values according to class. The basic tool set at minimum supports numeric, logical, and textual values. Plug-ins. Some specific types of computation can be viewed as members of a category, with both fixed and variable parts. In iSIGHT-FD, components implement the fixed parts and plug-ins implement the variable parts. A typical example is Optimization, where each technique implementation is a separate plug-in. Visual tools. These implement the layout procedures of the various schemes provided by iSIGHT-FD to present runtime data to the user in graphical or tabular formats.

Using the Library Interface
This section provides you with a general overview of the Library interface itself, including the information displayed and the options available. To use the Library interface: 1. Open the Library using one of the following methods: Select Library from the View menu. Click the Library button on the Design Gateway toolbar.

Click the Add... button on the right side of the Component Palette.

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534 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models The Library dialog box appears. Your Library’s appearance will most likely differ slightly from the one shown below, specifically the directory structure.

2. Perform any of the following options: Navigate through the directory structure on the left side of the dialog box to find stored items and information. Click the Save button to save the selected item to a local file.

Click the Publish button to select a local file (*.zmf) and publish it to the Library. You can also load the file into the Design Gateway; then, select Publish... from the File menu. Click the Refresh button to update the items displayed in the Library.

Click the Add button to add the selected component to the Design Gateway’s Component Palette. You can also drag and drop the component from the Library to a Design Gateway tab. For more information on adding components to your Component Palette, see “Adding Components to the Design Gateway,” on page 33. Click the Delete button your Library. to permanently delete the selected component from

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(FIPER ACS environments only) Click the Fetch button to get the selected item from the current ACS and republish it to the local Library. This action allows you to access the items in desktop (Standalone) mode from the local Library. Click the View Details button to open the View Details dialog box. This dialog box contains information about the selected item, including general details, a description, and attribute and reference details. 3. (FIPER ACS environments only) Set permissions for an object in the Library. These permissions allow you to determine which users or groups have access to the object. For more information, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. 4. Click Done to close the Library dialog box. For additional information on using the Library dialog box, with regard to publishing models, see “Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions,” on page 539.

Moving Objects to the Design Gateway (Drag-and-Drop)
Although it is possible to move objects (models and components) to the Design Gateway using the Add button (as described in “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533) or the Open from Library... option on the Design Gateway File menu (as described in “Opening a Model From a Library,” on page 54), you can also drag-and-drop items onto both the Component Palette and into the model workflow itself. To move items from the Library using the drag-and-drop feature: 1. Open the Library as described in “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533. 2. Locate the item you want to add to the Design Gateway. 3. Click the item; then, while holding down your mouse button, drag the selected item to the proper location on the Design Gateway (the Component Palette or the workflow).

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536 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models 4. Release your mouse button when you come to the desired location. The Reference or Copy? dialog box appears if you are adding the selected item to your workflow.

5. (Workflow drag-and-drop only) Choose one of the following options: Copy. This option creates a new object on the Design Gateway that is completely separate from the original object in the Library. Reference. This option creates a new object on the Design Gateway that references the original object in the Library. Any changes to the object in either the Library or on the Design Gateway are automatically reflected in other objects. For more information on the difference between copying and referencing in iSIGHT-FD, see “Copying Model Information,” on page 86. 6. (Workflow drag-and-drop only) Click OK. The item is added to the model workflow.

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Using the Search Options
To use the Library Search tab: 1. Click the Search tab to search the Library for a specific model.

Set the search criteria in the Search the Library for area on the left side of the interface, as desired. 2. (FIPER ACS environments only) Click the Advanced Search button to expand your search options.

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538 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models The Search Attribute options appear.

3. Specify the Search Attribute options. 4. When your search options are set, click the Search button to execute the search. In the following example, a search on the keyword “beam” has returned the I-Beam Example model.

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Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions 539 5. (optional) Click the Keep Results check box at the bottom of the Library to save the search results to the Library. 6. (optional) Click the View Details button to view the details of the search result. The Version Details dialog box appears.

Note: You can remove an attribute by highlighting it and then clicking the button. 7. Click OK to close the Version Details dialog box. 8. (FIPER ACS environments only) Click the Edit Permissions button to set permissions for the selected Library object. For more information, see “Setting Permissions for Specific Objects,” on page 549. 9. Click Done to close the Library dialog box.

Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions
The act of publishing allows models or components to be accessed by any user who has access to the Library to which the model or component is published. When published, you can define which users have access to the objects.

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540 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models Proceed to one of the following sections: “Publishing a Model” on this page “Publishing a Sub-Model (Component),” on page 544 “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545

Publishing a Model
Models can be published to your Library and then accessed at a later time. The Library acts as a storage area for your models. Note: If you are connected to the FIPER environment, you have access to the ACS Library. This type of Library is accessible to anyone who can connect to the ACS, so it also acts as a mechanism for sharing models. Also, you can get access permission when using an ACS Library. For more information, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. To publish a model to a Library: 1. Verify that the model you want to publish is loaded and selected (using the Model Selector) in the Design Gateway. 2. Select Publish... from the Design Gateway File menu. The Publish dialog box appears.

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Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions 541 By default, models are published at the top level of the Library. However, you can specify a different location in the Library. 3. Perform one of the following options: To specify an existing location in your Library, proceed to step 4. To create a new location in your Library, proceed to step 8. 4. Type the name of the model in the Name text box. This setting specifies how the model name will appear in the Library. It can be different from the name specified in the model properties. However, when the model is reloaded into the Design Gateway, the published model name will be used in the model properties. 5. Click the Publish As... button to specify where you want the model published inside of the Library. The Publish Model As dialog box appears.

6. Use the directory structure on the left side of the dialog box to pick the location for your model; then, click OK.

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542 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models You are returned to the Publish dialog box.

7. Proceed to step 10. 8. Type the name of the model in the Name text box. This setting specifies how the model name will appear in the Library. It can be different from the name specified in the model properties. However, when the model is reloaded into the Design Gateway, the published model name will be used in the model properties. 9. Type the new location for the published file directly in the Name text box before the model name itself. For example, if you want to create a new top-level directory called "models", and name your model "example_model", you would type the following in the Name text box:
models.example_model

Note: You can view your current model structure by clicking the Publish As... button.

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Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions 543 Your Publish dialog box should look similar to the example shown below.

10. (optional) Specify attributes for the model by typing them directly into the corresponding columns in the Attributes area. This information is viewable to all connected users via the View Details button on the Library dialog box. For more information on the Library dialog box, see “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533. 11. (optional) Alter the description of the model in the corresponding text box. 12. (FIPER ACS environments only) (optional) Set the Share this model with other FIPER environments option. When selected, the model will be available to any partner who can access the ACS Library using a B2B connection. For more information on this type of environment, refer to the FIPER Federation (B2B) Guide. 13. (FIPER ACS environments only) (optional) If a previous version of this same model has already been published to the Library and that version is specified to be shared with other FIPER environments (the setting in step 12), you can simply use the same sharing information by selecting the Use environments from latest published versions (if any) option. 14. (FIPER ACS environments only) (optional) Specify the remote FIPER ACS’s and users who can access the model using the ACS Name and User(s) columns. Simply type the necessary information directly into the text boxes in the columns. 15. (FIPER ACS environments only) Click Edit Permissions. The Permissions dialog box for newly-created objects appears. For more information on setting user permissions, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

544 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models 16. Click Publish. The file is stored in the Library, based on your current connection (local or FIPER ACS). You can check the Library to verify that the component was correctly published. 17. Select Library from the Design Gateway View menu, or click the Library button on the Design Gateway toolbar. 18. Navigate to the location you specified earlier in this procedure, and notice that model has been placed within this directory. In the following example, the model has been placed in a new directory called "models".

19. Click Done to close the Library dialog box.

Publishing a Sub-Model (Component)
You may also publish particular components that make up a model. These components, when published, are referred to as submodels since they are saved in the Library as a new model. If the submodel contains any additional components (components in the subhierarchy rooted at that submodel), these components are published along with the main component.

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Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions 545 To publish a submodel (component): 1. Right-click the component you want to publish; then, choose Publish from the menu that appears. The Publish dialog box appears.

Notice that the Type defined by the dialog box is Model, even though you are publishing a component. Remember, components are published as separate models (or submodels). The rest of the publishing process is the same as the process for publishing models. 2. Proceed to step 3 under “Publishing a Model,” on page 540.

Setting Object Permissions
If you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment, you can set access permissions to the objects that are stored in the ACS Library. You can set default permissions, which are applied to each object automatically. You can also set permissions on an object-by-object basis. For more information, see one of the following sections: “Setting Default Object Permissions,” on page 546 “Setting Permissions for Specific Objects,” on page 549

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Setting Default Object Permissions
You can set default permissions, which are used whenever an object (model or components) is published, and helps eliminate the need to manually set permissions every time you publish an object. The interface described in the following procedure can be used to set default permission for both objects and jobs. For more information on using jobs, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Note: You can set default options for most objects, but then set different options for specific objects. For more information, see “Setting Permissions for Specific Objects,” on page 549. To set default object permissions: 1. Access the iSIGHT-FD Preferences dialog box as described in “Setting Preferences,” on page 40. 2. Click the Default Permissions option on the left side of the dialog box. The permissions options appear.

The list on the top half of the right side of the dialog box is used to define default permissions. The bottom section is used for job permissions. For more information on job permissions, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Now you need to add users to the list and set their permissions.

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Publishing Objects and Setting Permissions 547 3. Click the Add button to create a new permission. A cursor appears in the Managed Name column. Note: You cannot edit an existing permission setting. Instead, you need to delete it and recreate it. 4. Enter the user name or group name whose permissions you are setting in the Managed Name column. You’ll specify whether the name represents a user or a group in step 6. 5. Click the Permission field; then, select the type of permission from the drop-down list that appears. The following options are available: ALTER. The user or group has full access to the object, including the ability to edit the object’s permissions. The object can be fetched (copied to a local Library), new versions of the object can be published to the Library, and any version of the object can be deleted from the Library. MODIFY. The user or group has all of the accessibility granted with the ALTER option, with the exception of editing the object’s permissions. READ. The user or group can only use the object in their local Design Gateway. Although the model and its contents (components, workflows, parameters, etc.) can be viewed and altered, and the model itself can be executed, no new versions of the model can be published to the Library. REFERENCE. This option provides an extra level of security for published models. Typically, when using a published model, you have access to each of the published model’s contents (components, workflows, parameters, etc.). However, if this level of permission is set for a user who incorporates a published model into his or her model, all of the contents of the model are hidden from view. For more information on referencing models, see “Using Referenced Models,” on page 101. NONE. The user or group will have no access to the published object. Also, any model that references this object cannot be used.

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548 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models 6. Click the Represents field; then, select if the name specified in the Managed Name column represents an individual user or a predefined group. The following options are available: USER. This option allows you to specify a particular user name for the permission you are defining. The user name should be specified in added to the Managed Name column as described in step 4. FIPER GROUP. This option allows you to specify a group of users to share the permission you are defining, instead of creating a permission for each user. The group name should be specified in added to the Managed Name column as described in step 4. 7. Set object permissions for all other users (except for those explicitly defined) by clicking the All other users button. The options available are the same as those described in step 5 above. You can also specify that there is no default option for other users. 8. Repeat step 3 through step 7 for any additional user permissions you want to define. 9. (optional) Arrange the listed users, as desired. You can use the Up or Down buttons to move a user up or down in the list. The selected user’s settings move up or down one line. The order of your list is important since a user name may appear in one or more groups (the FIPER Group option) as well as by itself. Therefore, it is possible for a user to be assigned more than one permission for the same object. When this multiple permission issue occurs, iSIGHT-FD uses the permission closest to the top of the list to determine the user’s actual permission for the object. You can also use the Delete button to remove a user from the list. Note: You can repeat these steps to set default permissions for jobs stored in a FIPER ACS database. For more information on jobs, the jobs database, and setting options for a specific job, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. 10. Click OK to save your changes.

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Setting Permissions for Specific Objects
You can set access permission for particular objects stored in an ACS Library using the Library interface. Note: If all of your object permissions will be the same for every object, you can set the object permission defaults prior to publishing. Using this method, all of your objects will have the correct permissions as soon as they are published. For more information, see “Setting Default Object Permissions,” on page 546. To set permissions for an object: 1. Perform one of the following options: For models currently being published: Access the Publish dialog box as described in “Publishing a Model,” on page 540 or “Publishing a Sub-Model (Component),” on page 544. For models that have already been published. Access the Library dialog box and locate the model as described in “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533. 2. Click the Edit Permissions button. The Edit Permissions for Publication dialog box appears. Note: If you are accessing permissions directly from the Library, the dialog box that appears is the Object Access Control List dialog box.

This dialog box is a copy of the one accessed using the Preferences dialog box, except that the options for setting permissions for published objects have been removed. For more information, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40.

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550 Chapter 7 Using the Library and Publishing Models 3. Proceed to step 3 on page 547 for details on the permission options that are available and how to set them. 4. Click OK. Your permission settings are saved and you are returned to the Library interface.

Retrieving Items From a Library
Objects (models and components) that have been stored in the Library can be retrieved at any time and opened in the Design Gateway. For more information on this process, see “Opening a Model From a Library,” on page 54.

Using Encapsulation to Build a Model
If you insert a component from a Library into your Design Gateway interface (as described in “Retrieving Items From a Library,” on page 550), you may need to use the encapsulation feature to build a new model around the component. For more information, see “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82.

Removing an Object From the Library
You can permanently remove an object (model or component) from the Library. If you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment, you need to have the proper permissions for an object in order to delete it. For more information, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545.

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Published Models and the FIPER WebTop To permanently remove an object from a Library: 1. Open the Library using one of the following methods: Select Library from the View menu. Click the Library button .

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Click the Add... button on the right side of the Component Palette. 2. Locate the model you wish to remove; then, verify that the proper version of the model is selected. You can view all versions by clicking the symbol next to the initial model entry in the Library. Important: If you only wish to delete a particular version of a model, make sure only the version is selected, not the main entry. If the main entry of a model is deleted, all versions are also deleted. 3. Click the Delete button ; then, click Yes to verify the deletion. The specified model or version of the model is removed from the Library. Warning: Use caution when completely removing published items from a Library, especially from a shared Library. Any model that has been constructed using an item will become unusable once that item has been removed. Removing individual versions of a published item is safer, but not entirely free of risk.

Published Models and the FIPER WebTop
Publishing models to a Library is essential when using a FIPER interface - the WebTop. When connected to the FIPER environment, the WebTop allows access to iSIGHT-FD models with minimal software configuration, and is performed using a web browser. Models must be published before they can be accessed by users via the WebTop. For more information on using the FIPER WebTop, refer to the FIPER WebTop Guide.

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8

Using Model Validation and the Log File
This chapter describes how iSIGHT-FD model validation works, and the options that are available with this tool. It also describes how to access and view the log file. It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 554 “Activating the Option,” on page 554 “Using the Message Bar,” on page 555 “Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons,” on page 557 “Viewing Multiple Messages,” on page 557 “Accessing the Log File,” on page 558

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Overview
iSIGHT-FD has a built-in validation framework to perform the following tasks: Ensure that the model you develop is valid. Advise and warn you of aspects of your model that do not follow standard conventions. Provide the components a way to validate user input. Automatically navigate to the source of error and fix it.

Activating the Option
This option can be either enabled or disabled based on your preference. Click the Model Validation Switch to toggle between the two options. This switch is located in the bottom left corner of the Design Gateway. When enabled, model validation constantly scans the current model for errors while it is being developed on the Design Gateway. Model validation can be turned off to enhance performance. However, in most cases, the feature has little to no effect on the Design Gateway. There are rare cases where validation can slow performance, and the feature can be deactivated if such a case arises. Important: This deactivation only affects work on the Design Gateway prior to execution. Validation is still performed on the model immediately prior to execution, and the model is not executed if any error messages are discovered.

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Using the Message Bar
When model validation is activated, any errors in your model are displayed in the Message Bar at the bottom of the Design Gateway. In the following example, a DOE and Script component have been added to a default model. The DOE Component has no factors defined, and a warning to this effect is displayed on the Message Bar.

However, notice that the Message Bar has a button labeled “3 Warnings” This label is a brief description of all of the issues found by the model validation process. In this example, three warnings (or combinations of message types) were found during the validation process. You can view all of these warnings as described in “Viewing Multiple Messages,” on page 557.

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556 Chapter 8 Using Model Validation and the Log File The Message Bar may display any of the following items: Error messages. These types of messages represent an error condition that was caused by the end user, operational data, or some other condition that can be corrected. They are noted using the icon. By default, the most severe error that currently exists in the model is shown by default. Errors take precedence over Warning messages and Information messages with regard to appearing on the Status Bar. Warning messages. These types of messages represent a condition of which the end user should be aware, but does not generally indicate a failure. They are noted using the icon. Warning messages take precedence over Information messages with regard to appearing on the Status Bar. Information messages. These types of messages represent routine status or other informational items that are not generally significant. They are noted using the icon. Information messages are displayed on the Status Bar only if no Error or Warning messages are present in the model. Note: The message displayed in the Message Bar is always the highest severity message. If there are multiple messages of the same severity, the one displayed is somewhat arbitrary. The Message Bar also contains the following items: Two buttons that allow you to locate and fix the validation issue. For more information on using these buttons, see “Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons,” on page 557. A button to view all messages at the same time. For more information on using this button, see “Viewing Multiple Messages,” on page 557.

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Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons
You can click the Go To! button for quick access to the problem. For instance, clicking the Go To! button that corresponds to the first warning in the previous example opens the DOE Component Editor dialog box, and automatically selects the Factors tab. The Go To! button is also available on the Design Gateway, but it is only relevant for the error that is displayed in the Message Bar. When a validation fails, there are cases where the fix for it is very straightforward. In these cases, the Fix It! button is activated, and can be used to automatically fix the message in question. In the current version of iSIGHT-FD, there are very few errors where the fix is straightforward enough to use this feature.

Viewing Multiple Messages
Since the Message Bar only displays a single message, the Design Gateway offers a method for viewing multiple messages. To view all of the messages associated with the current model, click the Message button on the Message Bar.

The Validation Errors dialog box appears.

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558 Chapter 8 Using Model Validation and the Log File This dialog box lists all of the validation messages for the model. It also displays two buttons that allow you to locate and fix the validation issue. For more information on using these buttons, see “Using the Go To! and Fix It! Buttons,” on page 557.

Accessing the Log File
The iSIGHT-FD log file can be easily accessed by clicking the button at the bottom of the Design Gateway. If an error has occurred, and information has been written to the log file, the button changes to . The Log Viewer dialog box appears when the button is clicked. The following example shows a log file that contains information about an error that has occurred.

The actual log file (gateway.log) is stored in the following location on your local system, and can be accessed directly from this location, if desired: Windows: C:\Documents and Settings\<username>\Local Settings\Temp\ UNIX/Red Hat Linux: /home/<username>

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Accessing the Log File You can perform any of the following tasks using the log viewer:

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Click the Reset button to set the Log Severity icon back to the OK state. This action does not clear the log file. The error messages will remain in the log file. Copy the text (in order to paste it into another application) using the Copy button. You can select any part of the text you like. If no text is selected, the entire contents of the log file are automatically copied. Click the Email Log button to send the information to Engineous Software technical support. The Send FIPER Gateway Log dialog box appears.

If necessary, specify your e-mail address in the From text box. You can set iSIGHT-FD to use a default From e-mail address whenever an e-mail function is used. For more information, see “Setting Additional Preferences,” on page 46.

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560 Chapter 8 Using Model Validation and the Log File Also, add text or attachments, as desired. When contacting technical support regarding a problem, please provide the following information in addition to the log file, if possible: Detailed explanation of the problem Screen captures Click the Send button. An Engineous Software representative will contact you about your problem as soon as possible.

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Defining and Mapping Parameters
This chapter describes how to define parameters in iSIGHT-FD, how to use file parameters, and how to map parameters in your model. It is divided into the following sections: “Introduction,” on page 562 “Using Parameters,” on page 564 “Using File Parameters,” on page 579 “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624

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Introduction
Parameters are manipulated using one of the three following tabs, or a combination of these tabs: Parameters tab, Files tab, and Mapping tab. Parameters are created and altered using the Parameters tab on the Design Gateway. This tab is shown below.

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File parameter information is controlled and specified using the Files tab. This tab is shown below.

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564 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters Parameter mapping is controlled and specified using the Mapping tab, as shown below.

Using Parameters
The process of defining parameters can be divided into the following separate tasks: “Understanding Columns on the Parameters Tab,” on page 565 “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566 “Adding Parameters to Aggregate Parameters,” on page 567 “Using Parameter Groups,” on page 569 “Viewing Parameters for Multiple Components,” on page 573 “Sorting and Filtering Parameters,” on page 575 “Editing Parameters,” on page 578

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Using Parameters “Moving Parameters,” on page 579 “Deleting Parameters,” on page 579

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Note: Many components can create and map parameters as part of the process of configuring the component. Sometimes it is easier to create the parameters first and then open the component editor, but usually it is better to let the component editor create the parameters (and files).

Understanding Columns on the Parameters Tab
The parameter list (sometimes referred to as the parameter table) is divided into the following five columns: Name. This column displays both the user-defined name of the column and an icon denoting its structure, which is defined as follows: . Scalar . Array . Aggregate Mode. This column displays whether the parameter in an Input, Output, In/Out, or Local parameter. Value. This column displays the value of the parameter. Type. This column displays whether the parameter is a Boolean, Integer, String, or Real. Mapped. This column shows you whether or not the parameter has been mapped. If the parameter has been mapped, a “Mapping Parameters,” on page 624. icon appears. For more information, see

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Creating New Parameters
To create a new parameter from the Design Gateway Parameters tab: 1. Verify that you have selected the component that will contain the new parameter from the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway; then, click the New button on the right side of the tab. The Add Parameter dialog box appears.

2. Type the name of the new parameter in the Name text box. Note: The only restriction with regard to parameter names is that they cannot contain any of the following three characters: [ (left square bracket), ] (right square bracket), or . (period). 3. Select the structure from the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Scalar Array Aggregate (if you create an Aggregate parameter, proceed to step 4; then, proceed directly to step 10) 4. Set the mode of the parameter using the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Input Output In/Out Local iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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5. In the Details area, set the parameter type using the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Boolean Integer Real String 6. (Scalar parameters only) Type the initial value for the parameter into the Value box. 7. (Array parameters only) In the Array Dimensions area, select the number of dimensions for the parameters from the corresponding drop-down list. You can choose between one and four dimensions. 8. (Array parameters only) Specify the value of the dimensions in the text box(es) below the drop-down list. 9. (Array parameter only) Specify whether or not the array dimensions are resizable using the corresponding check box. This option allows the array to be resized during execution. All array parameters can be resized at any time using the Design Gateway. Any array parameter that is defined as resizable is marked with an asterisk (*) to the right of the parameters name on the Parameters tab. For more information on using array parameters from the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. 10. Click OK to create the new parameter. It is displayed in the Parameters tab.

Adding Parameters to Aggregate Parameters
To add a new parameter to an existing Aggregate parameter: 1. Select the Aggregate parameter that will contain the new parameter. The Add button becomes active on the right side of the tab. 2. Click the Add button.

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568 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Add Parameter dialog box appears.

Note: You can define all parameter properties for this new parameter with the exception of the Mode. This setting is based on the parent parameter. 3. Select the structure from the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Scalar Array Aggregate (if you create an Aggregate parameter, proceed to step 4; then, proceed directly to step 8) 4. In the Details area, set the parameter type using the corresponding drop-down list. The following options are available: Boolean Integer Real String 5. (Scalar parameters only) Type the initial value for the parameter into the Value box. 6. (Array parameters only) In the Array Dimensions area, select the number of dimensions for the parameters from the corresponding drop-down list. You can choose between one and four dimensions.

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7. Specify the value of the dimensions in the text box(es) below the drop-down list. 8. Click OK to create the new parameter. It is displayed within the parent parameter in the Parameters tab. Note: If you click Apply after creating a member of an aggregate parameter, the new parameter dialog box stays open after creating the parameter. This allows you to quickly create several members of the same aggregate parameter.

Using Parameter Groups
You can create folders on the Parameters tab, which can then be used to organize collections of parameters (groups). This feature simply allows you to better organize large numbers of parameters. To create a parameter group and add parameters: 1. Click the New Group button on the right side of the Parameters tab. The Create New Group screen appears.

2. Type the name for the parameter group in the What would you like to name the new group? text box; then, click OK.

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570 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters You are returned to the Parameters tab, and a new directory is added to the top of the list of parameters.

Now that you’ve created the (empty) group, you can populate it with the parameters of your choice. 3. Click a parameter or parameters to add to the new group.

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4. Click the Group button on the right side of the tab; then, select the group that will hold the parameters from the list that appears.

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572 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The parameter list is updated.

5. (optional) View the contents of the parameter group by clicking the left of the group name. 6. Perform any of the following actions, as desired:

icon to the

Move a grouped parameter to a new group. This action is similar to initially adding a parameter to a group. Simply select the parameter; then, select the new group using the Group button. Remove a parameter from a group. Select the parameter; then, select the No Group option using the Group button. Delete a group. Select the group; then, click the Delete button on the right side of the tab. A message appears, asking if you want to delete the parameters in the group along with the group. Select the appropriate option. If you chose to keep the previously grouped parameters, they are returned to their original location in the parameter list.

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Viewing Parameters for Multiple Components
It is possible to view the parameters for multiple components using the Parameters tab. This feature is useful for comparing parameter values and other information. In the following procedure, the model shown below (I-Beam example) is used as an example.

The model consists of numerous components, all wrapped in a Task component.

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574 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Parameters tab for this example is shown below (with the Read I-Beam component selected).

To view parameters for multiple components: 1. Click the Detach button in the bottom right corner of the Parameters tab. The Parameters dialog box appears.

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This dialog box contains an exact copy of the information currently displayed on the Parameters tab. In fact, changes to the information using this dialog box are automatically displayed on the Parameters tab. Furthermore, if you select a different component from the Model Explorer on the left side of the Design Gateway, both the Parameters tab and the Parameters dialog box are changed to show the parameter information for this new component. 2. Click the Lock check box in the bottom left corner of the Parameters dialog box. This option freezes the component parameter information being viewed in this dialog box. The information can still be updated, however, but clicking a different component in the Model Explorer does not change the component being displayed in the dialog box. The information on the Parameters tab is still dependent on the component selected in the Model Explorer. You can open as many Parameters dialog boxes as you wish, in order to simultaneously view parameters for multiple components. 3. Click Done to close the Parameters dialog box.

Sorting and Filtering Parameters
When viewing parameter information on the Parameters tab, you can sort and filter the data, in order to make it more useful to your needs. Proceed to either of the following sections for more information: “Sorting Parameters” on this page “Using Filtering Options,” on page 576

Sorting Parameters
You can sort parameter data on the Parameters tab in ascending or descending order by clicking the corresponding column header. The first click sorts the column data in Ascending order. The second click sorts the column data in Descending order. A third click returns you to the original non-sorted option. The small arrow icons to the right of the column headings shows you the current sorting option selected.

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576 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters Note: You can also sort multiple columns of data at the same time. Simply press and hold either the SHIFT or CTRL key on your keyboard; then, click the column headers that correspond to the information you want to sort. When performing a multi-column sort, the primary sort is always based on the first column clicked, secondary sort on the second column clicked, etc. To clear all of the sorting perform on the list of parameters, and return the list to its original state, click the button above the parameter list.

Using Filtering Options
If you are working with a large number of parameters, and only want to view certain subsets of those parameters, you can use the filter options to change the displayed parameters. To filter your parameters: 1. Click the button above the parameter list. The Table Filters dialog box appears.

2. Filter the parameters based on any of the following options, as desired: Name. This option allows you to filter the parameters based on the parameter names. Mode. This option allows you to filter the parameters based on the mode (Input, Output, Input/Output, or Local). Value. This option allows you to filter the parameters based on the values of the parameters. Type. This option allows you to filter the parameters based on the type (Boolean, Integer, Real, or String). Mapped. This option allows you to filter the parameters based on whether or not they are mapped. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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3. Click OK. You are returned to the Parameters tab, and the list of parameters is updated based on your filter selections. Any column selected as part of your filter options now displays a icon to the left of the column header. In the following example, two columns (Mode and Type) have been used for filtering. Also, the text to the right to the button tells you how many rows (parameters) match your filter based on the total number of rows (parameters).

4. Perform any of the following actions, as desired: Add to the existing filter by clicking the clicking the button. and returning to step 1.

Remove the defined filter, and return the parameter list to its original state, by

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Editing Parameters
Using the Parameters tab (or the Parameters dialog box as described in “Viewing Parameters for Multiple Components,” on page 573), you can alter many of the settings of existing parameters. Some options available with array parameters can only be changed by accessing the Edit Parameter dialog box, as described in the following procedure. Note: All changes made directly on the Parameters tab are applied by pressing the ENTER key on your keyboard, or clicking on a different column or parameter. To change parameter information: 1. Click the parameter whose settings you want to update. The parameter is highlighted. 2. Change any of the following settings, as desired, directly on the Parameter tab: Note: You can also right-click the parameter; then, select Properties from the menu that appears. This action opens the Edit Parameter dialog box, which provides access to the same options listed below. This action is necessary to update array parameter dimension values or the resizable option. See step 3 below for more information. Click the Name column to update the name of the parameter. Click the Mode column; then, select a new mode from the drop-down list that appears. Click the Value column to update the value of the parameter. The value settings differ based on the type of parameter you are working with. Click the Type column; then, select a new type from the drop-down list that appears. 3. (Array parameters only). Update the dimension values or the Dimensions are resizable option. These options are only available using the Edit Parameter dialog box, which is accessed by right-clicking the array parameter you want to update; then, select Properties from the menu that appears. 4. If necessary, click OK to close the Edit Parameter dialog box. 5. Repeat step 1 and step 4 for all the parameters you want to update.

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Moving Parameters
You have two main options for moving parameters from one component to another. You can cut/copy and paste the parameter or use the Move To option to quickly change a parameters location. All of these options are available from the menu that appears when a parameter is right-clicked.

Deleting Parameters
To delete a parameter: 1. Verify that you have the correct component selected from the Model Explorer. Note: No warning message appears to verify the deletion of the parameter. Be sure that you are deleting the correct parameter. 2. Right-click the parameter you want to remove; then, select Delete Selected from the menu that appears. The parameter is deleted.

Using File Parameters
File parameters are used to reference data files stored inside or outside of iSIGHT-FD from the iSIGHT-FD workflow. The data can be stored inside iSIGHT-FD (In Model or the FIPER File Manager), in a file (File), or on an HTTP or FTP server (URL). The facility is designed to be easily extended to support additional data stores, such as PDM systems. File parameters are mapped between components in the workflow just like other Parameters. However, what is copied is not the data itself, but information about where the data resides. This prevents you from having to copy the data around during execution of iSIGHT-FD models. There is a facility to copy the contents of an input file parameter into the working directory or any other local directory before a component runs, and to copy output files from the working directory or other location into a file parameter after the component runs. This allows components designed for local execution to be distributed across the iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

580 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters network without change. The name of the local file can be fixed if the program requires input or output files with a specific name. Otherwise, iSIGHT-FD selects the file name and makes it available to the component as the “value” of the file parameter. Parameter values can be used to construct the name or path for a file parameter, allowing results from parallel execution to be automatically filed, instead of overwriting the same location over and over. The locations of file parameters (and the contents for In Model files) are saved with the other run results. The contents of a file parameter can be viewed from the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway. For more information on viewing file parameters, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. This section is divided into the following topics: “Component Execution with File Parameters” on this page “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581 “Substitutions in File Names,” on page 582 “Understanding the Files Tab,” on page 583 “Creating File Parameters,” on page 585 “Using Input File Parameters,” on page 599 “Using Output File Parameters,” on page 603 “Limitations on URL File Parameters,” on page 605 “Using File Parameters with Components,” on page 606

Component Execution with File Parameters
Normally, component execution proceeds in three phases: 1. The set of parameters are prepared from the default values in the model, and are modified by any input parameter mappings. 2. The component runs using the prepared parameters, modifying the values of output parameters.

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Using File Parameters 3. The output parameter values are stored in the run results and for mapping to subsequent components.

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File parameters add several more steps to this process. There are some exceptions, but basically: 1. The set of parameters is prepared. 2. Input file parameters are copied into the working directory. 3. The component runs. 4. Output file parameters are copied from the working directory. 5. The output parameter values are stored. Copying the files into the working directory allows the component to execute without worrying about parallel or distributed execution. File-type file parameters are a special case. If no local name is specified for a File-type file parameter, the contents of the file are not copied into the runtime working directory. Instead, the path to the file is passed to the component code at runtime. This can be substantially more efficient if the file is very large. However, it can be somewhat more difficult to configure, and will not work if the component expects the file to have a specific name.

Using the Shared File System
Note: This section is only relevant to the distributed execution of the FIPER environment. For more information, see Chapter 13 “Understanding FIPER Environment Options”. Shared or Network file systems are often named differently on different machines. For example, a user's home directory might be /home/user on his UNIX workstation and /net/host/user on other UNIX workstations. At the same time, it might be mounted as H: on a Windows workstation, and be available as \\host\user on other Windows machines. The Shared File System feature of iSIGHT-FD allows iSIGHT-FD to adjust how it references a shared file to account for these differences. Instead of using an absolute path, which will be incorrect on some machines, the file is referenced as a path relative

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582 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters to a Symbolic Root Directory. On each machine, the symbolic root directory is set to the location where that machine mounts the shared file system. Each time the file is referenced (by the Design Gateway, Runtime Gateway, or a FIPER Station), the local symbolic root value is used to build the absolute path to the file that is appropriate for that machine. Symbolic roots are used by selecting the Shared file system radio button on the Select File dialog box that appears when you click the Browse button on the Design Gateway Files tab. For more information on using this tab, see “Understanding the Files Tab,” on page 583. Symbolic roots for the Design Gateway and Runtime Gateway are defined using the iSIGHT-FD preferences. Symbolic root directories for FIPER Stations are set in the Symbolic Root Directories section of the station.properties file.

Substitutions in File Names
Sometimes the name of a file needs to be modified depending on the settings of parameters, which FIPER Station it executes on, or to include a unique number to prevent multiple runs from interfering with each other. The following types of substitutions may be typed into a file name: {rundir}. Replaced with the name of the runtime working directory. This option is the default for file names that don’t have a path. This kind of substitution is also created by the Runtime directory radio button in the Path Options area of the Select File dialog box. For more information on accessing this dialog box, see “Using Input File Parameters,” on page 599. {root name}. A reference to a Shared File System (see “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581). This kind of substitution is created by the Shared file system radio button in the Path Options area of the Select File dialog box. For more information on accessing this dialog box, see “Using Input File Parameters,” on page 599. {workid}. Replaced with the unique Work Item ID (a string of letters) of this execution of the component. You can type this into a file name or path in order to guarantee that the name is unique.

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{user}. Replaced with the name of the user who submitted the job. This kind of substitution is only valid when the model is run on the ACS. It will cause an error if the model is run in Standalone mode. {var param}. Substitutes the value of a parameter into the file name or path, where param is the name of a parameter, a reference to a member of an aggregate parameter (aggregate.member), or an element of an array parameter (array [3,5]). This option is most useful for string and integer parameters, but it will work with all kinds of parameters.

Understanding the Files Tab
The Files tab on the Design Gateway is used to create and configure file parameters. The tab is shown below.

File parameters must have mode Input or Output; Local and In-Out file parameters are not supported in this release of iSIGHT-FD. Input and Output file parameters are configured somewhat differently. Configuring each type is described later in this section.

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584 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The central part of the Files tab is a list of all file parameters for the current component. Tabs at the top of the Files tab let you view input or output files. The following columns are included in the list of file parameters: Name. The name of the file parameter. This name is separate from the name of the file to which the file parameter points. It is the name to look for on the Mapping tab when mapping file parameters, and is also the column heading on the Runtime Gateway Parameters and History tabs. For more information on using the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. If the file parameter is a member of an Aggregate parameter, this column also displays the Aggregate parameter, exactly as Aggregate parameters are displayed on the Parameters tab. Note: Arrays of file parameters are not supported in iSIGHT-FD. The default parameter name for a file parameter is the name of the file with any directory names removed and the period before the file type changed to an underscore (a period is not a valid character in parameter names). Mode. The mode of the file parameter, either Input ( ) or Output ( ).

Note: Since Input and Output file parameters are configured differently, changing the mode of a file parameter causes some of the configuration to be lost. Mapped. This column shows whether or not the file parameter is mapped from another component (input) or to another component (output). The content of this column is either yes or no. A mapped input file parameter behaves differently from an unmapped one; the “In From” portion of the configuration is ignored for a mapped input file, and the contents of the file parameter that is mapped to this input parameter are used instead. Mapped and unmapped output file parameters have basically the same behavior. In From. (for input file parameters only) The location of the data for this file parameter. If the input file parameter is mapped, this information is overridden by the parameter that is mapped in to it. Local. The name the file will have in the working directory during component execution. It may be a specific name configured by the user, or a place-holder (generated name) if the specific name of the file does not matter.

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Out To. (for output file parameters only) The location where the data will be put after the component executes. The various options are described “Using Output File Parameters,” on page 603. Safe. Displays whether or not the configuration of the file parameter is safe for parallel execution. An output file parameter that is saved in a fixed location is not safe for parallel execution; the multiple instances of the component will overwrite each others data. To the right of the parameter list are three buttons: one to create a new file parameter using the file parameter wizard , one to add a file parameter as a member of an aggregate parameter , and one to delete a file parameter . The last two buttons behave the same as the buttons on the Parameters tab, except only file parameters can be created. For more information on using these buttons, see “Using Parameters,” on page 564. For more information on adding a new file parameter using the file parameter wizard, see “Creating File Parameters” on this page. Note: To add a file parameter as a member of an aggregate parameter, you must first create the aggregate parameter on the Parameters tab, then add the file parameter on the Files tab.

Creating File Parameters
The file parameter wizard assists you in adding input and output parameters. The wizard guides you through selecting the source, mapping the parameters, defining the content type, and setting the destination file. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: To create an input file parameter, see “Creating Input File Parameters,” on page 586. To create an output file parameter, see “Creating Output File Parameters,” on page 594.

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Creating Input File Parameters
To add input parameters using the file parameter wizard: 1. Click the appears. button on the right side of the Files tab. The file parameter wizard

2. Verify that the Input radio button is selected. If you click this button with the Input Files tab active on the File tab, this option is automatically selected. 3. Click Next. The File Parameter Structure screen appears.

This screen lets you create an array of files.

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Using File Parameters 4. Select one of the following options: Scalar. Creates a scalar file parameter. This option is selected by default.

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Array. Creates an array of files with the given number of dimensions and the given size. To create an array of files, click the Array button, then select the number of dimensions and the size of each dimension. All elements of the array will be initialized to point to the same location (as determined in the rest of the wizard). You must manually reconfigure each element of the array to point to a different location once the wizard finishes. 5. Click Next. The Input Source screen appears.

6. Select where the input parameter will get its content from prior to the component executing. The following options are available: Map from a file parameter in another component. If you select this option, proceed to “Configuring a File Parameter in Another Component as the Input Source,” on page 590. File. If you select this option, proceed to “Configuring a File as an Input Source,” on page 591. FTP. If you select this option, proceed to “Configuring a FTP as the Input Source,” on page 592.

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588 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters URL. If you select this option, proceed to “Configuring a URL as the Input Source,” on page 593. In Model. If you select this option, proceed to “Configuring an In Model as the Input Source,” on page 593. 7. Click Next. The File Content Type screen appears. Note: This screen doesn’t appear if you selected the Map from a file parameter in another component option in the previous step. Proceed to step 10.

8. Select if the content of this file is Text or Binary using the corresponding radio buttons. 9. Click Next. Note: If the Show File type encoding on the Files tab option is selected on the Parameter preferences page of the Preferences dialog, an additional page is displayed for text files that allows you to set the file encoding. The file encoding is only relevant if you use files containing non-latin characters. For more information on setting preferences, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40.

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Using File Parameters The Input File Destination screen appears.

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10. Select where you want the iSIGHT-FD Runtime environment to copy the file so it’s available at runtime. The following options are available: Automatic. If this parameter is mapped from a file, no copy will be performed and the file will be used in-place. Otherwise, the file data will be placed into the runtime directory with an iSIGHT-FD-generated name. Fixed File Name. Copy the source file to a directory that you specify. This directory may be in the iSIGHT-FD Runtime environment, a shared file system, or an absolute path. 11. Click Next. The Parameter Name screen appears.

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590 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters 12. Type the parameter name in the corresponding text box. 13. Click Finish. The new parameter is added to the list on the Input Files tab of the Design Gateway Files tab.

Configuring a File Parameter in Another Component as the Input Source
To map from a file parameter in another component: 1. From the Input Source screen, click the Map from a file parameter in another component radio button. The Input Source Data Handler dialog box appears. This dialog box displays the parent and sibling components and their file parameters.

2. Select a file parameter from which you want to map this variable. You can click the I will map it later check box to map the parameter after it has been added to the input parameter list on the Files tab. 3. Return to step 7 on page 588.

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Configuring a File as an Input Source
To configure a file as an input source: 1. From the Input Source screen, click the File radio button. The Input Source Data Handler screen appears.

2. Type the file name in the corresponding text box, or use the Browse button to locate the file. If you select the Browse button, additional radio buttons in the Path Options area allow you to select how the file should be referenced. The following options are available: Runtime directory. This option indicates that the directory containing the file is to be ignored and the file will be found in the runtime working directory. This setting is rarely useful for input file parameters. Absolute path. This option is used to locate the file, which works for local execution and when the file is on a shared drive that is mounted on the same place on all computers. This option is the default. Shared file system. This option is used when the file is on a shared file system that is mounted in different places on different machines. For more information, see “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581. 3. Return to step 7 on page 588.

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Configuring a FTP as the Input Source
To configure a FTP as an input source: 1. From the Input Source screen, click the FTP radio button. The Input Source Data Handler screen appears.

2. Enter the information about the FTP site from which you want this file parameter to get its data: Server. The host name of the machine from which the file will be copied. (optional) Directory. The directory relative to the FTP base directory of the user specified below. This directory is often different from the user’s home directory. File. The name of the file to retrieve. User Name. The user name used to log on to the FTP server. Password. The password for the user name used to log on to the FTP server. Timeout (seconds, 0 for no timeout). The amount of time to wait for a response from the FTP server before timing out. (optional) Port (default is 21). 3. Return to step 7 on page 588.

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Configuring a URL as the Input Source
To configure a URL as the input source: 1. From the Input Source screen, click the URL radio button. The Input Source Data Handler screen appears.
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2. Type the URL from which you want this file parameter to get its data in the corresponding text box. 3. Enter the amount of time the system should wait for the server to respond in the Timeout after text box. You can enter "0" to wait until the underlying protocol times out. 4. Return to step 7 on page 588.

Configuring an In Model as the Input Source
To configure an In Model as the Input Source: 1. From the Input Source screen, click the In Model radio button.

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594 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Input Source Data Handler screen appears.

2. Click the Load From... button to specify the file from which you want this file parameter to get its data. 3. Return to step 7 on page 588.

Creating Output File Parameters
1. Click the appears. button on the right side of the Files tab. The File Parameter wizard

2. Verify that the Output radio button is selected. If you click this button with the Output Files tab active on the File tab, this option is automatically selected. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Using File Parameters 3. Click Next. The File Parameter Structure screen appears.

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This screen lets you create an array of files. 4. Select one of the following options: Scalar. Creates a scalar file parameter. This option is selected by default. Array. Creates an array of output file parameters. All the elements in the array will be configured the same way (as determined by the rest of the wizard). Unless you select the Output Destination of FIPER File Manager (see step 10), you must manually reconfigure each element of the array to point to a different destination once the wizard finishes. 5. Click Next. The Output Source screen appears.

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596 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters 6. Type the file name where the output source will be copied after the component executes in the corresponding text box. This entry is usually a simple file name with no path, indicating that the file will be in the current working directory. You can also use the Browse button to locate the file. 7. Click Next. The File Content Type screen appears.

8. Select if the content of this file is Text or Binary using the corresponding radio buttons. 9. Click Next. Note: If the Show File type encoding on the Files tab option is selected on the Parameter preferences page of the Preferences dialog, an additional page is displayed for text files that allows you to set the file encoding. The file encoding is only relevant if you use files containing non-Latin characters. For more information on setting preferences, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40.

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Using File Parameters The Output Destination screen appears.

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10. Specify the location where you want the file copied to so that the file is available after the component's runtime directory is removed. It is recommended that the FIPER File Manager option be selected. The choices are: FIPER File Manager. The FIPER File Manager will store the content of the file in the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Database. This option is recommended. Specify Location. The location where you want the file to be placed following execution. This file may be in the iSIGHT-FD Runtime environment, a shared file system, or an absolute path. None. The file will not be copied, the "Source" location will be used. If this file is mapped to another component, it must be in a shared file system. 11. Click Next.

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598 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Parameter Name screen appears.

12. Type the parameter name in the corresponding text box. 13. Click Finish. The new parameter is added to the list on the Output Files tab of the Design Gateway Files tab.

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Using Input File Parameters
The example below shows the Files tab settings for an input file parameter.

The Source area configures the source of the data. For a mapped input file parameter, this information is overridden by parameter mapping. It may still be convenient to configure a data source, just in case you want this component to run alone (not as part of a larger workflow). There are five options for the data source, available using the Location drop-down list: <None>. The data source is not configured. This setting is the default for new input file parameters. Having no configuration is normal for a file that will be mapped from another component in the workflow. If such a file parameter is not mapped, or the component is run by itself, the component receives an empty file. File. The data is stored in a regular file on the file system. You can use the Browse button to select the file.

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600 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Select File dialog box appears as shown below.

In addition to the usual controls for navigating directories and selecting files, the radio buttons in the Path Options area allow you to select how the file should be referenced. The following options are available: Runtime directory. This option indicates that the directory containing the file is to be ignored and the file will be found in the runtime working directory. This setting is rarely useful for input file parameters. Absolute path. This option is used to locate the file, which works for local execution and when the file is on a shared drive that is mounted on the same place on all computers. This option is the default. Shared file system. This option is used when the file is on a shared file system that is mounted in different places on different machines. For more information, see “Using the Shared File System,” on page 581. In Model. The contents of the file will be stored inside the iSIGHT-FD model. iSIGHT-FD takes care of transferring the data to where the component is being executed. This option is the most convenient because it eliminates any concerns about shared file systems or parallel execution. Model files, however, are limited in size. Generally in-model files should not be larger than a few hundred thousand characters (about 2000 lines). The absolute limit is dependent on the amount of available memory, but is usually around 5 MB. You may use the Reload From... button to select the file to be copied into the model, or to re-load a modified file into an existing model. URL. Allows you to specify a file residing on a server. All forms of URLs supported by Java may be used, though http: is the most common form. You iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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may specify the amount of time to wait for the server to respond, or “0” to wait until the underlying protocol times out. Note that a URL type file parameter with a file: URL is equivalent to a File-type file parameter. FTP. The FTP from which you want this file parameter to get its data. Enter the following information: Server. The host name of the machine from which the file will be copied. (optional) Directory. The directory relative to the FTP base directory of the user specified below. This is often different from the user’s home directory. File. The name of the file to retrieve. User Name. The user name used to log on to the FTP server. Password. The password for the user name used to log on to the FTP server. Timeout (seconds, 0 for no timeout). The amount of time to wait for a response from the FTP server before timing out. (optional) Port (default is 21). The Preview… button at the bottom of the Read From area displays the contents of the file. For In Model file parameters, the contents of the file can be edited from the Preview dialog box; for other types it cannot be edited. The Type drop-down list allows you to determine whether the file parameter is a text file or a binary file. The Encoding drop-down list allows you to explicitly specify the encoding to use when converting between bytes and characters. In a Locale (a system setting that includes the language, number formats, and character set in use) that uses multi-byte characters (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), there is a default encoding used to convert bytes into characters. Most text files will be written using this encoding, but sometimes it is necessary to specify this encoding. For additional information on encoding, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. Note: This drop-down list only appears if you have selected the Show File Type encoding on the Files Tab option from the Preferences dialog box. For more information, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40.

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602 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Destination area of the Files tab allows you to choose where the data will be put while the component runs. The following options are available: Save to Database. File parameters attached to components are often used for temporary work and it is desirable to not store the information for these files in the iSIGHT-FD system. Each file parameter has the option to save to the iSIGHT-FD system or not. The default is to save to the iSIGHT-FD system; however, if you have a file attached to a component that would like to discard after the run of the component, uncheck the “Save to DB” option in the editor for the file parameter. The contents of the file will not be saved after the component has run. Fixed file name. This option should be used if the component expects its input in a specific place. Fill in the file name in the text box provided, or browse to the file you want. Normally, this will be a simple file name with no path, indicating a file in the runtime working directory. An absolute path may be used in the odd case of a program that demands that its input be in a specific directory, though such a file parameter is not safe for parallel or distributed execution. Automatic. This option is used most often. When activated, the iSIGHT-FD system assigns a name to the file and passes that name to the component.

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Using Output File Parameters
The example below illustrates the Output file parameter options.

As with Input file parameters, the bottom of the Files tab for an Output file parameter has Source and Destination areas. For an output file parameter, the Read From area is the name the file will have in the working directory during component execution. Usually this is a simple file name, indicating that the file will be written to the runtime working directory. An absolute path can be used in the odd case of a program that insists on writing its output to a specific directory, though such a file parameter is not safe for distributed or parallel execution. The File Name text box may be left blank; however, iSIGHT-FD will assign a name for the output file and pass that name to the component during execution.

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604 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Write To area specifies where the data will be put after the component finishes running. The following three options are available in this area: FIPER File Manager. iSIGHT-FD takes care of storing the contents of the file as part of the run results. This option is the simplest one, and it is the default. A file saved this way is only limited in size by the amount of temporary disk space available. Specific location. The data is copied from the working directory to the specified location. This setting must be an absolute path, since there is no concept of a “working directory” after the component finishes executing. The file name substitutions described in “Substitutions in File Names,” on page 582 can be used to file the data in locations of your choice. If there are no substitutions, the same file will be written by every run and the model is not safe for parallel execution. To select a File, URL, or FTP as the destination, click the ... button. Selecting URL as the location will create an HTTP “PUT” request that few web servers implement. Note: If the File Name text box in the Read From area is left empty and the Specific location option is selected, the data will not be written to the runtime working directory. Instead, the absolute path described in the Write To area will be passed to the component, and the component can write the data directly to the specified location. This option is more efficient for very large output files, though it can be difficult to configure for parallel and distributed execution. None. The data is not copied after the component executes. Instead, the absolute path to the Read From area is stored in the results database. If the Read From name is a simple file name (not an absolute path), the data is written to the working directory, which is normally deleted after the component finishes executing. In this case, the file is effectively discarded after the component executes, and cannot be mapped to subsequent components or viewed from the Runtime Gateway. Note: Files in the runtime working directory cannot be mapped to subsequent components using the None option, even if the Keep Execution Directory property is checked. In order to use this option with file mapping, the Read From location must be an absolute path or a relative path on a shared file system. The Type drop-down list allows you to determine whether the file parameter is a text file or a binary file.

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The Encoding drop-down list allows you to explicitly specify the encoding to use when converting between bytes and characters. In a Locale (a system setting that includes the language, number formats, and character set in use) that uses multi-byte characters (Japanese, Chinese, Korean), there is a default encoding used to convert bytes into characters. Most text files will be written using this encoding, but sometimes it is necessary to specify this encoding. For additional information on encoding, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. If the Read From name is an absolute path (probably including file name substitutions, see “Substitutions in File Names,” on page 582), the component will presumably write to this location and iSIGHT-FD will pass the location on to subsequent components. This behavior is equivalent to the case of the note under the Specific Location option above; the component writes directly to an absolute path and iSIGHT-FD never copies the data.

Limitations on URL File Parameters
iSIGHT-FD does not support URL file parameters on web servers that require authentication. Attempting to access a file on such a server results in the error 401 Authentication Required. If you try to access such a page from a web browser, you will get a pop-up dialog asking for a user name and password. iSIGHT-FD does not yet support secure sockets layer (HTTPS: URLs). When a URL is used as the destination for an output file parameter, iSIGHT-FD uses an HTTP PUT message to send the file to the web server. Most web servers do not support PUT requests, and those that do (sometimes called WEBDAV) usually require authentication (see above).

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Using File Parameters with Components
Several iSIGHT-FD components use File Parameters. The components discussed in this section include: “Data Exchanger Component” on this page “OS Command Component,” on page 609 “Simcode Component,” on page 618 “Excel and Word Components,” on page 619 “Mail Component,” on page 621 “Script Component,” on page 622 “Other Components,” on page 623 For detailed information on these components, see “Using Components,” on page 109.

Data Exchanger Component
The primary purpose of the Data Exchanger component is to move data between files and iSIGHT-FD parameters. Normally the Data Exchanger editor creates and configures the file parameters as part of configuring the Data Exchange. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to modify the configuration, especially when dealing with very large files. The Data Exchanger Select File Wizard is shown below. When reading a file, the File to Read at Runtime text box contains the name the file will have in the runtime working directory. This box may also be used to select an existing file parameter. If a new file parameter is created, the parameter name will be the file name with the period converted to an underscore.

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Using File Parameters The following example shows how the wizard would look when setting up a data exchange to read the file aero.sample.input.

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The following example shows how the file parameter ends up configured on the Files tab.

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608 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters As you can see, the parameter name is aero_sample_input, the mode is input, the parameter has not yet been mapped, and the file will be written to file aero.sample.input in the runtime working directory when the Data Exchanger component is executed. The contents of the original file have been saved in the iSIGHT-FD Model, mostly to serve as a sample when setting up the data exchange. Eventually this parameter would be mapped, overriding the In-Model contents. When writing a file with the Data Exchanger, the configuration is a little more complex. The example below shows the Select File screen.

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Using File Parameters The example below shows the file parameters created by the Data Exchanger.

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As for a file being read, you use the Browse… button on the Wizard to select the template file, and the name of the file being written is automatically filled in the File to write at runtime text box. In this case, however, two file parameters are created: one for the template file, and one for the file being written. The file parameter for the template file is mode input and has Tmpl added to the parameter name. The template file is usually left as is, but it could be mapped if the template changes from run to run. The output file parameter, containing the file updated with parameter values, is almost certainly going to be mapped to a subsequent component.

OS Command Component
Since the OS Command component runs external programs that communicate through iSIGHT-FD files, it is almost always necessary to configure file parameters when setting up an OS Command component. There are several different kinds of files you may have to configure: “The Executable,” on page 610 “Files as Command Line Arguments,” on page 613 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

610 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters “Other Input and Output Files,” on page 615 “Input and Output Files Using Command Line Parameters,” on page 616 Each of these cases is described in detail below, with examples.

The Executable
The program being run may either be a standard program pre-installed on the FIPER Stations, or it can be a program written specially for this model. In the latter case, it is better to distribute the program with the model instead of requiring your system administrator to pre-install it in all FIPER Stations. To distribute the executable: 1. Click the Find Program... button to browse to the executable file.

2. Click the Distribute Executable check box to copy the executable file into the model.

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A file parameter is created (with the same name as the executable), and the path to the program is replaced with a parameter substitution (in green).

3. Complete the OS Command component configuration; then, click OK to save your changes. 4. Click the Files tab on the Design Gateway.

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612 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters An input file parameter has been created for the executable.

The file parameter is copied into the working directory with the same name as the original file. When the command is run, the full path to this file is passed to the operating system (and the file is made executable on UNIX). If the program is very large, you should change the Read From area from In Model to File to reduce the size of the model file. Doing so, however, requires that all FIPER Stations that are to run this program have access to the specified file system. Alternatively, the affinities for the OS Command component could be set so this component only runs on the one machine where this program has been installed. If the Read From location is an absolute path, the Write To location can be changed from Fixed file name to Automatic to avoid copying the file; instead the absolute path of the Read From file will be passed to the operating system as the name of the program to run.

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Files as Command Line Arguments
Many programs take the name of input and output files on the command line or as standard input, output, or error, instead of using a fixed file name. This setup can be done easily. If you have already created a file parameter in some earlier component in the workflow, simply select the file parameter from the Parameter drop-down list; then, click the button to add the parameter to the command line. File parameters can also be used for I/O redirection, as in the following example.

At runtime, the absolute path to the data for the file parameter is passed as an argument to the program or is used to set up the I/O redirection. You can click the Verify Command buttons to view how the command will be interpreted. If no such file parameter has already been created, you can create one using the following procedure: 1. Type the name of the new file parameter in the Parameter text box; then, click the button. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

614 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The Add Parameter dialog box appears.

2. Select the correct mode (Input or Output) from the corresponding drop-down list; then, select File from the Type drop-down list. 3. Click OK. You are returned to the OS Command Editor. 4. Click the button to add the parameter to the component.

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The default configuration for new file parameters (both Input and Output) is sufficient if you will be mapping the parameter to/from other components. If you need to change the configuration of these file parameters, you can do so on the Required Files tab of the OS Command editor, or on the Files tab of the Design Gateway, shown below.

Other Input and Output Files
Sometimes programs need files other than those specified on the command line. Usually such files are expected to have some specific name in the working directory. To pass such files to the system command, you need to create file parameters for them and configure them to have the correct local name. This can be done either from the Required Files tab of the OS Command editor or from the Files tab of the Design Gateway. Note: It may be easier to create files using the Files tab on the Design Gateway. To create a file parameter using the Files tab on the Design Gateway, click the button. The file parameter wizard appears. For information on using the wizard, see “Creating File Parameters,” on page 585. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

616 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters Note: For an input file, on the Input File Destination dialog box, select Fixed File Name. Enter the file name or use the Browse button to locate the file.

Input and Output Files Using Command Line Parameters
Some programs look for files based on a command line parameter. For example, if the command myprog.exe FOO, where FOO is the value of an input parameter, caused the program to read file FOO.in and write file FOO.out, using a fixed Write To or Read From file name would not work. This can be handled by substituting parameter values into the file names. 1. From the Parameters tab, create an input String parameter called Run Name. 2. Set the value to FOO.

3. From the Files tab, create an input file parameter called In. For more information on creating file parameters using the file parameter wizard, see “Creating File Parameters,” on page 585.

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Using File Parameters 4. On the Input File Destination dialog box, select Fixed File Name. Enter the following in the text box: {var Run Name}.in.

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The following example shows the configuration for file parameter In.

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618 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters A file parameter called Out is configured similarly, using a variable substitution in the Output Source name as shown below.

You can also use substitutions in the Destination Specific location for an output parameter, in order to write the data to a file who’s name depends on parameter values. The same works for the Read From name for an Input file parameter with a Location of File.

Simcode Component
A Simcode component consists of an Input data exchange, an OS Command, and an Output Data Exchange. All of the previous discussions about using files with the Data Exchanger and OS Command components apply to the Simcode component. The Simcode component’s handling of file parameters is somewhat simplified relative to actually having two Data Exchanges and an OS Command. The Input parse writes files into the working directory, and the Output parse reads files from the working directory. The open-file wizard for the parses is specialized.

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The Input Wizard has one input file parameter that is (effectively) updated as it is written into the working directory. The output parse has one file parameter that reads from the working directory and is then discarded. Simcode components should be set up from left to right as described in the following procedure: 1. Set up the Input data exchange. For information about working with the Simcode component, see “Using the Simcode Component,” on page 420. For information about working with the Data Exchanger, see “Using the Data Exchanger Component,” on page 249. 2. Set up the OS Command, using the files created by the Input Data Exchange, and creating Output file parameters for all files created by the OS Command. For information about working with the OS Command, see “Using the OS Command Component,” on page 377. 3. Go to the Output Data Exchange and parse the output files. For information about working with the Data Exchanger, see “Using the Data Exchanger Component,” on page 249.

Excel and Word Components
The Excel and Word components create input file parameters for the Excel Spreadsheets and Word documents that they process. Once the component has been configured, it may be necessary to adjust the configuration of these parameters. Important: Do not rename these parameters. Doing so will interfere with how the components are configured.

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620 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters For example, you can configure a Word component as shown below.

This configuration creates two file parameters, one for the input document, and one to save the updated document.

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Notice that the parameter name of the saved document is always the parameter name of the input document with Output appended, irrespective of where the file will actually be saved.

Mail Component
The Mail component uses file parameters for attachments to the mail message. The most common case is where the file parameters already exist in some other component in the workflow, and it is only necessary to attach the file to the mail message using the button.

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622 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters The selected file parameters will be created for the Mail component and automatically mapped from their original location.

Script Component
The script component itself has nothing to do with file parameters, but sometimes it is necessary to manipulate a file from a script. File parameters are made available to the script with type FileValueType. The main method of this type is getLocalFile(), which returns a java.io.File object that references the same file as the file parameter. The following images illustrate a script example.

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This type of test will only work for a file parameter of type File with no local name. Any other type of file parameter will be copied into the working directory (which will fail before the script has a chance to run).

Assuming the file does not exist, at runtime you get the exception that the script throws (on the Log tab of the Runtime Gateway), stating that file does not exist. For more information on using the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide.

Other Components
The above list covers all Engineous-supplied components that can use file parameters; however, any component can use File parameters, depending on what the component does and how it was written. With luck, the component editor will create the file parameters already correctly configured for use by the component. If not, “OS Command Component,” on page 609 describes almost all of the cases that are likely to arise.

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Mapping Parameters
Mapping parameters allows you to specify how data flows between components in a model workflow. Note: Parameters with the same name within a given workflow are automatically mapped to each other if certain attributes match (type, structure, input-output relationship). This section is divided into the following parts: “Understanding Basic Mapping” on this page “Changing Parameter Settings,” on page 627 “Changing Views,” on page 627 “Deleting Mappings,” on page 628

Understanding Basic Mapping
To create a basic parameter mapping: 1. Click the Mapping tab on the Design Gateway.

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Mapping Parameters The following example shows the high-level view of the model’s parameter mappings (the Task component is selected in the Model Explorer).

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2. Select the component from the Model Explorer that contains the parameter you want to map.

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626 Chapter 9 Defining and Mapping Parameters In the following example, a Data Exchanger component was selected.

The corresponding parameters are displayed on the Mapping tab. 3. If necessary, change the parameters displayed using the drop-down list at the top of the two parameter lists. These drop-down lists allow you to specify a variety of parameter viewing combinations. 4. To map a parameter, click the parameter; then, drag the cursor to the parameter you wish to map to. A line appears from the original parameter. When the cursor changes to an arrow , a legal mapping is possible. As long as the appears, you cannot create a legal mapping. 5. Release your mouse button. The parameter is mapped. 6. If necessary, you can adjust the parameter settings using the Selected Parameter areas at the bottom of each parameter list. You can use this area to alter the parameter’s name, mode, type, and value. These sorts of changes may be helpful when mapping your parameters. For more information on these settings, see “Changing Parameter Settings,” on page 627. cursor

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Changing Parameter Settings
To change parameter settings from the Mapping tab: 1. Select the parameter you want to alter. The parameter’s information appears in the Selected Parameter area at the bottom of the parameter list. 2. Adjust any of the following settings: Name Mode Type Value For more information on these settings, see “Creating New Parameters,” on page 566.

Changing Views
You can alter the mapping information that is displayed on the Mapping tab. This option may be helpful when viewing numerous mappings, or when attempting to locate a specific mapping. To change the mapping views: 1. Click the drop-down list in the Show/Hide options area at the bottom of the tab. 2. Select one of the following options to customize which mappings are displayed on the tab: All Selected Left to Right Right to Left 3. Click the check boxes to show only non-file parameters or to only show file parameters.

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Deleting Mappings
To delete a mapping: 1. Click the mapping you want to delete. The mapping is highlighted. Note: If may be helpful when deleting a single mapping in a large group of mappings to first eliminate unnecessary mappings from the Mapping tab. For more information on this process, see “Changing Views,” on page 627. 2. Right-click the mapping; then, select Delete from the menu that appears.

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10 Using the Command Line Client
This chapter describes the usage of the Command Line Client, which provides a simple, text-based interface to many functions of iSIGHT-FD in the standard desktop (Standalone) mode and when connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. It is divided into the following sections: “Introduction,” on page 630 “Starting the Command Line Client,” on page 630 “Typing Command Line Arguments,” on page 632 “iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options,” on page 633 “FIPER Command Line Options,” on page 642 “Setting Other Command Line Client Logon Options,” on page 648

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Introduction
The Command Line Client is a console (character mode) program that provides simple text-based access to many functions of iSIGHT-FD in the standard desktop (Standalone) mode and when connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. The Command Line Client can be run in a prompting mode. With this option, the client acts like a command shell itself, prompting for commands and only terminating when the quit command is executed. This mode is also known as “interactive mode.” The tool can also be run in single-command mode. In this mode, a single command (and parameters) is supplied on the command line. The requested command is run, any output is displayed, and the client terminates and returns control to the standard shell.

Starting the Command Line Client
The Command Line Client is typically started from a Command Prompt dialog box (Windows) or a terminal window (UNIX/Red Hat Linux). You have two options when using the Command Line Client: Interactive mode. This option allows you to use the Command Line Client like a command shell. The tool is opened for as long as you wish, and as many command can be entered as desired. You have to manually quit this mode to deactivate the client. For more information, see “Starting the Command Line Client in Interactive Mode,” on page 631. Single-command mode. This option allows you to quickly execute a single command. For more information, see “Using the Command Line Client in Single-command Mode,” on page 632.

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Starting the Command Line Client in Interactive Mode
To start the Command Line Client in interactive mode: 1. Perform one of the following actions: Windows: Click Start, then click Run. Type cmd in the Open dialog box, then click OK. A Command Prompt dialog box appears. UNIX/Red Hat Linux: Open a terminal window. 2. Type fipercmd to initiate the Command Line Client. The Logon dialog box appears. 3. Log in uses the appropriate connection profile. Some commands can only be used when connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. For more information, see “FIPER Command Line Options,” on page 642. This access to desktop (Standalone) mode or a FIPER ACS, by default, is performed through the Logon dialog box. However, you can set the Command Line Client to use a console logon method, which allows you to log in from the command prompt without using a graphical interface. There are even options for supplying all information (such as user name and password) required to connect to a FIPER ACS. This allows the Command Line Client to be run from scripts without interacting with the user. For more information on using these options, see “iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options,” on page 633 and “FIPER Command Line Options,” on page 642 (for items specific to an ACS connection, such as user name and password). Note: You can also set some options directly in the fipercmd.bat file (fipercmd file on UNIX). For more information, see “Setting Other Command Line Client Logon Options,” on page 648.

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Using the Command Line Client in Single-command Mode
To use the Command Line Client in single-command mode: 1. Perform one of the following actions: Windows: Click Start, then click Run. Type cmd in the Open dialog box, then click OK. A Command Prompt dialog box appears. UNIX/Red Hat Linux: Open a terminal window. 2. Type fipercmd; then, enter the command line argument that you wish to use. For more information on the available options, see “iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options,” on page 633 and “FIPER Command Line Options,” on page 642. Important: You must type fipercmd for each set of arguments you execute. If you want to avoid having to retype fipercmd numerous times (if you are executing numerous arguments), see “Starting the Command Line Client in Interactive Mode,” on page 631 for more information on using the tool’s interactive mode.

Typing Command Line Arguments
The typical usage of the Command Line Client in single-command mode is: fipercmd <command arguments> In interactive mode, once you’ve started the tool, you simply need to type the desired arguments. Command names and arguments are insensitive to upper/lower case differences. For example, start file:model1.zmf is treated the same as START FILE:model1.zmf. File names are case-sensitive on UNIX and case-insensitive on Windows.

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If an argument contains spaces, enclose it in single quotes or double quotes on the UNIX command line or in interactive mode. On the Windows command line, always use double quotes. For example: start file:’model test.zmf’

iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options
This section discusses command line options that are used when you are running iSIGHT-FD in desktop (Standalone) mode or when you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. If you are connected to a FIPER ACS, you have access to additional options, as described in “FIPER Command Line Options,” on page 642. Note: Arguments that end in “...” represent those that can be used multiple times at the same command prompt to specify multiple items. For example, the “delete” command can specify multiple jobs: ’delete job:AAAA job:BBBB’. Proceed to any of the following topics for more information: “Command Line Arguments” on this page “Execution and Job Commands,” on page 635 “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638 “Publishing Commands,” on page 639 “Miscellaneous Commands,” on page 641

Command Line Arguments
These arguments can be used only on the command line. They control logging on and the output format. They allow you to specify connection information and the output format for the Command Line Client. The following arguments are available: format:[list|verbose|debug] This argument allows you to define the output format of the Command Line Client. The default setting is verbose, which prints messages about each. The list iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

634 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client option prints only the data requested by the command. The debug option prints debugging-only messages useful for diagnosing software problems. logonprompt:[yes|no] This argument allows you to specify if the Logon dialog box appears when the Command Line Client is executed. If you use this argument to stop the Logon dialog box from appearing (the no option), you must specify a profile name, user name and password using the arguments in this list. Failure to specify this information will cause the Command Line Client to cancel the logon and exit due to the error. logonmode:[gui|console]. This argument allows you to specify the type of logon you want to use. The gui option uses the Logon dialog box. This setting is the default. The console option allows you to specify connection information at the command prompt. Note: When the Command Line Client prompts for a password on the console, the password is not hidden. It is visible to anyone looking at the prompt. If security is important, use the gui mode to log into the system. profile:<connection_profile_file_name> This argument allows you to specify the connection profile that the Command Line Client will use. If you specify this argument without the logonpromt:no option, the Logon dialog box will appear with the given connection profile pre-selected, and you’ll have to specify the user name and password for the connection profile. If you receive an error that the connection profile cannot be found, use a full path to the profile. For example: fipercmd profile:\progra~1\fiper\standalone.cpr

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Execution and Job Commands
The commands in this section are used to control job execution and specify execution options. Note: When using iSIGHT-FD without a results database, only the start and stop commands will work. The other commands in this group require a results database. The following arguments are available: start. This command is used to initiate model execution. It runs the model(s) on the ACS if you log into an ACS. If you log into a local Library (Standalone mode), the model(s) run locally. The following sub-arguments can be used with this argument (The file or name argument must be used with this command. You cannot specify both; only one model can be run at a time.): args:[parameter_name=parameter_value];[parameter_name= parameter_value] ... Specify new values for input parameters on the command line. If any parameter name or value contains spaces, enclose everything after the first colon in double-quotes. desc:[description]. Sets the name of the job. dir:[directory_name]. Specify which directory will hold the results. It should be used in conjunction with the results option. file:[path_and_name_of_file]. Load and execute a model from your local hard drive. input:[file_name]. Specify a name/value file that contains new values for input parameters. The basic format for this file is shown below: # A Comment
PARAMETER NAME = 99.333 STRING PARM = "para one" ARRAY[0] = 1.0 ARRAY[1] = 2.0

monitor:[y|n]. Monitor the execution of a submitted model. The log file of the execution is displayed at the command prompt. name:[model_name]. Load and execute a model that resides in the Library. The Library is the one corresponding to the logon selected after executing this command (or specified using other command line arguments). iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

636 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client output:[file_name]. Save the results of the run to a file. All input and output parameters of the top-level component are written to the file in name/value format, plus comments indicating when the job was run. You may specify both print:y and output:[file_name] for the same run. print:y. Print the results of the run to the terminal. All input and output parameters of the top-level component of the model are printed in the same name/value format used by the input command. resfiles:y. Include file parameters in the files written by the results:y or output:[file_name] commands. The contents of the file are copied into a sub-directory of the output directory, and the path to the file is included in the CSV or Name/Value file. results:[y|n]. Save all job results to your local hard drive as a series of comma-separated values (csv) files, with one file for each component in the model. If you do not specify a directory, your results are saved in your default user directory, and you are notified of the location. The results for each job will be saved in a sub-directory of this directory named with the job name (and a unique number if several jobs have the same name). version:[model_version]. Specify the version of the model you are opening with the name argument. The default value is latest. wait:n. Allows you to not wait for the job to finish. In interactive mode, you get a new command prompt immediately and can continue to work while the job runs. In command-line mode, when connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment, fipercmd will exit immediately while the job runs on the ACS. When not connected to the ACS, fipercmd will wait until the job finishes before exiting, since the job actually runs inside the fipercmd process. The results of the job can be retrieved later with the results command. delete. This argument allows you to delete one or more jobs from the results database. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs to delete. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638.

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iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options joblog. This argument displays joblog information.

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Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs for which to retrieve logs. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638. This command does not currently work for jobs run locally without a results database. Use the monitor:y option for the start command instead. jobstatus. This argument displays job information. You can also use the short version - jstatus. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select jobs to display. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638. If no arguments are given, all jobs are listed. monitor. This argument allows you to monitor a job while it executes. job:[job_ID]. Specify the ID of the job to monitor. This command does nothing if the job has already finished. pause. This argument allows you to pause one or more running jobs. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs to pause. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638. results. This argument allows you to save job results to your local hard drive. job:[job_ID_number] ... Specify one or more jobs using their ID numbers. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs to save. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 638. dir:[directory_name]. Specify which directory will hold the results. It should be used in conjunction with the results option. If this option is omitted, the results are saved to your home directory. Note: If the job has not finished when the results command is submitted, the command will register a request to save the results when the job does finish. The Command Line Client will delay exiting until all delayed requests to save results have finished. You can cancel a save request by typing CTRL-C. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

638 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client resume. This argument allows you to resume one or more paused jobs. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs to resume. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments” on this page. stop. This argument stops (cancels) running jobs. Note: You can use any of the job matching criteria arguments to select the jobs to cancel. For more information, see “Job Matching Criteria Arguments” on this page.

Job Matching Criteria Arguments
These arguments are used to specify job information for commands such as stop, delete, and pause. They allow you to focus on particular job numbers, jobs in particular states of execution, or jobs that belong to particular users. For more information on the arguments that use these job matching criteria arguments, see “Execution and Job Commands,” on page 635. job:[job_ID_number] ... This argument allows you to specify one or more jobs using their ID numbers. stat:done. Specifies all job(s) that are done. stat:init. Specifies all job(s) that are initializing. stat:pause. Specifies all job(s) that are paused. stat:run. Specifies all job(s) that are running. stat:start. Specifies all job(s) that are starting. stat:stop. Specifies all job(s) that are stopping. user:[userID] user:[userID] ... Specifies jobs owned by one or more user IDs. This option does not work using a local Library (in standalone mode) or when connected to an ACS where security is deactivated. Basically, if you didn’t need to log in with a user ID and password, the user option does not work.

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iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options Some sample arguments using these job matching criteria arguments include: fipercmd stop stat:run This command stops all jobs that are currently running. fipercmd delete stat:done This command deletes all jobs that are completed (done).

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Publishing Commands
These arguments are used to work with objects in the Library, including publishing objects, unpublishing (removing objects), and retrieving existing objects. The following arguments are available: find. This argument allows you to find Library objects. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the object information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. type:[model|metamodel]. The type of object. The default is any. ver:[version_num]. The version number of the object. The default is any. attr:[name,op,value]... A list of name-operator-value pairs. The operator can be any of the usual SQL operators including: =, !=, <, <=, >, >=, and like. Some example queries include:

• • • •

attr:description,like,Random attr:authorid,=,fred attr:mmtype,=,datatype attr:ptn,=,'Datex Tool'

Note that the name can be a PREFIX of the real name, so find name:com.engineous.datatype will find all data type metamodels. get. This argument allows you to get a Library object and save it as a file. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. ver:[version_num]. The version number of the object. The default is latest. file:[file_name]. The name of file to be written. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

640 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client publish. This argument allows you to publish a file to the Library. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. For example, com.myorg.mymodel. type:[model|metamodel]. The file type. The model option is used to publish iSIGHT-FD models (*.zmf extension). The metamodel option is used to publish components, plug-ins, or data types (*.jar files). file:[file_name]. The name of the file to publish. auth:[author_name]. The name of the publisher. desc:[description]. A free-form description of the file. attr:[name,val] attr:[name,val] ... A list of name-operator-value pairs to associate with the file in the Library. The operator can be any of the usual SQL operators including: =, !=, <, <=, >, >=, and like. Some example queries include:

• • • •

attr:description,like,Random attr:authorid,=,fred attr:mmtype,=,datatype attr:ptn,=,'Datex Tool'

Note that the name can be a PREFIX of the real name, so find name:com.engineous.datatype will find all data type metamodels. publishall. This argument allows you to publish all components to the specified Library. unpublish. This argument allows you to remove a published file from the Library. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. For example, type:[model|metamodel]. The file type. The default is any. ver:[version_num]. The version number of the file. The default is any. attr:[name,op,value] ... A list of name-oper-value pairs.

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Miscellaneous Commands
These arguments are also available for use with iSIGHT-FD: buildlevel. This arguments displays the version, creation date, and creation time of the current iSIGHT-FD installation. command. This argument starts the interactive command mode. This mode allows you to use all Command Line Client arguments without the fipercmd prefix, and eliminates having to log into the ACS with each command execution. In effect, you “log into” the Command Line Client and the ACS, and can directly execute all available arguments. When you use the interactive command mode, your default prompt changes to the > prompt. Note: You can exit the interactive mode using the quit command. script:[script_file]. Takes commands from the specified script file instead of from the console. prompt:[prefixString|none]. Changes the prompt. The prompt:none option is useful when running scripts. model. This argument allows you to get information about a model. The information includes the input parameters that can be set with the start input:[file_name] or start arts:PARM=VALUE commands. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the model information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name of the model. For example, com.myorg.mymodel. file:[file_name]. The name of the model you want to view information about. output:[file_name]. Write the model inputs to a file in exactly the format used by the start input:[file_name] command option. When this option is specified, the model information is not displayed at the terminal. quit. This argument closes the Command Line Client (interactive mode). help. This argument displays a list of all available arguments. You can also access this list by simply typing fipercmd at the prompt. You can also use the short version - ?.

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642 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client echo. This argument echoes the rest of the command line to the terminal. It is useful in command scripts to print progress messages. exit. This argument closes the Command Line Client (interactive mode).

FIPER Command Line Options
This section discusses command line options that are only available when you are connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment. You can also use the options described in “iSIGHT-FD Command Line Options,” on page 633 when connected to a FIPER ACS. Proceed to any of the following topics for more information: “Connection Profile Commands” on this page “Job Matching Criteria Arguments,” on page 643 “Library Commands,” on page 643 “FIPER Station Commands,” on page 646 “Federation (B2B) Commands,” on page 646 “Miscellaneous Commands,” on page 647

Connection Profile Commands
The following arguments can be used on the command line. They allow you to specify connection information and the output format for the Command Line Client. pw:<password>. This argument allows you to specify the password of the user that will log into the Command Line Client. If you only specify this argument, the Logon dialog box will appear, but the password will already be defined. user:<user_id>. This argument allows you to specify the user that will log on to use the Command Line Client. If you only specify this argument, the Logon dialog box will appear, but the user name will already be defined.

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Job Matching Criteria Arguments
These arguments are used to specify job information for commands such as stop, delete, and pause. They allow you to focus on particular job numbers, jobs in particular states of execution, or jobs that belong to particular users. For more information on the arguments that use these job matching criteria arguments, see “Execution and Job Commands,” on page 635. user:[userID] user:[userID] ... Specifies jobs owned by one or more user IDs. This option does not work using when connected to an ACS where security is deactivated. Basically, if you didn’t need to log in with a user ID and password, the user option does not work (including in desktop (Standalone) mode).

Library Commands
find. This argument allows you to find Library objects. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the object information: partnerid:[partner_id]. The ID of partner for a remote Library. This option is only useful when logged into an ACS. get. This argument allows you to get a Library object and save it as a file. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: partnerid:[partner_id]. The ID of partner for a remote Library. getacl. This argument allows you to get the access control list (permission information) from a specified object in the Library. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. file:[file_name]. The name of file to be written. verbose:[y|n]. Allows you to specify whether full ACL information is returned (the y option) or abbreviated information is returned. The abbreviations are defined below under the setacl option.

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644 Chapter 10 Using the Command Line Client getjobacl. This argument allows you to get the access control list (permission information) for a specified job in the results database. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the file information: job:[job_ID_number]. The job number, not the job name. verbose:[y|n]. Allows you to specify whether full ACL information is returned (the y option) or abbreviated information is returned. The abbreviations are defined below under the setjobacl option. publish. Most of the arguments for this command can be used with iSIGHT-FD and are discussed in “Publishing Commands,” on page 639. However, once command can only be used when connected to an ACS in the FIPER environment: acl:[permission_name] ... [permission_name]. A list of permissions to set for this object. The options are described under setacl below. setacl. This argument allows you to set the access control list (permission information) for a specified object in the Library. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the permission information: name:[object_name]. The fully qualified Library name. file:[file_name]. The name of file to be written. verbose:[y|n]. Allows you to specify whether full ACL information is returned (the y option) or abbreviated information is returned. The abbreviations are defined below. Then you need to specify the permission settings using the acl command. The following options are available: [user/group_name]. Specify the user or group name for the permission. Permission settings. Specify the permission for the selected user or group. • AL. Set the object’s permission to Alter. • MO. Set the object’s permission to Modify. • RE. Set the object’s permission to Read. • RF. Set the object’s permission to Reference. • NO. Set the object’s permission to None. Group settings. Specify if the entry is a user name or FIPER group name. • U. • FG.

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For example, to set the permission for an object called test_model for a user named fiperacs to the permission setting of Read, you’d type the following command:
setacl name:test_model acl:fiperacs,RE,U

For more information on these permission settings and their meanings, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. setjobacl. This argument allows you to set the access control list (permission information) for a specified job in the results database. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the permission information: job:[job_ID_number]. The job number, not the job name. verbose:[y|n]. Allows you to specify whether full ACL information is returned (the y option) or abbreviated information is returned. The abbreviations are defined below. Then you need to specify the permission settings using the acl command. The following options are available: [user/group_name]. Specify the user or group name for the permission. Permission settings. Specify the permission for the selected user or group. • AL. Set the object’s permission to Alter. • MO. Set the object’s permission to Modify. • RE. Set the object’s permission to Read. • NO. Set the object’s permission to None. Group settings. Specify if the entry is a user name or FIPER group name. • U. • FG. For example, to set the permission for an object called test_model for a user named fiperacs to the permission setting of Read, you’d type the following command:
setacl job:8580808080808080A781 acl:fiperacs,RE,U,*,NO,U

The first set of acl commands (fiperacs, RE, and U) represent the specified user (in this example, fiperacs). The last set of acl commands (*, NO, and U), represent all other users. For more information on these permission settings and their meanings, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545.

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FIPER Station Commands
The commands in this section are used to control and view information related to FIPER Stations. The following command are available: stationstatus. This argument displays information about FIPER Stations. You can also use the short version - sstatus. station:[name] station:[name] ... Display information for one or more stations. activeonly:[yes|no]. Specify whether or not only active stations will be shown. If no arguments are given, all stations connection to the ACS are listed. stopstation. This argument shuts down the specified FIPER Station. station:[name] station:[name] ... Display information for one or more stations.

Federation (B2B) Commands
The commands in this section are used to control FIPER Federation (B2B) options. The following command are available: partners. This argument displays a list of partner profiles. addpartner. This argument allows you to add a new partner profile. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the partner and partner options. name:[display_name] Specify the name of partner to be added. connect:[url]. Specify an updated connection URL. callback:[url]. Specify an updated callback URL. type:[apache|sun]. Specify an updated SOAP style of partner.

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FIPER Command Line Options updatepartner. This argument allows you to modify an existing partner profile. Use the following sub-arguments to specify the partner and the type of update. id:[partner_id]. Specify the ID of the profile to be updated. name:[display_name] Specify the name of the partner to be updated. connect:[url]. Specify an updated connection URL. callback:[url]. Specify an updated callback URL. type:[apache|sun]. Specify an updated SOAP style of partner.

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deletepartner. This argument deletes the specified partner profile. Use one of the following sub-arguments to specify the partner. id:[partner_id]. Specify the ID of the profile to be deleted. name:[display_name] Specify the name of the partner to be deleted. addusermap. This argument is used when setting up Run-As and Library ACLs. For more information on how to use it, refer to the FIPER Federations (B2B) Guide. deleteusermap. This argument is used when setting up Run-As and Library ACLs. For more information on how to use it, refer to the FIPER Federations (B2B) Guide.

Miscellaneous Commands
buildlevel. This command displays the version, creation date, and creation time of the current ACS. It also displays the local iSIGHT-FD information, if applicable. user. This command displays details about the current user.

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Setting Other Command Line Client Logon Options
The following options can be set directly in the fipercmd.bat file (or fipercmd file on UNIX). Simply add the string in the File Setting column in the following table to the end of the set JVMParms= entry in the fipercmd.bat (or fipercmd) file. Once set, they are executed automatically when the Command Line Client file is executed. These options may be particularly useful if you always log in using the same connection profile, user name, and password.

Table 10-1. Additional Command Line Client Logon Options File Setting
-Dfiper.logon.profile=PROFILE

Matching Command Line Argument
profile:<connection profile-file-name>

Functionality
This argument allows you to specify the connection profile that the Command Line Client will use. This argument allows you to specify if the Logon dialog box appears when the Command Line Client is executed. This argument allows you to specify the user that will log on to use the Command Line Client.

-Dfiper.logon.prompt=Y|N

logonprompt:[yes|no]

-Dfiper.logon.prop.user=USER

user:<user-id>

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Setting Other Command Line Client Logon Options Table 10-1. Additional Command Line Client Logon Options (cont.) File Setting
-Dfiper.logon.prop.pw=PASSWORD

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Matching Command Line Argument
pw:<password>

Functionality
This argument allows you to specify the password of the user that will log into the Command Line Client. This argument prompts for any need information on the command line (console). The default is to prompt using a logon window (gui).

-Dfiper.logon.mode=console|gui

logonmode:console

To avoid having to edit the fipercmd.bat (or fipercmd) file, you can put these settings into the FIPER_JVMPARMS environment variables. For example, adding the following information (on a single line in the file):
FIPER_JVMPARMS=’-Dfiper.logon.profile=standalone -Dfiper.logon.prompt=N -Dfiper.logon.mode=console’

would allow the interface to automatically connect in standalone model, and log in information would be entered directly into the console (instead of through a logon window). FIPER_JVMPARMS is used by all iSIGHT-FD and FIPER programs. Setting the logon profile and prompt in this manner will suppress the Logon dialog box in all programs.

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11 Understanding Example Files
This chapter describes the example models included with the iSIGHT-FD installation. It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 652 “Commercial Tools Examples,” on page 654 “Generic Examples,” on page 655 “Windows Tools Examples,” on page 657

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Overview
A set of iSIGHT-FD example model files, associated simulation codes, and data files needed to run the examples are included in the following directory: <isight-fd_install_directory>\examples\models The examples have been built to illustrate a variety of iSIGHT-FD components and to show how to combine them in useful ways. Each example has been fully annotated, using the Description property of each example's components. Each root component describes the example as a whole, while each child component describes the purpose and function of that component in that example. The following information is discussed in this section: “Understanding the Organization of the Files” on this page “General Execution Information,” on page 653

Understanding the Organization of the Files
There are four subdirectories: commercial_tools. This subdirectory contains model files that use commercial tools such as MATLAB and Ansys. generic.This subdirectory contains model files constructed only from generic components. A component is generic if it will run on any platform on which iSIGHT-FD is supported. For example, a Calculator component is generic, but an Excel component is not generic because it runs Excel, which exists only under Windows. Note that several of these examples contain Simcode components; they are considered generic because an executable for each simcode has been provided for each supported platform. This subdirectory also contains sample data files for any examples that are designed to process file data. The model will also contain a file parameter holding an instance of this file, so that the model will run as is when loaded. simcodes. Several examples include one or more iSIGHT-FD Simcode components. These examples illustrate the ability of iSIGHT-FD to execute iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

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external programs and manage their input and output files. This subdirectory contains all external programs used by the examples. The top level of this subdirectory contains the source codes (in Fortran, C, and so on) for these programs. They are supplied primarily as documentation. Beneath this subdirectory is the bin directory, which in turn contains a subdirectory named for each platform on which iSIGHT-FD is supported. Each sub-subdirectory contains the actual executables for these programs, for that platform. windows_tools.This subdirectory contains model files constructed from components, at least one of which has Windows affinity and may run only on Windows. Excel, Word, and COM are typical Windows components. When these models are run, iSIGHT-FD will note the affinity of these components and dispatch them to FIPER Stations running on Windows machines, if possible. If not possible, the example will not run.

General Execution Information
To run an example (or any iSIGHT-FD model), you must adjust to limits in the current iSIGHT-FD architecture. In particular, a Simcode component cannot contain its executable, nor can an executable be sent across the network to the FIPER Station on which it will run. Therefore, the executable for a Simcode component must reside in an accessible directory on the machine running the target FIPER Station, and of course it must be the platform-specific version of the executable for that machine. If this is done, then the component will be able to locate that executable if one of the following conditions is satisfied: The directory containing the executable is in the %PATH% list of the target FIPER Station. All of the iSIGHT-FD startup scripts add the example simcode directory for the current platform to %PATH%. The Simcode component has been edited so that the simcode name includes the directory path. Ideally, the iSIGHT-FD installation should already complete the previous item for you, so you should be able to run each example as is. If this is not the case, contact your system administrator or call Engineous technical support. If an example reads a data file, then a file parameter in the topmost Task component will exist and will contain the text of an instance of the data file. You may run the example on a different data set by editing this file parameter to refer to the file containing that data set. This data may be either held in-memory, as for the instance in iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

654 Chapter 11 Understanding Example Files the model, or read from an external file. In the latter case, the file name entered into the file parameter must contain the full path to the chosen data file. The %PATH% list is of no help in this case. Several of the examples also have non-Simcode components which must be adjusted before execution. For instance, if an example contains a Mail component, address information must be entered or the component will not run. These adjustments unfortunately cannot be done via the Configure and Run options; they must be done in the Design Gateway before execution.

Commercial Tools Examples
The examples described below can be found in the commercial_tools directory.

SpectralAnalysis
This example demonstrates the use of the iSIGHT-FD MATLAB component. A signal data vector is analyzed to determine its primary frequency components, which are presented in order of decreasing strength. The calculated frequency data is also plotted by MATLAB. Note: In order to keep the MATLAB plot raised after execution ends, the MATLAB component properties have been set so that MATLAB is not terminated. Hence, MATLAB will have to be shut down manually after this model is executed. Illustrated Components: MATLAB, Task, Data Exchanger, Script Other Illustrated Features: Workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: None Support Files Needed: signal.dat (an instance is in-model)

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Generic Examples
The examples described below can be found in the generic directory.

AirplaneSizingDOE
This example uses iSIGHT-FD Design of Experiments to perform preliminary sizing of a generic aircraft. Illustrated Components: Calculation, Simcode, DOE Other Illustrated Features: Parallel workflow, workflow merging, workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: aero.exe, performance.exe, weights.exe Support Files Needed: None

I_Beam
This example evaluates a standard I-Beam. It reads the beam dimensions from an external input file, computes stresses and deflections, and writes the results to an external output file. Note: This example uses iSIGHT-FD to replicate a computation derived from a simulation code beam.exe. The Fortran source beam.f is provided for comparison (beam.exe is not provided since it is not actually used). Illustrated Components: Task, DataExchange, Calculation, Loop, Script Other Illustrated Features: Array parameters, data-flow mappings involving individual array entries, workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: None Support Files Needed: beam.in (an instance is in-model)

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SpringSamples
This example is actually a set of three related examples, grouped into a single model file for convenience. Each sub-example illustrates the use of an iSIGHT-FD design search component, applied to the coiled spring design problem commonly discussed in Mechanical Engineering texts. One sub-example applies iSIGHT-FD Design of Experiments, another applies iSIGHT-FD Monte Carlo, and the third applies iSIGHT-FD Optimization. Each sub-example also defines one or more iSIGHT-FD graphs, which will be created at runtime and populated by the data generated by the associated search component. Note: This example has been configured to run the Design of Experiments sub-example by default. Illustrated Components: Task (grouping only), Calculator, Reference, DOE, Monte Carlo, Optimization, SDI Other Illustrated Features: Conditional workflow (only to select a sub-example), internal submodels, iSIGHT-FD graphs, workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: None Support Files Needed: None

TestDataMatch
This example illustrates the use of iSIGHT-FD to tune the parameters of a model so that its outputs match a vector of test data as closely as possible. The example may be configured to e-mail the best model to any recipient. Illustrated Components: Task, Optimization, Simcode, Script, Mail Other Illustrated Features: Array parameters, conditional workflow (to disable/ enable the Mail component), workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: simulation.exe Support Files Needed: test.dat (an instance is in-model)

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Windows Tools Examples
The examples described below can be found in the windows_tools directory.

TriangleScan
This example demonstrates the use of the iSIGHT-FD Excel and Word components. A sequence of triangles with integer sides is generated, and the hypotenuse of each triangle is calculated by Excel and checked. The triangle whose hypotenuse is most nearly an integer is saved and presented to the user in Word. For illustration, the Excel spreadsheet which performs the hypotenuse calculation and graphs each triangle is shown in the triangle.xls file, and the Word document template for the final triangle report is shown in the TriangleReport.doc file. Illustrated Components: Excel, Word, Task, Loop, Calculator Other Illustrated Features: Conditional workflow, workflow annotations Simcodes Needed: None Support Files Needed: None

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12 Using the Documentation
This chapter describes how to access and use the iSIGHT-FD documentation, including PDF files and the online help system (HTML-based help). It is divided into the following sections: “Introduction,” on page 660 “Using the iSIGHT-FD PDF Files,” on page 660 “Using the Online Help,” on page 662 “Providing Feedback on the Documentation,” on page 664

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Introduction
iSIGHT-FD provides both a PDF documentation library and browser-based online help. The help files are specific to certain interfaces within the software (such as the Design Gateway and component editors). The PDF files cover all of the functionality available in the product, including but not limited to the information included in the online help.

Using the iSIGHT-FD PDF Files
All books in the iSIGHT-FD documentation library are automatically installed on your system when you install the software (unless you elect to not install the documentation). These books can then be accessed at any time for browsing or searching. The following books are available in PDF format from the iSIGHT-FD documentation library: iSIGHT-FD Development Guide iSIGHT-FD Getting Started Guide iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Viewing the PDF Files,” on page 661 “Searching the Entire iSIGHT-FD Documentation Library,” on page 661

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Viewing the PDF Files
All of the iSIGHT-FD books are copied to your installation directory. You can find the files in the following directory: <isight-fd_install_directory>\docs The files are in PDF format, and you must have Adobe Reader or some other PDF viewer installed on your system to view the PDFs. You can download Adobe Reader for free from the following website: http://www.adobe.com/reader Important: It is highly recommended that you install the latest version of Adobe Reader. Older versions of the reader have been known to not display all of the text in PDF files correctly.

Searching the Entire iSIGHT-FD Documentation Library
The entire iSIGHT-FD documentation library has been pre-indexed, which allows you to perform quick searches across each book in the documentation library. Note: Adobe Reader also has the ability to search all PDFs in a specific location (such as the iSIGHT-FD docs directory), but the index method described in the following procedure will result in faster searches. The following procedure describes how to access the iSIGHT-FD index using Adobe Reader. If you are using Adobe Acrobat or any other PDF viewer, refer to that interface’s online help system for more information on how to access the iSIGHT-FD index. To search the entire documentation library: 1. Open Adobe Reader; then, open one of the PDF files located in the iSIGHT-FD documentation directory (<isight-fd_install_directory>\docs). 2. Click the Search button on the Reader toolbar. Additional options appear on the right side of the interface (the Search PDF area).

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662 Chapter 12 Using the Documentation 3. Click the Used Advanced Search Options link at the bottom of the Search PDF section. The listed options change. 4. Click the Look In drop-down list; then, click the Select Index... option. The Index selection dialog box appears, showing the pre-defined index. 5. Click OK. The index is accessed, and you can now use it to search each book in the iSIGHT-FD documentation library. 6. Use the options in the Search PDF area to define your search; then, click the Search button. All of the books are searched, and your results are displayed on a per-book basis. 7. Expand any of the books highlighted during the search to display the individual search results for that book. 8. Click any result to view it. If the result is in a different PDF than that which currently appears in the Reader, the new PDF is automatically opened. You’ll have to repeat this procedure each time you access the Reader and want to perform a full documentation library search. Once the Reader is closed, the link to the iSIGHT-FD index is lost and must be re-established. For more information on the Reader’s search capabilities, refer to the Reader online help system.

Using the Online Help
Browser-based (HTML) Online help is provided for most major interfaces, including the Design Gateway, Runtime Gateway, and Generator, as well as for each component editor (Monte Carlo, Excel, Simcode, etc.). Each help system is a separate entity, and they are not interconnected. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Browser Specifications,” on page 663 “Accessing the Help System,” on page 663 “Tips for Navigating Through the Help System,” on page 663

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Browser Specifications
The iSIGHT-FD online help is designed to work on the following browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher Mozilla Firefox 1.5 or higher Note: Netscape is not a supported browser. Microsoft Internet Explorer can be obtained from the following location: http://www.microsoft.com/ Mozilla Firefox can be obtained from the following location: http://www.mozilla.org

Accessing the Help System
You can access the help system using one of the following methods, based on the type of interface you are using: Design Gateway, Runtime Gateway, Generator, and Engineering Data Mining (via the Runtime Gateway) Component editors Approximation Wizard, Approximation Viewer, and Engineering Data Mining (when run in Standalone mode)

Tips for Navigating Through the Help System
Use the Contents tab (left side) to find topics of interest. Using this structure shows you the topics that surround the topic you are searching for, and may assist you in finding the information you need. Use the Index and Search tabs to quickly find topics that may assist you in using the product.

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664 Chapter 12 Using the Documentation Click the to view where the current topic (on the right side of the help interface) falls within the table of contents (on the left side of the help interface). Using this button may help you quickly find topics related to the current topic. Don’t forget about your web browser’s Forward and Back buttons. These can be used in conjunction with the navigation buttons within the online help. The table of contents is arranged similar to the iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide.

Providing Feedback on the Documentation
Engineous Software welcomes your comments regarding the iSIGHT-FD documentation, including hardcopy documentation, PDFs, and online help. Your input is very valuable in the revision and enhancement process. If you have suggestions for improvement, or wish to point out specific errors, please send your comments to: documentation@engineous.com You may also send your comments to our mailing address: Documentation Suggestions Engineous Software 2000 CentreGreen Way, Suite 100 Cary, NC 27513 If you would like a response, please provide the following information: Name Title Company Address Telephone number Email address

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13 Understanding FIPER Environment Options
This chapter describes Design Gateway and component options that are only available when connected to the FIPER Environment (a FIPER ACS or FIPER Station). It is divided into the following sections: “Overview,” on page 666 “Creating an ACS Connection Profile,” on page 667 “Understanding FIPER Permissions Options,” on page 668 “Viewing ACS Connection Information,” on page 670

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Overview
The FIPER environment is composed on two major items which are not present when executing locally (the default configuration for iSIGHT-FD): the FIPER ACS and the FIPER Station. The FIPER Application Control System or ACS is the FIPER nerve center that manages workflow, job dispatching, distributed and parallel computing, results processing and archiving, Library activity, and collaboration activities. For a full FIPER environment, the ACS utilizes a commercial middleware layer consisting of a standard J2EE application server and relational database, and exploits EJB, JMS, JTA, JDBC, Servlet, JSP, and other J2EE technologies. The ACS capabilities include the following: The Workflow Manager directs the sequence of design events, assembles components, and controls the dataflow between steps in the design process. The Context Manager assembles the necessary input data for work items. The Job Dispatcher controls the job distribution and parallel execution of work items. The Federation (B2B) services provide access to remote business partners. They invoke the security of the underlying application server software — leveraging existing commercial software available to the customer. The Library is the repository for the storage, access, and version controlling of components that will be shared within an organization and with partner organizations. A FIPER Station is a long-running process that performs work on behalf of the ACS (and, indirectly, the user of the system). An instance of the Station must be run on any workstation which is to act as a part of the parallel and distributed execution environment. Parallel execution occurs when processes (jobs) are run at the same time; while distributed executions occurs when processes are run without regard to time specifications. For more information about FIPER Stations, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination.

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Creating an ACS Connection Profile
You need to create a connection profile if you are connecting to an ACS in the FIPER environment. If you are running iSIGHT-FD in the Standalone (Desktop) environment, this connection profile is included in your installation and does not need to be created. To create the connection profile file: 1. Access the Profile Editor using one of the following methods: Windows: Click the Start button; then, point to All Programs / FIPER 2.5 and click Edit Logon Profile. Execute the editcpr command from a command prompt. If you have already started iSIGHT-FD and are currently viewing the Logon dialog box, you can click the The Profile Editor appears. button to create a new profile.

2. Type the name of the profile in the Profile name text box. This name will appear on the Connection drop-down list when connecting to the ACS. 3. Select the type of application server you are using from the Server type drop-down list.

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668 Chapter 13 Understanding FIPER Environment Options Additional options appear when one of these two options is selected.

4. Specify the name of the machine running the ACS in the Server name text box. Important: If you will be using LSF with iSIGHT-FD, do not specify the server using its fully qualified domain name. For example, you should type acsmachine, not acsmachine.yourcompany.com. 5. (optional) Change the port number in the corresponding text box. The port number provided is the default port number for the application server selected. However, based on your network or system configuration, you may need to change this number. Contact your local system administrator for more information. 6. Select Save As... from the File menu; then, name and save the connection profile. All connection profiles should be stored in the top level of the iSIGHT-FD installation directory in order to ensure that they appear in the Connection profile drop-down list on the Logon dialog box. 7. Close the Profile Editor dialog box.

Understanding FIPER Permissions Options
When connected to a FIPER ACS, you can set published object (models and components) and job permissions. This functionality allows you to control which user, who connect to the ACS, can have access to items saved in the Library (objects) or in the database (jobs).

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Understanding FIPER Permissions Options To view default permission settings: 1. Access the Preferences dialog box as described in “Accessing the Preferences Dialog Box,” on page 41. 2. Click Default Permissions on the left side of the dialog box. The Default Permissions options appear.

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These options allow you to set user permissions for newly-published objects and jobs. These default permissions are used whenever an object is published, and help eliminate the need to manually set permissions every time you publish an object. You can also set permissions that are particular to a model or job. For more information, see one of the following topics: For more information on setting permissions for a specific model or component, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545. For more information on setting permissions for a specific job, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. The process for adding users for newly-published objects or jobs is the same. To configure users for newly-published objects, use the settings located in the upper section of the dialog box. To configure users for newly-created jobs, use the settings located in the lower section of the dialog box. For more information on each setting available with this feature, see “Setting Object Permissions,” on page 545.

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Viewing ACS Connection Information
When connected to an ACS, you can view information about your connection using one of the following methods: Select Connection Status from the Tools menu. Select Server Information from the View menu. Click the Server Information Button that displays the server and user names in the bottom right corner of the Design Gateway. The Server Information dialog box appears.

This dialog box is divided into three tabs that provide you with the following information: General. This tab displays information about the ACS you are connected to including the connection profile being used to connect to the ACS, the full name of the machine with domain, the type of application server used, the user name used to connect to the ACS, and ACS version information. Server Details. This tab displays additional server details including the server name and the port number used. Stations. This tab shows any FIPER Stations currently connected to the ACS. For more information on FIPER Stations, refer to the FIPER Installation and Configuration Guide that matches your ACS combination.

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A Design Gateway Reference Information
This chapter contains reference information about menu options, toolbar buttons, component title bar buttons, right-click options, and keyboard shortcuts. It is designed as a quick reference, and does not necessarily describe how to use the options. It is divided into the following sections: “Menu Options,” on page 672 “Toolbar Buttons,” on page 680 “Component Title Bar Buttons,” on page 681 “Right-Click Menu Options,” on page 681 “Keyboard Shortcuts,” on page 685 “Command Line Options,” on page 688

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Menu Options
The following tables describe the options available from each menu on the Design Gateway, including the menu option name, the icon that represents the action (if one exists), the toolbar button that performs the same action (if one exists), and the action description: “File Menu” on this page “Edit Menu,” on page 673 “View Menu,” on page 675 “Window Menu,” on page 677 “Run Menu,” on page 678 “Tools Menu,” on page 679 “Help Menu,” on page 679

File Menu
The following table (Table A-1) describes options available from the Design Gateway File menu. Table A-1. File Menu Options Option
New (Default) New... Open from Disk... Open from Library... Close Current Model Close All Models

Icon

Toolbar Action Button
Creates a new model with a Task component as the root component. Creates a new model, but allows you to select the root component from a list. Allows you to open a model from your computer’s hard drive. Allows you to open a model from the current Library. Closes the model you are currently viewing on the Design Gateway. Closes all models that are currently open.

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Print... Publish...

Icon

Toolbar Action Button
Allows you to print model information. Allows you to publish a component or model to the Library. For more information, see Chapter 7 “Using the Library and Publishing Models”. Saves the current model with the same file name. Allows you to save the current model with a new file name. A list of recently used models is displayed, which allows for quick access to these files. Closes the Design Gateway interface. Closes all iSIGHT-FD interfaces.

Save Save As... (Recently Used Files) Close Window Exit

Edit Menu
The following table (Table A-2) describes options available from the Design Gateway Edit menu. Table A-2. Edit Menu Options Option
Cut

Icon

Toolbar Action Button
Removes the selected component from the workflow, places it in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location. Places a copy of the selected component from the workflow in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location.

Copy

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674 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information Table A-2. Edit Menu Options (cont.) Option
Paste Copy

Icon

Toolbar Action Button
Takes a cut or copied component from memory and places it in your workflow as a separate entity. It is no longer connected to the original component. For more information, see “Creating Independent Copies of Components,” on page 86. Pastes a reference to a component in your workflow using the Reference component. Any change to the original component is reflected in the reference. For more information, see “Creating Reference Copies of Components,” on page 88. Removes the selected component from the workflow. Allows you to specify the model’s name, version, icon, and description. For more information, see “Setting Model Properties,” on page 65. Allows you to enclose a component within another process component. For more information, see “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82. Allows to you set options for different iSIGHT-FD interfaces and some components. For more information on using preferences, see “Setting Preferences,” on page 40.

Paste Reference

Delete Model Properties

Encapsulate

Preferences

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View Menu
The following table (Table A-3) describes options available from the Design Gateway View menu. Table A-3. View Menu Options Option Icon Toolbar / Title Bar Button Action

View

Opens a submenu containing the following options: Parameters. This option opens a standalone parameters dialog box, which displays the same information as the Parameters tab. This option performs the same function as the Detach button on the Parameters tab. For more information on using this dialog box, see “Viewing Parameters for Multiple Components,” on page 573. Files. This option opens a standalone parameters dialog box, which displays the same information as the Files tab, and shows file parameter information. For more information on using this dialog box, see “Using File Parameters,” on page 579. Editor. This option opens the selected component’s editor. Properties. This option opens the Properties dialog box, and displays information for the selected component.

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676 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information Table A-3. View Menu Options (cont.) Option Icon Toolbar / Title Bar Button Action

Dataflow Mapping. This option opens a mapping dialog box, which displays the mapping information for the selected component. The information displayed is the same as that which appears on the Mapping tab. Library Opens the Library dialog box. For more information, see “Using the Library Interface,” on page 533. Opens the Runtime Gateway interface, with no model loaded. For more information on using this interface, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. If you are connected to the FIPER environment (an ACS), this button opens the Server Information dialog box, which provides you with details on your current ACS connection. For more information, see “Viewing ACS Connection Information,” on page 670. Opens the Select Job dialog box, which allows you to retrieve job information from a local database and load it into the Runtime Gateway. You can also set permissions for jobs if you are connected to a FIPER environment. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. When this check button is selected, the Component Palette (the area that consists of the Activities, Drivers, and <New> tab, and holds component icons) is displayed. This check button is selected by default.

Runtime Gateway

Server Information

Jobs Database

Component Palette

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Menu Options 677 Table A-3. View Menu Options (cont.) Option Icon Toolbar / Title Bar Button Action

Status Bar

When this check button is selected, the Status Bar at the bottom of the Design Gateway is visible. This check button is selected by default. When this check button is selected, the Tool Bar, directly below the Menu Bar at the top of the Design Gateway, is visible. This check button is selected by default.

Tool Bar

Window Menu
The following table (Table A-4) describes options available from the Design Gateway Window menu. Table A-4. Window Menu Options Option
Clone

Icon

Action
This option creates an exact copy of the current model in a new Design Gateway. Changes to either model affect the other model. This list shows all currently open models in the Design Gateway.

(Current Open Models List)

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Run Menu
The following table (Table A-5) describes options available from the Design Gateway Run menu. Table A-5. Run Menu Options Option Icon Toolbar / Title Bar Button Action

Run Model

This action executes the entire model locally (or using the ACS if you are connected to the FIPER environment). The action is automatically performed if only the Run button is clicked (instead of the associated menu). This action executes only the selected component locally (or using the ACS if you are connected to the FIPER environment). This action executes the entire model locally (or using the ACS if you are connected to the FIPER environment), but offers additional options prior to execution. This action executes the selected component locally (or using the ACS if you are connected to the FIPER environment), but offers additional options prior to execution. If you are connected to the FIPER environment (an ACS), this option opens a submenu that allows you to execute a model locally using options similar to those described above.

Run Component (Selected Component)

Configure and Run Model

Configure and Run Component (Selected Component)

Test Locally

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Tools Menu
The following table (Table A-6) describes options available from the Design Gateway Tools menu. Table A-6. Tools Menu Options Option
SDK Generator

Action
Opens the Component Generator, which assists you in creating components. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. In the FIPER environment, provides you with details on your current ACS connection. For more information, see “Viewing ACS Connection Information,” on page 670.

Connection Status

Help Menu
The following table (Table A-7) describes options available from the Design Gateway Help menu. Table A-7. Help Menu Options Option
Contents

Icon

Action
Opens the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway online help. If you have any trouble accessing the online help, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Getting Started Guide for information on supported help platforms. Displays information about iSIGHT-FD, as well as contact information.

About

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Toolbar Buttons
The following table (Table A-8) describes buttons available from the Design Gateway Toolbar. Table A-8. Toolbar Buttons Button Action
Creates a new model, but allows you to select the root component from a list. Allows you to open a model from your computer’s hard drive. Saves the current model with the same file name. Allows you to print model information. Removes the selected component from the workflow, placing it in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location. Places a copy of the selected component from the workflow in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location. Takes a cut or copied component from memory and places it in your workflow. This button, which toggles between an on (depressed) and off (raised) setting, displays or hides the Component Palette, which is the area that consists of the Activities, Drivers, and <New> tab, and holds component icons. Opens the Library dialog box. This button runs the model based on your current connection mode (ACS or Desktop (Standalone)). Clicking the down arrow to the right of the button accesses additional execution options.

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Component Title Bar Buttons
The following table (Table A-9) describes buttons available from the Design Gateway Component Title Bar, which is located below the Component Palette. Table A-9. Component Title Bar Buttons Button Action
This button opens the editor for the selected component. This button opens the properties for the selected component. This button opens the Approximation dialog box, allowing you to create an approximation, or edit, view, analyze errors for, or delete an existing approximation for the selected component. For more information, see Chapter 6 “Creating and Using Approximations”. This button runs the selected component based on your current connection mode (FIPER environment ACS or Standalone). Clicking the down arrow to the right of the button allows you to either run the component immediately, or configure and run the component.

Right-Click Menu Options
Right-clicking on a tab, a component in the Component Palette, a component in the Workflow or Dataflow tab canvas, and a workflow arrow opens a submenu with numerous options. These options are described below. Proceed to one of the following sections for more information: “Tab Options,” on page 682 “Component Palette Options,” on page 682 “Workflow Component Options,” on page 682

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682 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information “Dataflow Component Options,” on page 684 “Workflow Arrow Options,” on page 684

Tab Options
These options are described in “Manipulating Tabs,” on page 39.

Component Palette Options
These options are described in “Altering Components on the Palette,” on page 38.

Workflow Component Options
The following table (Table A-10) lists right-click options for components in your workflow. Table A-10. Workflow Component Right-click Menu Options Option
Edit Disable

Action
Opens the selected components editor. For more information on these editors, see Chapter 4 “Using Components”. Allows you to disable any component in your workflow. Once a component is disabled, right-clicking it again reveals an Enable option. For more information, see “Disabling a Component in the Workflow,” on page 70. Opens the selected components properties. For more information, see “Editing Component Properties,” on page 113. Either displays or hides the contents of process components in the Workflow tab. This option is only available for process components Allows you to rename the selected component. Removes the selected component from the workflow, placing it in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location.

Properties Collapse / Expand

Rename Cut

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Right-Click Menu Options 683 Table A-10. Workflow Component Right-click Menu Options (cont.) Option
Copy

Action
Places a copy of the selected component from the workflow in memory, and allows you to paste it in another location. For more information, see “Copying Model Information,” on page 86. Takes a cut or copied component from memory and places it in your workflow. For more information, see “Creating Independent Copies of Components,” on page 86. Pastes a reference to a component in your workflow. Similar to a shortcut in the Windows operating environment. Any change to the original component is reflected in the reference. For more information, see “Creating Reference Copies of Components,” on page 88. Removes the selected component from the workflow. Opens a submenu that allows you to view component parameters, file parameters, mappings, and validation errors. All information is displayed in a separate dialog box. Executes the selected component. This option has the same function as the run button in the Component Title Bar. For more information, see “Executing a Model or Component,” on page 63. Prints information about the component. Allows you to save the component. For more information, see “Saving a Model or Component,” on page 62. Allows you to publish the component, which makes it available to other users who access your Library. For more information on publishing components, see “Publishing a Sub-Model (Component),” on page 544. Provides access to the selected component’s approximations. It allows you to access the Approximation Wizard, the Visual Design Driver (VDD), and Error Analysis. For more information, see Chapter 6 “Creating and Using Approximations”. Allows you to specify a new process component to act as a container for the selected component. For more information, see “Encapsulating Components,” on page 82.

Paste Copy

Paste Reference

Delete View

Run

Print This Component Tree... Save As Publish

Approximations

Encapsulate

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684 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information Table A-10. Workflow Component Right-click Menu Options (cont.) Option
Change To

Action
Allows you to change the selected component to a different component of the same type (process or activity). For more information, see “Changing Components In a Workflow,” on page 57. Allows you to specify the selected component (and any child components) as a submodel. Submodels can be referenced any number of times within a model, allowing you to reuse specific parts of your model as needed. For more information, see “Using Submodels,” on page 90.

Make Submodel

Dataflow Component Options
These options are the same as those described in “Workflow Component Options,” on page 682.

Workflow Arrow Options
The following options are available if you right-click a workflow arrow on the Workflow tab: Edit Condition. Opens a dialog box, which allows you to specify information about the selected workflow arrow, including execution and label options. For more information, see “Setting Conditional Workflow Options,” on page 71. Delete. Allows you to delete the selected workflow arrow. Paste Copy. Takes a cut or copied workflow arrow from memory and places it in your workflow. Paste Reference. Pastes a reference to a workflow arrow in your workflow. Similar to a shortcut in the Windows operating environment. Any change to the original workflow arrow is reflected in the reference.

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Keyboard Shortcuts 685

Keyboard Shortcuts
This section describes keyboard shortcuts available when using the Design Gateway. Proceed to one of the following topics for more information: “Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts” on this page “Using Keyboard Shortcuts on HP-UX,” on page 687

Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts
The following table lists the keyboard shortcuts from the Design Gateway. The shortcuts work when the Design Gateway is the active window. Table A-11. Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts Menu Text File
New (Default) New... Open from Disk... Open from Library... Close Current Model Close All Models Print... Publish... Save Save As... Close Window Exit

Mnemonic
F D N O L C M P U S A W x E T C

Accelerator
Ctrl-D Ctrl-N Ctrl-O Ctrl-Shift-O

Ctrl-P Ctrl-U Ctrl-S F12 Ctrl-W

Edit
Cut Copy

Ctrl-X Ctrl-C

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686 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information Table A-11. Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.) Menu Text
Paste Copy Paste Reference Delete Model Properties Encapsulate Preferences

Mnemonic
A R D M L P V C P F E O M L R S J n a T W C R L M N U

Accelerator
Ctrl-V Ctrl-Shift-V Delete

Alt-N

View
Component Parameters Files Editor Properties Dataflow Mapping Library Runtime Gateway Server Information Job List Component Palette Status Bar Tool Bar

Ctrl-Shift-P Ctrl-Shift-F Ctrl-Shift-E Ctrl-Shift-T Ctrl-Shift-M Ctrl-Shift-L Ctrl-Shift-R Ctrl-Shift-S Ctrl-Shift-J

Window
Clone

Run
Run Model (Local) Run Model (ACS) Run Component (Local) Run Component (ACS)

F4 F5 Shift-F4 Shift-F5

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Keyboard Shortcuts 687 Table A-11. Design Gateway Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.) Menu Text
Config and Run Model (Local) Config and Run Model (ACS) Config and Run Component (Local) Config and Run Component (ACS)

Mnemonic
G F O I

Accelerator
Alt-Shift-F4 Alt-Shift-F5 Ctrl-Shift-F4 Ctrl-Shift-F5

Tools
SDK Generator Connection Status

T G C H C A F1 Ctrl-Shift-G

Help
Contents About

Using Keyboard Shortcuts on HP-UX
Several keyboard shortcuts do not work on the HP-UX operating system without making some modifications to the default key mappings. In general, you must modify the key mappings so that Alt_L and Alt_R are no longer synonymous with Meta_L and Meta_R.

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688 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information To update the key mappings to work with iSIGHT-FD: 1. Open a terminal window. 2. Execute the following commands, using the xmodmap command to change the key mappings:
xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Alt_L" xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_R = Alt_R" xmodmap -e "clear Mod1" xmodmap -e "add Mod1 = Alt_L" xmodmap -e "add Mod1 = Alt_R"

3. Close the terminal window; then, verify that the shortcuts listed below function properly: Alt-F opens the File menu. Alt-E opens the Edit menu. Alt-V opens the View menu. Alt-W opens the Window menu. Alt-R opens the Run menu. Alt-T opens the Tools menu. Alt-H opens the Help menu.

Command Line Options
Several command line options can be used in conjunction with the gateway command at the command prompt: Note: Arguments with a value may be specified using either of the following methods (tag is case-insensitive): tag:VALUE. For example: gateway model:i_beam.zmf -tag VALUE. For example: gateway -model i_beam.zmf

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Command Line Options 689 The following commands are available: <no_argument>. Not specifying an argument with the rt_gateway command simply opens the Runtime Gateway with no model loaded. -l <locale>. This argument sets the locale (language environment) for the current session. It is useful only when testing support for a language. For example, typing gateway -l de_DE displays all messages in German. logfile. This argument allows you to specify a file name and location for the iSIGHT-FD log file. loglevel. This argument allows you to determine what information is sent to your iSIGHT-FD log file. Components create different levels of log messages. You can define the minimum log information setting (debug), and you will receive information on that particular level, and all other levels above it. For more information on log levels, see “Setting Gateway Preferences,” on page 42. The following log levels are available: syserror error warning info debug logonprompt:[yes|no]. This argument allows you to specify if the Logon dialog box appears when the Design Gateway is executed. If you use this argument to stop the Logon dialog box from appearing (the no option), you must specify a profile name, user name and password using the arguments in this list. Failure to specify this information will cause the Design Gateway to cancel the logon and exit due to the error. <model-name>.zmf. This argument allows you to specify a particular model that will be loaded into the Design Gateway. You can also specify a model to be loaded by adding the following setting at the end of the set JVMParms= entry in the gateway.bat file (gateway file on UNIX):
-Dfiper.gateway.modelToLoad=MODEL.zmf

Note: Be sure to leave a space between this argument and the last one currently on the line.

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690 Appendix A Design Gateway Reference Information You can also set the environment variable FIPER_JVMPARMS using the setting described above. profile:<connection_profile_file_name>. This argument allows you to specify the connection profile that the Design Gateway will use. If you only specify this argument, the Logon dialog box will appear, and you’ll have to specify the name and password for the connection profile. If you receive an error that the connection profile cannot be found, use a full path to the profile. For example: gateway profile:\progra~1\fiper\standalone.cpr pw:<password>. This argument allows you to specify the password of the user that will log into the Design Gateway when connecting to an ACS in the FIPER environment. It is not used for the desktop (Standalone) connections. If you only specify this argument, the Logon dialog box will appear, but the password will already be defined. -r. This argument allows you to open the Runtime Gateway (instead of the Design Gateway) using the gateway command. For more information on using the Runtime Gateway, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Runtime Gateway Guide. Note: Be sure to leave a space between this argument and the last one currently on the line. -help. This argument prints information about the available command line arguments and then exits. user:<user_id>. This argument allows you to specify the user that will log on to use the Design Gateway when connecting to an ACS in the FIPER environment. It is not used for the desktop (Standalone) connections. If you only specify this argument, the Logon dialog box will appear, but the user name will already be defined.

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691

B Component Reference Information
This chapter provides information about components and techniques used in components (specifically the Optimization component). This information is not necessary in order to use the components or techniques, but may prove helpful in better understanding how they are used in iSIGHT-FD. The chapter is divided into the following sections: “DOE Reference Information,” on page 692 “Monte Carlo Reference Information,” on page 699 “SDI Reference Information,” on page 714 “Optimization Reference Information,” on page 716 “Approximations Reference Information,” on page 737

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692 Appendix B Component Reference Information

DOE Reference Information
When defining a plan for a DOE study, one of the key decisions you will need to make is what technique to select. This section provides an overview of the available techniques to help you make this decision. It is divided into the following sections: “Parameter Study” on this page “Full-Factorial Design” on this page “Orthogonal Arrays,” on page 693 “Latin Hypercube,” on page 694 “Optimal Latin Hypercube,” on page 695 “Central Composite Design,” on page 697 “Data File,” on page 698

Parameter Study
Although this term can be used quite generally to refer to any study of design parameters, in iSIGHT-FD “Parameter Study” is used to refer to a true study of the sensitivity of the design to each factor independent of all other factors. In other words, each factor is studied at all of its specified levels (values) while all other factors are held fixed at their baseline. A baseline point is also analyzed for reference, resulting in (i = # factors, ni = # levels for factor i) design point evaluations. Although this does not provide any interaction information, it does allow you to study many factors at many levels with relatively few design point evaluations. If interactions are insignificant, the results are a good indicator of the effects of the individual factors.

Full-Factorial Design
A full-factorial design is one in which all combinations of all factors at all levels are evaluated. It is an old engineering practice to systematically evaluate a grid of points

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

DOE Reference Information 693 requiring (i = # factors, ni = # levels for factor i) design point

evaluations. This practice provides extensive information for accurate estimation of factor and interaction effects. However, it is often deemed cost-prohibitive due to the number of analyses required.

Orthogonal Arrays
The use of orthogonal arrays lets you avoid a costly full-factorial experiment in which all combinations of all inputs (or factors) at different levels are studied (pn for n factors each at p levels), and instead perform a fractional factorial experiment. A fractional factorial experiment is a certain fractional subset (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, etc.) of the full factorial set of experiments, carefully selected to maintain orthogonality (independence) among the various factors and certain interactions. It is this orthogonality that allows for independent estimation of factor and interaction effects from the entire set of experimental results. While the use of orthogonal arrays for fractional factorial design suffers from reduced resolution in the analysis of results (i.e., factor effects are aliased with interaction effects as more factors are added to a given array), the significant reduction in the required number of experiments (cost) can often justify this loss in resolution as long as some of the interaction effects are assumed negligible. In fractional factorial designs (which are essentially what orthogonal arrays are used for), the number of columns in the design matrix is less than the number necessary to represent every factor and all interactions of those factors. Instead, columns are “shared” by these quantities, an occurrence known as confounding. Confounding results in the dilemma of not being able to realize which quantity in a given column produced the effect on the outputs attributed to that column (from post-processing analysis). In such a case, the designer must make an assumption as to which quantities can be considered insignificant (typically the highest-order interactions) so that a single contributing quantity can be identified. In essence, for an orthogonal array of a given size, the more factors and interactions you want to study, the greater the confounding. This results in lower confidence in the analysis of results (since more assumptions of insignificant factors must be made). Orthogonal arrays have been used in design since as early as the 1940's by Plackett and Burman, who used saturated designs (only studying factor effects), and were really popularized by Taguchi, who developed a family of 2- and 3-level orthogonal arrays to study interaction effects (Ross, P.J., Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

694 Appendix B Component Reference Information McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, NY, 1988). The 3-level arrays also allow for an estimation of 2nd order effects (i.e., design space curvature). The use of these orthogonal arrays provides a systematic and efficient method to study the design space and provide suggestions for improving the design. However, the actual tasks of selecting the appropriate orthogonal arrays to use and assigning the factors and interactions to columns can be tedious and overwhelming. The automation of this procedure in iSIGHT-FD allows a designer with little or no knowledge of orthogonal arrays to efficiently and effectively study the design space using this formal DOE methodology.

Latin Hypercube
Another class of experimental design which efficiently samples large design spaces is Latin Hypercube sampling. With this technique, the design space for each factor is uniformly divided (the same number of divisions (n) for all factors). These levels are then randomly combined to specify n points defining the design matrix (each level of a factor is studied only once). For example, Figure B-1 illustrates a possible Latin Hypercube configuration for two factors (X1, X2) in which five points are studied. Although not as visually obvious, this concept easily extends to multiple dimensions. Figure B-1. Latin Hypercube Configuration for Two Factors, with Five Points

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DOE Reference Information 695

Optimal Latin Hypercube
An advantage of using Latin Hypercube over Orthogonal Arrays is that more points and more combinations can be studied for each factor. The Latin Hypercube technique allows the designer total freedom in selecting the number of designs to run (as long as it is greater than the number factors). The configurations are more restrictive using the Orthogonal Arrays (L4, L8, etc.). Note: A drawback to the Latin Hypercube is that, in general, they are not reproducible since they are generated with random combinations. In addition, as the number of points decreases, the chances of missing some regions of the design space increases. An Optimal Latin Hypercube is a modified Latin Hypercube, in which the combination of factor levels for each factor is optimized, rather than randomly combined. With this technique, as with random Latin Hypercube, the design space for each factor is uniformly divided (the same number of divisions (n) for all factors). These levels are then randomly combined to generate a random Latin Hypercube as the initial DOE design matrix with n points (each level of a factor studies only once). An optimization process is then applied to this initial random Latin Hypercube design matrix. By swapping the order of two factor levels in a column of the matrix, a new matrix is generated and the new overall spacing of points is evaluated. The goal of this optimization process is to design a matrix in which the points are spread as evenly as possible within the design space defined by the lower and upper level of each factor. The Optimal Latin Hypercube concept is illustrated in Figure B-2 on page 696 for a configuration with two factors (X1, X2) and 9 design points. In Figure B-2 (part a), a standard three level Orthogonal Array is shown. While this matrix has nine design points, there are only three levels for each factor. Consequently, a quadratic model could be fit to this data, but it is not possible to determine if the actual functional relationship between the response and these two factors is more nonlinear than quadratic. Figure B-2 (part b) shows a random Latin Hypercube.This matrix also includes nine design points for the two factors, but there are nine levels for each factor as well, allowing higher order polynomial models to be fit to the data and greater assessment of nonlinearity. However, the design points in Figure B-2 (part b) are not spread evenly within the design space. For example, there is little data in the upper right and lower left corners of the design space. An Optimal Latin Hypercube matrix is displayed in Figure B-2 (part c). With this matrix, the nine design points cover nine levels of each factor and are spread evenly within the design space. For cases where one purpose of executing the design experiment is to fit an approximation to the

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

696 Appendix B Component Reference Information resulting data, the Optimal Latin Hypercube gives the best opportunity to model the true function, or true behavior of the response across the range of the factors. Figure B-2. Optimal Latin Hypercube Configuration for Two Factors, with Nine Points

a) 3-level Orthogonal Array

b) random Latin Hypercube

c) Optimal Latin Hypercube

The Optimal Latin Hypercube code implemented in iSIGHT-FD was developed by: Professor Wei Chen, Northwestern University Dr. Ruichen Jin, Ford Motor Company (formerly a student of Professor Chen) Dr. Agus Sudjianto, formerly with Ford Motor Company There are two major advances of this algorithm, compared to other optimal design of experiments algorithms, which increase both the efficiency and robustness of the algorithm: Development of an efficient global optimal search algorithm, “enhanced stochastic evolutionary (ESE) algorithm” Efficient algorithms for evaluating optimality criteria (significant reduction in matrix calculations to evaluate new/modified designs during search) For more information on this algorithm, see the following reference: Jin, R., Chen, W., and Sudjianto, A. “An Efficient Algorithm for Constructing Optimal Design of Computer Experiments,” DETC-DAC48760. 2003 ASME Design Automation Conference, Chicago, IL, September 2-6, 2003.

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DOE Reference Information 697 Note: Since the Optimal Latin Hypercube begins as a random Latin Hypercube and is optimized using a stochastic optimization process, this type of matrix is generally not reproducible (unless the same random seed is reused).

Central Composite Design
Central Composite Design (CCD) is a statistically based technique in which a 2-level full-factorial experiment is augmented with a center point and two additional points for each factor (called “star points”). Thus, five levels are defined for each factor, and to study n factors using Central Composite Design requires 2n+2n+1 design point evaluations. Figure B-3 shows the Central Composite Design points for three factors. Figure B-3. Central Composite Design Points for Three Factors

The center and star points are added to acquire knowledge from regions of the design space inside and outside the 2-level full-factorial points, allowing for an estimation of higher order effects (curvature). The star point(s) are determined by defining a parameter α which relates these points to the full-factorial points by Supper = b + (u-b) x α Slower = b - (b-1) x α

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

698 Appendix B Component Reference Information where: b = baseline designl = lower factorial point u = upper factorial pointl < b <u Note that for:

α < 1, star points are inside the full-factorial design α > 1, star points are outside the full-factorial design α = 1, star points are the same value as the full-factorial levels (also referred to as face-centered central composite design)
Although Central Composite Design requires a significant number of design point evaluations, it is a popular technique for compiling data for Response Surface Modeling, due to the expanse of design space covered and the higher order information obtained.

Data File
The Data File technique provides a convenient way for you to define your own set of trials outside of iSIGHT-FD, and still make use of iSIGHT-FD’s integration and automation capabilities. Essentially, the design matrix can be defined by data imported from one or more files, allowing you to execute the DOE study (automatically evaluate all the design points) and analyze the results. Any file used must simply contain a row of tab or space separated values for each data point and a column for each parameter to be used as a factor from that file.

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 699

Monte Carlo Reference Information
Monte Carlo simulation techniques are implemented by randomly simulating a design or process, given the stochastic properties of one or more random variables, with a focus on characterizing the statistical nature (mean, variance, range, distribution, etc.) of the responses (outputs) of interest. Monte Carlo Simulation methods have long been considered the most accurate means of estimating the probabilistic properties of uncertain system responses resulting from known uncertain inputs. To implement a Monte Carlo simulation, a defined number of system simulations to be analyzed are generated by sampling values of random variables (uncertain inputs), following the probabilistic distributions and associated properties defined for each. Sampling techniques for the Monte Carlo component in iSIGHT-FD are implemented as “plug-ins.” As such, they are extendable by creating new “plug-ins” for new sampling techniques. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. The following two sampling technique plug-ins are currently available for the iSIGHT-FD Monte Carlo component: Simple Random Sampling Descriptive Sampling

Simple Random Sampling
Simple Random Sampling is the basic, most commonly used Monte Carlo simulation technique. The general steps for implementing a Monte Carlo simulation using simple random sampling are as follows: 1. Identify the random variables. Assume appropriate distributions and define properties for each (mean, standard deviation, or coefficient of variation). 2. Specify the number of simulations to be executed (often 1,000, however, 10,000 or more simulations are necessary for accurate prediction of response statistical properties).

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700 Appendix B Component Reference Information 3. Generate uniformly distributed random numbers for each random variable. 4. Convert each uniform random number to a random variable value corresponding to the appropriate distribution. 5. Simulate the design/process (execute system analysis) using the current values for random variables and the design variables. 6. Repeat step 3 through step 5 for the number of simulations specified in step 2. 7. Perform post processing by analyzing statistics of responses (mean, standard deviation, range, distribution shape) and evaluate/rank the random variable effects.

Descriptive Sampling
The number of simulations necessary for simple random sampling is usually more than desirable, and often more than practical. Other sampling techniques have been developed to reduce the sample size (number of simulations) without sacrificing the quality of the statistical description of the behavior of the system. These techniques, called variance reduction techniques, reduce the variance of the statistical estimates derived from the Monte Carlo simulation data. As a result, the error in estimates is reduced (estimates from multiple simulations are more consistent), or conversely, fewer points are needed with variance reduction techniques to obtain error or confidence levels similar to those obtained through simple random sampling. One such sampling technique, Descriptive Sampling (Saliby,1990), is available for the Monte Carlo component. In this technique, the space defined by each random variable is divided into subsets of equal probability, and the analysis is performed with each subset of each random variable only once (each subset of one random variable is combined with only one subset of each other random variable). This sampling technique is similar to Latin Hypercube experimental design techniques (for more information on Latin Hypercube refer to “Latin Hypercube,” on page 694), and is best described through illustration as in Figure B-4 on page 701 for two random variables in standard normal space (U-space). As shown in Figure B-4, each row and column in the discretized two variable space is sampled only once, in random order. The cloud of points generated using simple random sampling is also illustrated for comparison.

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 701 Figure B-4. Monte Carlo Sampling Techniques

Simple Random Sampling

Descriptive Sampling

The difference between simple random sampling and descriptive sampling is not necessarily observable with a single simulation using each technique. The actual estimates may be similar. However, through repeated simulation (with different randomization), it is observed that the variance of the set of estimates from descriptive sampling will be less than that from simple random sampling. The range of values observed for the estimates from descriptive sampling will be less (tighter range), and thus the confidence in the estimates is increased. Given this property of descriptive sampling, and variance reduction techniques in general, descriptive sampling will, on average, provide better estimates for the same number of sampling points as simple random sampling, or comparable estimates can be obtained with fewer sampling points. The basic sampling procedures can be modified to include a convergence check. The Monte Carlo component implementation of this convergence checking procedure is described as follows. Rather than calculating all statistics only during the post processing analysis, the mean and standard deviation for each response is updated at specified convergence check intervals (the default is after every 25 sample points). If, during the current convergence check, the mean and standard deviation of all responses have not changed from the associated values at the previous convergence check (within a user-set convergence tolerance), the simulation is terminated. The remaining statistics are then calculated using the existing data set. Since the Monte Carlo Simulation points are independent, these points can be executed, for efficiency, in parallel rather than sequentially. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

702 Appendix B Component Reference Information

Additional References
For more background information about these Monte Carlo simulation methods, refer to: Hammersley, J.M. and Handscomb, D.C., 1964, “Monte Carlo Methods”, Chapman and Hall, London. Hurtodao, J. E. and Barbat, A. H., 1997, “Simulation Methods in Stochastic Mechanics,” in Computational Stochastic Mechanics in a Meta-Computing Perspective, (J. Marczyk, ed.), CIMNE, Barcelona. Saliby, E., 1990, “Descriptive Sampling: A Better Approach to Monte Carlo Simulation”, J. Opl. Res. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 1133-1142. Ziha, K., 1995, “Descriptive sampling in structural safety”, Structural Safety, Vol. 17, pp. 33-41.

Understanding Distribution Types
This section is divided into the following parts: “Introduction,” on page 703 “Normal Distribution,” on page 704 “Lognormal Distribution,” on page 705 “Weibull Distribution,” on page 707 “Gumbel Distribution,” on page 709 “Uniform Distribution,” on page 710 “Exponential Distribution,” on page 712 “Triangular Distribution,” on page 713

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 703

Introduction
Probability distributions are used in some iSIGHT-FD components to characterize the possible values of an uncertain random variable. Random variables will vary around a specified mean or nominal value following a defined distribution of values based on prescribed probabilities for those values. For a given random variable X, the probability that X will take on a value x is defined by the probability density function for that random variable:

where fX(x)

0 for all x. The probability that the random variable X will take on a

value less than a specified threshold value x is defined by the distribution function for that random variable, often also termed the cumulative distribution function:

where 0 FX(x) 1 for all x. For a continuous random variable X, the probability density function, fX(x), and cumulative distribution function, FX(x), are related as follows:

The probability density and cumulative distribution functions for a given probability distribution are generally defined as a function of one or more distribution parameters that define the location, shape, or dispersion of the distribution. In this document, the probability distribution plug-ins available in iSIGHT-FD – normal, lognormal, Weibull, Gumbel, uniform, exponential, and triangular – are described. The probability density and cumulative distributions are given and the translation between the distribution parameter(s) and the mean and standard deviation statistics of a random variable are given for each distribution type. Note: Only continuous random variables can be modeled in iSIGHT-FD, and hence only continuous distributions are defined here. The integral in the previous equation becomes a summation for discrete random variables, where the summation is taken over the discrete probability values associated with the set of values for the random variable. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

704 Appendix B Component Reference Information For more information about probability distributions, as well as theory of probability and statistics, refer to the following references. [1] Evans, M., Hastings, N., and Peacock, B., 2000, Statistical Distributions, Third Edition, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York. [2] Hahn, G. J. and Shapiro, S. S., 1994, Statistical Models in Engineering, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York. The following nomenclature is used throughout this section: X fX(x) FX(x)
random variable probability density function distribution function mean standard deviation Euler’s constant (Gumbel) gamma function

Normal Distribution
The normal or Gaussian distribution is a two-parameter distribution, defined in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the random variable X. The probability density function for the normal distribution is given as follows:

The distribution function corresponding to the density function of the previous equation is given by:

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Monte Carlo Reference Information 705 where is the standard normal distribution function ( and ) defined by:

The corresponding standard normal density function illustrated in Figure B-5 is given by:

The normal distribution is the common “bell curve” distribution, often used for physical measurements, product dimensions, and average temperatures, for example. Figure B-5. Standard Normal Probability Density Function

Lognormal Distribution
Given a random variable X defined over 0 < x < , and given that Y = ln X is normally distributed with mean Y and standard deviation Y, the random variable X follows the lognormal distribution, defined by the probability density function:

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

706 Appendix B Component Reference Information The lognormal distribution function is:

Note that = Y and = Y. The mean and standard deviation of the random variable X are given as follows:

and

The lognormal probability density function, shown in Figure B-6, is often used to describe material properties, sizes from a breakage process, and the life of some types of transistors, for example. Figure B-6. Lognormal Probability Density Function

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 707

Weibull Distribution
The Weibull distribution can be defined by three parameters , , and . Its density function fX(x) is defined by:

where > 0 is the scale parameter, the location parameter.

> 0 is the shape parameter, and

(

<

<

) is

The Weibull probability distribution function is:

If

= 0, as is true for many cases, the density function reduces to:

and the probability distribution function is:

The reduced density function, called a two-parameter Weibull distribution, is used in probabilistic fracture mechanics and fatigue. The two-parameter Weibull distribution is implemented in iSIGHT-FD.

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708 Appendix B Component Reference Information The mean value and standard deviation of the random variable X with the two-parameter Weibull distribution are given as follows:

and

where

is the well known gamma function:

(k) = (k-1)! when k is an positive integer. The Weibull distribution can take many different shapes, as shown in Figure B-7. This distribution is often used to describe the life of capacitors and ball bearings, for example. Figure B-7. Weibull Probability Density Function

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 709

Gumbel Distribution
The Gumbel distribution is also known as extreme value distribution type I for the largest or smallest of a number of values. The Gumbel probability density function for largest and smallest elements are given in the following two equations, respectively: largest element

smallest element

where the parameter is a measure of location and Gumbel distribution function is: largest element

is a measure of dispersion. The

smallest element

The mean value and standard deviation of the random variable X for the Gumbel distribution are given by: largest element

smallest element

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710 Appendix B Component Reference Information and

where

0.5772 is Euler's constant.

The Gumbel probability density function, shown in Figure B-8, is often used to describe the breaking strength of materials, breakdown voltage in capacitors, and gust velocities encountered by an aircraft, for example. Figure B-8. Gumbel Probability Density Function

Uniform Distribution
The uniform distribution has a constant probability for all values of a random variable X. The uniform probability density function is given by:

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 711 where the parameters a and b define the range of the uniform distribution. The uniform distribution function is:

The mean value and standard deviation of the random variable X for the uniform distribution are given by:

and

The uniform probability density function, shown in Figure B-9, is used when only a range of possible values for a random variable is known. Figure B-9. Uniform Probability Density Function

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712 Appendix B Component Reference Information

Exponential Distribution
The exponential distribution is a single parameter distribution, with mean and standard deviation equal. The exponential probability density function for a random variable X is given by:

where the parameter λ is a scale parameter. The exponential distribution function is:

The mean value and standard deviation of the random variable X for the exponential distribution are given by:

The exponential probability density function, shown in Figure B-10, is often used to describe usage life of components. Figure B-10. Exponential Probability Density Function

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Monte Carlo Reference Information 713

Triangular Distribution
The triangular distribution is characterized by three parameters: a lower limit location parameter, a, and upper limit location parameter, b, and a shape parameter that defines the mode or peak of the triangle, c. The triangular probability density function for a random variable X is given by:

The triangular distribution function is:

The mean value and standard deviation of the random variable X for the exponential distribution are given by:

and

The triangular probability density function, shown in Figure B-11 on page 714, is commonly used when the actual distribution of a random variable is not known, but three pieces of information are available: a lower limit which the random variable will not go below, an upper limit which the random variable will not exceed, and a “most likely” (expected peak) value.

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714 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-11. Triangular Probability Density Function

SDI Reference Information
Stochastic Design Improvement (SDI) is a Monte Carlo simulation-based iterative procedure for improving a design. At each iteration step, a Monte Carlo sample including design variables (controllable) and random variables (not controllable) is taken and an improved design is chosen from among the Monte Carlo “cloud” of points. The improved design is chosen based on defined response targets, with penalty associated with violation of defined response limits. The number of iteration steps is pre-specified, with a “termination threshold distance” allowing early termination if the new design is within a threshold distance of the target. The Monte Carlo sampling performed at each step uses the Descriptive Sampling Monte Carlo technique. For more information on Descriptive Sampling, see “Descriptive Sampling,” on page 700. Samples are taken following the random variable distributions and uniformly across a local range for design variables. For more information on distribution functions, see “Understanding Distribution Types,” on page 702.

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SDI Reference Information 715 At each SDI step, the selection of an improved point, or decision to terminate, is based on calculation of the distance of each point to the target point, as described in the following section.

Distance to Target
The target point is defined by the target values of all responses for which a target is defined. The distance between any sample point and the target is calculated based on the euclidean distance equation, with a penalty built in if the sample point is outside any response constraint(s):

where, is the value of response k at the current sample point, is the target value of response k, and the penalty is a large value added to the distance if the sample point lies outside one or more response bounds. For a given SDI step, the distance to the target is not reduced at least by the amount specified in the Termination Threshold Distance (percent change from previous step), the SDI process is terminated.

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716 Appendix B Component Reference Information

Optimization Reference Information
The following technique reference information is provided in this section: “Adaptive Simulated Annealing Reference Information” on this page “Modified Method of Feasible Directions - ADS Reference Information,” on page 718 “Generalized Reduced Gradient - LSGRG2,” on page 721 “Hooke-Jeeves Direct Search Method,” on page 721 “Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm,” on page 722 “Sequential Quadratic Programming - NLPQL,” on page 722 “Generalized Reduced Gradient - LSGRG2,” on page 721 “NSGA-II Reference Information,” on page 732 “NCGA Reference Information,” on page 733

Adaptive Simulated Annealing Reference Information
The Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm is very well suited for solving highly non-linear problems with short running analysis codes, when finding the global optimum is more important than a quick improvement of the design. It helps to visualize the problems presented by such complex systems as a geographical terrain. For example, consider a mountain range, with two “parameters,” such as along the North-South and East-West directions. We wish to find the lowest valley in this terrain. ASA approaches this problem similar to using a ball that can bounce over mountains from valley to valley. We start at a high “temperature,” where the temperature is an ASA parameter that mimics the effect of a fast moving particle in a hot object like a hot molten metal, thereby permitting the ball to make very high bounces, and able to bounce over any mountain to access any valley, given enough bounces. As the temperature is made relatively colder, the ball cannot bounce so high, and it also can settle, becoming trapped in relatively smaller ranges of valleys. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 717 We imagine that our mountain range is aptly described by a “cost function” (Objective and Penalty parameter in iSIGHT). We define probability distributions of the two directional parameters, called generating distributions since they generate possible valleys or states we are to explore. We define another distribution, called the acceptance distribution, which depends on the difference of cost functions of the present generated valley we are to explore and the last saved lowest valley. The acceptance distribution decides probabilistically whether to stay in a new lower valley or to bounce out of it. All the generating and acceptance distributions depend on temperatures. In a D-dimensional parameter space with parameters p^i having ranges [A_i, B_i], about the k'th last saved point (e.g, a local optima), p_k^i, a new point is generated using a distribution defined by the product of distributions for each parameter, g^i(y^i; T_i), in terms of random variables y^i in [-1, 1], where p_k+1^i = p_k^i + y^i(B_i A_i), and “temperatures” T_i, g^i(y^i; T_i) = 1/[2(|y^i| + T_i)(1 + 1/T_i)]. The cost functions, C(p_k+1) - C(p_k), are compared using a uniform random generator, U in [0, 1), in a “Boltzmann” test: If exp[-(C(p_k+1) - C(p_k))/T_cost] > U, where T_cost is the “temperature” used for this test, then the new point is accepted as the new saved point for the next iteration. Otherwise, the last saved point is retained. The annealing schedule for each parameter temperature, T_i, from a starting temperature T_i0, is as follows: T_i(k_i) = T_0i exp(-c_i k_i^(1/D)). The annealing schedule for the cost temperature is developed similarly to the parameter temperatures. However, the index for reannealing the cost function, k_cost, is determined by the number of accepted points, instead of the number of generated points as used for the parameters. T_cost(k_cost) = T_0cost exp(-c_cost k_cost^(1/D)). As determined by the technique options selected, the parameter “temperatures” may be periodically adaptively reannealed, or increased relative to their previous values, using their relative first derivatives with respect to the cost function, in order to guide the search “fairly” among the parameters. As determined by the technique options selected, the reannealing of the cost temperature resets the scale of the annealing of the cost acceptance criteria using the new T_0cost value. The new T_0cost value is taken to be the minimum of the current iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

718 Appendix B Component Reference Information initial cost temperature and the maximum of the absolute values of the best and last cost functions and their difference. The new k_cost is calculated taking T_cost as the maximum of the current value and the absolute value of the difference between the last and best saved minima of the cost function, constrained not to exceed the current initial cost temperature. This procedure essentially resets the scale of the annealing of the cost temperature within the scale of the current best or last saved minimum.

Adaptive Simulated Annealing References
Ingber, L. (1993). “Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA)”. [ftp.alumni.caltech.edu:/pub/ingber/ASA.tar.Z], Lester Ingber Research, Mclean, VA.

Modified Method of Feasible Directions - ADS Reference Information
The Modified Method of Feasible Directions-ADS (Automated Design Synthesis) is a direct numerical optimization technique used to solve constrained optimization problems. This technique has the following features: Rapidly obtains an optimum design Handles inequality and equality constraints Satisfies constraints with high precision at the optimum The following are the sequence of steps followed by the Modified Method of Feasible Directions technique: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 q = 0, x = x0 q=q+1 Evaluate F(x) and gj(x); j = 1, 2, ...., M Identify set of critical constraints, J Calculate F(x) and gj(x), j J

Determine usable/feasible search direction, Sq Perform 1D search to find a*

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Optimization Reference Information 719 8 9 Set xq = xq-1 + a*x Sq Check for convergence; if not converged go to step 2

The Modified Method of Feasible Directions technique uses one of the following methods to find the search direction at each iteration q: If no constraints are active or violated, the (previously described) unconstrained method Conjugate Gradient method is used If any constraints are active and none are violated, the Modified Method of Feasible Directions Minimizes Subject to: Sq x Sq 1 F(xq-1) x Sq gj(xq-1) x Sq 0; j J

If one or more constraints are violated, the Modified Method of Feasible Directions Minimizes Subject to: Sq x Sq 1 F(xq-1) x Sq gj(xq-1) x Sq + 0; j J

Where: J is the set of active and violated constraints is a large positive number is a push-off factor for constraints = 0 for active constraints > 0 for violated constraints The active and violated constraints are identified as follows: gj(x) is active, if CT gj(x) CTMIN

gj(x) is violated, if gj(x) > CTMIN

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720 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-12. Active and Violated Constraint Identification

Modified Method of Feasible Directions - ADS References
Han S.-P. (1976): Superlinearly convergent variable metric algorithms for general nonlinear programming problems, Mathematical Programming, Vol. 11, 263-282 Han S.-P. (1977): A globally convergent method for nonlinear programming, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 22, 297-305 Hock W., Schittkowski K. (1981): Test Examples for Nonlinear Programming Codes, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Vol. 187, Springer Powell M.J.D. (1978a): A fast algorithm for nonlinearly constrained optimization calculations, in: Numerical Analysis, G.A. Watson ed., Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 630, Springer Powell M.J.D. (1978b): The convergence of variable metric methods for nonlinearly constrained optimization calculations, in: Nonlinear Programming 3, O.L. Mangasarian, R.R. Meyer, S.M. Robinson eds., Academic Press

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Optimization Reference Information 721 Schittkowski K. (1980): Nonlinear Programming Codes, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Vol. 183, Springer Schittkowski K. (1983): On the convergence of a sequential quadratic programming method with an augmented Lagrangian line search function, Optimization, Vol. 14, 197-216 Schittkowski K. (1985/86): NLPQL: A FORTRAN subroutine solving constrained nonlinear programming problems, Annals of Operations Research, Vol. 5, 485-500 Schittkowski K. (1987): More Test Examples for Nonlinear Programming, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Vol. 182, Springer Schittkowski K. (1988): Solving nonlinear least squares problems by a general purpose SQP-method, in: Trends in Mathematical Optimization, K.-H. Hoffmann, J.-B. Hiriart-Urruty, C. Lemarechal, J. Zowe eds., International Series of Numerical Mathematics, Vol. 84, Birkhaeuser Schittkowski K. (1991): Solving nonlinear programming problems with very many constraints, Report No. 294, DFG-Schwerpunktprogramm 'Anwendungsbezogene Optimierung und Steuerung', Mathematical Institute, University of Bayreuth Schittkowski K. (1994): Easy-to-use optimization programs with automatic differentiation, Report, Mathematical Institute, University of Bayreuth Schittkowski,K. (1996): EASY-FIT: Parameter estimation in dynamic systems, User‘s Guide, Mathematical Institute, University of Bayreuth

Generalized Reduced Gradient - LSGRG2
This technique uses generalized reduced gradient algorithm for solving constrained non-linear optimization problems. The algorithm uses a search direction such that any active constraints remain precisely active for some small move in that direction.

Hooke-Jeeves Direct Search Method
This technique begins with a starting guess and searches for a local minimum. It does not require the objective function to be continuous. Because the algorithm does not use derivatives, the function does not need to be differentiable. Also, this technique has a

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722 Appendix B Component Reference Information convergence parameter, rho, that lets you determine the number of function evaluations needed for the greatest probability of convergence.

Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm
In the Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm, as with other genetic algorithms, each design point is perceived as an individual with a certain value of fitness, based on the value of objective function and constraint penalty. An individual with a better value of objective function and penalty has a higher fitness value. The main feature of Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm that distinguishes it from traditional genetic algorithms is the fact that each population of individuals is divided into several sub-populations called “islands.” All traditional genetic operations are performed separately on each sub-population. Some individuals are then selected from each island and migrated to different islands periodically. This operation is called “migration.” Two parameters control the migration process: migration interval, which is the number of generations between each migration, and migration rate, which is the percentage of individuals migrated from each island at the time of migration.

Sequential Quadratic Programming - NLPQL
This technique assumes that objective function and constraints are continuously differentiable. The idea is to generate a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, obtained by a quadratic approximation of the Lagrangian function, and a linearization of the constraints. Second order information is updated by a quasi-Newton formula, and the method is stabilized by an additional line search.

Pointer Reference Information
The Pointer technique consists of a complementary set of optimization algorithms: linear simplex, sequential quadratic programming (SQP), downhill simplex, and genetic algorithms. Pointer can efficiently solve a wide range of problems in a fully automatic manner due to a special automatic control algorithm. The goal of the Pointer technique is to make optimization more accessible to non-expert users without sacrificing performance.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 723 It has been said that one of the problems with optimization is that “there is nothing you can say about an arbitrary system”. This statement is correct to some extent. However, based on many years of experience in applying optimization to various engineering problems, the following observations can be made. First of all, a system can be classified once more is known about it. Secondly, once classified, there is some combination of optimization methods that would work better than random guessing. Knowing the type of system you have is critical to being able to solve the system efficiently. Optimization theory has always been developed the other way around. Assuming that the system has a certain mathematical form, what is the most cost efficient way of optimizing this system? Over time, a large collection of optimization methods based on such assumptions were developed. Each of these methods had many degrees of freedom to adapt the method to the problem at hand. In essence, the specific problem that people wanted to solve (e.g., design a lighter structure) was now transformed into finding the right algorithm for designing the structure. This second task was in many ways a harder task than the original. For many engineers and scientists, the problem was transformed from a known to an unknown domain. As a consequence, optimization technology did not become the big commercial success many had hoped for. Thus the issue of control became a driving factor in the development of the Pointer optimization engine. Pointer uses a proprietary algorithm that automatically controls a set of optimization resources. Similarly, Pointer efficiently solves a wide range of problems in a fully automatic manner by harnessing and leveraging the power of a group of distinct complementary optimization algorithms.

Pointer Control Algorithm
Pointer derives its name from the Pointer dog. Even though Pointer dogs are all genetically similar, they can have very specialized skills. Some can “point” out drugs while others can “point” out where a victim is buried under an avalanche. These special skills are passed down from generation to generation. Figure B-13 on page 724 illustrates the control algorithm.

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724 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-13. Pointer Control Algorithm

The Pointer technique consists of a complementary set of optimization algorithms. Currently, Pointer uses linear simplex, sequential quadratic programming (SQP), downhill simplex, and genetic algorithms. All have control parameters (such as initial step sizes) that need to be set properly in order to operate efficiently. This process, illustrated in Figure B-13, is called optimizer training. The inputs to the process are the design variables, constraints and the search objective, with the total time available for the search and any previous experience in terms of the selection and right settings of the optimizers. The Pointer control algorithm varies the optimizer settings in such a way that either: 1. The best answer is found in the shortest time. In this case the optimizers are configured such that the maximum rate of improvement of the objective function is achieved from a single starting position. 2. The most experience is gained. The optimizer settings are selected in such a way that the highest optimizer robustness is achieved for a given optimization time. The robustness is defined as the mean harmonic error of the best objective function (ever found) normalized by the local optimum for a set of random starting vectors. This approach is an order of magnitude slower than merely finding the best answer, but the experience gained will allow you to solve similar classes of problem in the shortest possible time.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 725 Usually, it is not possible for the user to identify the problem topology in such a way that he/she can select the proper algorithms and settings. A real-life example is shown in Figure B-14. The topology is that of the drag of an airfoil computed by CFD as a function of its shape. Previously, the user (from experience) assumed that the drag was a smooth function of the geometry. From the starting point, a small step was selected to calculate the gradients accurately. Because the topology of the drag had surface waves, the steepest downhill slope was considered to be along this wave. If the user had picked a larger step size, he/she would have concluded that the direction normal to the waves has the “relevant” steepest downhill slope. Figure B-14. CFD Problem Topology

These waves are not caused by the physics of the problem (drag), but by numerical interference of converging loops inside the numerical code that calculates the drag. Almost all simulation codes that use partial differential equations exhibit such behavior. Note that the spikes in this plot represent code-crashes, another difficult topological feature not inherent in the real physics. A dozen approaches were identified to correct pathological topologies and find the correct relevant search direction. These pathological topologies are created by the type of numerical algorithm used in the simulation code and not by the specific design problem the simulation code addresses. Therefore, the solution that Pointer presents is valid over a wide range of topologies.

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726 Appendix B Component Reference Information

Pointer Core Algorithms
The core Pointer algorithms were selected based on their individual performance and the added performance in the set of algorithms used. For smooth problems, the best optimizer is the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. The SQP algorithm uses function calls close to the starting point to determine the topology of the problem. SQP is widely used in trajectory optimization and structural optimization. The SQP algorithm used in Pointer is NLPQL, developed by Dr. Klaus Schittkowski, which solves general nonlinear mathematical programming problems with equality and inequality constraints. It is assumed that all problem functions are continuously differentiable. Proceeding from a quadratic approximation of the Lagrangian function and a linearization of the constraints, a quadratic subproblem is formulated and solved by the dual code QL. Subsequently, a line search is performed with respect to two alternative merit functions and the Hessian approximation is updated by a modified BFGS-formula. For non-smooth continuous problems, the downhill simplex method is unmatched. Downhill simplex is especially popular in the chemical engineering field. Unlike SQP, that starts the computation near the starting point, downhill simplex starts the computations from the edges of a computational domain. Pointer utilizes a modified version of Nelder and Mead's implementation. The simplex is a geometrical body with n+1 vertices represented by a triangle in two dimensions and a tetrahedron in three. The method calculates and compares the objective function at the vertices of a simplex in the variable space, selects the worst one, and moves this point through the opposite face of the simplex to a lower point. If this new vertex is better, the old one is deleted. If there is no improvement after a number of steps, the method “shrinks” the simplex by reducing the length of each side, thus trapping the optimum solution. Instead of moving the best point directly in the direction of the steepest decent (the approach of SQP) it moves the worst points of the initial set in the direction of the best. Thus SQP and downhill simplex have little overlap in terms of assumptions and computational use of objective function data. A third algorithm in Pointer is the so-called evolution or genetic algorithm. SQP and downhill simplex determine analytically where the best answer is based on previous objective function calls. Genetic algorithms work well because they incorporate randomness in their search. It gives the algorithm the ability to correct deterministic search bottlenecks. No objective function continuity is required for this method. iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 727 The algorithm in Pointer is based on Professor Schwefel's evolution strategy, later modified by Dr. Mathias Hadenfeld and the first author. The evolution strategy starts out with a large number of points inside the computational domain. In the case of mutation, each of the points produces new points that are normally distributed around the original point. The best point out of this set is selected. In the case of recombination, a random number of points exchange parameter values. Instead of the step size (for SQP) and the size of the simplex (downhill simplex), the volatility of the search is determined by the standard deviation of the average mutation. Genetic algorithms almost always work. However, they are not often the best algorithms to use because of their very high computational expense.

Pointer's Performance On Bench-mark Problems
Pointer has been tested on a variety of problems, from classic “hard” problems such as traveling salesman, to the design of the hull shape for a hydrofoil. However, any optimization problem can usually be solved when the right answer is already known and the starting point “tweaked”. This comparison will therefore focus on the added value of Pointer versus the already good set of core algorithms. Although many problems have been solved with Pointer, this section uses a truss optimization problem because it represents a typical design problem in mechanical or aerospace engineering. Figure B-15 shows a truss as it supports a series of point loads. Figure B-15. A 27 Bar Truss Supporting a Load On a Bridge

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728 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-16. Weight of Bar as Function of x,y Node

The bridge is supported at the right edge and free at the left edge. It has six joints whose positions are chosen by the optimizer so as to minimize the weight or cost subject to a given set of loads. The weight is computed by determining the minimum bar dimensions that can support the applied load. The problem is hard because, as the joints locations move with respect to each other, the loads on the bars change from compression to tension and back. A bar under compression has to be much thicker (thin-walled cylinder) than a bar under tension (wire). The weight of the truss structure is therefore a discontinuous function of the locations of the joints. The optimization task was to minimize the weight of the truss in 30 minutes. In 1993, Mathias Hadenfeld completed the task of optimizing the truss from a random starting point. Hadenfeld was an expert user of optimization. He was free to tweak and restart the solution until he felt that no more progress could be made, but he could not change the starting point. His results are shown in Figure B-18 on page 731 (blue symbols). On average he had more success with the genetic algorithm than the downhill simplex method, and the gradient method failed completely. On average his answers were 15% away from the known optimum due to the difficult topology of the problem. In 1999, the same problem was given to 13 groups of between 7 and 15 professional engineers. They were given Pointer and its graphical user interface displaying the truss. They were asked to minimize the weight without using the optimization. They had to manually input the joint coordinates and run the analysis to see whether an improvement was made. Since an analysis could be done in less than a second, 30 iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 729 minutes was ample time to complete the task. The number of iterations was between 10 and 30. In our experience this also represents the average number of industrial product design iterations. The groups of engineers came up with vastly different answers. Some were more than twice as heavy as the best solution. However, some came up with solutions that were within 5% of the right answer. It is interesting to note that they only achieved these results through the use of the graphical representation of the truss. In a subsequent test without the graphics, no engineer came within 20% of the optimizer's best answer. Next, Pointer was given the control over the core optimizers (red symbol). Just like the expert, Pointer required less function calls to find the answer with genetic algorithm than with the downhill simplex algorithm. But with its standard settings, which allow the optimal use of all algorithms, Pointer was able to consistently get the right answer from any starting point with just 1000 function calls (< 1 minute). Even though the group of experts got very different answers when solving the problem manually, all achieved the correct answer when using Pointer under its standard settings. We also compared Pointer versus a dozen high quality optimizers on standard benchmark tests. The test we used was devised by Dr. Sandgren to represent a wide variety of hard optimization problems in all fields of mathematics and engineering. Though the problems are hard, they were typically not as hard as the ones we experience when working with clients. Figure B-18 on page 731 shows the result of the test. Nevertheless, maybe not surprisingly, Pointer performed exceedingly well on the test. It was the only code capable of solving all the problems. This is all the more impressive considering that the same standard settings were used for all the test cases and that there was no expert intervention in the process. In terms of speed it is usually comparable to the best codes for each of the specific problems. The “best” benchmark results were provided by Dr. Egorov the author of IOSO. Other codes in the comparison were IOSO, NLPQL, DONLP, and MOST.

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730 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-17. Design of a Truss for Minimum Weight Using Various Tools

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Optimization Reference Information 731 Figure B-18. Performance of Pointer Compared to the Fastest Algorithm (used by an expert) Known For Each Test Problem

Summary
The Pointer technique consists of a complementary set of optimization algorithms: linear simplex, sequential quadratic programming, downhill simplex, and genetic algorithms. Since all the optimizer control parameters are automatically set with a special control algorithm, Pointer can efficiently solve a wide range of problems in a fully automatic manner. This was demonstrated by benchmarking the code with Eric Sandgren's optimization benchmark test. Pointer was the only algorithm that could solve all problems and was usually as fast as the best algorithm known for each of the individual test problems.

Pointer References
Schittkowski, K., “NLPQL: A Fortran subroutine for solving constrained nonlinear programming problems”, Annals of Operations Research, Vol.5, 485-500. 1985. Nelder, J.A. & Mead R. “Downhill simplex method in multidimensions”. Computer Journal, 7, pp. 308-313, 1965.

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732 Appendix B Component Reference Information Schwefel, H.P. “Evolutionsstrategie und numerische optimierung”, Ph.D. thesis, Verfahrenstechnik TUBerlin, 1975. Hadenfeld, M., “Anwendung von Evolutionsstrategien fuer die Optimierungsaufgaben beim Vorentwurf von Flugzeugen”, Braunschweig /Bremen. 1993. Ashley, H., “On Making Things the Best - Aeronautical uses of Optimization”, Wright brothers lectureship in aeronautics, Journal of Aircraft. vol. 19 No. 1. 1982. Sandgren, Eric, “The Utility of Nonlinear Programming Algorithms” Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, December 1977. Egorov, I.N. “Indirect Optimization Methods on the basis of self-organization”. Optimization Techniques and Applications (ICOTA '98), vol 2. pp. 683-691. 1998. Dr. Spellucci: (http://www.mathematik.th-darmstadt.de/ags/ag8/spellucci/spellucci.html). Pincus, Jonathan. “Transistor Sizing.”' UCB//CSD-86-285, February 1986. 102 pages.

NSGA-II Reference Information
This section contains detailed background information on iSIGHT-FD’s NSGA-II optimization technique. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II was proposed by K. Deb and S. Agrawal in 2001. It is an improved version of NSGA. Great changes were applied to the original NSGA to create NSGA-II. The only common feature between the two was adopting non-dominated sorting. NSGA-II has Pareto archive P and population Q for genetic search just like SPEA. However, it utilizes Pareto archive more aggressively. In NSGA-II, the number of individuals in archive P is N, and it is equal to the number of individuals in population Q. On the other hand, in SPEA, the best number of individuals in archive P is generally perceived as one-fourth of the individuals in Q. Genetic operators of crossover and mutation are performed on population applied on set union , and the selection for extracting the next generation was , creating . The selection consists of two mechanisms: was generated from

“non-dominated sorting” and “crowding distance sorting.” by means of selection, the so called “Mating selection.” iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 733 Meanwhile, Zitzler improved his SPEA. SPEA2 was proposed in 2001. SPEA2 was an improvement over SPEA in the following areas: fitness calculation mechanism was modified to ensure effective convergence to the Pareto front archive P has same number of individuals as population Q a new method of reducing individuals in archive (archive truncation method) is used The second point mentioned above is the same as the mechanism used in NSGA-II. Moreover, SPEA2 and NSGA-II have the following common points between them: crossover and mutation is done in searching population Q archive for the next generation the next searching population is selected from is selected from

In other words, the outline of the algorithm is similar in both NSGA-II and SPEA2, and the differences exist only in the definition of fitness, the reducing mechanism of the archive, and the selection for . Today, these two algorithms are the main methods for multi-objective Genetic Algorithm. It is also said that the performance of the two is almost even.

NCGA Reference Information
In this technique, each objective parameter is treated separately. Standard genetic operation of mutation and crossover are performed on the designs. The crossover process is based on the “neighborhood cultivation” mechanism, where the crossover is performed mostly between individuals with values close to one of the objectives. By the end of the optimization run, a pareto set is constructed where each design has the “best” combination of objective values, and improving one objective is impossible without sacrificing one or more of other objectives. VEGA (Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm), proposed by J.D.Schaffer in 1985, has been perceived as the pioneering research of the application of Genetic Algorithms (GA) to multi-objective optimization problems. However, in this early multi-objective Genetic Algorithm, the fundamental algorithm was a simple expansion of iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

734 Appendix B Component Reference Information single-objective Genetic Algorithm. The idea of Pareto optimality was not explicitly included. The first multi-objective Genetic Algorithm that adopted the idea of Pareto optimality explicitly was MOGA (Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm), proposed by C.M. Fonseca and P.J. Fleming in 1993. In the remainder of this section, this algorithm is referred to as “Fonseca's MOGA,” in order to distinguish it from the generic designation of Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. In Fonseca's MOGA, the dominating relation of solutions is defined by means of “Pareto-ranking,” which is an ordering that is based on Pareto optimality. Also, to avoid solutions that create a narrow range in the objective space, it performs niching based on sharing distance, giving lower fitness to a solution close to other solutions. Although Fonseca's MOGA was the first multi-objective Genetic Algorithm that adopted the idea of Pareto optimality explicitly, problems were reported. In the calculation of fitness with niching, as mentioned previously, the algorithm sometimes generated irrational fitness values, such as solutions on the Pareto front that had lower fitness due to niching. NSGA (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm), proposed by N. Srinivas and K. Deb in 1994, resolved the problems found in MOGA and was based on Pareto optimality. The main features in NSGA were the following: it ranks solutions with non-dominated sorting it ensures that solutions in lower rank have lower fitness This means that solutions on the Pareto front will have the highest fitness value. It is similar to Fonseca's MOGA in that is performs niching based on the sharing distance. SPEA (Strength Pareto Evolutionarily Algorithm), proposed by E.Zitzler and L.Thiele in 1999, was a pioneer of the current multi-objective Genetic Algorithms. Elitism of the single objective Genetic Algorithms was initially introduced in the multi-objective Genetic Algorithms with NCGA. In multi-objective Genetic Algorithms since SPEA, whole populations consist of two sub-populations. One is for preserving elite individuals, while the other is for performing genetic operators in order to generate children for optimum solution search. The latter population has the same role as the population in MOGA and NSGA, which were proposed in the mid-1990s. The former population was called the “Pareto Archive” or simply “Archive.” SPEA also introduced the original mechanism that could keep diversity and extension of solutions archived. This mechanism was called “clustering.” It ranks solutions based on both iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Optimization Reference Information 735 Pareto optimality and the idea that crowding level and ranking value are equal to fitness in SPEA. Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm - NCGA is based on SPEA2, and a good way to examine NCGA is to compare it to SPEA2. NCGA differs from SPEA2 in the following ways: Introduces the idea of “neighborhood cultivation” in crossover Modifies the selection method of extracting from

The term “neighborhood cultivation” means that the individuals to be crossed over must be within a certain range of the objective space. The idea comes from research for improving the searching performance of multi-objective Genetic Algorithm by means of dividing populations into sub-populations, and sending each sub-population onto distributed CPUs in a network environment. In the divided population of such multi-objective Genetic Algorithms, a division is decided by one of the element objectives. Genetic operators are applied in each divided sub-population. Consequently, in the divided model, crossover operations are performed between neighbors, which are grouped by the division based on an objective. From a series of numerical research on this divided population model, it was concluded that crossover with similar individuals would produce better results than that of greatly differing individuals. The “neighborhood cultivation” is the crossover operation that performs the crossover with similar individuals. When the number of objective functions is p, individuals are sorted according to one of those objective functions, and crossover is performed by two adjoined pairs. The objective function of each generation that is used for sorting is changed. However, with complete sorting there is a danger of loss of diversity in the solution. For this reason, around five percent of the disturbance is applied on sorted individuals before the crossover operation. The method of selecting the search population Q(t+1) from the Pareto archive P(t+1) in NCGA involves simply copying archive P(t+1) of N individuals onto Q. On the other hand, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II and SPEA2 select individuals by binary tournament selection with repetition. For more information on these two algorithms, see “NSGA-II Reference Information,” on page 732. This difference relates to the standpoint of whether to put the selection pressure onto elites. The disadvantage of this option is that the selection pressure can result in lost diversity, and lend to a danger of being trapped in a local optimum.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

736 Appendix B Component Reference Information A research group tested NCGA and compared it with NSGA-II and SPEA2 with numerous test functions, including an element knapsack problem. They concluded that, when the following are true, NCGA provides better results than NSGA-II or SPEA2: when objective functions have a multi-peak landscape when the number of design variables is large ( 100)

NCGA References
Major references and papers are listed below. The references apply to the Neighborhood Cultivation Genetic Algorithm - NCGA and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - NSGA-II sections only. K. Deb. Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2001. J. D. Schaffer. Multiple objective optimization with vector evaluated genetic algorithms. In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications, pp. 93?V100, 1985. D. E. Goldberg. Genetic Algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning. Addison-Wesly, 1989. C. M. Fonseca and P. J. Fleming. Genetic algorithms for multiobjective optimization: Formulation, discussion and generalization. In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on genetic algorithms, pp. 416?V423, 1993. E. Zitzler and L. Thiele. Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: A Comparative Case Study and the Strength Pareto Approach. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 257?V271, 1999. K. Deb, S. Agrawal, A. Pratab, and T. Meyarivan. A Fast Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization: NSGA-II. In KanGAL report 200001, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, 2000. E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele. SPEA2: Improving the Performance of the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm. In Technical Report 103, Computer Engineering and Communication Networks Lab (TIK), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 2001.

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Approximations Reference Information 737 C. M. Fonseca and P. J. Fleming. Genetic Algorithms for Multiobjective Optimization:Formulation, Discussion and Generalization. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA?93), pp. 416?V423, 1993. N. Srinivas and Kalyanmoy Deb. Multiobjective Optimization Using Nondominated Sorting in Genetic Algorithms. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 221, V248, Fall 1994.

Approximations Reference Information
The following two approximation models are available in iSIGHT-FD: “RBF Model” on this page “Response Surface Model,” on page 744

RBF Model
Radial Basis Functions are a type of neural network employing a hidden layer of radial units and an output layer of linear units, and characterized by reasonably fast training and reasonably compact networks. Weissinger (1947) was the first to use numerical potential flow to calculate the flow around wings. The potential flow equations are a radial basis function. R. Hardy(1971) realized that the same concept could be used to fit geophysical data to geophysical phenomena. Broomhead, D. S., and D. Lowe (1988) renamed this technology “neural nets” and it was subsequently used to approximate all types of behavior.

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738 Appendix B Component Reference Information

Usage in iSIGHT-FD
In iSIGHT-FD we follow the Hardy (1972) method as described by Kansa (1999): Figure B-19. iSIGHT-FD’s RBF Method

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 739 Obviously, as the type of physics that are models varies a different type of basis function would be needed to provide a good fit. The response surface goes through all the given interpolation data. For the iSIGHT-FD implementation, the following variable power spline radial basis function is used: Variable power spline || x - xj || c Where: || x - xj || is the Euclidean distance, and Where: c is a shape function variable between 0.2 < c < 3 The reason for choosing this radial basis function is its ability to model extreme functions within a narrow range of values of c. For a value c = 1.15, a good approximation of a step function can be achieved with just seven interpolation points. For a value of c = 2, a good approximation of a linear function can be achieved with just three interpolation points, as shown below.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

740 Appendix B Component Reference Information Figure B-20. Step Function and Linear Function

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 741 For a value c = 3, a good approximation of a harmonic function is achieved with about seven points per harmonic period. Figure B-21. Harmonic Function

Picking c = 3 for the step function example would produce an approximation that would go through the seven data points, but it would more resemble a single sine wave than a step function. There are obviously an infinite number of solutions that will go through any given set of data points. In most of the literature this problem is solved by splitting the interpolation data into two groups. One group is used to create the radial basis function approximation and one is used to compute the error between the radial basis function approximation for those points and the actual function values. The shape function is optimized to minimize the summed errors. This is a valid approach when a lot of data points are available for the interpolation, but in our practice we deal mostly with very sparse data sets and it seems inefficient to use only half the data to create the actual response surface. So we adopted a different approach. We define a good fit as one whereby the shape of the curve does not change when a point is subtracted. We optimize the value of c for a minimum sum of the errors N-1 data points.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

742 Appendix B Component Reference Information This approach can be illustrated by going back to the picture of the straight line approximation, we approximate the first point (circle) from the two top points (square). The center point is approximated from the two extreme points and the top point is approximated from the two bottom points. For c = 2 the sum of the errors for the “missing points” is low. Figure B-22. Straight Line Approximations

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 743 For c = 0.2, the sum of the errors of the “missing points” is extremely high. Figure B-23. Straight Line Approximations - Part 2

Since the shape function optimization is given a limited number of iterations to converge, higher accuracy can be achieved by splitting up a large problem into coupled smaller ones. For instance, one approximation of five inputs and two outputs and one approximation of six inputs and one output; instead of a single approximation of eleven inputs and three outputs. Note: We would like to thank Dr. Kansa for getting us started with the development of this method.

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744 Appendix B Component Reference Information

References
J. Weissinger. “The lift distribution of swept-back wings”. NACA TM 1120, 1947. Hardy. “Multiquadratic equations of topography and other irregular surfaces”. J. Geophysics Res. 76, 1905-15 (1971).) Broomhead, D. S., and D. Lowe. “Multivariable functional interpolation and adaptive networks”. Complex Systems, 1988, Vol. 2, pp. 321-355. Kansa, E.J. “Motivation for using radial basis functions to solve PDE's”. 1999. (Unpublished paper: author kansa@IrisINTERNET.net).

Response Surface Model
Response Surface Models (RSM) in iSIGHT-FD use polynomials of low order (from 1 to 4) to approximate response of an actual analysis code. A number of exact analyses using the simulation code(s) have to be performed initially to construct a model, or alternatively a datafile with a set of analyzed design points can be used. The model then can be used in optimization and sensitivity studies with a very small computational expense, since evaluation only involves calculating the value of a polynomial for a given set of input values. Accuracy of the model is highly dependent on the amount of data used for its construction (number of data points), the shape of the exact response function which is approximated, and the volume of the design space in which the model is constructed. In a sufficiently small volume of the design space, any smooth function can be approximated by a quadratic polynomial with good accuracy. For highly non-linear functions, polynomials of 3rd or 4th order can be used. If the model is used outside of the design space where it was constructed, its accuracy is impaired, and refining of the model is required. A maximum order model (4th order or Quartic model) is represented by a polynomial of the following form::

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 745 Where: N is the number of model inputs xi is the set of model inputs a, b, c, d, e are the polynomial coefficients Notice that 3rd and 4th order models in iSIGHT-FD do not have any mixed polynomial terms (interactions) of order 3 and 4. Only pure cubic and quartic terms are included to reduce the amount of data required for model construction. A lower order model (Linear, Quadratic, Cubic) includes only lower order polynomial terms (only linear, quadratic, or cubic terms correspondingly). Coefficients of the polynomial (a, b, c, d, e) are determined by solving a linear system of equations (one equation for each analyzed design point). The initial Response Surface Model construction is controlled by the following options: The number of initial design points (if Random Designs is used for initialization) The fraction of the design space around the baseline design in which the initial random designs are generated (if Random Designs is used for initialization) This fraction of the design space is referred to as Random Designs Range. This option can be set individually for each input parameter. The bounds of the design sub-space are determined by multiplying the value of Random Designs Range for each input parameter by its initial value (baseline value) and then subtracting or adding the result to the baseline value. The order of the initial model polynomial (referred to as Polynomial Order) Option to ignore or obey Design Variable bounds when generating random design points Polynomial term selection This option allows you to select a sub-set of polynomial terms using one of the four available term selection methods (Sequential Replacement, Stepwise Regression (Efroymson's algorithm), Two-at-a-time Replacement, or Exhaustive Search). More information about term selection is provided in the next section.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

746 Appendix B Component Reference Information Response Surface Model approximations can be initialized using any of the initialization modes described earlier. Typical initialization mode for a Response Surface Model, if no previous data is available, is Random Design. In this case, iSIGHT-FD will generate the required number of random designs inside the specified boundaries, and then run Exact Analysis for each of those designs. Obtained data then is used for calculating polynomial coefficients of the model. Least squares fit is used to calculate the coefficients, which permits an overdetermined system (more designs than coefficients), a fully determined system (equal number of designs and coefficients), and a singular system (less distinct designs than coefficients). Since a singular system does not guarantee predictable model behavior, iSIGHT-FD will adjust the Number of Designs for Initialization, if the user specified insufficient number of designs for calculating all polynomial coefficients. It is recommended that you use the value of the Number of Designs for Initialization equal to (or slightly greater than) the number of polynomial coefficients, which for a linear polynomial is (N+1), for a quadratic polynomial is (N+1)(N+2)/2, for a cubic polynomial is (N+1)(N+2)/2 + N, and for a quartic polynomial is (N+1)(N+2)/2 + 2N, where N is the number of input variables. If you plan to use an approximation in optimization and want to minimize the number of simcode executions, it is recommended that you set the value of Polynomial Order to Linear, if a model is constructed using Random Designs initialization mode. During optimization, approximations are updated with new design points. New design data is used for calculating unknown polynomial coefficients of the model, thereby gradually upgrading the model up to a higher order polynomial (quadratic, cubic, or quartic polynomial, depending on the Maximum Polynomial Order of the model). Using linear initial polynomial allows you to initialize the model faster, and start optimization earlier. A linear model is sufficient for determining initial search direction for the optimizer. As the optimization progresses, more and more designs are analyzed closer to the optimum design, and used for calculating the model coefficients, thus improving the accuracy of the model in that area. Updating an RSM can be controlled via the Optimization Options (on the Setup tab of the Approximations dialog box) or completely disabled. The default behavior is to add a new design point and add one new polynomial term. This behavior is preferred during optimization. iSIGHT-FD also allows you to generate a new set of random designs and re-initialize the model every time when it is supposed to be updated. This option can be beneficial with highly non-linear objective and constraint functions.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 747 Setting the value of Polynomial Order to Quadratic, Cubic, or Quartic is justified when a high accuracy of the model is desired right from the start. It is recommended for all cases when the approximation will not be updated with new points during execution of a design exploration plan, i.e., for all non-optimization plans such as Design of Experiments (DOE), Monte Carlo Simulation, Reliability Analysis, and Robust Analysis. In the case of optimization plans, including Reliability-Based Optimization and Six Sigma Robust Optimization, using a higher Polynomial Order is recommended when a large area of the design space is sampled (accuracy of low order models is low over a large area), when sufficient data is available in a database file (Database File Initialization), or when the standard approach of using a Linear model and gradually upgrading it to a higher order model during optimization does not produce a desired result. In all cases, independent of the Polynomial Order, Maximum Polynomial Order controls the highest order of the polynomial that will ever be used by an RSM. When a model is updated during optimization, a new polynomial term will be added until it reaches the Maximum Polynomial Order; after that all new design points will be used to improve the accuracy of the model without changing the polynomial. Proceed to one of the following sections: “Polynomial Term Selection in RSM” on this page “R2 Analysis of Response Surface Models,” on page 750

Polynomial Term Selection in RSM
Polynomial term selection in RSM has several benefits: Improves prediction reliability of the model Eliminates predictor variables with little or no effect on the output Reduces variance of the model Selects the best model when a limited number of design points are available Reduces cost of the model re-initialization for computationally expensive analyses

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

748 Appendix B Component Reference Information The basic idea of the polynomial term selection is as follows: Given a set of k predictor variables X1, X2, X3,…,Xk, select a subset of p (p<k) predictor variables that minimizes the Residual Sum of Squares:

In the case of RSM term selection, predictor variables are the polynomial terms, X1, X2,…, X1^2, X2^2, …, X1*X2, etc. The best combination of the polynomial terms is selected so that the Residual Sum of Squares is minimized. Since the residuals can be non-zero only when the model has at least one degree of freedom, minimization of the RSS implies that the maximum number of polynomial terms selected must be lower than the number of design points used for the RSM. Otherwise the RSS will be exactly zero and no term selection will be possible. The four term selection methods available in iSIGHT-FD have the following features: Sequential Replacement. This method is a variation of the Forward selection algorithm and has the following steps: start with the constant term, select the next best term at every step of the forward selection, for every previously selected term find the best replacement that will decrease the RSS and swap the variables select the next best term and add it to the model repeat the procedure until maximum allowed number of terms selected. The Sequential Replacement algorithm does not guarantee the best model. Stepwise Regression (Efroymson's algorithm). This method is a variation of the Forward selection with the following steps: start with the constant term, select the next best term at every step of the forward selection, add the next best term if it sufficiently decreases the RSS using the following criterion

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

Approximations Reference Information 749 at every step of the forward selection, check if one of the selected terms can be dropped without appreciably increasing the RSS using the following criterion

repeat the process until no more terms satisfy the first criterion or until the maximum desired number of terms is selected The values of “F-ratio-to-add-term” and “F-ratio-to-delete-term” are 4.0 by default and can be controlled from the graphical user interface when creating a new RSM. These values will affect the selection process. The Stepwise Regression algorithm does not guarantee the best model. Two-at-a-time Replacement. This method is a variation of the Forward selection with the following steps: start with the constant term, select the next best term at every step of the forward selection, consider all possible replacements of 1 or 2 terms from the previously selected terms find the best replacement combination that will decrease the RSS and swap the variables select the next best term and add it to the model repeat the procedure until maximum allowed number of terms selected The Two-at-a-time Replacement algorithm is more expensive than the two previous algorithms and has a much better chance of finding the best model. Exhaustive Search. This method is a systematic approach to finding the best combination of terms from all possible combinations. It has the following basic steps: generate all possible combinations of terms up to the maximum allowed number of terms calculate RSS values for all polynomials select the best combination of terms to minimize the RSS The Exhaustive Search algorithm is the most expensive one from the four available. It guarantees finding the best model at the cost of a high computational iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

750 Appendix B Component Reference Information time. The number of design points and the number of selected terms will greatly affect the computational cost, and can make this algorithm a non-viable option for large data sets and a large number of inputs.

R2 Analysis of Response Surface Models
R2 analysis is a measure of how well the model polynomial approximates the actual function at the design points used for its construction. The Response Surface Model module of iSIGHT-FD will automatically perform R2 analysis of the approximated functions, when the number of distinct designs used for the response surface model is greater than the number of model coefficients. The R2 value of 1.00 indicates that values of the model polynomial, and values of the response function, are identical at all of the design points. Remember that it is always possible to perfectly fit N points using a polynomial with N+1 coefficients. Thus, a perfect value of the R2 coefficient does not necessarily indicate that the actual function will match the model polynomial everywhere in the design space, unless the number of points used for analysis is considerably greater (3 -10 times) than the number of polynomial coefficients. Information about R2 analysis is written into the coefficients file when an RSM is saved.

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C Glossary
A
ACL. Abbreviation for Access Control List. A method for setting object permissions. The list contains users that have access to a specific object published to a Library, and determines the extent of their permission. ACS. See Application Control System (ACS). Activity Component. A component that is designed to perform some end functionality, typically invoking and interacting with an external application, which is completely external and unknown to iSIGHT-FD. Excel, Calculator, MATLAB, and Ansys are all examples of applications that would comprise activity components. API. Abbreviation for application program interface. An API is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together. Application Control System (ACS). The major part of the FIPER environment. It is a collection of software (including an application server and a database) that controls the internal operation of the entire FIPER system. It provides a workflow engine for interpreting and managing process flow to create work items, a dispatcher for determining which FIPER Station the work item should be sent to, and a results manager for processing results from the work items. iSIGHT-FD can connect to an ACS and, thereby, the FIPER environment. Application Server. Also called an appserver. This software is used in tandem with a database (DB2 or Oracle) to create an ACS in the FIPER environment. The appserver itself is a program that handles all application operations between users and an organization's backend business applications or databases. Application servers are iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

752 Appendix C Glossary typically used for complex transaction-based applications. To support high-end needs, an application server has to have built-in redundancy, monitors for high-availability, high-performance distributed application services and support for complex database access. Currently, the FIPER environment supports the use of two application servers: IBM WebSphere and BEA WebLogic. Approximation Component. An activity component that is a means of creating an analysis component based on the data generated previously by an external tool and saved in a datafile. Using this component, you can generate a mathematical model of your data, which can then be used for quick and efficient design studies or optimization in iSIGHT-FD. iSIGHT-FD includes access to the Response Surface Model and RBF Model approximation techniques. Assembler. An Assembler is a person who uses iSIGHT-FD components to assemble a model, an entity that contains the description of the analysis/design process and the specific problem that is to be solved. Typical examples of Assembler use cases are to use the Design Gateway interface to drag and drop existing components into workflows to define the analysis/design process and to specify values for properties of these components (techniques, tuning parameters, etc.). An assembler can also define, as part of the process, an interface to an external application or in-house legacy code using the Data Exchanger component. An Assembler may also choose to customize the interface to display only the functionality relevant to that model.

B
B2B. Short for business-to-business, the exchange of services, information and/or products from one business to another, as opposed to between a business and a consumer. This feature is only available when iSIGHT-FD is used in the FIPER environment. In this environment, B2B is primarily utilized to describe the sharing of components and models between organizations. It is not primarily focused on peer-to-peer collaboration (services such as WebEX and NetMeeting). Typically, organizations will communicate between each other's ACS’s, utilizing Web Services in a federated model environment.

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C
Calculator Component. An activity component that is used to define computations that are not provided by a separate part of your model. It can be used to solve mathematical expressions, and it supports all major mathematical operations. Class. A category of objects. For example, there might be a class called shape that contains objects that are circles, rectangles, and triangles. The class defines all the common properties of the different objects that belong to it. See metamodel. Client. The client part of a client-server architecture. Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations. The client interfaces in iSIGHT-FD include the Design Gateway, the Runtime Gateway, and the Generator. In the FIPER environment, the clients also include (in additional to the iSIGHT-FD clients) the System Dashboard and FIPER Stations. The server aspect of the FIPER environment would be a machine that contains the ACS software. Cloned Window. A cloned window in the Design Gateway interface allows end users to bring up the same model in two views. Changes to one window are incorporated into the other window as well. This allows users to view different levels of workflow, hierarchy simultaneously. COM. The Component Object Model is a software architecture developed by Microsoft to build component-based applications. COM objects are discrete components, each with a unique identity, that expose interfaces that allow applications and other components to access their features. COM objects are more versatile that Win32 DLLs because they are completely language-independent, have built-in interprocess communications capability, and easily fit into an object-oriented program design. COM was first released in 1993 with OLE2, largely to replace the interprocess communication mechanism DDE used by the initial release of OLE. ActiveX also is based on COM. COM Component. An activity component that is used to interact with Command Object Model (COM) objects that have been registered to the Windows operating system. Command Line Client. A console (character mode) program that provides simple text-based access to functions of iSIGHT-FD. This console has even more capability when used with the FIPER environment.

iSIGHT-FD User’s Guide

754 Appendix C Glossary Component. An independent tool/application or design method that has been wrapped following iSIGHT-FD standards to provide a service within the iSIGHT-FD environment. The functionality provided by the component depends on what the component developer chooses to expose and provide through the wrapper. For example, an Excel component might provide an interface to Excel that allows values of cells to be modified or extracted (by mapping from/to iSIGHT-FD parameters), and macros to be executed, as directed by a user or by other iSIGHT-FD components. Component Developer. A component developer is a role in which new iSIGHT-FD components are created and made available for Assemblers to utilize in iSIGHT-FD models. The Component Developer will typically utilize the Component Generator to develop, test, and install components. Component Editor. The Component Editor is the unique interface for each iSIGHT-FD component that allows an end user to modify certain attributes of the component. The attributes exposed to the end user are determined by the component developer. Component Generator. For those tools/applications that require a more complex form of interaction or that have Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that can be taken advantage of to expose more functionality (or even if a custom interface is simply desired), iSIGHT-FD provides a standard Java-based wrapping mechanism to allow you to easily create components for the environment. The iSIGHT-FD Component Generator is provided to help you write the necessary Java code and package it as a component. The Component Generator consists of a set of API functions and a wizard to lead a component developer step-by-step through the wrapping process. For more information, refer to the iSIGHT-FD Development Guide. Component Palette. The Component Palette is an area on the Design Gateway that allows users to store icons that represent components in the Library. From the palette, components can be dragged and dropped to the Workflow tab canvas to create or alter a model. Component Template. Part of a metamodel, and defines the structure and behavior of a particular type of component. Normally it will show up in the component palette of the iSIGHT-FD Design Gateway. Conditional Workflow. Conditional workflow allows you to place conditions (such as if, else, case, while) on workflow to determine if the process will continue down a given branch.

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D
Dashboard. See System Dashboard. Data Exchanger Component. An activity component for handling data exchanges with various data sources (for iSIGHT-FD, it only handles text files). In the case of dealing with files, it allows you to issue commands to modify files (write i