Optical Transport Network (OTN) Tutorial

Disclaimer:

This is a Tutorial. This is NOT a Recommendation! This tutorial has no standards significance. It is purely for educational purposes. In case of conflict between the material contained in the tutorial and the material of the relevant Recommendation the latter always prevails. This tutorial should NOT be used as a reference; only the relevant Recommendations can be referenced.
Summary This document provides a tutorial for Optical Transport Network standards and their applications. The objective is to provide the telecommunications engineers with a document that forms the basis for understanding OTN.

Contact:

Timothy P. Walker AMCC USA

Tel: 1-978-247-8407 Fax: Email: twalker@amcc.com

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Scope.............................................................................................................................5 Abbreviations................................................................................................................5 What is OTN/OTH........................................................................................................7 3.1 OTN Standards ...............................................................................................7 Where is it standardized for ..........................................................................................8 Why use OTN...............................................................................................................8 5.1 Forward Error Correction (FEC) ....................................................................8 5.1.1 Theoretical Description ..................................................................................9 5.1.2 Coding Gain....................................................................................................11 5.2 Tandem Connection Monitoring ....................................................................14 5.3 Transparent Transport of Client Signals.........................................................17 5.4 Switching Scalability......................................................................................17 OTN Hierarchy Overview ............................................................................................18 OTUk, ODUk, OPUk Frame Structure.........................................................................20 OPUk Overhead and Processing...................................................................................21 8.1 OPUk Overhead Byte Descriptions ................................................................22 8.1.1 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) ..................................................................22 8.1.2 Payload Type (PT)..........................................................................................22 8.2 Mapping Signals into an OPUk......................................................................22 8.2.1 Frequency Justification...................................................................................23 8.2.2 Mapping a CBR2G5 signal (e.g. STM-16) into OPU1 ..................................25 8.2.3 Mapping a CBR10G signal (e.g. STM-64) into OPU2 ..................................26 8.2.4 Mapping a CBR40G signal (e.g. STM-256) into OPU3 ................................26 ODUk Overhead and Processing ..................................................................................27 9.1 Path Monitoring (PM) Byte Descriptions.......................................................29 9.1.1 Trail Trace Identifier (TTI).............................................................................29 9.1.2 BIP-8...............................................................................................................29 9.1.3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI).................................................................29 9.1.4 Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE).....................................................................................................30 9.1.5 Path Monitoring Status (STAT) .....................................................................30 9.2 Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) ........................................................30 9.2.1 Trail Trace Identifier (TTI).............................................................................30 9.2.2 BIP-8...............................................................................................................31 9.2.3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI).................................................................31

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Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE).....................................................................................................31 TCM Monitoring Status (STAT) ....................................................................32 Tandem Connection Monitoring ACTivation/deactivation (TCM-ACT) ......33 General Communication Channels (GCC1, GCC2).......................................33 Automatic Protection Switching and Protection Communication Channel (APS/PCC)......................................................................................................33 Fault Type and Fault Location reporting communication channel (FTFL) ....33

OTUk Overhead and Processing...................................................................................33 10.1 Scrambling......................................................................................................34 10.2 Frame Alignment Overhead ...........................................................................35 10.2.1 Frame alignment signal (FAS) .......................................................................35 10.2.2 Multiframe alignment signal (MFAS)............................................................35 10.3 SM Byte Descriptions.....................................................................................36 10.3.1 Trail Trace Identifier (TTI).............................................................................37 10.3.2 BIP-8...............................................................................................................37 10.3.3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI).................................................................38 10.3.4 Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE).....................................................................................................38 10.3.5 Incoming Alignment Error (IAE) ...................................................................39 10.4 General Communication Channel 0 (GCC0)..................................................39 ODUk Multiplexing......................................................................................................39 11.1 Multiplexing Data Rates.................................................................................39 11.1.1 ODU1 to ODU2 Justification Rate .................................................................39 11.1.2 ODU2 to ODU3 Justification Rate .................................................................40 11.1.3 ODU1 to ODU3 Justification Rate .................................................................40 11.2 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing..................................................................41 11.2.1 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing Structure ..................................................41 11.2.2 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Justification Structure....................................................43 11.2.3 OPU2 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) .......................................................44 11.2.4 OPU2 Multiplex Structure Identifier (MSI) ...................................................44 11.2.5 Frequency Justification...................................................................................45 11.3 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Multiplexing ............................................................46 11.3.1 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Multiplexing Structure ............................................46 11.3.2 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Justification Structure..............................................48 11.3.3 OPU3 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) .......................................................49 11.3.4 OPU3 Multiplex Structure Identifier (MSI) ...................................................49 11.3.5 Frequency Justification...................................................................................50 11.4 Maintenance Signal Insertion .........................................................................51

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.......................................................62 18.....................................................................54 SSF (Server Signal Fail).....4.4.............5..........................5.................5................................................................5................................................................4 Equipment requirements .....58 14...........................................................................58 14.....................1 11................................................57 14........................................................................6 11....................................................................55 13........................................................................................55 13......51 Defect detection and correlation..............................................1 OTUk maintenance signals......................................62 14 15 16 17 18 .....-4- 11.....4 11...............59 14..........8 12 13 Client source ODUk-AIS..2....................................1 Introduction ............2 ODUk maintenance signals .......................3 11.55 Synchronisation ..........................................................57 14.........................................2 Network requirements ..................5...51 Client source ODUk-OCI ..............................................................................59 14...............3........5............53 cLOFLOM........................1 ODUk Alarm Indication Signal (ODUk-AIS)............................................................5 11....53 dLOFLOM (Loss of Frame and Multiframe) ...................................3 11.....5..............57 OTN Maintenance Signals..............................................................................................................................1................................3 ODUk Locked (ODUk-LCK) ...61 Bibliography ...3 Mapping and Multiplexing ...................2................7 11...54 aAIS (AIS insertion) ....52 dMSIM (Multiplex Structure Identifier Mismatch supervision) ................................................1 11........................................................2 11...........................2 ODUk Open Connection Indication (ODUk-OCI)...............................51 Line source ODUk-AIS ...............................61 Open Issues..................................................................................................1 ODUk Virtual Concatenation / OTN over SONET..........................................58 14....................................60 Acknowledgements..........................................................1 Generic AIS for constant bit rate signals........................................................................................53 cMSIM..............2...57 13..................................................5 11.........................................................................54 ODUk Virtual Concatenation / OTN over SONET .................................................................................................................................................3 Client maintenance signal............................5..........2 11..............1 OTUk alarm indication signal (OTUk-AIS)......................4..............................................55 13...........................................59 OTN Defects ..........57 14...............................................52 cPLM ..........................52 dPLM (Payload Mismatch) .................................................

Reshaping and Retiming Activation (in the TCM ACT byte) Adapted Information Alarm Indication Signal Automatic Protection Switching Backward Defect Indication Backward Error Indication Backward Incoming Alignment Error Bit Interleaved Parity Constant Bit Rate Characteristic Information Connection Monitoring Cyclic Redundancy Check Destination Access Point Identifier Experimental Expected Trace Identifier Frame Alignment Signal Forward Defect Indication Forward Error Correction General Communication Channel Intra-Domain Interface Incoming Alignment Error Inter-Domain Interface Justification Overhead Least Significant Bit MultiFrame Alignment Signal Multiframe Indicator Maintenance Signal This tutorial uses the following abbreviations: 0xYY 3R ACT AI AIS APS BDI BEI BIAE BIP CBR CI CM CRC DAPI EXP ExTI FAS FDI FEC GCC IaDI IAE IrDI JOH LSB MFAS MFI MS . The objective is to provide the telecommunications engineers with a document that forms the basis for understanding OTN.-5- 1 Scope This document provides a tutorial for Optical Transport Network standards and their applications. 2 Abbreviations YY is a value in hexadecimal presentation Reamplification.

-6- MSB MSI NNI OCh OCI ODU ODUk ODTUjk ODTUG OH OMS OMU ONNI OOS OPS OPU OPUk OSC OTH OTM OTN OTS OTS-OH OTU OTUk PCC PM PMI PMOH ppm PRBS PSI PT Most Significant Bit Multiplex Structure Identifier Network Node Interface Optical channel with full functionality Open Connection Indication Optical Channel Data Unit Optical Channel Data Unit-k Optical channel Data Tributary Unit j into k Optical channel Data Tributary Unit Group Overhead Optical Multiplex Section Optical Multiplex Unit Optical Network Node Interface OTM Overhead Signal Optical Physical Section Optical Channel Payload Unit Optical Channel Payload Unit-k Optical Supervisory Channel Optical Transport Hierarchy Optical Transport Module Optical Transport Network Optical Transmission Section Optical Transmission Section Overhead Optical Channel Transport Unit Optical Channel Transport Unit-k Protection Communication Channel Path Monitoring Payload Missing Indication Path Monitoring OverHead parts per million Pseudo Random Binary Sequence Payload Structure Identifier Payload Type ODUk-Xv X virtually concatenated ODUk's OMS-OH Optical Multiplex Section Overhead OPUk-Xv X virtually concatenated OPUk's .

The intention is that all client signals would be mapped into the Optical Channel via the ODU and OTU layer networks.872 development as noted in Section 9.1 Reserved for future international standardization Reed-Solomon Source Access Point Identifier Sink Section Monitoring Section Monitoring OverHead Source Tandem Connection Tandem Connection Monitoring Tributary Slot Transmitted Trace Identifier User-to-Network Interface Virtual Concatenation Group Virtual Concatenation Overhead virtual concatenated Payload Type What is OTN/OTH OTN Standards There are many standards that fall under the umbrella of “OTN”. Therefore. G. it was realized that the only techniques presently available that could meet the requirements for associated OCh trace.872 requirements).” Currently there are no physical implementations of the OCh. Furthermore. Thus this document only describes the digital layer that could be implemented in ASIC. Furthermore this allows the use of Forward Error Correction for enhanced system performance. The Optical Transport Hierarchy OTH is a new transport technology for the Optical Transport Network OTN developed by the ITU. as well as providing an accurate assessment of the quality of a digital client signal. It then describes the functionality that needed to make OTN work.1/G.-7- RES RS SAPI Sk SM SMOH So TC TCM TS TxTI UNI VCG VCOH vcPT 3 3. It is based on the network architecture defined in ITU G. it does not describe the Physical or Optical layers. (implementation of the Optical Channel Layer according to ITU-T Rec. it may be interesting to note the decision made during G.” “For this reason ITU-T Rec. As they are defined and implemented. This results in the introduction of two digital layer networks. However. This document focuses on Layer 1 standards. the ODU and OTU.872 "Architecture for the Optical Transport Network (OTN)" G. it doesn’t describe any layers implemented in Software.872 defines an architecture that is composed of the Optical Channel (OCh). Optical Multiplex Section (OMS) and Optical Transmission Section (OTS). OMS and OTS layers. were digital techniques…. they will be included in this tutorial.709. G.709 chose to implement the Optical Channel by means of a digital framed signal with digital overhead that supports the management requirements for the OCh listed in clause 6. G. .872 : “During the development of ITU-T Rec.

It is important to note that G. since it doesn’t specify the electrical or optical interfaces.709 applies to information transferred across IrDI and IaDI interfaces. It uses undefined SOH bytes to transport the FEC check information and is therefore called a in-band FEC. It could also be thought of as the interface between different Vendors within the same Operator (see Figure 1). It allows only a limited number of FEC check information. IrDI The IaDI is the interfaces within an Operator or a Vendor domain.709 and G. which limits the performance of the FEC.798. 5.1 Forward Error Correction (FEC) Forward error correction is a major feature of the OTN. G. This would be the interface between Operators.-8- Thus the main implementation of OTH is that described in G. G. Intra-domain interface (IaDI). User Inter-Domain IrDI Operator A Inter-Domain IrDI 3R 3R Operator B Inter-Domain IrDI 3R 3R User 3R Intra-Domain IaDI 3R Intra-Domain IaDI Intra-Domain IaDI Intra-Domain IaDI Figure 1 IaDI vs. 4 Where is it standardized for • • Inter-domain interface (IrDI). The optical transport network architecture as specified in ITU-T G. 5 Why use OTN • • • • • OTN offers the following advantages relative to SONET/SDH: Stronger Forward Error Correction More Levels of Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) Transparent Transport of Client Signals Switching Scalability Requires new hardware and management system OTN has the following disadvantages: We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages in the following sections.872 defines two interface classes: The OTN IrDI interfaces are defined with 3R processing at each end of the interface.709 only defines logical interfaces. Already SDH has a FEC defined. .709 compliance by itself is not sufficient to guarantee mid-span meet.

709 FEC implements a Reed-Solomon RS(255. A codeword consists of data and parity.975. Note: There is additional information on FEC in Section 11 of sup. The number of transparent optical network elements that can be crossed by an optical path before 3R regeneration is needed is therefore strongly limited.1 Theoretical Description G. As for non-linear effects.-9- For the OTN a Reed-Solomon 16 byte-interleaved FEC scheme is defined.2 dB improvement in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). against which FEC is useful. resulting in an extended reach.) .k) with s-bit symbols where n is the total number of symbols per codeword. Another way of looking at this. noise figures. added to the data.g. reducing the output power leads to OSNR limitations.1. however. is that to transmit a signal at a certain Bit Error Rate (BER) with 6. With FEC a optical path can cross more transparent optical network elements. (Note that changes in non-linear effects due to the reduced per channel power have to be taken into account. 5.Increase the maximum span length and/or the number of spans. (Note that this assumes that other impairments like chromatic and polarization mode dispersion are not becoming limiting factors. attenuation). FEC is less effective against PMD.Relax the component parameters (e. and s is the size of a symbol.1 lists some additional Enhanced FEC schemes. k is the number of information symbols.Increase the number of DWDM channels in a DWDM system which is limited by the output power of the amplifiers by decreasing the power per channel and increasing the number of channels. For G. A Reed-Solomon code is specified as RS(n. which uses 4x256 bytes of check information per ODU frame. FEC has been proven to be effective in OSNR limited systems as well as in dispersion limited systems.239) code.) .2 dB less power than without such an FEC. . The check symbols are extra redundant bytes used to detect and correct errors in a signal so that the original data can be recovered. also known as check symbols. This allows to evolve from today’s point-to-point links to transparent.709 defines a stronger Forward Error Correction for OTN that can result in up to 6. extinction ratio. eye mask.709: s = Size of the symbol = 8 bits n = Symbols per codeword = 255 bytes k = Information symbols per codeword = 239 bytes A typical system is shown in Figure 2: . In addition enhanced (proprietary) FEC schemes are explicitly allowed and widely used. G.dsn Also Appendix 1 of G.g launched power. meshed optical networks with sufficient functionality.but the most importantly the FEC is an enabler for transparent optical networks: Transparent optical network elements like OADMs and PXCs introduce significant optical impairments (e. filter isolation) for a given link and lower the component costs. The coding gain provided by the FEC can be used to: .

10 - Figure 2 FEC Block Diagram This means the encoder takes k information symbols of s bits. Interleaving actually integrates the error correction powers of all of the codewords included in the interleaved group. It does not matter if all 512 are in one long burst. That is why the Reed-Solomon code is particularly well suited to correcting burst errors (where a series of bits in the codeword are received in error by the decoder.. It is possible that some codewords will be corrected and some not if excessive errors are encountered. each. A Reed-Solomon decoder can correct up to t symbols that contain errors in a codeword.239 = 16 t=8 Hence. the decoder can correct any 8 symbols in a codeword Reed-Solomon codes treat errors on a symbol basis. if 64 codewords that can correct 8 errors each are interleaved. which come from several codewords. where 2t = n-k. therefore. there are 512 . This allows a higher rate of code and channel efficiency and still protects against an occasional very long error. each. the interleaved group of codewords will be corrected. There are n-k check symbols of s bits. As long as each deinterleaved codeword has fewer errors than it can correct. a symbol that contains all bits in error is as easy to detect and correct as a symbol that contains a single bit-error.k = 255 .239) code: 2t = n . the maximum codeword length (n) for a Reed-Solomon code is n = 2s – 1 = 255 Interleaving data from different codewords improves the efficiency of Reed-Solomon codes because the effect of burst errors is shared among many other codewords. By interleaving. the interleaved group can correct almost any combination of symbol errors that total less than 512. and adds check symbols to make an n-symbol codeword. For example. The following Figure 3 shows a typical Reed-Solomon codeword: Figure 3 Reed-Solomon Codeword For the standard ITU recommended RS (255. it spreads the impact of a noise burst over multiple symbols.) Given a symbol size s. that is the depth of the interleaver.

such as Reed-Solomon.1.709 and ITU-T G.975 specify interleaving as part of the transport frame to improve error-correction efficiency.8 dB.1.2).. voltage threshold at voltage levels where BER can be accurately determined (see Figures 4 and 5). 5. It is defined as the ratio of peak-to-peak signal to total noise (conventionally electrical): Figure 4 Eye Diagram u1 = ON level average value σ 1 = ON level noise standard deviation u0 = OFF level average value σ 0 = OFF level noise standard deviation A system that requires an operating BER of 10 -15 has a Q-factor measurement of 18 dB without FEC If RS(255. Both ITU-T G.2 dB of coding gain. the Q-factor measurement decreases to 11. 239) FEC is employed. or OSNR ().1 Coding Gain measured via Q Factor The widely used technique of measuring coding gain is the Q-factor (Quality factor) measurement. In reality. or anywhere in between. yielding 6. This technique estimates the OSNR at the optical amplifier or receiver by measuring BER vs.2. This is coding gain in essence.2. The Input SNR is measured either as “Q factor” or as Eb/N0 (Section 5.2 Coding Gain The advantage of using FEC is that the probability of an error remaining in the decoded data is lower than the probability of an error if an FEC algorithm. The “Net Coding Gain” takes into effect that there was a 7% rate expansion due to the FEC. Coding Gain is difference in Input SNR for a given Output BER.11 - one-symbol errors.1. . 5. however. is not used. Q-factor is derived from the measurement of the eye-pattern signal. What this means is that the data rate had to increase by 7% in order to transmit both the data and the FEC.

0E-03 BER in 1. For a more thorough discussion see [Sklar] .0E-09 BER 1. 5.0E-21 10 11 12 13 14 15 Q (dB) 16 17 18 19 20 Figure 5 BER vs..0E-06 BER out No Overhead 1. Eb/N0.12 - BER vs Q for R-S 255 Code (t = 8) 1.2 Coding Gain measured via Eb/N0 Another way to measure coding gain is with a plot of BER vs.0E-18 1.2 dB gained through FEC would allow a transmission with longer span while maintaining the original BER.2.1. Q Factor The 6. N 0 is the noise power spectral density and can be described as the noise power (N) divided by the bandwidth (W). Thus the transmission distance is improved with relatively small increase in semiconductor content. Eb is the bit energy and can be described as signal power (S) times the bit time Tb. Thus Eb/N0 is equal to SNR * (Bandwidth/Bit Rate).0E-12 1.0E-15 1.

These are theoretical and real measurements results from running systems. what the BER out of the FEC decoder would be. The standard OTN FEC a NCG of 6.13 - 10 10 10 10 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 10 -6 Uncorrected -7 10 10 BER 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -8 -9 -10 -11 G..709 -12 -13 -14 5.86 dB 6.1.3 Coding Gain measured via OSNR Figure 7 shows the FEC net coding gain (NCG) of various FEC schemes. Thus if one wanted to operate their system at 10-13 BER.2 dB 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Eb/No 10 11 12 13 14 15 -15 2 Figure 6 BER vs E b/N0 What Figure 6 shows is that for a given input SNR (Eb/N0). The SDH in-band FEC provides a NCG of 4 dB. .2 dB and a enhanced FEC a NCG of 9.5 dB. then they would need over 14 dB SNR without FEC or only 8. Coding gain is the reduction of signal-to-noise ratio due to the use of the FEC at a reference BER The Net Coding Gain (NCG) takes into account the fact that the bandwidth extension needed for the FEC scheme is associated with increased noise in the receiver. For example consider a reference BER of 10-15. 5.2.5 dB with FEC.

2 Tandem Connection Monitoring SONET/SDH monitoring is divided into Section. Line and Path monitoring.14 - Unencoded SDH in -band FEC OTN standard FEC OTN EFEC (measured) OTN EFEC (theoretical) FEC margins Figure 7 Coding Gain measured via OSNR 5. where it is required to monitor a segment of the path that passes another carrier network.. . A problem arises when you have “Carrier’s Carrier” situation as shown in Figure 8.

15 - Border of the OTN Client mapping into ODU Operator A Operator B Operator A User Working User Protection Start of the OTN Client mapping into ODU protection supervision (TCM4) domain and domain interconnect supervision (TCM3 lead operator QoS supervision (TCM2) user QoS supervision (TCM1) end-to-end path supervision (PM) Figure 8 Tandem Connection Monitoring Here Operator A needs to have Operator B carry his signal. It is a layer between Line Monitoring and Path Monitoring. Then TCM4 is used for protection monitoring by Operator B. TCM2 is used by the first operator to monitor their end-to-end QoS. The operators have to have an agreement.805 and ITU-T G. sublayer monitoring for optical channel shared protection ring (SPRing) protection switching. monitoring the ODUk connection through the network of a network operator (from operator network ingress network termination to egress network termination). SONET/SDH was modified to allow a single Tandem connection.872): − optical UNI to UNI tandem connection monitoring. monitoring the ODUk connection through the public transport network (from public network ingress network termination to egress network termination). so that they don’t conflict. to determine the signal fail and signal degrade conditions. This is what a “Tandem connection” is. 1:1 and 1:n optical channel subnetwork connection protection switching. optical NNI to NNI tandem connection monitoring.709 w/0 FEC) connections for one or more of the following network applications (refer to ITU-T G. There is no standard on which TCM is used by whom. to determine the signal fail and signal degrade conditions. TCM’s also support monitoring of ODUk (G.709 allows six.. G. TCM1 is used by the User to monitor the Quality of Service (QoS) that they see. TCM3 is used by the various domains for Intra domain monitoring. sublayer monitoring for linear 1+1. However he also needs a way of monitoring the signal as it passes through Operator B’s network. − − − .

16 - − Monitoring an optical channel tandem connection for the purpose of detecting a signal fail or signal degrade condition in a switched optical channel connection. − A TCM field is assigned to a monitored connection as described in 15.g. fault localization or verification of delivered quality of service.709) Overlapping monitored connections as shown in Figure 10 (B1-B2 and C1-C2) are also supported. Monitored connections A1-A2/B1-B2/C1-C2 and A1-A2/B3-B4 are nested.709.6/G.2. TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 A1 B1 C1 C2 B2 B3 B4 A2 C1-C2 B1-B2 A1-A2 TCMi TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCM OH field in use T1543640-01 B3-B4 Figure 9 ODUk monitored connections (Figure 15-16/G. Monitoring an optical channel tandem connection for. overlapping and/or cascaded. to initiate automatic restoration of the connection during fault and error conditions in the network. while B1-B2/B3-B4 are cascaded.. Monitored connections can be nested. e.8. ..2. The number of monitored connections along an ODUk trail may vary between 0 and 6. Nesting and cascading is shown in Figure 9.

Furthermore new services at higher bit rates (IP. . Lower order switching at 1. Over time the line rate increased while the switching rate was fixed. the integrity of the whole client signal is maintained).17 - TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 A1 B1 C1 B2 C2 A2 C1-C2 B1-B2 A1-A2 TCMi TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCM OH field in use T1543650-01 Figure 10 Overlapping ODUk monitored connections (Figure 15-17/G. Switching levels at higher bit rates were not foreseen.. It is also timing transparent. Two switching levels were therefore defined.709) 5. The gap between line rate and switching bit rate widened. their timing relationship is preserved until they are demapped back to ODU1’s.709 defines the OPUk which can contain the entire SONET/SDH signal. This means that one can transport four STM-16/OC-48 signals in one OTU2 and not modify any of the SONET/SDH overhead. Contiguous and virtual concatenation were introduce in order to solve part of the services problem as they allow to support services above the standard SONET/SDH switching bit rates.4 Switching Scalability When SONET/SDH was developed in the mid eighties its main purpose was to provide the transport technology for voice services. The gap between line or service bit rate and switching bit rate however still exists as even with concatenation switching is performed at the STS-1/VC-4 level. 5. It is also delay transparent.e. Ethernet services) had to be supported.3 Transparent Transport of Client Signals G. For example if four STM-16/OC-48 signals are mapped into ODU1’s and then multiplexed into an ODU2.5/2 Mbit/s to directly support the T1/E1 voice signals and a higher order switching level at 50/150 Mbit/s for traffic engineering. The asynchronous mapping mode transfers the input timing (Asynchronous mapping client) to the far end (Asynchronous demapping client). Thus the transport of such client signals in the OTN is bit-transparent (i.

But with photonic switching the switching bit rate is bound to the bit rate of the wavelength and as such would be the service. A operator offering 2.m.5 Gbit/s IP interconnection would need a Nx2. As the line rate grows new switching bit rates are added. This will result not only in efforts in the equipment hardware. A independent selection for service bit rates and DWDM technology is not possible. When adding 10 G services he has to upgrade some of its wavelengths to 10G. 10G. STM-N. Ethernet. switching at higher bit rates has to be introduced. Clients (e. ATM.5G. One could now argue that photonic switching of wavelengths is the solution. IP. OTN ODUk) OPUk ODUkP ODUk OC h substructure T1543480-01 ODUkT OTUkV OTUk OTUkV OTUk OCh OChr OMSn OPSn OTSn OTM-n.g.709 defines a number of layers in the OTN hierarchy (Figure 11). OTM-nr. For efficient equipment and network design and operations.. processing of 768 STS-1-SPEs in the SONET case. . …) independent of the bit rate per wavelength using the multiplexing and inverse multiplexing features of the OTN. OTN provides the solution to the problem by placing no restrictions on switching bit rates. but also in management and operations efforts. 6 OTN Hierarchy Overview G.18 - For a 4x10G to 40G SONET/SDH multiplexer this means processing of 256 VC-4 in the SDH case and even worse.m Full functionality OTM interface OTM-0.m Reduced functionality OTM interface Figure 11 Full OTN Hierarchy Figure 12 shows how they are envisioned being used in a network. This would lead to inefficient network designs. A operator can offer services at various bit rates (2.5G DWDM system.

.19 - domain optical sub-network optical sub-network OTN domain optical sub -network IrDI IaDIs IaDIs OTS OTS OMS OCh OTU OTS OMS OCh OTU OPS OChr OTU ODU OTS OTS OTS OTS OMS OMS OCh OTU Optical line amplifier (OTS termination) Optical cross connect/add -drop/terminal mux (OMS termination) 3-R regeneration (OCh. and OTUk are in the electrical domain. The bit rates are shown in the following tables: . There are more layers in the Optical domain than just the OCh. OTU termination) Client access (ODU termination) Figure 12 OTN Network Layers However for all intents and purposes there are only four layers OCh OTUk OTN Hierarchy ODUk OPUk SONET/SDH CBR Signals Figure 13 OTN Hierarchy The OPUk. The ODUk performs similar functions as the Line Overhead in SONET/SDH. It is analogous to the Path layer in SONET/SDH in that it is mapped at the source. SONET/SDH) and does any rate justification that is needed. ODUk. The data rates were constructed so that they could transfer SONET/SDH signal efficiently. and not modified by the network. the signal is then sent to a SERDES (Serializer/Deserializer) to be converted to the Optical Domain.g. The OCh is in the Optical domain. The OPUk encapsulates the Client signal (e. After the FEC are added. The OTUk contains the FEC and performs similar functions as the Section Overhead in SONET/SDH. demapped at the sink. but they are not being used now.

709) OTU type OTU1 OTU2 OTU3 OTU nominal bit rate 255/238 × 2 488 320 kbit/s 255/237 × 9 953 280 kbit/s 255/236 × 39 813 120 kbit/s ±20 ppm OTU bit rate tolerance NOTE – The nominal OTUk rates are approximately: 2 666 057.322 kbit/s (OPU3 Payload). 7 OTUk.20 - Table 1 OTU types and capacity (Table 7-1/G. rounded to 3 digits.559 kbit/s (OTU3). 10 037 273.143 kbit/s (OTU1). ODUk.316 kbit/s (OTU2) and 43 018 413. The various fields will be explained in the following subsections.000 kbit/s (OPU1 Payload).971 µs 12.709) OTU/ODU/OPU type OTU1/ODU1/OPU1/OPU1-Xv OTU2/ODU2/OPU2/OPU2-Xv OTU3/ODU3/OPU3/OPU3-Xv 48.962 kbit/s (OPU2 Payload) and 40 150 519.. Table 2 ODU types and capacity (Table 7-2/G.709) ODU type ODU1 ODU2 ODU3 ODU nominal bit rate 239/238 × 2 488 320 kbit/s 239/237 × 9 953 280 kbit/s 239/236 × 39 813 120 kbit/s ±20 ppm ODU bit rate tolerance NOTE – The nominal ODUk rates are approximately: 2 498 775. 10 709 225. Table 4 OTUk/ODUk/OPUk frame periods (Table 7-4/G. 9 995 276.035 µs Period (Note) NOTE – The period is an approximated value.191 µs 3.983 kbit/s (ODU3). Table 3 OPU types and capacity (Table 7-3/G.709) OPU type OPU1 OPU2 OPU3 OPU Payload nominal bit rate 2 488 320 kbit/s 238/237 × 9 953 280 kbit/s 238/236 × 39 813 120 kbit/s ±20 ppm OPU Payload bit rate tolerance NOTE – The nominal OPUk Payload rates are approximately: 2 488 320. .924 kbit/s (ODU2) and 40 319 218. OPUk Frame Structure Figure 14 shows the overall Frame format for an OTUk signal.126 kbit/s (ODU1).

BDI .level 8 Backward Error Indication Backward Defect Indication Status Payload Structure Identifier Payload Type 255 Figure 14 OTN Frame Format (Figure 15-3/G.21 - Column Row 1 2 3 4 OPUk Overhead d ea erh Ov Uk OD 1 1 2 3 PM and TCMi (i=1. It is organized in an octet-based block frame structure with four rows and 3810 columns.6) 14 1516 17 3824 1 2 3 1 TTI OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) BIP-8 0 1 2 3 4 5 SAPI 15 16 BEI DAPI BIP8 Parity Block Column # 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 31 32 OPUk OH 15 16 Operator Specific 63 1 2 Frame Alignment overhead RES TCM3 GCC1 GCC2 TCM ACT TCM6 TCM2 APS/PCC TCM5 TCM1 OTUk overhead TCM4 PM RES 0 1 Mapping specific Row# 2 3 4 FTFL EXP OPUk overhead 3 4 PSI PT RES PM: TCM: SAPI: DAPI: RES: ACT: Path Monitoring Tandem Connection Monitoring Source Access Point Identifier Destination Access Point Identifier Reserved for future international standardisation Activation/deactivation control channel FTFL: EXP: GCC: APS: PCC: Fault Type & Fault Location reporting channel Experimental General Communication Channel Automatic Protection Switching coordination channel Protection Communication Control channel TTI: BIP8: BEI: BDI: STAT: PSI: PT: Trail Trace Identifier Bit Interleaved Parity .709) 8 OPUk Overhead and Processing The OPUk (k = 1..2..709) The two main areas of the OPUk frame are: • OPUk overhead area. • OPUk payload area. Column Row 1 2 3 4 T1542440-00 15 16 OPUk overhead area 17 3824 OPUk payload area (4 × 3808 bytes) Figure 15 OPUk frame structure (Figure 13-1/G.3) frame structure is shown in Figure 15.

- 22 -

Columns 15 to 16 of the OPUk are dedicated to OPUk overhead area. Columns 17 to 3824 of the OPUk are dedicated to OPUk payload area. NOTE – OPUk column numbers are derived from the OPUk columns in the ODUk frame OPUk OH information is added to the OPUk information payload to create an OPUk. It includes information to support the adaptation of client signals. The OPUk OH is terminated where the OPUk is assembled and disassembled. 8.1 OPUk Overhead Byte Descriptions

The OPUk Overhead bytes are shown in Figure 16
Column Row 1 2 3 4 15 16 17 18 3824

RES JC RES JC RES JC PSI NJO PJO OPUk payload (4 × 3808 bytes) 0 1 PSI 255 PT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RES JC Reserved JC

OPUk OH

T1542770-00

Figure 16 OPUk frame (Figure 17-1/G.709) 8.1.1 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI)

The 256-byte PSI signal is aligned with the ODUk multiframe (i.e. PSI[0] is present at ODUk multiframe position 0000 0000, PSI[1] at position 0000 0001, PSI[2] at position 0000 0010, etc.). PSI[0] contains a one-byte Payload type. PSI[1] to PSI[255] are mapping and concatenation specific. 8.1.2 Payload Type (PT)

A one-byte payload type signal is defined in the PSI[0] byte of the payload structure identifier to indicate the composition of the OPUk signal. The code points are defined in Table 5. 8.2 Mapping Signals into an OPUk

There are a number of Payload Types defined in Table 5..

- 23 -

Table 5 Payload type code points (Table 15-8/G.709)
MSB 1234 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0001 0010 0101 0110 1000 1111 1111 1111 LSB 5678 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0000 0001 0110 0101 0110 xxxx 1101 1110 1111 Hex code (Note 1) 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 20 55 66 80-8F FD FE FF Interpretation Experimental mapping (Note 3) Asynchronous CBR mapping, see 17.1 Bit synchronous CBR mapping, see 17.1 ATM mapping, see 17.2 GFP mapping, see 17.3 Virtual Concatenated signal, see 18 (NOTE 5) Bit stream with octet timing mapping, see 17.5.1 Bit stream without octet timing mapping, see 17.5.2 ODU multiplex structure, see 19 Not available (Note 2) Not available (Note 2) Reserved codes for proprietary use (Note 4) NULL test signal mapping, see 17.4.1 PRBS test signal mapping, see 17.4.2 Not available (Note 2)

NOTE 1 – There are 226 spare codes left for future international standardization. NOTE 2 – These values are excluded from the set of available code points. These bit patterns are present in ODUk maintenance signals. NOTE 3 – Value "01" is only to be used for experimental activities in cases where a mapping code is not defined in this table. NOTE 4 – These 16code values will not be subject to standardization. NOTE 5 – For the payload type of the virtual concatenated signal a dedicated payload type overhead (vcPT) is used, see 18.

The Virtual Concatenated signal and the ODU multiplex structure are dealt with later in this document. Mapping SONET/SDH (CBR) into OPUk either synchronously or asynchronously is the most common mapping. Synchronous mapping is a subset of asynchronous mapping, thus we will only discuss asynchronous mapping. 8.2.1 Frequency Justification

Asynchronous mapping of a CBR2G5, CBR10G or CBR40G signal into an OPUk (k = 1,2,3) may be performed (see Figure 17). The maximum bit-rate tolerance between OPUk and the client signal clock that can be accommodated by this mapping scheme is ±65 ppm. With a bit-rate tolerance of ±20 ppm for the OPUk clock, the client signal's bit-rate tolerance can be ±45 ppm. If the client’s frequency is out of range, then there aren’t enough justification bytes in the OPUk overhead to make up the difference.

- 24 Column Row 1 2 3 4 15 16 17 18 3824

RES JC RES JC RES JC PSI NJO PJO OPUk payload (4 × 3808 bytes) 0 1 PSI 255 PT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RES JC Reserved JC

OPUk OH

T1542770-00

Figure 17 OPUk frame structure for the mapping of a CBR2G5, CBR10G or CBR40G signal (Figure 17-1/G.709) The OPUk overhead for these mappings consists of a payload structure identifier (PSI) including the payload type (PT) and 255 bytes reserved for future international standardization (RES), three justification control (JC) bytes, one negative justification opportunity (NJO) byte, and three bytes reserved for future international standardization (RES). The JC bytes consist of two bits for justification control and six bits reserved for future international standardization. The OPUk payload for these mappings consists of 4 × 3808 bytes, including one positive justification opportunity (PJO) byte. The asynchronous and bit synchronous mapping processes generate the JC, NJO and PJO according to Table 6 and Table 7, respectively. The demapping process interprets JC, NJO and PJO according to Table 8. Majority vote (two out of three) is used to make the justification decision in the demapping process to protect against an error in one of the three JC signals. Table 6 JC, NJO and PJO generation by asynchronous mapping process (Table 17-1/G.709)
JC [78] 00 01 10 11 justification byte data byte NJO justification byte data byte data byte not generated justification byte PJO

.g.25 - Table 7 JC.2. Once per OPU1 frame.. CBR10G or CBR40G client signal.709) JC [78] 00 01 10 (Note) 11 data byte justification byte justification byte NJO justification byte data byte data byte data byte justification byte PJO NOTE – A mapper circuit does not generate this code. NJO and PJO generation by bit synchronous mapping process (Table 17-2/G. The OPUk clock for the synchronous mapping is derived from the CBR2G5. which is independent of the CBR2G5. The value contained in NJO and PJO when they are used as justification bytes is all-0s. Due to bit errors a demapper circuit might receive this code. STM-16) into OPU1 Groups of 8 successive bits (not necessarily being a byte) of the CBR2G5 signal are mapped into a Data (D) byte of the OPU1 (Figure 18). 8. CBR10G or CBR40G signal is mapped into the OPUk without using the justification capability within the OPUk frame: NJO contains a justification byte. The receiver is required to ignore the value contained in these bytes whenever they are used as justification bytes. CBR10G or CBR40G client signal. it is possible to perform either a positive or a negative justification action. CBR10G. The OPUk signal for the asynchronous mapping is created from a locally generated clock. The CBR2G5. PJO contains a data byte. NJO and PJO interpretation (Table 17-3/G. there is no “Start of Payload” indication or Pointer. CBR40G signal is mapped into the OPUk using a positive/negative/zero (pnz) justification scheme.2 Mapping a CBR2G5 signal (e. It should be noted that unlike SONET/SDH. and the JC signal is fixed to 00. The CBR2G5.709) JC [78] 00 01 10 11 not generated justification byte NJO data byte PJO Table 8 JC.

g. STM-256) into OPU3 Groups of 8 successive bits (not necessarily being a byte) of the CBR40G signal are mapped into a data (D) byte of the OPU3 (Figure 20).4 Mapping a CBR40G signal (e. 64 fixed stuff (FS) bytes are added in columns 1905 to 1920. Once per OPU2 frame.26 3824 3805D 3805D 3805D 3805D D D D D T1542780-00 1 2 3 4 PSI RES RES RES NJO JC JC JC PJO 8.709) 1 2 3 4 118 × 16D 118 × 16D 118 × 16D 15D + 117 × 16D 16FS 16FS 16FS 16FS 119 × 16D 119 × 16D 119 × 16D 119 × 16D T1542790-00 Figure 19 Mapping of a CBR10G signal into OPU2 (Figure 17-3/G. it is possible to perform either a positive or a negative justification action.709) . STM-64) into OPU2 Groups of 8 successive bits (not necessarily being a byte) of the CBR10G signal are mapped into a Data (D) byte of the OPU2 (Figure 19). 128 fixed stuff (FS) bytes are added in columns 1265 to 1280 and 2545 to 2560.2. Once per OPU3 frame.3 Mapping a CBR10G signal (e.. 1904 1905 1920 1921 3824 PSI RES RES RES NJO JC JC JC PJO 15 16 17 15 16 17 18 D D D D D D D Figure 18 Mapping of a CBR2G5 signal into OPU1 (Figure 17-2/G. it is possible to perform either a positive or a negative justification action.2.g. 1264 1265 1280 1281 2544 2545 2560 2561 3824 15 16 17 PSI RES RES RES NJO JC JC JC PJO 1 2 3 4 78 × 16D 78 × 16D 78 × 16D 15D + 77 × 16D 16FS 16FS 16FS 16FS 79 × 16D 79 × 16D 79 × 16D 79 × 16D 16FS 16FS 16FS 16FS 79 × 16D 79 × 16D 79 × 16D 79 × 16D T1542800-00 Figure 20 Mapping of a CBR40G signal into OPU3 (Figure 17-4/G.709) 8.

then the bytes in row 1 are included. It is organized in an octet-based block frame structure with four rows and 3824 columns. OPUk area. T1542430-00 1 14 15 3824 ODUk overhead area OPUk area (4 × 3810 bytes) Figure 21 ODUk frame structure (Figure 12-1/G. The ODUk overhead location is shown in Figure 22.1. it may or may not include the bytes in row 1.709) . The TC OH is added and terminated at the source and sink of the corresponding tandem connections.798). Columns 1 to 14 of rows 2-4 are dedicated to ODUk overhead area. but with all the bytes in row 1 equal to zero (Section 14/G.27 - 9 ODUk Overhead and Processing The ODUk (k = 1. Column Row 1 2 3 4 Area reserved for FA and OTUk overhead. The ODUk OH consists of portions dedicated to the end-to-end ODUk path and to six levels of tandem connection monitoring.709) The three main areas of the ODUk frame are: • • • OTUk area ODUk overhead area. Column # 1 1 Row # 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Frame alignment overhead RES TCM3 GCC1 GCC2 TCM ACT TCM2 APS/PCC TCM6 TCM5 TCM1 OTUk overhead TCM4 PM RES T1543810-01 FTFL EXP OPUk overhead Figure 22 ODUk overhead (Figure 15-12/G. Columns 1 to 14 of row 1 are reserved for frame alignment and OTUk specific overhead. However if one talks about the ODUk OH then the bytes in row 1 are not included. The ODUk path OH is terminated where the ODUk is assembled and disassembled. Figure 23 and Figure 24. ODUk OH information is added to the ODUk information payload to create an ODUk. It includes information for maintenance and operational functions to support optical channels. When people talk about the ODUk.798) the ODUk is considered to include row 1. Columns 15 to 3824 of the ODUk are dedicated to OPUk area.2. If one talks about the ODUk rate..3. In the functional model (G.1/G.798 and Section 14. respectively.3) frame structure is shown in Figure 21.

709) .28 - PM 1 TTI 2 BIP-8 3 0 SAPI 15 16 DAPI 31 32 Operator specific 63 1 2 3 4 5 BDI 6 7 STAT 8 BEI T1543620-01 Figure 23 ODUk path monitoring overhead (Figure 15-13/G.709) TCMi 1 2 3 TTIi BIP-8i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SAPI 15 16 BEIi/BIAEi BDIi STATi DAPI 31 32 Operator Specific 63 Figure 24 ODUk tandem connection monitoring #i overhead (Figure 15-14/G..

and inserted in the ODUk PM BIP-8 overhead location in the ODUk frame i+2 (Figure 25).2 BIP-8 This byte provides a bit interleaved parity-8 (BIP-8) code..798/12.2. dOCI.707/Y. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer CI_SSF = AI_TSF at TCM layer AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode == OPERATIONAL) dAIS. It is transmitted four times per multiframe.1.29 - 9.3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI) This is defined to convey the “Signal Fail” Status detected at the Path Terminating Sink Function. The ODUk BIP-8 is computed over the bits in the OPUk (columns 15 to 3824) area of ODUk frame i.1. and dTIM are TCM defects CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G. 1 1 Frame i 2 3 4 Frame i+1 1 2 3 4 Frame i+2 1 2 3 4 BIP8 BIP8 BIP8 14 15 3824 OPUk BIP8 T1542590-00 Figure 25 ODUk PM BIP-8 computation (Figure 15-15/G. dLCK.798/14. 9. The definition of what the fields’ mean is in G.2) dAIS here is the SM AIS .1. to the upstream node. dLCK.1322. The actual defect equations are: RI_BDI = aBDI = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or dTIM dAIS.709) 9.2.1. For definition of BIP-8 refer to BIP-X definition in ITU-T G.1 Path Monitoring (PM) Byte Descriptions Trail Trace Identifier (TTI) The TTI is a 64-Byte signal that occupies one byte of the frame and is aligned with the OTUk multiframe. dLTC.709/Section 15.1 9.3.1.2). dOCI. This signal is created by the consequent action of aBDI (G.

namely 0-8 errors.1. The remaining seven possible values represented by these four bits can only result from some unrelated condition and are interpreted as zero errors (Table 9).709) PM byte 3. 9.2 Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) There are six TCM’s. It is transmitted four times per multiframe.5 Path Monitoring Status (STAT) They indicate the presence of a maintenance signal (Table 10).1.1 Trail Trace Identifier (TTI) The TTI is a 64-Byte signal that occupies one byte of the frame and is aligned with the OTUk multiframe.709/Section 15.2. . They can be nested or overlapping.30 - 9. For more explanation on the different types of maintenance signals. This count has nine legal values. The definition of what the fields’ mean is in G.709) ODUk PM BEI bits 1234 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 to 1111 BIP violations 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 9. bits 678 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Normal path signal Reserved for future international standardization Reserved for future international standardization Reserved for future international standardization Maintenance signal: ODUk-LCK Maintenance signal: ODUk-OCI Maintenance signal: ODUk-AIS Status Reserved for future international standardization 9.. see Section 14 “OTN Maintenance Signals” Table 10 ODUk PM status interpretation (Table 15-3/G. Table 9 ODUk PM BEI interpretation (Table 15-2/G.4 Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE) This signal is used to convey in the upstream direction the count of interleaved-bit blocks that have been detected in error by the corresponding ODUk path monitoring sink using the BIP-8 code.2.

3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI) This is defined to convey the “Signal Fail” Status detected at the Path Terminating Sink Function. 9.1.2.2) dAIS here is the SM AIS 9. Any existing TCM is not overwritten. It is also used to convey in the upstream direction an incoming alignment error (IAE) condition that is detected in the corresponding ODUk tandem connection monitoring sink in the IAE overhead.1. The actual defect equations are: RI_BDI = aBDI = (CI_SSF or dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode!= TRANSPARENT dAIS and dTIM are TCM defects CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.1322. 1 1 Frame i 2 3 4 Frame i+1 1 2 3 4 Frame i+2 1 2 3 4 T1542620-00 14 15 BIP8 3824 OPUk BIP8 BIP8 Figure 26 ODUk TCM BIP-8 computation (Figure 15-18/G. BIP8 . Each ODUk BIP-8 is computed over the bits in the OPUk (columns 15 to 3824) area of ODUk frame i.12.2 BIP-8 This byte provides a bit interleaved parity-8 (BIP-8) code. For definition of BIP-8 refer to BIP-X definition in ITU-T G.3. This signal is created by the consequent action of aBDI at the TCM level (G.798/14.1.5.709) The BIP-8 is only overwritten at the start of a Tandem Connection.2. to the upstream node.707/Y.2..2).798.4 Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE) This signal is used to convey in the upstream direction the count of interleaved-bit blocks that have been detected as being in error by the corresponding ODUk tandem connection monitoring sink using the BIP-8 code. and inserted in the ODUk TCM BIP-8 overhead location (associated with the tandem connection monitoring level) in ODUk frame i+2 (Figure 26).31 - 9.

5 TCM Monitoring Status (STAT) For each tandem connection monitoring field three bits are defined as status bits (STAT). The remaining six possible values represented by these four bits can only result from some unrelated condition and are interpreted as zero errors (Table 11) and BIAE not active. They indicate the presence of a maintenance signal. Table 11 ODUk TCM BEI interpretation (Table 15-4/G. . or if there is no source TCM active (Table 12).1010 1011 1100 to 1111 BIAE BIP violations false false false false false false false false false false true false 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 9. if there is an incoming alignment error at the source TCM.32 - During a IAE condition the code "1011" is inserted into the BEI/BIAE field and the error count is ignored. Otherwise the error count (0-8) is inserted into the BEI/BIAE field.709) ODUk TCM BEI bits 1234 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001..).2.

8. 256 columns are added to the ODUk frame for the FEC and the .873. 10 OTUk Overhead and Processing The OTUk (k = 1.9 Fault Type and Fault Location reporting communication channel (FTFL) See G. ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.3) frame structure is based on the ODUk frame structure and extends it with a forward error correction (FEC). ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.2. bits 678 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 No source TC In use without IAE In use with IAE Reserved for future international standardization Reserved for future international standardization Maintenance signal: ODUk-LCK Maintenance signal: ODUk-OCI Maintenance signal: ODUk-AIS Status 9. The APS/PCC bytes in a given frame are assigned to a dedicated level depending on the value of MFAS as follows: Table 13 Multiframe to allow separate APS/PCC for each monitoring level (Table 15-6/G. the bit assignments for these bytes and the bit-oriented protocol are given in Recommendation G.. GCC2) The protocol of the bytes in this channel is defined in G.1. Bit assignment and byte oriented protocol for ring protection schemes are for further study. 9.7 General Communication Channels (GCC1.7712/Y.2.5 for an explanation of FTFL. ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/I For linear protection schemes. ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.6 Tandem Connection Monitoring ACTivation/deactivation (TCM-ACT) Its definition is for further study.8 Automatic Protection Switching and Protection Communication Channel (APS/PCC) Up to eight levels of nested APS/PCC signals may be present in this field (Table 13).2.2.33 - Table 12 ODUk TCM status interpretation (Table 15-5/G.709) TCM byte 3. ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.709 section 15. ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.2. 9.709) MFAS 678 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 bit APS/PCC channel applies to connection monitoring level ODUk Path ODUk TCM1 ODUk TCM2 ODUk TCM3 ODUk TCM4 ODUk TCM5 ODUk TCM6 OTUk Section Protection scheme using the APS/PCC channel (NOTE) ODUk SNC/N ODUk SNC/S.1703. 9.2.

.1 Scrambling The OTUk signal needs sufficient bit timing content to allow a clock to be recovered.34 - overhead bytes in row 1. columns 8 to 14 of the ODUk overhead are used for OTUk specific overhead.level 8 BEI: Backward Error Indication BDI: Backward Defect Indication IAE: Incoming Alignment Error BIAE: Backward Incoming Alignment Error BDI SAPI 15 16 IAE BEI/BIAE RES DAPI 31 32 Operator Specific 63 - Figure 27 OTUk Overhead (Figure 15-2/G. The overhead is shown in Figure 27: Column Row 1 2 3 4 1 FA OH 7 8 14 15 OTUk OH OTUk FEC (4 x 256 bytes) 3824 3825 4080 SM Column # 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 TTI BIP-8 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FA: Frame Alignment FAS: Frame Alignment Signal MFAS: MultiFrame Alignment Signal SM: Section Monitoring GCC: General Communication Channel RES: Reserved for future international standardisation TTI: Trail Trace Identifier DAPI: Destination Access Point Identifier SAPI: Source Access Point Identifier BIP8: Bit Interleaved Parity . The RS(255. The generating polynomial is 1 + x + x + x + x .709) 10. OTUk OH information is part of the OTUk signal structure. A suitable bit pattern. If no FEC is used. It includes information for operational functions to support the transport via one or more optical channel connections. Figure 28 shows a functional diagram of the frame synchronous scrambler. which prevents a long sequence of "1"s or "0"s. is provided by using a scrambler. 3 12 16 . resulting in an octet-based block frame structure with four rows and 4080 columns. The operation of the scrambler is functionally identical to that of a frame synchronous scrambler of sequence length 65535 operating at the OTUk rate. The bit rates of the OTUk signals are defined in Table 1. fixed stuff bytes (all-0s pattern) are inserted.239) FEC code is specified in Annex A/G.239) FEC codes. The OTUk OH is terminated where the OTUk signal is assembled and disassembled. The OTUk forward error correction (FEC) contains the Reed-Solomon RS(255.709.

2..1 Frame alignment signal (FAS) A six byte OTUk-FAS signal (Figure 29) is defined in row 1. The scrambler runs continuously throughout the complete OTUk frame. A single multiframe alignment signal (MFAS) byte is defined in row 1.2. OA2 is "0010 1000".2 Frame Alignment Overhead 10. .709) The scrambler is reset to "FFFF" (HEX) on the most significant bit of the byte following the last framing byte in the OTUk frame. are added modulo 2 to the output from the x position of the scrambler.e. OA1 is "1111 0110".709) 10. Scrambling is performed after FEC check bytes computation and insertion into the OTUk signal. columns 1 to 6 of the OTUk overhead. This bit. i. the MSB of the MFAS byte. column 7 of the OTUk/ODUk overhead (Figure 30). The framing bytes (FAS) of the OTUk overhead are not scrambled. FAS OH Byte 1 FAS OH Byte 2 FAS OH Byte 3 FAS OH Byte 4 FAS OH Byte 5 FAS OH Byte 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OA1 OA1 OA1 OA2 OA2 OA2 T1542510-00 Figure 29 Frame alignment signal overhead structure (Figure 15-7/G. and all subsequent bits to be 16 scrambled. The value of the MFAS byte will be incremented each OTUk/ODUk frame and provides as such a 256 frame multiframe.2 Multiframe alignment signal (MFAS) Some of the OTUk and ODUk overhead signals span multiple OTUk/ODUk frames. 10.35 Data in OTUk clock D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S D Q S Scrambled data out OTUk MSB of MFAS byte T1542420-00 Figure 28 Frame synchronous scrambler (Figure 11-3/G.

. 16-frame. multiframes to the principal frame. . etc. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . . . . 32-frame. Column # 1 1 Row # 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SM 10 11 12 13 RES OPUk overhead T1542530-00 14 15 16 Frame alignment overhead GCC0 ODUk overhead Figure 31 OTUk overhead (Figure 15-9/G.36 - MFAS OH Byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . 4-frame.709) . . 10.3 SM Byte Descriptions The OTUk overhead location is shown in Figure 31 and Figure 32.709) Individual OTUk/ODUk overhead signals use this central multiframe to lock their 2-frame. 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 T1542520-00 Figure 30 Multiframe alignment signal overhead (Figure 15-8/G. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 MFAS sequence 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 . 8frame.

1322.707/Y.3..709/Section 15. The OTUk BIP-8 is computed over the bits in the OPUk (columns 15 to 3824) area of OTUk frame i.3. and inserted in the OTUk BIP-8 overhead location in OTUk frame i+2 (Figure 33).709) . It is transmitted four times per multiframe. 1 1 Frame i 2 3 4 Frame i+1 1 2 3 4 Frame i+2 1 2 3 4 T1542550-00 14 15 BIP8 3824 OPUk BIP8 BIP8 BIP8 Figure 33 OTUk SM BIP-8 computation (Figure 15-11/G.2.1 Trail Trace Identifier (TTI) The TTI is a 64-Byte signal that occupies one byte of the frame and is aligned with the OTUk multiframe.2 BIP-8 This byte provides a bit interleaved parity-8 (BIP-8) code. 10.709) 10.37 - SM 1 2 3 TTI BIP-8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SAPI 15 16 BEI/BIAE BDI IAE RES DAPI 31 32 Operator Specific 63 Figure 32 OTUk section monitoring overhead (Figure 15-10/G. The definition of what the fields mean is in G. For definition of BIP-8 refer to BIP-X definition in ITU-T G.

38 - Note: The OPUk includes the Justification Bytes. This signal is created by the consequent action aBDI at the SM level (G.4 Backward Error Indication and Backward Incoming Alignment Error (BEI/BIAE) This signal is used to convey in the upstream direction the count of interleaved-bit blocks that have been detected in error by the corresponding OTUk section monitoring sink using the BIP-8 code.2.798..2) dAIS = OTUk-AIS (G.1) dTIM = G.2. Otherwise the error count (0-8) is inserted into the BEI/BIAE field.798. thus an OTN signal can not be retimed without demapping back to the client signal.2.2). The remaining six possible values represented by these four bits can only result from some unrelated condition and are interpreted as zero errors (Table 14) and BIAE not active. to the upstream node.6.1.1.6.12.6.798/13. During a IAE condition the code "1011" is inserted into the BEI/BIAE field and the error count is ignored.3.3.2.1 10.3.798.3. 10. .3 Backward Defect Indication (BDI) This is defined to convey the “Signal Fail” Status detected at the Section Terminating Sink Function. It is also used to convey in the upstream direction an incoming alignment error (IAE) condition that is detected in the corresponding OTUk section monitoring sink in the IAE overhead. The actual defect equations are: RI_BDI = aBDI = CI_SSF or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.

then it would need to be detected on the source side. G. For ODU2 to ODU3 multiplexing. However if one is going through an ODUk switch.39 - Table 14 OTUk SM BEI interpretation (Table 15-1/G. there has to be two positive stuff opportunities! For ODU1 to ODU3 multiplexing.4 General Communication Channel 0 (GCC0) The protocol of the bytes in this channel is defined in G.709. otherwise it is set to "0".1. The egress point may use this information to suppress the counting of bit errors.1 ODU1 to ODU2 Justification Rate For the case of multiplexing ODU1 to ODU2: From Table 2 ODU1 rate = 239/238 * OC48 +. 10.1. IAE is set to "1" to indicate a frame alignment error. Practically it is detected on the sink side and then passed to the source side. In order to understand why.1 Multiplexing Data Rates 11.498. It is possible to mix ODU1’s and ODU2’s in an ODU3. it is necessary to examine the data rates.1.20 ppm = 2.49.976 b/s .1010 1011 1100 to 1111 BIAE BIP violations false false false false false false false false false false true false 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 10..3.1).5 Incoming Alignment Error (IAE) A single-bit incoming alignment error (IAE) signal is defined to allow the ingress point to inform its peer egress point that an alignment error in the incoming signal has been detected.126 +. which may occur as a result of a frame phase change of the OTUk at the ingress of the section. 11.709) OTUk SM BEI/BIAE bits 1234 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001.775.7712/Y. 11 ODUk Multiplexing Multiplexing in the OTN domain is defined in Section 19 of G.798 shows an incoming alignment error being detected on the source side (Section 13.1/G. there is a fixed stuff in column 119! Thus the stuffing for multiplexing is different from the stuffing for mapping.2. The consequent action (AI_IAE) is then used to set the SM IAE bit (Section 13.3.798). Four ODU1’s can be multiplexed to an ODU2.1703. Up to sixteen ODU1’s or four ODU2’s can be multiplexed to an ODU3.

498.200.398 b/s by stuffing.037.930 .273.49. there are enough data bytes coming in to match the outgoing rate! 11.40 - We can put data in the "Fixed Stuff" bits of the OPU2 payload that is shown in Figure 19. The stuffing is done on a multiframe basis. Thus the OPU2 payload is now 238/239 * ODU2 rate or: 238/239 * 239/237 * OC192 +.65 ppm Thus we have to account for a data rate mismatch of 144.037.976) = 144.976 b/s We can put data in the "Fixed Stuff" bits of the OPU3 payload that is shown in Figure 20.498.067 b/s by stuffing.241 + 49.976 b/s The worst case frequency difference is then: (2.126 +.20 ppm = 2..930 + 200. Thus.067 b/s or 57.819.629.20 ppm The OPU2 payload is time sliced for the four ODU1’s.629.20 ppm = 10.745) = -45.1.20 ppm = 2. An all-0s pattern is inserted in the fixed stuff bytes.745) = 757.930 +.364 b/s = 65 PPM Thus in the worst case.498. The stuffing is done on a multiframe basis.775.830 .819.753) .830 +.273.598 b/s or -4.200.(2.745 b/s We can put data in the "Fixed Stuff" bits of the OPU3 payload that is shown in Figure 20. Thus the OPU3 payload is now 238/239 * ODU3 rate or: 238/239 * 239/236 * OC768 +.2 ODU2 to ODU3 Justification Rate For the case of multiplexing ODU2 to ODU3: From Table 2: ODU2 rate = 239/237 * OC192 +.200. The stuffing rate is: (stuff bits/frame) * (bits/sec)/(bits/frame) = (16/4)/(3824*4*8)*(238/236*OC768) = 1.65 ppm that the normal scheme can accommodate. This is more then the +.830 + 200. Thus each ODU2 has: 238/236 * OC192 +.49.753 b/s The worst case frequency difference is then: (10.976) .20 ppm The OPU3 payload is time sliced for the four ODU2’s. there are enough data bytes coming in to match the outgoing rate! 11.629.200.037.452 b/s = 130 PPM Therefore in the worst case.037.037. Thus the OPU3 payload is now 238/239 * ODU3 rate or: 238/239 * 239/236 * OC768 +.1.(10.775.3 ODU1 to ODU3 Justification Rate For the case of multiplexing ODU1 to ODU3: From Table 2: ODU1 rate = 239/238 * OC48 +.20 ppm = 10.(10.5 ppm Thus we have to account for a data rate mismatch of 757.241 +.037.126 . The stuffing rate is: (stuff bits/frame)/(bits/frame) * (data rate) = (8/4)/(3824*4*8)*(238/237*OC192) = 163.49. Thus each ODU1 has: .312.20 ppm The OPU3 payload is time sliced for the 16 ODU1’s. Each timeslot is stuffed once per four frames.398 b/s or +75 ppm and (10. each timeslot has two positive stuff opportunities and one negative stuff opportunity per four frames. Thus each ODU1 has: 238/237 * OC48 +.753) .498. Column 119 of the time sliced ODU3 is fixed stuff.273.

555 b/s by stuffing.49.863.49.41 - 237/239 * 239/236 * OC48 +.2 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing 11. Once again each timeslot has two positive stuff opportunities and one negative stuff opportunity per 16 frames.498. The bytes of the Justification Overhead to adapt the asynchronous ODU1 to the ODU2 clock rate are mapped into the OPU2 OH area. The stuffing rate is: (stuff bits/frame) * (bits/sec)/(bits/frame) = (16/16)/(3824*4*8)*(238/236*OC768) = 328. The bytes of an ODU1 input are mapped into one of four OPU2 Tributary Slots.2. there are enough data bytes coming in to match the outgoing rate! 11. The stuffing is done on a multiframe basis.1 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing Structure The OPU2 is divided in a number of Tributary Slots (TS) and these Tributary Slots are interleaved within the OPU2 (Figure 34).(2.977) .976) = 188.20 ppm = 2.728 + 49.775.498.113 b/s = 130 PPM Therefore in the worst case.863. .498.126 ..46 ppm Thus we have to account for a data rate mismatch of 188.555 b/s or 75.977 b/s The worst case frequency difference is then: (2.728 +.

GCC0 and RES) is set to all 0’s. 3821 3822 3823 3824 An OPU2 Tributary Slot occupies 25% of the OPU2 Payload area.709) OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 JOH TS 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 However the FAS bytes can’t be removed because there is no standard on where the ODU1 frame starts. Thus the ODU1 FAS bytes are needed to frame the recovered ODU1 signal. The four OPU2 TS's are byte interleaved in the OPU2 Payload area. This is not suppose to be a problem according to contributions to the ITU.42 - It is important to note that the ODU1 frame repeats every four ODU2 frames! One of the implications of this is that the FAS bytes in the ODU1 frame could cause false locking of the ODU2 frame. The OTU1 OH (SM.00 PSI 11 10 01 00 11 Column MFAS 1 bits Row 78 1 4 PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI JOH TS 1 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 JOH TS 4 OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot JOH TS 3 OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot JOH TS 2 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 JOH TS 1 OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot OPU2 TribSlot 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 3 OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU2 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 Figure 34 OPU2 tributary slot allocation (Figure 19-1/G. OPU2 TribSlot 1 OPU2 TribSlot 2 OPU2 TribSlot 3 OPU2 TribSlot 4 3 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 . It is a structure with 952 columns by 4 rows. .

2 4 x ODU1 to ODU2 Justification Structure The Justification Overhead (JOH) consisting of Justification Control (JC) and Negative Justification Opportunity (NJO) signals of the 4 OPU2 TSs are located in the overhead area. Table 15 OPU2 Justification OH tributary slots (Table 19-1/G..43 - Column Row 1 2 3 4 ODUj Overhead area 1 7 8 14 15 3824 FA Overhead area Fixed Stuff (all-0's) OPUj area (4 x 3810 bytes) Figure 35 Extended ODUj frame structure (Figure 19-10/G. column 16 of rows 1 to 4. Figure 36 shows how the bytes are distributed. JOH for a tributary slot is available once every 4 frames. A 4-frame multiframe structure is used for this assignment.709) MFAS bits 78 00 01 10 11 JOH TS 1 2 3 4 The PJO1 and PJO2 bytes are in the ODU1 payload. The JOH is assigned to the related tributary slots on a per frame base.2.709) 11. This multiframe structure is locked to bits 7 and 8 of the MFAS byte as shown in Table 15 and Figure 36. .

2. ODU2 into OPU3). This is because the timeslot provides more capacity than is needed. 11. .g. is located in the mapping specific area of the PSI signal (PSI[2]. The MSI indicates the content of each tributary slot (TS) of an OPU2. In case of fixed assignment the tributary port number corresponds to the tributary slot number..Bits 1 and 2 indicate the ODU type transported in the TS. This is of interest in case of flexible assignment of ODUs to tributary slots (e. PSI[17]).4 OPU2 Multiplex Structure Identifier (MSI) The multiplex structure identifier (MSI) overhead. These bytes are set to all Zeros.44 - Row 1 2 3 4 JC JC NJO PSI JC OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) PJO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 JC Reserved OPU2 PJO1 17 18 PJO1 19 PJO1 20 PJO2 21 PJO2 22 PJO2 23 PJO2 24 PJO1 17 18 19 OPU3 Reserved 32 PJO2 33 PJO2 34 PJO2 35 MSI 17 18 MFAS bits 78 00 01 10 MFAS bits 5678 0000 0001 0010 PJO1 PJO1 Reserved 11 PJO1 PJO1 1111 255 Figure 36 OPUk Multiplex Overhead (Figure 19-6/G.Bits 3 to 8 indicate the tributary port of the ODU transported. These bytes are located in PSI[1] and PSI[18] to [PSI255] of the OPUk overhead...2. . 11. The generic coding for each TS is shown in Figure 37. Byte 1 is reserved Bytes 2-17 are the “Multiplex Structure Identifier” Bytes 18-255 are reserved 239 bytes are reserved in the OPUk PSI for future international standardization.709) The thing to note is that there are two PJO bytes and only one NJO bytes. which encodes the ODU multiplex structure in the OPU.3 OPU2 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) Byte 0 is defined as the Payload Type and is equal to 0x20. PJO2 48 3821 3822 3823 3824 JC Column 15 16 17 . One byte is used for each TS.

The tributary port # indicates the port number of the ODU1 that is being transported in this TS.45 - 1 PSI[1+i] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TS #i ODU type Tributray Port # 00: ODU1 01: ODU2 10: ODU3 11: Res.. NJO.709) For the 4 OPU2 tributary slots 4 bytes of the PSI are used as shown in Figure 38..2. NJO. The asynchronous mapping process generates the JC. They are set to 0 and ignored by the receiver. The OPU2 signal for the multiplexed ODU1 structure is created from a locally generated clock. The extended ODU1 signal is adapted to the locally generated ODU2 clock by means of an asynchronous mapping with -1/0/+1/+2 positive/negative/zero (pnz) justification scheme. The demapping process interprets JC. Majority vote (two out of three) is used to make the justification decision in the demapping process to protect against an error in one of the three JC signals.5 Frequency Justification The mapping of ODU1 signals (with up to ±20 ppm bit-rate tolerance) into the ODU2 signal is performed as an asynchronous mapping. PJO1 and PJO2 according to Table 16. the assignment of ports to tributary slots is fixed. .. the port number equals the tributary slot number The remaining 12 bytes of the MSI field (PSI[6] to PSI[17]) are unused. 00 00 00 00 Tributary Port 1 Tributary Port 2 Tributary Port 3 Tributary Port 4 : 00 1111: Tributary Port 16 0000: 0001: 0010 0011 Figure 37 Generic MSI coding (Figure 19-7/G. PJO1 and PJO2 according to Table 16.709) 11. 1 PSI[2] PSI[3] PSI[4] PSI[5] 00 00 00 00 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 00 0000 00 0001 00 0010 00 0011 Figure 38 OPU2-MSI coding (Figure 19-8/G. which is independent of the ODU1 client signals. The ODU type is fixed ODU1. The ODU1 signal is extended with Frame Alignment Overhead and an all-0's pattern in the OTU1 Overhead field.

NJO. 1 NOTE TSB: In the second line has to be read Figure 39 instead of 34 ? . Note: based on the calculations for ODU1 to OPU2 mapping (See Section 11.3 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Multiplexing 11.8] 00 01 10 11 NJO justification byte data byte justification byte justification byte PJO1 data byte data byte justification byte justification byte PJO2 data byte data byte justification byte data byte Interpretation no justification (0) negative justification (-1) double positive justification (+2) positive justification (+1) The value contained in NJO.1).1.. PJO1 and PJO2 when they are used as justification bytes is all-0s.709) JC [7. PJO1 and PJO2 generation and interpretation (Table 19-3/G. 11. The bytes of the Justification Overhead to adapt the asynchronous ODU1 or ODU2 to the ODU3 clock rate are mapped into the OPU3 OH area.3.1 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Multiplexing Structure The OPU3 is divided in a number of Tributary Slots (TS) and these Tributary Slots are interleaved within the OPU3 (Figure 341). The receiver is required to ignore the value contained in these bytes whenever they are used as justification bytes. there should never be a need to do a “Double Positive Justification”.46 - Table 16 JC. The bytes of an ODU1 or ODU2 input are mapped into one or four OPU3 Tributary Slots.

GCC0 and RES) is set to all 0’s. 31 32 33 34 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 It is important to note that the ODU1 frame repeats every sixteen ODU3 frames! One of the implications of this is that the FAS bytes in the ODU1 frame could cause false locking of the ODU3 frame. .709) OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 3 OPU3 Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) 2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 . The sixteen OPU3 TS's are byte interleaved in the OPU3 Payload area. It is a structure with 238 columns by 4 rows.47 - However the FAS bytes can’t be removed because there is no standard on where the ODU1 frame starts. This is not suppose to be a problem according to contributions to the ITU. Thus the ODU1 FAS bytes are needed to frame the recovered ODU1 signal.0000 PSI JOH TS 1 OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 JOH TS 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 4 OPU3 TribSlot 5 JOH TS 15 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 4 OPU3 TribSlot 5 JOH TS 2 OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot 1111 1110 0001 0000 1111 Column MFAS bits Row 1 5678 1 4 PSI PSI PSI PSI JOH TS 1 OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot OPU3 TribSlot 1 2 3 4 5 PSI OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 6 OPU3 TribSlot 7 OPU3 TribSlot 8 OPU3 TribSlot 9 OPU3 TribSlot 10 OPU3 TribSlot 11 OPU3 TribSlot 12 OPU3 TribSlot 13 OPU3 TribSlot 14 OPU3 TribSlot 15 OPU3 TribSlot 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 JOH TS 16 OPU3 TribSlot 1 OPU3 TribSlot 2 OPU3 TribSlot 3 OPU3 TribSlot 4 OPU3 TribSlot 5 Figure 39 OPU3 tributary slot allocation (Figure 19-2/G. 3821 3822 3823 3824 An OPU3 Tributary Slot occupies 6.25% of the OPU3 Payload area. The OTU1 OH (SM.

709) 11.3.709) MFAS bits 5678 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 JOH TS MFAS bits 5678 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 JOH TS The PJO1 and PJO2 bytes are in the ODU1 payload.48 - Column Row 1 2 3 4 ODUj Overhead area 1 7 8 14 15 3824 FA Overhead area Fixed Stuff (all-0's) OPUj area (4 x 3810 bytes) Figure 40 Extended ODUj frame structure (Figure 19-10/G.. Figure 36 shows how the bytes are distributed. 2 NOTE TSB: Figure 36 should be read Figure 41 instead? . JOH for a tributary slot is available once every 16 frames. column 16 of rows 1 to 4. Table 17 OPU3 Justification OH tributary slots (Table 19-2/G.2 ODU1/ODU2 to ODU3 Justification Structure The Justification Overhead (JOH) consisting of Justification Control (JC) and Negative Justification Opportunity (NJO) signals of the 16 OPU3 TS’s are located in the overhead area. This multiframe structure is locked to bits 5-8 of the MFAS byte as shown in Table 17and Figure 362. A 16-frame multiframe structure is used for this assignment. The JOH is assigned to the related tributary slots on a per frame base.

. Byte 1 is reserved Bytes 2-17 are the “Multiplex Structure Identifier” Bytes 18-255 are reserved 239 bytes are reserved in the OPUk PSI for future international standardization. ODU2 into OPU3).4 OPU3 Multiplex Structure Identifier (MSI) The multiplex structure identifier (MSI) overhead. One byte is used for each TS. This is because the timeslot provides more capacity than is needed. The MSI indicates the content of each tributary slot (TS) of an OPU3. 11. which encodes the ODU multiplex structure in the OPU. These bytes are set to all Zeros. PSI[17]). ..Bits 3 to 8 indicate the tributary port of the ODU transported.49 - Row 1 2 3 4 JC JC NJO PSI JC OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes) PJO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 JC Reserved OPU2 PJO1 17 18 PJO1 19 PJO1 20 PJO2 21 PJO2 22 PJO2 23 PJO2 24 PJO1 17 18 19 OPU3 Reserved 32 PJO2 33 PJO2 34 PJO2 35 MSI 17 18 MFAS bits 78 00 01 10 MFAS bits 5678 0000 0001 0010 PJO1 PJO1 Reserved 11 PJO1 PJO1 1111 255 Figure 41 OPUk Multiplex Overhead (Figure 19-6/G. The generic coding for each TS is shown in Figure 42. These bytes are located in PSI[1] and PSI[18] to [PSI255] of the OPUk overhead.3.709) The thing to note is that there are two PJO bytes and only one NJO bytes.3 OPU3 Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) Byte 0 is defined as the Payload Type and is equal to 0x20. 11.3. is located in the mapping specific area of the PSI signal (PSI[2]. PJO2 48 3821 3822 3823 3824 JC Column 15 16 17 ..g. This is of interest in case of flexible assignment of ODUs to tributary slots (e. In case of fixed assignment the tributary port number corresponds to the tributary slot number..Bits 1 and 2 indicate the ODU type transported in the TS.

for the case of ODU1 this assignment is fixed. The ODU type can be ODU1 or ODU2.50 - 1 PSI[1+i] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TS #i ODU type Tributray Port # 00: ODU1 01: ODU2 10: ODU3 11: Res.5 Frequency Justification The mapping of ODU1/ODU2 signals (with up to ±20 ppm bit-rate tolerance) into the ODU3 signal is performed as an asynchronous mapping.709) 11. The tributary port # indicates the port number of the ODU1/2 that is being transported in this TS. 1 PSI[2] PSI[3] PSI[4] PSI[5] PSI[6] PSI[7] PSI[8] PSI[9] PSI[10] PSI[11] PSI[12] PSI[13] PSI[14] PSI[15] PSI[16] PSI[17] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS10 TS11 TS12 TS13 TS14 TS15 TS16 ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type ODU type Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Tributray Port # Figure 43 OPU3-MSI coding (Figure 19-9/G.. for the case of ODU2 a flexible assignment of tributary ports to tributary slots is possible. . ODU2 tributary ports are numbered 1 to 4. 00 00 00 00 Tributary Port 1 Tributary Port 2 Tributary Port 3 Tributary Port 4 : 00 1111: Tributary Port 16 0000: 0001: 0010 0011 Figure 42 Generic MSI coding (Figure 19-7/G.3. the port number equals the slot number.709) For the 16 OPU3 tributary slots 16 bytes of the PSI are used as shown in Figure 43.

.g. ODUk-LCK. NJO. 11. which is independent of the ODU1/ODU2 client signals. This ODUjAIS is then mapped into the respective timeslot in the ODUk.5.709/16. If such unit is installed but temporarily removed as part of a repair action.1.709) JC [7. NJO. Majority vote (two out of three) is used to make the justification decision in the demapping process to protect against an error in one of the three JC signals. PJO1 and PJO2 when they are used as justification bytes is all-0s. 11. This ODUj-OCI signal is then mapped into the respective timeslot in the ODUk. The receiver is required to ignore the value contained in these bytes whenever they are used as justification bytes.2 Client source ODUk-OCI For the case the ODUj is received from the output of a fabric (ODUj connection function). the incoming signal may contain (case of open matrix connection) the ODUj-OCI signal as specified in G.5.5.3 Line source ODUk-AIS During signal fail condition of the incoming ODUk/OPUk signal (e. frame start and multiframes start are independent from the incoming clock. This signal is selected by the consequent action “aAIS”. PJO1 and PJO2 according to Table 18. The ODU1/ODU2 signal is extended with Frame Alignment Overhead and an all-0's pattern in the OTU1 Overhead field.8] 00 01 10 11 NJO justification byte data byte justification byte justification byte PJO1 data byte data byte justification byte justification byte PJO2 data byte data byte justification byte data byte Interpretation no justification (0) negative justification (-1) double positive justification (+2) positive justification (+1) The value contained in NJO. OTUj-LOF). NOTE: This means if the line clock is lost. NJO. 11. If such unit is intentionally absent (i. the associated timeslot in the ODUk should carry an ODUj-OCI signal.1 is generated as a replacement signal for the lost ODUj signal. this failed incoming signal will be replaced by the ODUj-AIS signal as specified in G. The clock.4.e.4. Not all equipment will have a real connection function (i. not installed).e. The extended ODU1/ODU2 signal is adapted to the locally generated ODU3 clock by means of an asynchronous mapping with -1/0/+1/+2 positive/negative/zero (pnz) justification scheme.2. the associated timeslot in the ODUk should carry an ODUj-AIS signal.709/16.51 - The OPU3 signal for the multiplexed ODU1/ODU2 structure is created from a locally generated clock.g. in the case of an ODUk-AIS.1 Client source ODUk-AIS During a signal fail condition of the incoming ODUj client signal (e.709/16.4 Maintenance Signal Insertion 11.4. Table 18 JC. ODUk-OCI condition) the ODUj-AIS pattern as specified in G. instead the presence/absence of tributary interface port units represents the presence/absence of a matrix connection. . The demapping process interprets JC. switch fabric) implemented. an external reference or free run local clock is required to generate the AIS signal. The asynchronous mapping process generates the JC. PJO1 and PJO2 generation and interpretation (Table 19-3/G. PJO1 and PJO2 according to Table 18.

2 cPLM cPLM == dPLM and (not AI_TSF) MFS FS CK AI_TSF MI_cLOFLOM (n+m) × MI_cLOFLOM ODUkP/ODU[i]j_A_Sk_MP Defect correlations . A functional model of the Demultiplexer is shown in Figure 44. There are defects detected in the Demultiplexer.1 dPLM (Payload Mismatch) dPLM is declared if the accepted payload type (AcPT) is not equal to the expected payload type(s) as defined by the specific adaptation function.. 11.1 F14-51 ODUkP_AP Figure 44 ODUkP/ODU[i]j_A_Sk processes (Figure 14-51/G.5. ODUj_CP[1] CI_MFS CI_SSF CI_CK CI_FS CI_D ODUj_CP[n] CI_D CI_CK CI_FS CI_MFS CI_SSF ODUi_CP[1] CI_D CI_CK CI_FS CI_MFS CI_SSF ODUi_CP[m] CI_D CI_CK CI_FS CI_MFS CI_SSF dPLM dMSIM dPLM dMSIM aAIS Select normal/AIS Normal AIS D CK FS MFS Generate ODUj-AIS dLOFLOM Consequent actions dPLM dMSIM dPLM dMSIM aSSF MFS FS CK AI_TSF MI_cLOFLOM MFS FS CK AI_TSF MI_cLOFLOM MFS FS CK AI_TSF MI_cLOFLOM Frame & multiframe alignment dLOFLOM detection WR RD RD Extract JC D TS# Active Demultiplexer Multiplex structure Extract MSI Clock generator D WR Elastic store CK D TS# Active D TS# Active dMSIM dPLM D TS# Active MI_Active Defect correlations MI_cMSIM MI_cPLM MI_AutoMS MI_ExMSI MI_AcMSI MI_AcPT dMSIM MSI process dPLM PT process AI_CK AI_FS Extract PT AI_D AI_MFS AI_TSF G. dPLM is cleared is the accepted payload type is equal to the expected payload type(s) as defined by the specific adaptation function.5 Defect detection and correlation There are no defects detected in the Multiplexer.52 - 11.798) 11. Note . X is 3.798AMD. A new payload type PT (AcPT) is accepted if a new consistent value is received in the PSI[0] byte in X consecutive multiframes.5.An adaptation function may support more than one payload type.

1. 11.5. and dTIM are TCM defects) CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.14. dOCI.12. A new multiplex structure identifier MSI (AcMSI) is accepted if a new consistent value is received in the MSI bytes of the PSI overhead (PSI[2.1.5. dOCI.1. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer) CI_SSF = AI_TSF at TCM layer AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode==OPERATIONAL) (G. dLCK. dMSIM is cleared if the AcMSI is equal to the ExMSI. To provide for the case of intermittent OOFs.3.3 dMSIM (Multiplex Structure Identifier Mismatch supervision) dMSIM is declared if the accepted MSI (AcMSI) is not equal to the expected multiplex structure identifier (ExMSI). dLCK. PSI[2. In the in-frame state (IF) the frame alignment signal is continuously checked with the presumed frame start position and the expected multiframe sequence. The out of frame state (OOF) is entered if this subset is not found at the correct position in 5 consecutive frames or the received MFAS does not match with the expected multiframe number in 5 consecutive frames.4 cMSIM cMSIM == dMSIM and (not dPLM) and (not AI_TSF) AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) (G. dOCI.. dLCK. .2.14. OA2 FAS bytes) and checking the multiframe sequence (MFAS byte) contained in the ODUj frame.2) (dAIS. dLOFLOM is cleared when the IF state persists continuously for 3 ms..17] for ODU3) in X consecutive multiframes.1.798.1.5 dLOFLOM (Loss of Frame and Multiframe) If the frame alignment process is in the out-of-frame (OOF) state for 3 ms..53 - AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) (G.5.2) (dAIS here is the SM AIS) 11. dLCK. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer) CI_SSF = AI_TSF (at TCM layer) AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode == OPERATIONAL) (G. dLOFLOM is declared.2) (dAIS here is the SM AIS) 11. ExMSI is configured via the management interface.2) (dAIS. X is 3.1.5.798.12. the integrating timer is reset to zero until an in-frame (IF) condition persists continuously for 3 ms. The framing pattern checked for is the OA1OA2 pattern (bytes 3 and 4 of the first row of the ODUj[/i] frame).. The ODUj frame and multiframe alignment is found by searching for the framing pattern (OA1.2. dLTC.5.14. dOCI.3.798. In the out-of-frame state the framing pattern searched for is the full set of the OA1 and OA2 bytes..798.2. The in-frame (IF) is entered if this set is found and confirmed one frame period later and an error-free multiframe sequence is found in the MFAS bytes of the two frames.2) (dAIS.2.5] for ODU2. dLTC.798.14.2) (dAIS.798. and dTIM are TCM defects) CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.

14.2) (dAIS. dLCK.5.798. dLCK. dOCI.5. dOCI.798.1.2.1. and dTIM are TCM defects) CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.2.1.8 SSF (Server Signal Fail) For each ODUj: aSSF == AI_TSF or dPLM or dMSIM or dLOFLOM or (not Active) (“not Active” is provisioned by the management interface) AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) (G.12. and dTIM are TCM defects) CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G.2) (dAIS.54 - The frame and multiframe start are maintained during the OOF state. dOCI. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer) CI_SSF = AI_TSF at TCM layer AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode == OPERATIONAL) (G. dOCI.2.5.1. dLTC.14.2.3. dLCK.798.798.2) (dAIS. 11. dOCI.12. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer) CI_SSF = AI_TSF at TCM layer AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode == OPERATIONAL) (G. dLTC.5.3. dLTC.1.2) (dAIS here is the SM AIS) 11.2.14. dOCI..14. and dTIM are TCM defects) .1. dLCK.1.1.798.7 aAIS (AIS insertion) For each ODUj: aAIS == AI_TSF or dPLM or dMSIM or dLOFLOM or (not Active) (“not Active” is provisioned by the management interface) AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) (G.798.5. dLCK.798. There is one of these defects for each tributary.5.2.14.2) (dAIS.2) (dAIS here is the SM AIS) 11. dTIM are all detected at the PM layer) CI_SSF = AI_TSF at TCM layer AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or (dAIS or dLTC or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis)) and TCMCI_Mode == OPERATIONAL) (G.2) (dAIS.2) (dAIS.798.14. dLCK.6 cLOFLOM cLOFLOM == dLOFLOM and (not dMSIM) and (not dPLM) and (not AI_TSF) and (Active) (“Active” is provisioned by the management interface) AI_TSF = aTSF = CI_SSF or dAIS or dOCI or dLCK or (dTIM and not TIMActDis) (G.

13. SDH/SONET.55 - CI_SSF = aSSF = dAIS or dLOF or dLOM (G. client mappers. its implication on timing has been taken into account in the relevant recommendations. in case of LOS of the input client. The number of 3R regenerators that can be cascaded in tandem depends on the specification of this regenerator and on the jitter and wander generation and tolerance applicable to the OTUk interfaces. e. which are equipments that perform complete regeneration of the pulse shape. This specification allows for very simple implementation of timing in OTN equipments compared to SDH/SONET. It has been decided that OTN must be transparent to the payload it transports within the ODUk and that the OTN layer does not need to transport network synchronization since network synchronization can be transported within the payload. SDH/SONET. The first one is the asynchronous mapping. Two types of mapping have been specified for the transport of CBR payload. do not prevent SDH tributaries to meet the G.709 frame with its own frequency. that is transported by an OCh on one lambda of the Optical Transport Module (OTM).3.2 Network requirements In an OTN. OTUk. clock recovery and retiming within required jitter limits (see fig27/G. where the payload floats within the OTN frame. it is stated to be at least 50 in G.709 frame.g. OTN transports client signals into a G.g.1 Introduction Basic statements on timing in OTN has been done by ITU-SG13 during its February 2000 meeting. In this case. 3R regenerators. e.825 jitter and wander requirements. the OTN frequency that does not transport payload is generated by a free running oscillator. thus simple free running oscillators can be used to generate the OTN frame. complex clocks with holdover mode nor SSM processing. which is the most widely used. A trail through OTN is generated in an OTN NE that maps the client into an ODUk and terminated in another OTN NE that de-maps the client signal from the ODUk.798.8251. SDH/SONET has been specified to be a network layer able to transport network synchronization because its introduction in the network could corrupt the existing 2 Mbit/s synchronization network with the VC12 pointer adjustments. An OTN NE do not require synchronization interfaces. ODUk multiplexing has been standardized.872 and Annex A/G.872). without need for an holdover mode. jitter and wander accumulate on transmission path according to the generation and transfer characteristics of interconnected equipments. mainly by SDH/SONET client tributaries. Another difference with SDH is that there is no geographical option for the timing aspects of OTN. there might be 3R regenerators. Between the 2 OTN trail terminations. Each lambda carries its G. The second is the synchronous mapping where the timing used to generate the OTN frame is extracted from a CBR client tributary. there is no common clock for the different OTUk of the OTM. In order to meet these requirements the OTN frame has been designed so that the client mapping/demapping and the transfer through OTN network equipments and 3R regenerators. there is no frequency relationship between the payload and the OTN frame frequencies.12.. demappers and .2) (dAIS here is the SM AIS) 12 ODUk Virtual Concatenation / OTN over SONET TBD Editors Note: Who wants to write this? 13 Synchronisation 13.1.

The network limits for this are given in G. section 5. In order to avoid the effects of excessive jitter and wander.8251): the accuracy of these clocks depends on the definition of the G. As OTN clocks do not generate wander. They never serve as an equipment synchronization source. The limits for such accumulation are given in G. The size limit of these buffers is specified in recommendation ITU-T G. jitter transfer and transient response.8251 specifies the jitter and wander tolerance in section 6. G. The local part of the reference chain. the SEC will no longer be present but replaced by OTN NEs.8251. i.8251. Each of these islands may be composed of OTN NEs performing mapping/demapping or multiplexing/demultiplexing operations.8251 Annex A specifies the jitter generation of these clocks and. A total of 100 mapping/demapping functions can be performed on this synchronization reference chain. This is a major difference compared to SDH.825 for SDH signal clients. 3R regeneration: this ODCr clock is locked on an OCh input frequency which must be within ±20ppm. and its amendment 1 for ODUk multiplexing. These specifications have been established together with the definition of the clocks required by all functions defined for OTN. This allows to insert up to 10 mapping/ multiplexing nodes per OTN island. G. and the minimum jitter and wander tolerance at OTN network interfaces. noise tolerance. This leads to the definition of a reference chain where all SECs located between 2 SSUs are replaced by an OTN island.. G.798. Considering that SDH may be transported by OTN islands.running clock with a frequency accuracy of ±20ppm. Predominantly the mapping and the demapping functions of the OTN contribute to wander accumulation due to the buffers being involved in these functions. This is an amendment of the reference chain being defined in G.803. Synchronous mapping of a client into an ODUk: this ODCb clock is locked on the client frequency. Asynchronous mapping of a client into an ODUk and ODUk multiplexing: this ODCa clock is a free. demultiplexers. when applicable. . Jitter and wander is also accumulated on the OTN signals itself due to the ODUk multiplexing and 3R jitter generation.8251 recommendation specifies the maximum magnitude of jitter and wander. Demapping a client signal from an ODUk and ODUk demultiplexing: this ODCp clock is locked on an OCh input frequency which must be within ±20ppm. no wander limit has been defined for OTN. G.8251 appendix 2 provides a provisional adaptation of the SDH synchronization reference chain to include OTN islands. Therefore there is no holdover mode specified for these clocks since there is no need for an accurate clock when the input signal disappears. Note: All these clock functions are used for clock recovery and clock filtering of a particular signal. G.1/G.56 - multiplexers.e client mapping/ demapping. specifies the different type of clocks that are required to perform the following functions (see Table A.709 frame and on the accuracy specified for the clients. The OTN generates and accumulates jitter and wander on its client signals due to the buffers of the mapping into ODUk and due to the ODUk multiplexing. This adaptation of the reference chain raises a buffer size constraint for the OTN NEs in order to keep the overall network wander performance within specified limits. after the last SSU can still support 20 SECs in tandem. ODUk multiplexing/demultiplexing and 3R regenerators.

3 Mapping and Multiplexing These topics have been already presented in previous sections of this tutorial related to G.2/O.1 OTUk maintenance signals 14.1. Since the OTUk capacity (130 560 bits) is not an integer multiple of the PN-11 sequence length (2047 bits). the PN-11 sequence may cross an OTUk frame boundary. 14 OTN Maintenance Signals 14. The multiplexing process is unique and based on an asynchronous multiplexing scheme.798. These mappings have been specified so that an asynchronous demapper may extract the CBR client signal mapped according to both techniques. 13. Appendix 4 reports the results of extensive simulations showing that it is possible to have 50 OTN regenerators without exceeding the network limits of OTUk interfaces. assuming the regenerators comply with the model defined in this appendix.709) The PN-11 sequence is defined by the generating polynomial 1 + x + x as specified in 5. published in the amendment 1.709 frame where the justification process is specified. asynchronous and bit synchronous.4 Equipment requirements Detailed specifications related to atomic functions contributing to timing and jitter are defined in G. (See Figure 46) 9 11 . 1 1 2 3 4 T1543670-01 14 15 3824 3825 4080 Repeating PN-11 sequence Figure 45 OTUk-AIS (Figure 16-1/G. An important requirement is that the demapping function must have a maximum bandwidth of 300 Hz. The asynchronous mapping uses a -1/0/+1 justification scheme and the maximum size of the buffers have been specified to be 2.1 OTUk alarm indication signal (OTUk-AIS) The OTUk-AIS (Figure 45) is a generic-AIS signal. Appendix 7.709 (OTN signals) may have a frequency range of up to ±20 ppm . reports CBRx and ODUj[/i] payload jitter and wander accumulation analyses. 64 and 256 SDH clients. 8 and 32 bytes respectively for the STM 16..57 - G.8251 appendix 3 presents an Hypothetic Reference Model for 3R regenerator jitter accumulation: according to this model. 13.150. at any OTUk interface the jitter will remain within network limits in a chain of one mapping clock and up to 50 cascaded 3R regenerators plus a de-mapping clock. It is important to know that the justification process has been defined so that all client signals and the G. Note that two different mappings of CBR client has been specified.

OTUk overhead (OTUk OH) and ODUk FTFL (Figure 47). excluding the frame alignment overhead (FA OH) and OTUk overhead (OTUk OH) (Figure 48).2/G.. but it is not required to generate such a signal. 1 1 2 STAT 78 FA OH STAT 14 17 3824 OTUk OH STAT STAT FTFL STAT STAT 3 4 STAT All-1s pattern T1543680-01 Figure 47 ODUk-AIS (Figure 16-2/G.709) NOTE – The repeating "0110 0110" pattern is the default pattern.1.5. 1 1 2 STAT 78 FA OH STAT 14 17 3824 OTUk OH STAT STAT STAT STAT 3 4 STAT Repeating "0110 0110" pattern T1543690-01 Figure 48 ODUk-OCI (Figure 16-3/G.58 - D Q Clock D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q Generic-AIS T1543710-01 Figure 46 Generic-AIS generating circuit (Figure 16-5/G. ODUk-AIS is generated if the OTUk input signal fails (Section 13.709) The presence of ODUk-AIS is detected by monitoring the ODUk STAT bits in the PM and TCMi overhead fields. 14. 14.1.2 ODUk Open Connection Indication (ODUk-OCI) ODUk-OCI is specified as a repeating "0110 0110" pattern in the entire ODUk signal.798) 14.2 ODUk maintenance signals Three ODUk maintenance signals are defined: ODUk-AIS.1. OTN equipment should be capable of detecting the presence of such a signal.2.709) NOTE – OTUk-AIS is defined to support a future server layer application.3. ODUk-OCI and ODUk-LCK. excluding the frame alignment overhead (FA OH). other patterns are also allowed as long as the STAT bits in the PM and TCMi overhead fields are set to "110".798) or it detects ODUkOCI or ODUk-LCK on the input signal (Section 14.2.2/G. .1 ODUk Alarm Indication Signal (ODUk-AIS) ODUk-AIS is specified as all "1"s in the entire ODUk signal.

The insertion of this is under management control. in the case of an ODUk-AIS. During signal fail condition of the incoming ODUk/OPUk signal (e. . CBR10G or CBR40G client signal (e.2. ODUk-OCI condition) the generic-AIS pattern as specified in 16. The PN-11 sequence is defined by the generating polynomial 1 + x + x as specified in 5. 14. other patterns are also allowed as long as the STAT bits in the PM and TCMi overhead fields are set to "101".3 ODUk Locked (ODUk-LCK) ODUk-LCK is specified as a repeating "0101 0101" pattern in the entire ODUk signal.g.1 is generated as a replacement signal for the lost CBR2G5.2/O.g. 14.709) During a signal fail condition of the incoming CBR2G5.59 - The presence of ODUk-OCI is detected by monitoring the ODUk STAT bits in the PM and TCMi overhead fields. The presence of ODUk-LCK is detected by monitoring the ODUk STAT bits in the PM and TCMi overhead fields. 1 1 2 STAT 78 FA OH STAT 14 17 3824 OTUk OH STAT STAT STAT STAT 3 4 STAT Repeating "0101 0101" pattern T1543700-01 Figure 49 ODUk-LCK (Figure 16-4/G.150.. excluding the Frame Alignment overhead (FA OH) and OTUk overhead (OTUk OH) (Figure 49). ODUk-LCK. There is no defect that inserts ODUk-LCK. The insertion of this is under management control.3. CBR10G or CBR40G signal. this failed incoming signal is replaced by the generic-AIS signal. (Figure 50) 9 11 D Q Clock D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q D Q Generic-AIS T1543710-01 Figure 50 Generic-AIS generating circuit (Figure 16-5/G.6.3 Client maintenance signal 14. in the case of a loss of input signal).1 Generic AIS for constant bit rate signals The generic-AIS signal is a signal with a 2047-bit polynomial number 11 (PN-11) repeating sequence. There is no defect that inserts ODUk-OCI. and is then mapped into the OPUk.709) NOTE – The repeating "0101 0101" pattern is the default pattern.

1.2. They are intended as a “Cheat Sheet” to use when reading G. 14-21 Figure 51 OTN Receive Defects .2) Fig. 12-25 RI_BDI RI_BIAE MI_AcTI MI_cTIM MI_cDEG MI_cBDI MI_cSSF MI_pIAE MI_pBIAE MI_pN_EBC MI_pN_DS MI_pF_EBC MI_pF_DS RI_BEI MI_TIMActDis MI_ExSAPI MI_ExDAPI MI_GetAcTI MI_TIMDetMo MI_1second MI_DEGThr MI_DEGM OTUk_TCP Layer OTUk_TCP to OTUk_AP OTUk_AP Layer AI_TSF AI_TSD OTUk_AP to ODUk_CP ODUk AIS Insert SM Monitor (13.1.. 14-44 ODUk_CP Layer MI_TIMActDis MI_ExSAPI MI_ExDAPI MI_TIMDetMo MI_1second MI_DEGThr MI_DEGM RI_BDI MI_AcTI MI_cOCI MI_cTIM MI_cDEG MI_cBDI MI_cSSF MI_pN_EBC MI_pN_DS MI_pF_EBC MI_pF_DS RI_BEI PM Monitor (14.798 OCh_AP Layer MI_FECEn AI_TSF-P MI_cLOM OCh_AP to OTUk_CP OTUk_CP Layer. 13-16 ODUk_CP Layer.1.60 - 15 OTN Defects G. ODUk_TCP Layer MI_TIMActDis MI_ExSAPI MI_ExDAPI MI_GetAcTI MI_TIMDetMo MI_1second MI_DEGThr MI_DEGM MI_AdminState TCMCI_ACTEn TCMCI_ACTTx TCMCI_Mode TCMCI_Level ODUk AIS Insert CI_SSF CI_SSD RI_BIAE RI_BDI MI_AcTI MI_cOCI MI_cTIM MI_pIAE MI_pBIAE MI_pN_EBC MI_pN_DS MI_pF_EBC MI_pF_DS RI_BEI ODUk_TCP to ODUkT_AP AI_TSF AI_TSD AI_AIS MI_cDEG MI_cBDI MI_cSSF MI_cLCK MI_cLTC TCM Monitor (14.1.2.2) Fig.1.2) Fig..3.2. 14-14 ODUkP_AP Layer AI_TSD AI_TSF MI_cLCK MI_Active ODUkP_AP to CBR_CP CBR AIS Insert CI_SSF MI_cPLM MI_AcPT CBR Demapping (14.2) Fig. 13-7 (13.5.2) Fig. CI_SSF MI_cLOF MI_pFECcorrErr FAS Frame Alignment (12.3. The document is very large and complex.. 14-37 ODUkT_AP Layer OTUkT_AP to ODUk_CP CI_SSF CI_SSD ODUk_CP to ODUkP_AP TCMCI_ACTRx TCMCI_AcSTAT[1.1.1.3) Fig.5. The following diagrams (Figures 51 and 52) give a summary of the various defects.3.3) Fig.798 defines all the defects for OTN.6] (14.1.

1) OCh_AP Layer Figure 52 OTN Transmit Defects 16 Acknowledgements I (Tim Walker) would like to thank the following people whose help and documents I used freely: Maarten Vissars. Shahrukh Merchant. Juergen Heiles. Jean-Loup Ferrant.1.6] CPI_ACTRx TCM/ACT Insertion (14..1) OTUk_AP Layer RI_BDI RI_BEI RI_BIAE MI_TxTI AI_IAE OTUk_AP to OTUk_CP SM Insertion (13.int/u/tsg15/sg15/wp3/q11/g709/g709-intro-v2. Lieven Levrau.2.1) ODUk_CP Layer MI_AdminState CPI_ACTTx CPI_ACTEn CPI_Mode CPI_Level ODUk_CP to ODUkT_AP CPI_AcSTAT[1.1.3.3.3.5.1) ODUkT_AP Layer RI_BDI RI_BEI RI_BIAE MI_TxTI CPI_Level CPI_Mode ODUkT_AP to ODUk_CP TCM Insertion (14.1..61 - MI_Active CBR_CP to ODUkP_AP CBR Mapping (14.1. Gilles Joncour.1.1.. Ghani Abbas.ppt .1) OTUk_TCP Layer OTUk_CP Layer OTUk_CP to OCh_AP (12.2.1) ODUk_TCP Layer ODUk_CP Layer ODUk_CP to OTUk_AP (13.2.1) ODUk_AP Layer RI_BDI RI_BEI MI_TxTI ODUkP_AP to ODUk_CP PM Insertion (14.1.itu.1. 17 Bibliography http://ties.5.

itu.798 (5/02).. Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN) ITU-T G. 2001.872 (10/01).int/u/tsg15/sg15/wp3/q11/g709/oth_public_09_2002.62 - http://ties.ppt [Sklar] “Digital Communications”.709 (01/03). Characteristics of Optical Transport Network (OTN) Hierarchy Equipment Functional Blocks ITU-T G. Prentice-Hall ITU-T G.8251 (10/01). Architecture for the Optical Transport Network (OTN) ITU-T G.1 ODUk Virtual Concatenation / OTN over SONET Needs description (volunteers?) _____________ . 2nd Edition. The Control of Jitter and Wander within the Optical Transport Network 18 Open Issues 18.

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