Dictionary Of Petroleum Engineering

The Author Parmanand Thakur Creation Date: 9th, November, 2000.

Prepared By: Petroleum Engineer: Mohammed Zouhry El-Helu. E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
1. A (‫)ﺭﻤﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺒﻴﺭ‬

Ampere, a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.



A two-legged (with two legs), metal or wooden support in the form of the letter "A" for hoisting or exerting a vertical pull with block and tackle or block and winch line, the block fastened to the 3pex of the A-frame, Such a frame fixed to move off location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing of the location by electronic means.


A-h (‫)ﺃﻤﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬



A-mast (‫)ﺭﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬

An A-shaped arrangement of upright poles, usually steel, used for lifting heavy loads.

5 6.

AAODC (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors.


AAPG (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬

American Association of Petroleum Geologists.


Abandon (‫)ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬

To cease producing oil or gas from a well when it becomes unprofitable. A wildcat (‫ )ﺒﺌﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬may be abandoned after it has been proven nonproductive. Usually, before a well is abandoned, some of the casing is

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
removed and salvaged (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬،‫ )ﻴﻨﻘﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ‬and one or more cement plugs placed in the borehole to prevent migration of fluids between the various formations. In many states, abandonment must be approved by an official regulatory agency before being undertaken.


ABANDONED OIL ((‫ﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻭﻙ )ﺍﻟﻤ‬

Oil permitted to escape from storage tanks or pipeline by an operator. If the operator makes no effort to recover the oil, the land owner (‫ )ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬on whose property the oil has run may trap the oil for his own use.

10. Abandoned Well (‫)ﺒﺌﺭ ﻤﻬﺠﻭﺭﺓ‬
Converting a drilled well to a condition that can be left indefinitely

(‫ )ﻷﺠل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﻤﻰ‬without further attention and which will not damage fresh water supplies or potential petroleum reservoirs.

11. Abd (‫)ﺇﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
Or abdn, abbr abandoned; used in drilling reports.

12. Abnormal pressure (‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬
Pressure exerted by a formation and exceeding or falling below the normal pressure to be expected at a given depth. Normal pressure increases approximately (0.465 psi) per foot of depth. Thus, normal pressure at 10,000 ft is 4,650 psi; abnormal pressure is higher than or lower than 4,650 psi. Formations with abnormally high pressure (‫ )ﻀﻐﻁ ﻁﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺸﺎﺫ‬must be controlled to prevent a blowout. (See pressure gradient.).

13. Aboard (‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺘﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬
adon or in a ship or offshore drilling rig.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
14. ABS (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻔﻥ( )ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
(1) Abbr, the American Bureau (‫ )ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬of Shipping; an organization that sets standards and specifications for ships and ship equipment manufactured in the U.S. (2) Absolute permeability (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬, the case with which a fluid flows through a formation that is 100 percent saturated with that fluid.

15. ABSOLUTE alcohol ((‫ﻁﻠﻕ )ﺼﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫)ﻜﺤﻭل ﻤ‬
One hundred percent ethyl alcohol.

16. Absolute porosity (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
Of the total bulk volume of a rock sample, the percentage that is composed of pore spaces or voids (‫)ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬. (See porosity.)

17. Absolute pressure (‫ﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
The pressure reckoned (‫ُﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬from absolute zero pressure, or gauge pressure (‫ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱ‬plus the pressure of the atmosphere. It is expressed in units of force per unit of area, as pounds per square inch absolute (psia).

18. Absolute temperature scale
A measure of temperature in which zero degrees is absolute zero. The Rankine absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees Fahrenheit, in which water freezes at 491.691 and boils at 671.691. The Kelvin absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees centigrade, in which water freezes at 2731 and boils at 373


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
19. Absolute zero (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬
A hypothetical temperature (‫ )ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬at which there is a total absence of heat.

20. Absorb (‫)ﻴﻤﺘﺹ‬
To recover liquid hydrocarbons from natural or refinery gas in a gasabsorption plant. The wet gas enters the absorber (‫ )ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬at the bottom and rises to the top, encountering a stream of a absorption oil (a light oil or similar fraction) traveling downward over bubble-cap trays (‫)ﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺅﺅﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺎﻗﻴﻊ‬. The lighter fraction removes, or absorbs, the heavier liquid hydrocarbons from the wet gas.

21. Absorber (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
A vertical, cylindrical vessel that recovers heavier hydrocarbons from a mixture of predominantly (‫ )ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬lighter hydrocarbons. (See absorb.)

22. Absorption gasoline (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
The gasoline extracted from natural gas by putting the gas in contact with an oil in a vessel and subsequently (‫ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‬،‫ )ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ‬distilling the gasoline from the heavier oil.

23. ABSORPTION OIL (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil with a high affinity for light hydrocarbons but containing few if any of the light compound, composing gasoline or natural gas. The oil used in an absorption plant (q.v.).


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
24. ABSORPTION PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil field facility that removes liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas, especially casinghead gas (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬. The gas is run through oil of a proper character which absorbs the liquid components of the gas. The liquids are then recovered from the oil by distillation.

25. Absorption tower (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
(See absorber.)

26. Abyssal (‫)ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬
of or relating to the bottom waters of the ocean.

27. AC (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺩﺩ‬
Abbr of Alternating Aurrent.

A procedure whereby an oil product is subjected to intensified but controlled

conditions of heat, pressure, radiation, or other variables to produce, in a short time, the effects of long-time storage or use under normal conditions.

29. Accelerator (‫)ﻤﺴﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﻟﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
A chemical additive that reduces the setting time of cement. (See cementing materials.)

30. Accelerator jar (‫ﻉ )ﻤﺯﻭﺩ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ( ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺭ‬  ‫ﻤ‬ )
(See jar accelerator.)


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
31. Accord Implementation Acts
The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act, S.C. 1988, c.28 and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act, S.N.S. 1987, c.3. The federal and provincial "mirror" legislation implements the provisions of the 1986 Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord and governs all petroleum activities that take place in the offshore area.

32. Accumulate (‫)ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ‬
To amass (‫ﱢﺱ‬ ‫ )ﻴﻜﺩ‬or collect. When oil and gas migrate into porous formations, the quantity collected is called an accumulation.

33. Accumulator ((‫ﺭﺍﻜﻡ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻤ‬
(1). a vessel or tank that receives and temporarily stores a liquid used in a continuous process in a gas plant. (2). On a drilling rig, an accumulator stores the nitrogen-pressurized hydraulic fluid used in closing the blowout preventers. (See blowout presenter control unit.). (3). A drip accumulator (‫ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﻁﺭ‬collects the liquid hydrocarbons that condense out of a wet gas traveling through a pipeline.

34. ACCUMULATOR SYSTEM (‫)ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
A hydraulic system designed to provide power to all closure elements (‫ )ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ‬of the rig's blowout preventer stack (‫)ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬. Hydraulic oil is forced into one or more vessels by a high-pressure, smallvolume pump and Its charge of Inert gas, usually nitrogen. The gas is compressed and stores potential energy. When the system is actuated, the oil 6

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
under high pressure is released and opens or closes the valves on the BOP stack.

35. acetic acid ((‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﻴﻙ )ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻙ‬
An organic acid compound sometimes used to acidize oil wells. It is not as corrosive as other acids used in well treatments. Its chemical formula is C2H4O2, or CH3COOH.

36. ACETONE (‫)ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻭﻥ‬
A flammable (‫)ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻼﺸﺘﻌﺎل‬, liquid compound used widely in industry as a solvent for many organic substances.

37. ACETYLENE (‫)ﺃﺴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A colorless (‫)ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‬, highly flammable gas with a sweetish odor (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ;)ﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ ﺤﻠﻭﺓ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬used with oxygen In oxyacetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻠﻴﻥ‬. It is produced synthetically by incomplete combustion (‫ )ﺇﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬of coal gas and also by the action of water on calcium carbide (CaC2). Also can be made from natural gas.

3 39. acetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A method of joining steel components, in which acetylene gas and oxygen are mixed in a torch (‫ ﻤﺸﻌل‬،‫َﻕ‬ ‫ِﺤﺭ‬ ‫ )ﻤ‬to attain the high temperatures needed to weld.

40. Acid (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ‬
Any chemical compound, one element of which is hydrogen, that dissociates (‫ )ﻴﺘﻔﻜﻙ‬in solution to produce free-hydrogen ions. (See ion.) For example, hydrochloric acid, HCI, dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+, and 7

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
chloride ions, Cl-. This reaction is expressed chemically as HC@-H + + Cl-(See dissociation.).

4 42. ACID BOTTLE INCLINATOR (‫)ﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
A device used in a well to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of the well bore. The acid is used to etch a horizontal line on the container, and from the angle the line makes with the wall of the container, the angle of the well's course can be arrived at.

4 44. Acid fracture (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
To open cracks in productive hard-limestone formations by using a combination of oil and acid (or water and acid) under high pressure. (See formation fracturing)

45. ACID-RECOVERY PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ‬
An auxiliary facility at some refineries where sludge acid (‫ )ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬is separated into acid oil, tar, and weak sulfuric acid (‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ‬. The sulfuric acid is then re-concentrated.

46. Recovery (‫)ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬
The total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated (‫ُﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬to be produced from a well or field.

47. ACID SLUDGE (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬
The residue left after treating petroleum with sulfuric acid for the removal of Impurities (‫)ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺌﺏ‬. The sludge is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and the impurities which the acid has removed from the oil.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A refining process in which unfinished petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuels, and lubricating stocks are treated with sulfuric acid to improve color, odor, and other properties.

49. Acidity (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ‬
The relative acid strengths of liquids as measured by pH; a pH value below 7. (See pH value.)

50. Acidize (‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ )
To treat oil-bearing limestone or other formations, using a chemical reaction with acid, to increase production. Hydrochloric or other acid is injected into the formation under pressure. The acid etches the rock, enlarging the pore spaces and passages (‫ )ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬through which the reservoir fluids flow. The acid is then pumped out and the well swabbed (‫ )ﻴﻨﻅﻑ‬and put back into production (‫ُﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫)ﻴ‬. Chemical inhibitors combined with the acid prevent corrosion of the pipe.

51. ACIDIZING A WELL (‫)ﺘﺤﻤﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
A technique for increasing the flow of oil from a well by the use of a quantity of acid pumped downhole and into the rock formation. Hydrochloric acid is pumped or forced under high pressure into a limestone formation which dissolves the limestone, enlarging the cavity and increasing the surface area of the hole opposite the producing formation. The high pressure of the treatment also forces the acid into cracks and fissures (‫ )ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ‬enlarging them and resulting in an increased flow of oil into the well bore.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
52. ACOUSTIC PLENUM (‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬،‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺠﻴﺞ‬
A sound-proof room; an off Ice or "sanctuary (‫ ")ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺠﺄ‬aboard an

offshore drilling platform protected from the noise of drilling engines and pipe handling.

53. acoustic position reference (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A system consisting of: a beacon (‫ )ﻤﻨﺎﺭﺓ‬positioned on the seafloor to transmit an acoustic signal (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬, a set of three or four hydrophones mounted on the hull of a floating offshore drilling vessel to receive the signal, and a position display unit (‫ )ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬to track (‫ )ﻴﺘﻌﻘﺏ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻤﺎ‬the relative positions of the rig and the drill site. Monitoring of the display unit ensures accurate positioning of the rig over the site.

54. ACOUSTIC REENTRY (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬
A method used In offshore operations, particularly in deep water for repositioning a drillship or semisubmersible drilling platform over a hole previously drilled and cased. The technique employs acoustic signals emitted (‫ﹸﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﹸﺭﺴل ﺃﻭ ﺘ‬ ‫ )ﺘ‬by equipment on board the ship which are "bounced off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﹸﺒﺘﺕ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬ ‫ ")ﺜ‬the submerged wellhead indicating to receivers the location of the hole. In hostile environments (‫ )ﺃﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﻋﺩﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬such as a severe storm or encroaching ice, a drillship may be forced to move off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ )ﻴﺤﺭﻙ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing (‫ )ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬of the location by electronic means.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
55. Acoustic survey (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ )ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ( ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A well logging method that measures the time required for sound impulses (‫ )ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬to travel through a given length of rock to permit estimation of the rock porosity of a given formation and of the type of fluid contained in the rock. This process is also called sonic logging.

56. Acre-foot (‫)ﺃﻜﺭ )ﻓﺩﺍﻥ( ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬
A unit of volume often used in oil-reservoir analysis, equivalent to the volume (as of oil or water) necessary to cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot.

A unit of measurement applied to petroleum reserves; an acre of producing formation one foot thick.

58. Acre-ft

5 60. Across (‫)ﺨﻼل‬
over. The term usually describes conditions of flow on one side of a piece of equipment as compared with conditions on the opposite side where a fluid is flowing (e.g., a pressure drop across a separator).

61. ACS (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬
American Chemical Society.

62. AC T
Automatic custody transfer, more commonly called LACT, lease automatic custody transfer.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
Automatic Custody Transfer System (q.v.),

64. Activated charcoal (‫)ﻓﺤﻡ )ﻤﻨﺸﻁ( ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
A form of carbon characterized by a high absorptive and adsorptive capacity for gases, vapors, and colloidal solids.

See Operator.

66. ACV (‫)ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ )ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ( ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬
Air cushion vehicle.





((‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬.

67. ADA MUD (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
A material which may be added to drilling mud to condition it in order to obtain satisfactory core samples.

68. ADAPTER (‫)ﻤﺤﻭل ﻭﺼل ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ‬
A device to provide a connection between two dissimilar parts or between similar parts of different sizes. See Swage.

69. ADDITIVE (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain

characteristics or to give them other desirable properties. additive a substance or compound added in small amounts to a larger volume of another substance to change some characteristic of the latter. In the oil industry, additives are used in lubricating oil, fuel, drilling mud, and cement for cementing casing.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain characteristics or to give them other desirable properties.

71. adhere (‫)ﻴﻠﺼﻕ‬
To stick or bond to (as paint to a metallic surface).

72. adiabatic change (‫)ﺘﺤﻭل ﻜﻅﻭﻡ‬
A change in the temperature of a gas, caused specifically by a change in the pressure of the gas.

73. adjustable choke ((‫)ﺇﺨﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺩﻴل )ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬
A choke in which a conical needle and seat vary the rate of flow. adsorption the adhesion of a thin film (‫ )ﻓﻴﻠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺭﻗﻴﻕ‬of a gas or liquid to the surface of a solid. Liquid hydrocarbons are recovered from natural gas by passing the gas through activated charcoal, which extracts the heavier hydrocarbons. Steam treatment of the charcoal removes the adsorbed hydrocarbons, which are then collected and recondensed.

74. ADSORPTION (‫)ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact.

75. ADVANCE PAYMENT AGREEMENT (‫)ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻕ‬
A transaction (‫ )ﺼﻔﻘﺔ‬in which one operator advances a sum of money (‫ )ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬or credit to another operator to assist In developing an oil or gas field. The agreement provides an option to the "lender" to buy a portion or all of the production resulting from the development work.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

AGENCY CONTRACT A type of agreement which in many cases has replaced the concession (q. AEC (‫)ﻭﻜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬ Atomic Energy Commission. aeration ((‫ﻼ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ The technique of injecting air or gas into a fluid. AFRA (‫)ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺃﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬ Average freight rate assessment (for tankers). Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gasify. to infuse with or force air into.) as the form of petroleum development agreement in the Middle East and with OPEC countries elsewhere.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 77. AERIFY (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻭﻴﺯ‬ To change Into a gaseous form. This process is sometimes called curing. 84. For example. Under an agency contract. 80. aft toward or near the stern of a ship or offshore drilling rig.v. 85. air is injected into drilling fluid to reduce the density of the fluid. aerobic (‫)ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ requiring free. title to oil installations 14 Petroleum Engineer: M. or reach a stage harder than that of immediate setting. T 83. T 81. age (‫)ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬ to allow cement to mature. T 79.mzhelu@gmail. AGA (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ American Gas Association. atmospheric oxygen for normal activity. T T 82. T 78.com .

New T York City-based parent group of the Society of Petroleum Engineers.. Metallurgical. Tex. does away with (‫( )ﻴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ‬eliminate) the need for counterweights on the rear end of the walking beam. The device is attached to the well end of the walking beam and. T T 87. T 88. The SPE.) 91. AIMME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. and Petroleum Engineers. AIChE (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ‬ American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Z. headquartered (‫ )ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬in Dallas. 86. exclusive right to exploit the minerals as is the case under a concession agreement. publishes the Journal of Petroleum Technology. AIME the American Institute of Mining. Also. 15 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. AIR-BALANCED BEAM PUMPING UNIT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ An oil well pumping jack equipped with a piston and rod that works in an air chamber to balance the weight of the string of sucker rods. acting as a shock absorber. T T 8 90. the foreign company does not have a long-term.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and oil produced arc held by the host government. Air balanced beam-pumping unit (See sucker-rod pumping. but !he government bears none of the costs of initial exploration.

fires engine fires and begins running. AIR BOTTLE A steel cylinder of oxygen for oxyacetylene welding. The heat generated flows though the 16 Petroleum Engineer: M. Then the valve is opened for another shot of air. After a burst of air. a "bottle" or welded steel tank with air under pressure for use in starting certain types of gas engines on leases or at pumping stations. T 95.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 92.).v. Air bursts do not destroy marine life as did explosive charges. AIR BURSTS A geophysical technique used in marine seismic work in which bursts of compressed air from an air gun towed by the seismographic vessel are used to produce sound waves. the valve is shut off until the piston moves back on another compression stroke. AIR CHAMBER A small tank or "bottle" connected to a reciprocating pump's discharge T chamber or fine to absorb and dampen the surges in pressure from the rhythmic pumping action.mzhelu@gmail. The compressed air at a pressure of 200 pounds or so per square inch is piped from the tank to the engine's cylinderhead.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. quick-opening and closing valve is instantly opened admitting the high pressure air into the firing chamber. Z. an air chamber (q. AIR-COOLED ENGINE An engine in which heat from the combustion chamber and friction is T dissipated to the atmosphere through metal tins integral to the engine's cylinder head and block assemblies. 93. By this time the engine is rolling so the fuel (gas) valve is opened. This pushes the piston as on a power stroke. Air chambers are charged with sufficient air pressure to provide an air cushion that minimizes the pounding and vibration associated with the pumping of fluids with plunger pumps. T 94. To start the engine a hand-operated.

a mud system must be on standby to avert possible trouble.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering engine head and cylinder walls and into the fins by conductance and is given off by the fins acting as radiators. T 96. T 98. Air-cut having inadvertent mechanical incorporation of air into a fluid system. T 17 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is more economical (mud is expensive and the preparation of the slurry and maintaining its condition is time consuming). The air cushion protects the tundra from being cut by the wheels or treads of conventional vehicles. Z. In certain types of formations. penetration is faster. a principal problem in air drilling is the penetration of formations containing water. Although air does a good job of cooling the bit and bringing out the pulverized rock. it has severe limitations. air drilling is T considered a better medium than conventional drilling mud. AIR DRILLING The use of air as a drilling fluid. or conventional radiator. AIR CUSHION TRANSPORT A vehicle employing the hover craft principle of down-thrusting air stream T support.com . water pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. since the entry of water into the system reduces its efficiency. With air drilling. developed to transport equipment and supplies in the arctic regions. air drilling a method of rotary drilling that uses compressed air as its circulation medium. drilling rates are higher. in addition. However. A small. of penetration is increased considerably when air drilling is used. two-cycle engine without water jacketing. water in the subsurface formations and downhole gas pressure cannot be controlled. When drilling in an area where these two types of intrusions may occur. T 97. and bit life is longer. This method of removing cuttings from the wellbore is as efficient or more efficient than the traditional methods using water or drilling mud.

AIR WRENCH See Impact Wrench. Air gap the distance from the normal level of the sea surface to the bottom of the hull T or base of an offshore drilling platform. Cc-. Butylene. the air must be bled off and vented to the atmosphere through a bleeder line or by loosening the suction valve covers to permit the escape of the air.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 99. T 102. Z. T 104.c-3u-. the most important aliphatics are the gases. this method is not a common practice except in areas where there is insufficient gas for repressuring. ethylene. ALIPHATICS One of the two classes of organic petrochemicals the other is the aromatics T (q. alkylation is the reaction of butylene or propylene with 18 Petroleum Engineer: M. Before the pump will operate efficiently. simply stated. T 105.t. a mechanism for lifting operated by a compressed air motor. AIR HOIST A hoist.com . acetylene and propylene.). AIR-INJECTION METHOD A type of secondary recovery Ii production by forcing the oil from the T reservoir into the well bore. of the dangers inherent in the use of air. T 100. AIRED UP Refers to a condition in a plunger pump when the suction chamber is full of T air or gas blocking the intake of oil into the chamber. ALKYLATION A refining process that. is the reverse of cracking. T 103. T T 101. To a refining engineer.mzhelu@gmail.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The T alkylation process starts with small molecules and ends up with larger ones.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ALL-THREAD NIPPLE A short piece of small-diameter pipe with threads over its entire length. clay. Alternate fuels may also include steam from geothermal 19 Petroleum Engineer: M. ALLUVIAL FAN Pertains to the silt. for example and one of eight is unable to make its production for some reason the other seven wells can increase their flow to make up the loss of the ailing well. T 1 111. Z. ALLOWABLE The amount of oil or gas a well or leasehold is permitted to produce under T proration order of a state regulatory body. T 106. heating oil-made from coal.mzhelu@gmail. or tar sands by T various methods. Alpha particles have a positive charge. oil shales. and other sediment deposited by a stream as it T spreads out on a plain or overflows its banks and then recedes. Under a lease allowable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering isobutane to form an isoparaffin. T 108. a T close nipple. ALTERNATE FIELDS Fuels-gas. the lease is considered producing unit. sand. a superior gasoline blending component. In a state using proration. In some instances if a lease has eight wells. this figure is established monthly by its conservation agency. alkylate. gasoline. Also the silt laid down by a tributary stream as it joins the mainstream T 109. alpha particle one of the extremely small particles of an atom that is ejected from a T radioactive substance (as radium or uranium) as it 'disintegrates.com . T 107. allowable the amount of oil or gas produced from a well per unit of time.

T 1 113. Z.). T C02) occurring in process streams. Diamonds are many times harder than @ hardest 20 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 116.mzhelu@gmail.com . T 119. AMERIPOL The trade name for products made from a type of synthetic rubber. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.1 so they can be moved to the site of new gas production. 1 115. 120. Gas containing H2S and other impurities must be cleaned up before it is acceptable to gas transmission pipelines. T CO@th6'us-o of amines (q. 118. AMMONIUM SULFATE A salt having commercial value which is obtained in the distillation of shale T oils. Two common T amines are monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA).kid-motinter. Amine units are often f. ambient temperature the temperature of the medium by which an object is surrounded. COS.v. AMINE Organic bases used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases (H2S. AMINE UNIT A natural gas treatment unit for removing contaminants-H-S. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE A chemical used as a catalytic agent in oil refining and for the removal of odor T and color from cracked gasoline. COS.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wells where super-heated water deep in the earth is used to generate steam for electric power generation. T 117. AMOND DRILL BIT Drill bit with many small industrial (man-made) diamonds set in the nose or cutting surface of the bit..

the T term often refers to the tail pipe. ampere hour a unit of electricity equal to the amount produced in 1 hour by a flow of 1 T ampere. T the return of invested principal in a sinking fund. Richardson in the year 1865.com . The return of a debt. amortization 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 1 124. In offshore drilling. T 1 129.mzhelu@gmail. T 132. Under certain conditions. In downhole equipment. T 1 127.Bigelow and B. AMYL HYDRIDE This fraction in the distillation of petroleum was used as an anesthetic by T J. principal. ANCHOR BOLT A stud bolt. anaerobic bacteria can cause scale to form in water-handling facilities in oil fields. T 1 122. anaerobic bacteria any of several types of bacteria that do not require free oxygen to live or are T not destroyed by its absence. T 1 131. T 125. anchor any device that secures or fastens equipment. a large bolt for securing an engine or other item of equipment to T its foundation. ampere a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt T applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering steel. 2. so a diamond bit makes possible longer bit runs before round trip is necessary to change bits. floating drilling vessels are sometimes secured over drill sites by large metal anchors like those used on ships. and interest in equal annual installments. T 21 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.

) T 1 143. Tangle sub (See bent sub.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 134. T T 138.) T 139. the angle at which a well is deflected from the vertical T by a whipstock or other deflecting tool.) T T 141. ANEMOMETER An instrument for measuring and indicating the force or speed of the wind.com . It provides a way to perform a washover and retrieve a stuck fish off the bottom in one round trip. anchor wash pipe spear a fishing tool attached to washover pipe by means of slips and T released from the pipe once the fish is engaged by the tool.) T 1 145. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. angle of deflection in directional drilling. 1 136. angle of drift (See deviation. T 137. T T 22 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. anchor buoy a floating marker used in a spread mooring system to position each anchor of T a semisubmersible rig or drill ship. angle-azimuth indicator (See riser-angle indicator. T 140. angle of deviation (See deviation. Z. Angular unconformity an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides are not parallel.

the oil of oil-base muds should have an aniline point of at least 150 F to obtain maximum service life from the rubber components in the mud system. The ring of T space surrounding the well's casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 146. usually installed above the ram preventers. anion (See ion.) T T 23 Petroleum Engineer: M. on the wellbore itself T 151. Anhydrite formations are sometimes encountered during drilling T 147.com . anhydrite the common name for calcium sulfate. Z. the space surrounding a cylindrical object within a cylinder. T 148.mzhelu@gmail. which forms a seal T in the annular space between the pipe and wellbore or. sometimes called gypsum or T gyp. anhydrous without water. defined by wall of the borehole. sometimes termed the annulus. the outer wall of which may be the wall of either the borehole or the casing. if no pipe is present. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Annular Blowout Preventer ((‫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬،‫)ﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﺇﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﺤﻠﻘﻲ )ﺸﻤﻭل‬ a large valve.) T 150. Annulus (See annular space. 2. Generally. See Annulus of a Well. CaSO4. T 149. ANNULAR SPACE (‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﻲ‬ The space between the well's casing and the wall of the borehole. aniline point the lowest temperature at which the chemical aniline and a solvent (such as T the oil in oil-base muds) will mix completely. the space around a pipe in a wellbore. T 1 153.

The weak current is supplied by a transformer-rectifier. ANNULUS OF A WELL The space between the surface casing or conductor casing and the producing T or well-bore casing. the term indicates an abnormality T such as a fault or dome in a sedimentary bed. 1 5 9 ." T 1 156.com . T T 24 Petroleum Engineer: M. the negative terminal of which is grounded to the steel structure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This the completion of the circuit from rectifier to anode to structure is through the sea water. T 158. The anode is anchored to the se t floor a few hundred feet away from the structure but is held off bottom by is buoyancy. BUOYANT A source of electric current (DC) for protecting offshore plat forms and other T steel structures resting on the sea floor against corrosion. T T 157. TANTICLINAL FOLD T A subsurface formation resembling an anticline. anode the positive element of any electrical device from which electricity flows. The weak current moving from anode to the structure reverses the flow of current associated with the corrosion of metal. anomaly a deviation from the norm. ANODE. The anode is connected to a source of DC current on the platform by an insulated cable. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 154. Annular and annulus are often used interchangeably as both derive from the Latin stem word annularis which means "relating to or forming a ring. ANS I American National Standards Institute. See also Rectifier Bed. T 1 161. In geology.mzhelu@gmail.

internal combustion engines. The addition of small amounts of these chemicals has the effect of slowing down the explosion or burning of the air-gasoline vapor mixture in the combustion chamber. based in Dallas. Antiknock compounds effectively raise the octane rating of a fuel so that the fuel burns properly in the combustion chamber of the engine. which T sets some standards. and policies of oil-well servicing contractors. the T opposite of a syncline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 163. ethylene glycol. principles. per gallon of fuel.com . AOSC the Association of Oil Well Servicing Contractors. Tex. T 25 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. of the engine and more mile. specifically. The compounds contribute also to smoother performance. anticlinal trap a hydrocarbon trap in which petroleum accumulates in the top of an anticline. tetraethyl lead.. thus giving the piston a "push" instead of a sudden explosive blow. T T 164. to reduce 'ping" or knock in high-compression. ANTIKNOCK COMPOUNDS Certain chemicals which are added to automotive gasolines to improve their T performance. Z. antifreeze a chemical compound that prevents the water in the cooling system of an T engine from freezing.mzhelu@gmail. anticline an arched. 166. inverted-trough configuration of folded and stratified rocks. Tetraethyl lead is one well-known compound. antiknock compound any substance added to the fuel of an internal-combustion engine to prevent detonation of the fuel. T 165. T 167.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. degrees API. used to designate API gravity. "His work is strictly API"). tool joints. the American Petroleum Institute.C. commencement date. 3. refining.com . pressure vessels. then they arrive at rates and other matters. slush pumps. drill-pipe. Founded in 1920. (slang) when used sarcastically. The API.mzhelu@gmail. TAPI T American Petroleum Institute the oil industry's trade association. and other equipment. The form is submitted to drilling contractors in the area of the proposed well. as it were. 4. T 1 171. The operator asking for bids fills out the part of the form giving the name and location of the well. derrick or mast size. establishes operating and safety standards for all segments of the petroleum industry. T through its research and engineering work. Z.. and furnishes statistical and other information to government agencies having to do with the industry. depth or formation to be drilled into. he lists the rig and equipment to be furnished by him draw works. and a department of production in Dallas. and marketing in Washington. indicative of substandard performance that is predictable or usual (as.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 169. TAPI BID SHEETAND WELL SPECIFICATIONS T A form many operators use in soliciting bids on a well to be drifted and T completed. When a drilling contractor submits a bid. and other information. It maintains departments of transportation. this national oil trade organization' is the leading standardizing organization on oil-filed drilling and producing equipment. (slang) indicative of a job being properly or thoroughly (as. issues specifications for manufacture of pipe. 2. D. 26 Petroleum Engineer: M. capacity. The bid sheet brings operator and contractor together. "It's API for that engine to be broken down"). make. etc.

AQUAGEL A specially prepared bentonite (clay) widely used as a conditioning material in T drilling mud. also Water Coning. If the wells are produced at an excessive rate the water may bypass the oil and break into the well bore. the part of a water-drive reservoir that contains the water. T 27 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 172. the water pushes the oil toward the wells boreholes. 2. API gravity the measure of gravity of liquid petroleum products on the North American continent. AQUIFER A water-bearing rock strata. See Channeling. leaving much of the oil behind. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. API gravity bears a relationship to true specific gravity but is more convenient to work with than the decimal fractions which would result if petroleum were expressed in specific gravity. cylindrical tank. T 177. T 179. APPRAISAL DRILLING Wells drilled in the vicinity of a discovery or wildcat well in order to evaluate T the extent and the importance of the find. TAPI GRAVITY T Gravity (weight per unit of volume) of crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons T as measured by a system recommended by the API. defined in API Specification 10A. T T 178. underlying the oil zone. In a water-drive field the aquifer is the water T zone of a reservoir. derived from specific gravity in accordance with the following equatio T 1 176.com . APRON RING The bottom most ring of steel plates in the wall of an upright. aquifer 1. a rock that contains water. API cement class a classification system for oil-well cements. T 1 174. When wells are drilled in the reservoir.mzhelu@gmail.

T 184. position.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 180. also. selling. (2) A person who uses such a machine in making electric welds. TARC WELDER (1) An electric welding unit consisting of a gasoline direct connected to a DC T generator.com . T 1 183. A sophisticated method of trading in world petroleum markets. the making of maps of such areas. PRODUCT (PETROLEUM) The buying. T 181.mzhelu@gmail. arenaceous pertaining to sand or sandy rocks (as. arc weld to join metals by utilizing the arc created between the welding rod. arenaceous shale). In the field the welding unit is usually skid mounted. and form of T the areas of the earth's surface occupied by different types of rocks or geologic formations. Z. The arc is a discharge of electric current across an air gap. which T serves as an electrode. or trading of petroleum or products in various markets to T make a profit from short-term differences in prices in one market as compared to those in another. 1 186. and a metal object. ARBITRAGE. which fuse. The high temperature generated by the arc melts both the electrode and the metal. T T 28 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The flow of electricity jumping the gap produces the heal to melt the rod onto the moiten area of the metal. The term arc welding derives from the arc of electricity which spans the gap between the tip of the welding rod (the electrode) and the piece of metal being welded. AREAL GEOLOGY The branch of geology that pertains to the distribution.

repessuring or recycling.-are not present or have been depleted. toluene.). submersible pumps.).com . ARTIFICIAL DRIVES Methods of producing oil from a reservoir when natural drives-gas-cap. artificial lift any method used to raise oil to the surface through a well. AROMATICS A group of hydrocarbon fractions that forms the basis of most organic T chemicals so far synthesized. Sucker-rod pumps.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. The unique ring structure of their carbon atoms makes it possible to transform aromatics into an almost endless number of chemicals. T 193. Waterflood.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 187. after reservoir T pressure has declined to the point at which the well no longer produces by means of natural energy. a hydrometer T (q. hydraulic pumps. T 194. The name aromatics derives from their rather pleasant odor.v. 190. etc.mzhelu@gmail. T 29 Petroleum Engineer: M. T argillaccous sand). colorless. T 1 192. and xylene are the principal aromatics and are commonly referred to as the BTX group (q. and gas lift are the most common methods of artificial lift. and in situ combustion are examples of artificial drives. T solution gas. AREOMETER An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids. ARGON An inert. water drive. argillaceous pertaining to a nonproductive formation that consists of clay or shale (as. odorless gaseous element sometimes and in some T locations produced with natural gas. Benzene. T 1 189.

See Brea. soapstone. The asphalt is combined with finely ground mica. See Dynamic Stationing. 200.mzhelu@gmail. a New York City-based organization whose equipment standards are sometimes used by the oil industry. 199. 30 Petroleum Engineer: M. Its official publication is Mechanical Engineering. T 198. Asphalt is dark brown or black in color and at normal temperatures is a solid. the name applied to a sophisticated T drillship positioning technique consisting of subsurface acoustical equipment linked to shipboard computers that control ship's thrusters. ASK SYSTEM Automatic station-keeping system. 197. this coating protects the buried pipe from corrosion. Combined with a subsequent wrapping of asbestos felt. consisting of asbestos T saturated with asphalt.com . the American Society of T Mechanical Engineers. ASPHALT A solid hydrocarbon found as a natural deposit. compensating for drift. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. asbestos felt (‫ﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ a wrapping material that protects pipeline coatings. The thrusters fore and aft reposition the ship. and wave action. ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers. wind drag. asphalt enamel an asphalt-base enamel applied as a coating to pipe that is to be buried. Z. or talc and applied while hot. current. clay. Crude of high asphaltic content when subjected to distillation to remove the lighter fractions such as naphtha and kerosene leave asphalt as a residue.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 ‫ ﻟﺒ‬،‫)ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ 196.

which establishes safety practices T for several industries. and nitrogen are often relatively high. asphalt material one of a group of solid.mzhelu@gmail. and asphalt. T 2 211. ASPHALTIC SANDS Natural mixtures of asphalts with varying proportions of loose sand. asphalt-base oil (See naphthalene-base oil. This bitumen is composed of soft asphalt.) 2 205. or semisolid materials that are predominantly mixtures of hydrocarbons and their nonmetallic derivatives and are obtained either from natural bituminous deposits or from the residues of petroleum refining. ASPHALT-BASE CRUDE Crude oil containing very little paraffin wax and a residue primarily asphaltic. lubricating oil.com . T 31 Petroleum Engineer: M. This type crude is particularly suitable for making high-quality gasoline. See Paraffin-base Crude. Asphaltenes are polyaromatic compounds with high carbon-hydrogen ratios in their molecules from which asphalt is made. T 2 209. Z. 203. The T quantity of bituminous cementing material extracted from the sand may run as high as 12 percent. 202.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 201. It maintains national offices in Chicago. composed of T complex molecules. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ASPHALTIC PETROLEUM Petroleum which contains sufficient amounts of asphalt in solution to make T recovery commercially practical by merely distilling off the solvent oils. liquid. Sulfur. ASSE the American Society of Safety Engineers. ASPHALTENES At the very bottom of the crude oil barrel are the asphaltenes. oxygen. T 2 207.

. WASTING See Wasting Asset. A sample of oil is heated in a flask. ASTM DISTILLATION A test of an oil's distillation properties standardized by the American Society T for Testing and Materials. e. The test is continued until all 32 Petroleum Engineer: M. ASTM the American Society for Testing and Materials. ASSOCIATED GAS Gas that occurs with oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 2 214. or abaft. the liquid is collected in a graduate. in oil and gas usage. such as drill collars. T T 2 216.mzhelu@gmail.com . which T sets guidelines for the use of equipment and materials for oil fields. the T recipient of an oil or gas lease. etc. a transferee. the stern of an offshore drilling rig. moving T backwards.g. T 2 218. ASSIGNEE A recipient of an interest in property or a contract. Gas occurring alone T in a reservoir is unassociated gas. a drill assembly may include other pieces of downhole equipment besides the drill bit. the vapors pass through a tube where they are cooled and condensed. damping subs. T 221.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 212. T 219. stabilizers. astern in the rear of. Z. ASSET. 220. ASSEMBLY A term to describe a number of special pieces of equipment fitted together to T perform a particular function. based in Philadelphia. either as free gas or in solution. When the first drop of "distillate" is obtained the temperature at which this "initial boiling point" of the oil.

atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted over the surface of the earth by the weight of the T atmosphere.7 psi. this pressure is approximately 14. athwart reaching from one side to the other side of an offshore drilling rig. T 222. ONE The pressure of the ambient air at sea level. T 2 232.mzhelu@gmail. 29 92 inches of mercury or 33.90 feet T 2 228. 2 234. At sea level.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 2 230. Z. atm atmosphere. ATMOSPHERIC STILL A refining vessel in which crude oil is heated and product is distilled off at the T pressure of one atmosphere. T Air at sea level. T 33 Petroleum Engineer: M. atom the smallest quantity of an element capable of either entering into a chemical T combination or existing alone.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering distillable fractions over and have been measured and their properties examined. ATMOSPHERE. T T 2 224. 14. atmospheric pressure cure the aging of specimens for test purposes at normal atmospheric pressure for T a designated period of time under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. T 2 226.69 pounds per square inch.

See Ultrasonic Atomizer. atomic weight the average. or T temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. FUEL OIL A nozzle or spraying device used to break up fuel oil into a fine spray so the T oil may be brought into more intimate contact with the air in the combustion chamber. causing it to break into tiny T droplets and mix thoroughly with the surrounding air. ATOMIZER. Z.mzhelu@gmail. T 2 246. with a weight of 12. T 2 237. AUSTRALIAN OFFSET A humorous reference to a well drilled miles away from proven production. Authigenic Refers to rocks/minerals which were formed or were generated in place. atomize to spray a liquid through a restricted opening.) 34 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 242. relative weight of an element as compared to another element T taken as a standard.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 235.com . T 2 241. T 2 239. Usually carbon. Every element is assigned an atomic weight. used principally in T saltwater-base drilling muds. pressure. T 2 244. is used as the basis. (See instrumentation. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. attapulgite a fibrous clay mineral that is a viscosity-building substance.

) 2 249. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. and turning into a pipeline the crude produced on a lease. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside.) T 252.com . control unit.) A system of oil handling on a lease. testing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 247. T 2 254. receiving into tankage.mzhelu@gmail. automatic custody transfer A system for automatically measuring and sampling oil or products at points T of receipt or delivery. (See lease automatic custody transfer. automatic driller (See automatic drilling. or temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. 2 258. T 35 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 2 256. (See instrumentation. automatic pumping station an automatically operated station installed on a pipeline to increase line T pressure when a fluid is being transported.drilling-control unit a mechanism used to regulate the amount of weight on the bit and not T requiring attendance by personnel. Z. T 2 251. Automatic drillers free the driller from the sometimes tedious task of manipulating the drawworks brake in order to maintain correct weight on the bit. pressure. measuring. Such automatic handling of oil is usually confined to leases with settled production. automatic.

mzhelu@gmail. Automatic slips. A 36 Petroleum Engineer: M. avg verage. or processes. AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINE After two joints of pipe are joined by tack welds. eliminate the need for roughnecks to set and take out slips manually. automatic slips an air. AUTOMATIC TANK BATTERY A lease tank battery (two or more tanks) equipped with automatic measuring. systems. T 261. 2 266.or hydraulic-fluid-operated device that fits into the opening in the T rotary table when the drill stem must be suspended in the wellbore (as when a connection. 2 269. (See slips.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 260. auxiliary equipment equipment subsidiary or supplementary to the main equipment used in an T operation.) T 267.com . T 2 264. automatic shutdown a system in which certain instruments are used to control or maintain the T operating conditions of a process. See Automatic Custody Transfer. or trip. automatic wire-welding T machines are used to put on the filler beads. this system automatically stops the process and notifies the operator of the problem. (See T instrumentation. If conditions become abnormal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also called power slips.) T 262. T switching (full tank to empty and full tank into the pipeline). automation automatic self-regulating control of equipment. is being made). Z. and recording devices.

mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the direction of the face of the deviation tool with T respect to magnetic north as recorded bra deviation instrument. azimuth in directional drilling. azeotrope a liquid mixture that exhibits a maximum or minimum boiling point. A mixture T of an azeotrophic liquid and another liquid or liquids boils at a temperature either higher or lower than that of its components. T 272. T See Grease. hydrated lime. 37 Petroleum Engineer: M. and petroleum oils. Z. T 273.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 271. AXLE GREASE A cold-setting grease made of rosin oil.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). 2 282. 280.). BACK-IN PROVISION A term used to describe a provision in a farm-out agreement whereby the person granting the farm-out (the farmer) retains an option to exchange a retained override for a share of the working interest. BA BBI T T A soft. used in drilling reports. 38 Petroleum Engineer: M. Brake horsepower (q.mzhelu@gmail. B/D barrels per day. 283. silver-colored metal alloy of relatively low melting point used for engine and pump bearing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering T 274. T 2 276.P. an alloy containing tin. using the hoisting engines for motive power. T 2 7 9 . to unscrew. at a later date.) 284.v.) in which a retained nonoperating interest of the lessor may be converted. BACK-IN FARM-OUT A farm-out agreement (q. Because the driver's cab is mounted on the end opposite the mast support. into a specified individual working interest (q.v. Z.H. copper and antimony. BACK OFF To raise the drill bit off the bottom of the hole. the unit must be backed up to the wellhead. (See carrier rig. B bottom of. back-in unit a portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled.com . B.v. T T 2 278. to slack of 1 on a cable or winch line.

Chokes and piping.com .v. This results in the expenditure of smaller volumes of gas from the reservoir. and ensures the recovery of more oil. Maintenance of backpressure reduces the pressure differential between the formation and the borehole so that oil moves into the well with a smaller pressure loss. 286.). BACK-OFF WHEEL See Stripper Wheel. In setting a liner. BACK PRESSURE The pressure against the face of the reservoir rock caused by the control valves at the wellhead. back-off joint a section of pipe with left-hand threads on one end and conventional righthand threads on the other. 287. Z. 39 Petroleum Engineer: M. 290. back up to hold one section of an object (as pipe) while another is being screwed into or out of it. 289.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 288. a back-off joint is attached to it so that the drill pipe may be disengaged from the liner by conventional righthand rotation. hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. improves the gas-oil ratio.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 285. BACK-UP MAN The person who holds (with a wrench) one length of pipe while another length is being screwed into or out of it. A backup wrench is any wrench used to hold a pipe or bolt to prevent its turning while another length of pipe or a nut is being tightened or loosened. BACK-PRESSURE VALVE A check valve (q.

(See anaerobic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. 40 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 294. (See make up and tongs. widely distributed group of typically one-celled microorganisms. also. 3 303. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Backside.com . 299. 2 296. BACKSIDE PUMPING See Pumping. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BACKFILL To replace the earth dug from a ditch or trench.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 291.v.). bacteria a large.) 3 301. BACKHOE A self-propelled ditching machine with a hydraulically operated arm equipped with a toothed shovel that scoops earth as the shovel is pulled back toward the machine. 292. BACKWASHING Reversing the fluid flow through a filter to clean out sediment that has clogged the filter or reduced its efficiency. BAD OIL Cut oil (q. backup tongs the tongs used to back up the drill pipe as it is being made up or taken out of the drill stem.) 2 298. Back washing is done on closed system filters and on open-bed. gravity filters. the earth removed from an excavation. bactericide anything that destroys bacteria.

or promote mixing within a tank or vessel. BAILER DART The protruding "tongue" of the valve on the bottom of a bailer. and spooled on the reel. guide the flow.com . placed to change the direction. bailer a long cylindrical container. When the dart reaches the bottom of the hole. BAIL DOWN To reduce the level of liquid in a well bore by bailing. 306. bailing line the cable attached to the bailer.mzhelu@gmail. 3 0 7 . BA I L To evacuate the liquid contents of a drill hole with the use of a long. passed over a sheave at the top of the derrick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 305.) 311. sand. bailed-up bit (See ball up. 313. 41 Petroleum Engineer: M. or oil from a well. cylindrical bucket (bailer). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. baffle plate a partial restriction. 308. mud. generally a plate. fitted with a valve at its lower end. Z. 3 310. bailing 312. BAFFLES Plates or obstructions built into a tank or other vessel that change the direction of the flow of fluids or gases. it is thrust upward opening the valve to admit the mud-water Slurry. used to remove water.

BALL AND SEAT A type of valve used in a plunger pump. to recover bottomhole fluids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 315. ball up to collect a mass of sticky consolidated material. The condition frequently is a result of inadequate pump pressure or insufficient drilling fluid. hard rubber. filling it. and retrieving it.com . ball joint (See flex joint. 320. 321. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 42 Petroleum Engineer: M. drill collars.) ball sealers balls made of nylon.mzhelu@gmail. Z. or sink it to the seafloor. ball cock a device for regulating the level of fluid in a tank. 318. or both. which by rising or falling shuts or opens the valve. etc. increase its draft. usually drill cuttings. 319. or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel called a bailer to the bottom of a well. and used to shut off perforations through which excessive fluid is lost. 317. 316. but sometimes concrete or iron is used additionally to lower the rig's center of gravity permanently. samples. tool joints. ballast weight added to make a mobile offshore drilling rig more seaworthy. Ballast is usually seawater. bails. consisting of a valve connected with a hollow floating ball. BAIT BOX A pipeliner's lunch pail. on drill pipe. A bit with such material attached to it is termed a bailed-up bit.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
322. ballast tanks
vessels that contain ballast water.

323. ballasted Condition
the condition of a floating offshore drilling rig when ballast has been added

The fouling of a rotary drilling bit in sticky, gumbo-like shale which causes a serious drag on the bit and loss of circulation.

325. balling up
the failure of an anchor to hold in a soft bottom, instead pulling out with a large ball of mud on it.

A type of quick opening valve with a spherical core, a ball with a full-bore port, that fits and turns in a mating cavity in the valve body. Drilling engine to the crank and pitman assembly that actuates the working beam. Used in former years in drilling with cable tools. Old pumping wells still use a band wheel.

A contract or charter agreement between the owner of a drilling rig, semisubmersible, or drillship and a second party in which the owner rents or leases his equipment (usually short-term) barefoot, i.e., without the owner or his representative taking any part in the operation or maintenance of the equipment. The lessee agrees to man or stiff the equipment and operate it without assistance from or responsibility by the owner. Also bareboat charter for boats or ships.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
Wells completed in firm sandstone or limestone that show no indication of caving or disintegrating may be finished "barefoot," i.e., without casing through the producing interval.

3 331. barge
any one of many types of flat-decked, shallow-draft vessels usually towed by a boat. In cargo service, barges are used widely to transport crude oil and refined products on rivers and other inland waters. A complete drilling rig may be assembled on a barge, which usually is submersible; that is, it has a submersible hull or base that is flooded with water at the drilling site. Drilling equipment, crew quarters, etc., are mounted on a superstructure above the water level.

See Reel Barge.

333. barite
barium sulfate, BaSO4,,; a mineral used to increase the weight of drilling mud. Its specific gravity is 4.2 (i.e., it is 4.2 times heavier than water). (See mud.)

3 335. barium sulfate
1. a chemical combination of barium, sulfur, and oxygen; barite. 2. a tenacious scale that is very difficult to remove.

A whistle-like device attached to the exhaust pipe of a one cylindered oil field engine so that the lease pumper can tell from a whether or not the engine is running. The noise the device makes resembles the back of a hoarse fox.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A specially processed barite (barium sulfate) to which Aquagel has been added, used as a conditioning material in drilling mud in order to obtain satisfactory cores and formation samples.

338. barrel
(bbl) a measure of volume for petroleum products. One barrel (1 bbl) is the equivalent of 42 U.S. gal or 158.97 liters. One cubic meter (1 m') equals 6.2897 bbl.

339. barrel compressor
a special type of centrifugal compressor with a barrel-shaped housing.

3 341. barrel-mile
a unit of measure for pipeline shipment of oil that signifies 1 bbl moved 1 mile.

A building on the refinecy grounds where barrels are filled with various grades of lubricating and other oils, sealed, and made ready for shipment oil house. See Drum.

343. barrels per day
(BPD, bpd, BID, b/d) a measure of the rate of flow of a well;. the total amount of oil produced or processed per day.

3 345. basalt
an igneous rock that is dense, fine-grained, and dark gray or black.

346. base
a substance capable of combining with charged hydrogen atoms (ions) to form a salt. A typical base is sodium hydroxide (caustic), with the chemical 45

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
symbol NAOH. For example, sodium hydroxide combines with hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride (a salt) and water; this reaction is written chemically as NAOH + HCI NACI + H2O4.

347. basement rock
either igneous or metamorphic rock, usually not containing petroleum. Ordinarily it lies below sedimentary rock. When it is encountered in drilling, the well usually is abandoned.

Impurities and foreign matter contained in a tank of crude oil, e.g., water sand, oil-water emulsions. When produced, crude oil may contain one, or more of these impurities. In the lease tank the impurities settle to the bottom of the tank, with the relatively clean oil on top. After repeated filling andemptying of the tank, the sediment builds up to the pipeline connection and must be removed. This is done by unbolting the plate from the clean out box on the back of the tank and shoveling out the heavy, accumulated sediment.

3 351. basic sediment and water (BS&W)
she water and other extraneous material present in crude oil. Usually, the BS&W con. tent must be quite low before a pipeline will accept the oil for delivery to a refinery. The amount acceptable depends on a number of factors but usually runs from less than 5 percent to a small fraction of 1 percent.

3 5 2 . BA S I N
A synclinal structure in the subsurface, once the bed of a prehistoric sea. Basins. composed of sedimentary rock, are regarded as good prospects for oil exploration.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 354. basket sub
a fishing accessory run above a bit or mill to recover small pieces of metal or junk in a well.

3 356. BASTARD
(1) Any nonstandard piece of equipment. (2) A kind of file. (3) A word used in grudging admiration, or as a term of opprobrium.

3 5 7 . BA T C H
A measured amount of oil or refined product in a pipeline or a tank. a shipment of oil or product by pipeline.

See Interface.

3 360. batch treating
the process by which a single quantity of crude oil emulsion is broken into oil and water. The emulsion is gathered and stored in a tank or container prior to treating. Compare with flow-line treating.

361. batching sphere
a large rubber ball placed in a pipeline to separate batches.

A great mass of intruded igneous of metamorphosed rock found at or near the surface of the earth. The presence of a batholith, often referred to as a shield, usually precludes drilling for oil or gas as there are no sedimentary formations above it. The largest batholith in the U.S. is in Idaho, underlying nearly two-thirds of the state.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
Two or more lease or stock tanks connected together to receive oil production from a well or a producing lease; a tank battery. The lease tank batter y is the starting point for crude oil on its way to the refinery-via gathering line, pump station, and trunk line to the refinery tank farm. It is at the tank battery where the pipeline gauger measures and tests the oil, and after making out a run ticket (q.v.) opens the tank valve, turning the oil into the pipeline system. A battery is two or more units of equipment linked together in the performance of a function, e.g., separator battery; heater battery; filter batters., and tank battery.

See Trickle-charged Battery.

366. Baume gravity
specific gravity as measured by the Baum6 scale. Two arbitrary scales are employed one for liquids lighter than water and the other for liquids heavier than water. This scale also is used to describe the density of acid solutions.

The French chemist who devised a simple method to measure the relative weights of liquids using the hydrometer (q.v.).

3 369. bbl

370. bbl/d
barrels per day.

3 372. BCD
Barrels per calendar day. See Stream Day. 48

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 7 3 . Bcf
billion cubic feet of gas.

3 375. Bcf (Billion Cubic Feet)
A volume measurement of natural gas measured in billions of cubic feet.

3 377. Bcf/d
billion cubic feet of gas per day.

3 379. BDC
bottom dead center.

3 381. BEAD
A course of molten metal laid down by a welder (electric or oxyacetylene) in joining two pieces of metal. See Pipeline Welding.

A metal or glass container with a small opening fitted with a stopper that is lowered into a tank of oil to obtain a sample of oil.

383. beam
the extreme width of the hull of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig.

384. beam counterbalance
the weights installed on the end of the walking beam, which is opposite from the end over the well. The counterbalance offsets, or balances, the weight of sucker rods and other downhole equipment installed in the well. (See suckerrod pumping.)

385. beam-pumping unit
a machine designed specifically for sucker-rod pumping, using a horizontal member (walking beam) that is worked up and down by a rotating crank to produce reciprocating motion. bean (See choke.) 49

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A well whose fluid is being lifted by rods and pump actuated by a walking beam (q.v.).

3 388. BEAN
A choke used to regulate the flow of fluid from a well.

In early pipeline parlance, the joint of line pipe laid just before the break for lunch. When the bean joint was bucked in (q.v.) the pipe liners grabbed lunch buckets from the gang truck and found a comfortable place to cat.

A type of revolving bearing. The other type is the roller bearing (q v.),

Thin, bimetal, half-round bearings that fit in the journal box around a shaft to provide a smooth, hard surface. One-half of the insert (in cross section, a semicircle) fits into the journal box, the other half into the journal box cap. Insert bearings era designated bimetal because although the bearing surface is made of babbitt (q.v.) it is backed with a layer of bronze, brass, or steel. There are also trimetal insert bearings. They are made with steel backing, a "soft" alloy middle layer, and a babbitt outer layer. Babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, copper, and antimony. was invented by Isaac Babbitt in 1862.

A shaft-supporting bearing outside the body or frame of a pump's gear box or engine's crankcase; a bearing on a pump's pinion shaft outside the gear box; a line-shaft bearing.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A type of cylindrical. Revolting bearing. The other type is the ball bearing (q.v.).

See Saddle Bearing.

A bearing and its frame in the shape of a saddle stirrup; e.g. the bearing connecting the pitman and the walking beam on an early-day cable tool drilling or pumping well.

A bearing to support the endwise or downward thrust or weight of a machinery part against another. Thrust bearings can be constructed of ball bearings or cylindrical roller bearings held in a circular frame or housing that fits over a shaft

398. bed
a specific layer of earth or rock in contrast to other layers of different material lying above, below, or adjacent to it.

399. bedding plane
the surface that separates each successive layer of a stratified rock from its preceding layer.

Refers to oil and gas reservoirs penetrated or passed through by wells but never tapped or produced. Behind the pipe refers usually to tight formations of low permeability which, although recognized, were passed through because they were uneconomical to produce at the time. Today, however, 51

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
with the growing scarcity of oil and high prices, many of these passedthrough formations are getting a second look by producers.

A threaded pipe joint; the spigot or male end is threaded and screwed into the bell or female coupling. The female end of a coupling has threads on the inside circumference.

An excavation dug beneath a pipeline to provide room for the use of tools by workers; a hole larger in diameter at the bottom than at the top.

A welder who can do oxyacetylene or electric welding in a bell hole. This requires a great deal of skill as the molten metal from the welding rod is being laid on upside down and tends to tall away from the weld; a skilled welder.

A large swage nipple for attaching casinghead fittings to the well's casing above the ground or at the surface. The bell nipple is threaded on the casing end and has a plain or weld end to take the casinghead valves.

4 406. bellows meter
(See orifice meter.)

4 408. belt
a flexible band or cord connecting and passing about each of two or more pulleys to transmit power or impart motion.

409. belt guard
a protective grill or cover for a belt and pulleys. 52

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
4 411. BELT HALL
A wooden shed built to protect the wide belt that runs from the engine to the band wheel on a cable tool rig or an old beam pumping well. The belt hall extends from the engine house to the derrick.

Testing of methods or materials on so small a scale that it can be carried out on a laboratory table or specially constructed bench.

4 414. bent sub
a short cylindrical device installed in the drill stem between the bottommost drill collar and a downhole mud motor. The purpose of the bent sub is to deflect the mud motor off vertical to drill a directional hole.

415. bentonite
a colloidal clay, composed of montmorillonite, which swells when wet. Because of its gel-forming properties, ben-tonite is a major component of drilling muds. (See gel and mud.)

An old term for light petroleum distillates in the gasoline and naphtha range.

4 418. BENZOL
The general term which refers to commercial benzene which may contain other aromatic hydrocarbons.

419. beta particle
one of the extremely small particles, sometimes called rays, emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive substance such as radium or uranium as it disintegrates. Beta particles have a negative charge.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
An oxyacetylene pipe-cutting machine. A device that holds an acetylene cutting torch so that the ends of joints of pipe may be trimmed off It an angle to the pipe's long axis. Line pipe is beveled in preparation for welding joints together

421. BFPH
barrels of fluid per hour; used in drilling reports.

422. BHP
bottomhole pressure.

4 424. BHT
bottomhole temperature.

A 24-inch pipeline from Longview, Texas, to Norris City, Illinois, built during World War 11 to meet the problem caused by tanker losses at sea as a result of submarine attacks. Later during the war the pipeline was extended to Pennsylvania. Following the war the line was sold to a private company and converted to a gas line.

Said of a person who is moving in influential circles or has suddenly gone from a small job to one of considerably larger responsibility; a big operator. often used pejoratively.

The petroleum chemist who developed the first profitable means of cracking low-value middle distillates into lighter fractions (gasolines) by the use of heat and pressure. 54

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
The use of bacteria to separate kerogen from oil shale. Certain bacteria Will biodegrade the minerals in oil shale, releasing the kerogen from the shale in liquid or semiliquid form. (From studies made by Dr. Ten Fu Yen and Dr. Milo D. Appleman. University of Southern California, Professors of Bacteriology.)

431. bioherm
a reef or mound built by small organisms such as coral or oysters. Buried bioherms, formed in the geologic past, sometimes yield petroleum.

4 433. BIOMASS
Wood and other plant materials used to make methanol as a supplement to petroleum.

(1) To flatten and spread the strands of a cable or wire rope. (2) The sharted or mesh-enclosed cage used to hoist workmen from crew boats to offshore platforms.

To pay close attention to a job or to follow a person closely with the intent to learn or to help; to follow up on a job until finished.

436. birdcage
to flatten and spread the strands of a wire rope. a wire rope in such a condition.

4 438. bit
the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. Most bits used in rotary drilling are roller-cone bits. The bit consists of the cutting element and the circulating element. The circulating element permits the passage of drilling fluid and utilizes the hydraulic force of the fluid stream to improve 55

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
drilling rates. In rotary drilling, several drill collars are joined to the bottom end of the drill-pipe column. The bit is attached to the end of the drill collar.

4 440. bit breaker
a device used in rotary drilling to unscrew, or break out, the bit from the drill stem. It is usually placed in the rotary table.

4 442. bit cone
(See roller-cone bit.)

443. bit dresser
1. a member of a cable-tool drilling crew who repairs bits. 2. a machine used to repair, sharpen, and gauge bits.

444. bit gauge
a circular ring used to determine whether a bit is of the correct outside diameter. Often bit gauges are used to determine if the bit has been worn down to a diameter smaller than specifications allow; such a bit is termed undergauge.

445. bit record
a report on each bit used in an operation, listing its type, the amount of footage it drilled, and the nature of the formation penetrated.

A bit with super-hard metal lugs or cutting points inserted in the bit's cutting cones; a rock bit with cutting elements added that are harder art more durable than the teeth of a mill-tooth bit (q.v.).

447. Bitumen
Petroleum in semi-solid or solid forms.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

4 452. a mixture of asphalt and loose sand which. when processed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 448. BITUMINOUS SAND Tar sand.) 4 454. may yield as much as 12 percent asphalt. BITUMEN. The oil is floated off and undergoes treatment before it is piped to a refinery. 459. used in drilling reports. bitumens mixtures of hydrocarbons. but basically it involves the heating of the oil sands to separate the oil. (2) Black-colored oil used or lubricating heavy. The extraction process is complicated. 4 458.mzhelu@gmail. bituminous shale (See oil shale. OIL SANDS A heavy petroleum-like substance found in certain consolidated sand formations at the surface of the earth or at relatively shallow depths where it can be surface mined after the removal of a few feet of overburden. 449. bl black. 4 456. blank casing a casing without perforations 57 Petroleum Engineer: M. slow-moving machinery where the use of higher-grade lubes would be impractical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 450. Z. BLACK OILS (1) A term denoting residual oil used in ships' boilers or in large heating or generating plants bunkers. Black Magic a proprietary name for a basic concentrate of oil-base mud.com .

blank flange a solid disk used to dead-end. or close off. blank off to close off (as with a blank flange or bull plug). Z. BLEEDING CORE A core sample of rock highly saturated and of such good permeability that oil drips from the pore. generally slowly through a valve called a bleeder. To bleed down. means to slowly release pressure from a well or from pressurized equipment. a companion flange. 462. 461. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or tank from which samples are drawn or to vent air or oil.com . with no perforations. or bleed off. 468. blank liner a liner with no perforations. BLEEDING The tendency of a liquid component to separate from a lubricant. bld bailed. 4 470. BLEED LINE A line on the wellhead or blowout preventer stack through which gas pressure can be bled to prevent a threatened blowout. 463. 4 465.. usually casing. 4 467. bleed (‫)ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺱ‬ to drain off liquid or gas. 471.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 460. as oil from a grease. blank pipe a pipe. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. to seep out. 58 Petroleum Engineer: M. BLEEDER VALVE A small valve on a pipeline. sample valve.

Z. Certain classes of tube oils are blended to a specified viscosity. Sometimes blind-drilling techniques are resorted to when lost circulation occurs. 4 477. The process of mixing two or more oils having different properties to obtain a lubricating oil of intermediate or desired properties. BLOCK (1) A pulley or sheave in a rigid frame. Other products.com . BLIND FLANGE A companion flange with a disc bolted to one end to seal off a section of pipe. 4 481. Its ends do not fit around the drill pipe but seal against each other and shut off the space below completely.mzhelu@gmail. BLM Bureau of Land Management. (2) To prevent the flow of liquid or gas in a line. serving as the closing element. are also blended to obtain desired properties. blind drilling a drilling operation in which the drilling fluid is not returned to the surface.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 473. 475. BLENDING. 59 Petroleum Engineer: M. notably gasolines. 478. (3) A chock. 474.) 479. blind to close a line to prevent flow. blind ram an integral part of a blowout preventer. (See ram. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 60 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 4 487. In contact with a hot journal bearing. the grease melts slowly lubricating the bearing. 483. separate leases executed by owners of individual tracts which provide that drilling of one or more test wells within the combined area or block will satisfy the conditions of the lease as to each of the tracts in the block. its effectiveness may be checked by opening the bleeder valve for evidence of any leakage from the upstream or high-pressure side. BLOCK TREE A type of well-completion Christmas tree in which a number of control and production valves are made as a unit in one block of steel. sometimes. slow-moving machinery. BLOCK GREASE A grease of high melting point that can be handled in block or stick form. BLOCK AND BLEED VALVE A heavy-duty mainline valve made to hold " bubbletight" against high pressure. When the block valve is closed. BLOCK LEASE A lease executed by owners of separate tracts or. rigid unit integral to the forging.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 482. BLOCK AND TACKLE An arrangement of ropes and blocks (pulleys) used to hoist or pull.com . Block trees are often used on multiwell offshore platforms to conserve space. on axles and crude bearings. Valve pockets for the special valve assembly are bored in the steel forging which mites the valve assembly a strong.mzhelu@gmail. 484. The valve is made with a small bleeder line and valve which are tapped into the block valve's bonnet. Block grease is used on large. 485.

The blooie pipe. the pulverized rock from the action of the bit is brought up from the bottom of the hole by compressed air and blown through the blooie pipe into the burn pit. BLOCK VALVE A large. And when each arrives at destination. very little mixing of the two types of crude occurs at the interface. blooey line the discharge pipe from a well being drilled by air drilling. 490. makes. named for the noise. In a packed or full line pumping under high pressure. BLOOIE PIPE A horizontal vent pipe extending from the wellhead a couple of feet from the rig floor to a burn pit. Z. 489.. 61 Petroleum Engineer: M. For example when moving different grades or types of crude. it too is vented to the burn pit. Should gas or oil be encountered. the two are not mixed but are blocked through the line.mzhelu@gmail. it is switched into separate tankage.com .g. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. heavy-duly valve on a crude oil or products trunk line placed on each side of a pipeline river crossing to isolate possible crossing. sweet or sour. the well must be mudded up. vents the returns during air or gas drilling. e. one behind the other. which conducts the air or gas used for circulation away from the rig to reduce the danger of fire and to transport the cuttings a suitable distance from the well. In air drilling no mud is used. the point in the line where the two are in contact. Drilling mud is pumped into the hole and circulated as in conventional rotary drilling. BLOCKING Pumping measured amounts of crude oil or product through a pipeline in batches or blocks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 488. Should the well need to be controlled because of oil or gas in quantity and under high pressure. 4 492.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to suddenly expel oil-well fluids from the borehole with great velocity. Steam is injected into the stack to prevent ignition of volatile material o a water quench is sometimes used. blowdown the emptying or depressurizing of a material from a vessel. 5 502. blow case a pumping device capable of transferring liquid. 495.mzhelu@gmail. 496. 2. BLOWBY The escape of combustion or unburned fuel past the engine's piston and piston rings into the crankcase. blow out 1. 2. Blowby occurs during the power stroke but unburned fuel can also escape during the compression stroke on sparkignition engines. 497.) to drain off the "drip gasoline" and to allow the natural gas to "blow" fort moment to clear the line and drip of all liquid. the material thus discarded. BLOOM The irridescent cast of color in lubricating oil. to expel a portion of water and steam from a boiler to limit its concentration of minerals. 4 499. 500.com .v. used to transfer crude oil and water mixtures if pump agitation would create unwanted emulsions. 62 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 494. BLOWDOWN STACK A vent or stack into which the contents of a processing unit are emptied when an emergency arises. Z. BLOWING THE DRIP To open the valve on a drip (q.

5 510. blowoff cock a device which permits or arrests a flow of liquid from a receptacle or through a pipe. 5 507. BLOWOUT PREVENTER. faucet.com . blowout preventer (BOP) equipment installed at the wellhead at surface level on land rigs and on the seafloor of floating offshore rigs to prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe or in an open hole during drilling and completion operations. 63 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 508. blowout preventer control (BOP) panel a set of controls. blowout preventer control unit a device that stores hydraulic fluid under pressure in special containers and provides a method to open and close the blowout preventers quickly and reliably. a dangerous.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 503. a wild well. that is manipulated to open and close the blowout preventers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or stop valve. usually located near the driller's position on the rig floor. (See annular blowout proventer and ram blowout preventer. SPHERICAL See Spherical Blowout Preventer.mzhelu@gmail. Z. BLOWOUT Out of control gas and/or oil pressure erupting from a well being drilled. BLOWPIPE (WELDINQAND CUTTING) See Welding Torch. 5 512. 5 505. Usually compressed air and hydraulic pressure provide the opening and closing force in the unit. uncontrolled eruption of gas and oil from a well. 513. tap.

BOBTAIL A short-bodied truck. Board The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. 519.).mzhelu@gmail. BO barrels of oil. 520. 521.com . usually used in reference to total production of oil and water from a well. States differ in subjecting the sale of property interests in oil and gas to Blue Sky regulations. Z. 517. BOBTAIL PLANT A gas plant which extracts liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas but does not break down the liquid product into its separate components. 64 Petroleum Engineer: M. BODY Colloquial term for the viscosity of oil. The corresponding federal statutes and regulations are the Federal Securities Act and the Securities and Exchange (SEC) regulations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 514. BLUESKYLAW A statute which regulates the issuance and sale of securities. The term usually is restricted to state statutes. BLPD barrels of liquid per day. used in drilling reports. 522. 5 516. BNOC British National oil Corporation (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The liquid instead is pump ?d to a fractionator plant where it is separated into various components or fractions in fractionator towers. 5 1 8 .v.

(2) To make a report without doing the work. sometimes shortened to "weevil. oil. 5 532. BOIL OFF The vaporization or gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other gases liquefied by applying high pressure and severe cooling. boil weevil (slang) an inexperienced rig or oil-filed worker. 526. Z. to fake a report.com . boil-weevil hanger a tubing hanger. A low. boil-weevil corner (slang. or gas and is used to generate steam from water. Boiloff is a problem for shippers of LNG in the specially built ocean carriers. 5 529. BOILER HOUSE (1) A lightly constructed building to house steam boilers. BOGIES Colloquial term for small transport dollies.mzhelu@gmail. sturdy frame or small platform with multiple wheels (4 to 8) for moving heavy objects short distances. obsolete) the work station of an inexerienced rotary helper. 530. on the opposite side of the rotary from the pipe rocker." 527. 5 525. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Boiloff occurs when the holding vessel's insulation fails to maintain the low temperature required to keep the gas in liquid form. 65 Petroleum Engineer: M. boiler a closed pressure vessel that has a furnace equipped to burn coal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 523.

BOLSTER A support on a truck bed used for hauling pipe.com . INITIAL The temperature at which a product being distilled comes to a boiling point. The boiling point of water is 212 F or 100 C at atmospheric pressure (14. usually steel.7 psig). BOILING POINT. (See bottomhole pressure. BOLLWEEVIL An inexperienced worker or "green hand" on a drilling crew. bomb a thick-walled container.) 540. the temperature at which this occurs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 533. 538. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BONNET The upper part of a gate valve that encloses the packing gland and supports the valve stem. 5 535. Z. 539. (See bottomhole pressure. 5 537. 66 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually steel. the beginning of the distillation of a particular product. bomb a thick-walled container.) 541.mzhelu@gmail. The heavy wooden or metal] beam rests on a pin that allows the forward end of the load to pivot as truck turns a corner.

com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 542. boom dog a ratchet device on a crane that prevents the boom of the crane from being lowered but still permits it to be raised. Z. It is also called a boom ratchet. 5 549. boom ratchet (See boom dog. Another form is called an oil or royalty bonus. BOOK VALUE The worth of an oil company.) 550. BONUS Usually. boom Stop the steel projections on a crane that the boom strikes if raised too high or lowered too far. 544. less depreciation 545. boom a movable arm of tubular or bar steel. 543. BONUS BIDDING Competitive bidding for oil and gas leases in which the lease providing for a fixed royally is offered to the prospective lessee offering to pay the largest bonus to the lessor. 67 Petroleum Engineer: M. This may be in the form of an overriding royalty reserved to the landowner in addition to the usual one-eighth royalty.. used on some types of cranes or derricks to support the hoisting lines that carry the load. See Royalty Bidding.mzhelu@gmail. 5 547. the bonus is the money paid by the lessee for the execution of an oil and gas lease by the landowner. properties and all facilities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

com .) 68 Petroleum Engineer: M. it helps to separate gas from wet oil. a field station that pumps into a tank farm or main station. boot basket (See junk sub.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 551. 5 559. 556. BOOSTER STATION A pipeline pumping station usually on a main fine or trunk fine an intermediate station. BOOMCATS Caterpillar tractors equipped with side booms and winches used in pipeline construction to lift joints of pipe and to lower sections of the line into the ditch. BOP blowout preventer. Z.) 557.) boot sub (See Junk sub. boot a tubular device placed vertically inside or outside a larger vessel. boomer 1. 553. A device used to tighten chains on a load of pipe or other equipment on a truck to make it secure. 552. 5 555. 2. Also called a flume or conductor pipe. BOP STACK Blowout preventer stack (q.mzhelu@gmail. through which well fluids are conducted before entering the larger vessel. (slang) an oil-field worker who moves from one center of activity to another. a floater or transient.

563.mzhelu@gmail. BORING MACHINE A power-driven.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 5 561. bore the diameter of the cylinder of an engine. 5 567. bottle test a test in which varying amounts of a chemical are added to bottled samples of an emulsion to determine how much of the chemical is needed to break the emulsion into oil and water. 5 570. BOP/BOP Stack Blowout preventers/blowout preventer stack . 564. 69 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bottled gas liquefied petroleum gas placed in small containers for sale to domestic customers. 568. the uncased drill hole from the surface to the bottom of the we If. 562. 565. large-diameter auger used to bore under roads. and canals for the purpose of installing casing or steel conduits to hold a pipeline. BORE AND STROKE See Pump Specifications. BOREHOLE The hole in the earth made by the drill. Z.an assembly of heavy-duty valves attached to the wellhead to control well pressure and prevent a blowout. railroads. BOPD barrels of oil per day.com .

It is often marked on the engine flywheel.v. 70 Petroleum Engineer: M. 577.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 571.mzhelu@gmail. Such an assembly may also include a bottom-hole reamer above the bit or above the first drill collar. bottleneck an area of reduced diameter in pipe. bottom dead center (BDC) the position of the piston at the lowest point possible in the cylinder of an engine. the "bottom of the barrel" in petroleum distillation. 574. BOTTOM FRACTION The last cut. Z. 576. bottom-hole pertaining to the lowest or deepest part of a well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 575. BOTTLENECKING The deformation of the ends of the casing or tubing in the hanger resulting from excessive weight of the string of pipe and the squeezing action of the slips. brought about by excessive longitudinal strain or by a combination of longitudinal strain and the swagging action of a body. The main purpose of a hole assembly is to keep the bit drilling as straight down as possible. in the string. 5 573. A bottleneck may result if the downward motion of the drill pipe is stopped with the slips instead of the brake. it is referred to as packed-hole assembly (q. When in addition to drill collars and reamers there are two or three stabilizers. bottom hold-down a mechanism for anchoring a bottom-hole pump in the well. 578.). BOTTOM-HOLE ASSEMBLY (BHA) A drilling string comprised of a drillbit and several drill collars is a simple bottom-hole assembly.com .

BOTTOM-HOLE LETTER An agreement by which an operator. water-producing. BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE The reservoir or formation pressure at the bottom of the hole. 587. readings are usually taken at different rates of I low in order to arrive at a maximum productivity rate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 579. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bottom-hole plug a bridge plug or cement plug placed near the bottom of the hole to shut off a depleted. (See choke. (See packer. bottom-hole choke a device with a restricted opening placed in the lower end of the tubing to control the rate of flow. or unproductive zone. 71 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 583. If measured under flowing conditions.com . bottom-hole contract a contract providing for the payment of money or other considerations upon the completion of a well to a specified depth. BOTTOM-HOLE HEATER Equipment used in the bottom of the well bore to increase bottom-hole temperature in an effort to increase the recovery of low gravity or heavy oil. secures the promise from another to contribute to the cost of the well. In contrast to a dry-hole letter. 582. A bottom-hole letter is often used by the operator as security for obtaining a loan to finance the drilling of the well.) 5 581. A decline in pressure indicates the amount of depletion from the reservoir. 584. the former requires payment upon completion of the well whether it produces or not.mzhelu@gmail. bottom-hole packer a device that blocks passage through the annular space between two strings of pipe and is installed near the bottom of the hole.) 5 586. planning to drill a well on his own land.

5 591. 592. 596. semisubmersible drilling rig when the rig is submerged. the residual fractions remaining at the bottom of a fractionating tower after lighter components have been distilled off as vapors. which tends to straighten under pressure. 72 Petroleum Engineer: M. 589. Z. Bottom-hole pumps are compact.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 588. BOTTOM-HOLE PUMP A pump located in the bottom of the well and not operated by sucker rods and surface power units. the liquids and residue that collect in the bottom of a vessel (such as tank bottoms) or that remain in the bottom of a storage tank after a period of service. bottom water water found below oil and gas in a producing formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. high-volume units driven by an electric motor or hydraulically operated. a Bourdon tube indicates the pressure applied to it.mzhelu@gmail. BOTTOM OUT To reach total depth. 593. bottoms 1. 2. bottoms-up a complete trip from the bottom of the wellbore to the top. 594. Bourdon tube a flattened metal tube bent in a curve. bottom-hole separator a device used to separate oil and gas at the bottom of wells to increase the volumetric efficiency of the pumping equipment. to drill to a specified depth. bottom-loading pressure the pressure exerted on the bottom hull of a column-stabilized.com . By the movements of an indicator over a circular scale. 595.

crescent-shaped tube closed at one end.) 6 606. With increases in gas pressure the Bourdon.) 607. 5 600. connected to. actuates recording instruments. The box is a thick-walled collar with threads on the inside the pin is threaded on the outer circumference and is screwed into the box.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 597. since it can be readily tied and untied.] source of gas pressure at the other. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Z. 6 604. used in pressure recording devices or in pilot operated control mechanisms. BOWLINE A knot used to form a loop in a rope which will neither slip nor jan. 602. don tube flexes (attempts to straighten) and this movement through roper linkage. box (See tool joint. especially the forward mooring lines. 73 Petroleum Engineer: M. bowline knot a knot primarily used in lifting heavy equipment with the catline. bow lines n pl the lines running from the bow of a mobile offshore drilling rig. 598. BOWL A device that fits in the rotary table and holds the wedges or slips that support a string of tubing or casing. regardless of the weight of the load on it. BOUROON TUBE A small. box and pin (See tool Joint. 601.mzhelu@gmail. BOX AND PIN JOINT A type Of screw coupling used to connect sucker rods and drill pipe.

BRADENHEAD GAS Casinghead gas. consisting of a flexible steel band lined with asbestos or a similar material. is closed to shut off the annulus when making a bradenhead squeeze. bradenhead squeezing the process by which hydraulic pressure is applied to a well to force fluid or cement outside the wellbore. bradenhead (obsolete) casinghead. 615.mzhelu@gmail. Although this term is still used." 6 610. or casinghead. brake band a part of the brake mechanism. Bradenhead was an early-day name for the wellhead or casinghead. 6 614. 616.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 608. BOYLE'S LAW "The volume of any weight of gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure. 617. Brackish water is saltier than fresh water but not as salty as salt water.) The bradenhead. brackish water water that contains relatively low concentrations of any soluble salts.com . bpd barrels per day. used in drilling reports. provided the temperature remains constant. BPH barrels per hour. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. that grips a drum when tightened. the term "bradenhead" is obsolete. 611. 6 619. bradenhead flange a flanged connection at the top of the oil-well casing. 612. (See squeeze. On a drilling 74 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.

much of the communication from oil patch to division and head offices was by telegraph. Z. BRASSPOUNDER A telegrapher. asphaltic material formed at oil see pages when the fighter fractions of the oil have evaporated.P. brake rider (slang) a driller who is said to rely too heavily on the drawworks brake. brass running nipple a device used in the flow cross of the Christmas tree as a thread protector while the rods are being run. it prevents friction sparks. (The editor was once an oilfield telegrapher. joined to and diverging from another line. tar-like substand. usually a pipe.H. 626. drum.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or reel where the brake is applied to control the movement of the unit.mzhelu@gmail.v. leaving the black. brake flange the surface on a winch. Because it is brass.com . Until the 1940s or so. branch line a line.). 620. BREA A viscous. 6 625. the actual or delivered horsepower as contrasted to "indicated horsepower" (q. 621.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rig. casting. 627. especially one who uses a telegraph key (q. See Telegrapher's Bug.) The power developed by an engine as measured at the drive shaft.) 628. 75 Petroleum Engineer: M. the brake band acts on the flanges of the drum on the drawworks to control the lowering of the travelt'ng block and its load of drill pipe. or tubing. BRAKE HORSEPOWER (S. 6 623.

635. 631. 636.com . 632. When the rig is ready for operation on a new location. breadth the greatest overall dimension measured perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig. to retrieve relevant information from a comprehensive report. break to begin or start (as to break circulation or break tour). 6 638.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 630. breakdown a failure of equipment. and upward through the annulus to the surface 633. crews break tour and start operating 24 hours a day. eyes" of the bit. pertaining to the amount of pressure needed at the wellhead to rupture the formation in a fracture treatment or squeeze job (as formation breakdown pressure). BREAK CIRCULATION To resume the movement of drilling fluid down the drill pipes through the . break tour to begin operating 24 hours a day.. 634. Moving the rig and rigging up are usually carried on during daylight. BREAK OUT (1) To isolate pertinent figures from a mass of data. Z. BREAKING DOWN THE PI1PE Unscrewing stands of drillpipe in one-joint lengths usually in preparation for stacking and moving to another well location. BREAK-OUT TANKAGE Tankage at a take-off point or delivery point on a large crude oil or products pipeline. (2) To loosen a threaded pipe joint.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 76 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 644. (See bit breaker. Z. an obstruction in the borehole. or left permanently. drilled out. breakout tongs (See tongs and break out.) 643. For example. 77 Petroleum Engineer: M. a tank of crude oil expands because of the rise in temperature during the day and contracts as it cools at night. breathe to move with a slight. 6 648. breaking strength the load under which a chain breaks. 641. regular rhythm. BREATHING The movement of oil vapors and air in and out of a storage tank owing to the alternate heating by day and cooling by night of the vapors above the oil in the tank. breakout cathead (See cathead. 2. breakout block a heavy plate that fits in the rotary table and holds the drill bit while it is being unscrewed from the drill collar. bridge 1. 6 646. usually caused by the caving in of the wall of the borehole or by the intrusion of a large boulder. Breathing occurs in tanks of vessels when vapors are expelled and air is taken in.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 640. expelling vapors as it expands and taking in air as it contracts.com .) 642.mzhelu@gmail. a tool placed in the hole to retain cement or other material that may later be removed. Tubing breathes when it moves up and down in sequence with a sucker-rod pump.

) 652.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 649.mzhelu@gmail. fully refined. 656. bridging material the fibrous. used for blending with lower viscosity oils. bridle a cable on a pumping unit. that is run and set in casing to isolate a lower zone while testing an upper section.com . 655. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bright appearance of the dewaxed tubes. a plug mandrel. brine water that has a large quantity of salt. The name originated from the clear. or granular material added to a cement slurry or drilling fluid to aid in scaling formations in which lost circulation has occurred. BRIDGE OVER The collapse of the walls of the borehole around the drill column. especially sodium chloride. and dewaxed lubricating oils. composed primarily of slips. (See lost-circulation material. flaky. and a rubber sealing element. BRIGHT STOCKS High-viscosity. Z. 651. (See sucker-rod pumping. BRIGHT SPOTS White areas on seismographic recording strips which may signal to the geologist or trained observer the presence of hydrocarbons. dissolved in it. bridge plug a downhole tool. looped over the horse head and connected to the carrier bar to support the polished-rod clamp. 650. 78 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 6 654. salt water.

663.mzhelu@gmail. 6 662.K.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 657. Bristle or foam pigs are easy to run. Z.S. BRITISH NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION The United Kingdom government agency that "participates" in drilling and production activities in the British sectors of the North Sea with U. "He broke out as a driller at Midland". This allows time for closer inspection of the cuttings and for a decision as to how to proceed when encountering a certain formation.com . to begin a new job after being promoted. used in drilling reports.). oil companies and others. bring in a well to complete a well and put it in producing status. BRING BOTTOMS UP To wash rock cuttings from the bottom of the hole to the surface by maintaining circulation after halting the drilling operation. 664. 659. do not get hung up in the fine. British thermal unit (Btu) a measure of heat energy equivalent to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1 F. and are easy to "catch.v. BRISTLE PIG A type of pipeline pig or scraper made of tough plastic covered with flamehardened steel bristles. the "corporation" through which Britain assumes ownership of he U." They are usually run in newly constructed lines to remove rust and mill scale (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. brkn broken. 658. 79 Petroleum Engineer: M. BROKEOUT To be promoted.'s share of the North Sea oil. 660.

B S &W Short for basic sediment and water often found in crude oil. 668.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 666. sef-contained survival vessel that can be lowered from an offshore drilling platform or semisubmersible in the event of a fire or other emergency.3 persons. caused by the impact of molecules of fluid surrounding the particle.mzhelu@gmail. 80 Petroleum Engineer: M. any newly promoted oil field worker whose performance is still untried. a new tool pusher up from driller. Bscf/d billion standard cubic feet of gas per day. Some models can accommodate 2. is self-propelled and is equipped with first-aid and life-support systems. BRUCKER SURVIVAL CAPSULE A patented. BS&W monitor a device used in LACT systems to measure and record automatically the amount of water and other contaminants in oil being transferred to a pipeline and to divert contaminated oil to treatment facilities.com . See Whitaker System. 670. Z. 667. BRONC A new driller promoted from helper. See Stream Day. BSD Barrels per stream day. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 6 673. Brownian movement the random movement exhibited by microscopic particles when suspended in liquids or gases. 671. The vessel. 6 6 9 . of spheroid shape.

synthetic ruber. 6 676. 678. basic aromatics used in the manufacture of paints. The perforations in the trays are made with small umbrella-like caps called bubble caps whose purpose is to force the rising vapors to bubble through the several inches of liquid standing on each tray before the vapors move upward to the next tray. bubble-cap tray a perforated steel tray on which bubble caps are mounted. BUBBLE POINT The pressure at which gas. The hot vapors bubbling through the liquid keep the liquid charge heated. The initials are used by refinery men in designating a unit of the refinery. agricultural chemicals. cylindrical vessels set vertically in rows. 679. breaks out of solution as free gas saturation pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 7 4 . 677.com . causing some of the vapor to condense to liquid.mzhelu@gmail. bubble cap a metal cap that has openings allowing vapor bubbles in a gas-processing tower to contact cool liquids. 81 Petroleum Engineer: M. and chemical intermediates. BUBBLE-CAPTRAYS Shelves or horizontal baffles inside a fractionating tower or column that are perforated to allow the fluid charge to run down to the bottom of the column and the vapors to rise through the trays to the top where they are drawn off. 680. Bubble caps and trays are arranged in bubble towers. BT U British thermal unit. Z. the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. BTX Benzene-toluene-xylene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. held in solution in crude oil.

When the saturation pressure is reached. BUBBLE POINT PUMP A type of downhole oil pump very sensitive to gas.mzhelu@gmail. 687. bug blower (slang) a large fan installed on a drilling rig to blow insects away from the work area. 6 690. BUCK UP To tighten pipe joints with a wrench. buildup test a test in which a well is shut in for a prescribed period of time and a bottomhole pressure bomb run in the well to record increases or decreases in pressure. 688.) buck up to tighten up a screwed connection. 6 686. any type of fan.com . BUG BLOWERS Large fans used on or near the floor of the drilling rig to keep mosquitoes and other flying insects off the rig crew. - 682.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 681. in effect. From this data and from knowledge of pressures in a nearby well. the effective drainage radius or the presence of permeability barriers or other production deterrents surrounding the wellbore can be estimated. 6 684. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 82 Petroleum Engineer: M. bubble tray (See bubble-cap tray. This type of pump regulates. gas is released which gas-locks the pump until pressure is again built up by the oil I lowing into the well bore. Z. bubble tower a vertical. cylindrical vessel in which bubble caps and bubble-cap trays are arranged. oil production from a reservoir with a gas drive.

bulkhead an interior wall that subdivides a mobile offshore drilling rig into compartments. A bulk plant usually has tank carunloading facilitiese and warehousing for products sold in packages or in barrels. BULL GANG Common laborers who do the ditching and other heavy work on a pipeline construction job. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. owing to a malfunction of the tool.mzhelu@gmail. 6 696. BULLDOGGED Said of a fishing toot lowered into the well bore that has latched onto lost pipe or another object being fished out and won't unlatch or cannot be disengaged. BULK PLANT A distribution point for petroleum products. Z. 694.com . closed end. bull gear the large. 693. 6 700. 6 698.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 692. used to stop up a hole or close off the end of a line. circular gear in a mud pump that is driven by the prime mover and in turn drives the connecting rods. bulkhead deck the highest deck to which watertight bulkheads extend on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig. 702. 83 Petroleum Engineer: M. bull plug a threaded nipple with a rounded.

) are stored In Hortonsphores or spheroids that can withstand higher pressures per square inch. BULLWAGON A casing wagon (q. so that the pump hits bottom on the downstroke. Bullet tanks ire for storing gasoline or butane under pressure. BULLWHEEL On a cable-tool rig. 713. 705. bullets n pl the devices loaded into perforating guns to penetrate into casing and cement and some distance into the formation when the guns are fired. 708.) 710. BULLET TANKS Colloquial term for horizontal pressure tanks made in the shape of a very fat bullet. and so on. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when lowered to a selected depth within a well. 712. bump a well to have too long a sucker-rod string on a pumping unit. fires bullets through the casing to provide holes through which the well fluids may enter. See Calf Wheel. 706.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 703. bulldozer a powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving rocks. Z.).v.com . earth.v.mzhelu@gmail. 84 Petroleum Engineer: M. bullet perforator a tubular device that. Other liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) with higher vapor pressure (q. the large wheels and axle located on one side of the derrick floor used to hold the drilling line. (See gun-perforate.

It also provides jarring action. " when the plug strikes the float collar. When the fishing tool has a firm hold on the lost drillpipe or tubing. residual fuel oil used in ships' boilers and large heating and generating plants. 721." 720. The slip joint is inserted above the heavy drill collars in order to maintain the weight of the collars on the drill bit as the drillpipe above the slip joint up and down with the motion of the ship. bump off a well to disconnect a pull-rod line from a central power unit. pertaining to a cement plug which comes to rest on the float collar. Z.) bumper sub a device similar to ajar. 715. 717.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 714. 716. but used in the normal drilling stem to compensate for vertical movement of the stem. 719.com . which may also be stuck fast in the hole. BUMPER SUB (FISHING) A hydraulically actuated tool installed in the fishing string above the fishing tool to produce a jarring action. but to a lesser extent than a jar. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. BUMP OFF A WELL To disconnect a rod-line well from a central power unit. A cementing operator might say. bumper jar (See jar. the bumper sub imparts a jarring action to help free the "fish. bumped aoj in cementing operations. BUNKER "C" FUEL OIL A heavy. 85 Petroleum Engineer: M. especially in offshore drilling. "I have a bumped plug. BUMPER SUB A slip joint that is part of the string of drillpipe used in drilling from a drillship to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action.

buoyancy the apparent loss of weight of an object immersed in a fluid. BURN PIT An excavation in which waste oil and other material are burned 732. BUNKERING To supply fuel to vessels for use in the ships 'boilers. BURNER A device for the efficient combustion of a mixture of fuel and air.com . 728. 730. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drill pipe. bunker oil (See residuals.) 724. the immersed portion displaces a volume of fluid the weight of which is equal to the weight of the object. burn shoe a type of rotary shoe designed to mill away metal tubular goods (such as casing. and so on) causing stuck pipe. 734. quarters for Single 011 field workers in the days when transportation to a nearby town was unavailable. See Ultrasonic Atomizer. 736.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 723. BUNKHOUSE Crew quarters.mzhelu@gmail. used in fishing operations. burning point the lowest temperature at which an oil or fuel will burn when an open flame is held near its surface. Z. If the object is floating. 726. 86 Petroleum Engineer: M. the loading of bunker fuel on board ship for use by the ship's boilers. usually a portable building used on remote well location to house the drilling crew and for supplies.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 738. (See rollercone bit. BUTT-WELDED PIPE Pipe made from a rectangular sheet of steel which is formed on mandrels. BUTTERFLY VALVE A type of quick-opening valve whose orifice is opened and closed by a disk that pivots on a shaft in the throat of the valve.) 744. bushing 1. or serve as a guide. button bit a drilling bit with tungsten carbide inserts that resemble buttons. a constituent of LPG. BUY-RACK CRUDE OIL In foreign countries. resist wear or corrosion. 742. a removable lining or sleeve inserted or screwed into an opening to limit its size. 87 Petroleum Engineer: M. This occurs when the host government has no market for its share of oil received under the joint-interest or participation agreement. BW barrels of water. Z. that is a gas in atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. 2. a pipe fitting of which the external thread is larger than its internal thread to allow two pipes of different sizes to be connected together. 7 4 5 . butane a paraffin hydrocarbon.com . 739.mzhelu@gmail. 741. used in drilling reports. C4H10. The two edges of the sheet are butted together and welded automatically. buy-back oil is the host government's share of "participation crude" it permits the company holding the concession (the producer) to buy back. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

BYPASS VALVE A valve by which the flow of liquid or gas in a system may be shunted pasta part of the system through which it normally flows.mzhelu@gmail. 88 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. a valve that controls an alternate route for liquid or gas. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. installed to permit passage of fluid through the line while adjustments or repairs are being made on the control. 750. bypass a pipe connection around a valve or other control mechanism. BWPH barrels of water per hour.com . 747.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 746. BWPD barrels of water per day. 749.

CABLE. A heavy metal bar. C02-Shielded.) 753. Z. comes in a variety of cutting-edge configurations. PLUG A cast-iron plug.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 751. The bit is attached to a cable and the cable is picked up and dropped. CABLE TOOLS The equipment necessary for cable tool drilling of a well. 89 Petroleum Engineer: M. a flat plug used to close the end of a pipe or a valve. C02-SHIELDED WELDING See Welding. 757. cable a rope of wire. C degrees centigrade or Celsius. cable tool drilling a drilling method in which the hole is drilled by dropping a sharply pointed bit on the bottom of the hole.1 scale. C. made of strands of steel wire. called a bit. 759. 754. picked up and dropped. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. over and over.mzhelu@gmail. sharpened to a chisel-like point on the lower end is attached to a drilling rope or wire line (cable) which is fastened to a walking beam above the rig floor that provides an up and down motion to the line and the metal drilling tools. hemp. (See cement Ceisius. 1 to 2 inches in diameter. or other strong fibers. 755. 756. 758.I. as the hole is drilled. cake thickness the thickness of the filter cake.com . DRILLING A heavy cable. The drilling tool.

carbon. The casing is usually run with the use of the calf wheels 90 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 765. Like calcium carbonate. used as an accelerator in cements and as a drying agent. 764. Z.) on a (able tool rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 760. 762. calcium chloride a moisture-absorbing chemical. It sometimes contaminates drilling fluids but may be added to provide certain properties. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CALF WHEEL The spool or winch located across the derrick floor from the bull wheels (q. 766. sulfur. B B 763. Its symbol is CaCl2.com .mzhelu@gmail. Calcium-treated muds resist salt and anhydrite contamination. and oxygen. but may require further treatment to prevent gelation (solidification) under the high temperatures of deep wells. It forms a tenacious scale in water-handling facilities and is a cause of water hardness. (See anhydrite and gypsum. and heated to drive off any remaining liquid hydrocarbons and water. thus facilitating drilling. calcium sulfate (CaSO4) forms a hard-to-remove scale in some water-handling facilities. or desiccant. CALCINING (OF COKE) Calcining is the heating of a substance to drive off moisture and other gaseous impurities or to make it more friable or crushable. Chemical symbol is CaCO2. Petroleum coke is calcined. calcium carbonate a chemical combination of calcium. calcium sulfate a chemical combination of calcium. and oxygen. crushed. calcium-treated mud a freshwater drilling mud using calcium oxide (lime) or calcium sulfate (gyp) to retard the hydrating qualities of shale and clay formations. the main constituent of limestone.v.

) 768. In the early days.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which are powered by the band wheel (q. 767. CALIPER LOG A tool for checking casing downhole for any bending or flattening or other deformation prior to running and setting a packer or other casing hardware. tank farms.v. Modern canning lines are fully automated. e. gasoline plants. and Tom Butler.mzhelu@gmail. It is the metric equivalent of the British thermal unit.com .). calibration tank (See proven tank. CAMP. etc. lights. Camps were known by company lease or simply the lease name. a settlement of oil company employees living on a lease in company housing. 772. Cam an eccentrically shaped disk that varies in distance from its center to various points on its circumference and that is mounted on a camshaft and serves to open the engine valves. See Drift Mandrel. and put in cases. COMPANY A small community of oil field workers. loading racks. A line from the call wheels runs to the crown block and down to the rig floor. oil companies furnished housing. gas. 91 Petroleum Engineer: M. and water free or at a nominal charge to employees working on the lease and at nearby company installations pumping stations. CANNING LINE A facility at refinery where cans are filled with lubricating oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 770. 769. 771. Gulf Wolf Camp. calorie (Calory) the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C.g. Z. Carter Camp.

canted leg pertaining to an independent leg jackup rig designed so that the legs may be slanted outward to increase support against lateral stresses when the unit is on the seafloor. It also is called a condenser. 774. cap rock 1. cap a well to control a blowout by placing a very strong valve on the wellhead. capacitor an electrical device that. the porous and permeable strata overlying salt domes that may serve as the reservoir rock. 781. 92 Petroleum Engineer: M. stores a charge of electricity and returns the charge to the line when certain electrical conditions occur. when wired in. impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas reservoir that tends to prevent migration of fluids from the reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CAODC the Canadian Association of Oil-Well Drilling Contractors. Z. 2. 779.the line of an electrical circuit.mzhelu@gmail. canvas packer (obsolete) a device for sealing the annular space between the top of a liner and the existing casing string.com . the Canadian counterpart of the IADC. 776. 778. 777.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 773. capacitance probe a device used in most net-oil computers that senses the different dielectric constants of oil and water in an water-in-oil emulsion.

mzhelu@gmail. the surface tension. In Federal income tax law. 93 Petroleum Engineer: M. CAPBEAD The final bead or course of metal laid on a pipeline weld. 784. Capillary Pressure A type of pressure data used to determine water saturation in a reservoir. permitting the oil to drain out of the pores of the rock. 786. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Tertiary Recovery. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES Nondeductible expenditures which must be recovered through depletion or depreciation. oil and gas leases are. CAPITAL ASSETS Assets acquired for investment and not for sale and requiring no personal services or management duties. In the oil industry.com . Capillary attraction or capillarity adversely affects the recovery of crude oil from a porous formation because a portion of the oil clings to the surface of each pore in the rock. is usually considered a capital asset. 785. Flooding the formation with certain chemicals the capillary attraction. The cap bead goes on top of the hot passes or filler beads to finish the weld. CAPILLARY ATTRACTION The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid. 783. property used in the taxpayers' trade or business and are not capital assets. Royalty. if held for investment. Well equipment and lease bonuses paid by lessee. Z. ordinarily.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 782. these items illustrate expenditures that must be capitalized geophysical and geologic costs.

Z. 789. Captured bolts are in reality a part of an adjustable piece and are so made to preclude the chance of being removed and dropped or because of limited space and accessibility in an item of equipment. 94 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CAPITAL-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY Said of the oil industry because of the great amounts of investment capital required to search for and establish petroleum reserves. CAPPING Closing in a well to prevent the escape of gas or oil. hexagonal head. 790. below the threads. to aid in getting the "screw" into the tapped hole and started straight. the increasing need for investment capital coupled with diminishing results in terms of oil and gas discovered spending more to find less oil.). 788.mzhelu@gmail. and have slightly pointed ends. CAPITAL STRING Another name for the production string (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 787. CAPTURED BOLT A bolt held in place by a fixed nut or threaded piece. The bolt can be tightened or loosened but cannot be removed completely because of a shoulder at the end of the bolt. cap screws are commonly used to fasten water jackets and other auxiliary pieces to an engine or pump. CAPITAL-GAP DILEMMA The growing disproportion of capital investment to oil reserves discovered. 792. 791. CAPSCREW A bolt made with an integral.v.com .

carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) a non. CARBON PLANT A plant for the production of carbon black by burning natural gas in the absence of sufficient air. bulky carbon obtained as soot by burning natural gas in large horizontal "ovens" with insufficient air. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CARRIED INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil or gas property. the other person is the carried party. Carbon plants are located close to a source of gas and in more or less isolated sections of the country because of the heavy emission of smoke.mzhelu@gmail.) 797. 799. sometimes makes up petroleum reservoirs. most often a lease. carbon black very fine particles of almost pure amorphous carbon. fermenting cellulose product used in drilling fluids to combat contamination from anhydrite (gyp) and to lower the water loss of the mud. 796. CARBON BLACK A fine. the holder of which has no obligation for operating costs. 8 801. 795. 95 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually produced from gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons by thermal decomposition or by controlled combustion with a restricted air supply.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 793. carbonate reef (See reef. Carbonate rock a sedimentary rock primarily composed of calcium carbonate (limestone) or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite). The person paying the costs is the carrying party. These are paid by the owner or owners of the remaining fraction who reimburse themselves out of profits from production.

hoist.) 805. "The numerous forms this interest is given from time to lime make it apparent the term carried interest dose not define any specific form of agreement but serves only serves only as a guide in preparing and interpreting instruments.v. one-sixteenth." If the arrangement specifies through well completion. the details varyinq considerably from arrangement to arrangement. which he has "sliced off" or carved out of his interest. engines. Modern production rigs are usually carrier units.' "to setting of tanks. wheeled unit used to service oil and gas wells. There are many different types of carried interests. In its simplest form a carried working interest is exempt from all costs of development and operation of the property.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 803.mzhelu@gmail.. Z.com . CARVED-OUT INTEREST An interest. For other considerations. the carried interest may specify "to casing point. an oil payment or overridinq royalty (q." or "through well completion.e. 1 and drive-in unit.) conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest. having the mast. a working interest. However. i. for example. CARRIED WORKING INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil and gas property conveyed or assigned to another party by the operator or owner of the working interest. One authority has observed. and other auxiliaries needed to service or work over a well mounted on a chassis powered by the engines used for hoisting. (See back-in unit ." 804. the owner of the larger interest may convey an overriding royalty. then the carried Interest may assume the equivalent fractional interest of operating costs upon completion of the well. carrier rig a self-propelled. 96 Petroleum Engineer: M. The owner of the working interest in a producing property may grant an oil payment to a bank to pay off a loan. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

807.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 806. exerting more pressure than it did at the bottom of the well. Cased pertaining to a wellbore in which casing is run and cemented.mzhelu@gmail. 815. usually beveled. 97 Petroleum Engineer: M. installed on the top of a string of pipe that does not extend to the surface. one inside the other). 8 810.com . This pressure is critically important when a gas kick is being circulated out. Casing Steel pipe set in a well to prevent the hole from sloughing or caving and to enable formations to be isolated (there may be several strings of casing in a well. because gas on the way to the surface expands. casing adapter a swage nipple. 808. It prevents a smaller string of pipe or tools from hanging up on the top of the column when run in the well. 8 812. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casing-burst pressure the amount of pressure that causes the wall of the casing to fail. CASHEONUS See Bonus. Z. casing centralizer a device secured around the casing at various intervals to center it in the hole and provide a uniform cement sheath around the pipe. Cased hole a wellbore in which casing has been run. 8 814.

Z. even over long periods of time. which includes pertinent safety factors such as stress effects to permit selection of the most economical and safest casing for a specific job. Casing packs are used in wells of doubtful or limited production to permit reuse of valuable lengths of casing. casing design chart a list of the various grades and weights of pipe available for the casing string. CASING PACKER. 822. usually an oil mud. The cutter is run on a string of tubing or drill pipe.com . 98 Petroleum Engineer: M. be retrieved with minimum difficulty. casing float collar (See float collar. and the knives are rotated against the inner walls of the pipe to free the casing. if necessary. 817. so that it does not bind or stick to the casing in the hole in the area above the cement.mzhelu@gmail. Since the mud does not gel. casing pack a method of cementing casing in a well so that the casing may. casing coupling a tubular section of pipe that is threaded inside and used to connect two joints of casing. casing cutter a heavy cylindrical body fitted with a set of knives. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 816.) 819. 818. EXTERNAL See External Casing Packer.) 8 821. the casing can be cut above the cemented section and retrieved. casing elevator (See elevator. is placed in the well ahead of the cement after the casing has been set. The mud used is non-solidifying. A special mud. used to free a section of casing in the well.

decision to set pipe is often difficult. Also called a guide shoe. casing point refers to the time when a well has been drilled to objective depth. they are made of steel or plastic.com . generally the depth at which the casing shoe rests. Also called thread protectors. hollow.mzhelu@gmail. casing shoe a short. casing pressure the pressure built up in a well between the casing and tubing or casing and drill pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casing slips (See slips. and completing the well. casing point the depth in a well at which casing is set. On a marginal well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 824.) 99 Petroleum Engineer: M. casing protectors short. 8 828. CASING PRESSURE Pressure between the casing and the well's tubing. and the operator notifies the drilling parties of his recommendation with a respect to setting casing a production string. 831. tests made. 8 826. On a very good well there is no hesitation the operators and glad to run casing and complete the well. 8 830. heavy. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom that is placed on the end of the casing string to serve as a reinforcing shoe and to aid in cutting off minor projections from the borehole wall as the casing is being lowered. threaded nipples screwed into the open end of the coupling and over the threaded end to protect the threads from dirt accumulation damage. Z. CASING POINT A term that designates a time when a decision must be made whether casing is to be run and set or the well abandoned and plugged in a joint operating agreement. To case a well often costs as much as drilling.

Two wagons are used. used to make an opening in a collapsed casing and drive it back to its original shape. 8 841. CASING. cylindrical body. The entire length of all the joints of casing is called the casing string.) 8 835. 100 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . casing spider (See spider. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 833. and adequate for certain kinds of shallow. CASING WAGON A small.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 832.pointed at the bottom and equipped with a tool joint at the top for connection with a jar. the attached casing comes with it. casing string Casing is manufactured in lengths of about 30 ft. casing spear a fishing tool designed to grab casing from the inside so that when the spear is retrieved. The lighter-weight casing is less costly. casing swage a solid. The forward wagon holds the pipe in a V-shaped cradle the rear wagon is in reality a lever on wheels which raises the end of the casing so it is free to be pulled. 838. SHALLOW-WELL Small-diameter casing of lighter weight than conventional casing used in deep wells.) 839. each length or joint being joined to another as casing is run in a well.mzhelu@gmail. low cart for moving casing from the pipe rack to the derrick floor. low-pressure wells. casing tongs (See tongs. Z. easier to handle.) 8 837. (See combination string.

casinghead a heavy. CASING. The casinghead gas is taken off at the top of the well or at the separator.). Casinghead. CASINGHEAD The top of the casing set in a well. SPIRALLED-WALL Well casing made with spiral grooves on the outer circumference of the pipe. a trade name. casinghead gasoline liquid hydrocarbons that are extracted from casinghead gas. like screw threads. 844. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. flanged steel fitting that connects to the first string of casing and provides a housing for the slips and packing assemblies by which intermediate strings of casing are suspended and the annulus sealed off. Z. CASINGHEAD GAS (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬ Gas produced with oil from an oil well as distinguished from gas from a gas well.It is a shortened form of Caterpillar. is said to be less susceptible to wall or differential sticking (q. used often to clear areas in earth-moving operations and in skidding rigs.com .mzhelu@gmail. water white liquid. CASINGHEAD GASOLINE Liquid hydrocarbons separated from casinghead gas by the reduction of pressure at the wellhead or by a separator or absorption plant. 847. The pipe with its grooves. It is also called a spool.v.v. The purpose of the patented axial grooves is to aid in running casing or a liner (q. the part of the casing that protrudes above the surface and to which the control valves and flow pipes are attached. 843. 101 Petroleum Engineer: M. 8 846.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 842. cat a tractor designed to move easily over rough terrain. gasoline or natural gasoline is a highly volatile.) in deviated or crooked holes.

CAT WORKS A part of the rig's draw works.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 849. On a drilling rig. spin in the easing and apply torque to the pipe tongs. CAT LINE A hoisting or pulling rope operated from a cat head (q.mzhelu@gmail. CAT SHAFT The shaft on the draw works on which the cat heads are mounted. CATALYST A substance which hastens or retards a chemical reaction without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process. 8 851. or instigates chemical reactions without itself being affected. Z. The other end of the cat shaft has a manual or air-actuated quick-release friction clutch and drum to which the tong jerk fine or spinning chain is attached. and by using a large rope wrapped around it a few turns the drilling crew can do such jobs as make-up and break-out and light hoisting. See Cat Shaft. the gear and chain linkage that powers the cat heads. 102 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 854. Any reaction brought about by a separate agent. accelerates. the rope used by the driller to exert a pull on pipe tongs in tightening (making up) or loosening (breaking out) joints of pipe. The cat works are used by the driller to make up and break out tool joint connections. CATALYSIS The increase or speeding up of a chemical reaction caused by a substance that remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. 852. One cat head is a drum. 853. catalyst a substance that alters.

complex hydrocarbon molecules by applying heat. 860. catenary Curve the shape assumed by a perfectly flexible line hanging under its own weight.com . and labeled to indicate the depth at which they were obtained. pressure. naphthas. 861. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Cuttings are carefully washed until they are free of foreign matter. cathode (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩ‬ the negative element of any electrical device as opposed to the anode. dried. or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. Z. and a chemical (the catalyst) to speed the process. 859. catch samples to obtain cuttings made by the bit as formations are penetrated for study by geologists. 103 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit. from the bailer. a power take-off spool used by the driller as he operates the cat line(q. catalytic cracking the breaking down of large.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 855. CATENARY The sag or curve of a cable or chain stretched between two supports. Electricity enters a circuit at the cathode.v. in cable-tool drilling.mzhelu@gmail. 862. 8 857. 858.). 'Re samples are obtained from drilling fluid as it emerges from the wellbore or. CATCRACKER A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude oil. CATHEAD A spool-shaped hub on a winch shaft around which a rope is wound for pulling and hoisting.

Its symbol is NaOH. CATHODIC PROTECTION (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ An anticorrosion technique for metal installations-pipelines.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. cation (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻥ‬ (See ion. caustic soda (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ sodium hydroxide. CATTLE GUARD A ground-level. buildings in which weak electric currents are set up to offset the current associated with metal corrosion.v.) 8 867. CATWALK raised.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 864. Carbon or nonferrous anodes (q. Current flowing from the corroding anode to the metal installation control the corrosion of the installation. 104 Petroleum Engineer: M. 870. 865. narrow walkway between tanks or other installations. used to lift heavy equipment on the rig.) buried near the pipeline are connected to the pipe. 868. tanks. any elevated walkway. 869. catline a hoisting or pulling line powered by the cathead. trestle-like crossing placed at an opening in a pasture fence to prevent cattle from getting out while permitting vehicles to cross over the metal or wooden open framework. catwalk the ramp at the side of the drilling rig where pipe is laid out to be lifted to the derrick floor by the catline. used td maintain an alkaline pH in drilling mud and in petroleum fractions.com .

CAVEY FORMATION A formation that trends to cave or slough into the well's borch. 8 7 5 . cavernous formation (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻬﻔﺔ‬ a rock formation that contains large. CAVITATION The creation of a partial vacuum or a cavity by a high-speed blade or boat propeller moving in or through a liquid. 874. CD Contract depth the depth of a well called for or specified in contract." 873.mzhelu@gmail.) 872. 876. also called sloughing. CELLAR An excavation dug at the drill site before erecting the derrick to provide working space for the casinghead equipment beneath the derrick floor. 877. (See tug. Blowout preventer valves (BOP stack) are also located beneath the derrick floor in the cellar.com . "the hole doesn't stand up. cc cubic centimeter. cellar a pit in the ground dug to provide additional height between the rig floor and the wellhead to accommodate installation of 105 Petroleum Engineer: M. Cavitation is also by a suction pump drawing in liquid whore there is an insufficient station or hydrostatic head to keep the line supplied. In the parlance of cable-tool drillers.71. caving collapse of the walls of the wellbore.?. open spaces. usually resulting from dissolving by formation waters that may still be present.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 871. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

mzhelu@gmail. it is set. poorly bonded casing transmits a signal slowly.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering blowout preventers. 878.) 8 880. lime. double-decked.) 884. cement bond the adherence of casing to cement and cement to formation. cement a powder consisting of alumina. to the formation by means of cement. (See main deck or Texas deck. It also collects drainage water and other fluids for subsequent disposal. chemical retarders. cement bond survey an acoustic survey or sonic-logging method that records the quality or hardness of the cement in the annulus used to bond the casing and the formation. 885. 882. semisubmersible drilling platform. When casing is run in a well. (See cementing materials. 881. and other substances which hardens when mixed with water. 106 Petroleum Engineer: M. mousehole. Chemical accelerators. rathole. Z. cement additive a material added to cement during cementing of a well to change its properties. and weight-reduction materials are common additives. etc. or bonded. silica. cement 94 lb (1 cu ft) bentonite 100 lb ilmenite 100 lb barite 100 lb 883. Extensively used in the oil industry to bond casing to the walls of the wellbore. CELLAR. WELLHEAD See Wellhead Cellar.com . CELLAR DECK Lower deck on a large. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cellar deck the lower deck of a double-decked semisubmersible drilling rig. Casing well-bonded to the formation transmits an acoustic signal quickly.

cement system a particular slurry containing cement and water with or without additives. the rising of cement between the casing and the borehole wall when the slurry fails to rise uniformly throughout the annulus.mzhelu@gmail. cement retainer a tool set temporarily in the casing or well to prevent the passage of cement. used to release small batches of cement in a remedial cementing operation. 890. cement plug a portion of cement placed at some point in the wellbore to seal it. cement dump bailer a cylindrical container with a valve. CEMENTATION The filling in of the pore spaces of reservoir rock by the natural concretion of limestone. Z. (See cementing.com . cement casing to fill the annulus between the casing and hole with cement to support the casing and to prevent migration of fluids between permeable zones. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 893. 892. 889.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 887. 107 Petroleum Engineer: M. 888.) 891. cement channeling during a cementing operation. thereby forcing it to follow another designated path. It is used in squeeze Cementing and other remedial cementing jobs.

The Portland cement used may be high early strength. sometimes called a metal-petal basket. or slow setting. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See primary cementing. common (or standard). cementing basket a collapsible or folding metal cone that fits against the walls of the wellbore to prevent the passage of cement. and a variety of lost-circulation materials (such as mica flakes). weighting materials (such as barium sulfate).mzhelu@gmail. Z.) 895. cementing materials a slurry of Portland cement and water and sometimes one or more additives. lightweight additives (such as bentonite). cementing pump a high-pressure pump used to force cement down the casing and into the annular space between the casing and the wall of the borehole. cementing head an accessory attached to the top of the casing to facilitate cementing of the casing. 897.com . 899. It has passages for cement slurry and retainer chambers for cementing wiper plugs. Additives include accelerators (such as calcium chloride). cementing barge a barge containing the cementing pumps and other equipment needed for oilwell cementing in water operations. 896. secondary Cementing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 894. cementing the application of a liquid slurry of cement and water to various points inside or outside the casing. retarders (such as gypsum). 898. They affect either the density of the mixture or its setting time. and squeeze cementing. 108 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Degrees centigrade are converted to degrees Fahrenheit by the following equation 'F = 9/5 ('C) + 32. the center of mass. Z.com . center of pressure the point on which all wind-pressure forces are concentrated. centigrade (Celsius) scale the metric system of temperature measurement used universally by scientists. 902. 907. 109 Petroleum Engineer: M. centipoise (cp) one-hundredth of a poise. centerline the middle line of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig from stem to stern as shown in a waterline view. cementing time the total elapsed time needed to complete a cementing operation. 9 905. In the centigrade scale. center of gravity the point at which an object can be supported so that it balances and on which all gravitational forces on the body and the weight of the body are concentrated. 906. center of flotation the geometric center of the water plane at which a mobile offshore drilling rig floats and about which a rig rotates when acted upon by an external force without a change in displacement. 903. center of buoyancy the center of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating body (such as a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig).mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 900. O' represents the freezing point of water and 100' its boiling point at 760-mm barometric pressure. 901.

) 911. or turbines. thus eliminating the need for individual treating facilities at each lease site. A central power may pump from 10 to 25 wells on a lease. By keeping the pipe centered. Gas passing through the compressor contacts a rotating impeller. cage-like devices fitted to a wells casing as it is run to keep the pipe centered in the borehole. where its velocity is slowed and its kinetic energy changed to static pressure. Cementing centralizers are made with two bands that fit the pipe tightly with spring steel ribs that arch out to press against the wall of the borehole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 910. Centrifugal 110 Petroleum Engineer: M. often used to transmit gas through a pipeline. a more uniform cementing job is assured. centralizer (See casing centralizer. CENTRAL POWER A well-pumping installation consisting of an engine powering a large diameter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 908. central oil-treating station a processing network used to treat emulsion produced from several leases. 912. horizontal band wheel with shackle-rod lines attached to its circumference. The band wheel is an excentric and as it revolves on a vertical axle a reciprocating motion is imparted to the shackle rods. Z. usually by a series of blades. 909. CENTRALIZERS. CEMENTING Cyclindrical. centrifugal compressor a compressor in which the flow of gas to be compressed is moved away from the center rapidly.com . It is a continuous-flow compressor with a low pressure ratio. from which it is discharged into a diffuser. Centralizers are especially useful in deep or deviated holes.

which breaks out the BS&W. because of their high speed. 918. 914. 915. centrifuge test a test to determine the amount of BS&W in samples of oil or emulsion. Centrifugal pumps. A centrifuge is capable of spinning substances at high speeds to obtain high centrifugal forces. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A pump made with blades or impellers in a close-fitting case. The samples are placed in tubes and spun in a centrifuge. The liquid is pushed forward by the impellers as they rotate at high speed. A decanting centrifuge located between the rig and mud pits removes the fine particles of rock from the mud by centrifugal action and discharges the clean mud to the working pits. Certificate of Fitness A certificate issued by a certifying authority stating that a design.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. often arranged in series on a line to achieve multistage compression. DECANTING A large centrifuge machine for separating or removing pulverized rock and fines from drilling mud returning from downhole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compressors are nonpositive-displacement machines. also called the shake-out or grind-out machine. centrifuge a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances of varying densities. CENTRIFUGE. plan or facility complies with the relevant regulations or requirements. is fit for 111 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 913. 9 917. are able to handle large volumes of liquid.mzhelu@gmail.

The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. 922.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. the more easily the fuel is ignited. CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. or depletion of oil or gas. 920.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering purpose. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. governmental orders. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. 112 Petroleum Engineer: M. 921. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. CESSATION OF PRODUCTION The termination of production from a well. premium is 45-50. the more easily the fuel is ignited. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. but a permanent shutdown terminates the ordinary oil and gas lease. premium is 45-50. the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture. It may be owing to mechanical breakdown.mzhelu@gmail. Z. The higher the cetane number. Certifying Authorities Organizations designated under the Nova Scotia Offshore Certificate of Fitness Regulations to conduct examinations of designs.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. The higher the cetane number. 919. Cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil. reworking operations. cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Temporary cessation usually does not affect the lease. and can be operated safely and without posing a threat to the environment. plans and facilities and to issue Certificates of Fitness. CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel.com . the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture.

used for turning pipe or fittings of a diameter larger than that which a pipe wrench would fit. in which each link is made of side bars. 929. used in drilling reports. 924. and rollers on the pins. CFM Cubic feet per minute.mzhelu@gmail. which is then turned by means of the handle. change house a doghouse in which a drilling rig crew changes clothes. a heavy line constructed of iron bars looped together and used for a mooring line. CHAIN WHEELS Some gate valves are operated from a distance either for safety or convenience. 928. chain drive a drive system using a chain and chain gears to transmit power. Z. chain tongs a tool. 927.com . and so forth. chain in offshore drilling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 923. A double roller chain is made of two connected rows of links. transverse pins. 926. a triple roller chain of three. Such valves have a gate wheel made to accept a chain in the wheel's outer circumference. consisting of a handle and a releasable chain. 113 Petroleum Engineer: M. The chain is reeved or passed over a drum or windlass which the operator turns to open or close the valve from a distance. CFG cubic feet of gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The chain is tightened around the pipe or fitting. 925. Power transmissions use a roller chain.

causing lost circulation. the pressure surge may break down a formation. CHARCOALTEST A test to determine the gasoline content of natural gas. the bypassing of oil in a water-drive field due to erratic or uncontrolled water encroachment. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. channeling 1.com . 931. When the size of a drill pipe is changed. 932. A surge of pressure in the mud in the drilling stem and annular space results. or damage the bit if it is near the bottom. 114 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. chase pipe to rapidly lower the drill stem a few feet into the hole and then suddenly stop it with the drawworks brake. 935. 936. cement channeling. 934. which encourage premature water encroachment. However. When the size of a drill pipe is changed. Z. the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. The natural tendency toward channeling is aggravated by excessive production rates. the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. chase threads to clean and deburr the threads of a pipe so that it will make up properly.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 930. and may help to flush out debris accumulated in or on the pipe. CHARGING STOCK Oil that is to be "charged" or treated in a particular refinery unit. 933. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size.

939. usually for large-diameter pipelines. striking against the seat sharply many times a second. Leases then may be taken on one-quarter section (160 acres) in each section of land. 940. CHECK VALVE A valve with a free-swinging tongue or clapper that permits fluid in a pipeline to flow in one direction only. In the case of a spring-loaded relief valve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . 941. 9 943. TILTING DISC A type of check valve.v.) strikes the bearing surface repetitively and rapidly. CHECK VALVE. CHEATER A length of pipe used to increase the leverage of a wrench. 115 Petroleum Engineer: M. the journal (q. check valve a valve that permits flow in one direction only. CHECKER B0ARD LEASING The acquisition of mineral rights (oil and gas) in a checkerboard pattern. chatter is caused by the valve disk opening and closing rapidly and repetitively. structively. back-pressure valve. with the disc mounted on trunnions instead of a hinge as in more conventional check valves.mzhelu@gmail. the absence of "slam" as in other types of check valves. Z. Chatter in a bearing is caused by an improperly fitted bearing or from excessive wear that permits lateral motion. anything used to lengthen a handle to increase the applied leverage. CHATTER A noisy indication that a mechanical part is behaving erratically and de. One advantage of the tilting disc is its quiet operation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 938. A company may be forced to lease land over a wide area before it has completed geological and geophysical studies. As the shaft rotates at high speed.

com . 945. CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMP A small-volume. Chemelectric treater a brand name for an electrostatic' treater. and can be drawn off. The resulting cut is very smooth. chemical pump an injection pump used to introduce a chemical into a fluid stream or receptacle. When the droplets of water are freed of their film of oil. The pump may be located at the wellhead and be actuated by the motion of the pumping jack. 948. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a still to heat crude oil for distilling the products in those days-kerosene. 949. square. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 947. chemical cutoff a method of severing steel pipe in a well by applying high-pressure jets of very corrosive substance against the wall of the pipe. CHEMICAL FEEDER PUMP A small-volume pump used on oil leases to inject chemicals into flow lines. Some chemical treatments are acidizing. 946. 950. gas oil. Chemicals are injected into oil streams to reduce any emulsified oil to free oil and water. the water will drop out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 944. settle out of the oil stream. box-like refining vessel. CHEESE BOX An early-day. high-pressure pump for injecting chemicals into producing wells or pipelines. The chemical is used to break down water/oil emulsions that may be contained in the crude oil stream. and lubricating oil. chemical treatment any of many processes in the oil industry that involve the use of a chemical to effect an operation. crude-oil 116 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Chert is very hard and difficult to drill. drillingfluid control.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering demulsification. Rocks with low chlorine content are likely to contain gas or oil. 954. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer. scale removal. chert a quartzitic rock with hardness equal to or harder than flint. chlorine survey a special type of radioactivity-logging survey used inside casing to measure the relative amount of chlorine in the formation outside the casing. 117 Petroleum Engineer: M. water-flood injection.mzhelu@gmail. 951. 955. CHILLERS Refinery apparatus in which the temperature of paraffin distillates is lowered preparatory to filtering out the solid wax. 952. footage rates are no longer applicable and daywork rates become effective. cleaning and purging operations. refinery and plant processes. paraffin removal. when chart is encountered in drilling a well.com . 953. Z. Chlorite A commonly occurring clay mineral. corrosion inhibition. chert clause a provision in a drilling contract that stipulates that. 956. used in drilling reports. 957. and water purification. chk choke. rocks with high chlorine indications usually contain salt water only.

The Christmas tree also contains valves for testing the well and for shutting it In if necessary. or bean.com . with a small-diameter bore that serves to restrict the flow.mzhelu@gmail. bottomhole choke. 118 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Surface chokes are part of the Christmas tree and contain a choke nipple. 961. choke manifold the arrangement of piping and chokes through which drilling mud is circulated when the blowout preventers are closed to control the pressures encountered during a kick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 958. Christmas tree -the control valves. Chokes are also used to control the rate of flow of the drilling mud out of the hole when the well is closed in with the blowout preventer and a kick is being circulated out of the hole. (See adjustable choke. pressure gauges. a chunk. 959.) 960. and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and completed. CHOCK A wedge or block to prevent a vehicle or other movable object from shifting position. used to direct well fluids from the annulus to the choke manifold. 962. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. choke an orifice installed in a line to restrict the flow and control the rate of production. and positive choke. CHRISTMAS TREE An assembly of valves mounted on the casinghead through which a well is produced. choke line an extension of pipe from the blowout-preventer assembly.

964.com . The tree is then latched mechanically or hydraulically to the casing-head by remote control. 966. CHURN DRILLING Another name for cable tool drilling because of the up and down. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CIRCLE JACK (CABLE-TOOL RIG)A device used on the floor of a cable-tool rig to make up and break out (tighten and loosen) joints of drilling tools. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer. 965.mzhelu@gmail. churning motion of the drill bit. Z. 967. circular track placed around the pipe joint protruding from the borehole. above the floor. The jack 119 Petroleum Engineer: M. a jacking device operated on a toothed or notched metal. used to describe the size (and by implication. The marine tree is installed from the drilling platform it Is lowered into position on guide cables anchored to foundation legs implanted in the ocean floor. the power) of an automobile engine. used in drilling reports 968. circ circulated. the volume "swept out" or evacuated by the pistons of an engine in one working stroke. casing or tubing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 963. CID Cubic inch displacement. CHRISTMAS TREE (MARINE) A subsea production system similar to a conventional land tree except it is assembled complete for remote installation on the sea floor with or without diver assistance.

972. 974. 120 Petroleum Engineer: M. If circulation is "lost. CIRCULATION The round trip made by drilling mud. 9 970. circulating pressure the pressure generated by the mud pumps and exerted on the drill stem. between the pipe and the walls of the borehole." the flow out of the well is less than the flow into the well. When closer inspection of the formation rock just encountered is desired. 971. notch by notch. In some cases. CIRCULATE To pump drilling fluid into the borehole through the drill-pipe and back up the annulus between the pipe and the wall of the hole to cease drilling but to maintain circulation for any reason. drilling is halted as circulation is continued to "bring bottoms up" (q. Z. down through the drill-pipe and up on the outside of the drillpipe.v.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is operated manually with a handle. See Lose Returns. the mud may be escaping into some porous formation or a cavity downhole. and is connected to a wrench which tightens the pipe joint as the jack is advanced.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. C ITY GATE The measuring point at which a gas distributing utility receives gas from a gas transmission company. circulating head an accessory attached to the top of the drill pipe or tubing to form a connection with the mud system to permit circulation of the drilling mud.com . Drilling fluid circulates from the suction pit through the drill pipe to the bottom of the well and returns through the annulus. 973. it is also a rotating head. circulate -to pass from one point throughout a system and back to the starting point.

CLAMPS.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 975. A wireline clamp holds the end of a wire rope against the main rope. and fittings is les. the cheekvalve clapper works on a hinge attached to the body of the valve.3 costly than making them of expensive. CLAMSHELL BUCKET A hinged. or saddle clamp. In the oil patch cladding or "trimming" steel pipe and valves with corrosion-resistant metal alloy is necessary when H2S (hydrogen sulfide) and other corrosive gases must be handled. Cladding of pipe. Z. When at rest the clapper is a few degrees off the vertical or. 976. holds a piece of metal with the same curvature as the pipe over a hole in a line. 980. a leakrepair clamp. while a polished-rod clamp attaches the top of the polished rod to the bridle of a pumping unit. CLAPPER The internal moving part.com . effecting a temporary seal. A drag-line bucket. See Sour Service Trim. CLAMPS. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PIPELINE LINE-UP See Line-up Clamps. 978. Like a trap door. anticorrosion alloys. valves. completely horizontal. 979. RIVER See River Clamps. the "tongue" of a check valve that permits a liquid or gas to I low in one direction only in a pipeline. For example. clamp a mechanical device used to hold an object in place. 977. CLADDING Coating of one material with another. jaw-like digging implement suspended at the end of a cable running down from the boom of an excavating machine. as in certain valves. to cover one metal with another by bonding the two. 121 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.

CLAUS PROCESS A process for the conversion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to plain sulfur developed in 1885 by the German chemist Claus.v. 982. LEAN OIL Crude oil containing less than one percent sediment and water (BS&W) pipeline oil oil clean enough to be accepted by a pipeline for transmission. kerosene. clay. 983. CLEAN CARGO Refined products-distillates. circulating to clean the hole or by a broken or parted drill-string. 988. a substance which tends to adsorb the coloring materials present in oil which passes through it.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 981. resulting primarily from the decomposition of feldspathic rocks. 122 Petroleum Engineer: M. CLAY PERCOLATER Refinery filtering equipment employing a type of clay to remove impurities or to change the color of lubricating oils. Sandstone is a clastic rock.). clastic rocks pl sedimentary rocks composed of fragments of preexisting rocks. used in refining. and tank cars all refined products except bunker fuels and residuals (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. CLAY The filtering medium. crystalline material of hydrous silicates. 987. 9 986. 984.mzhelu@gmail. especially Fuller's earth. CLEAN CIRCULATION The circulation of drilling mud free of rock cuttings from the bottom of the borehole.com .a fine. This condition may be caused by a worn bit. jet fuel-carried by tankers. barges. gasoline.

CLEVIS A U-shaped metal link or shackle with the ends of the U drilled to hold a pin or bolt. 995. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 989.com .mzhelu@gmail. 993. 994. CLEAN-OUT BOX A square or rectangular opening on the side of a tank or other vessel through which the sediment that has accumulated can be removed. 992. clearance volume the amount of space between the traveling and standing valves in a suckerrod pump when the pump is at the bottom of its stroke. cleanout tools pi the tools or instruments such as bailers and swabs used to clean out an oil well. clear to remove brush. CLEAN-UP TRIP Running the drillpipe into the hole for circulation of mud only. 996. to clean the borehole of cuttings. trees. clean out to remove sand. cleanout door an opening made to permit removal of sediments from the bottom of a tank. Z. rocks. and other deposits from the producing section of the well to restore or increase production. 123 Petroleum Engineer: M. 990. scale. used as a connecting link for a chain or cable. Usually a plate near ground level is removed from the side of the tank to make the door. and other obstructions from an area. The opening is closed with a sheet of metal (a door) bolted in place. 991.

to close the blowout preventers on a well to control a kick. close in 1. 1003.) a water-handling system that air is not allowed to enter to prevent corrosion or scale (such as a saltwater-disposal system).com . 124 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. Z. 2. close nipple closed circuit a very short piece of pipe threaded its entire length. a television installation in which the signal is transmitted by wire to a limited number of receivers. a life-support system in which the gas is recycled continually while the carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added periodically. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Clinton flake a finely shredded cellophane used as a lost-circulation material for cement. 999.). capable of producing. 1 1002. CLOSEDIN closing ratio Refers to a well. that is shut in (q. to temporarily shut in a well that is capable of producing oil or gas. 1000.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 998. 1005.mzhelu@gmail. the ratio between the pressure in the hole and the operating-piston pressure needed to close the rams of a blowout preventer. 1007. 1004. closed-in pressure closed system (See formation pressure. 1006. clingage the amount of oil that adheres to the wall of a measuring or prover tank after draining. 1. 2.

closure the vertical distance between the top of an anticline. clutch a device that allows power to be engaged to and disengaged from a member being driven by a prime mover. and the bottom. The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. cubic centimeter carboxymethyl cellulose. imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil as it is chilled under prescribed conditions. Z. centimeter. an indication of the amount of producing formation that may be expected. 1010. 1016. to engage or disengage a clutch. 1009.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1008.com . or dome. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CLOUD POINT The temperature at which paraffin wax begins to crystallize or separate from the solution. A secondary recovery technique in which carbon dioxide is injected into service wells in a field as part of a miscible recovery program. square centimeter. 1011. C02 is used in conjunction with water-flooding. 1013. 1015.mzhelu@gmail. 125 Petroleum Engineer: M. cm cm2 Cm3 CMC CNSOPB CO2 INJECTION 1012. 1014.

illuminating and heating o'J'6btdined from the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. 1022. 'th a tar-like substance and then spiral-wrapped with chemically impregnated paper.) A process for producing "natural gas" from coal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1017. In other till-bed tiers. COAL OIL Kerosene made from distilling crude oil in early-day pot stills. 1019. coagulation COAL GASIFICATION (See flocculation. the coal is burned in situ and the resulting gases are collected and piped away 91 1021. Coating and wrapping protects the pipeline from corrosion. on average. 1020. COAL-SEAM GAS Methane found in certain coal fields in higher concentrations than is common.mzhelu@gmail. COATING & WRAPPING.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. more than twice the thermal value. natural gas. Hydrogen atoms in the vapor combine with coal's carbon atoms to produce a hydrocarbon product similar natural gas. Machines that ride the pipe coat and wrap in one continuous operation. holes are drilled along the seams to permit the methane to escape and be brought to the surface. has 1. For 126 Petroleum Engineer: M. Coal gas has a BTU content of 450 per cubic foot. In some coal operations in areas where the beds are tilted up 30 to 45' from horizontal. Coal is heated and brought in contact with steam. A field operation in preparing a pipeline to be put in the ditch Covered in). Z.030 BTU per cubic foot. 1018. An artificial gas produced by pyrolysis (heating in the absence of air) of coal. COALGAS Also referred to as town gas.

Any cracked lighter products rise to the top of the drum and are drawn off. a tube bundle is used instead of a coil.e. the force that holds the molecules of a substance together). The remaining heavier product remains and. a solid coal-like substance . COKE.mzhelu@gmail. cohesion the attractive force between the same kinds of molecules (i. NEEDLE A form of petroleum coke that gets its name from its microscopic elongated crystalline structure-Needle coke is of a higher quality than the more ordinary sponge coke (q. 1023. cylindrical vessels which receive their charge of residue at very high temperature (10002F. coil an accessory of tubing or pipe for installation in condensers or heat exchangers. In more complex installations. COGENERATION PLANT A coal or gas-fired plant generates both process (commercial) steam and electricity for in-plant use or for sale. Z. COKE DRUMS Large vertical. 1024. 1025. COIL CAR (OR TRUCK) A tank car or transport truck equipped with heating coils in order to handle viscous liquids that will not flow at ordinary temperatures 1 1028. The manufacture of needle coke requires special feeds to 127 Petroleum Engineer: M. because it is still very hot.v.com . cracks or is converted to petroleum coke. 1029.). 1026. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.).. the drums are in batteries of tour to eight drums.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering large pipeline construction jobs the pipe may be coated and wrapped the mill or in yards set up at central points along the right of way. In a large refinery that makes a lot of coke.

1033. COKE. for use in blast furnaces and foundry work. 1031. (2) The undesirable building up of carbon deposits on refinery vessels. black substance remaining after oils and tars have been driven off by distillation. Pinching the pipe end is done to make a quick. COLLAR A coupling for two lengths of pipe. The clamp is effective in stopping small leaks but is used only as a temporary measure until permanent repairs can be made. The weak physical structure of sponge coke makes it until. Severe conditions in refining parlance usually means higher temperatures and pressures in a process 1030. COLLAR CLAMP A device fitted with rubber gaskets bolted around a leaking pipe collar. COKE. COKING (1) The process of distilling a petroleum.com . 1034. the hard. temporary closure in the event a loaded pipeline is accidentally ruptured. hence the name. With the carbon or coke is formed and settles to the bottom of the still.mzhelu@gmail. a pipe fitting with threads on the inside for joining two pieces of threaded pipe of the same size. COLD PINCH To flatten the end of a pipe with a hydraulically powered set of pinchers. 1032. product to dry residue. See Needle Coke. 1035. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the coker and more severe operating conditions. 128 Petroleum Engineer: M. PETROLEUM Solid or fixed-carbon that remains in refining processes after distillation of all volatile hydrocarbons. SPONGE Petroleum coke that looks like a sponge. Sponge coke is used for electrodes and anodes. Z.

colloidal pertaining to a colloid. 1037.) to the blowout preventer stack. 1041.mzhelu@gmail. collision bulkhead the foremost bulkhead that extends from the bottom to the freeboard deck of a drill ship. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1039. Z. involving particles so minute they are not visible through optical microscopes. Bentonite is an example of a colloidal clay. collar locator a logging device for depth-correlation purposes. with several watertight columns extending to an upper deck on which the drilling machinery is located. Such a rig can drill with the lower hull 129 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1042. 1038. COLLAR POUNDER OR PECKER A pipeline worker who beats time with a hammer on the coupling into which a joint of pipe is being screwed by a tong gang. operated mechanically or magnetically to produce a log showing the location of each casing collar or coupling in a well. It provides an accurate way to measure depth in a well.com . a mechanically or hydraulically operated latching collar connecting the marine riser (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1036. column-stabilized. colloid a liquid mixture or suspension in which the particles of suspended liquid or solid are very fine but not molecular in size. semisubmersible drilling rig a semisubmersible drilling rig that has a large lower hull. boxlike or tubular in shape.v. The purpose is twofold. 1040. It keeps the main hull watertight if a collision occurs. COLLET CONNECTOR A component of a subsea drilling system. to keep the tong men pulling in unison and to warm up the collar so that a tighter screw joint can be made.

combination trap a subsurface hydrocarbon trap that has the features of both a structural trap and a stratigraphic trap.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering resting on bottom or submerged below the water and floating. combination string a casing string that has joints of various collapse resistance. average qualities are usually sufficient. Z. and tensile strength. The hooks are alternately moved forward on the chain being tightened. provided by a gas cap above and the water below the oil in the reservoir. combination rig a light rig that has the essential elements of both rotary and cabletool drilling. and water drive. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. 1043. It is sometimes used for reconditioning wells. whereas high collapse resistance and internal yield strength are needed for the bottom joints. combination drive the natural energy that forces fluids from a reservoir and into a wellbore. gas-cap drive.com . Usually the distance between the lower hull and upper deck is Fixed. internal yield strength. 1045. designed for various depths in a specific well to best withstand the conditions of that well. 1047. In deep wells. high tensile strength is required in the top casing joints to carry the load. In the middle of the casing.) 1044. 1046.mzhelu@gmail. used for tightening or pulling a chain. 130 Petroleum Engineer: M. The most suitable combination of types and weights of pipe helps to insure efficient production at a minimum cost. COME-ALOI A lever and lengths of chain with hooks attached to the ends of the chains.

1055. change from a core barrel to the bit. 1050. come to see you commercial production (slang) to blow out. production. A well will "come to see you" if it blows out. Z. 1049.com . come-along come in come out of the hole a manually operated device used to tighten guy wires or move heavy loads. A well of sufficient net production that it could be expected to pay out in a reasonable time and yield a profit for the operator. day well in a readily accessible location on shore could be a commercial well whereas such a well in the North Sea or in the Arctic Islands would not be considered commercial. oil and gas production of sufficient quantity to justify keeping a well in 1054. commercial quantity COMMERCIAL WELL an amount of oil and gas large enough to justify the expense of producing it. run electric logs. 50-barrel-a. This withdrawal is necessary to change the bit. 1051. prepare for a drill-stem test. run casing. 131 Petroleum Engineer: M. to kick. A shallow. and so on. 1 1057. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to produce. 1 1053.mzhelu@gmail. to pull the drill stem out of the wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1048. to become profitable. Commingled Production Production of petroleum from more than one pool through a common wellbore or flowline without separate measurement of the petroleum.

each through its own tubing and into separate tank age on the lease. and feed lines run from it to each fuel injector. COMMUNITY LEASE A single lease covering two or more separately owned parcels of land. holds fuel at a certain pressure. COMMON CARRIER A person or company having state or Federal authority to perform public transportation for hire. usually for convenient transportation in a pipeline. (2) Producing two pay zones in the same wellbore.com . Very often the two or more pay zones have different royalty interests. In some instances products of like specifications are commingled in a product pipeline for efficient and convenient handling. In effect the single well with two pay zones is treated as two separate wells. commingling the mixing together of crude oil products with similar properties. COMMINGLING (1)The intentional mixing of petroleum products having similar specifications. A community lease may result from the execution of a single lease by the 132 Petroleum Engineer: M. When this is true the zones. common rail a fuel-injection system on a diesel engine in which one line. produced separately.mzhelu@gmail. gas. an Organization engaged in the movement of petroleum products-oil. refined products-as a public utility and common carrier. See Dual Completion. Nearly all pipelines are common carriers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1058. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. common cement a regular Portland cement classified either as API Class A or ASTM Type 1 1 1063. Z. or rail. cement. 1061. 1 1060. common carrier any cargo transportation system available for public use. 1064.

Usually the result of the execution of community lease is the apportionment of royalties in proportion to the. interests owned in the entre leased acreage. The two halves are held together by nuts and bolts.mzhelu@gmail. After reaching total depth (TD) casing is run and cemented casing is perforated opposite the producing zone. used in drilling reports. Z. depth.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering owners of separate tracts or by the execution of separate but identical leases by the owners of separate tracts when each lease purports the entire consolidated acreage. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Well completions vary according to the kind of well. and contact and flow valves are installed at the wellhead.com . compartment COMPLETE A WELL a subdivision of space on a floating offshore drilling rig. This type flange or "union" is used on small-diameter piping. 1070. To finish a well so that it is ready to produce oil or gas. commutator a ring consisting of a number of insulated-copper segments located on the rotating shaft of a generator or motor and used to reverse the direction of an electric current. comp COMPANION FLANGE completed or completion. usually a drilling engineer employed by the oil company engaged in the drilling. and the 133 Petroleum Engineer: M. A two-part connector or coupling one part convex. company man an employee of the operator of a well. tubing is run. 1065. 1 1072. 1067. 1066. 1 1069. the other concave.

a special drilling mud used when a well is being completed. Completion completion fluid The activities necessary to prepare a well for the production of oil or gas. It is selected not only for its ability to control formation pressure. to connect two or more power-producing devices such as engines to run one piece of driven equipment such as the drawworks. COMPRESSION CUP A grease cup a container for grease made either with a screw cap or springloaded cap for forcing the grease onto a shaft bearing. both driven and driving. and other machinery on a drilling rig. composite sample a sample of a substance that is a mixture or solution of several other substances. but also for its properties that minimize formation damage. 1078. Z.mzhelu@gmail. belts and pulleys. complete a well to finish work on a well and put it on productive status. and a number of shafts. 1077.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formation from which it is to produce. a composite sample is taken at the top and bottom and in the middle. 1075. It is composed of clutches. In a crude oil storage tank.) 1073. 1074. composite stream a flow of oil and gas in one stream. two or more different liquid hydrocarbons in one stream. 1076. drawworks. compound the mechanism used to transmit power from the engines to the pump. 134 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chains and sprockets. (See well completion.

usually expressed in pounds of force per square inch (psi) of surface affected. High compression engines are generally more efficient in fuel utilization than those with lower compression ratios. See Hot-plug Engine.) a four-cycle engine whose fuel charge is ignited by the heat of compression as the engine's piston comes up on the compression stroke. if a cylinder volume of 1 0 in.v. 1083. 1081. About a I-Ib rise in pressure causes a 2 F increase in temperature. 1082.'. COMPRESSION RATIO The ratio of the volume of an engine's cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke to the volume at the end or the top of the stroke. compression ignition (Cl) an ignition method used in diesel engines by which the air in the cylinder is compressed to such a degree by the piston that ignition occurs upon the injection of fuel. compressor a device that raises the pressure of a compressible fluid such as air or gas.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1079.' is compressed into 1 in. the compression ratio is 101. A cylinder of 10 cubic inch volume at the beginning of the compression stroke and one cubic inch at the top of the stroke indicates a 101 compression ratio. Z. Compressors create a pressure differential to move or compress a vapor or a 135 Petroleum Engineer: M. compressive strength the degree of resistance of a material to a force acting along one of its axes in a manner tending to collapse it.mzhelu@gmail. compression ratio the ratio of the volume of an engine cylinder before compression to its post-compression volume. For example. 1080. COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE A diesel engine (q.

he charge axially over the compressor's long axis to the discharge port. Z.) or to inject gas into a high-pressure gas trunk line. COMPRESSOR PLANT A pipeline installation to pump natural gas under pressure from one location to another through a pipeline.6. 1089. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. They may be positive-displacement compressors-having a check valve to separate high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction-or nonpositive-displacement. On large interstate gas transmission lines repressuring stations are located every 100 miles.v. The gas stream arrives at a compressor station at a few hundred pounds per square inch and is discharged from the station's multistage compressors at 1. COMPRESSOR.000 rpm. (See centrifugal compressor and reciprocating compressor. The impeller and its paddle-like blades rotate at speeds of 3.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gas. Large compressors move up to 300. This is accomplished by the action of a central impeller shaft studded with hundreds of short.500 pounds pressure to begin the next leg of its journey to the consumers' gas stoves and furnaces. SKID-MOUNTED A "portable" gas compressor and engine module for use in repressuring (q. depending on terrain and other factors. AXIAL A gas compressor that takes in gas at the inlet and moves '. computer a machine capable of processing information or providing data by automatically following preprogrammed directions 136 Petroleum Engineer: M.000 cubic feet per minute. 1086. more or less. COMPRESSOR. to boost the gas along to its destination. consuming power in the process. fixed blades.com . 11088.000 to 1.) 1 1085.

1095. gauges. at fair market value. alarms. 1093. for public use and benefit by state or federal government.mzhelu@gmail. CONDENSATE WATER Water vapor in solution with natural gas in the formation. liquid hydrocarbons condensed from gas and oil wells. LEASE See Lease Condensate.v. a tract of land granted by a government to an individual or company for exploration and exploitation to recover minerals. valves. Tcomputer program T concession a set of data fed into a computer to be evaluated or to solve a problem. Also.). computer control a system in which the end devices in the field (switches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1090. Condensate The liquid resulting when a vapour is subjected to cooling or application of pressure. 1096. 1097. Z. 1094.) are controlled by a program placed in a computer.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. condensate reservoir a reservoir in ' which both condensate and gas exist in one homogeneous phase. 1091. When fluid is drawn from such a reservoir and the pressure decreases below the critical level. 137 Petroleum Engineer: M. CONDENSATE. CONDEMNATION The taking of land by purchase. a liquid phase (condensate) appears. etc. as well as by certain other agencies and utility companies having power of eminent domain (q. 1092. When the gas is produced the water vapor condenses into liquid as both pressure and temperature are reduced. See Retrograde Gas Condensate.

1099. 1104. 1100. Z. RETROGRADE GAS condensation See Retrograde Gas Condensate. 2. 138 Petroleum Engineer: M. CONDENSER condition A water-cooled heat exchanger used for cooling and liquefying vapors. CONDUCTOR CASING A well's surface pipe used to seal off near-surface water. Sometimes the term applies to water used in boilers. 1101. prevent the caving or sloughing of the walls of the hole. chiefly accomplished by cooling the vapors. an electricallogging measurement obtained from an induction survey. See Casing. the ability to transmit or convey (as heat or electricity). clays.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1098. To condition and circulate mud is to ensure that additives are distributed evenly throughout a system by circulating the mud while it is being conditioned. and as a conductor of the drilling mud through loose. in which eddy currents produced by an alternating magnetic field induce in a receiver coil a voltage proportionate to the ability of the formation to conduct electricity. drilling operations. Compare retrograde condensation. 1102. and shales. the process by which vapors are converted into liquids. conductivity 1. to treat drilling mud with additives to give it certain properties. and so on. unconsolidated shallow layers of sand. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. conductor pipe a short string of large-diameter casing used offshore and in marshy locations to keep the top of the wellbore open and to provide a means of conveying the upflowing drilling fluid from the wellbore to the mud pit. 1103. CONDENSATE.com .mzhelu@gmail.

inverted cone.) 1106. A type of sedimentary rock compounded of pebbles and rock fragments of various sizes held together by a cementing material. Compare unconformity 1111. an old-style roof for large crude storage tanks. 139 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1109.. See Step-out Well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. CONFIRMATION WELL A well drilled to "prove" the formation or producing zone encountered by an exploratory or wildcat well. A type of tank roof built in the form of a flat. congl CONGLOMERATE conglomerate. but still employed on banks storing less volatile products. 1108. 1110. indicating no disturbance occurred during deposition of the rock. 1107. See Floating Roof. Z. the same type.) a tank with a fixed conical roof. (See big.mzhelu@gmail.com . cone bit cone-roof tank CONEROOF a roller bit in which the cutters are conical. Conglomerates are a common form of reservoir rock.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1105.material that holds sandstone together. 1112. cone a conical device on which cutting teeth are formed or mounted in a rollercone bat (See big. conformable layered in parallel and unbroken rows of rock.

1116. CONICAL-TOWER PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform made of reinforced concrete for use in Arctic waters where pack ice prevents the use of conventional platform construction. or interstices. 1119. coning the encroachment of reservoir water into the oil column and well because of uncontrolled production. a place in electrical circuits where wires join together. 1118.). CONNECTION FOREMAIM CONNECTION GANG The supervisor. 1114. a forged-metal shaft that joins the piston of an engine to the crankshaft. Compare interstitial water. Z. A pipeline crew that lays field gathering lines. 1117. 3 or 4 pipeliners.mzhelu@gmail. and a connection foreman. connects stock tanks to gathering lines. A typical gang of 8 or 10 men has a welder and a helper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1113. 2. connection 1.v.com . a gang-truck driver and swamper (helper). 1115. The structure is a truncated cone supporting a platform from which the wells are drilled. Connection gangs also install manifolds and do pipe work in and around pumping stations. a section of pipe or fitting used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to a vessel. connate water the original water retained in the pore space. 140 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. connecting rod 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the boss of a pipeline connection gang (q. of a formation from the time the formation was created. and repairs pipelines and field pumping units in their district. the metal shaft that is joined to the bull gear and crosshead of a mud pump.

CONSUMER GAS Gas sold by an interstate gas pipeline company to a utility company for resale to consumers. that becomes mixed with cement slurry during displacement and affects it adversely. 1124. 1122. Many conservation practices. conservation preservation. consistency the cohesion of the individual particles of a given material. 1123. to explore. contactor a vessel or piece of equipment in which two or more substances are brought 1126. are used in the industry. console CONSORTIUM (See driller's console. 1125.continental shelf a zone adjacent to a continent that extends from the 141 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 1121. a zone continental margin that separates emergent continents from the deep sea bottom.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1120.g. contaminant a material.. i. e. drill. usually a mud component.com . It is especially important in the petroleum industry.) An international business association organized to pursue a common objective.e. economy. such as the trapping of condensable vapors. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. avoidance of waste.. its ability to deform or its resistance to flow. since oil and gas are irreplaceable. 1127.mzhelu@gmail. and produce oil. together.

1133. (See gas lift. A drilling contract covers such factors as the cost of drilling the well (whether by foot or by day).listing the terms under which services are to be performed.mzhelu@gmail.v. oil is the continuous phase. and type of equipment to be used. contract an agreement. Z. CONTOUR LINE A line (as on a map) connecting points on a land surface that have the same elevation above or below sea level. the distribution of expenses between operator and contractor. sometimes called the external phase. 1129. often used by geologists to depict subsurface features. 1128. by geologists and geophysicists to depict subsurface conditions or formations. 1130. (See internal phase. usually written. See lsopachous Map.) 1131.com . contract depth 142 the depth of the wellbore at which the drilling contract is fulfilled. contour map a map that has lines marked to indicate points or areas that are the same elevation above or below sea level. CONTOUR MAP A map showing land surface elevations by the use of contour lines (q.) CONTINENTAL SHELF continuous-flow gas lift continuous phase See Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1134. In a water-in-oil emulsion. the liquid in which solids are suspended or droplets of another liquid are dispersed. Petroleum Engineer: M. 1132.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering low waterline to the point at which the seafloor slopes off steeply to 600 feet deep or more.).

com . ELECTRICALLY OPERATED (See hydraulic control pod. Z. flowing naturally or capable of being pumped without further processing or dilution.) A structure in which air contact is used to cool a stream of water that has been heated by circulating through a system. CONTROLPANEL An assembly of indicators and recording instruments-pressure gauges.mzhelu@gmail. control board a panel on which are grouped-various control devices such as switches and levers along with indicating instruments. control pod CONTROL VALVE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1135.) A small-diameter valve used in process piping that is opened or closed by a quick-acting solenoid. 1138. Conventional Crude Oil Petroleum found in liquid form. warning lamps. 1140. conventional completion a method for completing a well in which tubing is set inside 4 1/2-inch or larger casing. 1139. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1137. 1136. conventional gas-lift mandrel cooling tower (See gas-lift mandrel. 1141. 143 Petroleum Engineer: M. and other digital or audio signals-for monitoring and controlling a system or process. 1142. Compare miniaturized completion.or crosscurrently to the water. The air flows counter.

a log road. core analysis laboratory analysis of a core sample to determine porosity. which produces strong air currents through the center of the structure for more rapid cooling. 1149. permeability. p. 1147. open at the bottom and top. 47) 144 Petroleum Engineer: M. A passable road made through a swampy. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. boggy area by laying logs or heavy timbers side by side to make a bumpy but firm surf ace. Although most cooling towers are square or rectangular in shape. 1144. cordage CORDROAD all of the rope on a ship or offshore drilling rig. CORE BIT A special drill bit for cutting and removing a plug-shaped rock sample from the bottom of the well bore. 1145. angle of dip. and probable productivity of the formation. COOLING TOWER A large louvered structure (usually made of wood) over which water flows to cool and aerate it. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1143. (See illustration. core barrel a tubular device from 25 to 60 feet long run at the bottom of the drill pipe in place of a bit to cut a core sample. lithology. Core A cylindrical sample taken from a formation for geological analysis. some are cylindrical.com .mzhelu@gmail. geological age. Usually a conventional core barrel is substituted for the bit and procures a sample as it penetrates the formation. 1146. fluid content. 1148.

CORE SAMPLE A solid column of rock. radioactivity logs. the cutting element of the core-barrel assembly. a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1150. and fluid content of cores taken from 1155.com . Correlations are made by comparing electrical well logs. (See illustration. usually from two to four Inches in diameter. CORE RECORD A record showing the depth. Cores are also taken in geological studies of an area to determine its oil and gas prospects. correlate to relate subsurface information obtained from one well to that of others so that the formations may be charted and their depths and thicknesses noted. taken from the bottom of a well bore as a sample of an underground formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In design it corresponds to one of the three main types of bit. CORE BOAT core catcher core cutterhead A seagoing vessel for drilling core holes in offshore areas. character. 1153. Z. p. usually in the bottom of an existing wellbore. the part of the core barrel that holds the formation sample. 145 Petroleum Engineer: M. core drill to drill shallow. and cores from different wells. 47) 1156.mzhelu@gmail. See also sidewall coring. 1154. 1151. small-diameter wells to obtain geological information. 1152. A continuous sample of the formation is provided from the top to the final depth.

corrosion control the measures used to prevent or reduce the effects of corrosion. thus causing it to be a negative element in the circuit. CORRELATIVE RIGHTS.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1157. to cathodic protection. The rusting and pling of pipelines. The use of chemical inhibitors and closed systems are other examples of corrosion control. 1158. Z. 40 percent of 146 Petroleum Engineer: M. COST CRUDE OIL Crude oil produced from an operator's own wells oil produced at "cost" on a lease or concession acreage as compared to purchased crude. 1160. corrosion coupon a metal strip inserted into a system to monitor corrosion rate and to indicate corrosion-inhibitor effectiveness. to the recovery of the costs of drilling. that portion of oil produced which is applied to paying off the cost of the well. in another context. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In some production-sharing contracts particularly with governments foreign as well as our own. in which a galvanic or impressed direct electric current renders a pipeline cathodic.mzhelu@gmail.com . and equipping the production. and other metal structures is caused by a complex electrochemical action. on offshore wells. CORROSION The eating away of metal by chemical action or an electrochemical action. completing. DOCTRINE OF The inherent right of an owner of oil or gas in a field to his share of the reservoir energy" and his right to be protected from wasteful practices by others in the field. Also. to isolate it from moisture and chemicals and to insulate it from galvanic currents. 1161. 1159. steel tanks. These practices can range from simply painting material. See Anode.

in power transmission. 1164. On pumping units in oil production. abbr computerized production control. Z. the coupling pole is a telescoping length of steel tubing. a metal collar with internal threads used to join two sections of threaded pipe.) 1167. 1165.mzhelu@gmail. As the costs are paid off the percent of cost oil is reduced and the percentage of profit oil increases accordingly. To lengthen the frame of the vehicle. counterweights are used to offset the weight of the column or sucker rods and oil on the upstroke of the pum and the weight of the prods on the downstroke. (see computer control) 147 Petroleum Engineer: M. The trailer can be made as long as necessary for the load. according to royalty interests. a connection extending longitudinally between a driving shaft and a driven shaft. COUPLING POLE The connecting member between the front and rear axles of a wagon or fourwheel trailer. Most such couplings are flexible and compensate for minor misalignment of the two shafts. a pin in the pole can be removed and the rear-axle yoke (which is fastened to the pole by the pin) moved back to another hole. On pipe-carrying oil field trailers. 2. in piping. centipoise coupon cp CPC (See corrosion coupon. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the remaining 60 percent is "Profit oil" and is divided. coupling 1. 1166.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the oil produced is cost oil. 1163. 1162. counterbalance weight a weight applied to compensate for existing weight or force.

1173. and in certain advanced techniques. 1174. 1170. An arm attached at right angles to the end of a shaft or axle for transmitting power to or from a connecting rod or pitman (q. 1175. especially on offshore rigs and platforms. n.). Cracking is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. crankcase crankshaft the housing that encloses the crankshaft of an engine. and revolving heavy pieces of equipment. a rotating shaft to which connecting rods are attached. CRANE BARGE CRANK A derrick barge (q. CRACK A VALVE To open a valve so slightly as to permit a small amount of fluid or gas to 1169. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. heavier. 148 Petroleum Engineer: M. Cracking is accomplished by the application of heat and pressure.mzhelu@gmail.com . CRACKING The refining process of braking down the larger. escape. 1172.. by the use of a catalytic agent.v. a machine for raising.). 1171. lowering.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1168. And more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. CRACKING A VALVE crane Opening a valve very slightly.v. Z.

1178. a fluid cannot be distinguished as being either a gas or a liquid. used in drilling reports. the point at which. 1177. the point at which the physical properties of a liquid and a gas are identical. crg critical point coring. CRATER A bowl-shaped depression around a blowout well caused by the caving in and collapse of the surrounding earth structure. in terms of temperature and pressure. crd crew chief cored. Often. critical speed can cause damaging shock waves.mzhelu@gmail.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1176. (2) To tail or fall apart (colloquial). the driller or head well puller in charge on a well-servicing rig employed to pull sucker rods or tubing. 1182. the speed reached by an engine or rotating system that corresponds to a resonance frequency of the engine or system. Z. critical pressure critical speed the pressure needed to condense a vapor at its critical temperature. 1179. 149 Petroleum Engineer: M. in combination with power impulses. 1181. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. 1180.

cannot be liquefied. It usually occurs where there is a section of alternating hard and soft strata steeply inclined from the horizontal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. crossover joint a length of casing with one thread on the field end and a different thread in the coupling.mzhelu@gmail. a step-and-platform unit to provide access to a work platform or an elevated crossing. 150 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1183. 1185. 1184. regardless of the amount of pressure applied. Above this temperature the fluid is a gas and. CROSSOVER A stile. (See crooked hole. used to make a changeover from one thread to another in a string of casing. See Stile. 1188. 1187. crosshead the block in a mud pump that is guided to move in a straight line and serves as a connection between the pony rod and connecting rod. critical temperature the highest temperature at which a fluid can exist as a liquid or vapor.) 1186. crooked-hole country a geographical area in which the subsurface formations are so arranged that it is difficult to drill a hole straight through them. crooked hole a wellbore that has deviated from the vertical. 1189. cross thread to screw together two threaded pieces without the threads of the pieces having been aligned properly.

1196. 1195. asphalt. 1194.). when struck by the traveling block. crude oil unrefined liquid petroleum. 1191. It ranges in gravity from 9' to 55' API and in color from yellow to black. In 151 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. Z. the sheaves and supporting members to which the lines of the traveling block (q. contains a sizable amount of sulfur or sulfur compounds. it is a sweet crude. and it may have a paraffin.mzhelu@gmail. 1192. if it has little or no sulfur.v. CROWBAN CONNECTION A humorous reference to an assembly of pipe fittings so far out of alignment that a crowbar is required to force them to fit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) and hook are attached. 2. or crude.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1190.com . the top of a piston. the crown block or top of a derrick or mast. If a crude oil. crow's nest an elevated walkway where employees work (as the top of a derrick or refinery tower). it is called a sour crude. CROWN PLATFORM A platform at the very top of the derrick that permits access to the sheaves of the crown block and provides a safe area for work involving the gin pole (q. or mixed base. Crown-O-Matic a brand name for a special air-relay valve mounted near the crown that. conveys air pressure to the air brakes of the drawworks to prevent the traveling block from striking the crown. 1193. A stationary pulley system located at the top of the derrick used for raising and lowering the string of drilling tools. crown CROWN BLOCK 1.

mzhelu@gmail. and butane. See Reduced Crude Oil. cubic. 1201. bed linen. 1203. Sometimes it is convenient and economical to move certain natural gas liquids to refineries by injecting them into crude oil pipelines to be pumped with the crude. CRUMB BOSS A person responsible for cleaning and keeping an oil field bunkhouse supplied with towels. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering addition. the lighter oils having the higher gravities. CRUMB OUT To shovel out the loose earth in the bottom of a ditch. a construction camp housekeeper. 1200. REDUCED CRUDE OIL. 1197. CRUDE OIL. BUY-BACK CRUDE OIL. natural gasoline. A crude oil stream carrying condensate.. CRUDE STILL A primary refinery unit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 152 Petroleum Engineer: M. and soap. VOLATILES-LADEN See Buy-back Crude Oil. also to square up the floor and side of the ditch in preparation for laying of pipe. cryogenics cu the study of the effects of very low temperatures. a large vessel in which crude oil is heated and various components are taken off by distillation. crude oils may be referred to as heavy or light according to API gravity.com . 1204. 1198. 1202. 1199.

one one-hundredth of a cubic meter. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1205. 1206. by one foot deep. CUPGREASE Originally.mzhelu@gmail.3' 1207.31 yd'. or Quads.). cubic meter CULTIVATOR WRENCH (M3) a metric measure of volume. 1211. Any square-jawed. cure to age cement under specified conditions of temperature and pressure. Natural gas is measured in cubic feet. a grease used in compression cups (q.com . equal to approximately 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CUBES cubic centimeter Short for cubic inch displacement. See Grease. Tcf.v. See Knuckle Buster. CUP Disc with edges turned at right angles to the body used on plungers in certain kinds of pumps discs of durable plastic or other tough. (cm3) a metric measure of volume. It represents a volume one foot long. CID (q.) but today the term refers to grease having a calcium fatty-acid soap base. 1212. adjustable wrench that is of poor quality or worn out. by one foot wide. Cubic Foot A unit of measurement for volume. pliable material used on pipeline pigs or scrapers to sweep the line. 153 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1209.061 in. 1208. but the measurements are usually expressed in terms of Bcf. It is approximately equal to 0. Mcf.v. 1210.

cannot separate and settle to the bottom of a tank until the mixture is heated or treated with a chemical. cut a petroleum fraction. the initial boiling point The other cut point is the temperature at which the product is completely vaporized. but in certain operations it is necessary to run the pipe or tubing nearly empty to maintain less pressure inside the pipe than in the annulus. 1214. In such cases. this is the end point. oil and water mixed in such a way as to produce an emulsion in which minute droplets of water are encased in a film of oil. 1218. Usually the pipe or tubing is full of fluid.mzhelu@gmail. CUTTING OILS CUTTING TORCH Special oils used to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools. a hand-held burner to which the oxygen and acetylene hoses are attached. See Roll a Tank. also called wet oil.com . cushion (‫)ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ a column of water or drilling fluid placed inside drill pipe or tubing to prevent it from being crushed by the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the annulus of the wellbore. CUT OIL Crude oil partially emulsified with water. Z. A piece of oxyacetylene welding and cutting equipment. cut oil an oil that contains water. One cut point is the temperature at which the product begins to boil or vaporize. although heavier. In such case the water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually in the form of an emulsion. The gases when 154 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1215. 1219. 1 1217.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1213. a cushion may be needed to prevent collapse of the pipe. CUT POINTS The temperatures at which various distilling products are separated out of the charge stock.

com . intense flame that "cuts" metal by melting it. making them less viscous and able to flow into the wellbore. 1220.) 1225. CYCLING PLANT An oil field installation that processes natural gas from a field. cylinder the unit of an internal-combustion engine in which combustion and compression take place. also called RDX. 155 Petroleum Engineer: M. and returns the dry gas to the producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure. high-explosive material (cyclo-trimethylene-trinitramine) used as the main charge in jet perforating guns. 1223.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ignited by the welder's lighter produce a small. where it heats the hydrocarbons. CYCLING (OF GAS) Return to a gas reservoir of gas remaining after extraction of liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of maintaining pressure in the reservoir. Steam is injected in preset cycles into the reservoir.mzhelu@gmail.(See Sample. cyclonite a powerful. cyclic steam injection a method of producing heavy viscous hydrocarbons. and thus increasing the ultimate recovery of liquids from the reservoir. CUTTINGS Chips and small fragments of rock as the result of drilling that are brought to the surface by the flow of the drilling mud as it is circulated. 1224. Cuttings are important to the geologist who examines them for information concerning the type of rock being drifted. Z. (See jet-perforate. strips out the gas liquids. See Welding Torch. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1222.) 1221.

CYLINDER. CYLINDER STOCK A class of highly viscous oils so called because originally their main use was in preparation of products to be used for steam cylinder lubrication.mzhelu@gmail. 1227. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 156 Petroleum Engineer: M.OIL Oils used to lubricate the cylinders ad valves of steam engines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1226. When the sliding of the piston and rings wears out the liner. 1228. Z.com . it can be replaced without the block having to be replaced. cylinder liner a removable. replaceable sleeve that fits into a cylinder.

Z. During experimental studies on the flow of water through consolidated sand filter beds. See Directional Drilling. the movement of other fluids including miscible fluids in consolidated rocks and other porous substances. (See driller's report. formulated a law which boars his name. to a production platform for treatment and pumping ashore. This law has been extended to describe. with certain limitations. in 1856. 1231. Such an offshore platform is a large structure with room to drill and complete a number of wells. measured and pumped ashore. as many as 60 have been drilled from a large platform by the use of directional drilling techniques. along with other wells on the offshore lease. 1 1233. The production from single-well platforms is usually piped. D&A DARCY'S LAW dry and abandoned. 1230. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the oil can be treated (put through oil-water separators). used in drilling reports. D & P PLATFORM A drilling and production platform.) 157 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1229.mzhelu@gmail. When many wells are producing from a single platform. as though the platform were simply a land lease. Daily drilling report a record made each day of the operations on a working drilling rig. D'Arcy's Law states that the velocity of a homogenous fluid in a porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid's viscosity.com . Henry D'Arcy.

mzhelu@gmail. daywork rates the basis for payment on drilling contracts when footage rates are suspended (as when the drilling rig is used in taking extra cores. 1237. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or other activities that delay actual drilling). day tour (pronounced "day tower") a period of 8 to 12 daylight hours worked by a drilling or workover crew when equipment is being run around the clock. Z. a part of the drill assembly. The compensation for use of the rig at daywork rates is usually included in the drilling contract. a downhole "shock absorber" for a string of drilling tools. drill collar. DC direct current. 1238. 1239. logging. See also Turnkey Contract. DAY-WORK BASIS Refers to a drilling contract in which the work of drilling and completing a well is paid for by the days required for the job instead of by the feet drilled.com . a 6 to 8foot-long device. that acts to dampen bit vibration and impact loads during drill operations. DAMPING SUB Essentially. 158 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1235. used in drilling reports. A porous medium has a permeability of 1 darcy when a pressure of 1 atmosphere on a sample 1 cm long and 1 cm' in cross-section will force a liquid of 1-cp viscosity through the sample at the rate of 1 cm' per second. 1236. darcy a unit of measure of permeability. Damping subs are of the same diameter as the drill pipe into which they are screwed to form a part of the drill string. The permeability of reservoir rocks is usually so low that it is measured in millidarcy units.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1234.

1242. 1245. securely fastened to the mast or derrick substructure. DEAD OIL DEAD WELL deadline Crude oil containing no dissolved gas when it is produced. stacks. 1243. The free end is then attached to the draw works drum which is rotated until one layer of the line is spooled on. Compare fast line. A well that will not flow. 1241. the drilling line from the crown-block sheave to the anchor. deadman a buried anchor to which guy wires are tied to steady the derrick.com . The anchored end of the drilling line that comes down from the crown block through a fixed sheave at ground level.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1240. 159 Petroleum Engineer: M. mast. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. called a dead-!line anchor. DC-DC RIG DEAD LINE See Drill Rig. and so on. deadline tie-down anchor a device to which the deadline is attached. Electric. and in order to produce must be put on the pump. The other end of the threaded or reeved line is the dead line or. When stringing up the drilling line. one might say. so called because it does not move. and onto a storage drum.mzhelu@gmail. See Fast Line. the anchored fine. Z. The traveling block is then hoisted into the derrick. the big traveling block is set on the rig floor and the free end of the line is threaded over the crown block and through the traveling block a sufficient number of times to lift the anticipated load with a good margin of safety. 1246. 1244.

mzhelu@gmail. 1250.com . Z. deep drilling 160 Petroleum Engineer: M. and other internal fixtures that reduce the oil capacity of a tank. braces. deadwood in an oil storage tank. Decanting. 1254. Deck blocks which lie horizontal to the vessel's deck are for horizontal pulls with hawser or cable. 1253. 1249. 1252. deadweight ton (dwt) a unit of capacity of tank ships equal to the difference in tons between the ship's displacement when unloaded and when loaded.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1247. piping. DEADMAN CONTROL A device for shutting down an operation should the attendant become incapacitated. Their total volume is deducted from the tank volume when it is being strapped or calibrated. 1248. The attendant using such a device must consciously exert pressure on a hold-down handle or lever to work the job. When pressure is relaxed owing to some emergency. (nautical) floor. A pulley or sheave mounted in a steel frame which is securely fixed to the metal deck of a ship or barge. decontaminants materials added to cements or cement slurries to counteract the effects of contamination. 1251. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the operation will automatically come to a halt. the ladders. DECANTING CENTRIFUGE deck DECKBLOCK See Centrifuge.

mzhelu@gmail. Deepening is generally a workover operation carried out to produce from a deeper formation or to control excessive gas found in the upper levels of a reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See flocculation. to increase the depth of a well. usually by means of chemical thinners. it is measured in degrees from the vertical. 1. 1258.) 161 Petroleum Engineer: M. deep-well pump deepen a production pump designed for service in a deep well. in addition to extrastrong structural members. 1255. 1257. DEFICIENCY GAS The difference between a quantity of gas a purchaser is obligated by contract either to take or pay for if not taken and the amount actually taken. Deep rigs. Z. 1261. In directional drilling.000-foot) wells. It presents a number of special problems related to water depth. 1259. deepwater drilling offshore drilling operations in relatively deep oceans or seas. Hook loads on deep rigs often exceed 800 tons. deflection a change in the angle of a wellbore. have massive substructures 25 to 35 feet high to accommodate the large and tall blowout preventer stacks flanged to the wellhead.000 pounds.000 to 30. 1256.com . 1260. defloccutation the dispersion of solids that have stuck together in drilling fluid.600.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering any drilling project that is deeper than average for a given area or period in time. DEEP RIG A specially designed drifting derrick built to withstand the extreme hook loads of ultra-deep (20.

especially from 1264. A third method directs the mud through a vacuum tank where. but all have one aim in commo to make it possible for the gas bubbles to free themselves. To guard against this dangerous situation occurring. One of the three functions of mud is to provide sufficient hydrostatic head to control a kick when high-pressure oil or gas is encountered. it can become infused with gas to an extent that although the volume of mud may increase the density is severely reduced. One method flows the mud over wide sheets so the slurry is no more than one-eighth to three eighths thick so the bubbles may come to the surface and escape. 162 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 1265.mzhelu@gmail. DEGASSING DRILLING MUD An important part of well drilling operations is keep the drilling mud free of entrained gas. 1263.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1262. The total of degree-days for a given period of time can be used to estimate energy requirements such as the amount of fuel oil needed to heat a building. the mud is degassed at the surface. Another method sprays the mud against a baffle in a spray tank which squeezes out the gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the bubbles of gas expand and break out of the slurry. computed per day. defoamer degasser any chemical that prevents or lessens frothing or foaming in another agent. Z. the equipment used to remove unwanted gas from a liquid. Several kinds of equipment get the gas out. buobles that enter the mud as it circulates downhole through gaseous formations. When mud of a certain density is circulated. drilling fluid. equivalent to the difference between a 65 F base and a daily mean temperature (when the latter is less than 65 F). degree-day a unit of temperature and time. under reduced atmospheric pressure.

Gas is led In to the bottom of a trayed or packed column in the presence of the glycol solution. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A common method of gas dehydration is through . Dehydration of crude oil is normally accomplished by emulsion treating with emulsion breakers. The water vapor in natural gas must be removed to meet pipeline requirements. Z. Dehydration is accomplished by contact of the wet gas with pure or "lean" glycol solution. triethylene.) 1 1268. delay rental Delineation Well DELINEATION WELLS a payment. NATURAL GAS A tank or tower through which gas is run to remove entrained water. dehydrate to remove water from a substance. the lean glycol absorbs the entrained water. usually made annually in lieu of drilling to keep a lease valid. Well drilled after a discovery well to determine the areal extent of a reservoir. 1269. and tetraethylene. 1270. Gas must be extremely dry to meet pipeline specifications. See Development Wells. the boundaries of the productive formation.he use of various glycols diethylene. 1272. As the gas percolates upward through the solution. and dry gas is taken off at the top of the lower. a typical maximum allowable water-vapor content is 7 LB per Mk.com .mzhelu@gmail. Wells drilled outward from a successful wildcat well to determine the extent of the oil find. or gravity. it may not contain more than 7 pounds of water per million standard cubic feet. DEHYDRATOR. 163 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1271. (See API gravity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1266. degrees API (.API) a unit of measurement of the American Petroleum Institute that indicates the weight. of oil.

The chemical reduces the surface tension of the film of oil surrounding the droplets of water. 1278. (See emulsion treating.8 lb/ftl. It is a contact log (i. density log a special radioactivity log for open-hole surveying that responds to variations in the specific gravity of formations. Thus freed. demulsity to resolve an emulsion. 1276. into its components. For instance. 1279.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1273. 1275. 1274. Densilog density (See density log.com .) A chemical used to "break dowi" crude oil/water emulsions. or 1. especially of water and oil. freight car.e. the density of a drilling mud may be 10 ppg. or truck. the water settles to the bottom of the tank. High loading rates for oil tankers are of utmost importance in order to speed turnaround and minimize demurrage charges. demethanizer DEMULSIFIER (See rich-oil demethanizer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1280. held against the 164 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 1277. DEMURRAGE The charge incurred by the shipper for detaining a vessel. 74. deliveryman a shipper's representative who takes delivery of oil from a pipeline company at a terminal or junction. Specific gravity or API gravity is also a measure of density. Z.) the weight of a substance per unit of volume..2 kg/liter.

deltaic (borne by a river at its delta). deplete to exhaust a supply. 1285. In 1865 he mounted two "iron banded" wooden tanks on a railway flatcar. DENSMORE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wall of the hole). DEPLETION ALLOWANCE DEPOSIT depositional environment See Percentage Depletion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). aeolian (wind-borne).mzhelu@gmail. 1281. An accumulation of oil or gas capable of being produced commercially. and Densilog. An oil and gas reservoir is depleted when most or all recoverable hydrocarbons have been produced. the conditions under which a series of rock strata were laid down. Tank Train (q. and interdeltaic (between river deltas). 1284. 1282. and the latest development. 165 Petroleum Engineer: M. The tanks or tubs holds total of 90 barrels. Z. Some trade names for it are Gamma-Gamma Density Log. The density log is an excellent porosity-measuring device. especially for shaly sands. It emits neutrons and then measures the secondary gamma radiation that is scattered back to the detector in the instrument. 1283.com . Depositional environments are divided into five groups marine (ocean-borne). Densmore's innovation was the forerunner of the "unit train" for hauling oil and products. AMOS The man who first devised a method of shipping crude oil by rail. alluvial (river-borne). Formation Density Log.v.

a contractor can accumulate funds to replace a rig when it is worn out. DEPROPANIZER A unit of a processing plant where propane. derrick 166 Petroleum Engineer: M. depth in depth out depthometer the depth of the wellbore when a new bit is run in. 1 1288. 1291. a liquid hydrocarbon.) a device used to measure the depth of a well or depth at a specific point in a well (as to the top of a 1'ner or to a fish) by counting the turns of a calibrated wheel rolling on a wireline as it is lowered into or pulled out of a well. (See depth In. position in the rock layers. Depositional Facies A three dimensional body of rock that is differentiated from others by its unique physical attributes such as rock type(s). Z. (See depth out. depth 1. 1294. the manner in which it was deposited and the like. the distance from the baseline of a rig or ship to the uppermost continuous deck. By including a charge for depreciation. 2.) the depth of the wellbore when a bit is pulled out of the hole. depreciation decrease in value of property (as a rig) due to normal wear or the passing of time. 1289. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1293. 1292. fossils.mzhelu@gmail. on offshore drilling rigs. Total depth is the depth after drilling is finished.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1286. is from 1290. natural gas. the distance to which a well is drilled. stipulated in a drilling contract as contract depth. bedding structures.

Because the standard derrick must be assembled piece by piece. 167 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick and provide space to install blowout preventers.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a large load-bearing structure.mzhelu@gmail. PUMPING In the early days. DERRICK BARGE A type of work boat on which a large crane is mounted for use offshore or other over-water work. it has largely been replaced by the mart. shorter derrick called a pumping derrick or pumping rig. DERRICK FLOOR The platform (usually 10 feet or more above the ground) of a derrick on which drilling oprations are carried o rig floor. the well also could be pumped by pumping jack or by a walking beam. 1298. before the widespread use of portable units for pulling and reconditioning a well. which can be lowered and raised without disassembly. casingheads. and tools and equipment for various tender work. The larger derrick or crane barges are self propelled and are. In drilling. used for drilling. 1295. the standard derrick has four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown block. was often replaced by a smaller. A crane 1296. DERRICK. a boat or ship with full-revolving crane. the original derrick. a helicopter pad. etc. racking tubing or drillpipe as it is pulled from the well and unscrewed by other crow members on the derrick floor. Well workovers could be done with these rigs. in effect. usually of bolted construction. DERRICKMAN A member of the drilling crew who works up in derrick on the tubing board. Z. 1297.

1300. others employ chemical processes to remove the salt. To accomplish this. DESALTING PLANT An installation that removes salt water and crystalline salt from crude oil streams. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. desiccant-dried air or an inert gas is pumped through the line to absorb the moisture that may be Present even in the ambient air in the line. DESICCANT DRYING The use of a drying agent to remove moisture from a stream of air or gas. 1302. desalt to remove dissolved salt from crude oil. Such safety factors are incorporated into the design of casing. 1304. Sometimes fresh water is injected into the crude stream to dissolve salt for removal by electrostatic treaters. for example. tension. or collapse stresses. A desander usually operates on the principle of a fast-moving stream of fluid being put into a whirling motion inside a cone-shaped vessel. desiccant a substance able to remove water from another substance with which it is in contact. Some plants use electrostatic precipitation. to allow for unusual burst. in certain product pipelines great effort is made to remove all water vapor before putting the line in service. desander a centrifugal device used to remove fine particles of sand from drilling fluid to prevent abrasion of the pumps.com . 1303. 1301. design factor the ratio of the ultimate load a vessel or structure will sustain to the safe permissible load placed on it.mzhelu@gmail. It may be liquid (as triethylene glycol) or solid (as silica gel).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1299. 168 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the faster the rate of penetration. 1309.com . 2. DESILTER . 1307.DESANDER A filtering device on a drifting well's mud system that removes harmful abrasive material from the mud stream. Z. used to remove very fine particles. there are 103 clubs throughout the United States and Canada. The principal function of the group is that of providing informational and educational programs for the enlightenment of its members about the industry they serve. desilter a centrifugal device. 1306. design water depth 1. The detergents act to keep all products of oxidation and other foreign matter in suspension which permits it to be removed by the engine's filtering system. lubricating oils containing additives that retard the formation of gums. from drilling fluid to keep the amount of solids in the fluid to the lowest possible level.mzhelu@gmail. Membership ranges from secretaries through managers and directors of companies. and other harmful engine deposits.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1305. varnishes. 1310. similar to a desander. As of January 1979. the vertical distance from the ocean bottom to the nominal water level plus the height of astronomical and storm tides. or silt. 169 Petroleum Engineer: M. The lower the solids content of the mud is. 1308. Desk and Derrick Club an association of women employed in the petroleum and allied industries. the deepest water in which an offshore drilling rig can operate. desulfurize DETERGENT OILS to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from oil or gas.

1314. 2. 1316. detonation 1.mzhelu@gmail. The drilling and bringing into production of wells in addition to the discovery well on a lease. Compare preignition. through many types of hard and soft lions.com . for example. old car or truck. development well 1. an accumulation of material as the result of the wearing away or erosion of rock. 1315. some considerably farther off than others. 1318. 2. DEVELOPMENT CLAUSE The drilling and delay-rental clause of a lease also. 1317. DETROIT IRON DEVELOPMENT A humorous reference to a large. express clauses specifying the number of development wells to be drilled. Z. 1312. In drilling a 15. it is not unusual to have such a deviation that the actual bottom of the hole is 170 Petroleum Engineer: M.000-foot hole. See Talus.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1311. All wells are off the vertical. A well bore which is off the vertical either by design or accident. an explosion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DEVELOPMENT WELLS DEVIATED HOLE Wells drilled in an area already proved to be productive. DETRIUS Fragments of disintegrated rock. The drilling of development wells may be required by the express or implied covenants of a lease. 1313. a well drilled in proven territory in a field to complete a pattern of production. the knock or ping produced when fuel of too low an octane rating is used in the engine. an exploitation well.

1319. 1320. There are two basic deviation survey.000 feet farther.000 feet. deviation the inclination of the wellbore from the vertical.mzhelu@gmail.000 feet or so away from the well location. 1322. In addition to more drilling time it would also mean 1. or drift survey. or drift angle is the angle in degrees that shows the variation from the vertical as revealed by a deviation survey. to reach a particular formation at 10. deviation survey an operation made to determine the angle from which a bit has deviated from the vertical during drilling. 1321. Deviated or crooked holes as they are commonly referred to are more expensive to drill than a straight hole for several reasons. The angle of deviation. may have to be dug several hundred to 1.000 feet more casing and an equal amount of tubing to complete the well. a crooked hole. This can be litigious business if the other lease owner gets picky about it. instruments one reveals the angle of deviation only. dew-point recorder a device used by gas transmission companies to determine and record continuously the dew point of the gas. DEW POINT The temperature at which water vapor condensed Out of at 14. But there are times when drilling at an angle from the vertical serves a useful purpose. on a severe Angle from the vertical. See Slant-hole Technique. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. angle of drift.com . and on someone else's lease. Z.7psia. (pound per square inch absolute) or at sea level.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2. the other indicates both the angle and direction of deviation. For example. 171 Petroleum Engineer: M. Every effort is made to drill a straight hole. And the technique for digging such a hole is quite advanced.

1328. the inside diameter is that of the interior circle and the outside diameter that of the exterior circle. DIE A replaceable. In the measurement of pipe diameters. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hardened steel piece.com .mzhelu@gmail. recrystallization. The die collar is made up on the drill pipe and lowered into the hole until it contacts the lost pipe. an insert for a wrench or set of tongs that bites into the pipe as the toot is closed on the pipe. used in drilling reports. diatomaceous earth an earthy deposit made up of the siliceous cell walls of one-celled marine algae called diatoms. 1326. used as an admixture for cement to produce a lowdensity slurry. a tong key. dies are cutters for making threads on a bolt or pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1323. and sometimes replacement) that result in lithification. DF diagenesis derrick floor. 1324. 1329. cementation. 1325. Rotation of the die collar on top of the pipe cuts 172 Petroleum Engineer: M. Also. compaction. 1327. die collar a collar or coupling of tool steel. in the plural. Z. that is used to retrieve pipe from the well on fishing jobs. the female counterpart of a taper tap. threaded internally. diamond bit a drilling bit that has a steel body surfaced with industrial diamonds. The rotation of the extremely hard diamonds cuts the surface of the rock. diameter the distance across a circle measured through its center. the chemical and physical changes that sediments undergo (after deposition.

1330. a diesel engine internal-combustion engine used extensively for high-compression. See Diesel Engine. the fuel is ignited by the heat of compression within the engine's cylinders. ignition occurs as fuel is injected into the compressed and heated air. as the diesel engine has no spark plugs. The pipe is then retrieved from the hole. and expansion of the combustion products imparts power to the piston. Self-ignition is an important property of diesel fuel. the values of dielectricity assigned to substances. powering drilling rigs. providing for a firm attachment. 1335. dielectric dielectric constant a substance that is an insulator. A substance that is a good insulator has a high dielectric constant. 173 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . of electricity. also Cetane Number. The dielectric constant of oil is lower than that for water. diesel-electric power the power supplied to a drilling rig by diesel engines driving electric generators. Z. 1 1332. used widely offshore and gaining popularity onshore. or nonconductor. In a diesel engine air is drawn into the cylinders and compressed to very high pressures. 1334. DIESEL FUEL A fuel made of the light gas-oil range of refinery products. Diesel fuel and furnace oil are virtually the same product.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and upon this principle a net-oil computer operates.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering threads on the outside of the pipe. while a poor insulator has a low one. 1333. Combustion takes place within the cylinder above the piston.

1340. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1338.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1336. This is often caused by improper fuel or carbon deposits in the combustion chamber hot enough to ignite the gasoline sucked into the engine as it makes a few revolutions after being turned off. (See differential pressure. DIESEL.) 174 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See differential pressure.mzhelu@gmail. For example. Z.com .000 ft. 1341. except it is run on the bottom of the casing and is incorporated into the guide shoe. 1337. or between atmospheric pressure at sea level and at 10. DIESELING The tendency of some gasoline engines to continue running after the ignition has been shut off. differential the difference in quantity or degree between two measurements or units. It is run near the bottom of the casing to automatically admit drilling fluids into the casing as needed so it sinks rather than floats in the well. differential pressure the difference between two fluid pressures. differential fill-up shoe a device similar to a differential fill-up collar. for example. the pressure differential across a choke is the variation between the pressure on one side and that on the other. differential fill-up collar a device used in setting casing.) 1339. RUDOLPH The German mechanical engineer who invented the internal combustion engine that bears his name. the difference between the pressure in a reservoir and in a wellbore drilled in the reservoir.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1349. Hand tools used in digging a ditch.mzhelu@gmail. picks. Necessary conditions for differential pressure sticking. 1343.e. thick-walled steel ripe used in rotary drilling to turn the drill bit and to provide a conduit for the drilling mud. are a permeable formation and a pressure differential across a nearly impermeable filter cake and drill stem. Heavy. made to determine the direction-and angle of dip of certain formations exposed to the wellbore. 1344. shovels. dipmeter survey 175 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1347. spades. Z. Joints of drillpipe are about 30 feet long. or wall sticking. 1346. 1348.com . mattocks. differential-pressure sticking a condition in which the drill stem becomes stuck against the wall of the wellbore because part of the drill stem (usually the drill collars) has become embedded in the filter cake. a driller.. DIGGER DIGGING TOOLS DILLPIPE One who digs or drills a well. 1345. i.) a survey of a wellbore with a dip meter. dip dip log (See formation dip. differential-pressure gauge a pressure-measuring device actuated by two or more pressure-sensitive elements that act in opposition to produce an indication of the difference between two pressure sources.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1342.

com . beneath a railroad. DIRCTIONAL DRILLING The technique of drilling at an angle from the vertical by deflecting the drill 1 wells are drilled for a number of reasons to develop an offshore lease from one drilling platform. 1350. DynaDrills. . whipstocks. to reach a pay zone beneath land where drilling cannot be done. (See directional 176 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.g. It records data that permit computation of both the amount and direction of formation dip relative to the axis of the hole. and to reach the production zone of a burning well to flood the formation.) directional hole a wellbore intentionally drilled at an angle from the vertical. e. Z. cemetery. 1352. drilling. direct connection a straightforward connection that makes the speeds of a prime mover and a driven machine identical. Controlled directional drilling makes it possible to reach subsurface areas laterally remote from the point where the bit enters the earth. 1351. It also provides information about the geologic structure of the formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering an oil-well-surveying method that determines the direction and angle of formation dip in relation to the borehole. It involves the use of turbodrills. directional drilling intentional deviation of a wellbore from the vertical. See Killer Well. 1353. a lake. it is sometimes necessary or advantageous to drill at an angle from the vertical. Although wellbores are normally drilled vertically. or other deflecting tools.mzhelu@gmail.

1359. (See continuous phase and internal phase) An exploratory well that encounters a new and previously untapped petroleum deposit a successful wildcat well. 1360.com . DIRTY CARGO disconformity discontinuous phase DISCOVERY WELL Bunker fuel and other block residual oils.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1354. directional operator a practical or trained technician who supervises rig operations relating to directional drilling. directional survey a logging method that records hole drift. Z. an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides of it are parallel. and direction of the drift. 1355. usually employed by a company specializing in this service. DISCOVERY WELL ALLOWABLE An allowable above that of wells in a settled field. 1358. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A discovery well may also open a new horizon in an established field. A multi shot survey instrument obtains numerous readings in the hole as the device is pulled out of the well.) 1356. 177 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1357. (See directional drilling. or deviation from the vertical.mzhelu@gmail. Some states allow the operators of a discovery well to produce at the maximum efficiency rate (MER) until the costs of the well have been recovered in oil or gas. A single shot directional survey instrument makes a single photograph of a compass reading of the drift direction and the number of degrees the hole is off vertical.

1362. exactly equal to the weight of the body. 1363.mzhelu@gmail. 1366. Z. that is pumped into the well behind the cement to force the cement out of the casing and into the annulus. dispatcher dispersion an employee responsible for scheduling movement of oil through pipelines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. system. displacement the weight of fluid (as water) displaced by a freely floating body such as an offshore drilling rig. displacement meter a meter in which a piston is actuated by the pressure of a measured volume of liquid and the volume swept by the piston is equal to the volume of the liquid recorded. 1365. a suspension of extremely fine particles in a liquid (such as colloids in a colloidal solution). usually at high pressures. 1368. displacement plunger a device used to pump liquids. 1364. displacement rate a measurement of the speed with which a volume of cement slurry or mud is pumped down the hole. the fluid. disposal well a well into which salt water is pumped.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1361. usually drilling mud or salt water. usually part of a salwater-disposal 178 Petroleum Engineer: M. displacement fluid in oil-well cementing. 1367.com . with an action similar to that of a piston but one-sided.

. fractionate. For example. or ions. or ions. hydrochloric acid dissociates into hydrogen and chlorine molecules. DISTILLATION SYSTEM A small. and condensing the vapor back to liquid to purify. and of high API gravity (above 60') recovered from wet gas by a separator that condenses the liquid out of the gas stream. usually water-white or pale straw color. it is called condensate or natural gasoline. usually by heating. atoms. or form new products. distillation the process of driving off gas or vapor from liquids or solids. DISTILLATE quid hydrocarbons. See Solution Gas.com . i. 1 1371. diesel fuel. temporary "refinery" (200 to 1. 179 Petroleum Engineer: M.e. See Condensate.mzhelu@gmail. The force of expanding gas dissolved in the crude oil in the formation that drives the oil to the well bore and up to the surface through the production 1373. 1372. (Distillate is an older term for the liquid today. dissociation the splitting up of a compound of two or more simple molecules. DISTILLATE FUEL OILS A term denoting products of refinery distillation sometimes referred to middle distillates.) 1376.000 b/d) set up at a remote drifting site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment. 1375. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1369. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DISSOLVED GAS DISSOLVED-GAS DRIVE Gas contained in solution with the crude oil in the reservoir. in water. (See distillate.) 1374. kerosene. home heating oil.

When a kick occurs. In shallow wells there is often insufficient overburden pressure around the base of the conductor casing to prevent the gas from a substantial kick from blowing out around the casing.) 1379. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. each to be 180 Petroleum Engineer: M. DITCHING MACHINE diverter See Trencher. Z. cable. the mud-flow channel from the conductor-pipe outlet is often called a ditch.com . such production is apportioned on the basis of periodic tests rather than on the individual receiving and gauging of oil at each well. to fragment an integrated oil company into individual. etc. separate companies. 1378. 1381. 1380.usually to bury pipeline. On a drilling rig. (See mud-return line.) encountered in relatively shallow offshore wells. the blowout preventer is closed and the valves of the diverter system open to vent the gas harmlessly to the atmosphere. distribution the apportioning of daily production rates to wells on a lease. 1382. Because there are many wells on a lease. to break up. ditch a trench or channel made in the earth.mzhelu@gmail. a system used to control well blowouts encountered at relatively shallow depths and to protect floating rigs during blowouts by directing the flow away from the rig. DIVERTER SYSTEM An assembly of nipples and air-actuated valves welded to a well's surface or conductor casing for venting a gas kick (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1377.v. DIVESTITURE Specifically as it relates to the industry.

1384. dk dle nipple DMWD DOCTOR SWEET dark. the royalty owners. The purchaser prepares the division order after determining the basis of ownership and then requires that the several owners of the oil being purchased execute the division order before payment for the oil commences. A term used to describe certain petroleum products that have been treated to remove sulfur compounds and mercaptans that are the sources of unpleasant odors. A product that has been so treated is said to be "sweet to the doctor test. and others having an interest in the production.v. a device similar to a die collar but with external threads. Certain amounts of payment go to the operator of the producing property. 1385. substances that are potentially corrosive and impart an objectionable odor to the fuel when burned. refining or marketing." 1388. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. DIVISION ORDER A contract of sale to the buyer of crude oil or gas directing the buyer to pay for the product in the proportions set forth in the contract.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering permitted to operate only within a single phase of the oil business exploration. or MWD Downhole measurement while drilling (q. transportation. 1387. DOCTOR TEST A qualitative method of testing light fuel oils for the presence of sulfur compounds and mercaptans.com . Z. production. 1383.mzhelu@gmail. 181 Petroleum Engineer: M.). 1386.

mzhelu@gmail. DOGLEG A deviation in the direction of a ditch or the bore hole of a well. change house. a small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office for the driller or as a storehouse for small objects.) dolomite. and others. The doghouse serves lunchroom. DOG ROBBER A loyal aid or underling who does disagreeable or slightly unorthodox (shady)jobs for his boss. 1396. (See pipe dolly. to hang back to drag one's feet. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1395. used in drilling reports. geologist. table. 182 Petroleum Engineer: M. DOG FT DOG HOUSE To do less than one's share of work. d ol dolly dolo dolomite. dormitory. a master of the "midnight requisition" 1392. 1391. used in drilling reports. a sharp bend in a joint of pipe. 1393. one-room shelter (usually made of fight tank iron) at a well site for the convenience and protection of the drilling crew. any small building used as an office or for storage. Z. 1394. 2.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1389. and storage room for small supplies and . doghouse 1. 1390.records.com . See Key Seat.

dome a geologic structure resembling an inverted bowl. 1401. doodlebug (slang) 1. a popular term for any of the various geophysical prospecting equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a twig or branch of a small tree (poach is favored by some witchers) which when held by an "expert" practitioner as he walks over a plot of land is supposed to bend down locating a favorable place to drill a well. a short anticline plunging on all sides.v. (See salt dome.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1397. A witching device. dolomite a type of sedimentary rock similar to limestone but rich in magnesium carbonate. door sheet a plate at the base of a tank shell or wall that is removed to allow the tank 183 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1402. DOOR MATS Colloquial term used in the early days to describe small tracts.mzhelu@gmail. The concept of pooling (q. 1400. dome-roof tank DOODLE BUG a storage tank with a dome-shaped roof affixed to the shell.com . 1403. 1398. Z. tone cleaned. the seismograph used in prospecting for potential oil-bearing geological structures.) 1399. 1120 of an acre. any of the various devices used in searching for petroleum deposits. just large enough to accommodate an oil derrick. 2.) had not yet been accepted. sometimes a reservoir rock for petroleum.

1408. or monkeyboard. A machine for removing tar and asphalt coatings from line pipe. Z. coats and wraps the line in one operation. double a length of drill pipe. (Single-action pumps discharge on the for. cleaning it with rotating metal brushes and then on a pimer. On large pipeline projects.) 1409.com . The pipe is placed in the chopper where guillotine-like blades cut through the dope but do not damage the pipe. also riding the pipe. a machine rides the pipe. DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP A reciprocating pump (plunger pump) with two sets of suction and discharge valves permitting it to pump fluid during the forward and backward movement of each plunger.mzhelu@gmail. The chunks of coating fall onto a conveyor belt and are carried away from the job. when located at a height in the derrick or mast equal to two lengths of pipe joined together. or tubing. casing. 1407. DOPE GANG Workers who clean and apply a coat of enamel primer to a pipeline in preparation for coating with a tar-based anticorrosion material and wrapping with tough paper bandage. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. d op e DOPE CHOPPER a lubricant for the threads of oil-field tubular goods. 1405. (See thribble board and fourble board.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1404. ward stroke and draw in fluid on the return stroke. double board the derrickman's working platform. Compare thribble and fourble. 1406. A second machine.) 184 Petroleum Engineer: M. consisting of two joints screwed together.

1418. A pipe in which the flow of liquid or gas is downward.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1410." 1412.v. joint stands are called "thribbles. Three. the second drum is used for swabbing. tapered ring that supports a string of pipe. pertaining to the wellbore. (See hoist. consisting of two reels on which wire rope is wound. The two joints make a stand (q. A dowhole "real time" data gathering and transmitting system that sends information from the drill bit to the surface by one of several means.com . 1411. 1417. The data transmitted by some form of telemetry-hardwire or electronics or hydraulic 185 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 1 1414. that provides two hoisting drums in the assembly. 1416. A slang expression meaning to shift down into the lowest low gear." fours are "fourbles. double-drum hoist a device. The main drum is used for pulling tubing or drill pipe. TDOUBLING YARD T An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project where line pipe is welded together in two-joint lengths preparatory to being transported to the job and strung along the right of way. doughnut DOWN IN THE BIG HOLE DOWNCOMER downhole DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING a ring of wedges or a threaded. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) a pipe incorporating twice as many safety design factors as normally used.)of pipe that is set back and racked in the derrick. DOUBLES Drillpipe and tubing pulled from the well two joints at a time. 1415.

waterline. Bulldozer. the vertical distance between the bottom of a vessel floating in water and the 186 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1424. 1423. downtime the period during which an item of equipment cannot be operated because of ongoing repair or maintenance. 1420. type formation. DP draft drill pipe.mzhelu@gmail.com . used in drilling reports. 1 1422. Refers to facilities or operations performed after those at the point of reference. refining is downstream from production operations. and condition of the bit. For example. marketing is downstream from refining. DOWSING RODS DOZER See Doodle Bug.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering impulse-includes drilling angle and rate. downhole mud motor DOWNSTREAM a turbodrill or DynaDrill. a crawler-type tractor equipped with a hydraulically operated blade for excavating and grading. 1419. temperature. 1425. Z. The MWD system is the most advanced yet developed to keep the driller and geologist informed on conditions several thousand feet downhole. 1426. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

DRAG UP To draw the wages one has coming and quit the job an expression used in the oil fields by pipeline construction workers and temporary or day la.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1427. The bucket at the end of the fine is swung into position and is then dragged into the material to be moved or dug out.com . is a continuation of the producing acreage and therefore more or less valuable as a source of additional oil or gas.mzhelu@gmail. borers. DRAINAGE Migration of oil or gas in a reservoir owing to a pressure reduction caused by production from wells drilled into the reservoir. 1432. 1431. 1428. 1429. Z. drainage radius the area of a reservoir in which a single well serves as a point for drainage of reservoir fluids. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1433. DRAINAGE TRACT A lease or tract of land. 1430. Local drainage is the movement of oil and gas toward the well bore of a producing well. an offshore Federal lease contiguous to producing property whose subsurface geologic structure. immediately adjacent to a tract with proven production. draft marks pl numbers placed on the sides or ends of a floating offshore drilling rig to indicate its draft. drag bit DRAG LINE (See bat and fishtail bit.) A type of large excavating machine made with a long boom over which a line runs down to a clamshell bucket. usually offshore. 187 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Draw works are located on one side of the derrick floor. shaft. Some 69 feet deep. and serve as a power-control center for the hoisting gear and rotary elements of the drill column. 2. in 1859 to a depth of 69 1/2 feet using crude cable-tool equipment. Pa.). DRAINAGE UNIT The maximum area in an oil pool or field that may be drained efficiently by one well so as to produce the maximum amount of recoverable oil or gas in such an area. clutches. 188 188 Petroleum Engineer: M. Pennsylvania. brakes and other machinery used on a drilling rig.com . drawworks DRAWING TI IE FIRES Shutting dowry a refinery unit in preparation for a turnaround (q. and completed in 1859. the difference between static and flowing bottomhole pressures. EDWIN L. power take off. The man who drilled the country's first oil well near Titusville. DRAW WORKS The collective name for the hoisting drum. Z. 1435. drawdown 1. DRAKE COL. it was drilled near Titusville. 1437.. well drilled in search of oil. Drake well the first U. cable. the distance between the static level and the pumping level of the fluid in the annulus of a pumping well. It is essentially a large winch that spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the drill stem and bit. 1439.mzhelu@gmail. the hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.S.v. 1436. 1438.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1434.

Z. This type sleeve connection is used on small-diameter. The dress-up crew smooths the land. 1444. or out of register. etc. It does not measure the direction of inclination. The drift mandrel (jack rabbit) is put through each joint of casing and tubing to make certain the inside diameters are sizes specified for the particular job. 1446. low-pressure fines. 1443. 1441. grass. DRESSER SLEEVE A slip-type collar that connects two lengths of plain-end (threadless) pipe. 1447.) a device dropped or run down the drill stem on a wireline to just above the bit to measure the inclination of the well off vertical at that point. plants trees. DRIFT MANDREL A device used to check the size of casing and tubing before it is run. drift to move slowly out of alignment. pumps.mzhelu@gmail.com . to sharpen or repair items of equipment (as drilling bits and tool joints). off center. drift angle drift indicator (See deviation. 1442.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1440. and builds fences and gates. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A right-of-way gang that cleans up after the construction crews have completed their work. 2. 189 Petroleum Engineer: M. the area where the driller and his crew work. DRERRICK FLOOR dress DRESS-UP CREW Derrick floor. to gauge or measure pipe by means of a mandrel passed through it to ensure the passage of tools. 1445.

1454. drill ahead drill around to continue drilling operations. a heavy steel "head" c quipped with various types of cutting or grinding teeth. 1451. 1455. "He drilled around me and got the promotion.com .mzhelu@gmail. some are fixed. The tool attached to the lower end of the drilipipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. some turn on bearings.v. bends. usually to find and remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and gas. 2. drig drill drilling.) Testing casing or tubing for roundness. A hole in the bottom of the drill permits the flow of drilling mud being pumped down through the drillpipe to wash the cuttings to the surface and also cool and lubricate the bit. Pipe must be of proper diameter throughout to be able to run downhole tools such as packers. used in drilling reports. or flat places in the pipe by use of a drift mandrel (q. (See bit. to bore a hole in the earth. to deflect the wellbore away from an obstruction in the hole. drift survey DRIFTING THE PIPE (See deviation survey.) or jack rabbit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1448.connector between drillpipe and 190 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1453. 1 1450. (slang) to get the better of someone (as. plugs. etc. 1. 1452.) drill bit DRILL BIT ROTARY 1456. Z. making certain there are no kinks.

three-cone roller bit.mzhelu@gmail. See Drill Bit. torsion. which is located just above the drill bit in the string. 1461. act 191 Petroleum Engineer: M. Drag. Originally. a non insert bit. Z. SQUARE A type of drill collar whose cross section is square instead of circular as in a more conventional collar. The square corners on the collar. 1 1460. drill collar a heavy.com . usually steel. thick-walled tube. Drilling was accomplished by the tearing and gouging action of the bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bit. 1462. 1 1458. used between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem to weight the bit in order to improve its performance. DRILL BIT. the drill collar was a means of attaching the drill bit to the drillpipe and to strengthen the lower end of the drill column which is subject to extreme compression. Mill-tooth bits a re used in relatively soft formations found at shallow pepths. DIAMOND DRILL BIT. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1465. Now the drill collar is used to concentrate a heavy mass of metal near the lower end of the drill column. DRILL BIT. DRAG See Diamond Drill Bit. and bending stresses. and was efficient in soft formations the forerunner of the modern. A bit with cutting teeth integral to the metal of the cones of the bit. Square drill collars are used to prevent or minimize the chances of becoming hung up or stuck in a dogleg downhole. FISH-TAIL DRILL BIT. DRILL COLLAR. MILL-TOOTH A drag bit. 1 1464. A type of old-style drilling tool in which the cutting tooth or teeth were the shape of a fish tail.

because of increased bit pressure and rapid rotation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drill in to penetrate the productive formation after the casing is set and cemented on top of the pay zone. Drill Cores. Petroleum Engineer: M. Electric.000-foot lengths and weigh 50-100 tons. collars are made up in 1. a catamaran hull. drill out to remove with the bit the residual cement that normally remains in the lower section of casing and the wellbore after the casing has been cemented. They may have a ship hull. 1468. drill pipe the heavy seamless tubing used to rotate the bit and circulate the drilling fluid. 1472.Drill collars were once a few feet long and weighed 400 or 500 pounds. drill site 192 the location of a drilling rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as a reamer and to tend to keep the hole passable for the drillpipe. 1466. a ship constructed to permit a well to be drilled from it at an offshore semisubmersible).mzhelu@gmail. Cores A cylindrical sample of rock obtained by drilling with a hollow donut-shaped 1467. DRILL RIG.com . location. are capable of drilling exploratory wells in relatively deep waters. 1469. 1471. joints of pipe 30 ft long are coupled together by means of tool joints. DC-DC drill ship While not as stable as other floating structures (as a See Drilling Rig. Today. bit and pipe. or a trimaran hull. drill ships. or ship shape. 1470. Z.

are available. Drilling under pressure is advantageous in that the rate of penetration is relatively fast.com . DRILL. Z. If no hydrocarbon-bearing formations are found above the basement. Tools that cut the pipe either internally or externally. Drill String A string of individual joints of drill pipe that extend from the bit to the kelly pipe. composed of the kelly. ROTARY-PERCUSSION A drill bit that rotates in a conventional manner but at the same time acts as a high-frequency pneumatic hammer. liquid. drill under pressure to carry on drilling operations while maintaining a seal (usually with a rotating head) to prevent the well fluids from blowing out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1474. and drill collars. that make up the drilling assembly from the surface to the bottom of the hole. drill to granite to drill a hole until basement rock is encountered. the drill bit. 1475. drill stem the entire length of tubular pipes. 1476. however. drill-pipe cutter a tool to cut drill pipe stuck in the hole. and rotates. permitting some of it to be withdrawn. the drill pipe. the technique requires extreme caution. usually in a wildcat well.mzhelu@gmail. producing both a boring and a fracturing action simultaneously. 193 Petroleum Engineer: M. The drill string carries the mud down to. The hammer-like mechanism is located just above the bit and is actuated by air. or high-frequency 1479. 1478. the well is assumed to be dry. let cutoff or chemical cutoff also is used to free stuck pipe. 1477. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

or other soft brittle material. drill-pipe float a valve installed in the drill stem that allows mud to be pumped down the drill stem but prevents flow back up the drill stem. drill-stem test drillable (See formation testing. 1487. If the minute rock particles do not drop out in the mud pits or are not removed by surface equipment.com . 1485.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1480. drill-pipe safety valve a special valve used to close off the drill pipe to prevent flow and having threads to match the drill pipe in use. Drillable equipment is made of cast iron. they add to the mud's density. or both. 1486. DRILLED SOLIDS Rock particles broken and pulverized by the bit and picked up by the drilling mud as it circulates. drill-pipe pressure gauge an indicator that is mounted on the mud-circulating system to measure the amount of pressure in the drill stem. the entry of formation pressure into the well. 1481. 1484. 1483. aluminum. plastic. Z. 1482. a check valve. drill-pipe pressure the amount of pressure exerted inside the drill pipe as a result of circulating pressure. 194 Petroleum Engineer: M. drill-pipe protector an antifriction device of rubber or steel attached to each joint of drill pipe to minimize wear.) pertaining to packers and other tools left in the wellbore to be broken up later by the drill bit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.

1488. bit record.com . 1 1492. 1493. His main duty is operation of the drilling and hoisting equipment. See Drilling Mud Density.mzhelu@gmail. but he is also responsible for the downhole condition of the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering This condition can cause serious drilling and circulation problems. driller's console a metal cabinet on the rig floor containing the controls that the driller manipulates to operate various functions of the drilling rig. Z. to depth. driller the employee directly in charge of a drilling or workover rig and crew.) the area immediately surrounding the driller's console. 1489. driller's log a record that describes each formation encountered and lists the drilling time relative. driller's BOP control panel a series of controls on the rig floor that the driller manipulates to open and close the blowout preventers. 1490.to 10-ft intervals. and other noteworthy occurrences. drilling fluid tests. 195 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1495. 1494. operation of downhole tools. driller's panel driller's position driller's report (See driller's console. and pipe measurements. usually in 5. a record kept on the rig for each tour to show the footage drilled.

mzhelu@gmail. (See barge. 1500. See API Bid Sheet and Well Specifications 196 Petroleum Engineer: M. particularly a deep well. 1499. It sometimes indicates that the bit has penetrated a high-pressure zone and thus warns of the pos. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. producing or production platforms The tool.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1496. An area composed of separate contiguous leaseholds rage enough to drill an exploratory well. Before drilling such a well. large-diameter. DRILLING AND BELLING TOOL A long. cylindrical drill with articulating cutting blades folded into the body of the drill for digging holes for piling-in off shore installations drilling. Z. the operator will usually try to acquire a sizeable block of leases surrounding the site of the proposed exploratory well. DRILLING CONTRACT An agreement setting forth the items of major concern to both the operator and drilling contractor in the drilling of a designated well at a given location and at a specified time.) drilling barge DRILLING BLOCK 1498. One standard drilling contract form is the American Petroleum Institute's (API). 1497. This operation is "drilling in" the piling instead of the more common method of driving the piling. is so constructed that when it reaches the required depth of a few hundred feet the hinged cutting blades are extended to cut out a bell-shaped cavity at the bottom of the borehole.com . drilling break a sudden increase in the rate of penetration by the drill bit. Piles then can be inserted and cemented. another is the American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors'(AAODC). sibility of a blowout. two to four feet in diameter.

carry rock cuttings to the surface and control down hole pressure. drilling engineer Drilling Fluid an engineer who specializes in the technical aspects of drilling. It is also called an automatic driller or automatic drilling control unit. and two or more helpers who operate a drilling or workover rig for one tour each day. to cool and lubricate the drill bit. Wells are drilled on a per foot basis. others are contracted on a day rate. 197 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1506. 1504. See Turnkey Contract 1502. Z. lubricate the drill pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1501. gasoline. drilling fluid analysis DRILLING FLUID SPECIALIST (See mud analysis. drilling engine an internal-combustion engine used to power a drilling rig. DRILLING CONTRACTOR A person or company whose business is drilling wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1503. INTANGIBLE drilling crew See Intangible Drilling Costs. 1507. From two to six engines are used on a rotary rig. 1505. or gas. a driller.com .v. a derrickman. drilling control a device that controls the rate of penetration on a bit by maintaining a constant weight of a predetermined magnitude on the bit.) A mud engineer (q. Fluids continuously circulated down the wellbore. fueled by diesel fuel. 1509. DRILLING COSTS.).mzhelu@gmail. 1508.

DRILLING HEAD. as the drilling fluid.mzhelu@gmail. ROTATING A heavy casing boiled to the top of the blowout present the casing through which air or gas drilling is done. Such funds attract "high-bracket" persons who will receive certain tax benefits. This procedure is used for development drilling. the chips are brought back up the annulus by the force of the high pressure air and are vented through the blooie pipe to the burn pit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1511. 1512. DRILLING ISLAND A man-made island constructed in water 10 to 50 feet deep by dredging up the lake or bay bottom to make a foundation from which to drill wells.000. The kelly joint fits in the rotating element of the drilling head. 1514. also the tool pusher or rig superintendent. DRILLING FUND A general term Cescribing a variety of organizations established to attract venture capital to oil and gas exploration and development. rarely in wildcatting. Compressed air. Z. drilling head a special rotating head that has a gear and pinion drive arrangement to allow turning of the kelly simultaneously with scaling the kelly against well pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Usually the fund is established as a joint venture or limited partnership with minimum investments of $5-$10. 1515. 1513. As the bit pulverizes the rock. drilling foreman the supervisor of drilling or workover operations on a rig.com . enters the drillstring through a flexible hose attached to the kelly. 198 Petroleum Engineer: M.

1523. A type of derrick consisting of two parallel legs.com . 1 1522. DRILLING JARS A jointed section in a string of cable tools made with slack or play between the joints. The jars jolting action is initiated either by the weight or tension of the drillstring which the driller can apply. the sudden jar or impact developed by taking up of the slack in the jars aids in freeing the bit. HYDRAULIC A toot used in the drillstring for imparting an upward or downward jar or jolt to the drillpipe should it get stuck in . 1519. 1520. gallon or in pounds per cubic foot. Z. Drilling Mud DRILLING MUD DENSITY A common term for drilling fluids. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Driller's Log. In 199 Petroleum Engineer: M. It the bit becomes lodged in the hole. drilling line DRILLING LOG DRILLING MAST a wire rope used to support the drilling tools. in contrast to the conventional four-legged derrick in the form of a pyramid.he hole while drilling or making a trip. The mast is held upright by guy wires. DRILLING JARS.S. An advanced type of deep-drilling rig employs a mast like derrick of two principal members with a base as an integral part of the mast. 1517.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1516. This type mast is generally used on shallow wells or for reconditioning work. Density of mud is important because it determines the hydrostatic pressure the mud will exert at any particular depth in the well.mzhelu@gmail. The weight of drilling mud expressed in pounds per U. 1518.

a drilling permit is the authorization to drill at a specified location. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. rotary speed and torque. A drilling rig that receives its power from a system comprised of diesel engine-DC generator-DC motor. during drilling. 1530. 1532.) drilling rig DRILLING RIG.) See Mat-supported Drilling Platform. ELECTRIC 1533. (See rig. an instrument that records hook load. Z. mud weight is synonymous with mud density. To "heavy up on the mud" is to increase its density. 1528. 1529. the rate of Penetration.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the industry. 1525. pump rate and pressure. 1531. and so forth. mud flow.com . one for the draw works and rotary table and one somewhat smaller set for lighting and auxiliary 200 Petroleum Engineer: M. drilling platform DRILLING PLATFORM. MONOPOD drilling rate drilling recorder (See platform.) In states that regulate well spacing. drilling pattern DRILLING PERMIT (See well spacing. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM. the speed with which the bit drills the formation. See Monopod Drilling Platform.mzhelu@gmail. penetration rate. 1 1527. 1524. a well permit. A typical engine-generator-motor rig-up would include fore such sets two for the mud pumps.

SPLIT-LEVEL A land rig design in which the diesel engines. DRILLING SPOOL (1)The part of the draw works that holds the drilling fine. draw works. Another type of electric rig uses the same power-flow system but the generators are AC. Electric. rising at about a 45' angle to the gear and chain drive on the rig floor. See Drilling Rig. drilling template (See temporary guide base. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 201 Petroleum Engineer: M. DRILLING RIG.com .mzhelu@gmail. and mud pumps. whose current is converted to DC current to drive DC motors for variable-speed drilling operations. Separate engine-AC generator sets Provide lighting and power for auxiliary functions. The power from the high-speed (1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering loads. 1535.800 rpm) diesel engines is transmitted through clutches and compound to the rotary table through a torque tube. and draw works are at or near ground level. Z. On the rig floor are the cat works and the rotary table as on a conventional rig. gear compound. 12 to 15 feet below and behind the rig floor. MECHANICAL The most common type of drilling rig is the mechanical compound rig. the drum of drilling cable on which is spooled wire that is threaded over the crown block sheaves and attached to the traveling block. 1537. 1536. (2) A flanged connector and installed within the blowout preventer stack to which the mud access lines and choke and kill lines are attached. 1534. DRILLING RIG. Mechanical rigs use diesel engines coupled directly to the equipment or through compound shafts to drive the rotary.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1538. mud.com . DRILLWELL (DRILLSHIP) See Moonpool. If the formation pressure is sufficient. cement. The tool consists of a packer (q.v. 1543. drilling unit the acreage allocated to a well when a regulatory agency grants a well 1540. carrying all of the supplies and equipment needed to drill and complete a well. 1539. DRILLING. DRILLING TENDER A barge-like vessel that acts as a supply ship for a small. 202 Petroleum Engineer: M. DRILLSTEM TEST A method of obtaining a sample of fluid from a formation using a "formationtester tool" attached to the drillstem. DRILLSTEM The drillpipe. a ship equipped with a derrick amidships for drilling wells in deep water. offshore drilling platform.mzhelu@gmail. the bit is attached to the drillstem or drift column which rotates to "dig" the hole. 1542. In rotary drifting. INFILL DRILLSHIP See Infill Drilling. Z. spare parts. 1544.) to isolate the section to be tested and a chamber to collect a sample of fluid. A drillship is self-contained. A self-propelled vessel. The tender carries pipe. permit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1541. fluid flows into the tester up the drillpipe to the surface. and in some instances provides crow quarters.

gasoline recovered from a drip (q. solution gas.) Natural gasoline recovered at the surface of a well as the result of the separation of certain of the liquid hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas in the formation. A reservoir is very much like a pressure vessel. drip accumulator DRIP GASOLINE (See accumulator.). DRIP OILER DRIVE See Wick Oiler. The energy or force present in an oil reservoir which causes the fluid to move toward the wells borehole and up to the surface when the reservoir is penetrated by the drill. 1549. Z. casinghead gasoline.mzhelu@gmail. 1548. 1547. and artificial drives (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1545. Also called the kelly bushing. DRIP A small in-line tank or condensing chamber in a pipeline to collect the liquids that condense out of the gas stream. The drive bushing may be square or hexagonal to fit the rotary opening or have pins for transmitting torque.v. 1550.v. water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. There are several kinds of reservoir drives gas cap. drive bushing a special device to fit the rotary bushing and transmit torque to the kelly and simultaneously to permit vertical movement of the kelly to make hole.) in a field gas line. 1546. Drips are installed in low places in the line and must be "blown" or emptied periodically. when a well is drilled into the reservoir it is as if a valve were opened to vent the pressure.com . 203 Petroleum Engineer: M.

1553. thus the unit can be driven straight ahead to reach the wellhead. the hoops had to be driven to tighten the seams between the staves to prevent leaks. using power from the hoisting engines.com . Metal bands like those on a wooden barrel held the staves together. See Casing. first used in an oil well by Colonel Drake. DRIVE PIPE A metal casing driven into the borehole of a well to prevent caving of the walls and to shut off surface water.mzhelu@gmail. Early-day lease tanks were made of redwood in the shape of a truncated cone (nearly cylindrical). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Their staves are held together with steel rods equipped with turnbuckles for keeping the tank watertight.) 1554. Today wooden tanks are used on leases to handle salt water and other corrosive liquids. 1552. 204 Petroleum Engineer: M. DROWNING A colloquial term for the encroachment of water at the well bore into a formation that once produced oil but now produces more and more water. Ale driver's cab and steering wheel are mounted on the same end as the mast support. drive-in unit a type of portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled. Z. Once a year or so. (See carrier rig. DRIVE THE HOOPS To tighten the staves of a wooden stock tank by driving the metal bands or hoops down evenly around the circumference of the tank.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1551. The drive pipe. was the forerunner of the modern 'conductor or surface pipe.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2. Z. 1560.com . dry well (See dry hole.) 205 Petroleum Engineer: M. A dry hole may flow water. gas from which water has been removed. dry gas a natural gas comprised primarily of light hydrocarbon vapors. drum 1. 1559. the fluid is usually circulated into the well to cool the bit. gas. a cylindrical steel container of 50 to 55 U. 1558. Such vapors tend not to liquefy under the temperatures and pressures usually encountered in the reservoir or at the wellhead. However. (See blind drilling. a cylinder around which wire rope is wound before being attached to the drawworks. dry string the drill pipe from which drilling mud has been emptied as it is pulled out of 1561. but not enough to justify production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1555.) 1557.S. dry hole any well that does not produce oil or gas in commercial quantities. dry oil an oil that has been treated so that only small quantities of water and other extraneous materials remain in it. 2. gal (200 liters) used to ship refined products. dry drilling a drilling operation in which no fluid is circulated back up to the surface (often resulting in lost circulation). 1556.mzhelu@gmail. the wellbore. or even oil.

" from contaminating other formations. dry-bed dehydrator a collection of devices for removing water from gas in which two or more beds of desiccant are used.com . DUAL COMPLETION The completion of a well In two separate producing formations. DRY-HOLE PLUG A plug inserted in a well that is dry to seal off the formations that were penetrated by the borehole. The wet gas is sent through one bed for drying while the other is prepared for later use. A downhole test of the productive capacity of a well through drill pipe up to the surface to obtain samples of gases and fluids and determine their rate of sustained flow. DRYTREE A Christmas tree installed on land or above water as distinguished from a "wet tree. 1566. This treatment prevents salt water. Wells sometimes are completed in three or even four 206 Petroleum Engineer: M." providing useful information. Z. 1565. DST Drill Stem Test. often encountered in "dry holes. Before the well is drilled. 1564. each at different depths. 1568." one installed on the sea bed or under water. See Plugging a Well. DRY-HOLE MONEY Money paid by one or more interested parties (those owning land or a lease nearby) to an operator who drills a well that is a dry hole.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1563. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The well whether successful or dry serves to "prove their land. 1567. the operator solicits dry hole "contributions" and in return for financial assistance agrees to furnish certain information to the contributors.

CARBON PETROLEUM Mr.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering separate formations with four strings of tubing inserted in the casing. two separate producing formations. a petroleum chemist developed a cracking process that found wide acceptance in the 1920s. each at a different depth. 1572. In some installations.com .v. Oil from fields on shore is pumped into the top of the tanks under pressure forcing the sea water out the bottom. DUBAI STORAGE TANKS A specially designed. DUBBS. 1573. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DUAL DISCOVERY A well drilled into two commercial pay zones. The offshore tanks which are more than 100 feet tall also serve as single-point moorings for tankers taking on crude. Stationary engines in the field have modifications made to their carburetors that permit them to operate either on gasoline or natural gas. underwater storage tank the shape of an inverted funnel. the engine is switched to natural gas automatically. 207 Petroleum Engineer: M. DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Engines equipped to run on liquid as well as gaseous fuel. This is accomplished with packers (q. and was almost as popular as the Burton still which was developed for Standard Oil Company of Indiana. 1571.) that seal off all formations except the one to be produced by a particular string of tubing. when the gasoline supply is used up. Dubbs. The tanks have no bottoms and rest on the sea floor supported on their rims. 1 1570. built by Chicago Bridge & iron for Dubai Petroleum Company. Z.

) enters the injection string by its own pressure. 1578.v. Any small pumping device used on construction jobs or other temporary 1577. DULLS DUMP Drill bits badly worn or have lost Inserts or have broken teeth.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1574.mzhelu@gmail. DUCK'S NEST Colloquial term for a standby drilling mud tank or pit used to hold extra mud. 208 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually of the disk or flapper type.). DUMP FLOODING An unusual secondary recovery technique that uses water from a shallow water bed above the producing pay to I food the oil-producing interval. The weight of the hydrostatic column (water column) produces the necessary force for it to penetrate the oil formation. used to place or spot material (as cement slurry) at the bottom of the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Z. or as an overflow in the event of a gas "kick" (q. i.. pushing the oil ahead of it to the producing wells in the field. 1579.e.v. DUMP GAS Gas delivered under a dump gets contract. The water from the aquifer (q. 1575. operations. a gas purchase and delivery contract that does not call for the delivery of a specified amount of gas but which does call for delivery of surplus gas after meeting the terms of a firm gas contract. dump bailer a bailing device with a release valve. 1576.

duplex pump a reciprocating pump having two pistons or plungers. but may be a liquid-level controller as well. a well that encounters neither gas nor liquid at total depth. dump valve the discharge valve through which oil and water are discharged from separators. also called a measuring tank. Z. 1581.mzhelu@gmail. 1585.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1580. 1586. the portion of a stud or screw that remains in place after the head has inadvertently been twisted off. 1584. used extensively as a mud pump on drilling rigs. DUMPBOX A heavy wooden or metal box where the contents of a cable-tool well's bailer are emptied. dump tank a calibrated metering tank designed to automatically release an accurate volume of liquid. mud. 1582. and rock cuttings to empty into the box and slush-pit launder (q. a tool-joint pin broken off in the drill-pipe box or drill collar box.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1583.v. It is usually a motor valve. 209 Petroleum Engineer: M. The end of the bailer is lowered into the box which pushes the dart upwards. 2. dump meter a liquid-measuring device consisting of a small tank with narrowed sections at top and bottom that automatically fills and empties itself and records the number of dumps. treaters. and so on. DUSTER dutchman A dry hole.). unseating the ball valve and permitting the water. 1.

is used in straight and directional drilling. several motors called thrusters are located on the hull(s) of the structure and are actuated by a sensing system.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1587. dynamic positioning a method by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained in position over an offshore well location. The Dyna-Drill. DYNAMIC STATIONING A method of keeping a drill ship or semisubmersible drilling platform on target. dwt Dyna-Drill deadweight ton. dynamometer 1. A computer to which the system feeds signals then directs the thrusters to maintain the rig on location.com . 1591. 1589. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a trade name. Z. thus eliminating the need to turn the entire drill stem to make hole. Dynaflex tool the trade name for a directional drilling tool that deflects the drilling assembly off vertical without having to be pulled from the hole.v. The device that causes the tool to be deflected can be caught and retrieved with a wireline.mzhelu@gmail. the dynamometer indicates a variation in 210 Petroleum Engineer: M.) activated by underwater sensing devices that signal when the vessel has moved a few degrees off its drilling station. over the hole dying drilling operations where the water is too deep for the use of anchors. a device used to measure the brake horsepower of a prime mover. 1592. This is accomplished by the use of thrusters (q. 1588. 1590. a downhole motor driven by drilling fluid that imparts rotary motion to a drilling bit connected to the tool. 2. As applied to a sucker-rod pumping. Generally.

Easement a right that one individual or company has on anther's land. 1594. from which an analysis is made of the performance of the well-pumping equipment. E9M3 EARNEST MONEY Billion cubic metres. In the petroleum industry. 1595. 211 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1598.com . 1596. it usually refers to the permission given by a landowner for a pipeline or access road to be laid across his property.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering load on the polished rod as the rod string reciprocates. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1597. A continuous record of the result of forces acting along the axis of the polished rod is provided on a dynamometer card. 1599.) by removing or producing 1600. the study of living things and their relation to their environment. LUBRICANTS Extreme pressure lubricating oils and greases which contain substances added to prevent metal to metal contact in highly loaded gears and turntables.v. The reduction in the value of a wasting asset (q. 1593. EASY DIGGING Ecology ECONOMIC DEPLETION A soft job. Edge well a well on the outer fringes of a productive subsurface formation. E. Z.P. the minerals.mzhelu@gmail. an assignment of work that can be handled without much exertion. hand money. A sum of money paid to bind a financial transaction prior to the signing of a contract.

out fall.mzhelu@gmail. Elbow a fitting that allows two pipes to be joined together at an angle of less than 180'. usually 90' or 45'. much more so than natural rubber. used in drilling reports. log electric log.) 1605. EFFLUENT The discharge or outflow from a manufacturing or processing plant. valve seats. machinery vibrationabsorber mounts. etc. (See electric well log. 1607. Effective porosity the percentage of the bulk volume of a rock sample that is composed of interconnected pore spaces that allow the passage of fluids through the sample. (See porosity. Elec. swab cups. guides. ELASTOMER Any of various elastic materials or substances resembling rubber.com . 1 1603. Z.) 212 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1606. The petrochemical industry has produced many types of elastomers that are used for gasket material. Elastomers are highly resistant to chemical decomposition (hydrolysis) in the presence of hydrocarbons which make them desirable for use in the petroleum industry.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1601. the permeability of a rock to a fluid when the saturation of the fluid is less than 100 percent. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drainage. 1604. 1608. Edgewater Effective permeability the water that touches the edge of the oil in the lower horizon of a formation.

) (See electric rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. From the results of the survey. 213 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1611. 1610. It is also called an electric log or electric survey. and estimate their depth.) 1613.com . ELECTRIC TRACING Electric well log See Heat Tracing. ELECTRIC WELL LOGGING The procedure of lowering electrical instruments into the well bore to lest the density and other characteristics of rock formations penetrated. geologists are able to determine the nature of the rock penetrated by the drill and some indication of its permeability. 1614. ELECTRIC (WELL) LOG An electrical survey of a well's borehole before it is cased. Such a rig has an electric drive. 1615.mzhelu@gmail. Electric dehydration Electric drive Electric rig (See emulsion breaker. Z. Electric survey (ES) (See electric well log. determine the nature and amount of fluids they contain.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1609. a record of certain electrical characteristics of formations traversed by the borehole. 1612.) a drilling rig on which the energy from the power source is distributed to the various rig components through electrical conductors as opposed to distribution by mechanical transmission. which reflects the degree of resistance of the rock strata to electric current. made to identify the formations.

nickel.com . magnesium and iron) are placed in an electrolyte and connected by a metallic conductor.. The following metals are so arranged magnesium. produced by grids placed perpendicular to the flow of fluids in the 214 Petroleum Engineer: M. Corroding action of stray currents is caused by electrolysis. and gold. thus increasing its electrical conductivity. 1620.mzhelu@gmail. when dissolved in water. an electromotive force is produced. iron. by using heat. (See corrosion. tin. copper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1616. Electrochemical treater Electrolysis (See electrostatic treater. cadmium. This field. dissociates into positive and negative ions. Electromotive force (emf) 1.) the decomposition of a chemical compound.) 1618. chemicals. Electrostatic treater a vessel that receives emulsion flows and resolves the emulsion to oil. 2. Electromotive series a list of elements arranged in order of activity (tendency to lose electrons).g.) 1619. Z. chromium. (See corrosion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 1621. and a high-voltage electric field. the force that drives electrons and thus produces an electric current. the voltage or electric pressure that causes an electric current to flow along a conductor. zinc. brought about by the passage of an electrical current through the compound or through the solution containing the compound. silver. Electrolyte a chemical that. (See dissociation. water. and usually gas. aluminum. If two metals widely separated in the list (e. beryllium. 1617.

used in drilling reports. aids in breaking the emulsion.mzhelu@gmail. Naval Petroleum Reserves. 1628. 1626. Teapot Dome in Wyoming and the North Slope in Alaska are two other large Naval Petroleum. and one of the most abundant elements is carbon. 1627. and is classed as one of the world's giant petroleum fields. 1624. a device that connects the tubing elevators and traveling block. Reserves. Elk Hills is a major part of the U. a vessel above a datum line (usually ground level).S. Z.com . For example. oil reserve in 1909 by President Taft upon recommendation of the U. or sucker rods.S.S. so that the stand can be raised or lowered into the hole. (See emulsion treating. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. of casing. Elk Hills was set aside as a U. the simplest element is hydrogen. drill pipe. ELK HILLS Located in the lower end of the San Joaquin Valley of California.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering treater. Some elements such as radium and uranium are radioactive. 1623. Element one of more than 100 simple substances that consist of atoms of only one kind and that either singly or in combination make up all matter. a set of clamps that grip a stand. or column. tubing. Geological Survey (USGS). 215 Petroleum Engineer: M. Elevated tank Elevator balls Elevator links Elevators elevation. the linkage between the elevator and traveling block. Elev. 1625.) The electrostatic treater is also called the Chemelectric or electrochemical treater. 1622.

device. Z. electromotive force. in a water-oil emulsion. 1 1636. 1632. Emulsified water water so thoroughly combined with oil that special treating methods must be applied to separate it from the oil. A large identation of a coastline. An embayed coastline. A typical product of oil wells. water-oil emulsion also is used as a drilling fluid. thus uniting all the drops. which destroy weaken the film around each globule of water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1629. Emulsion breaker a system. 1631. termed the dispersed phase. the oil is the dispersed phase and the water the dispersion medium. the reverse holds. The right of a government body or public utility (common carrier) to take private property for public use by condemnation proceedings (q. Compare free water.) 1633. or process used for breaking down an emulsion and rendering it into two or more easily separated compounds (as water and oil). (3) mechanical devices such 216 Petroleum Engineer: M. thus achieving separation by lowering the viscosity of the emulsion and allowing the water to settle out. (2) chemical compounds.v. a bay. 1634. called the continuous phase or dispersion medium. 1630. is uniformly distributed (usually as minute globules) in another liquid.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In an oil-water emulsion.com . Elliptical tank EMBAYMENT Emf EMINENT DOMAIN a tank that has an elliptical cross section. Emulsion a mixture in which one liquid. Emulsion breakers may be (1) devices to heat the emulsion.

com . 1637. depending upon what emulsion is being treated. EMULSION. Such tests may range from elaborate distillation conducted in laboratories to simple and expedient practices used in the field. Emulsion treaters have a gas-fired furnace at the bottom of the vessel to heat 'he stream of oil piped through from the well to the stock tanks. a type of oil heater for "breaking down" oil-water emulsions with heat and the addition of certain chemicals. 1638.mzhelu@gmail. When this occurs the small droplets join others to form larger ones which have enough mass or weight to settle to the bottom. Emulsion test a procedure carried out to determine the proportions of sediment and dispersed compounds in an emulsion.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as settling tanks and wash tanks. CRUDE OIL-WATER Very small droplets of water suspended in a volume of crude oil. or (4) electrostatic treaters. although heavier than oil. EMULSION TREATER A tall cylindrical vessel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the surface tension of the film of oil is reduced sufficiently to free the water droplets. which use an electric field to cause coalescence of the water globules. a heater-treater. Emulsion treating the process of breaking down emulsions to separate oil from water or other contaminants. This is also called electric dehydration. each droplet surrounded or encased in a film of oil. 1639. 1 1641. 217 Petroleum Engineer: M. cannot settle to the bottom of the tank until. through the application of heat or mixing with a chemical. Treating plants may use a single process or a combination of processes to effect demulsification. The water. Z.

goods for consumer use finished products. synthetic fuels (q. 1644. ENDOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep it going. ENERGY SOURCES Petroleum. solar. Z. 1647.). tides. Exothermic is the reverse a process or reaction that once begun gives off beat. Encroachment END POINT (See water encroachment. END PRODUCTS END USE Material.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1642. 1648. 1645.com .mzhelu@gmail. wind. In the analysis of liquids such as gasoline.v. 1643.). Ultimate use. a signal to "put out" in a big lift. geothermal (q. hydropower. END-O The command given by one worker to another or to a group to lift together and move an object forward. nuclear. coal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. consumption of a product by a commercial or industrial 1646. End points are of value in predicting certain performance characteristics of gasoline. 218 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.) The point indicating the end of an operation or the point at which a certain definite change is observed. the end point is the temperature at which the liquid ceases to distill over. substances. customer.

which enhanced recovery is targeted to produce. 5. miscible hydrocarbon. (See secondary recovery and tertiary recovery. 5. kerosene.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1649.) 219 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1653. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Sophisticated recovery methods for crude oil which go beyond the more conventional secondary recovery techniques of pressure maintenance and water-flooding. 1652. C02. polymer.8.v. 6. HOT-PLUG Engler distillation See Hot-plug Engine. fabric belt which transmitted power from the engine to the band wheel. Some fields require the application of one of the above methods even for initial recovery of crude oil.7 petroleum coke. 5. ENGINE. 1650. gasoline. Z. steam drive. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.6. a certain amount of oil remains in the reservoir.3.031 wet gas. EOR methods are not restricted to secondary or oven tertiary projects. 6.). a test that determines the volatility of a gasoline by measuring the percentage of the gasoline that can be distilled at various temperatures. and steam soak. 110. and asphalt.mzhelu@gmail.3. Enhanced recovery a method or methods applied to depleted reservoirs to make them productive once again. ENERGY VALUE OF PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS Million BTU per barrel crude oil.com .0. Enhanced recovery methods now being used include micellar surfactant (q. BTU per cubic foot dry natural gas. Attached to the engine house was the belt hall which housed the wide. 1. residual fuel oil. 1. 1651.6 distillate fuel oil. ENGINE HOUSE On a cable. 5. After an oil well has reached depletion. 1654.tool rig the engine house held the steam-powered drilling engine. 6.

Refiners With more price controlled oil than a calculated national average were required to buy entitlements.S.e.mzhelu@gmail. and Gulf had available a larger percent of Pricecontrolled oil than the national average and Bradford had Tees than the average. Z. it is the sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its pressure multiplied by its volume (i. ENRICHED-GAS INJECTION A secondary recovery method involving the injection of gas rich in intermediate hydrocarbons or enriched by addition of propane. Gulf. The buying and selling of entitlement was between traditional slippers and purchasers. advantage to some refiners. refiners-crude oil which was price controlled substantially below world price. H = U + pV). would pay to Bradford Refining a certain amount of money for each barrel of uncontrolled crude oil it had to buy in the world market 220 Petroleum Engineer: M. The reasoning was that disproportionate access to inexpensive domestic crude would cave an unfair.com . 1657.. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. those with a large supply of price oil. butane. ENTITLEMENTS PROGRAM A program instituted in 1974 by the federal government to equalize the access to domestic crude by all U. For example. 1656. Enthalpy the heat content of fuel.. or pentane on the surface or in the well bore as the gas is injected. the traditional supplier. The program's aim was to make available Controlled to each refiner the same fraction of low-priced oil. In effect. A thermodynamic property. Refiners with a lower than average amount of price controlled oil could sell entitlement.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1655. if Gulf oil were the traditional supplier of crude oil to Bradford Refining Co. Bradford could se11 its entitlement for crude-cost equalization to Gulf and Gulf would be required to buy them.

or physical. In cases where a concession is owned jointly by a host government and an oil company. The complex concept of entropy carries implications of the randomness of any system. ENTRY POSITION A starting job with a company usually sought by young man or man and woman just out of school who wishes to get into the business at whatever level with the expectation of president in due time. The cost of equity crude is calculated according to the price. as opposed to buy-back (participation) crude. chemical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mechanical. 221 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Buyback Crude Oil.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1658.lie oil company is known as equity crude.v. 1661. Special separators are used to remove the liquid from the gas stream. Z. Environmental Protection Agency. 1662. Environments of deposition EOR EPA EQUITY CRUDE (See depositional environment. the crude produced which belongs to .) Enhanced oil recovery (q.mzhelu@gmail. Entropy a measure of the amount of energy used internally in a system and unavailable to do mechanical work. 1664.com . 1663. ENTRAINED OIL Oil occurring as part of the gas steam. 1660. but as a relatively small percentage of total flow. 1659.

1667. And others. Sometimes sand or steel shot is added to the drilling fluid to increase its erosive capabilities. Escarpment a cliff or relatively steep slope that separates level or gently sloping areas of land. Et. 1666.mzhelu@gmail.) Devices used on offshore drilling or production platforms for emergency escape of personnel in the event of a fire or explosion. Z.com . et al. See Suspense Money. 1668. 222 Petroleum Engineer: M. they fall outward. the head descending to the water. Erosion the process by which material (as rock or soil) is worn away or removed (as by wind or water). 1671. ES ESCAPE BOOMS electric survey. used in drilling reports. The workers then slide down a lifeline to the floating head. 1669.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1665. unnamed participants or interest holders in a deal or a contract. ESCROW MONEY Est.als. They consist of counterweighted arms supporting a buoyant hold. made plural and used colloquially by oil men. (See electric well log. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When the arms are snapped loose from the platform. 1670. estimated. Erosion drilling the high-velocity ejection of a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzles of a jet bit to remove rock encountered during drilling.

when there is no heel to either side. Great amounts of salt water are produced with crude oil in some oil fields. 1676. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See vaporization. EVAPORATION PIT An excavation dug to contain oil field salt water or brine which is disposed of by evaporation. (See glycol dehydrator. (See tour.) 1677. Evaporation loss a loss to the atmosphere of petroleum fractions through evaporation.) Evening tour 223 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. particularly older ones. 1673.v. Ethane is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1672. ETHANOL Ethylene glycol Alcohol.mzhelu@gmail. 1679. A simple hydrocarbon associated with petroleum. the balance when the plane of flotation is parallel to the design waterline. one component oil gasohol (q. a colorless liquid used as antifreeze and as a dehydration medium in removing water from gas.) 1675. found in natural gas.com . usually while the fractions are in storage or in process. 1674. Even keel on a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. Evaporate a sedimentary rock (as gypsum or salt) that originates from the evaporation of seawater in enclosed basins. 1678. It is a gas at atmospheric conditions. C2H6. Ethane a light hydrocarbon.). that is.

Exchanger a piping arrangement that permits certain properties of one fluid to be transferred to another fluid as they travel counter current to one another.com . that collects burned gases from the engine and channels them to the exhaust pipe. 1683. 1684. EXPANSION FIT 224 See Shrink Fit. 1682. cooling the oil and heating the well fluid. EXOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that gives off heat. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1680.mzhelu@gmail. Exhaust valve the cam-operated mechanism through which burned gases are ejected from an engine cylinder. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The resulting release of water leaves the rock particles considerably expanded and thus more porous. 1685. 1681. immediately adjacent to the engine. Expanded perlite is sometimes used in cement to increase its yield without changing its properties. Petroleum Engineer: M. In the heat exchanger of an emulsion-treating unit. 1686. a process or reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep ft going. Expanded perlite a siliceous volcanic rock that is finely ground and subjected to extreme heat. Exhaust manifold a piping arrangement. Endothermic is the reverse. heat from the outgoing clean oil is transferred to the incoming well fluid. Excelsior a fibrous material used as a filtering element in the hay section of heaters or heater-treaters.

nothing remains of the gun but debris. (See gun-perforate. A section of piping constructed in such a way as to allow for expansion and contraction of the pipe connections without damaging the joints. 1688. Expansion joint a device used to connect long lines of pipe to allow the pipe joints to expand or contract as the temperature rises or falls.retrievable gun a perforating gun that consists of a hollow. Specially fabricated.mzhelu@gmail. Expendable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1687. maintains a gastight seal with the inner wall of the tank. plat hookups where there are severe temperature changes. cylindrical carrier. debris created by the exploded 225 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Expendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metal strip upon which are mounted shaped charges in special capsules. accordion-like fittings are used as expansion joints in certain in. EXPANSION ROOF TANK A storage or working tank (q. the roof-and-apron section of the tank gas to expand without any loss to the atmosphere.com . A circular loop (360" bend) put in a Pipeline to absorb expansion and contraction caused by heating and cooling. 1690. into which are placed shaped charges.v. As the vapor above the crude oil or volatile product expands with the heat of the day.) 1691.) with a root made like a slip joint. After firing. Expansion loop a full loop built into a pipeline to allow for expansion and contraction of the line. without exerting a strain on Pipe or valve connections. Upon detonation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1689. The telescoping roof as it moves up and down.

geological studies.com . a well drilled in an area proven to be Productive. 1695.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering charges falls into the carrier and is retrieved when the gun is pulled out of the hole. including aerial and geophysical surveys. 226 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. sophisticated research ship equipped with seismic gravit. (See gun-perforate. It is sometimes called a development well. EXPLORATION VESSEL A seagoing. a wildcat. See Infill Drilling. a well drilled to permit more effective extraction of oil from a reservoir. 1697. 1693. and magnetic systems for gathering data on undersea geologic structures. Exploration activities include aerial surveying. geophysical surveying. 1694. On the more advances . vessels of this type there are onboard Processing and interpretation capabilities for the information gathered as the vessel cruises on the waters of the Outer Continental Shelf around the world. the gun cannot be reused.mzhelu@gmail. Exploration well Exploratory Well 1698. A well in an area where petroleum has not been previously found or one targeted for formations above or below known reservoirs. and drilling of wildcat wells. core testing. Exploitation EXPLOITATION WELL the development of a reservoir to extract its oil. Exploration the search for reservoirs of oil and gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and the drilling of wildcats. coring.) 1692. however. 1696. A development well. EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES The search for oil and gas. geological studies.

Cooling is by conduction through the frame and housing. 227 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Well Shooter. 1704.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1699. EXPLOSIVE WELDING A method of welding is which a shaped explosive charge is used to "fastexpand" the end of a section of pipe into the bore of a special steel sleeve to form a solid bond. It also is called a gas sniffer. an enclosed brushless motor.mzhelu@gmail. Extender a substance put in drilling mud to increase viscosity without adding clay or other thickening material. pressure-tight bond. 1700. The shaped charge is inserted into the end of the pipe over which the sleeve is placed. EXTENSION TEST See Outpost Well. EXPLOSION-PROOF MOTORS A totally enclosed electric motor with no outside air in contact with the motor windings. 1702. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When the charge is detonated the force expands the pipe's outer circumference forcibly to the sleeves inner circumference making a secure. Z. is more desirable than fusion welding in which both pieces of metal must be heated to a high temperature.com . for certain jobs. EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING Using an explosive charge in the bottom of the well to fracture the formation to increase the flow of oil or gas. Explosimeter an instrument used to measure the concentration of combustible gases in the air. 1701. 1703. This welding technique creates little heat which.

com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Externally upset pipe does not have a uniform diameter throughout its length but is enlarged at each end. Extrusive rocks EYEBALL igneous rocks formed when lava poured out on the earth's surface. gas. Extraction plant a plant equipped to remove liquid constituents from casinghead gas or wet 1710. External cutter a fishing tool containing metal-cutting knives that is lowered into the hole and over the outside of a length of pipe to cut it. 1711. Often used downhole in conjunction with cementing. 1707. 228 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 1709. to inspect carefully. set. The severed portion of the pipe can then be brought to the surface. 1706. it may be expanded against the wall of the borehole hydraulically or by fluid pressure from the well. 1708. The packer is run on casing and when at the proper depth. EXTERNAL CASING PACKER A device used on the outside of a well's casing to seal off formations or to protect certain zones.mzhelu@gmail. External phase External upset (See continuous phase) an extra-thick wall at the threaded end of drill pipe or tubing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1705. Compare internal up. To align pipe connections or a temporary construction with the eye only.

) A type of valve or other fitting that is built and welded together from wrought iron and forged steel pieces to make a particularly strong high-pressure valve. 1713. The facing machine essentially is a revolving disc-chuck holding a number of cutting tools. 229 Petroleum Engineer: M. FAIL-SAFE Said of equipment or a system so constructed that. The facing machine is transported and brought into position by a modified boomcat. bonnets and packing glands cast separately and assembled. the bed.32) 1717.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1712. 1714. Z.com . Fahrenheit degrees may be converted to centigrade degrees by using the following formula 'C = 5/9 ('F . FABRICATED VALVE (See Fahrenheit scale. 1716. F degree Fahrenheit. in which 321 represents the freezing point and 212" the boiling point of water at standard sea-level pressure. facies part of a bed of sedimentary rock that differs significantly from other parts of 1715. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in the event of failure or malfunction of any part of the system. The chuck is held in alignment against the pipe end by a Hydraulically actuated mandrel inserted into the pipe similar to internal line-up clamps used to align pipe for welding. devices are automatically activated to stabilize or secure the safety of the operation.mzhelu@gmail. Fahrenheit scale a temperature scale devised by Gabriel Fahrenheit. FACING MACHINE. PIPE A device for beveling or putting a machined face on the ends of large diameter line pipe. Most valves are steel Castings with bodies.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1718. by some authorities. fairleader a fitting or device used to maintain or alter the direction of a rope or chain so that it leads directly to a sheave or drum without causing undue friction. Z. 1723. Fann V-G meter a device used to record and measure at different speeds the flow properties of plastic fluids (as the viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids). a sheave supported by a bracket protruding from the cellar deck of a semisubmersible drilling platform over which an anchor cable runs. FANNING THE BOTTOM (OF THE BOREHOLE) Drilling with very weight on the drill bit in the hope of preventing the bit from drifting from the vertical and drilling a crooked hole.mzhelu@gmail. Permanent structures such as drilling and production platforms are prohibited in a fairway which significantly curtails oil activity in some offshore areas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. area. Coast Guard in Federal offshore waters. 1719.S. is considered detrimental to the drillstring.com . 1720. FAIRWAY A shipping lane established by the U. as reduced weight on the bif causes more tension on the drill. Fanning the bottom. Some large floating platforms have anchor lines made up of lengths of chain and cable. resulting in pipe and collar fatigue. 1722. farm boss an oil company supervisor who controls production activities within a limited 230 Petroleum Engineer: M. FAIRLEAD A guide for ropes or lines on a ship to prevent chafing. 1721. pipe. however.

). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1726. Often farm-ins are negotiated to assist the original owner with development costs and to secure for the buyer a source of crude or natural gas. FARMER'S SAND A colloquial term for "the elusive oil-bearing stratum which many landowners believe lies beneath their land.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1724. See Farm-out Agreement." 1729.com . 1727. 1725. 231 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually one-eighth of the produced oil free of any expense to the landowner.v. 1728. regardless of the results of exploratory wells. FARM-OUT FARM-OUTAGREEMENT The name applied to a leasehold held under a farm-out agreement (q. The assignor may or may not retain an interest (royalty or production payment) in the production. Z. fast line the end of the drilling line that is affixed to the drum or reel of the drawworks. so called because it travels with greater velocity than any other portion of the line.mzhelu@gmail. A form of agreement between oil operators whereby the owner of a lease who is not interested in drilling at the time agrees to assign the lease or a portion of it to another operator who wishes to drill the acreage. FARM-IN An arrangement whereby one oil operator "buys in" or acquires an interest in a lease or concession owned by another operator on which oil or gas has been discovered or is being produced. FARMER'S OIL An expression meaning the landowner's share of the oil from a well drifted on his property royalty.

232 Petroleum Engineer: M. FEA FEDERALLEASE Federal Energy Agency An oil or gas lease on Federal land issued under the Act of February 25.com . 1733.mzhelu@gmail. FAT OIL The absorbent oil enriched by gasoline fractions in an absorption plant.83 m. fatigue the tendency of a metal under repeated cyclic loading to break at a stress considerably less than its tensile strength as indicated in a static test. After absorbing the gasoline fractions. equal to 6 ft or 1. and subsequent legislation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1730. 1735. downward. fathom a measure of ocean depth in countries using the English system of measurement. 1734. 1731. or laterally) relative to their original positions. fault plane fault trap a surface along which faulting has occurred a subsurface hydrocarbon trap created by faulting. 1737. which causes an impermeable rock layer to be moved opposite the reservoir bed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1732. Often strata on one side of the fault line have been displaced (upward. fault a break in subsurface strata. the gasoline is removed by distillation ' leaving the oil "lean" and ready for further use to absorb more gasoline fractions from the natural gas stream. Z. 1736. 1920.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1738. FEE The title or owner ship of land. The feed-off rate is the speed with which the cable is unwound from the drum. landowner's royally. A pipe. or tubing coupling with the threads on the inside. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Land or an estate held by a person in his own right without restrictions. short for "owned in fee. 1741. a lathering fine lied into a trunk line. 1739." The owner of the fee holds title to the land. 1745. rod. FEED OR FEEDSTOCK Crude oil other hydrocarbons that are the basic materials for a refining or manufacturing process. 1747. 1740. 1746.com . FEEDER LINE FEMALE CONNECTION FERC FHACJOB fibrous material A pipeline. FEE ROYALTY FEE SIMPLE feed off The lessor's share of oil and gas production. stringy material of threadlike structure used to prevent loss of circulation or to restore circulation in porous or fractured formations. 1742. See Hydraulic Fracturing. 233 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. to lower the bit continuously or intermittently by allowing the brake to disengage and the drum to turn. 1744. 1743. any tough. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.mzhelu@gmail.

The producing capacity of a field during a 24-hour period. Oklahoma City. East Texas. a field it was necessary to set equitable production levels. a pool. An oil field may include one or more pools. field processing the processing of oil and gas in the field before delivery to a major refinery or gas plant. and West Texas. Raw mix streams are sent to fractionating plants where the various components-butane. Cushing. Seminole.mzhelu@gmail. FIELD COMPRESSION TEST FIELD POTENTIAL A test to determine the gasoline content of casing-head or wet gas. e. Z. Some refineries are capable of using field butanes as 10 to 15 percent of charge stock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A roughly contiguous grouping of wells in an identified area. Large areas that used to be designated as fields are now identified as districts. hexane. In order to establish a field allowable for prorationing purposes by a state regulatory commission.com . 1751. and others-are separated. 1750.g. 1752. 1749. propane. Rocky Mountain and Permian Basin. the product of gas processing plants in the field. and removal of liquid hydrocarbons. FIELD The area encompassing a group of producing oil and gas wells. Some of the early prolific fields were. and have wells producing from several different formations at different depths. including separation of oil and gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1748. separation of water from oil and from gas. Gulf Coast. FIELD BUTANES A raw mix of natural gas ids. 234 Petroleum Engineer: M. Appalachian MidContinent.

1761. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1755. 1759. a porous medium through which a fluid is passed to separate it from material suspended in it.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1754. field Pump a pump installed in a field to transfer oil from a lease tank to a central gathering station near a main pipeline. FIELDTANKS FIH fill the hole Stock tanks (q. filter loss the amount of fluid that can be delivered through a permeable filter medium after being subjected to a differential pressure for a specified time. 235 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. See Differential-pressure Sticking. used in drilling reports.com . fluid in hole. Filling the hole lessens the danger of blowout or of caving of the wall of the wellbore.v.mzhelu@gmail. 1758. to pump drilling fluid into the wellbore while the pipe is being withdrawn in order to ensure that the wellbore remains full of fluid even though the pipe is withdrawn. 1760. FILTER CAKE A plaster-like coating on the borehole resulting from the solids in the drilling fluid adhering and building up on the wall of the hole. 1757. 1756. filler material filter a material added to a cement or cement slurry to increase its yield. The buildup of "cake" can cause serious drilling problems including the sticking of the drillpipe.).

the escape of the liquid part of a drilling mud into permeable formations.) and is a measure of the water-loss quality of the drilling mud. 1772. FINGER BOARD A rack high in the derrick made to support.v.com . filter press filtrate filtration filtration loss FILTRATION-LOSS QUALITYOF MUD a device used in the testing of physical properties of drilling mud. Mud mixtures with low water loss are desirable for most drilling operations. Z. FINES Minute particles of a solid substance rock.) a fluid that has been passed through a filter. final squeeze pressure fine the fluid pressure at the completion of a squeeze-comenting operation. 236 Petroleum Engineer: M. in orderly fashion. 1763. 1 1768.) in the derrick. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1 1765.v. and that must be removed by screening.mzhelu@gmail. the process of filtering a fluid. The mud solids deposited on the filter is filter cake (q. the upper ends of the tubing stands that are pulled from the well and set back (q. a fragment or particle of rock or mineral that is too minute to be treated as ordinary coarse material. 1773. 1771. (See mud. or catalytic material-too small to be used or handled efficiently. A drilling-mud quality measured by putting a water-base mud through a filter cell. 1 1770.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1762. coat. 1766.

FINGER PIER A jetty or bridge-type structure extending from the shore out into a body of water to permit access to tankers and other vessels where water depth is not sufficient to allow docking at the shore. 1780. Z. fingerboard FINGERING a rack that supports stands of pipe being stacked in a derrick or mast. fire fire flood FIRE FLOODING fire point to start and maintain the Fire in a boiler or heater. the temperature at which a petroleum product burns continuously after being ignited. 237 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1774. 1779. See Channel. 1 1776. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. in situ combustion.). See In Situ Combustion. Usually a dike is built around a petroleum storage tank and a steel or stone wall put up between the prime movers and the oil pumps in a pipeline pumping station. or as the result of taking oil in excess of maximum efficiency rates (MER) (q. 1781. Rivulet-like infiltration of water or gas into an oil-bearing formation as a result of failure to maintain reservoir pressure. fire wall a structure erected to contain petroleum or a petroleum-fed fire in case a storage vessel ruptures or collapses.) 1783. (See flash point.mzhelu@gmail. 1782.com . 1 1778.

FIRING LINE In pipeline construction. 1785. This is true for extra-large diameter pipe. Ahead of the firing line or the "front end. 238 Petroleum Engineer: M. At the front end the pipe is lined up end-to-end by sideboom tractors. Firm gas is priced higher than dump gas (q." there may be some preparatory or alignment welding. FIRE-WATER SUPPLY fireman A pond or tank containing water used exclusively for fire-fighting.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1784. the part of the project where the welding is being done. Fire-trimmed valves. tack welded in position. flanges. FIRM GAS Gas required to be delivered and taken under the terms of a firm gas purchase contract. The firing line is where two or more filler Passes and the final or cap pass are made. Fish An object lost (or stuck) in the wellbore obstructing operations. brought into perfect alignment by internal line-up clamps. and then a root run or first pass or course of metal is laid on by a welder. the member of the crew on a steam-powered rig who is responsible for care and operation of the boilers. and other fitting's made to withstand an accidental fire in a plant or process unit. will not be damaged to the extent that they will leak and thereby add to the emergency. Z.mzhelu@gmail.v.). when subjected to fire from whatever cause. Such valves and flanges have metal gaskets and staffing boxes with specially formulated fire resistant packing or are fitted with metal-to-metal seals. FIRE-TRIMMED (VALVES AND FLANGES) A designation for valves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Compare motorman. 1786.com . 1788. 1787. 1789.

Although there are scores of standard tools used in fishing jobs. and have to be fished out.mzhelu@gmail. 1792. and junk baskets for retrieving smaller objects such as lost drill bit cones. Fishing FISHING JOB Operations to recover a fish. The effort to recover tools. Special instrument used in recovering objects lost in a well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. There a variety of spears. cable. fishtail bit a drilling bit with cutting edge's of hard alloys.com . First used when the rotary system of drilling was developed about 1900. there are overshots with internal lugs or teeth which are forced over the end of lost pipe. 1794. pipe. casing or drill-pipe. lugs. Many special and ingeniously designed fishing fools are used to recover objects lost downhole. and other steel. Z. tall into the well. 239 Petroleum Engineer: M. harpoon-like tools which are forced into the end of a section of tubing. wedges or dogs-that can come loose. nondrillable objects. FISHPROOF Describes an item of equipment used in or over the well's borehole without parts-screws. it is still useful in drilling soft formations. or other objects from the well bore which may have become detached while in the well or been dropped accidentally into the hole. 1793.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1790. See Captured Bolt 1 1796. also called a drag bit. some are specially designed to retrieve particular objects. fishing tool FISHING TOOLS a tool designed to recover equipment lost in the well. 1791. small slips.

mzhelu@gmail.com . in swabbing or bailing. to attach a piece of cloth to the wire rope to enable the operator to estimate the position of the swab or bailer in the well. 1805. fl flag abbr. rope. CATALYST A catalyst in a reactor vessel through which the liquid being treated drips or percolates through the bed of catalyst material. 2. 1801. FIXED-BEP. 1803. elbows. 1. to signal or attract attention. a layout similar to a five-of-spades playing card. a piece of cloth. TRANSITION FIVE-SPOT WATERFLOOD PROGRAM See Transition Fittings. FITTINGS. 1804. 1802. the catalyst is mixed thoroughly with the feed stock as it is pumped into the reactor vessel. 1 1800. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1798. couplings. Small pipes (nipples). used in drillingreports. 240 Petroleum Engineer: M. The water from the tour injection wells moves through the formation flooding the oil toward the production well. In other methods. unions. flowed or flowing. or nylon strand used to mark the wireline when swabbing or bailing. A secondary recovery operation where four input or injection wells are located in a square pattern with the production well in the center. an indicator of wind direction used when drilling or performing a workover where hydrogen sulfide (sour) gas may be encountered. Z. tees. 2. swages used to make up a system of piping. fissure FITTINGS a crack or fracture in a subsurface formation.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1806. 1 1810. the tank flame arrestor is effective for the same reason the fine screen "breaks up" and cools the flame at the surface of the screen preventing the ignition of the vapor behind the screen. The vapor venting from the tank may be ignited but the flame will not flash through the fine screen into the tank. 1807. Flame arrestors have a "membrane" of fine-mesh screen across the vent opening. FLAME ARRESTOR A safety device on a vent line of a storage or stock tank that.com . FLAMBEAU LIGHT A torch used in the field for the disposal of casing-head gas produced with oil when the gas is without a market or is of such small quantity as to make it impractical to gather for commercial use. with their open flames encased in a finemesh screen.mzhelu@gmail. FLAME SNUFFER An attachment to a tank's vent line that can be manually operated to snuff out a flame at the mouth of the vent line a metal clapper-like valve that may be closed by pulling on an attached fine. in the event of lightning or other ignition of the venting vapor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. could be used in a gassy mine. FLAG THE LINE To lie pieces of cloth on the swab line at measured intervals to be able to tell how much fine is in the hole when coming out with the line. Just as the old-fashioned miners lamps. 241 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1808. Z. The use of flambeau lights is now regulated under state conservation laws. will prevent the flame from to the vapor inside the tank.

FLAMMABLE (INFLAMMABLE) Term describing material which can easily be ignited. flange up 1. (slang) to complete any operation as. flange union a device in which two matching flanges are used tojoin the ends of two sections of pipe. flanges to make final connections on a piping system.com . eliminating the need for casing. Petroleum products with a flash point (q. Z. Each half is screwed or welded to a length of pipe and the two halves are then bolted together joining the two lengths of pipe. "They flanged up the meeting and went home.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1811. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) of 80. 1812. 242 Petroleum Engineer: M. FLANGE (1)A type of pipe coupling made in two halves. or lower are classed as flammable. 1814. 2. FLAME-JET DRILLING fling technique that uses rocket fuel to burn a hole through rock strata.v. flanged orifice fitting a two-piece orifice fitting with flanged faces that are bolted together. to use. 1815." 1813. The use of the word "inflammable" which means flammable but thought by some people to mean nonflammable has fallen into disuse because of the confusion and the potential hazard of someone mistaking the prefix "in" for "non. This leaves a ceramic-like sheath on the walls of the borehole.'F. (2) A rim extending out from an object to provide strength or for attaching another object." 1 1817.mzhelu@gmail.

See Smokeless Flare. 1825.) (2) The f lame from a flare. 243 Petroleum Engineer: M. FLASH OFF flash point To vaporize from heated charge stock. FLARE (1)To burn unwanted gas through a pipe or stack. flex joints help to prevent a buildup of abnormal bending load pressure. 1824. the flaring of natural gas is illegal. SMOKELESS FLASH CHAMBER gas or vapor that is flared. 1 1821. flare gas FLARE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1818. 1819. flash set flex joint a premature thickening or setting of cement slurry that makes it unpumpable.com . 1822. a device that provides a flexible connection between the riser pipe and the subsea blowout preventers. Z. (Under conservation laws. to distill. By accommodating lateral movement of a mobile offshore drilling rig. A refinery vessel into which a process stream is charged or pumped and where lighter products flash off or vaporize and are drawn off at the top.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1827. The remaining heavier fractions are drawn off at the bottom of the vessel. the temperature at which a petroleum product ignites momentarily but does not burn continuously. Compare fire point. the pipe or the stack itself. 1823. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Flexible couplings dampen vibration and provide a way to make quick hook ups of engines and pumps which is useful in field operations. actuating other devices as the liquid level rises and falls. float collar a special coupling device. The float collar also prevents a backflow of cement during the cementing operation. flat-bed trailer the front end of which rests on a truck. heavy. It contains a check valve and functions similarly to the float collar but also serves as a guide shoe for the casing. float switch a switch in a circuit that is opened or closed by the action of a j7oat and that maintains a predetermined level of liquid in a vessel. inserted one or two joints above the bottom of the casing string. 244 Petroleum Engineer: M. An airtight canister or sphere that floats on liquids and is attached to an arm that moves up and down. Z. that contains a check valve to permit fluid to pass downward but not upward through the casing.com . FLEXIBLE COUPLING A connecting link between two shafts that allows for a certain amount of misalignment between the driving and driven shaft without damage to bearings. Floats are used in the oil fields for transporting long. The float collar prevents drilling mud from entering the casing while it is being lowered. the rear end on two dual-wheel axles. 1829. 1 1831. heavy equipment. float shoe a short.mzhelu@gmail. (2) The buoyant element of a fluid-level shut off or control apparatus. 1833.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1828. FLOAT (1)A long. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1832. attached to the bottom of the casing string. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom. allowing the casing to float during its descent and also decreasing the load on the derrick.

floating tank a tank with its main gate valve open to the main line at a station. Use of a floating roof eliminates vapor space above the liquid in the tank and conserves light fractions of the liquid. float valve FLOATER a drill-pipe float.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Drill barges. a tank covering that rests on the surface of a hydrocarbon liquid in the tank and rises and falls as the liquid level rises and falls. a floater. In floating the hole is filled with fluid and the casing is plugged before being lowered into the hole. 1836. 1840. Oil may thus enter or leave the tank as pumping rates in the main line vary. FLOATING ROOF TANK A storage tank with a flat roof that floats on the surface of the Oil thus reducing evaporation to a minimum. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1834. The roof rests on a series of pontoons whose buoyancy supports the roof proper. 1839.) floating offshore drilling rig floating roof 1837. The buoyant effect of the hollow column 245 Petroleum Engineer: M.(2) Any offshore drilling p14tform without a fixed base. (1) A barge-like drilling platform used in relatively shallow offshore work. 1838. e. FLOATING THE CASING A method of lowering casing into very deep boreholes when there exists the danger of the casing joints because of the extreme weight or tension on the upper joints.mzhelu@gmail. semisubmersibles Drill ships.g. 1835. (See floater.

(See water J7ood. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. floorman See Dump Flooding. 1844. a drilling crew member whose work station is on the derrick floor. there are at least two floormen on each crew. 1842. flood 1. 246 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. but three or more are used on most rigs. 1846.com . to drown out a well with water. the plug is drilled out. usually a few inches below the freeboard deck. FLOODING The use of water injected into a production formation or resevoir to increase oil recovery. to drive oil from a reservoir into a well by injecting water under pressure into the reservoir formation. 1847. 1845. Tertiary Recovory.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of casing displacing the fluid reduces the weight and the tension on the upper joints. 1843. On rotary drilling rigs. FLOODING. flocculation a property of contaminants or special additives to a drilling fluid that causes the solids to coagulate. Z. When the casing is in place.) 2. DUMP FLOOR MEN. Members-of the drilling crew (usually two) who work on the derrick floor. See Secondary Recovery. Micellar-surfactant Flooding. 1841. floodable length the length of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig that may be flooded without its sinking below its safety or margin line.

usually a device such as a bubble tower is installed in the cell to permit the introduction of gas into the water. flow FLOW BEAN a current or stream of fluid. 9/64 in. Flow Line Subsea pipeline connecting satellite wells and/or platforms to a central production platform.. etc. Flow beans are drilled with different-sized holes for different flow rates. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a heavy steel nipple put in the production string of tubing that restricts the flow of oil to the size of the orifice in the nipple. 1851. 1850.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1849. A replaceable. 1 1853. a flow plug. 1854.com . A drilled plug in the flow line at the wellhead that controls the oil flow to desired rate. It is usual to report a new well's production as a flow of a certain number of barrels per day through a choke of a certain size. 1855. 16/64 in.g. paper chart on which flow rates are recorded by an actuated arm and pen of a flow meter. flotation cell a large.. e. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 1856. FLOW NIPPLE A choke. 247 Petroleum Engineer: M. cylindrical tank in which water that is slightly oil-contaminated is circulated to be cleaned before it is disposed of overboard or in a disposal well. Since oil droplets cling to rapidly rising gas. flow by heads FLOW CHART to produce intermittently.

PLASTIC FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING UNIT See Plastic Flow. The cylinders or liners in most pumps are removable and can be changed for others with larger or smaller internal diameters. A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude. Z. 248 Petroleum Engineer: M. Inserting smaller liners and pistons permits pumping at higher pressure but at a reduced volume. capital string. production string. Also Oil string. 1862. an oil heater. FLUID END (OF A PUMP) The end of the pump body where the valves (suction and discharge) and .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1857. pay string.mzhelu@gmail.com . FLOW SHEET A diagrammatic drawing showing the sequence of refining or manufacturing operations in a plant. 1 1860. and an oil and water treater.he pump cylinders are located. 1861. The process is also more effective in producing isoparaffins and aromatics which are of high antiknock value. naphthas or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. FLOW. it provides a motor spirit of 10-15 octane numbers higher than that of the thermally cracked product. The fluid end of a reciprocating pump is accessible by removing the cylinder heads which exposes the pistons or pump plungers. FLOW STRING The string of casing or tubing through which oil from a well flows to the surface. also Turbulent Flow. 1858. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1863. FLOW TANK A single unit that acts as an oil and gas separator. Catalytic cracking is regarded as the successor to thermal cracking as it produces less gas and highly volatile material.

control. FLUXING To soften a substance with heat so that it will flow.mzhelu@gmail. Oils or compounds formulated for the purpose of removing used oil. 1866. decomposed matter. 1868. and sludge from lubricating passages and engine parts. FLUID LOSS A condition downhole in which a water-base drilling mud loses water in a highly permeable zone causing the solids in the drilling fluid to build up on the wall of the borehole. FLUSH PRODUCTION FLUSHING OILS The high rate of I low of a good well immediately after it is brought in. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. Fluidics is defined as "engineering science pertaining to the use of fluid-dynamic phenomena to sense." Fluidics provide a reliable system far less expensive than explosion-proof installations required with electrical instrumentation on offshore rigs.com . which often arises when the hydrostatic head or mud pressure is consider ably higher than the formation pressure. 1867. 1869. FLUID LEVEL The distance between the wellhead and the point to which the fluid rises in 1865. fusing point. to lower a substance's 249 Petroleum Engineer: M. process information. metal cuttings. This buildup of mud solids can result in stuck pipe. FLUIDICS Pertains to the use of fluids (and air) in instrumentation. the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1864. and actuate.

) used on the "fool" or lower end of a suction pipe riser to maintain the column of liquid in the riser when the liquid is being drawn upward by a pump. earth's crust. state. 250 Petroleum Engineer: M. wars. or municipal laws. mounted on a boom or an extension of the deck. 1874. Sometimes the price per foot changes as the well progresses and different formations are encountered. FORCE MAJEURE CLAUSE A lease clause providing that cessation or failure of production shall not cause automatic termination of the leasehold. Such clauses usually list acts of God. FOLDING Buckling or other deformation of rock strata caused by movement of the 1871. FOOT VALVE A type of check valve (q.mzhelu@gmail.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FOOT-POUND A unit of energy or work equal to the work done in raising one pound the height of one foot against the force of gravity. adverse weather. The burner. FOOTAGE CONTRACT A contract for the drilling of a well in which the drilling contractor is paid on a footage basis as the well is taken down. Z. FORCED DRAFT BURNER Crude oil disposal equipment on offshore platforms. and that the performance of lessee's covenants shall be excused when the failure of production or performance of covenants is owing to causes set forth in the clause. 1875. compliance with federal. strikes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1870. burns crude oil during testing operations. and other contingencies over which the lessee has no control. 1876. 1 1873.v.

air and water manifolded with the test-crude stream result in complete combustion of the oil.com . not taxes creditable in the U. Taxes paid a foreign government by a U. one-cylinder pump for moving limited amounts of liquid. hand-operated. 1 1883. actuates the plunger 1 1880.S. Z. When moved back and forth. 1 1878. FORMATION A sedimentary bed or series of beds sufficiently alike or distinctive to form an identifiable geological unit. reduced crude.S. or transferring oil or water from one small tank to another. 1884. formation boundary the horizontal limits of a formation.S. attached to a fulcrum at the base of the pump.mzhelu@gmail. or intermediates are processed. the handle. fore and aft FOREIGN TAX CREDIT the lengthwise measurement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1881. government. FORCEPUMP A barrel pump a portable. 251 Petroleum Engineer: M. company with a foreign government or one of its agencies represents oil royalty payments. pumping out sump pits. Production sharing by a U. FOREIGN TRADE ZONE An area in the United States where imported oil.S. 1885. according to the Internal Revenue Service. company on its overseas oil operations that are creditable against taxes owed the U.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Gas. The pump has one horizontal barrel and a plunger attached to a vertical handle.

1888. recorded in the hole at the level of the formation with the well shut in. glass beads. and the fractures partially close on the proppants.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1887. The fluid enters the formation and parts or fractures it. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. aluminum pellets. A fluid (as water. leaving channels for oil to flow through them to the well. It is also called reservoir pressure or shut-in bottomhole pressure. Under extremely high hydraulic pressure. It is often called skin. 1890. When the pressure is released at the surface. oil. or similar materials are carried in suspension by the fluid into the fractures. 1891.com .mzhelu@gmail. Sand grains. dilute hydrochloric acid. Z. 252 Petroleum Engineer: M. a method of stimulating production by increasing the permeability of the producing formation. formation pressure the pressure exerted by fluids in a formation. alcohol. This process is often called a frac job. formation damage the reduction of permeability in a reservoir rock caused by the invasion of drilling fluid and treating fluids to the section adjacent to the wellbore. the fracturing fluid returns to the well. 1889. These are called propping agents or proppants. Formation Density Log formation dip formation fracturing a trade name for density log. liquefied petroleum gas. or foam) is pumped downward through tubing or drill pipe and forced into the perforations in the casing. the angle at which a formation bed inclines away from the horizontal.

Z. Incorporated in the drill-stem testing tool are a packer. formation water formic acid the water originally in place in a formation. It is usually used for high-temperature wells. stronger than acetic acid but much less corrosive than hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid.. 1894. a plastic. a number of facts about the formation may be inferred. 1893. 253 Petroleum Engineer: M. blended oils.) 1896.) a simple organic acid used for acidizing oil wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. i. gradually exposing the formation to atmospheric pressure and allowing the well to produce to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. where the well fluids may be sampled and inspected. and a pressure-recording device.e. 1895. (See connate water. (See acidize. The conventional method is the drill stem test.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1892. formation testing the gathering of data on a formation to determine its potential productivity before installing casing in a well. A port on the tool is opened to allow the trapped pressure below the packer to bleed off into the drill pipe. From a record of the pressure readings. valves or ports that may be opened and closed from the surface. The tool is lowered to bottom on a string of drill pipe and the packer set. gasolines any material with two or more components or ingredients.com . formation strike the horizontal direction of a formation bed as measured at a right angle to the dip of the bed. isolating the formation to be tested from the formations above and supporting the fluid column above the packer. FORMULATION The product of a formula.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1903. The Ottocycle engine. (See big and fishtail bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1897. and exhaust-for each complete cycle. and coal were derived from organisms living in eons past. and coal. the first casing or conductor string (generally with a diameter of 30 to 36 in. the remains or impressions of a plant or animal of past geological ages that have been preserved in or as rock. four-stroke cycle engine. 1 1899. It prevents sloughing of the ocean-floor formations and is a structural support for the permanent guide base and blowout preventers. 1902.. 1900. and thus oil. Z. FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE An internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four strokesintake. 1 1905. also shale oil and oil recovered from tar sands. FOSSIL FUEL foundation pile See Fossil Energy. compression. 1901. power. FOSSIL ENERGY Energy derived from crude oil. forward ad fossil in the direction of the bow on offshore drilling rigs. gas. natural gas.) 254 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.com . Fossil energy by implication is the energy derived from sedimentary beds containing the fossilized remains of marine plants and animals.) set when drilling a well from an offshore drilling rig. four-way drag bit a drag bit with four blades.

fourble a section of drill pipe. a regulatory body having to do with oil and gas matters such as pricing and trade practices. together.) one component of a mixture of hydrocarbons. casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1906. 1909. 1913. used in drilling reports. Federal Power Commission. As of 1977 the FPC has been superceded by the FERC. (See double board and thribble board. (See formation fracturing. an agency of the Federal government.mzhelu@gmail.com . Z. Methane is the predominant fraction in natural gas. used in drilling reports. 1 1911. FP FPC flowing pressure. the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission which has taken over the duties and responsibilities of Federal Power Commission along with other agencies in the field of energy. 1912. fourble board the working platform of the derrickman (the monkeyboard) when it is located at a height on the derrick approximately equal to four lengths of pipe joined together.) 1908. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. frac frac job fraction fractured. 255 Petroleum Engineer: M. or tubing consisting of four joints screwed 1907.

The acid acts on certain kinds of rocks. (See 1917. usually carbonates. fracturing fracturing FRASCH. 1919. to increase the permeability of the formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1915. fractionate. either natural or induced. 1920. Compare matrix acidizing. 1921. fractionate to separate single fractions from a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids. distillation. 1922. fracture fracture acidizing a crack or crevice in a formation. FRACTIONATOR A tall.com . cylindrical refining vessel where liquid feedstocks are separated into various components or fractions. The frasch process opened the market for sour crude from Ohio and Canada just when it was thought the production from Pennsylvania 256 Petroleum Engineer: M. HERMAN (See formation fracturing.) A Canadian chemist who developed a process for the use of sour crude for making kerosene. Z. 1918. a procedure by which acid is forced into a formation under pressure high enough to cause the formation to crack. usually by 1916.) fractionating column a vessel or tower in a gas plant in which fractionation occurs.) (See formation fracturing.mzhelu@gmail.

Price. an accurate measurement of its stretch is transmitted to the surface. free water the water produced with oil. FREE RIDE An interest in a well's oil and gas production free of any expense of that production. See Posted 1924. 257 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The free point indicator is lowered into the well on a conducting cable. 1925. free-point Indicator a tool designed to measure the amount of stretch in a string of stuck pipe and to indicate the deepest point at which the pipe is free. Each end of a strain gauge element is anchored to the pipe wall by friction springs or magnets. boat. freeboard the vertical distance between the waterline and the freeboard deck on a ship. free-water knockout (FWKO) a vertical or horizontal vessel into which oil or emulsion is run in order to allow any water not emulsified with the oil (free water) to drop out. The stretch measurements indicate the depth at which the pipe is stuck. Compare emulsified water. 1923. as increasing strain is put on the pipe. 1928. world prices. FREE MARKET PRICE Oil prices not subject to controls by the government. or floating off shore drilling rig. 1926. It usually settles out within rive minutes when the well fluids become stationary in a settling space within a vessel. a royalty interest.com . 1927. Z.mzhelu@gmail. and.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and West Virginia fields had peaked and the country was running low on sweet crude for kerosene and gasoline.

1934. 1931. 1936. A type.com . freeboard deck the uppermost continuous deck on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig equipped with a permanent means of closing all openings to the water. The freeze box or frost box surrounding the pips is filled with sawdust manure or other insulating materia1. 1932. Z. friction resistance to movement created when two surfaces are in contact. 1933. friction loss a reduction in the pressure of a fluid caused by its motion against an enclosed surface (as a pipe). heat is produced. 1935. earth-moving or cutting scoop with curved runners or supports on the sides. and a single long handle used to guide the scoop blade into the earth or material being moved. a refrigerant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See mud. FREEZE BOX An enclosure or a water pipe riser that is exposed to the weather. having one or more florine atoms in the molecule. friction between the 258 Petroleum Engineer: M. As the fluid moves through the pipe. 1930. When friction is present.mzhelu@gmail.) fresh water freshwater mud FRESNO SLIP water that has little or no salt dissolved in it. of horse-drawn.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1929. FREON A trademark applied to a group of halogenated hydrocarbons.

The faster the fluid moves. cubic feet per day. 259 Petroleum Engineer: M. cubic feet per pound. 1 1939. The cooling effect of the expanding gas. 11946. 1948. feet per second. Z. causes moisture in the atmosphere to condense and freeze on the pipes. the greater the losses are. as pressure is reduced. 1943.com .mzhelu@gmail. 1937. cubic feet per barrel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1947. foot-pound. ft ft-lb ft/min ft/s ft2 ft3 ft3-lb ft3/bbl ft3/d 1940.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid and the pipe wall creates a pressure loss. 1949. cubic foot. FROSTUP Icing of pipes and flow equipment at the wellhead of a high-pressure gas well. foot. square foot. feet per minute. 1 1942. 1944.

1959. ft3/s ftl/min fuel injector cubic feet per second. FUELOIL Any liquid or liquefiable petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace. or for the generation of power in an engine. FULL BORE Designation for a valve. a wellbore drilled with a full-gauge bit. a mechanical device that sprays fuel into a cylinder of an engine. 1951. cubic feet per minute.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1957. exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100"F 1956. full-gauge bit full-gauge hole full-load displacement a bit that has maintained its original diameter. the displacement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship when floating at its deepest design draft. Z.mzhelu@gmail. used extensively in diesel engines and to some extent in spark-ignition engines. 1955. 1 1953. ran or other fitting whose opening is as large in cross section as the pipe. 1958.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1950. casing or tubing it is mounted on. 260 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1954. FUEL-AIR RATIO The ratio of fuel to air by weight in an explosive mixture which is controlled by the carburetor in an internal combustion engine.

marketing. production. Two oil. 1967. transportation.e. 1964. a liquid aldehyde. 1961. 261 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 heating oil. 1966. FURFURAL An extractive solvent of extremely pungent odor. 1968. See Integrated Oil Company.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1960. 1965. a plug in a service line equipped with a seal that will melt at a predetermined temperature releasing pressure that actuates shut. distillate fuel. Z. clay-like substance used in certain types of oil filters. down devices. FURNACE OIL No. light gas oil that can be used as diesel fuel and for residential heating. 1 1963. based on the number of seconds it takes for 1.000 cm' of drilling fluid to flow through the funnel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. funnel viscosity viscosity as measured by the Marsh funnel. Said of a company engaged in all phases of the oil business.mzhelu@gmail.com . FULLER'S EARTH FULLY INTEGRATED A fine. i. used extensively in refining a wide range of lubricating oils and diesel fuels. FUSIBLE PLUG A fail-safe device.. FWKO free-water knockout. a meltable plug. or commingled. refining. fungible relating or pertaining to petroleum products with characteristics so similar that they can be mixed together.

gage gal gal/min GALL Gallons of gasoline per 1. gal. gram. M. is equal to approximately 1. Z.3' A gallon of water weighs 8. gallons per minute. 1 1974. 1976. To chafe by friction and heat as two pieces of metal are forcibly rubbed together in the absence of lubrication.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as a shaft journal. variation of gauge.000 cubic feet of natural gas produced.34 lb at 60 F. 1970. gallon. gas- 1971.S . 1977. 1972. The imperial gallon. Geological Society of America. G. by moving contact with a bearing without sufficient lubrication. 1978. G . P. gallon (gal) a unit of measure of liquid capacity that equals 3. used in drilling reports.A . g G&OCM and oil-cut mud.2 U. 262 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1975.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1969. To damage or destroy a finished metal surface. used in Great Britain.785 liters and has a volume of 231 in.com .S.

1981. The measurement of gamma particles (sometimes called gamma rays) is the basis for a number of radioactivity welllogging methods. gamma-ray log (See radioactivity well logging.com . 1982. The gamma ray signals thus picked up indicate to the geologist the relative density of the rock formation penetrated by the well bore at different levels.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1979. Z. highly penetrating X ray emitted by radioactive substances during their spontaneous disintegration. a device that is capable of sensing and measuring the amount of gamma particles emitted by certain radioactive substances.) 263 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1980. Subsurface rock formations emit radiation quantum that can be detected by well-logging devices. 1983. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A well-logging technique wherein a well's borehole is bombarded with gamma rays from a gamma ray emitting device to induce output signals that are then recorded and transmitted to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. 1984. GAMMA RAY LOGGING GAMMA RAY-GAMMA RAY LOGGING See Natural Gamma Ray Logging. and which indicate the relative densities of the surrounding rock. gamma particle a short. GAMMA RAY Minute quantities of radiation emitted by substances that are radioactive. 1985. Gamma-Gamma Density Log gamma-ray detector a trade name for a density log.

Oil in the annulus between the well's casing and tubing enters 264 Petroleum Engineer: M. As well fluids enter the anchor. or garbutt rod a short rod on the lower end of the traveling valve of a rod pump. which has an opening near the bottom. all or most of the gas escapes before the fluids enter the pump. The gas anchor (a length of tubing about 5 feet long) is inside a barrier pipe with perforations at the upper end. the man who runs a pipeline or a connection gang a pusher. perforated device attached to the bottom of a sucker-rod pump that helps to prevent gas lock.mzhelu@gmail. garbutt ROD garbot. The remaining fluids enter the pump through a mosquito bill (a tube within the anchor). gas oil contact the point or plane in a reservoir at which the bottom of a gas sand is in contact with the top of an oil sand. rises. The device works on the principle that gas. It is attached to the standing valve and used to pull the valve out of its scat when repairs are needed. 1990. GANG PUSHER A pipeline foreman. device for the bottom-hole separation of oil and gas in a pumping well. The pipeliners toots are carried in compartments beneath the bed of the truck. GANG TRUCK A light or medium-sized flat-bed truck carrying a portable doghouse or man rack where the pipeline repair crew rides to and from the job. 1987.com . being lighter than oil. 1989. gas anchor a tubular. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gang pusher the supervisor of a roustabout crew or a foreman in charge of a pipeline crew. In this way. 1988. the gas breaks out of the fluid and exits the anchor through perforations near the top.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1986. Z.

now condensate. See Air Drilling. white oil. GAS CONDENSATE. RETROGRADE GAS DISTILLATE GAS DRILLING gas drive See Retrograde Gas Condensate. 1994. See Distillate. the gas-free mud is returned to the mud tanks or mud pits. 1991. Oxygen bottles are tall and slender with a tapered top.) the use of the energy that arises from gas compressed in a reservoir to move crude oil to a wellbore. 1992.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the perforations and is picked up by the pump. in which gas is injected into input wells to sweep remaining oil to a producing well. 1998. acetylene bottles are shorter and somewhat larger in diameter. the gas goes out through the casing to the wellhead. a surge chamber on the mud-flow line where entrained gas breaks out and is vented to a flare line. Z. 1 1996. 1993.mzhelu@gmail.com . The use of gas as a drilling fluid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GAS CONDENSATE Liquid hydrocarbons present in casinghead gas that condense upon being brought to the surface formerly distillate. 1997. GAS BUSTER A drilling mud/gas separator. Gas drive is also used in a form of secondary recovery. GAS BOTTLES The cylindrical containers of oxygen and acetylene used in oxyacetylene welding. Also casinghead gasoline. 265 Petroleum Engineer: M. gas drilling (See air drilling.

com . GAS ENGINE A two or four-cycle internal combustion engine that runs on natures gas a stationary field engine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. A method of lifting oil from the bottom of a well to the surface by the use of compressed gas. 2000. secondary recovery. 266 Petroleum Engineer: M. Injected gas aerates the fluid to make it exert less pressure than the formation does. Gas may be injected continuously or intermittently. 2003.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1999. See Kick. Before the electrification of oil fields. The gas is pumped into the hole and at the lower end of the tubing it becomes a part of the fluid in the well. As the gas expands. or recycling operation. the higher formation pressure forces the fluid out of the wellbore. it lifts the oil to the surface. GAS INJECTION WELL A well through which gas under high pressure. GAS INJECTION Natural gas injected under high pressure into a producing reservoir through an input or injection well as part of a pressure maintenance. GAS KICK GAS LIFT 2004. attended by lease pumpers who not only are practical machanics but are experienced production men as well. consequently.mzhelu@gmail. Hundred of thousands of stripper wells are pumped by small gas engine. 2 2002. is injected into a producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure. all pumping wells and small pipeline booster stations were powered by stationary gas engines. gas lift the process of raising or lifting fluid from a well by injecting gas down the well through tubing or through the tubing-casing annulus.

GAS LOCK a condition sometimes encountered in a pumping well when dissolved gas. Using the conversion table. the measurement by which gas is usually bought. MASS-FLOW See Mass-flow Gas Meter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The gas prevents the oil from flowing into chambers and must be vented or bled off. appears as free gas between the valves. GAS MEASUREMENT. at any temperature and pressure can be converted to standard cubic feet. condition that can exist in an oil pipeline. Gas lock can also occur in suction chambers of reciprocating pumps. The standard pressure is 14. 267 Petroleum Engineer: M. when elevated sections of the line are filled with gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering depending on the producing characteristics of the well and the arrangement of the gas-lift equipment. because of its compressibility and penchant for collecting in high places in the line. 2005.65 pounds per square inch. 2006. consequently. If the gas pressure is sufficient. released from solution during the upstroke of the plunger. natural gain.com . GAS LIQUIDS See LPG. 2007. STANDARD A method of measuring volumes of natural gas by the use of conversion factors of standard pressure and temperature. GAS METER. The gas. the standard temperature is 60'F One standard cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14. Z.mzhelu@gmail. sold and transported. the standing valve is "locked" shut and. no fluid enters the tubing.65 psia at a temperature of 60 F. effectively blocks the gravity flow of oil.

com . a predetermined pressure.mzhelu@gmail. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gas sand gas show a stratum of sand or porous sand. the gas that appears in drilling. Gas Reservoir A rock stratum that forms a trap for the accumulation of crude oil and natural 2012. 2 2010. indicating the presence of a gas 2015. gas. by opening and closing in response to pressure. For example a regulator can be adjusted to permit a flow of gas at a pressure of 8 or 10 ounces per square inch from a gas main carrying 100 pounds per square inch. gas regulator an automatically operated valve that. zone. stone from which natural gas is obtained. gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed to prepare it for sale to consumers. 2016. fluid returns. gas turbine 268 (See compressor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2008. 2011. GAS SNIFFER A colloquial term for a sensitive electronic device that detects the presence of gas or other hydrocarbons in the stream of drilling mud returning from downhole. 2 2014. A pressure-reducing device on gas take-off piping that can be set to deliver a supply of gas a. permits more or less gas to flow through a pipeline and thus controls the pressure. A gas plant separates desirable hydrocarbon components from the impurities in natural gas.) Petroleum Engineer: M.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS. See Unassociated Gas. The allowable is transferable to another lease in the same field. GAS WELDING Welding with oxygen and acetylene or with oxygen and another gas. Z. 2023. 2019. gas-cap drive drive energy supplied naturally (as a reservoir 269 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also Associated Gas. GAS-CAP DRIVE The energy derived from the expansion of gas in a free state above the oil zone which is used in the production of oil. 2021. See Interruptible See Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Wells drilled into the oil zone cause a release of pressure which allows the compressed gas in the cap to expand and move downward forcing the oil into the well bores of the producing wells. See Oxyacetylene Welding. The shutting in of the gas-cap producer preserves the reservoir pressure which is essential to good production practice. 2024. UNASSOCIATED GAS. 2022. See Unconventional Natural Gas. 2018.mzhelu@gmail. INTERRUPTIBLE GAS. 2020. gas well GAS.com . A production allowable granted an operator who shuts in a well producing from a gas cap of an oil-producing reservoir. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS-CAP ALLOWABLE a well that primarily produces gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2017.

The free gas will occupy the highest portion of the reservoir. GAS-LIFT GAS Natural gas used in a gas-lift program of oil production. gas-input well a well into which gas is injected for the purpose of maintaining or supplementing pressure in an oil reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gas-cut mud often must be treated to lessen the chance of a blowout. gas-cut mud a drilling mud having entrained formation gas that gives the mud a characteristically fluffy texture. Drilling mud aerated or charged with gas from formations downhole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is produced) by the expansion of gas in a cap overlying the oil in the reservoir. 2027. so when the combined gas is stripped of petroleum liquids only the formation gas is credited with the recovered liquids. Because a large amount of gas in mud lowers its density. When wells are drilled to lower points on the structure. GAS-CAP FIELD A gas-expansion reservoir in which some of the gas occurs as free gas rather than in solution.) 2025.mzhelu@gmail. Lift gas is usually first stripped of liquid hydrocarbons before it is injected into the well. This is necessary for oil and gas royalty purposes. Z. 270 Petroleum Engineer: M. sometimes causing loss of circulation. the gas will expand forcing the oil down-dip and into the well bores. 2026. its cost per thousand cubic feet (MCF) is considerably less. And because it is a "working gas" as opposed to commercial gas. The gas forms bubbles in the drilling fluid seriously affecting drilling operations. Gas lift and commercial gas commingle when produced. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. 2028.com .

gas-transmission system the central or trunk pipeline system by means of which dry natural gas is transported from field gathering stations or processing plants to the industrial or domestic fuel market.mzhelu@gmail. the propulsive force to move the oil in the formation to the boreholes. A high gas-to-oil ratio is extremely undesirable because the pressure in a reservoir. expressed in cubic feet per barrel or cubic meters per metric ton. The ratio is expressed 5001 or 10001. to replace or repair the valve. gas-oil ratio (GOR) is a measure of the volume of gas produced with oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. And with the reservoir pressure gone. whatever the volume of gas measured at the well that is produced per barrel of oil. There are two common types of mandrels. which in turn is put on the tubing string of a gas-lift well. GAS-OIL RATIO The number of cubic feet of natural gas produced with a barrel of oil. except by a costly secondary recovery program. is being depleted. the valve is installed and removed by wireline while the mandrel is still in the well.com . the tubing string must be pulled. In the sidepocket mandrel. gas-lift valve a device installed on a gas-lift mandrel. Thus. Well pressure is supplemented at intervals along the 271 Petroleum Engineer: M. gas-lift mandrel a device installed in the tubing string of a gas-lift well onto which or into which a gas-lift valve is fitted. a great percentage of the oil may not be recoverable. however. eliminating the need to pull the tubing to repair or replace the valve. Z. the gas-lift valve is installed as the tubing is placed in the well. 2033. In the conventional gas-lift mandrel. Tubing and casing pressures cause the valve to open and close thus allowing gas to be injected into the fluid in the tubing to cause the fluid to rise to the surface. 2031. 2032.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2030.

GASBOX Colloquial term for a mud-gas separator at a drilling well. 2034. gas in a free state above an oil zone.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering transmission line by compressors to maintain a strong enough flow to move the gas to its destination. or of specially formulated rubber. GASIFICATION Converting a solid or a liquid to gas. thin. GASOHOL A mixture of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent alcohol. 2037.' a motor fuel. fibrous material used to make the union of two metal parts pressure tight. Drilling Mud. the manufacture of synthetic gas from other hydrocarbons See Synthetic Gas. Z.com . GASC AP The portion of an oil-producing reservoir occupied by free gas. asbestos. (See reservoir. or rubber) used to seal two essentially stationary surfaces. 272 Petroleum Engineer: M. or they may be made exclusively of metal. 2038. cork. gasket a material (as paper. Gasohol was first marketed in the late 1970s as a way to stretch available gasoline stocks by using surplus agricultural products to make ethanol or grain alcohol. Ready-made gaskets are sheathed in very thin. See Degassing 2035.mzhelu@gmail. gas cap a free-gas phase overlying an oil zone and occurring within the same producing formation as the oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. soft metal.) 2036. converting a solid hydrocarbon such as coal or oil shale to commercial gas.

diesel fuel. 2 2042. gasoline a volatile. it creates a powerful thrust that is directed against the vanes of the turbine. As natural gas enters the combustion chamber it is ignited. A rotary engine whose power is derived from the thrust of expanding gases on blades or vanes on a spindle within the body of the engine. Z. natural-gas well. combustion. often used as 2040. 2046. 2045. RAW See Marine White gasoline. GASOIL A refined fraction of crude oil somewhat heavier than kerosene. causing rotation of the spindle furnishing power to an attached pump or compressor. GASOLINE PLANT A compressor plant where natural gas is stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons usually present in wellhead gas. 2044. flammable liquid hydrocarbon refined from crude oils and used universally as a fuel for internal. 273 Petroleum Engineer: M. and as it instantaneously expands. 2 2048.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2039.com . GATE Short for gate valve. 2043. a gasoline similar to motor fuel but lower in octane and highly unstable. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE.mzhelu@gmail.a well that produces natural-gas. spark-ignition engines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GASSER GASTURBINE A commercial. The untreated gasoline cut from the distillation of crude oil natural gasoline. common term for all pipeline valves. GASOLINE.

i. When the clapper is closed (resting on its seat in a normal position). GATE VALVE A pipeline valve made with a wedge-shaped disk or "tongue" which is moved from open to closed (up to down) by a threaded valve stem. gathering system the pipelines and other equipment needed to transport oil.v. 2051. Z. usually of small diameter. which remain in the valve bonnet (do not rise) and when they are rotated by the valve wheel screw into the disk. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2052.) which firmly attached to the wedge. gas. 2053. Some valves have stems. BACKFLOW A type of swing-check valve made so the clapper's position may be changed from open to closed by an externally mounted handle. fluid can flow in one direction only. or a trunk pipeline. or both from wells to a central point-the gathering station-where there is the accessory equipment required to deliver a clean and salable product to the market or to 274 Petroleum Engineer: M. raising the disk to open position. The handle is attached to the clapper's fulcrum shaft which protrudes through the side of the valve body. a tank farm. fluid can flow in the opposite direction.e.mzhelu@gmail. raising the disk and opening the valve. The valve stem is threaded and when the threaded valve wheel is turned the stem rises through the wheel.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2049. 2050.com .. Other valves have a rising stem (q. gathering line a pipeline. when open (raised from its seat by the handle). GATHERING FACILITIES Pipelines and pumping units used to bring oil or gas from production leases by separate lines to a central point. used in gathering crude oil from the field to a main pipeline. GATE.

v.) 2056. to use a bit gauge to check the size of the bit. Z. An oil-gathering system includes oil and gas separators. A gas-gathering system includes regulators.v. 2060. and associated equipment. sparking material or sheathed in a durable plastic. emulsion treaters. fitted with a hinged lid. 2057. abbreviated as psig (pounds per square inch gauge).). The tip of the bob is point zero on the gauge column. See Gathering Facilities. GAUGE HOLE GAUGE LINE A gauge hatch (q. innage gauge. GAUGE HATCH An opening in the roof of a stock or storage tank. with a bob attached. 275 Petroleum Engineer: M. A reel of steel measuring tape. To prevent striking sparks. TICKET A run ticket (q. plus atmospheric pressure equals absolute pressure.mzhelu@gmail. Gauge pressure. GAUGE. outage gauge. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gauge pressure the amount of pressure exerted on the interior walls of a vessel by the fluid contained in it (as indicated by a pressure gauge). 2059. gathering tanks. dehydrators. See Hitch. 2058. to measure the quantity of oil in a tank. and similar equipment. compressors. through which the tank may be gauged and oil simples taken. held in a frame equipped with handle and winding crank used in gauging the liquid level in tanks. gauge 1.com . the bob is made of brass or other non. 2 2055. (See undergauge bit.). 2.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering another pipeline.

and turns the oil into the pipeline.). 2069. 2064.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2062. 276 Petroleum Engineer: M. GAUGETANK GAUGETAPP gauging hatch A tank in which the production from a well or a lease is measured. and uses a calibrated.) 2068.v. used in drilling reports.com . (See strap. Z. gas cut. gauger a pipeline representative for the sale or transfer of crude oil from the producer to the pipeline. flexible-steel tape with a plumb bob at the end to measure the oil in the tank. A gasger the pipeline company's agent and. Gauge line (q. GAUGER. 2065.mzhelu@gmail. makes out a run ticket. records the temperature. in effect. "buys" the tank of oil for his company. gauging tables tables prepared by engineers to show the calculated number of barrels for any given depth of liquid in a tank. 2067. FIELD A person who measures the oil in a stock or lease tank. 2066. 'They are sometimes called strapping tables. the opening in a tank or other vessel through which measuring and sampling are performed. checks the sediment content. gauging tape GC a metal tape used to measure the depth of liquid in a tank. He samples and tests the crude oil to determine quantity and quality. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2063.

Z. 2073. bentonite.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2070. 2071. used in drilling reports. Gear. GEARPUMP GEL See Pump. gel strength a measure of the ability of a colloidal dispersion to develop and retain a gel form. gel cement a cement or cement slurry that has been modified by the addition of 2 2076. GC M GEARBOX gas-cut mud. 2072. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. shearometer.com . and thixotrophy. jellylike state assumed by some colloidal dispersions at rest. When agitated. Sometimes bentonite and other colloidal clays are added to drilling fluid to increase its gel strength. The enclosure or case containing a gear train or assembly of reduction gears. (See gel. a jelly-like material used in well stimulation and formation fracturing to suspend sand or other proppants in the fracturing medium. of a drilling mud determines its ability to hold solids in suspension.) 2074. Gelling agents are mixed with water or light oil to form an emulsion that will carry a quantity of sand for various well workover procedures. a semisolid. or shear strength. (See gel strength and thixotrophy. based on its resistance to shear. the case containing a pump's pinion and ring gears.) 277 Petroleum Engineer: M. The gel strength.mzhelu@gmail. the gel converts to a fluid state. A viscous substance.

v.) to the 2082. Pennsylvanian and Permian.com . the most recent era. GEODESY The branch of science concerned with the determination of the size and shape of the earth and the precise location of points on the earths surface. GEOLOGIC COLUMN The vertical range of sedimentary rock from the basement rock (q. GEOLOGIC ERAS GEOLOGIC PERIODS GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE See Geologic Time Scale. surface. Devonian. Dividing these eras are periods. geochemistry has proved to be an important adjunct to geology and geophysics in exploratory work.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2077. has rocks from the present to 75 million years old. 2084. GEOCHEMICAL PROSPECTING Exploratory methods that involve the chemical analysis of rocks and subsurface water for the presence of organic matter associated with oil and gas deposits 2078. See Geologic Time Scale. 2079. Mississippian. According to authorities in the study of the earth. GEOCHEMISTRY The science of chemistry applied to oil and gas exploration. Silurian. the Cenozoic. 2083. the Paleozoic Era represents the oldest rocks whose ages are 225 to 600 million years old the next title next era is the Mesozoic with rocks 75 to 225 million years old. all 278 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2 2081. Beginning with the they are Cambrian.mzhelu@gmail. By analyzing the contents of subsurface water for presence of organic matter associated with oil deposits. Z. Ordovician.

and water. fracturing faulting (the place where the strata have fractured and slipped by one another) are geological structures that often form structural traps that are logical places to find accumulations of oil and gas . particularly with regard to coring. and running tests. In the Mesozoic Era are the Triassic. When the age of a type of rock is determined. the interpretation of 279 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2086. In addition to deciding on location to drill he may supervise the drilling. which are subdivided into periods and epochs. In general the work of a petroleum geologist consists in searching for structural traps favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas. In the youngest era Cenozoic are the Tertiary and Quaternary. logging. and Precambrian). is primarily concerned with sedimentary rocks where most of the world oil has been found. Geologists have divided the Quarternary Period. 2085. Mesozoic.mzhelu@gmail. 2087. HYDRODYNAMICS A geologist specializing in the study of the mechanics of fluids in underground formations.com . Folding. GEOLOGIST. Geologic time scale the long periods of time dealt with and identified by geology. In contrast to a hard-rock geologist. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE Layers of sedimentary rocks which have been displaced from their normal horizontal position by the forces of nature. A petroleum geologist. His work involves analysis of the test data. Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. Cambrian. geologist a scientist who procures and interprets data pertaining to the strata of the earth's crust. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering in the Paleozoic Era.a person trained in the study of the earth's crust. Z. Geologic time is divided into eras (Cenozoic. it is assigned a place in the scale and thereafter referred to as Mesozoic rock of the Triassic period and so on. identifying the earlier epoch of the Quarternary Period as Pleistocene.

com . the rocks. history. 2093. and applying his findings to the solution of problems associated with oil and gas well exploration and development.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid pressure from drilling wells and well logs.) Geophones are often called jugs.sensitive sound detecting instruments used in conducting seismic surveys. 2089. used in conjunction with seismography. origin. GEOMETRY OF A RESERVOIR A phrase used by petroleum and reservoir engineers meaning the shape of reservoir of oil or gas. 2 2092. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and fossils. and development of the earth and its inhabitants as revealed in the study of rocks. A series of geophones are placed on the ground at intervals to detect and transmit. the reflected sound waves created by explosions set off in the course of seismic exploration work. 2088.mzhelu@gmail. to an amplifier-recording system. Geolograph a trade name for a patented device that automatically records the rate of penetration and depth during drilling. GEOLOGY The science that deals with the history of the earth and its life as recorded in 2090. formations. (See seismograph. geology the science that relates to the study of the structure. geophone an instrument that detects vibrations passing through the earth's crust. GEOLOGRAPH A device on a drilling rig to record the drilling rate or rate of penetration during each 8-hour tour. GEOPHYSICAL CAMP Temporary headquarters Established in the field for geophysical teams working the area. In addition to providing living quarters and a store of 280 Petroleum Engineer: M.

2096. GEOPHYSICS The application of certain familiar physical principles-magnetic attraction. geothermal gradient the increase in the temperature of the earth that follows increasing distance from the surface. the camp has facilities for processing geophysical data gathered on the field trips. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Thousands of feet of sedimentary and volcanic rock were formed in it over millions of years. seismic) to locate probable reservoir structures capable of producing commercial quantities of natural gas and/or crude oil. Their work consists of drilling shot holes. the higher the pressure it exerts on a wellbore drilled into it. the behavior of electric currents-to the science of geology.g. Geophysical Survey Searching and mapping the subsurface structure of the earth's crust using geophysical methods (e. Z. placing explosive charges.com . 2097. The deeper the formation lies.mzhelu@gmail. 2095. setting out or stringing geophones. gravitational pull. detonating shot charges. speed of sound waves. forming a trough hundreds of miles long and tens of miles wide. geosyncline a part of the earth's surface that sank over a long period of time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering supplies. 2099. 2094. and reading and interpreting the results of the seismic shocks set off by the explosive charges. 2098. It averages about 1 F per 60 ft but may be considerably 281 Petroleum Engineer: M. GEOPHYSICAL TEAM A group of specialists working together to gather geophysical data. geopressure abnormally high pressure exerted by some subsurface formations.

The rate of increase in geothermal temperature is approximately one degree Fahrenheit for each 55 feet of depth or more than 1OO'F. fuel oil. yields gasoline. 2101. a subsurface layer of rock containing steam or hot water that is trapped in the layer by overlying impermeable rocks. natural heat sources. 2 2104.The increase in temperature of the earth the deeper a hole is drilled. geothermal reservoir 1. per mile of hole.A solid hydrocarbon with the general appearance of coal.) a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon belonging to the asphalt group. uintaite.com . a subsurface layer of rock that is hot but contains little or no water. 2100. geronimo Gilsonite (See safety slide.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering higher. and coke. 282 Petroleum Engineer: M. Plain water cannot be used because the water in the returning drilling mud would vaporize. In very deep wells. turn to steam at the surface. 2102. when treated and refined. Z. to generate steam to power turboelectric generators. a black. 2.mzhelu@gmail. the bottom-hole temperature is so hot (400 to SOO'F) that special drilling mud formulations must be used. Geothermal reservoirs are a potential source of energy. superheated water from deep in the earth. i.e. A granular form of Gilsonite is sometimes used as a cement additive to prevent lost ciruculation. Found in deposits in Utah. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. lustrous form of asphalt that.. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION The use of underground.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2107. gimbal a mechanical frame that permits an object mounted into it to remain in a stationary or near stationary position regardless of movement of the frame. spanning the crown block. GIRT One of the braces between the legs of a derrick. a device used to form a seal around a reciprocating or rotating rod (as in a pump) to prev6nt fluid leakage.com . providing a support for hoisting. B B GIRBITOL PROCESS A process used to "sweeten" sour gas by removing the hydrogen sulfide 2109. (2) A vertical frame on the top of the derrick.v. Z. 2106. (H2S). 2108. GIN POLE (1) An A-frame made of sections of pipe mounted on the rear of a truck bed that is used as a support or fixed point for the trucks winch line when lifting or hoisting. Gimbals are often used offshore to counteract undesirable wave motion.). gin-pole truck a truck equipped with hoisting equipment and a pole or arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy machinery.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2105. girt none of the horizontal braces between the legs of a derrick. 283 Petroleum Engineer: M. used in drilling reports. GL gland ground level.mzhelu@gmail. 2111. a supporting member. 2110. (3) A mast (q.

a cylindrical. rust. in which the wet gas is put into contact with glycol to remove the water. and water. Usually a glycol unit includes a tower. rollers. the go-devil is pushed along by the oil pressure. ethylene glycol. glycol 1. Z. and a reboiler. moves a mating part downward onto a ground seat that is integral to the valve body.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2112. 2113. usually through the drill pipe or tubing. to drop or pump a device down a borehole. and wire brushes used to clean the inside of a pipeline of accumulations of wax. Also a missile dropped into the well bore to detonate an explosive charge or to jar a downhole tool into operation. sand. glycol dehydrator a processing unit used to remove all or most of the water from gas. When inserted in the line. any of the large class of dihydroxy alcohols (as propylene glycol). plug-like device equipped with scraper blades. rotated by the hand wheel.)A type of pipeline valve that shuts off as the stem.com . 2 2117. 2 2115. 2118.mzhelu@gmail. A pipeline scraper. globe valve (See valve.A facility for removing minute particles of water from natural gas not removed by the separator. 284 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which heats the wet glycol to remove the water from it so it can be recycled.a scraper with self-adjusting spring blades that is pumped through a pipeline to clear away accumulations and deposits. go in the hole GO-DEVIL to lower the drill stem into the wellbore.

v.com .) and to which the mud hose is attached. Z. 2120. shaving the grass off the ground with a sharp hoe-like tool. the opposite of a horst.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2119. "the well has gone to water"). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GOOSENECK A nipple in the shape of an inverted U attached to the top of the swivel (q. used in drilling reports. gallons per minute..the curved connection between the rotary hose and swivel. any device that limits or controls the speed of an engine. GOR governor gpm gr graben Gas-oil ratio (q. A well in which the production of oil has decreased and the production of water has increased to the point where the well is no longer profitable to operate.mzhelu@gmail. gray. 2121. 285 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2128. 2 2123. GOOSING GRASS Cutting grass and weeds around the lease or tank farm. 2126. a block of the earth's crust that has slid downward between two faults. 2127.v. 2 2125.g. leaving the ground clean. gone to water pertaining to a well in which production of oil has decreased and production of water has increased (e.).

gram molecular weight granite (See molecular weight. and to protect the beauty of the landscape. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2129. The unit raises and lowers the pumping rods by winding and unwinding cable on a drum or spoof.000 kg and nearly equal to 1 cm' of water at its maximum density. GRABLE OIL WELL PUMP A patented. 2130. GRASS ROOTS Said of a refinery or other installation built from the ground up as contrasted to a plant merely enlarged or modernised. 286 Petroleum Engineer: M. The low profile of the pumping unit makes it ideal for use in populated areas.mzhelu@gmail. 2134. and mica. gram (g)a unit of metric measure of mass and weight equal to 1/1. 2132. ·hatchet knot.) an igneous rock composed primarily of feldspar. GRANNYHOLE GRANNYKNOT The lowest. 2136. quartz. the rate of regular or graded ascent or descent. 2133. GRADIENTS (TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE) The rates of increase or decrease of temperature or pressure are defined as gradients.com . 2131. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2135. A knot tied in such a way as to defy untying an improperly tied square knot. drum-and-cable pumping unit that can be installed in a wellhead cellar. most powerful gear on a truck. It usually does not contain petroleum.

m. the graveyard shift is customarily from 11 p. Gravel is dredged from the sea bottom or transported from a nearby liver or delta and dumped into holes cut in the ice. 2140. 2138. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The mass of gravel excludes sand from intruding in the well but allows continued rapid production. 40 to 50 in diameter.com . also 1ce Platform. (See tour.Using gravel to fill the cavity created around a well bore as it passes through the producing zone to prevent caving or the incursion of sand and to facilitate the flow of oil into the well bore. GRAVEL ISLAND In some locations (in shallow water near shore) in the Arctic gravel is lands. a method of well completion in which a slotted or perforated liner is placed in the well and surrounded by small sized gravel. The well is enlarged by underreaming at the point where the gravel is packed. In pipeline operations. Hoot-owl shift. grass-roots refinery a refinery built from the ground up as opposed to an addition or modification of an existing one. GRAVEYARD SHIFT A tour of work beginning at midnight and ending at 8 a. 2139.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2137.m. 2141. 2142. graveyard tour the shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts at or about midnight.) 287 Petroleum Engineer: M. are constructed to make a foundation area from which to drill exploratory wells.m.mzhelu@gmail. to 7 a. Z. See Drilling Island. gravel pack gravel packing a mass of very fine gravel placed around a slotted liner in a well.

Z.) 2147. a dock that can accept ships into an enclosure. geophysical instrument used to measure the minute variations in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations. 2148. GRAVING DOCK A dry dock. GRAVITY (1)The attraction of the earth's mass for bodies or objects at or near the surface. If the reservoir rock is highly permeable and dips sharply toward the well there is usually good oil recovery. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the ship is left high and dry for repairs. API gravity. In the absence of water drive or effective gas drive. To the geophysicist. 2144. (2) Short for specific gravity.com . gravity drainage is an important source of energy to produce oil. these variations indicate certain facts about subsurface formations. gravimeter an instrument used to detect and measure minute differences in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations to obtain data about subsurface formations. It is also called segregation drive.mzhelu@gmail.(See API gravity and specific gravity. 288 Petroleum Engineer: M. When the water is pumped out. the weight of a body. 2 2146.the attraction exerted by the earth's mass on objects at its surface. to be pulled by the force of gravity. GRAVITY DRIVE A natural drive occurring where a well is drilled at a point lower than surrounding areas of producing formations causing the oil to drain downhill into the well bore. gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir toward a wellbore resulting from the force of gravity. (3) To flow through a pipeline without the aid of a pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2143.

2151. Its general configuration is that of a column mounted on a large circular base which has storage for 1 million barrels of crude.mzhelu@gmail. GRAVITY SEGREGATION The separation of water from oil. the column is 180 feet in diameter and the overall height of the structure is about 550 feet. The tube oils may be very light or heavy cylinder oils. either in the producing zone or by gravity in the separators after production. the thickening agent (usually soaps) may be any material that when mixed with oil will produce a grease structure.com . See Gravimeter. Z. or heavy from lighter hydrocarbons by the force of gravity. and water according to their densities. 289 Petroleum Engineer: M. (2) Colloquial for crude oil. GRAVITY MAPS Results of reconnaissance gravity surveys display of gravity measurements taken in an area. a line that transports liquid from one elevation to a lower elevation by the force of gravity alone. 2153. 2150. GRAVITY LINE A pipeline that carries oil from a lease tank to pumping station without the use of mechanical means. the stratification of gas. The base is 450 feet in diameter. One of the world's largest gravity structures is located off the Scottish coast in the North Sea. GREASE (1) A lubricating substance (solid or semisolid) made from lubricating oil and a thickening agent. 2152. oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GRAVITY STRUCTURE An offshore drilling and production platform made of concrete and of such tremendous weight that it is held securely on the ocean bottom without the need for piling or anchors.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2149.

GROSS PRODUCTION TAX A severance tax (q. Asphalt-base crudes are sometimes referred to as 2155. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2154. iron. kelly joint. to test samples of crude oil or othe. the top joint of the rotary drill string that works through the square hole in the rotary table. 2159. grind out to test for the presence of water in oil by use of a centrifuge. grief stem (obsolete) kelly.Kelly joint. GRIND OUT Colloquial for centrifuge. As the rotary table is turned by the drilling engines. grn gross production green. sulphur. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Grief stems are heavy. used in drilling reports. emulsion. and silicate.v. time. GREEN OIL A paraffin-base crude oil. thick-walled tubular pieces with squared shoulders that are made to fit into the hole in the rotary table. the grief stem and the drillpipe are rotated. and gravel). at a certain sum per unit of mineral removed (barrels of oil.mzhelu@gmail. thousands or millions of cubic feet of gas or tons of coal. 290 Petroleum Engineer: M. black oil. 2 2158. the total production of oil from a well or lease during a specified period of 2161.com . 2160. greensand a sand that contains considerable quantities of glauconite.). a greenish mineral composed of potassium. sand-by use of a centrifuge machine. liquid for suspended material-water. sand. 2156. which gives the sand its color and name. a tax usually imposed by a state.

heavy machinery beds. caissons. This type arrangement is usually for offshore seismic surveys in which several companies are planning to submit bids for offshore Leases offered in a government lease sale. 2164. or pulley. (See block. one half is convex.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2163. GROWLERBOARD See Lazy Board. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. the sealing material used in grouting. GROUT (1)A concrete mixture used to fill in around piling. ground block a wireline sheave.to force sealing material into a soil. 2167. 2168. and foundation work. or rock formation to stabilize it. 2166.) 2165. fastened to the ground anchor that changes a horizontal pull on a wireline to a vertical pull (as when swabbing with a derrick over a well). A threaded ring holds the halves together. The companies share the information as well as the cost. pressuretight Used on small-diameter piping. GROUND-SEAT UNION A pipe coupling made in two parts. and booth ground to fit.com . 291 Petroleum Engineer: M. (2) To stabilize and make permanent Grout is usually a thin mixture that can be worked into crevices and beneath and around structural forms. sand. Z. gross tonnage the entire interior capacity of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig expressed in tons equal to 100 ft2. the other had concave in shape. GROUPSHOT Geophysical expiration performed for several individuals or companies on a cost-sharing basis.

In the oil field. 2171. guards are used on equipment such as belts.com . 2173. power-transmission chains. GRUB STAKE AGREEMENT An agreement whereby one person undertakes to prospect for oil and agrees to hand over to the person who furnishes the money or supplies a certain proportionate interest in the oil discovered.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2169. useful for correlation and age determination of the rock in which they were fount. This type of agreement is common for solid minerals but is not often used in oil prospecting.mzhelu@gmail. cylindrical steel section. guide base guide fossil (See temporary guide base and permanent guide base. A hole in the center of the shoe allows drilling fluid to pass up into the casing while it is being lowered and cement to pass out during cementing operations. heavy. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A 2174. It prevents the casing from snagging on irregularities in the borehole as it is lowered. drums. guard a metal shield placed around moving parts of machinery to lessen or avoid the chance of injury to personnel. flywheels and drive shafts. Z. 2170. 292 Petroleum Engineer: M. filled with concrete and rounded at the bottom and placed at the end of the casing string.) the petrified remains of plants or animals. 2172. attached to the temporary guide base and permanent guide base that help to accurately position equipment (as blowout preventers) on the seafloor when a well is drilled offshore. guide shoe a short. guidelines lines. usually four.

Gun barrels have largely been replaced by unified heater-treater equipment but are still common. where the water settles out and is drawn off and the clean oil flows out to storage.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2175. A heavy. gun barrel a settling tank used to separate oil and water in the field. 2176. especially in older fields. A common method of completing a well is to set casing through the oil-bearing formation and cement it. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (Casing is perforated to permit the oil from the formation to enter the well. GUN PERFORATION A method of putting holes in a well's casing downhole in which explosive charges lowered into the hole propel steel projectiles through the casing wall.com . gun-perforate to create holes in casing and cement set through a productive formation. The formation fluids flow out of 293 Petroleum Engineer: M. sticky mud formed downhole by certain shales when they become wet from the drilling fluid.mzhelu@gmail. A perforating gun is then lowered into the hole and fired to detonate high-powered jets or shoot steel projectiles (bullets) through the casing and cement and into the pay zone.) 2180. Z. it is pumped into the gun barrel. After emulsified oil is heated and treated with chemicals. the kind you pull on like a cowboy boot. the A major submarine canyon indenting the seaward edge of the Scotian Shelf. GUM BOOTS GUMBO Rubber boots. 2178. 2177. Gully.any relatively sticky formation (as clay) encountered in drilling. which separates Banquereau and Sable Island Banks. 2179.

The lines that provide the main support for the structure are load guys. like a geyser. 294 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 2181. The end of the guy wire is attached to a stake or a deadman (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the reservoir through the perforations and into the wellbore. paraffin. In reality. mill scale.v. gunk squeeze a bentonite and diesel-oil mixture that is pumped down the drill pipe to mix with drilling mud being pumped up the annulus.mzhelu@gmail. 2 2186. and other debris that is cleaned out of a pipeline when a scraper or a pig is put through the line. In the early days of the oil industry. puttylike material is squeezed into lost-circulation zones to isolate them from the wellbore. With improved drilling technology. See Blowout.com . 2 2184. oil. a gusher is a blowout and is extremely wasteful of reservoir fluids and drive energy. guy line a wireline attached to a mast or derrick to stabilize it. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gusher an oil well that has come in with such great pressure that the oil jets out of the well like a geyser.A well that comes in with such great pressure that the oil blows out of the wellhead and up into the derrick. gushers are rare today. (See jetperforate. and many times were the only indications that a large reservoir of oil and gas had been struck. gushers were common. the lines attached to ground anchors for lateral support are wind guys. rust.). GUNK The collection of dirt. The stiff. especially the use of drilling mud to control downhole pressures. 2182. GUY WIRE A cable or heavy wire used to hold a pole or mast upright. Z. 2 2188.

" water with high concentrations of minerals. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2189. 2190. rock-like layer on the inner surfaces Gypsum.) Boiler scale. (See calcium sulfate and anhydrite. Unlike a magnetic surveying instrument.com . (See directional survey and directional drilling. Pipe and vessels handling hard water become gypped up as the minerals form a hard. guy-line anchor GYP a buried weight or anchor to which a guy line is attached.) 2192. a gyroscopic instrument obtains direction and is not affected by magnetic irregularities that may be caused by casing or other ferrous metals. (See dead-man. a residue or deposit from "hard water. gyroscopic surveying instrument a device used to determine direction in and angle at which a wellbore is drifting off the vertical. 2191.) 295 Petroleum Engineer: M. gypsum a naturally occurring crystalline form of hydrous calcium sulfate. Z.

h H2S HABENDUM CLAUSE 2195. half-life the amount of time needed for half of a quantity of radioactive substance to decay or transmute into a nonradioactive substance." The primary term in this case is 5 years. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. Hydrogen sulfide (q. An habendum clause might read. or either of them is produced or drilling operations are continued as hereinafter provided. The clause in a lease setting forth the duration of the lessee's interest in the property.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2194.). "it is agreed that this lease shall remain in force for a term of five years from this date and for as long thereafter as oil or gas. hour. 2 2200. 2197. when placed in the drill stem just above a rollercone bit. Half-lives range from fractions of seconds to millions of years. The patch is cut from a length of pipe of the same diameter as the one to be repaired. Half solos can be from six to 12 feet in length and are placed over the pitted or corroded section of the pipe and welded in place with a bead around the entire perimeter of the half sole. 2198.com . HALF SOLE A metal patch for a corroded section of pipeline. 2196. Z. of whatever kind. hammer drill a drilling tool that. Hammer drilling 296 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Primary Term.mzhelu@gmail. delivers high-frequency percussion blows to the rotating bit.

See Earnest Money. Z. hand HAND MONEY handrail a worker in the oil industry.mzhelu@gmail.. to use such a tool. HANDY HANG A WELL OFF Hand-tight. To disconnect the pull-rod line from a pumping jack or pumping unit being operated from a central power (q. corroded sections of pipe by striking the pipe with a hammer. 2205. When struck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combines the basic features of rotary and cable-tool drilling (i.com . a railing or pipe along a passageway or stair that serves as a support or 2206. 2 2209. On a lease with a number of stripper wells. 2 2203. a corroded section resounds differently than a noncorroded section.v. 2204. hammer test a method of locating thick-walled. the pumper knows each well and how long it should be pumped.). 2207. 297 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2201. others after 12 hours or so.e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a pipe connection or nut that can be unscrewed by hand. guard. especially one in the field. bit rotation and percussion). As a result he may "hang a well off" after six hours of pumping. Strippers which make 10 barrels or less of oil a day rarely are pumped 24 hours a day. hang rods to suspend sucker rods in a derrick or mast on rod hangers rather than place them horizontally on a rack.

298 Petroleum Engineer: M. i. ROD HANGING IRON See Rod Hanger. 2214. and bolted to their mating piece. aligned. On shallow wells with short strings of rods. that is applied to the outside surfaces of tool joints. the rods are hung outside the derrick. and other rotary drilling tools to minimize wear when they are in contact with the wall of the hole. the rods are pulled. On portable pulling units. stabilizers. 2217.mzhelu@gmail. drill collars. 2213. duty blowout preventer stack or production tree.. unscrewed and layed down. 2212. they may be pulled from the well by a simple pulling unit consisting only of a guyed mast. heavy. hard facing. HANG THE RODS To pull the pump rods out of the well and hang them in the derrick on rod hangers. If this is the case. hard banding hard facing 2 2216. A colloquial expression for the job of Assembling a high-pressure.com . Z. hard hat a metal or hard plastic helmet worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger of being injured by falling objects. usually crushed tungsten carbide. Some of the valve assemblies weigh thousands of pounds or more so they must be hoisted into place. HANGER. an extremely hard material.e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. layed out horizontal on a rack.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2211.

scanners. hard water water that contains dissolved compounds of calcium. HARDWIRE (TELEMETRY) Describes a system of communication or information transmission using electric wire from point to point instead of electronic or wireless transmission. (1) Electronic and mechanical components of a computer system. 1/8. e. HARDBANDING Laying on a coating or surface of super-hard metal on a softer metal part at a point or on an area of severe wear or abrasion. or both. magnesium.g. storage drums. 2225. parts. Z. Also called hardfacing. 1/2 inch.mzhelu@gmail. Hat-type foundations are used for small pumps and engines or other installations not requiring solid. 2223. The holes are square. a coaching or hard-surfacing of the part is a practical solution. rectangular cake pan. 2224. the shape of an inverted.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2218. printers. 2 2220.com . computers. etc. e. 299 Petroleum Engineer: M. permanent foundations. tools. 2221. HARDFACING HARDWARE See Hardbanding.g. HAT-TYPE FOUNDATION A metal base or foundation i@. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1/4. Compare soft water. (2) Mechanical equipment. Where it may be impractical or prohibited by structural constraints to manufacture a part from the harder metal. HARDWARECLOTH A type of galvanized metal screen that can be bought in hole sizes. Putting a hard surface on a softer metal by welding or other metallurgical process. 2222.

2. hay section a section of a heater or a heater-treater that is filled with fibrous material through which oil and water emulsions are filtered. or barge. related to equipment. an object or condition. HATCHET KNOT HAULASS HAWSER A knot that defies untying and so must be cut. 2235. 2227. that presents or causes a risk of accident or fire. head a quantity of fluid that flows out of a well intermittently rather than continuously. vamoose. a granny knot. An inelegant term meaning to leave a place with all haste.com . 2 2234. -the opening from the deck into the cargo space of ships. A large-diameter hemp or nylon rope for towing. hayrack hazard (obsolete) a rack used to hold pipe on a derrick. an opening in the roof of a tank through which a gauging line may be lowered to measure its contents. Z.mzhelu@gmail. split. hatch 1. mooring. or securing a ship 2232. site. Such a well lacks sufficient gas pressure to flow steadily and 300 Petroleum Engineer: M. hydraulic head. 2237. 2236.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2226. HEAD WELL A well that makes its best production by being pumped or flowed intermittently. 2 2231. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or envirorlment. a fingerboard. 2 2229.

An Intermittent or unsteady flow of oil from a well. HEADACHE POST A frame over a truck cab that prevents pipe or other material being hauled from failing on the cab. a collection point for oil or gas gathering lines. HEADING headgate the gate valve nearest the pump or compressor on oil or gas lines.mzhelu@gmail. 2242. represented by the column of oil in the tubing. 301 Petroleum Engineer: M. HYDROSTATIC 2239. head well puller HEAD. 2240.com . a sot under the walking beam to prevent it from failing on the drilling crew when it is disconnected from the crank and pitman (q. 2238.). Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This type of flow is often caused by a lack of gas to produce a steady flow thus allowing the well's tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering must wait for the tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil up the tubing and out to the tanks. See Manifold.v. See Hydrostatic Head. crew chief. HEADACHEI A warning cry given by a fellow worker when anything is accidentally dropped or fails from overhead toward another worker. If the well cannot accumulate enough gas pressure to overcome the hydrostatic head. HEADER A large-diameter pipe into which a number of smaller pipes are perpendicularly welded or screwed. the well must be pumped. 2241.

HEAT EXCHANGER.) Small-diameter pipe or tubing with thin metal fins attached to the outer circumference for cooling water and other liquids or gases. In some plants finned tube exchangers are built in ductwork through which the exhaust gas of a turbine flows at 800'F. 2245. because of their less-sturdy construction there are pressure limits to their use. SHELL AND TUBE A common type of industrial heat exchanger with a "bundle" of smalldiameter pipes (tubes) inside a long. to heat the process stream or to make steam.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2243.com . 2246. 2244. HAIRPIN A type of shell and tube exchanger with tubes inside a 12 to 18-inch diameter shell which may extend 20 to 30 feet and then doubles back the same distance like a hairpin.mzhelu@gmail. cylindrical steel shell. The tubes (50 to 302 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2247. Oil or process liquids are pumped through the exchanger tubes to use the waste heal. Because of its thin walls. Finned tube exchangers cool by giving up heat from the surface of the fins to the atmosphere in a manner similar to an automobile radiator. However. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HEAT EXCHANGER. Heat exchangers are not only for cooling but for heat recovery systems as well. HEAT EXCHANGER. FINNED TUBE (See exchanger. heat exchanger HEAT EXCHANGER. plate exchangers exhibit a much higher heat transfer coefficient thin tie more Conventional Shell and tube exchangers. Hairpin exchangers may have bare or finned tubes inside the shelf. PLATE A relatively low-pressure heat exchanger that uses thin-walled plates as its heat transfer elements. Z.

In its basic form a heat pipe consists of a closed tube (the shell) two to six inches in diameter and as long as need be. liquid metals. The liquid to he cooled is pumped through the tubes. Heat normally lost to a cooling medium can be used to heat a stream 2248. moves back down the pipe in the wick by gravity or capillary action. by perforated steel end plates. The continuous cycle of vaporization and condenation within the closed pipe makes the heat pipe an efficient. glycerine. HEAT TAPE An electrical heating element made in the form of an insulated wire or tape used as a tracer line to provice heat to a pipeline or instrument piping. naturalconvection heat transfer loop. as a liquid. the end in contact with the heat source. thousands of heat pipes were installed along the big line to maintain the frozen soil around the vertical support members. The shell has a porous wick made of fine metal mesh in the inside circumference extending from top to bottom. Heat exchangers act not only as a cooling apparatus but are often used as a waste heat recovery system. several hundred in larger ones) run parallel to the shell and are supported. the atmosphere in most cases. equidistant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The space inside the shell not filled with tubes carries the cooling water or other liquid. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 100 in small units. 303 Petroleum Engineer: M. the liquid to evaporate and move up the pipe as a vapor.com . or acetone. GRAVITY RETURN A type of passive heat exchanger (requiring no external energy source) that draws heal from a heat source and gives up heat to a heat sink. The dissipation of the heat at the upper end condenses the vapor which.. 2249. Heat taken in or absorbed at the lower end of the boat pipe. HEAT PIPE.mzhelu@gmail. The heat tape is held in direct contact with the piping by a covering of insulation. On the trans-Alaska pipeline. The shell also contains a quantity of working liquid which may be anhydrous ammonia. methanol. cause.

product or heavy crude oil. Z. 2254. 2 2258.com . and oil and gas separator. 2 2256.mzhelu@gmail. whether steam or electrical tape.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2250. Heat tracing lines. a device that moves with the heave of a floating offshore drilling rig to prevent the bit from being lifted off the bottom of the hole and then dropped 304 Petroleum Engineer: M. HEATER. HEAT TRACING The paralleling of instrumentation. 2 2253. are attached parallel to the host piping and both are covered with insulation. (2) A refinery furnace. free-water knockout. HEATER (1)An installation used to heat the stream from high-pressure gas and condensate wells (especially in winter) to prevent the formation of hydrates. A heater-treater is a combination of a heater. PIPELINE An installation fitted with heating coils or tubes for heating certain crude oil to keep it "thin" enough to be pumped through a pipeline. 2251. a residue which interferes with the operation of the separator. heave heave compensator the vertical motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. heater-treater a vessel that heats an emulsion and removes water and gas from the oil to raise it to a quality acceptable for pipeline transmission. Crudes with high pour points (congealing at ordinary temperatures) must be heated before they can be moved by pipeline. lines with small-diameter steam piping or electrical heat tape to keep the fines from freezing or to warm the product or instrument fluid sufficiently to keep them flowing freely. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

kerosene. HEAVY CRUDE OIL Crude oil of 20' API gravity or less. back . heavy ends are the heavier fractions of refined oil fuel oils. See Light Ends. and distillate fuelshave been extracted from the crude. 2263.. Because heavy crude oil is more costly to produce. residual fuel oil. tubes.residue left over from the refining process after all lighter fractions are off. HEAVY METAL Spent uranium or tungsten. with less deviation from the vertical. There are perhaps billions of barrels of heavy oil still in place in the U. notably steam injection or steam soak. to maintain constant weight on the bit). HEAVY ENDS In refinery parlance. and asphalt-remaining after the lighter fractions have been distilled off. paraffin.e. Z. to extract them from the underground formations.S. (See motion Compensator. and are used to stablize the bit and to force it to make a straighter hole. lubricating oils. HEAVY FUEL OIL A residue of crude oil refining processes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering back down (i. Heavy bottoms are used for residual fuel and/or asphalt.com . 305 Petroleum Engineer: M. it and other types of oil are eligible for free market or world prices. which require special production techniques. The product remaining after the lighter fractions-gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. wax.) 2259. HEAVY BOTTOMS A thick. Heavy metal is used to make drill tools to add weight to the drill assembly. 2264. It is used with devices such as bumper subs.mzhelu@gmail. 2262. Drill collars made of heavy metal weigh twice as much as those made of steel. 2 2261.

a seven-loot diameter shaft is drilled into the relatively shallow formation. 306 Petroleum Engineer: M. HECTARE A metric unit of land measurement equal to 1 0. Conventional steamflooding employs vertical holes through which steam is injected. Some of the advantages of heavy-wall pipe over drill collars are Heavy-wall can be handled at the rig floor by regular drillpipe elevators and slips and can be racked in the rig like regular pipe.ha. 2266. workman construct a concrete cavern 25 feet in diameter and 20 feet high. soaks the formation. Heavy-wall is sometimes used in the drillstring to reduce the number of larger diameter and stiffer drill collars. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HEAVY OIL PROCESS (HOP) A steam injection process developed by a subsidiary of Barber Oil Corporation in which steam is injected through horizontal lines into subsurface oil sands containing heavy oil. Several joints of this pipe may be placed in the drill stem between drill collars and regular drill pipe to reduce the chances of drill pipe fatigue or failure. In the horizontal method. The steam. Perforated pipe is inserted in the drilled holes to carry steam. Abbreviation . injected under pressure. After it is cased. 2267.mzhelu@gmail. oil of 20" API gravity or less.000 square meters or 2. heavy weight drillpipe drill pipe having thicker walls and longer tool-joints than usual as well as an integral wear pad in the middle. This is true in directional drilling and even in straight holes in certain areas of the country.47 acres.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2265. From this work area. HEAVY-WALL DRILLPIPE Drillpipe with thicker walls than regular drilipipe. causing the highly viscous oil to separate from the sand and flow into the laterals after the steam injection is halted. lateral holes are drilled several hundred feet in all directions. 2 2269.

hertz a unit of frequency measurement equal to one cycle per second. A liquid hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. HGOR HHP high gas-oil ratio.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2271.mzhelu@gmail. hexane a saturated hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. 2 2275. it is sometimes present in small amounts in natural gas. 2272. 2277. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 307 Petroleum Engineer: M. or shifting weights on board. 2276. used in drilling reports. 2278. hydrofracturing. Z. 2273. HEXANE A hydrocarbon traction of the paraffin series. waves.com . Although heptane is a liquid at ordinary atmospheric conditions. one of the heavy m& in a hydrocarbon mixture. and acidizing. Helideck HEPTANE A landing area for helicopters. At ordinary atmospheric conditions hexane is a liquid but often occurs in small amounts in natural gas. heel the inclination of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig to one side caused by wind. Hydraulic horsepower a designation for a type of very-high-pressure plunger pump used in downhole operations such as cementing.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2279. 308 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2281. 2283. the higher up on the structure a well is drilled the better the chances of encountering oil and avoiding the underlying water. gasoline. HIGH A geological term for the uppermost part of an inclined structure where the likelihood of finding oil is considered to be the greatest. When this condition occurs the operator (lease pumper) must have the tank cleaned before the pipeline company will run the tank of oil.com . Z. 2280. See Solution Gas. As oil and gas tend to accumulate at the top of underground structures. HI-BOY A skid-mounted or wheeled tank with a hand-operated pump mounted on top used to dispense kerosene. traps and domes. HIGH-PRESSURE GAS INJECTION Introduction of gas into a reservoir in quantities exceeding the volumes produced in order to maintain reservoir pressure high enough to achieve mixing between the gas an 1 reservoir oil. HIGH BOTTOM A condition in a field stock tank when BS&W (basic sediment and water) has accumulated at the bottom of the tank to a depth making it impossible to draw out the crude oil without taking some of the BS with it into the pipeline. 2282.mzhelu@gmail. hiding the threads and making a leakproof connection. or lubricating oil to small shops and garages. HIDE THE THREADS To make up (tighten) a joint of screw pipe until all the threads on the end of the joint are screwed into the collar. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

) Well histories include formations encountered. HOISTING DRUM A powered reel holding rope or cable for hoisting and pulling a winch. a winch or similar device. used in drilling reports. the drawworks. Draw Works. 2290. hoist an arrangement of pulleys and wire rope or chain used for lifting heavy objects. Z. completion. and traveling block on a rotary drilling rig. 2 2289. any difficulties. mud program. etc. HOCM hogging heavily oil-cut mud.com . cementing and perforating. 2287. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 2286. high-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry into a well at the points to be sealed with a final pressure equal to or greater than the formation breakdown pressure. the distortion of the hull of an offshore drilling rig when the bow and stern are lower than the middle caused by wave action or unbalanced or heavy loads. depths. and operation of a well. coring record. (Well history is required in some states. HISTORY OF A WELL A written account of all aspects of the drilling. size and amount of casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2285. swivel. 2293. hook.mzhelu@gmail. (See squeeze cementing. See 309 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2292. hoisting cable the cable that supports the drill pipe.

2299. hold-down a mechanical arrangement that prevents the upward movement of certain pieces of equipment installed in a well. or holiday.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2294.com . hoisting plug a plug with extended shoulder surfaces screwed into the ends pf drill collars to permit a safe lifting with elevators. the other end attached to and supposing the moving rod line. 2297. hole HOLE OPENER the borehole. A sucker-rod pump may use a mechanical hold-down for attachment to a seating nipple. holiday holiday detector a gap or void in coating on a pipeline or in paint on a metal surface. in coatings on pipelines and equipment. (See also mousehole and rathole. 2298. 2 2301. HOLD DOWN/HOLD UP Oscillating anchoring devices or supports for a shackle-rod line to hold the rod line to the contour of the land it traverses. 310 Petroleum Engineer: M. also called a lifting sub or lifting nipple. Z. The special tool is equipped with cutter arms that are expanded against the wall of the hole and by rotary action reams a larger diameter hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an electrical device used to locate a weak place. 2295.) A type of reamer used to increase the diameter of the well bore below the casing. 2296.mzhelu@gmail. The devices are timbers or lengths of pipe hinged to a deadman or overhead support at one end.

a cavernous or vugular 2306.). 2307. A hook block may have more than one sheave mounted in the frame a traveling block (q. Upon detonation. Holidays are detected by electronic testing devices as the pipe is being laid.com .) and which engages the bail of the swivel in drilling operations. cylindrical metal tube into which are loaded shaped charges or bullets. 311 Petroleum Engineer: M. formation. homocline honeycomb formation a series of beds dipping in the same direction. a stratum of rock that contains large void spaces. hollow carrier gun a perforating gun consisting of a hollow. 2304. HOOK BLOCK A pulley or shrive mounted in wooden or metal frame to which a hook is attached. 2308. debris caused by the exploding charges falls into the carrier to be retrieved with the reusable gun. HOOK The hook attached to the frame of the rig's traveling block (q.v.v. 2303. See Jeeping. Z.mzhelu@gmail. the breaks are manually coated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2302. See Hook-load Capacity. HOLIDAYS Breaks or I laws in the protective coating of a joint of line pipe. When detected. usually calculated by an API formula. 2305. hook load capacity the nominal rated load capacity of a portable hoist and mast arrangement.

HOOKUP To make a pipeline connection to a tank. HOOKS Pipe-laying tongs named for the shape of the pipe-gripping head of the scissors-like wrench. HORIZONTAL ASSIGNMENT The assignment of an interest in oil or gas above or below a certain depth in a well. and so on. 2310. or ship channel.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2309. 2312.) at an angle from the horizontal beneath a stream. or an assignment can specify a particular formation. that part of a formation of sufficient porosity and permeability to form a petroleum reservoir. or a well.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2313. pump. flanges. The arrangement of pipes. HORIZON A zone of a particular formation. The hopper is used to mix cement slurry. HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Drilling with a specially designed slant rig (q. hopper a large funnel through which solid materials may be passed and n-mixed with a liquid injected through a connection at the bottom. and valves in such a connection. This type of directional 312 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is also called a wall-hook packer. 2314. nipples. 2315. combine clay and oil or water to make drilling fluid. 2311. vent the slips and hook from turning with the pipe and assist in advancing the slips up a tapered sleeve to engage the wall of the outside pipe as weight is put on the packer.v. The friction springs pre.com . canal. Z. hook-wall packer a packer equipped with friction blocks or drag springs and slips and designed so that rotation of the pipe unlatches the slips.

" 2 2321. an oil company is said to be horizontally integrated when. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION Refers to the condition in which a diversified company has resources or investments other than its principal business. 313 Petroleum Engineer: M. Expenses that needed to be masked in anonymity were simply listed "horse feed. HORSEPOWER. besides oil and gas holdings. HORSEPOWER A unit of power equivalent to 33. 2319.7 watts of 2322.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering drilling has been perfected and is used to make pipeline crossings where dredging a trench across a waterway is too costly or too disruptive of ship traffic and a bridge or A-frame supported line is prohibited by the authorities. 2 2318. 2323. it owns coal deposits.000 foot-pounds a minute or 745. oil shale and geothermal energy. electricity.com .mzhelu@gmail. the opposite of a graben. Z. See Vertical Integration. 2316. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Specifically. horse head the curved section on the oil-well end of the walking beam of a beampumping unit from which the bridle is suspended. is into nuclear energy. a block of the earth's crust that has been raised up between two faults. HORSEFEED An old oil field term for unexplainable expense account items in the days of the teamster and line rider who were given an allowance for horse feed. and from which it makes a profit. INDICATED AND BRAKE horst See Indicated and Brake Horsepower.

e. HORTONSPHERE A spherical steel tank for the storage. Z.mzhelu@gmail. See Pipeline Welding. 314 Petroleum Engineer: M. the tanks designed to hold liquid or gases under pressure are made spherical or nearly so to handle internal pressures of several hundred pounds per square inch safely. 2 2327. of volatile petroleum products. hot spot an abnormally hot place on a casing coupling when a joint is making up. It usually indicates worn threads on the pipe and in the coupling. As vessels subjected to high internal pressures tend to take the shape of a sphere. also Hortonspheroid. gasoline. The hot pass is the course laid down on top of the stringer bead. a flattened spherical tank. HOT PASS A term describing a "bead" or course of molten metal laid down in welding a pipeline.g. 2325. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Hot-fluid Injection. and LP-gases. 2329. without distortion and undue stress.com . which is the first course in welding a pipeline. under pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2324. 2328. HOT FOOTING Installing a heater at the bottom of an input well to increase the flow of heavy crude oil from the production wells. resembling somewhat a tangerine in shape. 2330. HOT OIL (FORIEGN) A term applied to oil produced by a host country after the host country confiscates the assets of a foreign oil company. hot oil oil produced in violation of state regulations or transported interstate in violation of federal regulations.

It is said his interest in cars fed him to experiment with more efficient methods of refining and to work with various catalysts until he perfected the catalytic cracking process that bears his name. Pipeline. at "semidiesel. EUGENE J. Houdry. Although there are several cracking processes in use today. HOT-PLUG ENGINE A stationary diesel-cycle engine that is started by first heating an alloy-metal plug in the cylinder head that protrudes into the firing chamber. HOT TAPPING Making repairs or modifications on a tank. helping to provide heat for ignition. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 2334. HOT-FLUID INJECTION A method of thermal oil recovery. 315 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2331. 2333. 2335. See Tapping and Plugging Machine. or other installation without shutting down operations. The hot plug assists in the initial ignition of the diesel fuel until engine reaches operating speed and temperature. A pioneer in developing the use of catalysts in cracking crude oil.v. in which hot fluid (water.). 2332. HOT-HEAD ENGINE hot-oil treatment A hot-plug engine (q. or steam) is injected into a formation to increase the flow of low-gravity crude to production wells. Houdry's work is credited with ushering in the era of catalytic cracking. See Hydrocracking. Afterwards the plug remains hot. a wealthy Frenchman. hot-tube engine hot head See Somidiesel. was a World War 1 hero and auto racer." the treatment of a producing well with heated oil to melt accumulated paraffin in the tubing and annulus. 2336. HOUDRY. gas. Z.com .

With three sets of tongs on the joint being screwed in. made a stroke every third beat of the collar pecker's hammer (q.E. HUMPHREYS. 2 2341. A petroleum chemist who worked with Dr.) until the joint was nearly screwed in. an expression used by the tong crew of a pipeline gang. The tong crews on large-diameter screw pipelines (up to about 12-inch pipe) hit the hooks in perfect rhythms. HOUSE BRAND (GASOLINE) HOVERCRAFT hp hp-h HRMNG THE HOOKS An oil company's regular gasoline.com . Then the three tongs. 2346. 2345. with all six t)r nine men.R. a gasoline bearing the company's name. screwing in joints of pipe using pipe tongs. each large tong. columns. 2344. DR. the framework of a vessel including all decks. 2 2343. See Air Cushion Transport. Burton in developing the first commercially successful petroleum cracking process using heat-and pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 2347. Working on a pipeline. and so on but excluding machinery. horsepower-hour." to tighten the joint the final and most difficult round. Z. hit together to "hide the threads. horsepower.W.v. huff-and-puff injection hull (slang) cyclic steam injects. plating. 2 2339. 316 316 Petroleum Engineer: M.M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2337. run by two or three men.

HUNDRED-YEAR STORM CONDITIONS A specification for certain types of offshore installations-production and drilling platforms. and transmission facilities for gas.com . Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. compression. HURRY-UP STICK The name given to the length of board with a hole in one end which the cable-toot driller used to turn the T-screw at the end of the temper screw (q. It is often caused by a faulty or improperly adjusted governor. Hydrates often accumulate in troublesome amounts and impede fluid flow. Chemical symbol is Ca(OH)2. to enlarge by taking water on or in. B B 317 Petroleum Engineer: M. This enabled the driller to perform the job of letting out the drilling line easily and rapidly. They resemble snow or ice. productivity. the biggest blow on record. and offshore storage facilities-is that they be built to withstand winds of 125 miles an hour and "hundred-year storm conditions". a dry powder obtained by treating quicklime with enough water to satisfy its chemical affinity for water.v. 2352. hydrate a hydrocarbon and water compound that is formed under reduced temperature and pressure in gathering. hydrated lime calcium hydroxide.mzhelu@gmail. Hydrafrac the copyrighted name of a method of hydraulic fracturing to increase 2353.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2348. 2349. moorings. 2 2351.) when the walking beam was in motion. 2354. hunting a surge of engine speed to a higher number of revolutions per minute (rpm) followed by a drop to normal speed without manual movement of the throttle.

pumping. pressure to the face of the formation.mzhelu@gmail. each to safeguard and back up the other. Various Patented techniques.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. are employed by oil field service companies.) hydraulic pump a device that lifts oil from wells without the use of sucker rods. hydraulic head the pressure caused by tne weight of a column of liquid upon a unit area expressed by the height or distance of the liquid above the point at which the pressure is measured. (See hydraulic 318 Petroleum Engineer: M. forcing the strata apart.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2355. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A method of stimulating production from a formation of low permeability by inducing fractures and fissures in the formation by applying very high fluid. 2 2361. are used. Hydraulic lines from the rig enter the pods. through which fluid is sent toward the preventers. it is used to express the pressure resulting from the weight of a body of liquid since the weight is directly proportional to the height. Although head refers to distance or height. Usually two pods. hydraulic coupling a fluid connection between a prime mover and the machine it drives that uses the action of liquid moving against blades to drive the machine. 2357. using the same principle. hydraulic fluid a liquid of low viscosity (as light oil) that is used in systems actuated by liquid (as the brake system in a modern passenger car). Z. 2358. hydraulic control pod a device used on offshore drilling rigs to provide a way to actuate and control subsea blowout preventers from the rig. 2359. painted different colors. 2356.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Surface power is supplied from a standard engine-driven pump. which is seated in the string. HYDRAULIC WORKOVER UNIT A type of workover unit that is used on high-pressure wells where it may be necessary to snub the pipe out of the hole and back in the hole when the workover is completed. or pulling. The downhole engine is operated by clean crude oil under pressure (power oil) that is drawn from a power-oil or settling tank by a triplex plunger pump. See Snubbing. Hydril the registered trademark of a prominent manufacturer of oil-field equipment. Z. hydraulic ram a cylinder and piston device that uses hydraulic pressure for pushing. Subsurface hydraulic pumps consist of two reciprocating pumps coupled and placed in the well.com . or for closing a blowout preventer against pressure.000 ft. 2365. One pump functions as an engine and drives the other pump (the production pump). lifting. hydraulic pumping a method of pumping oil from wells by using a downhole pump without sucker rods. 319 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2364. It is commonly used to raise portable masts from a horizontal to a vertical position.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2363. If a single string of tubing is used. especially the annular blowout preventer. one supplies the power oil to the pump while the other returns the exhaust and produced oil to the surface. The hydraulic pump may be used to pump several wells from a central source and has been used to lift oil from depths of more than 10. If two parallel strings are used. 2366.mzhelu@gmail. and a mixture of power oil and produced fluid is returned through the casingtubing annulus. for leveling a production rig at an uneven location. power oil is pumped down the tubing string to the pump.

com . Z. and coals. Ale smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous. hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for itself. the coupling. 2369. hydrocione HYDROCRACKATE (See desander. natural gas.) The main product from the hydrocracking process (q. Chemical symbol is HCI. If water leaks from any place in the tubing. HYDROCRACKING A refining process for converting middle-boiling or residual material to highoctane gasoline. Although composed only of two elements. Hydrocarbon An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. or both are replaced. reformer charge stock. components. 2371.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2367. whose densities. 2370. boiling points.v. usually as the tubing is being run in the well. hydro-test to apply hydraulic pressure to check for leaks in tubing or tubing couplings. Hydrocarbons often occur in petroleum products. 2368. It is also known as muriatic acid. 2372. jet fuel and/or high-grade fuel oil. 320 Petroleum Engineer: M. hydrochloric acid a compound commonly used to acidize carbonate rocks. and freezing points increase as their molecular weights increase.mzhelu@gmail.). gasoline blending 2373. the largest are solids. either the joint of tubing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hydrocarbons organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon. prepared by mixing hydrogen chloride gas in water.

The braking is achieved by a runner or impeller turning in a housing filled with water. 2379.mzhelu@gmail. 2378. 2376. It is extremely poisonous and corrosive. 321 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . of sulfur and hydrogen commonly found in petroleum.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Hydrocracking is an efficient. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) An odorous and noxious compound of sulfur found in "sour" gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hydrofluoric-hydrochloric acid hydrogen sulfide (See mud acid. which causes the foul smell of sour petroleum fractions. hydrocyclone HYDRODYNAMICS (See desander.H2S.) a gaseous compound. 2377. Z. hydromatic hydromatic brake hydromatic brake. Gas.) A branch of science that deals with the cause and effect of regional subsurface migration of fluids. 2382. The process is considered by some refiners as a supplement to the basic catalytic cracking process. See Sour 2 2381. 2 2375. a device mounted on the end of the drawworks shaft of a drilling rig that serves as an auxiliary to the mechanical brake when pipe is lowered into the well. relatively low-temperature process using hydrogen and a catalyst.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a glass tube with a weighted lower tip that causes the tube to float partially submerged.433 per foot of height. The hydrostatic head of fresh water is 0.) 2390. its ability to hoir. The API gravity of a liquid is read on a graduated stem at the point intersected by the liquid. Hydropressure hydrostatic head The pressure on any rock at a given depth based on a hydrostatic head. Sound-detecting activities. HYDROMETER An instrument designed to measure the specific gravity of liquids. (See pressure gradient. Z. Sound waves generated by blasts from an air gun reflect from formations below the seabottom and are picked up by the hydrophones and transmitted to the mother ship. a substance that tends to repel water. Hydrophones are attached to a cable towed by the seismic vessel. hydrophilic hydrophobic HYDROPHONES instruments used in underwater seismic exploration a substance that tends to adsorb water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2383. a certain pressure without rupturing. the pressure exerted by a body of water at rest. 2386. Those of other liquids may be determined by comparing their gravities with the gravity of water. 2385.mzhelu@gmail. 2384.com . 2 2389. 2387. HYDROSTATIC TESTING Filling a pipeline or tank with water under pressure to test for tensile strength. Water is used for testing because it is noncompressible so if the pipe or tank does rupture there 322 Petroleum Engineer: M.

2391. induction survey. HYPERBARIC WELDING (EXCESSIVE-PRESSURF WELDING) Welding on the sea bottom "in the dry" but under many atmospheres of pressure (compression). 2 2398.com . box-like enclosure is placed in the center of the frame over the pipe. In hyperbaric welding of undersea pipelines. a large frame is lowered into the water and clamped to the pipeline. hertz. International Association of Drilling Contractors.C . 2 2401. The sea water is displaced with breathing-gas mixtures for the diver-welders permitting them to do their work in the dry but high-pressure atmosphere. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Interstate Commerce Commission.mzhelu@gmail. Power lines and life-support umbilicals are connected to the box. 2399.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is no potentially dangerous expansion of the water as would be the case if a gas under very high pressure were used. the Interstate Commerce Commission. HZ I-ES I . I.M. 323 Petroleum Engineer: M.C . 2396. Indicated horsepower.P IADC ICC 2 2395. a federal board that has jurisdiction over interstate pipelines. 2 2393. Z. Then an openbottomed.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the driving gear by directly meshing with the driven 324 Petroleum Engineer: M. ID Inside diameter of a pipe or tube. ICE PLATFORM A man-made. Sea water is pumped onto the normal ocean ice. initials used in specifying pipe sizes. IDLER GEAR OR WHEEL A gear so called because it is usually located between a driving gear and a driven gear.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2403. The platform is built up a few inches at a time with successive pumpings and freezing of the water until the ice is calculated to be thick enough to support drilling operations with a 1. operate. 31/2-inch ID also CD. Z. Ice platform technology was pioneered by Panarctic Oil Ltd. It also transmits the direction of rotation of the driving to the driven gear. e.000 to 1.mzhelu@gmail.. e. a pulley or sprocket used with belt or chain drives on machinery to maintain desired tension on the belt or chain.500-ton drillrig and auxiliary equipment. 2 2405. 2406. thick platform of ice for drilling in the high Arctic. where it freezes in the minus 30' to 40'C.g.g. outside diameter. a company with a great deal of experience in Arctic exploration. 2 2410. transmitting the power from one to the other. 2411. IDIOT STICK A shovel or other digging tool not requiring a great deal of training to 2 2408. Without the idler or the intermediate gear. idle idler to operate an engine without applying a load to it.com . temperatures. itself quite thick. 5-inch OD.

the magneto continues to supply electric current for the ignition system.67. an iron-black mineral of composition FeTiO3 or FeO TiO2 with a specific gravity of about 4. Granite is an igneous rock. immiscible IMPACT WRENCH not capable of mixing or being mixed (as oil and water). wrenches and sledgehammers in tightening and loosening large nuts. Current is produced by an armature rotating in a magnetic field created by permanent magnets. ignorant end ilmenite (slang) the heavier end of any device (as a length of pipe or a wrench). IGNITION MAGNETO An electric current generator used on stationary engines. 2 2419. and pumps. valves. An air-operated wrench for use on nuts and bolts of large engines. 2417. A magneto is geared to the engine and. 2414. 2 2413.) a rock mass formed by the solidification of material poured (when molten) into the earth's crust or out on its surface. once the engine is started either by hand cranking or by a battery starter. A small version of 325 Petroleum Engineer: M. sometimes used for increasing the density of oil-well cement slurries. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. 2 2416. ig igneous rock igneous. (See igneous rock. in the field. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2 2423.com . Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gear reverses the direction of rotation. 2 2421. Idler wheels or pulleys are also fined for tightening belts or chains or to maintain a uniform tension on them. Impact wrenches have taken the place of heavy end.

2428. IN-LINE EQUIPMENT Pumps. 2 2426. impending blowout impermeable early manifestation or indication of a blowout. Z. in situ combustion a method of enhanced recovery in which thermal energy is used to channel crude oil to the producing wellbore.com . The oil in the formation is then ignited. heat exchanges integral to a process or processing chain. 2424. the size. When the block is retrieved. creating a burning front that moves outward radially. not auxiliary or only supporting.mzhelu@gmail. shape. Air is introduced into the reservoir through an injection well to support combustion. which is made up on drill pipe or tubing at the surface. and position of the fish are obtained from the examination of the impression left in the lead. 2429. preventing the passage of fluid. 326 Petroleum Engineer: M. and an appropriate fishing tool may be selected. usually preheated at the sand face of the well by a downhole heater. in the line. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A formation may be porous yet impermeable if there is an absence of connecting passages between the voids within it. combining with some hydrocarbons in the formation to maintain combustion as well as supply thermal energy for the process.) 2427. impression block a block with lead or another relatively soft material on the bottom of it.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the impact wrench is the air-operated automobile lugwrench used at modern service stations and garages. and allowed to rest on a tool or other object that has been lost in the well. separators. Air is continually injected. run into a well. (See permeability.

mzhelu@gmail. 2435. 2434. a drift indicator. cubic inch. 2436.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2430. 2433. Incentive pricing is often the difference between producing a natural resource and not producing because of the high cost of production. When the instrument is retrieved. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . incipient blowout INCLINOMETER (See ironing blowout.v. Z.). For example. There are several types of drift indicators. Pricing above the going market price for a product that may be more costly to produce. another is a plumb bob encased in a small steel tube which on signal punches a hole in a paper disk.) An instrument used downhole to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of a well bore at different depths. inches per second. in in/sec in3 INCENTIVE PRICING 2 2432.) may receive incentive pricing if it qualifies under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regulations. geopressurized gas.v. gas found at great depths. inch. one is the acid bottle inclinometer (q. the distance from the center of the disk the hole was punched by the free-swinging plumb bob indicates the degree of drift or deviation from the vertical hole is being drilled. coalseam gas (q. 327 Petroleum Engineer: M.

and the number of cylinders. 328 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2442. Said of casements. land either overlooked by the majors or thought not worth fooling with until a discovery is made. Rights that have no physical existence but that authorize certain activities or interests. bonds. and marketing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. refining. independent wire-rope center (IWRC) a type of construction of steel drilling lines or wire rope that provides a separate wire rope to serve as a core for the drilling line and prevent it from being crushed. the power developed within the cylinder of an engine which is greater than the power delivered at the drive shaft by the amount of mechanical friction which must be overcome. or patents. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 2438. 2440. having no pipeline system or refinery. See Brake Horsepower.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2437. INDEPENDENT PRODUCER (1) A person or corporation that produces oil for the market. Independents often lease and drill on small parcels of land. independent a nonintegrated oil company whose operations are in the field of petroleum production only excluding transportation. revolutions per minute.com . stroke. An engine's horsepower is calculated by using the bore. INCORPOREAL RIGHTS Having no material body or form. Independent operators and small producing companies are credited with finding most of the new oil fields. (2) An oil-country entrepreneur who secures financial backing and drills his own well an independent operator. 2439. Once discoveries are made it is the large oil companies that do most of the development work. INDICATED HORSEPOWER Calculated horsepower.

It is used to detect the presence of water in a tank of oil. 2 2445.mzhelu@gmail. INDICATOR PASTE. The current sets up magnetic fields that induce voltages in a receiver coil. making it easy for the gauger to read the height of gasoline in the tank. 2450. Z. 2449. an induction survey. It is usually conducted in conjunction with a regular electric survey (ES).). WATER A paste material applied to a steel gauge line or wooden gauge pole that changes color when immersed in water. INDICATOR PASTE. induction survey (I-ES) an electrical well log in which the conductivity of the formation rather than the resistivity is measured. Wells drilled to fill in between established producing wells on a ]erase a drilling program to reduce the spacing between wells in order to increase production from the lease.v. and thus is shortened to I-ES. The voltages are amplified and recorded on the surface.com . can aid in determination of oil and water zones. GASOLINE A viscous material applied to a steel gauge line or gauge pole that changes color when it comes in contact with gasoline. 2446. the tendency of an object having mass to resist a change in velocity. when compared with resistivity readings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2443. INDUSTRIAL GAS inertia INFILL DRILLING Gas purchased for resale to industrial users. 329 Petroleum Engineer: M. Eddy currents are induced in the formations by a transmitter coil through which an alternating current circulates. 2 2448. interruptible gas (q. Because oil-bearing formations are less conductive to electricity than water-bearing formations. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

The flow of liquids or gas into a vessel or equipment. 2454. mud pump speed. inhibitor an additive used to retard undesirable chemical action in a product. DRILLER a well drilled between known producing wells to better exploit the reservoir. Z. to keep the driller informed of all aspects of the drilling operation. weight on the drill bit. an acid that has been chemically treated before acidizing. etc. 2 2457.. and display dials showing weight of the drillstring. engine speed. and to corrosive environments to decrease corrosive action. to lubricating oils to stop color change. counters. a well to lessen its corrosive effect on the tubular goods and yet maintain its effectiveness.com . A bank of indicators.) 2 2459. infilling well INFLUENT INFORMATION CONSOLE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2451. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See acidize. See Effluent. 330 Petroleum Engineer: M. inhibited mud a drilling fluid to which chemicals have been added to prevent it from causing clay particles in a formation to swell and thus impair the permeability of a productive zone. INGAA inhibited acid Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. 2 2453. or acid fracturing. mud pressure. Salt is a mud inhibitor. 2455. 2 2461.mzhelu@gmail. added in small quantity to gasolines to prevent oxidation and gum formation.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. injected gas a high-pressure gas injected into a formation to maintain or restore reservoir pressure. 2 2468. or set up. 2 2466.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2462. Inhibitors are sometimes used to interfere with a chemical reaction somewhere along the process train. 2470.com . Injecting Injecting water or gas into the reservoir for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure. and is no longer pumpable. 2471. 331 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2464. recorded after testing operations and recovery of load oil and used as an indicator of the maximum ability of a well to produce on completion without subsequent reservoir damage. gas injected in gas-lift operations. initial stability the stability of an offshore drilling rig when upright or with a small angle of 2469. Injection The process of pumping gas or water into an oil-producing reservoir to provide a driving mechanism for increased oil production. An inhibitor's role is the reverse of a catalyst's. heel. Z. initial set the point at which a cement slurry begins to harden. initial potential (IP) the early production of an oil well.mzhelu@gmail. maximizing oil recovery and conserving resources. INHIBITORS A substance that slows down a chemical reaction.

See Outage Gauge. injection well a well in which fluids have been injected into an underground stratum to increase reservoir pressure.com . to treat emulsions. Barge rigs are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by a towboat. such barges have crew quarters.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2472. diaphragm-operated motors or by linkage with the walking beam of a pumping well. the most common method of gauging a tank. reservoir size and shape. 2 2474. In addition to all necessary drilling equipment. 2 2478. five spot. INLAND BARGE RIG A drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel for use in shallow water or swampy locations. 2 2476. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. nine spot. at a rate proportional to that of the flow of the well fluid.mzhelu@gmail. injection pattern the spacing and pattern of wells in a secondary recovery or pressuremaintenance project determined from the location of existing wells. and peripheral. 2 2480. Common injection patterns include line drive. injection pump a chemical feed pump that injects chemical reagents into a flow-line system. Z. type of offset operations used. INNAGE GAUGE A measure of the quantity of oil in a tank calculated on the basis of the depth of oil in the tank. and cost of drilling new wells. Operating power may be derived from electric motors or gas-driven. 332 Petroleum Engineer: M. seven spot.

rate of flow. to record them. 2484.com . speed of rotation. inside cutter INSPECTION PLATE (See internal cutter. See Overriding Royalty. etc. Z.mzhelu@gmail. inside blowout presenter a valve installed in the drill stem to prevent a blowout inside the stem. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Flow is thus possible only downward. inspection windows are large enough to permit a mechanic to enter the crankcase to inspect or "change out" a bearing. INNOVATOR'S ROYALTY A type of overriding royalty paid to the person instrumental in bringing a company to a concession from a foreign government British a fixer's royalty. 2485.).) A flat metal plate fitted with a gasket and bolted over an opening in the gearbox of a pump or the crankcase of an engine. temperature. allowing mud to be pumped in but preventing any flow back up the stem. to indicate these phenomena with visible or audible signals. tenance operation. On large. to control them within a predetermined 333 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2481. 2482. 2486. INPUT WELL A well used for injecting water or gas into a formation in a secondary recovery or pressure main 2483. instrumentation a device or assembly of devices designed for one or more of the following functions to measure operating variables (as pressure. By removing the plate an inspection of the gears or crank and connecting-rod bearings can be made. multicylinder engines.

2491.. and marketing. do the items for which expenditures were made have salvage value? If not they qualify under the tax laws as intangible drilling costs. insulating flange a flange equipped with plastic pieces to separate its metal parts. INTANGIBLE DRILLING COSTS Expenditures made by an operator for labor. pipelines on the lease. 2488. intake valve the cam-operated mechanism on an engine through which air and sometimes fuel are admitted to the cylinder. a company that handles its own oil from wellhead to gasoline pump. hauling. 2487.com . In a completely automatic system. Z.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 334 Petroleum Engineer: M. tanks. A company engaged in all phases of the oil business. transportation. thus preventing the inflow of electric current. Intangible costs include also the construction of derricks. Insulating flanges are often used in cathodic protection systems to prevent electrolytic corrosion and are sometimes installed when a flowline is being attached to a wellhead.mzhelu@gmail. repairs. and so on is predetermined and preset. buildings. INTANGIBLES INTEGRATED OIL COMPANY Short for intangible drilling costs (q. and to stop operations if the control fails. 2490. fuel. refining. the desired range of pressure.). 2489. and preparation of the drillsite. The rule of thumb is. i.e. temperature. Simple instrumentation might consist of an indicating pressure gauge only. and supplies used in drilling and completing a well for production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering range. production. but do not include the material or equipment.

The products are continuously totaled and shown on a counter index. When the product total is multiplied by the orifice flow constant. HORIZONTAL INTEREST IN AN OIL OR GAS WELL INTERFACE See Horizontal Integratio also Vertical Integration.) 335 Petroleum Engineer: M. one behind the other. Sometimes the blowout preventers can be attached to it. intermitter a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. INTEGRATION. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also Working Interest. 2497. Z. intermediate casing string the string of casing set in a well after the surface casing to keep the hole from caving. 2495. integrating orifice meter an orifice meter with an automatic integrating device. 2494. the rate of flow is directly determined.com . The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in. In a packed or fullline pumping under pressure the integrity of the interface is well maintained. It is constructed so that the product of the square roots of each of the differential and static pressures is recorded on the chart. The string is sometimes called protection casing. The point or are a where two dissimilar products or grades of crude oil meet in a pipeline as they are pumped. See Operating Interest. Intermittent gas lift (See gas lift.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2492.mzhelu@gmail. 2493. In simple English. this means that there is surprisingly little mixing of the two batches of produc 2496.

straight wall outside. internal preventer internal upset an inside blowout preventer. internal-combustion engine a heat engine in which the pressure necessary to produce motion of the mechanism results from the ignition or burning of a fuel-air mixture within the engine cylinder. 2504. 2503.com . Compare continuous phase. Compare external upset. 336 Petroleum Engineer: M. The severed portion of the pipe can then be returned to the surface. containing metal-cutting knives. an extra-thick inside wall on the end of tubing or drill pipe at the point where it is threaded to compensate for the metal removed in threading. drill pipe with intermal upset has a uniform. Unlike conventional drill pipe. which has the extra thickness on the outside. Z. 2502. internal phase the fluid droplets or solids that are dispersed throughout another liquid in an emulsion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. that is lowered into the inside of a length of pipe stuck in the hole to cut the pipe. The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in. internal cutter a fishing tool.mzhelu@gmail. 2500. a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. See Casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2498. 2501. INTERMEDIATE STRING intermitter 2499.

com . 2510. 2506. 2507. 2508. both U. Upset casing is normally run at the top of long strings in deep operations. The Compact provides no power to coerce but relies on voluntary agreement to accomplish its objectives. that can be curtailed or interrupted during emergencies or supply shortages in order to maintain service to domestic customers. internal-upset pipe tubular goods in which the pipe walls at the threaded end are thickened (upset) on the inside to provide extra strength in the tool joints. 337 Petroleum Engineer: M. INTERSTATE OIL COMPACT A compact between oil-producing states negotiated and approved by Congress in 1935.mzhelu@gmail. usually to industrial plants and large commercial firms. TINTERRUPTIBLE GAS A gas supply. the purpose of which is the conservation of oil and gas by the prevention of waste. today. water contained in the interstices of a reservoir rock. 2509. eventually are phased out of international trade operations. Z. Thus the outer wall of the pipe is the same diameter throughout its length. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and metric. there are nearly 30.S. In reservoir engineering. there were six states as members. interstice interstitial water a pore space in a reservoir rock. Originally.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2505. it is synonymous with connate water. It provides an international standard of measurement to be followed when certain customary units. international SI metric system a system of measure based on the metric system and described and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.

2. intrusive rock an igneous rock that. initial production. made up of soaps. International Oil Scouts Association. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See oil mud and oil-base mud. while molten. 2516.used in drilling reports.) 2515.mzhelu@gmail. 2512. IP 1. and 10 to 50 percent water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2511.com . In the resulting fluid. io a hydrogen atom or a molecule of other compounds that is either charged positively (a action) or negatively (an anion). invaded zone an area within a permeable rock adjacent to a wellbore into which a filtrate (usually water) from the drilling mud has passed. initial potential. with consequent partial or total displacement of the fluids originally present in the zone. Sometimes it is called an invert-emulsion mud or an invert-oil-emulsion mud. 2517. I occ IOSA Interstate Oil Compact Commission. invert emulsion an emulsion of water in oil (i.. Z.e.. the water is dispersed throughout the oil in small droplets to form a tight emulsion. lignite. penetrated into or between other rocks and solidified. asphaltic materials. invert-oil mud an oil mud used for drilling or workover. Compare reverse emulsion. 338 Petroleum Engineer: M. the water is dispersed as droplets throughout the oil). 2513. 2514.

although composed of the same number of the same atoms. Z. and many other isomers. isooctane. or more varieties or isomers which differ widely in physical and chemical properties. for example. an organization of independent oil and gas producers headquartered in Tulsa. a group that sets standards for instruments made and used in the U. This variation. appear in two. ISA the Instrument Society of America. ISO A prefix denoting similarity. Irreducible Water Saturation In a sufficiently thick and homogenous hydrocarbon reservoir this represents the minimum possible water saturation. Its work is chiefly concerned with the relationships between the oil industry and the public and government 2519. 2522. which may range from 0 to 30 or more degrees either east or west 339 Petroleum Engineer: M. isobutane. In petroleum fractions there are many substances that are similar. Okla. 2521. 2523. 2520.com . irnpeller a set of mounted blades (as the rotor of a centrifugal pump) used to impart motion to a fluid. three. IPAA the Independent Petroleum Association of America.S. differing only in specific gravity.mzhelu@gmail. isopentane. isogonic line an imaginary line on a map that joins places on the earth's surface at which the variation of a magnetic compass needle from true north is the same. Many organic substances.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2518. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

2526. ISOPENTANE ISOTHERMAL A high-octane blending stock for automotive gasoline. 2524. rearranging the structure of the molecules without changing their size or chemical composition. used in determining underground oil and gas reserves. IWRC 340 inclement wire-rope center. 2525.e. At constant temperature. ISOMERIZATION A refinery process for converting chemical compounds into their isomers. ISOPACHOUS MAP A geological map a that shows the thickness and conformation of underground formations.. the expansion or compression is isothermal. 2530. It is widely used in calculating reserves and in planning secondary-recovery projects.mzhelu@gmail. must be compensated for to obtain an accurate reading of direction. When a gas is expanded or compressed at a constant temperature. 2528. Petroleum Engineer: M. isopach map a geological map of subsurface strata showing the various thicknesses of a given formation underlying an area.com . Z. ISOMERS Compounds having the same composition and the same molecular weight but differing in properties.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of true north. 2529. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. i. 2527. Heat must be added to expanding gas and removed from compressing gas to keep it isothermal.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2531. electric motor. J-4 FUEL J-tool A designation for highly refined kerosene used as fuel for jet engines. a sleeve receptacle with a fitted. a device used to support the end of a length of pipe while another length is being screwed onto the pipe. It is sometimes referred to as a stabbing jack. JAC K An oil well pumping unit powered by a gasoline engine. The short sides of the J-slots provide a shoulder for supporting weight on the pins of the male element. JACK RABBIT A device that is put through casing or tubing before it is run to make certain it is the proper size inside and outside. a drift mandrel. JACK BOARD A wood or metal prop used to support a joint of line pipe while another joint is being screwed into it. When the male element is lowered and turned relative to the sleeve. The pins may thus be raised out." 2533. which is open-ended. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. releasing weight that may be supported by the sleeve. jack-up a jack-up drilling rig. 2534. 2535. Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. The releasing procedure is called "unjaying the tool. male element that has pins that fit into milled J-shaped slots on the sleeve. 2532. or rod line from a central power. 2536. The pumping jack's walking beam provides the up and down motion to the well's pump rods.com . the pins slide in the slot towards the long side of the J. Jack boards have metal spikes inserted at intervals to support the pipe at different levels. Z.

com . Z. When positioned over the drilling site. sticking up high above the platform. Jacket Offshore platform consisting of a framework of tubular members with a deck (or decks) on top and piles driven through the framework to fix the structure to the sea bed. JACK-UP RIG A barge-like. A jack-up rig is towed or propelled to a location with its legs up. the legs are run down hydraulically or by individual electric motors. it is lowered or laid down intact and transported by truck.) 2542.A masttype derrick whose supporting legs are hinged at the base. a structural-steel. JACKET.OFFSHORE PLATFORM jackknife mast See Platform Jacket. jackknife rig a drilling rig that has jack-knife mast instead of a standard derrick. When on location. (See mast. Towed to location offshore. the deck and hull height are adjusted and leveled. the bottoms of the legs rest on the seafloor. floating platform with legs at each corner that can be lowered to the sea bottom to raise or "jack up" the platform above the water. opensided tower raised vertically by special lifting tackle attached to the traveling block. the legs of the jack-up rig are in a raised position.mzhelu@gmail. 2541. Once the legs are firmly positioned on the bottom. When the rig is to be moved. jack-up drilling rig an offshore drilling structure with tubular or derrick legs that support the deck and hull. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2539. 2540. 342 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2537. 2538.

Cable-tool jars (part of the drillstring) are essentially a pair of elongated. Fishing. 343 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2546.An intermediate. jar a percussion tool operated mechanically or hydraulically to deliver a heavy hammer blow to objects in the borehole.mzhelu@gmail. Jack shafts usually are relatively short and often are splined. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the jar being controlled at the surface. jackshaft a short shaft that is usually set between two machines to provide increased or decreased flexibility and speed. See Bumper Sub. jar accelerator a hydraulic tool used in conjunction with a jar and made up on the fishing string above it to increase the power of the hammer blow 2547. the second and locking nut on a stud bolt. to apply a heavy blow to the frill stem by use of a jar. the upper link of the jars moves down into the lower link. After the first nut is threaded and tightened on a stud. a second nut is tightened down on the first nut to prevent it from working loose. haft in the power train. interlocking steel links with a couple of feet of "play" between the links. JARS A tool for producing a jarring impact in cable-toot drilling. Z. Blows may be delivered downward or upward. 2544.com . When the drilling line is slacked off. JAM NUT A nut used to jam and lock another nut securely in place. jars are used to free objects stuck in the hole or to loosen tubing or drill pipe that is hung up. especially when the bit becomes stuck in the hole. When the line is suddenly tightened the upper link moves upward engaging the lower link with great force that usually frees the stuck bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2543. 2545.

The force of the 344 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. cement. Z. JEEPING Refers to the operation of inspecting pipe coating with the aid of electronic equipment. 2. JERKER A line connects the bandwheel crank to the drilling cable. 2549. a highly penetrating.com . jet cutoff a procedure for severing pipe stuck in a well by detonating special shapedcharge explosives similar to those used in jet perforating. a hydraulic device operated by pump pressure to clean mud pits and tanks in rotary drilling and to mix mud components. 2553.) in the protective coating a signal is transmitted through the indicator ring to an alarm.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2548. As the crank revolves. and formation. If there is a break or holiday (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The explosive is lowered into the pipe to the desired depth and detonated. an electric charge. the drilling fine is jerked (pulled up and released suddenly) providing an up and down motion to the spudding tools on a cable tool rig. in a perforating gun using shaped charges. jet 1. 2550. jet bit a drilling bit having nozzles through which drilling fluid is directed in a highvelocity stream to improve the efficiency of the bit at the bottom of the hole. fast-moving stream of exploded particles that cuts a hole in the casing.v. jerk line a short rope used on the cathead of the drilling rig to tighten pipe-joints by pulling on the makeup longs. An indicator ring is passed over the pipe which caries. 2551. 2552.

2559. or other fluid that imparts motion and subsequent pressure to a fluid medium. including a carrier and shaped charges. jet-perforate to burn a hole through the casing with a shaped charge of high explosives instead of a gun that fires projectiles. 2557. mixing with the dry cement to form a slurry for pumping downhole to cement the casing in a well or for a squeeze job. Z. Once detonated. the charges emit short. (See bullet perforator and gunperforate. jet out jet pump to use a jet to clean out the cellar.) 345 Petroleum Engineer: M. penetrating jets of high-pressure gases that cut holes in the casing and cement and some distance into the formation. Sacks of cement are opened and dumped one at a time into the hopper. Formation fluids then flow into the wellbore through the perforations.) 2554.) 2556. The loaded charges are lowered into the hole to the desired depth. a pump that operates by means of a jet of steam. See Squeeze a Well. water.com .mzhelu@gmail. 2558. slush pit. The high-pressure water is jetted through the lower part of the hopper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering explosion makes radiating horizontal cuts around the pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2555. (See jet-perforate. and the severed portion of the pipe is retrieved. an assembly. (See jet-perforate. JET MIXER (CEMENT) A device consisting of a hopper to which a water supply under pressure is connected. JET FUEL jet gun A specially refined grade of kerosene used in jet propulsion engines. and so forth. that is used in jet perforating.

along with the rock which has been pulverized. JETTED-PARTICLE DRILLING A method of drilling in hard rock formations using steel pellets forced at high velocity from openings in the bottom of the drill bit.200 psi.mzhelu@gmail. JETSLED An underwater trenching machine for burying a pipeline below the sea floor. 2563. The small steel pellets after striking and chipping the rock are returned to the surface by the force of the returning drilling air. The jetted water.) through which "clean" drilling mud is pumped at high pressure and velocity. 2561. drilled rock fragments from the bottom of the working mud pits.v. at . The power is supplied by a series of high-pressure pumps aboard an accompanying jet barge.com . Jetted particle drilling has been used more or less experimentally and has not had wide acceptance. through an attached hose. At the waist of the venturi the stream's velocity is increased even more and the pressure at this point is substantially reduced. This is done with a suction hose that derives its partial vacuum from a jet nozzle arrangement.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2560. JETTING THE PITS A method of removing cuttings. the cutting from the bottom of the working pit in 346 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2562. a type of venturi (q.1. The patented jet sled straddles the pipeline and scours out the seabed material ahead and beneath the line with a sears of high-pressure jets of sea water. The jetted particles are used with air drilling. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. JETTING Injecting gas into a subsurface formation for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure. is directed ahead and below the fine and literally cuts a ditch in the sea floor into which the line is laid. creating enough vacuum to draw in.

the shipment of a tender of oil through the facilities of one or more pipeline 2569. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. thribble.).). 2568. JETTY JOCKEY 2565. they are usually pulled two. they are discharged in the reserve pits. or four at a time depending upon the height of the derrick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the manner of a vacuum cleaner.v. JOINT A length of pipe. when pulled out of the hole and stacked in the rig. and fourble. Z. 2564. JOINT ADVENTURE joint movement See Joint Venture. tubing. companies. An experienced and proficient driver of largo trucks or earth-moving 2566. equipment. casing.casing. (See double. On drilling rigs.mzhelu@gmail.) 2567. three. Several joints screwed together constitute a stand of pipe. joint tariff a rate sheet issued jointly by two or more companies setting forth charges for moving oil over the facilities of each. or rod that has threaded connections at both ends. or tubing usually from 20 to 30 feet long. As the chips are drawn Into the hose.v. 347 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . drillpipe and tubing are run the first time (lowered into the hole) a joint at a time. These multiple-joint sections are called stands (q.a single length (30 ft) of drill pipe or of drill collar. A pier (q.

See Journal. 2572. mounted on a boom or an extension of the platform deck. JOURNAL That part of a rotating shaft that rests and turns in the bearing.One who carries and places geophones in seismic work. 2575.) (slang) the member of a seismograph crew who places the geophones. Z. See Consortium.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2570. 2574. the weight bearing segment of the shaft. Geophones are strung along the ground over an area where seismic shots are to be made by jug hustlers. 2573.com . Out on the water there is no place to put the oil during a test or when a well is allowed to blow to clean the hole so the oil has to be burned. JOINT VENTURE A business or enterprise entered into by two or more partners. Usually the partner with the largest interest in the venture will be the operator. A special kind of jumbo burner is used on offshore drilling platforms to burn oil and gas when a well is being tested or in the event of an emergency. JUMBO BURNER A flare used for burning waste gas produced with oil when there is no ready market or the supply of gas is too small or temporary to warrant a pipeline. (See geophone.mzhelu@gmail. Joint venture 1easing is a common practice. When oil is burned the air and water jets are turned on which results in the complete 348 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2571. JOURNALBOX jug jug hustler A metal housing that supports and protects a journal bearing. The big burner. is equipped with air and water jets around the perimeter of the burner nozzle.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Jumbo burner or forced-draft burner. 2579.com . junk may be a lost bit. some of the oil would fall to the water below and present a real hazard. JUNK MILLS Drill bits with specially hardened. Without the high-pressure air and water jets to aerate and supply oxygen the oil would not burn completely. JUNK BASKET A type of fishing tool used to retrieve small objects lost is in the borehole or down the casing. the junk enters a barrel in the tool and is held by metal projections. milled pieces of pipe.a device made up on the bottom tom of the drill stem to cut a core into the bottom of the hole on which junk rests. 2580. 2578. drilling cones off the bit. metal debris lost in a hole. The basket is lowered into the hole and by the turbulence set up by pumping of the drilling mud the lost object is washed into the basket. When the basket is brought back to the surface. As the core is cut. to abandon (as a nonproductive well). After the junk has been ground or broken up 349 Petroleum Engineer: M. or catchers. JUMBOIZING A technique used to enlarge an oil tanker's carrying capacity by cutting the vessel in two amidships and inserting a section between the halves. Z. 2576. etc. wrenches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combustion of the of oil. rough cutting to grind and pulverize downhole "junk" material or nonretrievable tools or equipment such as millable packers and the like. tools. the junk is removed with the core. or any relatively small object that impedes drilling and must be fished out of the hole. junior orifice fitting junk a one-piece orifice fitting without flanges.mzhelu@gmail. 2577. such objects as small slipe. pieces of a bit.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering into small pieces. non drillable objects circulating in the annulus. junk sub a tool run just above the bit or mill in the drill stem to catch small. the pieces can be circulated the surface by the drilling mud or bypassed by the regular drillstring.com . 350 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 2581.

also $25K .) 2583.$60K. the letter K is used instead of three zeros in giving salary ranges.mzhelu@gmail. 2585. degree Kelvin. K The abbreviation for kilo. 2586. When a high-pressure backflow begins inside the drill stem. through which the kelly passes and by means of which the torque of the rotary table is transmitted to the kelly and to the drill stem.or sixsided.com . 25K to 60K. 2584. It has a bored passageway that permits fluid to be circulated into the drill stem and up the annulus.g. To the ad writer this is scientific shorthand meant to catch the eye of the no-nonsense engineer or technical person. Kelly the heavy steel member. Z.A blowout preventer built inside a three-foot section of sleet tubing inserted in the drillstring above the kelly. one thousand. In certain employment ads. A kelly cock is also inserted in the string below the kelly joint in some instances. (See &kelvin temperature scale. forming the backbone of the structure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2582.. suspended from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns. the valve is closed to keep pressure off the swivel and rotary hose. KB keel kelly bushing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2587. used in drilling reports. four. a centerline strength member running fore and aft along the bottom of a floating offshore drilling rig. Petroleum Engineer: M. Also called the drive bushing. e. notably petroleum industry ads. kelly bushing a device fitted to the rotary table. or vice versa. kelly cock a valve installed between the swivel and the kelly.

v. KELLY SAFETY VALVE KELLY SAVER SUB See Kelly Cock. hollow steel forging with two flat sides and two rounded sides that fit into a square hole in the rotary table which rotates the kelly joint and the drill column. 2589. rotated rapidly in order to make up the kelly or pipe in another joint of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2588. KELLY HOSE KELLY JOINT See Mud Hose. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The purpose of the valve is to prevent the 352 Petroleum Engineer: M. minimizing wear on the kelly. i. The threads of the drill pipe mate with those of the saver. 2593. 2592. The first and the sturdiest joint of the drill column.com . The spinner saves time in unscrewing and again in screwing in when a joint of drillpipe must be added to the string. KELLY SPINNER A mechanism attached to the swivel that spins the kelly joint in and out of the first joint of drillpipe after the kelly has been broken out. unloosened.a saver sub that fits in the drill stem between the kelly and drill pipe. Attached to the top of the kelly or grief stem (q.a pneumatically-operated device mounted on top of the kelly that. 2591. Lower. causes the kelly to turn or spin. See Kelly Valve. e.mzhelu@gmail. when actuated. Z. the thick-walled. 2590. It is useful when the kelly or a joint of pipe attached to it must be spun up. KELLY VALVE.. LOWER An automatic valve attached to the lower end of the kelly joint that opens and closes by mud pump pressure.) are the swivel and mud hose.

2598. RAW Kerosene-cut from the distillation of crude oil. It is also spelled kerosene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. flammable hydrocarbon fuel or solvent. The automatic valve saves valuable mud. Kerogen is identified as a pyrobitumen. KEROGEN A bituminous material occurring in certain shales which yield a type of oil when heated. not treated or "doctor tested" to improve odor and color. kerogen shales contain material neither petroleum nor coal but an intermediate bitumen material with some of the properties of both. the pumps are started and the mud pressure opens the kelly valve and drilling resumes. When the mud pump is stopped. and speeds up the job of making a connection. Kelvin temperature scale a temperature scale with the degree interval of the centigrade scale and the zero point at absolute zero.mzhelu@gmail. KEROSENE. Small amounts of petroleum are usually associated with kerogen shales but the bulk of the oil is derived from heating the shale to about 660'F.com . After a joint of drillpipe is added to the String and the kelly is made up tight. KEROGEN SHALES Commonly called oil shales. See Kerogen Shales. water freezes at 273' and boils at 373'. Z. kerosine a light. keeps the rig floor dry. 353 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering mud in the kelly joint from pouring out on the derrick floor each time the kelly is disconnected from the drillpipe. 2597. On the Kelvin scale. 2594. (See absolute temperature scale. 2599. but "kerosine" is preferred by the API to parallel "gasoline". the kelly valve automatically closes.) 2 2596.

2602. If as it is hoped. Key seating results from the dragging of pipe on a sharp bend in the hole. a channel or groove cut in the side of the hole parallel to the axis of the hole. 354 Petroleum Engineer: M. one to hold back-up and the other to break out and unscrew the rod.mzhelu@gmail. KEYBED The stratum chosen for contouring or making tin isopachous map.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2600. (2) A slender metal piece used to fasten a pulley wheel or gear onto a shaft. Z. a hook-shaped wrench that fits the square shoulder of the rod connection. 2603. Rod wrenches are used in pairs. KEYSEAT A section of the well bore deviating abruptly from the vertical causing drilling tools to hang up. then an accurate contouring of the key bed well indicate the subsurface strata. other strata conform to the key bed. 1. 2604.v.com . particularly a dogleg which is an abrupt deviation from the vertical or the general direction of the hole being drilled.). a groove cut in a shaft or pulley bore parallel to the axis. a shoulder in the borehole. KEYWAY kg A groove or slot in a shaft or wheel to hold a key (q. The key fits into slots (keyways) cut in both the hub of the wheel and the shaft. KEY (1) A tool used in pulling or running sucker rods of a pumping oil well. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. kilogram. 2601. KEYSEATING A condition downhole when the drill collar or another part of the drillstring becomes wedged in a section of crooked hole. 2605.

oil. It occurs because the pressure exerted by the column of drilling fluid is not great enough to overcome the pressure exerted by the fluids in the formation drilled. in workover operations. 2. to swab a well to restore it to production. a pole made from a small tree was used to support the drilling line and bit in the hole. If the gas pressure is not controlled by Increasing the mud weight. 2608.Pressure from downhole in excess of that exerted by the weight of the drilling mud. The green sapling would spring back. kick off 1. The driller with his foot in a stirrup to the line would kick downward causing the pole to bend and the bit to hit the bottom of the hole. 3. WATERFLOOD KICKING DOWN A WELL See Waterflood Kick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2606. 2609. a blowout will occur. 2607. 2610. a kick can violently expel the column of drifting mud resulting in a blowout.mzhelu@gmail. 355 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. causing loss of circulation.usually by injecting gas. gas. to deviate a wellbore from the vertical. or other formation fluid into the wellbore. In oil's very early days. If prompt action is not taken to control the kick or kill the well. kick an entry of water. lifting the bit ready for another "kick" by the driller. Kh This symbol is used in petrophysical and reserves calculations to represent the maximum permeability of a rock formation.com . Z. A primitive method of drilling a shallow well using manpower (leg power). to bring a well into production. KICK.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2611. Z. Kier began refining kerosene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a medicinal cure-all Soon he had more oil than he could peddle in bottles so he became interested in refining. Pa.C. there were nearly a hundred small. Kier was skimming crude oil from the water of his salt wells in Pittsburgh. kickoff pressure the gas pressure required to kick off a well. 2614. under certain conditions. in production. kill 1. Booth. one-vessel refineries around the country making kerosene for use in a new lamp that had been invented.. KIER. to stop a well from producing oil and gas so that reconditioning of the well can proceed. circulate the kick out. a Philadelphia chemist who designed a crude. and increase the weight of the drilling mud).mzhelu@gmail. By 1859 and the advent of Drake's well. 2612.g. used in directional drilling. In the early 1850s.. to shut in the well with the blowout preventers. to renegotiate the contract. in drilling. Usually the conditions concern pricing or market availability. usually greater than that required to maintain the well in production. 2613. SAMUAL M. and selling it as Kier Rock Oil.com . coal-fired still. 356 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2615. to prevent a threatened blowout by taking suitable preventive measures (e. kickoff point (KOP) the depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started. KICKOUT CLAUSE In some purchase contracts for oil and gas a clause that permits the purchaser. 2. With the assistance of J.

Wells that have blown out and caught fire are often brought under control in this manner it other means tail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. One important function of drilling mud is to maintain control over any downhole gas pressures that may be encountered. provided to remind personnel of the necessary steps to take to kill a well. 2618. See Kick. kinematic Viscosity the absolute viscosity of a fluid divided by the density of the fluid at the temperature of the viscosity measurement. KILLER WELL A directional well drilled near an out-of-control well to "kill" it by flooding the formation with water or mud. 2617. drilling mud is made heavier (heavied-up) by the addition of special clays or other material. 2619. to bring under control a well that is threatening to blow out. to circulate water and mud into a completed well before starting well-servicing operations. To overcome downhole pressure in a drilling well by the use of drilling mud or water. 2620. Z. kill a well 1. 2. kill sheet a printed form that contains blank spaces for recording information about killing an impending blowout.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2616. It gas pressure threatens to cause loss of circulation or a blowout. kill line a high-pressure line that connects the mud pump and the well and through which heavy drilling fluid can be pumped into the well to control a threatened blowout.mzhelu@gmail. 357 Petroleum Engineer: M.

2623. 2622. a unit of speed equal to 1 nautical mile. When the well is to be hung off (shut down). smart box.mzhelu@gmail. knockout drops knot (slang) a slugging compound. KNOCKOUT A tank or separator vessel used to separate or "knock out" water from a 2624.20 feet. having been pulled tight. or 6.com . causes permanent distortion of the wire rope. 358 Petroleum Engineer: M. KNUCKLE BUSTER A wrench so worn or of such poor quality that it will not hold when under the strain of heavy work. kink a loop in a wire rope that. stream of oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2621. The drilling crew's name for the place the driller keeps his orders and reports. knowledge box (slang) the cupboard or desk in which the driller keeps the various records pertaining to a drilling operation.020. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a block is inserted between the rodline hook and the knock-off post which interrupts the line's forward movement putting slack in the line so that the hook may be disengaged. 2625. It is also equal to about I'A statute miles per hour. 2627. per hour. Z. KNOCK-OFF POST A post through which a rod line moves as it operates a pumping jack. 2626.

kw-h kilowatt-hour. KO KOP KORT NOZZLE kicked off. used in drilling reports. kV kW kwh 2633. 2634.v. A knuckle joint is useful in fishing operations because it allows the fishing tool to be deflected to the side of the hole where a fish may have come to rest. 2630. used in directional drilling. This produces a nozzle effect as the water is jetted from the cowling. Kort nozzles are installed on some tugboats and drilling-tender vessels to increase their maneuverability and response. kilovolt. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. kilowatt. KNUCKLE JOINT A universal joint (q.). a type of early drilling tool hinged on a movable joint so that the drill could be deflected at an angle from the vertical. placed above the drill bit in the drill stem.(See kick off. with a ball and socket arrangement that allows the tool to be deflected at an angle. Z. KWH.mzhelu@gmail. a deflection tool. kickoff point.) 2631. 2629.com . 359 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2628. A type of ship's propeller that rotates within a cylindrical cowling which concentrates the thrust of the propeller. 2632.


2636. the area of a partly machined surface (as with grooves or indentations) that is left smooth. landing depth the depth to which the lower end of casing extends in the hole when casing is Petroleum Engineer: M. 2640. land 1. A LACT unit is an automated system for measuring and transferring oil from a leasegathering system into a pipeline. 2638.com .mzhelu@gmail. and LACT.) a smooth flow of fluid in which no cross flow of fluid particles occurs between adjacent stream lines. 2639. The casing is usually landed in the casinghead at exactly the position in which it was hanging when the cement plug reached its lowest point. 2. port. land casing to install casing so it is supported in the casinghead by slips.S. 2641. LACT unit laminar flow (See lease automatic custody transfer. Landed cost includes all foreign taxes and royalties plus cost of transportation. 2637. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LANDED COST (OF OIL) The cost of a barrel of imported oil off loaded at a U. LACT lease automatic custody transfer. landed. 2642. the area between the grooves into which the rings fit on a piston.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2635. The beginning of the smaller diameter hole forms the shoulder on which the casing is landed. LANDING CASING Lowering a string of casing into the hole and setting it on a shoulder of rock at a point where the diameter of the borehole has been reduced. Z.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



a person in the petroleum industry who negotiates with landowners for land options, oil-drilling leases, and royalties and with producers for the pooling of production in the Field; also called leasernan.



A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on t property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production.



an interval in the cased hole where the top of a liner overlaps the bottom of a string of casing.



Line pipe or casing made from a sheet of steel which is formed on a mandrel. The two edges, tapered to half normal thickness, are 1a,oped over and welded. See Seamless Pipe.


lastengaged thread

the last pipe thread that is actually screwed into the coupling thread in making up a joint of drill pipe, drill collars, tubing, or casing. If the pipe makes up perfectly, it is also the last thread cut on the pipe.

2648. 2649.

latch on LATER

to attach elevators to a section of pipe to pull it out of or run it into the hole.

A metric unit of volume 1.057 U.S. quarts; 61.02 cubic inches. 362

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Pipelines that tie into a trunk line; laterals are of smaller diameter and are laid as part of a gathering system or a distribution system. In an oil field, laterals bring oil or gas from individual leases or tank batteries to the booster station and the trunk line.


latex cement

an oil-well cement composed of latex, cement, a surfactant, and water and characterized by its high-strength bond with other materials and its resistance to contamination by oil or drilling mud.


lay barge

a barge used in the construction and placement of underwater pipelines. joints of pipe are welded together and then lowered off the stern of the barge as it moves ahead.


lay down pipe

to pull drill pipe or tubing from the hole and place it in a horizontal position on a pipe rack. Compare set back.

2654. 2655.


See Pipe Tongs.

A storage area for tubing and drillpipe that are removed from a well and laid down rather than set back and racked vertically in the derrick.



To pull the tubing from the well, a joint at a time, and remove it from the derrick floor to a nearby horizontal pipe rack. As each joint is unscrewed from 363

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the string, the lower end of the joint is placed on a low cart and pulled out to the rack as the driller lowers the pipe which is held up by the elevators.

2657. 2658. 2659.

layer laying down LAZY BENCH

a bed, or stratum, of rock.

(See lay down pipe.)

A bench on which workers, when not working, may rest. A perch from which a work operation may be observed by workers or loafers.



A stout board with a handle used to support the end of a pipeline while another length of pipe is screwed into it. On small lines. the man operating the lazy board or "granny" board usually handles the back-up wrench which holds one joint of pipe firm while another joint is being screwed in.


lb lb/ft3 LB/LB

2662. 2663.

pounds per cubic foot.

Pound per pound. In a refining process, the ratio of ingredients to be mixed or introduced to the process.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Pounds of water per million standard cubic feet (MMSCF) of natural gas. The designation of water content for large volumes of gas. See PPM/VVT.



Large crude-carrying vessels tankers from 100,000 to 500,000 dead. weight tons capable of transporting 2.5 to 3.5 million barrels of oil in one trip. Cruising speed of LCCVs is 12 to 18 knots overall length, about 1,200 feet; draft when fully loaded, more than 80 feet.

on the lease.

lead line

the pipe through which oil or gas flows from the well to additional equipment



Lines through which production from individual wells is run to a tease tank


lead tongs

(pronounced "leed") the pipe tongs suspended in the derrick and operated by a wireline connected to the breakout cathead. They are also called breakout tongs.

2669. 2670.

lead-tong man leak-off test

the crew member who operates lead tongs during hoisting of the drill pipe.

a gradual pressurizing of the casing after the blowout preventers have been installed to permit estimation of the casing burst point. 365

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2671. 2672.

LEAN GAS lean oil

Natural gas containing little or no liquefiable hydrocarbons. See Wet Gas.

a hydrocarbon liquid usually lighter in weight than kerosine and heavier than paint thinner. In a gas-processing plant, lean oil is used in an absorber to remove heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas.



(1) The legal instrument by which a leasehold is created in minerals. A contract that. for a stipulated sum, conveys to an operator the right to drill for oil or gas. The oil lease is not to be confused with the usual lease of land or a building. The interests created by an oil-country lease are quite different from a realty lease. (2) The location of production activity; oil installations and facilities; location of oil field office, tool house, garages.


lease automatic custody transfer

(LACT) automatic measurement and transfer of oil from a producer's tanks to a connected pipeline, which circumvents the need for personnel to be present at the site.



A person whose business is securing leases for later sale in the hope of profit. Lease brokers operate in areas where survey or exploration work is being done.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Liquid hydrocarbons produced with natural gas and separated from the gas at the well or on the lease. See Condensate.



Colloquial term for a person whose job is securing oil and gas leases from landowners for himself or a company for which he works. See Landman.



Gathering lines on a lease; usually small-diameter (2 to 4-inch) pipelines that carry production from the lease wells to a central tank battery; lead fines.


lease metering site

the point on a lease where the volume of oil produced from the lease is measured, usually automatically.

2680. 2681. 2682.

lease operator lease tank LEASE TANKS

(See pumper.)

(See production tank.)

A battery of two or more 100 to 500-barreitanks on a lease that receive the. production from the wells on the lease. Pipeline connections are made to the lease tanks for transporting the oil to the trunk line and thence to the refinery.



(See landman.) 367

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2684. 2685.


(nautical) downwind.

A pipe or bolt thread cut to be turned counterclockwise in tightening. Most threads are right-hand, cut to be tightened by turning clockwise. Nipples with one kind of thread on one end, another on the other end, are referred to as "bastard (q.v.) nipples."

2686. 2687. 2688.


Forty acres; one-sixteenth of a section (square mile).

The tour corner-members of the rig, held together by sway braces and girts.

1. a porous, permeable, irregularly shaped sedimentary deposit surrounded by impervious rock. 2. a lenticular sedimentary bed that pinches out, or comes to an end, in all directions.

gas well.


The person or company entitled, under a lease, to drill and operate an oil or



the conveyer of a lease (as an oil and gas lease).


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



1. the height or depth at which the top of a column of fluid is located (as the level of fluid in a well). 2. a horizontally even surface. 3. a device used to determine if a surface is horizontal.



Last in first out; first in first out; first in fast out. Acronyms that designate the sequence of movement in and out or the handling of crude oil and products in inventory or held in storage.


lifter-roof tank

a tank whose roof rises and falls with the changes of pressure in the tank but does not float on the product stored in it.



(1) Refers to tankers and barges taking on cargoes of oil or refined product at a terminal or transshipment point. (2) Producing an oil well by mechanical means; pump, compressed air, or gas.

2695. 2696.

LIFTING COSTS lifting nipple

The costs of producing oil from a well or a lease,

a short piece of pipe with a pronounced upset, or shoulder, on the upper end, screwed into drill pipe, drill collars, or casing to provide a positive grip for the elevators. It also is called a lifting sub or a hoisting plug.


lifting sub

(See hoisting plug and lifting nipple.)

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Crude oil that flows freely at atmospheric temperatures and has an API gravity in the high 30s and 40s; a light-colored crude oil. See Heavy Crude Oil.

2699. 2700.

light crude oil light displacement

a crude oil of relatively high API gravity (usually 40' or higher).

on mobile offshore drilling rigs, the weight of the rig with all permanently attached equipment but without fuel, supplies, crew, ballast, drill pipe, and so forth.



The more volatile products of petroleum refining e.g. butane, propane,



An early-day term for an installation on a lease or at a company camp (q.v.) that provided electricity for fighting and small appliances. The light plant often was simply a belt-driven D. C. generator run off one of the engines at a pipeline pumping station or a pumping well's engine. The lights "surged" with the power strokes of the engines and went out when an engine "went down," but the lights were far better than gas lights or none at all.


lightening hole

a hole cut into a strengthening member that reduces its weight but does not affect its strength significantly. 370

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


lightweight cement

a cement or cement system that handles stable scurries having densities of less than the optimum weight of neat cement.



an organic drilling fluid additive derived from by-products of a papermaking process using sulfite; added to drilling mud to minimize fluid loss and to reduce the viscosity of the mud.


limber hole

a hole cut in a structural member of a ship or offshore drilling rig, usually in a tank, to allow water to pass through freely.

2707. 2708.

LIME lime mud

Colloquial for limestone.

a drilling mud that is treated with lime to provide a source of soluble calcium in the filtrate in order to obtain desirable mud properties when drilling in shale or clay formations.



a sedimentary rock rich in calcium carbonate that sometimes serves as a reservoir rock for petroleum.



1. any length of pipe through which liquid or gas flows. 2. rope or wire rope. 3. electrical wire.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


line drive

in water-flooding, a pattern of injection wells designed to advance water to the producing wells in the form of a frontal movement. (See waterflood.)



Line fill The amount of gas or oil or product required to fill a new line before deliveries can be made at take-off I points or the end of the fine. Line pack The volume of gas or barrels or oil maintained in a trunk pipeline at all times in order to maintain pressure and provide uninterrupted flow of gas or oil. There are millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas in the country's pipelines at ad times.



Instructions to the pipeline construction crews building a line across the land of many property owners. The instructions list all owners, the length of line across each property, and include any special restrictions such as "keep all gates closed and in good repair" and "avoid at all costs damaging large trees." The right-of-way man leaps make up the line list,


line pipe

a steel or plastic pipe used in pipelines, gathering systems, flow lines, and so

(See pig.)

line scraper


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Merchantable natural-gas line from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying gas that has had water and other impurities removed; a line carrying pipeline gas (q.v.).



Merchantable crude-oil fine from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying oil that has had water and other impurities removed; a line transporting pipeline oil, (q.v.).



Gas maintained in a gas transmission line at all times to maintain pressure and effect uninterrupted flow of gas to customers at take-off points.



In drilling, a length of casing used downhole to shut off a water or gas formation so drilling can proceed. Liners are also used to case a "thief zone" (q.v.) where drilling fluid is being lost in a porous formation. A finer is also a removable cylinder used in reciprocating pumps and certain types of internalcombustion engines; a sleeve.


liner barrel

a pump barrel used for either tubing pumps or rod (insert) pumps. A fullcylinder liner barrel consists of a steel jacket inside of which is a full-length tube of cast iron or special alloy. The inner surface of the barrel is polished to a mirrorlike finish to permit a fluid-tight seal between it and the plunger. In a sectional liner barrel, the tube placed inside the steel jacket consists of a


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

series of sections placed end to end and held firmly in place by means of threaded collars on the ends of the steel jacket.


liner completion

a well completion in which a screen liner is used to obtain communication between the reservoir and the wellbore.

2722. 2723. 2724.

liner hanger liner lap LINEUP CLAMPS

a slip device that attaches the liner to the casing.

the distance that a liner extends into the bottom of a string of casing.

A device that holds the ends of two joints of pipe together and in perfect alignment for welding. Lineup clamps operate on the outside of the pipe and are used on smaller diameter line pipe. Large-diameter pipe-20 to 36-inch and over-are aligned by internal, hydraulically operated mandrel-like devices.



A term used to describe an arrangement of interconnecting parts-rods, lovers, springs, joints, couplings, pins-that transmit motion, power, or exert control.


liquefied natural gas

(LNG) a liquid composed chiefly of natural gas (i.e., mostly methane). Natural gas is liquefied to make it easier to transport if a pipeline is not feasible (as across a body of water). Not as easily liquefied as LPG, LNG must be put under low temperature and high pressure to become liquefied.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Natural gas that has been liquefied by severe cooling (-160'C.) for the purpose of shipment and storage in high-pressure cryogenic tanks. To transform the liquid to a useable gas, the pressure is reduced and the liquid is warmed.


liquefied natural-gas carrier

(LNGC) a tank ship that is specifically designed to transport liquefied natural

liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) a mixture of heavier, gaseous, paraffinic hydrocarbons, principally butane and propane. These gases, easily liquefied at moderate pressures, may be transported as liquids but converted to gases on release of the pressure. Thus, liquefied petroleum gas is a portable source of thermal energy that finds wide application in areas where it is impracticable to distribute natural gas. It is also used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines and has many industrial and domestic uses. Principal sources are natural and refinery gas, from which the liquefied petroleum gases are separated by fractionation.



a state of matter in which the shape of the given mass depends on the containing vessel, but the volume of the mass is independent of the vessel. A liquid is a practically incompressible fluid. liquid-level controller any device used to control the liquid level in a tank by actuating electric or pneumatic switches that open and close the discharge valve or the intake valve, thus maintaining the liquid at the desired level. 375

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

2732.mzhelu@gmail. 2735. liter a unit of metric measure of capacity equal to the volume occupied by 1 kg of water at 4 C and at the standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mm. 2733. The physical character of a rock. liquid-level gauge any device that indicates the level or quantity of liquid in a container. list the position of a ship or offshore drilling rig that heels to one side because of a shift in cargo. the study of rocks. 2731. machinery. 376 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2730. lithification Lithologic. and so forth. liquid-level Indicator a device connected to a vessel and coupled with either a float in the vessel or directly with the fluid therein and calibrated to give a visual indication of the liquid level in the tank. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the individual character of a rock in terms of mineral composition. Also. lithology lithology the conversion of unconsolidated deposits into solid rock. LIQUID HYDROCARBONS Petroleum components that are liquid at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressure.com . structure. usually macroscopic. 2736. 2734. or supplies. Z.

It is also called boomer. The load on a bit refers to the amount of the weight of the drill collars allowed to rest on the bit. 2738. load binder a chain or cable with a latching device. the line was sold to a private gas transmission company. Pumping wells may produce oil with a small amount of gas entrained in the production. A flowing well always has dissolved gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2737. 2743. 377 Petroleum Engineer: M. in mechanics. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to engage an engine so it works. See Liquefied Natural Gas. lm LNG LNGC load lime. After the war.com . used to secure loads (usually of pipe) on trucks. used in drilling reports. 2740. Z. Compare idle. 2741. LITTLE BIG INCH PIPELINE A 20-inch products pipeline built from East Texas to the Fact Coast during World War 11 to solve the problem caused by tanker losses as the resume of submarine warfare. the weight or pressure placed on an object. as it is the gas pressure which pushes the oil out of the porous formation to the well bore and up to the surface. 2739.mzhelu@gmail. liquefied natural-gas carrier. LIVE OIL Crude oil which contains dissolved natural gas when produced. See weight on the bit. 2742.

or swabbing. "Two locations south of the discovery well. hydraulic fracturing. 378 Petroleum Engineer: M. Mud pits must be dug.. and access roads built. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2744. 2746.g. e. See 2749. used in drilling reports. LOCATION DAMAGES Compensation paid by an operator to the owner of the land for damages to the surface or to crops during the drilling of a well.) Oil of any kind put back into a well for any purpose. a well spacing unit. 2748. 2747. so there are always some location damages to be paid. e.. location.mzhelu@gmail.g." 2750. a surface leveled for tanks and rig. shooting. load guy LOAD OIL (See guy line. Z. Drainage. loading rack loc LOCAL DRAINAGE the equipment used for transferring crude oil into tank cars. LOCATION The well site the place where a well is to be drilled or has been drilled. 2745.com . The movement of oil or gas toward the well bore of a producing well.

a daily report sheet on which operating data is entered by gaugers. SAMPLE logbook See Sample Log. Many different logs are run in wells being produced or drilled to obtain various characteristics of downhole formations.mzhelu@gmail. 2755. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LOG ROAD log sheet See Cord Road. and electrical and radioactive logs obtained from The systematic recording of data obtained from the driller's log and mud log instrumentation lowered into and retrieved from the drill hole after drilling. 2756. well. LOG. log a systematic recording of data. at the Logging surface. 379 Petroleum Engineer: M. a book used by station engineers and gaugers to keep notes of current operating conditions and other useful information.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2751. 2757. log a well to run any of the various logs used to ascertain downhole information about a 2753. electrical well log. 2752.com . as from the driller's log. or radioactivity log. 2754. and station engineers. mud log. dispatchers. Z.

usually in cavernous. two or more valves made in one compact steel block. Fissured. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LOOSE-VALVE TREE The designation for a Christmas tree or production tree nippled up or made up with individual valves as contrasted to solid-block tree valves. A stacked. Z. usually in the same right-of-way. The spoof on which the wire is wound is powered by a small engine to reel in the thousands of feet of wire lowered into the hole with the logging tool..) the loss of quantities of whole mud to a formation. 2763. or a cavern. loose-valve tree. doubling a pipeline over part of its length. This indicates that mud is being lost in porous formations. evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole. 2759. LONG STRING LOOPING A LINE See Production String.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2758.com . LOGGING UNIT Well service wireline equipment for downhole well surveys. 2764.e. 2761. loss of circulation lost circulation (See lost circulation. 2760. with the new section tied into the original line. 2762. LOSE RETURNS Refers to a condition in which less drilling mud is being returned from downhole than is being pumped in at the top. 380 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. crevices. The construction of a pipeline parallel to an existing line. to increase the throughput capacity of the system. i. or coarsely permeable beds.

lost pipe drill pipe. 2770. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2767.mzhelu@gmail. lost hole a well that cannot be further drilled or produced because of a blowout. and so forth. The many wheels and axles serve to spread the weight of the trailer and its load over a large area to 381 Petroleum Engineer: M. etc.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Lost circulation can lead to a blowout and. tubing. silt. a fish. or casing that has become separated from the part of the pipe reaching the surface. low-solids mud a drilling mud that contains a minimum amount of solid material (as sand.) 2769. drill collars. in general. necessitating its removal before normal operations can proceed.) a substance added to cement slurries or drilling muds to prevent the loss of cement or mud to the formation. unsuccessful fishing job. low-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement into the points in a well to be squeezed at a pressure not exceeding the formation-breakdown pressure. lost returns lost-circulation material (See lost circulation. 2766.) 2768. flat-bed trailer with multiple axles (6 to 10) for transporting extra-heavy loads over relatively short distances. Z. (See bridging material. LOWBOY A low-profile.com . It is also called lost returns. 2765. reduce the efficiency of the drilling operation. (See squeeze cementing.) and is used in rotary drilling when possible because it can provide fast drilling rates.

butane. LP-gas. "bottled gas". Z. LP-GAS DRIVE The injection of high-pressure enriched gas or an LPG slug to effect the miscible displacement of oil.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering avoid damaging streets and highways. 382 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2771. At atmospheric pressure. a small quantity of liquid "boils" or turns to a gas and can then be used just as natural gas for cooking or heating. The slings are made of layers of heavy canvas or rubber-impregnated fabric so as not to scuff or break the anticorrosion pipe coating which is applied to all buried pipelines. LPG Liquefied petroleum gas. for example. ls limestone. releasing the pressure on the liquid. See Tertiary Recovery. Liquid butane and propane or a mixture of the two are used extensively in areas where there is no natural gas service. When the valve on the "bottle" or small tank of butane. 2774. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This is done with side-boom tractors that lift the pipe in slings and carefully lower it into the ditch. LOWER IN To put a completed pipeline in the ditch.v.) separated from natural gasoline or crude oil by fractionation or other refining processes.mzhelu@gmail. 2772. propane and other fight ends (q. liquefied petroleum gases revert to the gaseous state. 2773. The low bed makes it easier to load and unload the heavy equipment it was designed to move. used in drilling reports. is opened.

It is used to run tools or substances into a producing well without having to kill the well and affords a method of sealing off pressure while allowing a device such as a wireline to pass into the well. 2776. GRAVITY SPLASH A type of lubrication system for relatively slow-moving machinery. as through a lubricator. Short for lubricating oil or lubricant. Through one or two joints of large-diameter casing attached atop the wellhead. 383 Petroleum Engineer: M. against pressure.mzhelu@gmail. Also tube and tubes.g. LUBRICATION SYSTEM. and in the heat of engine operation. the heavy mud is fed into the well bore. The crankcase of a pump. maintains sufficient viscosity or "body" to properly lubricate the engine e. 2780. 10-30 SAE. heavy drilling mud into the well bore to control gas pressure. used in drilling reports. contains the tube oil. for example. LUBRICATOR. 2778. Specially formulated lubricating oil that flows freely in cold weather. Z.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2775. As the crankshaft 2779. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. lse LUBE OIL LUBRICATING OIL. lubricator a specially fabricated length of casing or tubing usually placed temporarily above a valve on top of the casing or tubing head. 2777. MUD A temporary hookup of pipes and valves for introducing additional. MULTIGRADE lease.

LUCAS. Germany. It was Capt.000 bbls/day) that ushered in the modern oil age of large oil companies.com . Galey and James M. LURGI PROCESS A process for the commercial gasification of coal which originated in 2783. Guffey owned the Spindletop gusher located near Beaumont. 384 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2781. Z. a mechanical separator which uses refrigeration obtained by expansion of gas from high pressure to low pressure to increase recovery of gas-entrained liquids.mzhelu@gmail. CAPT. ANTHONY F. Texas. John H. Lucas' Spindletop gusher in 1901 (75. 2782. LXT UNIT A low-temperature separator.

revealing defects. m m2 m3 mA macaroni string magma 2785.mzhelu@gmail. milliampere. the hot. that produces igneous rocks when cooled. The particles arrange themselves around discontinuities in the metal. meter. and a powder or paste of magnetic particles is applied. Magnaflux a trade name for the equipment and processes used for detecting cracks and other surface discontinuities in iron or steel. Petroleum Engineer: M. capable of intrusion or extrusion. (See directional survey and directional drilling. a string of tubing of very small diameter. 2786. a magnetic compass. cubic meter. MAGNETO See Ignition Magneto. fluid matter within the earth's crust. 2789. and photographic or mechanical equipment to determine and record directional information. magnetic surveying instrument a device used to determine the direction and drift of a deviated wellbore. 2790. 2787. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. square meter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2784. A magnetic field is set up in the part to be inspected. 2788. It uses a plumb bob.) 2791.com .

and so forth.com . make a hand make a trip (slang) to become a good worker. the Texas deck. MAGNETOMETER An instrument for measuring the relative intensity of the earth's magnetic effect. Z. in instrument used by geophysicists in oil exploration work.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2792. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To screw a pipe or threaded connection tight by the use of a wrench. 2797. to hoist the drill stem out of the wellbore to perform one of a number of operations such as changing bits. and then to return the drill stem to the wellbore. 2795. 2798. to attach a joint of drill pipe onto the drill stem suspended in the wellbore to permit deepening of the wellbore. taking a core. a trunk line. main deck the principal deck extending from front to back of a ship or offshore drilling rig. 2796. 2794. main line make a connection a large-diameter pipeline between distant points.mzhelu@gmail. make hole MAKE IT UP to deepen the hole made by the bit. 2793. to drill ahead. 2799. 386 Petroleum Engineer: M. Used to detect rock formations below the surface.

to assemble and join parts to form a complete unit (as to make up a string of casing). literally. 387 Petroleum Engineer: M. makeup intend to be added to a system (as makeup water used in mixing mud). male connection a pipe. 4. 2806. make up a joint MAKE-UP TORQUE to screw a length of pipe into another length of pipe. The power necessary to screw a joint of pipe into another sufficiently tight to hold and not loosen under working conditions. makeup cathead the cathead used as a power source for screwing together joints of pipe. to mix or prepare (as to make up a tank of mud). to compensate for (as to make up for lost time). or coupling with threads on the outside circumference. MAKING HOLE MALE CONNECTION Progress in drilling a well. 3.mzhelu@gmail. 2803. to screw together two threaded pieces. coupling.com . A pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2800. Z. MAN RACK A portable "doghouse" or cab mounted on a flat-bed truck for transporting pipeline workers to and from the job. make up 1. 2804. 2801. 2802. 2805. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or tool that has threads on the outside so it can be joined to a female connection. 2. rod.

usually in inches or millimeters. a bill of lading. manhole a hole in the top or side of a tank through which a person can enter. 2809. MANIFEST A document issued by a shipper invoicing oil or products transported by a ship. Manholes have fitted covers with gaskets that are kept bolted in place when the tank is in use. 2810. 2811.A hole in the side of a tank or other vessel through which a man can enter. MANIFOLD An area where pipelines entering and leaving a pumping station or tank farm converge and that contains all valves for controlling the incoming and outgoing streams.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2807. When pressure is applied.com . the liquid level in one arm rises while the level in the other drops. or shaft around which other parts are arranged or attached or that fits inside a cylinder or tube. mandrel a cylindrical bar. spindle. Z. to combine several flows into one. A set of calibrated markings beside one of the arms permits a pressure reading to be taken. 388 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. or to reroute a flow to any one of several possible destinations. 2808. manometer a U-shaped piece of glass tubing containing a liquid (usually water or mercury) that is used to measure the pressure of gases or liquids. manifold an accessory system of piping to a main piping system (or another conductor) that serves to divide a flow into several parts.

2813. MARGINAL WELL A low-producing well. and major cities. a step-out well that may have over-reached the pool boundary. MAP. a well that is approaching depletion of its natural resource to the extent that any profit from continued production is doubtful. SURVEY MAP. a three-dimensional model of a surface area. MARGINAL STRIKE A discovery well on the border line between what is considered a commercial and a noncommercial well. lakes. streams. MARINE OIL Petroleum found by wells offshore or on the continental shelf. Z. RELIEF A model of an area in which variation in the surface is shown in relief. 389 Petroleum Engineer: M. MAP. latitude and longitude lines. land and political boundaries. TOPOGRAPHIC A map containing geologic information of the surface and/or the subsurface. 2815.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2812. BASE A map that contain. 2816. 2817. 2814... lakes.com . usually not subject to allowable regulations. MAP.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. roads. A map which shows in detail the physical features of an area of land. 2818. including rivers. rivers.

marl MARSH BUGGY a semisolid or unconsolidated clay. silt. 2823.)string of specially designed steel pipes that extends down from drillShip or floating platform to the subsea wellhead. marine riser system (See riser pipe. easily identified rock stratum. boat Motors. drilling. A tractor-like vehicle whose wheels are fitted with extra-large rubber tires inflated with air for use in swamps. The great. connected. lanterns blow torches. or sand.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Marine white contains no tetraethyl lead or other additives that could clog the needle vales of gasoline appliances.mzhelu@gmail. balloon-like tires are 10 or 12 feet high and two or three feet wide providing buoyancy as well as traction in 390 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2819. marine riser connector a fitting on top of the subsea blowout preventers to which the riser pipe is 2820. 2821. especially one used as a guide for 2822. The riser is made up of several sections including flexible joints and a telescoping joint to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action. marker bed a distinctive. Z. Marine risers are used to provide a return fluid-flow conductor between the well bore and the drill vessel and to guide the drillstring to the wellhead on the ocean floor. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE Gasoline made for camp stoves.

Also called the rotary bushing. MASS-FLOW GAS METER A gas meter that registers the quantity of gas in pounds which is then converted to cubic feet. a gin pole. For transporting by land. the mast can be divided into two or more sections to avoid excessive length extending from truckbeds on the highway. 2826. 391 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering marshland. Z.com . Marsh funnel a calibrated funnel used in field tests to determine the viscosity of drilling 2825. MAST A simple derrick made of timbers or pipe held upright by guywires. tapered slips are then inserted around the drillpipe to hold it securely while another joint is added to the drilistring. It may be split in two pieces or may be a solid ring. Mass-flow meter. The marsh buggy is indispensable in exploration work in swampy terrain. 2827. When kelly bushing is lifted out of the master bushing. which are somewhat more accurate than orifice meters. which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit. for example. mud.mzhelu@gmail. master bushing an adapter used to reduce the size of the opening through the rotary table and to fit the slips.a portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit. 2824. a sturdy A frame used for drilling shallow wells or for workover. are used in many refineries where large volumes of gas are consumed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The large bushing that fits into the rotary table of a drilling rig into which the ke1ly bushing fits. as distinguished from a standard derrick.

MATTOCK A toot for digging in hard earth or rock.g. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM A self-elevating (jack-up) offshore drilling platform whose legs are attached to a metal mat or substructure that rests on the sea floor when the legs are extended. matrix acidizing the procedure by which acid flow is confined to the natural permeability and porosity of the formation. the other the shape of a heavy adz. Z. master valve (1). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the blind or blank rams of a blowout preventer. pump plungers and liners or sucker rod box and pin. 2833. one is in the shape of a pick. as opposed to fracture aridizing. e. 2834. 392 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. a large valve on the Christmas tree used to control the flow of oil and gas from the well. The head has two sharpened steel blades.com . piston and cylinder. MATSTRUCTURE The steel Platform placed on the sea floor as a rigid foundation to support the legs of a jack-up drilling platform. (2). necessary.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2828. 2832. 2830. MATING PARTS Two or more machine or equipment parts made to fit and/or work together. MASTER GATE A large valve on the wellhead used to shut In a well if it should become 2829. 2831.

2842. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2835. 393 Petroleum Engineer: M. another common organic base. gasoline plant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2836. millidarcy. maximum allowable pressure the greatest pressure that may safely be applied to a structure or vessel. or producing well). MAY RAKE Mcf Another name for the finger board (q. 2838.mzhelu@gmail. It is a unit of measure that is more commonly used in the low volume sectors of the gas industry such as stripper well production. (See darcy. 2839. Pressure in excess of this amount leads to failure or explosion. maximum water in oil-well cementing. Mcf/d md MEA 1000 ft' of gas per day. Also DEA. an organic base used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases in process streams. 2841. the maximum ratio of water to cement that does not cause the water to separate from the slurry on standing. maximum capacity the maximum output of a system or unit (as a refinery. (Thousand Cubic Feet) Mcf stands for one thousand cubic feet.) in the derrick of an oil well.com . 2840. pumping unit.v. 2837. diethanolamine.) Short for monoethanolamine.

sprockets. Z. 2848. Measuring tanks are used in LACT systems and may also be referred to as metering tanks or dump tanks. measure out to measure drill pipe or tubing as it is pulled from the hole. measure in to obtain an accurate measurement of the depth reached in a well by measuring the drill pipe or tubing as it is run into the well. usually to determine the depth of the well or the depth to which the pipe or tubing was run. present in certain refined products that Impart objectionable odor to the product. 2849.(of production) (q. mercaptan a chemical 394 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2844. It is also called a power rig.com . 2845. pressure switches. 2847. MER MERCAPTAN maximum efficiency rate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2843. float switches. automatically measures the volume of liquid run in and then released. UNITS OF measuring tank 2846. LENGTH MEASURE. and shafts). mechanical rig a drilling rig in which the source of power is one or more internal-combustion engines and in which the power is distributed to rig components through mechanical devices (as chains. or similar devices.v.mzhelu@gmail. clutches. containing sulfur.). by means of weirs. a calibrated tank that. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Chemical compound.

g. Marble is a metamorphic rock. the center of buoyancy of the hull also moves to a new position. inclined). and the degree of discoloration in the sample is compared with a standard to determine the mercury number. metacenter a point located somewhere on a line drawn vertically through the crater of buoyancy of the hull of a floating vessel with the hull in one position (e. 2850. crude oil containing no more than one percent BS&W (q.(crude) of a quality as to be acceptable by a pipeline system or other purchaser.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compound similar to alcohol in which sulfur replaces the oxygen. and structural alterations caused by processes within the earth's crust. 2851.v. chemical. making it salable.com . Z.g. If a second line is drawn vertically through the new center of buoyancy. Location of the metacenter is important because it affects the stability of floating vessels (as mobile offshore drilling rigs).). 2852. it intersects the first line at a point called the metacenter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 395 Petroleum Engineer: M.. merchantable oil a crude oil in which the BS& W content is not in excess of that allowed by the purchase. level) and then another (e. MERCURY NUMBER A measure of the free sulfur in a sample of naphtha. metamorphic rock a rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical. Mercury is mixed with a sample and shaken.mzhelu@gmail.. When the hull inclines slightly to a new position. Many mercaptans have an offensive odor and are used as odor and in natural gas. 2853.

The rate at which the 396 Petroleum Engineer: M. it displaces the fluid and forces it through the meter to be tested. which consists essentially of a bell. the operation by which meter readings are compared with an accepted standard. an inked pen traces the variations in pressure or volume. meter (m) 1. METAMORPHISM Changes in rock induced by pressure. 2858. or piston. the fundamental unit of length in the metric system.A replaceable paper chart for recording pressure or flow for a 24-hour period.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2854. heat.28 ft. and the action of water that results in a more compact and highly crystalline condition. 2. 2856. equal to 3.com . a device used to measure and often record volumes. Meters are proved by passing a known volume of fluid through them at a known rate and comparing this volume with a standard. or rates of flow of gases. meter prover a device used to check the accuracy of a meter. quantities. adjustment of a meter so that its readings conform to a standard 2857. 2. 2855. or 100 cm. liquids. that is lowered into a tank containing a known volume of fluid. or electric currents. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 39.mzhelu@gmail. As the chart revolves on its spindle. meter calibration 1. to measure quantities or properties of a substance. meter chart a circular chart of special paper that shows the range of differential pressure and static pressure and that is marked by the recording pens of a flow meter. As the bell is lowered.37 in. A typical prover used for checking meters is the bell prover. Z..

natural gas may contain appreciable quantities of 397 Petroleum Engineer: M. and gas. one of the main constituents of illuminating gas.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bell drops is controlled. the volume passing through the meter is recorded. It has a calibrated tube containing a known volume of fluid. and thus the rate of flow through the meter can be controlled. metering tank METHANE (See measuring tank. that is the chief component of natural gas and an important basic hydrocarbon for petrochemical manufacture. 2863. displacing the fluid in the tube and forcing it through the meter. water. As the piston advances.0% Propane 6. flammable paraffin hydrocarbon. three-phase units separate oil. a colorless flammable gas.com . 2859. gaseous. The piston prover is extensively used in LACT systems. meter run point the point in a gas-gathering system at which a field measuring meter and accessories are situated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.0% Ethane 7. 2860. Twophase units separate oil and gas and meter the oil. with a boiling point of -258 F. methane a light. Methane 80. Z. and meter the oil and water.5% Pentane plus 3. 2862.) The simplest saturated hydrocarbon.0% Isobutane 1.5% Butane 2. 2861... metering separator a complete separator and volume meter integrated into a single vessel. CH.0% In addition to these gases. The reading is then compared with the standard (the volume in the tube).

155 = sq. certain of the gases comprising the mixture that is natural gas are variable in form and may be found either as gases or as liquids under suitable conditions of temperature and pressure.78 = liters 398 Petroleum Engineer: M.3937 = inches Meters X 39. inches Sq.mzhelu@gmail. 2864. helium.0254 = meters Feet X 0. 2866. flammable liquid derived from methane (natural 2867. methane series METHANE-RICH GAS PROCESS METHANOL the paraffin series of hydrocarbons.281 = feet Kilometers X 0.03937 = inches Centimeters X 0.609 = kilometers Millimeters X 0. METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION Inches X 0. See MRG Process.061 = cu. the gram as the unit of weight. and the square meter as the unit of area.305 = meters Miles X 1609. Z. a colorless. gas). 2865. 2868. Although gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures. Centimeters x 0. metric system a decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter as the unit of length. the liter as the unit of capacity. the cubic meter as the unit of volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. carbon dioxide.621 = miles Sq. Centimeters x 0. feet Cu.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering nitrogen.2642 = gallons Gallons X 3.37 = inches Meters X 3. Methyl alcohol. Meters X 10. and contaminants (as hydrogen sulfide and water vapor).00 = meters Miles X 1.com . inches Liters X 0.764 = sq.

they spread across the surface forming a dense layer that is effective in reducing evaporation. 2873. micellarpolymer. milligram. soluble-oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2869. The chemical Solution reduces the surface tension of the oil clinging or adhering to the porous rock thus "setting the oil free" to be pumped out with the flooding solution. Biotite is ferromagnesian black mica. and muscovite is potassic white mica. petroleum sulfonate.g. 399 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2871. MICROBALLOONS A foam blanket that floats on the liquid in storage tanks to reduce losses from evaporation. MICELLAR-POLYMER FLOODING MICELLAR-SURFACTANT FLOODING See Micellar-Surfactant Flooding. 2872. The blanket is composed of billions of hollow. Z. a method of recovering additional crude oil from a field depleted by conventional means including repressuring and waterflooding. A tertiary recovery technique. a silicate mineral characterized by sheet cleavage. micellar. Micellar-surfactant drive or flooding involves injecting water mixed with certain chemicals @into the producing formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .mzhelu@gmail. Sometimes mica is used as a lost-circulation material in drilling. mg mica 2870. The spheres are almost microscopic in size. balloon like plastic spheres containing a sealed-in gas-usually nitrogen. When poured in sufficient quantity on top of crude oil or refined products in a tank. e. Such a project may have various names.

Z.com . 2880. swiping 'or a "good" cause. The term applied to hydrocarbons in the so-called middle range of refinery distillatio e. for example) and must be removed from the circulating mud by the use of a desilting device. MIDNIGHT REQUISITION Obtaining material without proper authority borrowing unbeknown to the "lender". 400 Petroleum Engineer: M. micron one-millionth of a meter. Oil produced principally in Kansas. kerosene. 2877. 2876. used in drilling reports. and heavy diesel oil.g. MICT MID-CONTINENT CRUDE MIDDLE DISTILLATES moving in cable tools. Oklahoma. heating oil. 2875.v. 2879.) and other low-gravity solids in drilling mud are described as being so many microns in size (10 microns. a metric unit of measure of length equal to 0.A unit of measure equal to one-thousandth of a millimeter. migration the movement of oil from the area in which it formed to a reservoir rock where it can accumulate.001 MM.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2874. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Microlog a trade name for a special electric-survey method in which three closely spaced electrodes are pressed against the wall of the borehole to obtain a measurement of formation characteristics next to the wall of the hole. 2878. light diesel oil. Fines (q. and North Texas.

a downhole tool with rough. A quart equals 964 ml.). P to use a mill to cut or grind metal objects that must be removed from a well. MILLABLE Said of material used downhole. 2886. this term is used interchangeably with cubic centimeter (cm3). one-thousandth of a darcy. This is done by running steel-bristle pigs and scrapers. 2883. Mills are run on drill pipe or tubing to grind up debris in the hole. In analyzing drilling mud. MILLIDARCY A unit of permeability of a rock formation. Pipelines must be cleaned of mill scale before being put in service carrying crude oil. Z. i.mzhelu@gmail. gas or products. milliliter (mi) one-thousandth of a liter. reaming mills. Darcy. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2881.e. MILL To grind up to pulverize with a milling tool (q..com . and ream out tight spots in the casing. MILL SCALE A thin layer or incrustation of oxide which forms on the surface of iron and steel when it is heated during processing. They are also called junk mills. MILLING 401 Petroleum Engineer: M. sharp. remove stuck portions of drill stem or sections of casing for sidetracking. and so forth. "soft" enough to be bored out or pulverized with milling tools. 2882. packers. See 2885. 2884. bridges. depending on what use they have. extremely hard cutting surfaces for removing metal by grinding or cutting.v. and plugs.

oil. In the U.com . minute. millisecond. of gas. those used for dry cleaning and paint 2893.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Cutting a "window" in a well's casing with a tool lowered into the hole on the drillstring. millisec min mineral rights 2890. the rights of ownership. milling shoe MILLING TOOL (See burn shoe and rotary shoe. in 402 Petroleum Engineer: M.5 in. MINERAL SPIRITS Common term for naphthas (solvents). 2888.. mineral rights are the property of the surface owner unless disposed of separately.) A grinding or cutting fool used on the end of the drill column to pulverize a piece of downhole equipment or to cut the casing. 2887. conveyed by deed.S. diameter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. miniaturized completion a well completion in which the production casing is less than 4. 2892. Z. 2889. thinners. and other minerals beneath the surface of the earth.mzhelu@gmail. 2891.

2898. almost microscopic droplets of water entrained in natural gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Such gas must be treated to remove the water before it will be accepted by a gas transmission pipeline. MINISEMI A scaled-down semisubmersible drilling platform built for service in relatively shallow water. Z. LPG. 2895. 403 Petroleum Engineer: M. Regulations set minimum tender amounts a common carrier pipeline is required to take into its system and pump to destination. MIST Small.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2894. C02 May be injected into the formation followed by waterflooding. carbon dioxide or a mixture thereof) are injected into the reservoir to reduce interfacial forces between oil and water in the pore channels and thus displace oil from the reservoir rock.mzhelu@gmail. 2896. one behind the other. MINIMUM TENDER The smallest amount of oil or products a pipeline will accept for shipment. natural gas. a method of enhanced recovery in which various hydrocarbon solvents or gases (as propane. 2897. MISCIBLE FLOOD A secondary or tertiary oil recover method in which two or more formation flooding fluids are used. MIR miscible drive moving in rig. used in drilling reports. For example. 2899.com . See Tertiary Recovery.

weighting materials. mix mud to prepare drilling fluids from a mixture of water or other fluids and one or more of the various dry mud-making materials (as clay. mist drilling a drilling technique that uses air or gas. 2903. milliliter. square millimeter. and the liquid is removed from the separator along with other separated liquids. mist extractor a metal member used to remove moisture or condensable hydrocarbons from a gas stream in an oil and gas separator.) any tank or vessel used to mix components of a substance (as in the mixing of additives with drilling mud). 2904. The moisture condenses on the metal surface. 2901. 2907. ml mm mm2 2906. 2902. Z. to which a foaming agent has been added as a circulation medium.mzhelu@gmail.). 2905. etc. millimeter. mixed string mixing tank a combination string. chemicals. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2900.com . (See casing string. 404 Petroleum Engineer: M.

MMcf MMOTU. It may or may not float once drilling begins. 2911. 2912.com . Million BTU (British thermal units) per hour. Z.S. 2913.7 psi) of pressure but varies from state to state. The standard referred to is usually 60 F and 1 atmosphere (14. 405 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2908. million standard cubic feet. used in drilling reports. MO mobile offshore drilling rig moving out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2915. The drill ship. semisubmersible drilling rig. MMscf/d MMsct million standard cubic feet per day. mm3 MMBTUIHR cubic millimeter. 2910. rating used for large industrial heaters and other large thermal installations such as furnaces and boilers. 2909.$ million cubic feet.mzhelu@gmail. a platform rig is not. a pricing formula in some gas purchase contracts which is tied directly to formulas involving prices paid to No. a common unit of measurement for large quantities of gas. 2914. and jack up drilling rig are all mobile rigs. a drilling rig used exclusively to drill offshore wells that floats upon the surface of the water when being moved from one location to another. 2 fuel oil at specific locations in the U. So many dollars per million BTU.

MODULE An assembly (q. Z. 2 2918. Some of the larger semisubmersible drilling platforms are capable of moving in the open sea at five to seven knots. MOBILE PLATFORM A self-contained. 2921.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2916.ties. and can be joined with other units for increasing or enlarging the function. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. For deep-water.com . mole.) that is functional as a unit. for example. mol mole 2922. an electronic or hydraulic module. 2919.mzhelu@gmail. offshore work mock-ups are made to simulate conditions in subsea well-head chambers and sea-floor work areas. offshore drilling platform with the means for self propulsion. For example. additives. the quantity of a substance whose unit weight is numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. chemical or physical. have been altered by 2920. one mole of water (H*O) is 406 Petroleum Engineer: M. a gas compressor module. MOCK-UP A full-sized structural model built accurately to scale for study and testing of an installation to be used or operated commercially. modified cement a cement whose proper .

the product of a force and a distance to a particular axis or point. from the center of rotation. whether or not it will knock or ping in an engine with a given compression 407 Petroleum Engineer: M. F. water. is 18 because the atomic weight of each of the hydrogen molecules is 1 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16. MON Motor Octane Number. molecule the smallest part of a substance that can exist on its own.mzhelu@gmail. 2927.g. H*O.. one atom of oxygen. Ha. tons. mole percent the ratio of the number of moles of one substance to the total number of moles in a mixture of substances multiplied by 100 (to put the number on a percentage basis). the molecular weight of water.g. 2925. 2924. For example. each of which is 1 unit.. HzO. in which each molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen). acting at a perpendicular distance. 2923. It usually consists of a group of atoms that are either different (e. the weight of which is 16 units). moment a turning effect created by a force. grams.) because the molecular weight of water is 18 (two atoms of hydrogen.com . 2926. consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen) or that are alike (e. hydrogen. molecular weight the sum of the atomic weights in a molecule. Z. S. etc. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 18 weight units (pounds. the measure of a gasoline's antiknock qualities.

$1. Monel steel a nickel-base alloy also containing copper. the derrickman's working platform.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ratio. the derrickman must handle the top end of the pipe.000. MONKEY BOARD A colloquial and humorous reference to the tubing board (q. and carbon. MONEY LEFT ON THE TABLE A phrase referring to the difference between the high and the second highest bid made by operators or companies when bidding an Federal or state oil leases. Nontnagnetic drill collars are often made of this material.v. which may be as high as 90 ft in the derrick or mast. iron. $750.) high in the derrick.000. money left on the table. and fourble board. 2930. The monkeyboard provides a small platform to raise him to the proper height to be able to handle the top of the pipe.000. 2931. S250. For example.000.) 408 Petroleum Engineer: M. second-highest bid. See Octane Rating. 2929. For example high bid. As pipe or tubing is run into or out of the hole. (See double board. manganese. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com . 2928. thribble board. monitor an instrument that reports the performance of a control device or signals if unusual conditions appear in a system. Z. silicon. Motor Octane number of a gasoline is determined by test engines run under simulated conditions of load and speed. a BS& W monitor provides a mechanical means of preventing contaminated oil from entering the pipeline by detecting the presence of excessive water and actuating valves to divert the flow back to dehydration facilities.

MONOCLINE A geological term for rock strata that dip in one direction. supporting leg.v. The design of the monopod makes it effective in Arctic regions where thick. round hole or well in the hull of a drill ship (usually in the center) through which the drilling assembly and other assemblies pass while a well is being drilled.com . the moonpool of drillwell is usually located amidship. or abandoned from the drill ship. and whose head can be used as a hammer a crude wrench suitable for mechanical work of the roughest kind. (See bentonite.a walled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) is eroded away. 2933. MONOPOD DRILLING PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform with a single. 409 Petroleum Engineer: M. with the derrick rising above. Z. MOONPOOL The opening in a drillship through which drilling operations are carried on. When the crest of an anticline (q. montmorillonite a clay mineral often used as an additive to a drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2932. MONKEY WRENCH An adjustable.mzhelu@gmail.) 2936. a partial cross section of the strata making up the fold is exposed at the earth's surface and the undisturbed lower flanks form what are called monoclines. completed. 2934. It is a hydrous aluminum silicate capable of reacting with such substances as magnesium and calcium. 2935. square-jawed wrench whose adjusting screw collar is located on the handle. moving bodies of ice present serious problems for more conventional platforms.

2940. buoys. reinforced sled-like board with eye bolts on each end and a handle in the center. Z. can shut down a drilling well or a construction project to allow a rare or endangered species of bird to incubate her eggs unmolested or migrating or mating moose to go about their important business without being disturbed. a pry pole usually made by cutting a small tree. chain. footage drilled. 2938. etc. by law. 2941. MOPE POLE A lever.com . MULTIBUOY MOOSE AND GOOSE MEN See Multibuoy Mooring System also SBM Single-buoy Mooring. 2939. MORNING REPORT The report the tool pusher or drilling supervisor makes each morning after assembling the drifting reports of the drillers under his supervision. A humorous and somewhat sarcastic term for conservation (Environmental Protection Agency) people who. wireline.mzhelu@gmail. MOORING SYSTEM. mooring system equipment (as anchors.) by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained on location at the drilling site. MORMON BOARD A broad.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2937. Used to backfill a pipeline ditch using a team of horses or a tractor pulling the board forward and a workman pulling it back into position for another bite. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used on pipeline construction as an adjunct to the jack board and in lowering the pipeline into the ditch. 410 Petroleum Engineer: M. The report includes depths reached at the end of each tour. 2942.

com . electric. cylindrical device placed around a joint of pipe as it is being broken out during a trip out of the hole. MOTOR SPIRIT A highly volatile fraction in petroleum refining. rotary speeds. hydraulic. 2945. and of the information of past 24 hours of operation. gasoline. bit weights. mother hubbard (slang) a hinged. 2943. a tube mounted at the bottom of a sucker-rod pump and inside a gas anchor to provide a conduit for well fluids (that contain little or no gas) into the pump.) morning tour mosquito bill 2944.e.. It keeps mud from splashing beyond the immediate area.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formations penetrated. motion compensator any device (as a bumper sub or heave compensator) that serves to maintain constant weight on the bit in spite of vertical motion of a floating offshore drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is also called a mud saver or a splash box. pump speeds and pressures. motor valve a valve operated by power other than manual (i.mzhelu@gmail. cores the taken. metal. or 411 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See tour. 2946. mechanical). Z. 2947. an ingredient of motor 2948.

2953. mousetrap MPa mph a fishing tool used to recover a parted string of sucker rods from a well. another joint of drillpipe is made ready and slipped into the mouse hole to await its turn. 2950. 2952. megapascal. pulled out of the mousehole. and subsequently made up into the string. mousehole an opening through the rig floor. When this joint is pulled out and screwed onto the drilistring. See Rat Hole. 2954. 2955. The length to be added is placed in the mousehole. Z. usually lined with pipe. into which a length of drill pipe is placed temporarily for later connection to the drill string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mousehole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. miles per hour. 412 Petroleum Engineer: M. motorman the crew member on a rotary drilling rig responsible for the care and operation of drilling engines. hole drilled to the side of the well bore to hold the next joint of drillpipe to be used.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2949. motor-generator rig a drilling rig driven by electric motors with current supplied by engine-driven generators at the rig.com . 2951. made up to the kelly.mzhelu@gmail.

see "Drilling Fluid" a mixture of hydrofluoric acids and surfactants used to effect mud removal from the wellbore.mzhelu@gmail. scrubbed to remove C02.) to make synthetic natural gas from propane.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2956. 2960. thousand standard cubic feet per day. 2961. 2959. 2957. microsecond. Z.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ms Mscf/D Mud mud acid 2958. The resulting gas mixture is methanated. and fed to distribution lines. MRG PROCESS Methane Rich Gas Process. Liquid propane is hydrodesulfurized and gasified with steam at temperatures between 900' and 1000'F. properties. dried. MRG is a patented process (Japan Gasoline Co. mud additive any material added to drilling fluid to change some of its characteristics or 2962. cooled. mud analysis examination and testing of drilling mud to determine its physical and chemical 413 Petroleum Engineer: M. properties.

mud circulation the act of pumping mud downward to the bit and back up to the surface by normal circulation or reverse circulation. Z. viscosity. 2966. Conditioning may include the use of additives.com .mzhelu@gmail. 2967. 2964. mud conditioning the treatment and control of drilling mud to ensure that it has the proper gel strength. 414 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used to determine the density or weight of drilling mud. density. mud balance a beam balance consisting of a cup and a graduated arm carrying a sliding weight and resting on a fulcrum. the removal of sand and other solids. also called well cake or filter cake. MUD BARREL A small bailer used to retrieve cuttings from the bottom of a cable tool drilling 2965. well. the addition of water. 2968.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2963. mud box mud cake (See mother hubbard. and other measures to prepare the mud for conditions encountered in a specific well.See Filter Cake. and so forth. the removal of gas.) the sheath of mud solids that forms on the wall of the hole when the liquid from the mud filters into the formation.

2970. engineering. A drilling fluid specialist. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. against time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2969. Mud Filtrate mud gun The fluid component of drilling mud which penetrates into a formation. a pipe that shoots a jet of drilling mud under high pressure into the mud pit to mix additives with the mud. mud hopper (See hopper. 2971. and prepares reports detailing the mud weight and additives used. the drilling mud becomes superheated and must be cooled to avoid flashing or vaporizing of the liquid (water or oil) in the mud stream at the surface. a funnel-shaped cup into which a measured quantity of mud is poured and allowed to run through. who combines knowledge of chemistry. 2974.. mud engineer a specialist in drilling fluids.com . MUD COOLING TOWER In drilling in or near a geothermal reservoir. and the behavior of drilling fluids. 2972. Z. MUD ENGINEER One who supervises the. preparation of the drilling mud. 2973. Cooling also reduces the thermal stress on the drill string.mzhelu@gmail. tests the physical and chemical propertied of the slurry. MUD CUP A device for measuring drilling mud density or weight.) 415 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Z. mud motor (See Dyna-Drill and turbodrill) 416 Petroleum Engineer: M. advises the operator on what types of mud to use. He runs tests on the mud to ensure that it performs as it should. 2978. a mud engineer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2975. Mud is pumped through the mud hose to the swivel and down through the kelly joint and drillpipe to the bottom of the well. MUD LINE mud logger mud logging The sea or lake bottom. mud hose a reinforced.mzhelu@gmail. 2979. A portion of the mud is diverted through a gas-detecting device and examined under ultraviolet light to detect the presence of oil or gas. Mud logging is often carried out in a portable laboratory set up at the well.com . steelreinforced. 2976. the recording of information derived from examination and analysis of formation cuttings made by the bit and mud circulated out of the hole. flexible rubber tube through which drilling mud flows from the standpipe to the gooseneck. also called the rotary hose.The flexible. the interface between a body of water and the earth. mud man an employee of the company that supplies drilling mud to a drilling rig. 2977. an employee of a mud-logging company who keeps the mud log. 2980. rubber hose connecting the mud pump with the swivel and kelly joint on a drilling rig. and suggests changes that may be made in the mud system to make the drilling more efficient. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

After the rock cuttings drop out in the settling pit. reciprocating pump that circulates drilling mud in rotary drilling. mud pump a large. MUD PITS Excavations near the rig into which drilling mud is circulated. flows in at the other end. two.or three-cylinder piston pump whose pistons travel in replaceable liners and are driven by a crankshaft actuated by an engine. Z. mud off 1. depending on their main purpose. As the mud moves to the suction line.com . 2982. and suction pits. and the fluid is temporarily stored there before being pumped back into the well. reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud on a drilling rig.a reservoir or tank. A typical mud pump is a double. The duplex (two-cylinder) or triplex (three-cylinder) pump draws mud from the suction mud pit and pumps the slurry downhole through the drillpipe and bit and back up the borehole to the mud settling pits. bearing rock chips from the borehole.mzhelu@gmail.or tripleacting. In rotary drilling there are at 417 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2981. to seal the hole against formation fluids by allowing the buildup of wall cake. to block off the flow of oil into the wellbore. A mud pump also is called a slush pump. the clean mud gravitates into the suction pit where it is picked up by the pump's suction line. the cuttings drop out leaving the mud "clean" and ready for another trip to the bottom of the borehole. 2983. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Reserve Pit. through which the drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and fine sediments to settle out. Additives are mixed with mud in the pit. 2.A large. Mud pits are also called shaker pits. settling pits. Mud pumps withdraw the mud from one end of a pit as the circulated mud. usually made of steel plates.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Mud weight is directly related to the amount of pressure the column of drilling mud exerts at the bottom of the hole. MUD VALVE. another pump can be immediately put on line. Mud tanks are used where it is impractical to dig mud pits (q. sometimes more. Lower.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering least twin mud pumps.) at the well site. 2985. Portable metal banks to hold drilling mud. AUTOMATIC See Kelly Valve. or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). 2986. 2984. 2987.com . 2988. 2989.v. pounds per cubic foot (ib/ft'). 418 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Mud-Kil a trade name for a chemical additive for Portland cement that reduces the effect of contamination of cementing slurries by organic chemicals commonly found in drilling muds. In case of a breakdown or other necessary stoppages. mud report a special form filled out by the mud man that records the properties of the drilling mud used while a well is being drilled.) a shale shaker. Z. mud weight a measure of the density of a drilling fluid expressed as pounds per gallon (ppg). mud saver mud screen MUD TANKS (See mother hubbard.

mzhelu@gmail. MUDSCOW A portable drilling-mud tank in the shape of a small barge or scow used in cable-tool drilling when relatively small amounts of mud wore needed or in a location when a mud pit was not practical. Also. 419 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. a pump to circulate drilling mud in rotary drilling.) and examined by the geologist. a record of information derived from examination of drilling fluid and drillbit cuttings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2990. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2992. a kind of large sled for transporting pipe and equipment into a marshy location. 2991. through which drilling mud flows upon its return to the surface from down the hole. 2994. Rock chips are retrieved with the aid of the shale shaker (q. a conveyance.com . MUD-MOTOR DRILLING mud-return line See Turbo drilling. 2993. Z. MUDHOG MUDLOG A mud pump. a trough or pipe placed between the surface connections at the wellbore and the shale shaker. The mudscow is pulled by a crawler-type tractor which would not bog down as would a wheeled vehicle. mud-weight recorder an instrument installed in the mud pits that has a recorder mounted on the rig floor to provide a continuous reading of the mud weight. A progressive analysis of the well-bore cuttings washed up from the bore hole by the drilling mud. (See mud logging.) 2995. slush pump.

2997. The mud may be from shaley portions of the producing formation. mule-head hanger MULLET (See horse head. from sections of uncased hole.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 420 Petroleum Engineer: M. appropriately called butt lines.) Humorous and patronizing reference to an investor with money to put into the drilling of an oil well with the expectation of getting rich. the team was used to pull. 2998. hoist and do eathwork with a slip or Fresno (q. The "skinner" got his name from the ability to skin the hair off a mule s rump with a crack of the long reins he used.v. a sucker. MUDUP In the early day. so said the cable tool men who were skeptical of the newfangled drilling method.mzhelu@gmail. Unhitched from the wagon. or the residue of drilling mud. of rotary drilling and before the advent of accurate well logging produciole formations could be mudded up (plastered over)by the sheer weight of the column of drilling mud. a person who knows nothing about the oil business or the operator with whom he proposes to deal. to add solid materials (as bentonite or other clay) to a drilling fluid composed mainly of clear water to obtain certain desirable properties. 2999. a driver of a team or span of horses or mules hitched to an oil field wagon.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2996.). MULE SKINNER Forerunner to the truck driver. Mudding up occurs also in pumping wells. Z.

The tubing strings are suspended side by side in the production casing string. See Dual Completion. MULTIBUOY MOORING SYSTEM A tanker loading facility with five or seven mooring buoys to which the vessel is moored as it takes on cargo or bunkers (q. Each reservoir is then produced through its own tubing string. extending up to the Christmas tree. all the pumps are powered by a single prime mover (as an engine or motor) instead of each pump being powered individually. an arrangement for producing a well in which one wellbore penetrate two or more petroleum-bearing formations that lie one over the other.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3000. The completion of a well in more than one producing formation. Z. 3001. 3002. A pump is placed at every well. From there the oil may be piped to separate tankage. however.) from submerged hoses that are lifted from the sea bottom. Submarine pipelines connect the pipelineended manifold to the shore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A beam 421 Petroleum Engineer: M. MULTIPAY WELL MULTIPLE COMPLETION See Multiple Completion. Each production zone will have its own tubing installed.com .mzhelu@gmail. 3003. 3004.v. each a different length and each packed off to prevent the commingling of different reservoir fluids. MULTIPLIER A device or linkage for increasing (or decreasing) the length of the stroke or travel of a rod line furnishing power for pumping wells on a lease. multiple well-pumping system a method of lifting oil out of several wells in a field.

) and a rod line to the pumping well. 3006. By varying the distance from the fulcrum of the two rod-line connections. 3005.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which oscillates on a fulcrum and bearing to which is attached the rod line from the power source (central power.v. multishot survey MV MWD (See directional survey. q. 3007. 422 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. A technique to determine the real-time position of the drill bit in a directionally drilled well during the drilling process using instrumentation placed near the bit.) muriatic acid hydrochloric acid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the travel of the well's rod line can be lengthened or shortened to match the stroke of the well's pump. Measurement While Drilling. millivolt.mzhelu@gmail.com .

horsepower. type of fuel. successor to the Natural Gasoline Association of America. National Association of Corrosion Engineers.P.R. N.A .P.com . 3014. 3013. voltage requirement. N STAMP Designates equipment qualified for use in nuclear installations pipe. Natural Gas Act. etc. fittings. N. An Act of Congress that empowers the Federal Power Commission to set prices and regulates the transportation of natural gas.G . nameplate ratings are always heeded.A. printed or stamped on the makers nameplates attached to pumps.A. 3010. compressors. 3009. N . valves.G. The manufacturers ratings as to speed (rpm). To ensure proper and lasting performance of machines and equipment. working pressure. NAC E NAMEPLATE RATING National Petroleum Refiners Association.. etc.mzhelu@gmail. Natural Gas Processors Association. 3 3012. pumps. engines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 423 Petroleum Engineer: M. NAMING A WELL See Well Naming.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3008. or electric motors. Z. 3015.

It is often called asphalt-base oil because the residue from its distillation contains asphaltic materials but little or no paraffin wax.com .v. Z. 3022. NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE-ALASKA An area west of Prudhoe Bay field and south of Point Barrow containing millions of acres set aside and held in reserve for national security purposes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3016. C2H4).mzhelu@gmail. See Naval Petroleum Reserves. NATURAL GAMMA RAY LOGGING A procedure in which gamma rays naturally given off or emitted by rock formations. NAPHT HENE-BASE CRUDE OIL naphtha Asphalt-base crude (q.).) 3019. a volatile. are measured. 3021. flammable liquid hydrocarbon distilled from petroleum and used as a solvent or fuel. (See hydrocarbons. 3018. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. naphthene-base oil a crude oil that is characterized by a low API gravity and a low yield of lubricating oils having a low pour point and a low viscosity index (compared to paraffin-base oils). (as ethylene or ethene. 3020. naphthene series the saturated hydrocarbon compounds of the general formula CnH2n. 3017. NATIVE GAS Gas originally in place in an underground formation as opposed to gas injected into the structure. A radiation detector is lowered into the hole and picks up gamma rays emitted by the 424 Petroleum Engineer: M. cut through by the wells borehole.

are located in Elk Hills and Buena Vista. NATURAL GAS.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rock. ethane. including liquefied petroleum gases such as butane and propane. 3027. and condensate. Wyoming and on the North Slope in Alaska. butane. The signals are transmitted to a recording device at the surface. The Reserves. 3024. See Gamma Ray Logging. butanes. the more important of which are methane. UNCONVENTIONAL Natural gasoline NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES See Unconventional Natural Gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3028. propane.com . 3023. Natural Gas Liquids Liquids obtained during natural gas production. NATURAL GAS Gaseous forms of petroleum consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors. including ethane.mzhelu@gmail. 3026. the heavier hydrocarbon components of natural gas. 3025. and hexane. California Teapot Dome. Neat cement 425 a cement with no additives other than water. 3029. pentane. Areas containing proven oil reserves which were set aside for national defense purposes by Congress in 1923. casinghead gasoline. Z. Natural gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed for recovery of natural gas liquids. gas produced from a gas well. Petroleum Engineer: M. propane. the liquid hydrocarbons recovered from wet natural gas. estimated to contain billions of barrels of crude oil.

Kirby of the DuPont research laboratory discovered neoprene first called polychloroprene. 3036. 3031. Net Pay Map 426 A contour map depicting net thickness' of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. NEOPRENE A rubber-like product derived from petroleum and compounded with natural rubber to produce a substance highly resistant to chemicals and oils. The "tongue" of the valve is a rod that tapers to a point and fits into a seat which permits fine adjustments as when used with pressure gauges.) 3032. Net Pay Cutoffs Specified limits of porosity. NEEDLE VALVE A valve A valve used on small. and J.mzhelu@gmail. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3030. 3033. water saturation and shale volume below which a formation would be unable to achieve or sustain commercial production. lra Williams. NEB Necking National Energy Board the tendency of a metal bar or pipe to taper to a reduced diameter at some point when subjected to excessive longitudinal stress. 3034. Carothers. W. permeability. Net Pay Refers to the sum of the productive intervals of a reservoir and is determined by the application of cutoffs. Petroleum Engineer: M. (See bottleneck. A. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. high-pressure piping where accurate control of small amounts of liquid or gas is desired.com . 3035. Collins.

including taxes. net production the amount of oil produced by a well or lease.com .e. Sometimes referred to as net royalty. 3038. expressed in tons equal to 100 ft3. Net production is also called working-interest oil (i. One advantage of a net-oil computer is that the water and oil do not have to be separated for it to measure the volume of the oil.. and other assessments. measured by the net profits from the operation of the property. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3040. exclusive of its BS& W content. 3039. NET REVENUE INTEREST A fractional share of the working interest not required to contribute to. nor liable for. Net revenue is income from a property after all costs.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3037. royalties. any part of the expense of drilling and completing the first well on the property or lease. Z. have been paid. 3041. the net oil produced by all of its wells multiplied by the company's working interest in the wells). Such an interest is carved out of the working interest and represents an economic interest in the oil and gas produced from the property. net-oil computer a system of electronic and mechanical devices that automatically determines the amount of oil in a water and oil emulsion. NET PROFITS INTEREST A share of gross production from a property. net tonnage the gross tonnage of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig less all spaces that are not or cannot be used for carrying cargo. 427 Petroleum Engineer: M.

NEUTRAL STOCK Lubricating oil stock that has been dewaxed and impurities removed and can be blended with bright stock (q. 428 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3046. 3045. (See radioactivity logging.com . 3047.) For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Most drilling fluids behave as non-Newtonian fluids as their viscosity is not constant but varies with the rate of shear. This property is used in neutron logging. neutron a part of the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen. Neutron Lifetime Log neutron log NEW OIL (NCL) a trade name for a pulsed-neutron survey. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v.) 3044. Under certain conditions. 3043. neutrons can be emitted from a substance when its nucleus is penetrated by gamma particles from a highly radioactive source.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3042. Z. Newtonian fluid a fluid in which the viscosity remains constant for all rates of shear if constant conditions of temperature and pressure are maintained. owing to special properties. (See radioactivity logging. new oil is the production from a property in excess of production in 1972. all-subsequent production from a property producing in 1972.mzhelu@gmail. See Old Oil.) to make good tube oil one of the many fractions of crude oil that. is ideal as a blending stock for making high-quality tube oil.

3052. a tubular pipe fitting threaded on both ends and less than 12 in.). drilling rig. Sand and gravel are usually placed above the explosive charge to improve the efficiency of the shot. Noise Log A sound detection system inside a logging tool designed to pick up vibrations caused by flowing liquid or gas downhole.com . long. 429 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 3049.v. etc. Nitroglycerine is placed in a well and exploded to fracture the rock. to estimate the gas flow from perforated formations. 3053. Nitro shooting a formation stimulation process first used about a hundred years ago in Pennsylvania. The device is used to check the effectiveness of a squeeze job (q. 3054. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (slang) a crew member who procures and delivers tools and equipment for a 3051. Noble Metal (Catalyst) A metal used in petroleum refining processes that is chemically inactive with respect to oxygen. nipple up to bolt together various valves or fittings (as to nipple up the blowout preventers or the Christmas tree). 3050.mzhelu@gmail. Today nitro shooting has been largely replaced by formation fracturing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3048. NGPA nipple nipple chaser Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.

spent uranium. valves. Nonferrous Containing no iron. bronze. production from beneath the property requires that any drilling be done on other land. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. copper. e. Nonsparking tools are made of nonferrous metals. Non Drilling Lease A lease that grants lessee the customary rights relative to oil and gas under the acreage but provides that a well shall not be drilled on the property..g. that is liquid at atmospheric conditions. Nominations (1)The amount of oil a purchaser expects to take from afield as reported to a regulatory agency that has to do with state proration.5 F (at 14. or rods are made of other metal or combination of metals. Its boiling point is about 303. Under such circumstances.7 psi). or tungsten. (2) Information given to the proper agency of the Federal government or a state relative to tracts of offshore acreage a person or company would like to see put up for bid at a lease sale. 3056. 3057. usually brass or 430 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.com . Nonane a paraffin hydrocarbon. with the aid of a straightedge. nonferrous tools. brass. to find the value of a dependent variable when the values of two or more independent variables are given. Z. C9H20. 3058. Non-drilling leases are usually granted where surface installations or activities make the drilling of a well impractical or incompatible. a graph that enables one. Nomograph A device used by engineers and scientists for making rapid calculations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3055.

com .) 431 Petroleum Engineer: M. Nonoperating Interest (In a Well) An interest in an oil or gas well bearing no cost of development or operation.) 3060. because they are softer and will not give off sparks when struck against another piece of metal. Nonoperator The working interest owner or owners other than the one designated as operator of the property. 3064. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3063. the landowner's interest. Nonmagnetic drill collar a drill collar made of an alloy (Monel) that does not affect the readings of a magnetic compass placed within it to obtain subsurface indications of the direction of a deviated wellbore. 3061.). normal circulation the smooth.v. uninterrupted circulation of drilling fluid down the drill stem. back to the surface. and up the annular space between the pipe and the hole. (See directional drilling. a "silent" working-interest owner. 3062. Hand tools made of bronze or other nonferrous alloys for use in areas where flammable oil or gas vapors may be present.mzhelu@gmail. (See mud circulation and reverse circulation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bronze. having no pores. out the bit. landowner's royalty (q. Nonporous Nonsparking Tools containing no interstices. 3059.

mzhelu@gmail. distillate fuel. 3072. used in drilling reports. National pipe thread. a "this is it" situation. it is considered normal.com . Normalizing a heat treatment applied to metal tubular goods to ensure uniformity of the grain structure of the metal. 3069. 3068. also Two oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3065. 432 Petroleum Engineer: M.465 psi per foot of depth from the surface. denotes standard pipe thread. normal formation pressure formation fluid pressure equivalent to 0.v. NPR NPR-A NPSH NPT NS NUMBER 2 FUEL NUT CUTTING. 3070. Z.).650 psi at 10.Alaska Net positive suction head. 3071.000 ft. 3073. Furnace oil. National Petroleum Reserve . If the formation pressure is 4. 3066. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. no show. DOWN TO THE Naval Petroleum Reserves (q. The crucial point the vital move or decision. 3067.

(See positive displacement meter.com . Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3074.) 433 Petroleum Engineer: M. Nutating meter a flow meter that operates on the principle of the positive displacement of fluid by incorporating the wobbling motion of a piston or disk.


435 Petroleum Engineer: M. both in bulk form. A circular rubber gasket used in flanges. "to 5. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports.v. the objective depth. 3076. used in drilling reports. Over and short (q. OBO VESSEL A specially designed vessel for carrying ore and crude. whichever comes first. valves. 3078. 3079.. Z. and other equipment for making a joint pressure tight.com .).500 feet or the Skinner sand. e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3075.and gas-cut mud. used in drilling reports. O&G O&GCM O&S O&SW O-RING oil and gas. 3081. OAPEC OBJECTIVE DEPTH (OF A WELL) Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. oil. 0-rings in cross section are circular and solid." 3082. 3077. Drilling contracts often state that the hole shall be drilled to a specified depth or to a certain identifiable formation.mzhelu@gmail. The first oil and bulk ore tanker/carrier was launched in 1966 and used in handling relatively small cargoes of oil and ore.g. The depth to which a well is to be drilled. 3080. oil and salt water.

3089. 8 5/8-inch 10. e. C&Hlg.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3083. used in drilling reports.. Z.S. outer continental shelf a paraffin hydrocarbon.7 psi). 3090. Chemical and Atomic Workers Union. CD and ID (inside diameter) are initials used in specifying pipe sizes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.g. 4 1/2-inch OD.com . 3085. OCTANE RATING A performance rating of gasoline In terms of antiknock qualities. 3086.. OC OCAW oil cut. OCM OCS octane oil-cut mud. e. 436 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. a labor organization representing a large number of the industry's refinery and other hourly workers.g. OD Outside diameter of pipe. 3088. used in drilling reports. The higher the octane number the greater the antiknock quality. Its boiling point is 258 F (at 14. Oil. 94 octane gasoline is superior in antiknock qualities to a gasoline of 84 octane. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) an agency of the U. government that establishes and enforces safety standards for industry employees. 3084. 3087. that is a liquid at atmospheric conditions.

used in drilling reports. 437 Petroleum Engineer: M. ODORANT A chemical compound added to natural gas to produce a detectable. 3092. OF OFF THE SHELF open flow. Another name for unloading.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3091. 3096. are ready to be employed on some job.mzhelu@gmail. 3095. Refers also to techniques and procedures that have been perfected and. The distance from the first well to the offset well depends upon spacing regulations and whether the original well produces oil or gas. unpleasant odor to alert householders should they have even a small leak in the house piping. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. OFFSET WELL (1) A well drilled on the next location to the original well. Odorants are used also in liquids or gases being stored or transported to detect leaks.com . Said of products or equipment that are ready and waiting at a supplier's warehouse and can be taken "off the shelf" and shipped immediately. offloading refers more specifically to liquid cargo crude oil and refined products. 3094. (2) A well drilled on one tract of land to prevent the Drainage of oil or gas to an adjoining tract where a well is being drilled or is already producing. 3093. off-production OFFLOADING shut in or temporarily unable to produce (of a well). Z.

The total quantity of trapped gas believed to exist in a geologic feature or structure. Oil Information Committee of the American Petroleum Institute (API). 3102.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3097. 3101. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1947.com . OGIP Original Gas In Place. In general. offshore drilling drilling for oil in an ocean or large lake. 3099. Z. in the Gulf of Mexico. used in drilling reports. OH OIC open hole. geophysical and petrophysical data. 3098. 3100. or a permanent structure used as a production platform when drilling is completed. geological. based on the analysis of well information.mzhelu@gmail. a semisubmersible or submersible base. Louisiana. A drilling unit for offshore operations may be a mobile floating vessel with a ship or barge hull. 43 miles south of Morgan City. 438 Petroleum Engineer: M. By 1979. 1" The fist offshore well (out of sight of land) was drilled on November 14. wildcat wells are drilled from mobile floating vessels (as semisubmersible rigs and drill ships) or from jack-ups. while development wells are drilled from platforms. a self-propelled or towed structure with jacking legs (jack-up drilling rig). OFFSHORE "WELL NO. more than 20.000 wells had been drilled offshore. Offshore Area The area offshore Nova Scotia under the Board's jurisdiction as defined in Schedule 1 of the Accord Implementation Acts.

3105. The cash bonus is the money paid by the lessee to the landowner (the lessor) for the granting of an oil and gas lease. A float valve or other liquid-level control regulates the level of oil in the bottom of the separator. The analyzer automatically der net oil and not water in a liquid stream. 3104. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the heavier liquids falling to the bottom and the gas rising to the top.mzhelu@gmail.v. 3107. OIL Crude petroleum (nil) and other hydrocarbons produced at the wellhead in liquid form. An oil payment (q. Separation is accomplished principally by gravity. Z. Oil Based Mud OIL BONUS Drilling mud in which mineral oil is the continuous phase. 3106. This information is important on leases where the production of individual wells (perhaps with different royalty owners) is to be commingled in the lease tanks or the pipeline gathering system. oil and gas separator an item of production equipment used to separate liquid components of the well stream from the gaseous elements. The landowner's royalty traditionally is 439 Petroleum Engineer: M. Separators are vertical or horizontal and are cylindrical or spherical in shape. NET A well testing installation that separates the oil flow and water content of individual wells on a lease. OIL ANALYZER. includes distillates or condensate recovered or extracted from natural gas.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3103.) reserved by the lessor (usually the landowner) in addition to the cash bonus and royalty payment he is entitled to receive.

OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR GOODS oil field Well casing. Z. 440 Petroleum Engineer: M. He is the unobtrusive link between buyer and seller. 3110. if there is more than one well. 3108. and line pipe. 3111. OIL FINDER A wry reference to a petroleum geologist. It takes the drill to find oil. the surface area overlying an oil reservoir or reservoirs. drillpipe. and production equipment as well. the broker receives either a flat fee or a percentage of the deal he helps consummate. 3109. geologists maintain that they do net find oil but instead locate or identify formations that in their opinion are favorable to the accumulation of oil. A broker will find a market for a quantity of crude or product not committed by long-term contract. Commonly. he will come up with oil for someone who wishes to buy. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. OIL IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to refiners to buy certain amounts of crude oil shipped in from abroad. tubing.mzhelu@gmail. the term includes not only the surface area but may include the reservoir. OIL BROKER One who acts as a go-between in the domestic or international crude oil market. 3112. Just as readily. For his services. Brokers perform a useful function in the oil business by being knowledgeable about the industry's supply and demand situation.com . independent producer and small refiner. However.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering one-eighth of the gross production from the well or the lease. drill collars. the wells.

OIL PATCH A form referring broadly to the oil field. producing. 3117. for example the owner of the seven-eighths working interest. to areas of exploration. selling. Compare oilemulsion mud. They are useful in drilling certain formations that may be difficult or costly to drill with water-base mud. petroleum. oil in place the amount of crude oil that is estimated to exist in a reservoir and that has not been produced. Oil-base mud and invertoil mud are types of oil muds. or annually. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. and is free of any costs or assessments for operating the well or lease.com . 441 Petroleum Engineer: M. quarterly. 3115. monthly. free of the costs of production. oil mud a drilling mud in which oil is the continuous phase. 3114. It may be granted to a bank to pay off a loan. An oil payment or overriding royalty (q. and pipelining. OIL PAYMENT A share of the oil produced from a well or a lease. or refining 3116. oil operator an individual or company engaged in finding.v. production.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3113. or to someone else for other considerations.) may be conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest. An oil payment is in fact a slice of the royalty from the well and comes to the owner of the royalty at specified times.

2. sandstone that yields oil. another fraction of production is specified as royalty. OIL RING A metal ring that runs on a horizontal line shaft in the bearing well which has a supply of tube oil. OIL ROYALTY The lessor's or landowner's share of oil produced on his land. 3123. petroleum-like substance extracted from oil sands. 3120.. 3122.com . 3121. 3119. 442 Petroleum Engineer: M. asphalts and tars.mzhelu@gmail. it deposits oil on the shaft. Bitumen is defined as "any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons together with their nonmetallic derivatives". A pool is a single separate reservoir with its own pressure system so that wells drilled in any part of the pool affect the reservoir pressure throughout the pool. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3118. (by extension) any reservoir that yields oil. and put on the line. OIL POOL An underground reservoir or trap containing oil. (2) In pipeline parlance. a tank of oil gauged. As the ring slowly rotates through the well of oil. OIL RUN (1) The production of oil during a specified period of time. A heavy. a pipeline run. Z. See Run Ticket. In some instances. Oil rings are generally made of brass and are used on relatively slow-moving shafts. The customary 1/9 royalty can be paid in money or in oil. tested. An oil field may contain one or more pools. oil sand OIL SANDS BITUMEN 1.

v. or a pipeline. GRABLE See Production String.). an offshore well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3125. See Grable Oil Well Pump. a film of oil floating on water. an oil tanker. Oil spill has come to mean oil on a body of water where even small amounts of oil spread and become highly visible. oil seep a surface location where oil appears. 3131.mzhelu@gmail. considered a pollutant. 3128. It is operated either mechanically or hydraulically. oil saver a gland arrangement that seals by pressure and is used to prevent leakage and waste of gas. 443 Petroleum Engineer: M. oil. OIL SHALE oil slick OIL SPILL Kerogen shale (q. having permeated from its subsurface boundaries and accumulating in small pools. A mishap that permits oil to escape from a tank. or water around a wireline (as when swabbing a well).com . 3129. OIL STRING OIL WELL PUMP. Z. oil scout a representative of an oil company who gathers data on new oil and gas wells and other industry developments. 3126. 3127.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3124. 3130.

oil-cut containing oil (describes a liquid. (See oil mud and invert-oil mud.mzhelu@gmail. Z. OIL-MIST SYSTEM A lubricating system which pneumatically conveys droplets of a special oil from a central source to the points of application.) 3134. Compare oil mud 3136. oil-base mud an oil mud that contains from less than 2 percent up to 5 percent water. in the oil as small droplets. oil zone a formation or horizon of a well from which oil may be produced. Because of its lubricating abilities. The water is spread out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. An oil-mist system is economical in its use of lubricant and efficient on many types of antifriction applications. in the water in small droplets.com . or dispersed. or dispersed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3132. which are tightly emulsified so that they do not settle out. as oil-cut mud recovered in a drill-stem 3135. The oil is spread out. 3133. the use of an oil-emulsion mud increases the drilling rate and ensures better hole conditions than other muds. oil-emulsion mud a water-base mud in which water is the continuous phase and oil is the dispersed phase. 444 Petroleum Engineer: M. The oil zone is usually immediately under the gas zone and on top of the water zone if all three fluids are present and segregated. test).

mzhelu@gmail. 3144. 3139. gas. that is used to lift fluids from the reservoir to the surface. Once surrounded.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3138.) The third man at a pumping station in the old days. the oil is sucked up by a vacuum cleaner-like suction pump. the oil-water in. terface. The curtain is weighted on the bottom edge to hold it a foot or two below the surface and has floats on the upper edge to hold the curtain a foot or more above the surface. oil-water emulsion oil-well cement (See reverse emulsion and emulsion. 3140.) cement or a mixture of cement and other materials for use in oil. surface or subsurface. the telegraph 445 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See sucker-rod pumping and hydraulic pumping. water wells. oil-well pump any pump. The normal shift-crew on a large gathering or mainline station was the station engineer.) 3143. OIL-SPILL BOOM Any of various devices or contraptions to contain and prevent the further spread of oil spilled on water until it can be picked up. A curtain-like device deployed around or across the path of a drifting oil spill. 3141. Z. oil-wet rock OILER (See wettability. oil-water contact the point or plane where the bottom of an oil sand contacts the top of a water sand in a reservoir. or 3142.com .

3145. ON THE BEAM Refers to a well on the Pump. Any production in excess of this amount from a property is new oil (q. 3147.com . 3151. 3148. Z. drying-and returns the clean. To bring on stream is to start up a plant or an operation. 3146.). ON STREAM Term used for a processing plant.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering operator-assistant engineer and the oiler whose job included feeling the engine and pump bearings. a refinery or a pumping station that is operating.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. on-suction on-the-line 446 of a tank. keeping the wick oilers full and dripping properly and cleaning mopping the station floors. open to pump suction. OLD OIL For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. old oil is production from a property up to the 1972 level of production. dry gas to the line. 3149. Gas processing plant located on or near a gas transmission line which takes gas from the trunk line for processing-stripping. on-deck ON-LINE PLANT (GAS) present on a ship or rig deck and exposed to weather. Petroleum Engineer: M. being emptied into a pipeline. of a tank.mzhelu@gmail. scrubbing. 3150. OP0rItod by a walking beam instead of a Pumping jack.

001 oolitic. (See oolite. used in drilling reports. pressures. on-the-pump ONE of a well. bits. OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 447 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3153. Included is advice on mud programs.mzhelu@gmail. drill speed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) THIRD FOR ONE-QUARTER A term used by independent oil operators who are selling interests in a well they propose to drill. An Investor who agrees to a one-third for one-fourth deal will pay one-third of the cost of the well to casing point and receive one-fourth of the well's net production. 3156. Z. being pumped. OOG OOIP oolite Office of Oil and Gas. a spherical or ellipsoidal particle of sand with concentric or radial structure that is formed by the replacement or accretion of concentric layers of lime around a quartz grain.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3152. 3157.com . OP-DRILLING SERVICE Optimization drilling. as well as consultation with drilling experts. Rock characterized by oolites is called oolitic. geological. a consulting service first developed by American Oil Company that makes available to operators of drilling rigs technical. 3158. 3154. 3155. Original oil in place. and engineering information gathered from wells drilled in the same area.

v. open OPEN FLOW of a wellbore. 448 Petroleum Engineer: M. the flow of production from a well without any restrictions (valves or chokes) on the rate of flow.). open-hole completion a method of preparing a well for production in which no production casing or liner is set opposite the producing formation. Z. having no casing. An open-hole completion has limited use in certain situations. 3160. Good production practice nowadays is to produce a well under maximum efficiency rate conditions (q. 3163. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. OPERATING INTEREST An interest in oil and gas that bears the costs of development and operation of the property.com . 3165. Reservoir fluids flow unrestricted into the open wellbore. 3161. any wellbore in which casing has not been set. The production of oil or gas under wide-open conditions. See Working interest. a test made to determine the volume of gas that will flow from a well during a given time span when all surface control valves are wide open. the mineral interest less the royally. open formation open hole open-flow test a petroleum-bearing rock with good porosity and permeability. 3162. 3164.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3159.mzhelu@gmail. Open flow is permitted only for testing or clean-out.

v. five years for example. OR LEASE One of the two most common forms of oil and gas leases. In the old days. an operator was a telegrapher at a pumping station who sent reports on pumping rates. etc. PLANT OR STATION A worker who is responsible for the operation of a small plant or a unit of a larger plant during his working shift.) of an or lease is often written as follows "Lessee agrees to begin a well on said premises within one year of date hereof or thereafter pay lessor as rental $------each year in advance to the end of this term or until said well is commenced. 3168. forfeit the lease." 449 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. The delay rental clause (q. Their main use is for opening and closing stops and valves. or this grant is surrendered as stipulated herein. Both types of leases are granted for a primary term. 3167. the other is the unless lease (q. Z. 3169. and "so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3166. tank gauges.)." In an or lease. and line pressures to the dispatcher (q. OPERATOR An actuating device a mechanism for the remote operation and/or control of units of a processing plant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Operators usually are air or hydraulically actuated. OPERATOR. optimum water the amount of water used to give a cement slurry the best properties for its particular application. the lessee promises to drill on or before the first anniversary date or do something else pay rental.).com .

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


organic rock

rock materials produced by plant or animal life (as coal, petroleum, limestone,



A material that is or has been part of a living organism. Oil, although classified as a mineral, is an organic substance derived from living organisms.


organic theory

an explanation of the origin of petroleum, which holds that both the hydrogen and carbon that make up petroleum come from plants and animals of the land and sea. This organic material is theorized further to have come more from sea and swamp life and very tiny creatures rather than land life and larger creatures.


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

(OPEC) pl the countries of the Middle East, Africa, and South America that produce oil and export it and that have organized to negotiate and regulate oil prices.



the process of positioning a deflection tool so it faces in the direction necessary to achieve the desired direction and drift angle of a directional hole. (See directional drilling.)


oriented core

a core sample whose location in the reservoir has been pinpointed.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


oriented drill pipe

a drill pipe run in a well in a definite position, often a requisite in directional



a device with an opening in it whose diameter is smaller than that of the pipe or fitting into which it is placed to partially restrict the flow through the pipe. The difference in pressure on the two sides of an orifice plate, as determined by an orifice meter, can be used to measure the volume of flow through the pipe.


orifice fitting

a device placed in a gas line to hold an orifice plate. (See flanged orifice fitting, junior orifice fitting, and senior orifice fitting.)



A measuring instrument that records the flow rate of gas, enabling the volume of gas delivered or produced to be computed.

orifice pipe tap
a tap for pressure connections made at points two-and-a-half pipe diameters upstream and downstream from the orifice; a full-flow connection.


orifice plate

a sheet of metal, usually circular, in which a hole of specific size is made for use in an orifice fitting. (See orifice.)


orifice pressure drop

the pressure differential that occurs across an orifice plate.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


orifice well tester

a device used to test the gas flow of a well, including orifice plates, a hose, and a siphon gauge. It is used primarily to estimate the amount of gas flowing on a drill-stem test when a high degree of accuracy is not required.


orifice-flange tap

a tap for pressure connections made close to the orifice and through the



An unsuccessful well; a well drilled to a certain depth without finding oil; a "duster" (q.v.).

3185. 3186.


the Occupational Health and Safety Administration.

A four-stroke cycle gas engine the conventional automobile engine is an Ottocycle engine, invented in 1862 by Beau de Rochas and applied by Dr.Otto in 1877 as the first commercially successful internal combustion engine. The four strokes of the Otto cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

3187. 3188.

out-of-gauge bit outage

a bit that is no longer of the proper diameter.

a quantity of oil that is lost while in storage or being transported.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A measure of the oil in a tank by finding the distance between the top of the oil and the top of the tank and subtracting this measurement from the tank height. Outage gauging is used on large storage tanks in which there may be several feet of heavy sediment in the bottom preventing the plumb bob on the gauge line from touching bottom. By measuring the distance from the top of the tank whose height is known, the height of the oil from the bottom can be easily arrived at. See lnnage Gauge.

3190. 3191.
(as a rock).

outboard outcrop

away from the center of the hull or toward the side of an offshore drilling rig.

the exposed portion of a buried layer of rock. to appear on the earth's surface



A subsurface rock layer or formation that, owing to geological conditions, appears on the surface in certain locations. That part of a strata of rock that COMES to the surface.



"All submerged land (1) which lies seaward and outside the area of lands beneath the navigable waters as defined in the Submerged Lands Act (67 Stat. 29) and (2) of which the subsoil and scabed appertain to the U,S. and are subject to its jurisdiction and control."


outer continental shelf orders

(See OCS orders.) 453

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3195. 3196. 3197. 3198.

outpost well outside cutter outside diameter OVER AND SHORT (0 & S)

a well located outside the established limits of a reservoir; a step-out well.

(See external cutter.)

(See diameter.)

In a pipeline gathering system O&S refers to the perennial imbalance between calculated oil on hand and the actual oil on hand. This is owing to contraction, evaporation, improper measuring of lease tanks, and losses through undetected locks. Oil is paid for on the basis of the amount shown in the lease tanks. By the time this oil is received at the central gathering station, the amounts invariably are short which represent a loss to the pipeline system.


over and short station

a pump station where one or more tanks are floating on the line. (See floating



an excess quantity of fluid used to push acid out of the tubing or casing when an acid mixture is displaced into a well, thus directing the acid to the desired place in the well.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Doping and wrapping fine pipe above the ditch just before it is lowered in. Most fine pipe is coated and wrapped in the pipe yard and then transported to the right-of-way and strung. Over-the-ditch coating has the advantage of minimizing scuffing or other damage to the coating suffered through moving and handling.

3202. 3203. 3204.

overburden overburden pressure overflow pipe

the strata of rock that lie above the stratum of interest in drilling.

the pressure exerted by the overburden on the formation targeted for drilling.

a pipe installed at the top of a tank to enable the liquid within it to be discharged to another vessel when the tank is filled to capacity.



A product or products taken from a processing unit in the form of a vapor or ·gas; a product of a distillation column.

3206. 3207.

Overpressure OVERRIDE

Formation pressure in excess of hydropressure.

See Overriding Royalty.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A backup system; controls that take over should the primary system of controls fait or be taken out for adjustment or repair; a redundancy built in for safety and operational efficiency.



An interest in oil and gas produced at the surface tree of any cost of productio royalty in addition to the usual landowner's royalty reserved to the lessor. A 1/16 override is not unusual.



a fishing tool that is attached to tubing or drill pipe and lowered over the outside wall of pipe or sucker rods lost or stuck in the wellbore. A friction device in the overshot, usually either a basket or a spiral grapple, firmly grips the pipe, allowing the lost fish to be pulled from the hole.



The use of a mixture of oxygen and acetylene in heating and joining two pieces of metal. When the weld edges of the two pieces are molten, metal from a welding rod is melted onto the molten puddle as the welder holds the tip of the rod in the flame of the torch. Oxygen and acetylene are used also in cutting through metal. The intense heat generated it the tip of the cutting torch (about 3,500"F) literally melts away the metal in the area touched by the flame See Welding Torch.



Ounce, unit of weight equal to 1/16 of a pound, 28.35 grammes


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3213. 3214.

P&A p-low

plugged and abandoned. (See plug and abandon.)

a notation of the amount of pressure generated on the drill stem when the mud pumps are run at some speed slower than the speed used when drilling ahead. A p-low or several p-lows are established for use when a kick is being circulated out of the wellbore.



Pounds per square inch absolute; pressure measurement which includes atmospheric pressure.

3216. 3217.

P.S.I.G. Pa pack off

Pounds per square inch gauge (as observed on a gauge).


to place a packer in the wellbore and activate it so it forms a seal between the tubing and casing.



A facility at a refinery where various refined products are put in cartons and boxes ready for shipment. Waxes, greases, and small-volume specialty oils are boxed in a package, plant.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


packed-hole assembly

a drill stem that consists of stabilizers and special drill collars and is used to maintain the proper angle and course of the hole. This assembly is often necessary in crooked-hole country.



a piece of downhole equipment, consisting of a sealing device, a holding or setting device, and an inside passage for fluids, used to block the flow of fluids through the annular space between the tubing and the wall of the wellbore by sealing off the space between them. It is usually made up in the tubing string some distance above the producing zone. A sealing element expands to prevent fluid flow except through the inside bore of the packer and into the tubing. Packers are classified according to configuration, use, and method of setting and whether or not they are retrievable (i.e., whether they can be removed when necessary, or whether they must be milled or drilled out and thus destroyed).


packer fluid

a liquid, usually mud but sometimes salt water or oil, used in a well when a packer is between the tubing and casing. Packer fluid must be heavy enough to shut off the pressure of the formation being produced, must not stiffen or settle out of suspension over long periods of time, and must be noncorrosive.



Any tough, pliable material-rubber or fiber-used to fill a chamber or "gland" around a moving rod or valve stem to prevent the escape of gas or liquid; any yielding material used to effect a pressure tight joint. Packing is held in place 458

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

and compressed against a moving part by a "follower," an adjustable element of the packing gland.

3224. 3225.

packing gland PALYNOLOGY

the metal part that compresses and holds packing in place in a stuffing box.

The science that deals with the study of five and fossil spores and with pollen grains and other microscopic plant structures. As palynology concerns oil prospecting, particularly stratigraphic problems, the science involves age dating rocks and determining the environment when sedimentary formations were laid down. This can be observed from well borehole cuttings, cores, and surface outcrop samples; also microscopic analysis of source rock samples and other basic geochemical studies.



a hydrocarbon having the formula CnH2n + 2 (methane, CH4; ethane, C2H6; etc.) Heavier paraffin hydrocarbons (i.e., those of C18H38 and heavier) form a waxlike substance that is called paraffin. Heavier paraffins often accumulate on the walls of tubing and other production equipment, restricting or stopping the flow of desirable lighter paraffins.

3227. 3228.

paraffin hydrocarbon paraffin inhibitor

(See paraffin.)

a chemical that, when injected -into the wellbore, prevents or minimizes paraffin deposition.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3229. 3230.
a solid

paraffin scraper paraffin wax
substance resembling beeswax but composed entirely of

any tool used to remove paraffin from inside tubular goods.

hydrocarbons. It is obtained from the crude wax that results from the solvent dewaxing or cold pressing of light paraffin distillates. The refined product is of relatively large crystalline structure, is white and brittle, and has little taste or odor.



Crude oil containing little or no asphalt materials; a good source of paraffin, quality motor lubricating oil, and high-grade kerosene; usually has lower nonhydrocarbon content than an asphalt-base crude.


paraffin-base oil

a crude oil characterized by a high API gravity, a high yield of lowoctane gasoline, and a high yield of lubricating oil with a high pour point and a high viscosity index. Popularly, and according to an early classification system, a paraffin-base oil is a crude oil containing little or no asphalt and whose residue from distillation contains paraffin wax. (Compare naphthene-base oil.)


paraffin-deposition interval

(PDI) the in. terval in the production tubing string where heavy paraffin hydrocarbons are deposited on the inside walls of the tubing. The interval is dependent on temperature; below or above certain temperatures, paraffin will not form.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Relatively conformable depositional units bounded by surfaces of marine flooding, surfaces that separate older strata from younger and show an increase in water depth in successively younger strata. Parasequences are usually too thin to discern on seismic data, but when added together, they form sets called parasequence sets that are visible on seismic data. See Also depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy, stratum


parted rods

sucker rods that have been broken and separated in a pumping well because of corrosion, improper loading, damaged rods, and so forth.



A type of joint venture between a host country and an international oil company holding concession rights in that country. Participation may be voluntary on the part of the oil company or as the result of coercion by the host country.

3237. 3238. 3239.


See Buy-back Crude Oil.

Minute particles of solid matter-cinders and fly ash-contained in stack gases.

Pa) an international system (SI) metric unit of pressure measurement. One pound per square inch (psi) of pressure equals approximately 6,894.757 pascals, and 1 kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm') of pressure equals approximately 98,066.5 Pa, or 98.07 kilopascals (kPa). 461

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

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a material used to cover, fill up, or mend a hole or weak spot. A metal piece extending" halfway around a pipe and wriddd



The subsurface, geological formation where a deposit of oil or gas is found in commercial quantities.



The recovery from production of the costs of drilling, completion, and equipping a well. Sometimes included in the costs is a prorata share of lease costs.

3243. 3244. 3245. 3246.

pay string PAY ZONE PB Pcf PCV PDI

the Production casing.

See Pay Horizon.

abbr plugged back; used in drilling reports.(see plug back)

3247. 3248.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (q.v.),

paraffin-deposition interval.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A liquefied natural gas plant that supplies gas to a gas pipeline system during peak-use periods. During slack periods the liquefied gas is stored. With the need for additional gas, the liquid product is gasified and fed into the gas pipeline.

3250. 3251.
rope fittings.

PEAPICKER Pelican hook

An inexperienced worker a green hand; boil weevil.

(nautical)a device releasable under tension that engages chain links and wire-

3252. 3253.

PEMEX pendant line

Petroleos Mexicanos, the state-owned Mexican oil company.

(nautical) a wire rope attached to an anchor and sometimes to the anchor chain and used to pull and lower the anchor. The ends of the pendant not on the anchor are attached to buoys on the surface of the Water.



A heavily weighted drill assembly using long drill collars and stabilizers to help control the drift from the vertical of the drill bit. The rationale for the weighted drill assembly is that. like a pendulum at rest, it will resist being moved from the vertical and will tend to drill a straighter hole.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

mzhelu@gmail. 3261. 3259.rotary drilling in which a special tool called a hammer drill is used in combination with a roller-cone bit.) perforated. 3256.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3255. used in drilling reports. Z. 3258. that fires electrically detonated bullets or shaped charges from the surface. Perforating is accomplished by lowering into the well a perforating gun. to pierce the casing wall and cement to provide holes through which formation fluids may enter or to provide holes in the casing so that materials may be introduced into the annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. 3260. Similar-grade crude oil is also found in West Virginia.com . perforate under-balanced to perforate the well with a column of fluid in the wellbore. 464 Petroleum Engineer: M. eastern Ohio. PENNSYLVANIA-GRADE CRUDE OIL Oil with characteristics similar to the crude oil Produced in Pennsylvania from which superior quality lubricating oils are made. 1 cable-tool drilling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or perforator. 2. Per Percussion drilling Permeability. used in drilling reports. and southern New York state. percussion drilling tool perf perforate (See hammer drill. 3257.

The gun. tail pipes. perforated liner perforated pipe a liner that has had holes shot in it by a perforating gun. PERFORATING GUN A special tool used downhole for shooting holes in the well's casing opposite the producting formation. Perforate/Perforating Piercing the casing and cement using shaped explosive charges to provide a flow path for formation fluids. (See gun-perforate. 3266. the sections of pipe (as casing liners.or jet-perforating guns.) 3263. 3265. When lowered into the well's casing on a wire line opposite the formation to be produced.) in which holes or slots have been cut before setting.com . the gun is fired electrically. 465 Petroleum Engineer: M. etc. Shooting steel bullets through the casing walls with a special downhole "gun" is a common method of perforating.mzhelu@gmail. has steel projectiles placed at intervals over its outer circumference. Perforations are usually made with bullet. Z. 3264. PERFORATING To make holes through the casing opposite the producing formation to allow the oil or gas to flow into the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. perpendicular to the gun's long axis. a steel tube of various lengths. shooting numerous holes in the casing which permit the oil or gas to flow into the casing. perforated completion a well completion in which the production casing or liner is punctured to allow passage between the wellbore and the producing formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3262.

PERMAFROST The permanently frozen layer of earth occurring at variable depths in the Arctic and other frigid regions. 3269. Also. 3273. and re-completion operations can be performed without removing the wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3267. 3272. PERFORATIONS. SHAPED-CHARGE period Of Pitch See Shaped-charge Perforation. and return to its lowest position.mzhelu@gmail.com . 3271. rise with the waves. guidelines are attached to it so that equipment (as the blowout preventers) may be guided into place on the wellhead. permanent completion a well completion in which production. permanent guide base a structure attached to and installed with the foundation pile when a well is drilled from an offshore drilling rig. period of roll the time required for a floating offshore drilling rig to roll from one side to the other and back. 466 Petroleum Engineer: M. workover. 3270. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3268. Z. the time required for the bow or stern of a floating offshore drilling rig to start at its lowest Position. Permeability The measure of a formation's ability to transmit fluids and/or gases. It is seated in the temporary guide base and serves as a wellhead housing.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Person-years personnel net The equivalent of one person working a full year. natural gas. an extension added to the handle of a wrench to increase the leverage. PETROCHEMICALS Chemicals derived from petroleum. PETROFRACTURING A process In which a mixture of oil. 3277. the science of synthesizing substances derived from crude oil. Z. 3278. chemicals.080 hours. feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of plastics and synthetic rubber. a chemical manufactured from petroleum and natural gas or from raw materials derived from petroleum and natural gas.com . PETROCHEMISTRY A word derived from petroleum and chemistry. This 467 Petroleum Engineer: M. on which personnel ride when being transferred from boat to rig on offshore locations. PERSUADER An oversized toot for a small job. PESA petrochemical Petroleum Equipment Suppliers' Association. 3276. 3275. 3280. and sand is pumped under high pressure into an oil-bearing formation penetrated by the well bore. and natural gas liquids. or 2.mzhelu@gmail. a net attached to a floatable ring. 3281. It is usually rigged to a crane. 3279.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3274.

In its broadest sense. the term embraces the whole spectrum of hydrocarbons-gaseous.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering produces cracks and fissures in the formation to improve the flow of oil. Processes have been developed for extracting the oil. Sandstone.mzhelu@gmail. shale. solid and semisolid bitumen. limestone. and solid. See Hydraulic Fracturing. 3282. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3286. STRATEGIC PETROLEUM ROCK See Naval Petroleum Reserves. 3287. PETROLEUM TAR SANDS Native asphalt. Z. referred to as synthetic crude. PETROLEUM RESERVES NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES. In the popular sense. 3284.com . and other porous rock formations where accumulations of oil and gas may be found. liquid. petrol PETROLEUM (British) gasoline. dolomite. 3285. 3283. See Strategic Petroleum Reserves. 468 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3288. petroliferous containing petroleum (of rocks). including oil-impregnated rock or sand from which oil is recoverable by special treatment. PETROLEUM SULFONATE FLOODING See Micellar-surfactant Flooding. petroleum means crude oil.

chemical composition. occurrence. 469 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3292.com . acid solutions are less than 7. and chemical composition of sedimentary rocks. PH (pH) A symbol used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from 0 to 14. history.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3289. 3293. or alkaline solutions are above 7. occurrence. pH value a unit of measure of the acid or alkaline condition of a substance. and from drill cores. structure. numbers less than 7. A neutral solution (as pure water) has a pH of 7. with 7 representing neutrality. 3291. history. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. SEDPAIENTARY A specialist in petrology. increasing alkalinity. structure. basic. and classification of rocks. greater than 7. increasing acidity.mzhelu@gmail. 3290. a substance with a pH of 9 is much more than twice as alkaline as a substance with a pH of 8. a substance with a pH of 4 is more than twice as acid as a substance with a pH of 5. PETROLOGY The science that deals with the origin. Z. Petrophysics Study of reservoir properties based on the data obtained from various logging tools and methods. also a specialist in the acoustical properties of rocks who often works with geophysicists in determining the presence of oil and gas in sedimentary formations. Similarly. PETROLOGIST. a geologist who studies the origin.

2. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYZER A device for detecting and analyzing the changes in properties and quantities of a plant's stack gases. Z. any portion of a nonhomogeneous system that is bounded by a surface. PIER A walkway-like structure built on piling out from shore. piercement dome 470 a mass of material. for example. a distance over the water for use 4 s a landing place or to tie up boats. 3296. a cylindrical or spherical device that is affixed to the end of a wireline just above the hook to keep the line straight and provide weight. 3300. 3298.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually salt. PHYSICAL DEPLETION The exhausting of a mineral deposit or a petroleum reservoir by extraction or 3297. and steam (gas). 3299. The three phases of HgO. through the use of electronic linkage. pi pickle pipeline. or variation has advanced. The analyzer. is homogeneous throughout. in physics. Petroleum Engineer: M. the stage or point in a cycle to which a rotation. water (liquid). oscillation. production. phase 1. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3294. 3295.mzhelu@gmail. a jetty. and may be mechanically separated from the other phases. automatically sounds a warning or effects changes in the stack emissions when they exceed predetermined levels. that rises and penetrates rock formations. are ice (solid).

v.mzhelu@gmail. Pigs or scrapers (q. 3302. pliable discs that fit the internal diameter of the pipe." the platform is constructed on shore and then floated and towed to location where it is "sunk" by flooding its compartments. Referred to as a "gravity structure. Z. PILELESS PLATFORM A concrete offshore drilling platform of sufficient weight to hold the structure firmly in position on the sea bottom. PIG A cylindrical device (three to seven feet long) inserted in a pipeline for the purpose of sweeping the line clean of water. pig iron PIG TRAP piggyback (slang) a piece of oil-filed equipment made of iron or steel. or other foreign matter. (nautical) to install anchors behind each other in tandem on the same 3305. rust." the pressure of the oil stream behind it pushes the pig along the line. Drilied-in piling 471 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3304.). mooring line. Some platforms of this type have oil storage facilities within the base of the structure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3301.) are made with tough. 3306. DRILLED-IN Piling that is inserted into holes drilled by special large-diameter bits. PILING. See Gravity Structure. thus forming a tight seal as they move along cleaning the pipe wails. also Tension-leg Platform.v. In this operation the piles are cemented in to achieve more stability. 3303.com . A scraper trap (q. When insertec in the line at a "trap. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

thus preventing the mill from bypassing the pipe. PILOT PLANT A small model of a future processing plant. Pillow tanks. 3307.v. p. are now in service at remote locations to store diesel fuel. the rubber pillows can be filled by tank truck or air shuttle. folded up and taken to another location. first used by the military to store fuel. See Drilling and Boiling Tool. The pilot.com . Z. 155) 3308. smaller in diameter than the mill. and when no longer needed they may be emptied. It guides the mill to the top of and centers it over the pipe. 3309. pilot mill a special mill that has a heavy.) with a tapered confer projection below the cutting surface of the bit to guide or pilot the bit into the open end of a piece of junk or a toot to be milled out downhole.) Petroleum Engineer: M. 3311. 3310. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PILLOW TANKS Pliable. tubular extension below it called a pilot or stinger. A type of junk mill (q. synthetic rubber and fabric fuel "tanks" that look like giant pillows. used to develop and test processes and operating techniques before investing in a full-scale plant. 3312. and tube oil until steel tankage can be erected. gasoline. (See illustration.mzhelu@gmail. PILOTMILL. Easily deplorable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is often used to secure platform jackets to the ocean floor. is designed to go inside drill pipe or tubing that is lost in the hole. pin pin packer 472 (See tool joint.

tubing.com . pinch-out a geological structure that forms a trap for oil and gas when a porous and permeable rock ends at or stops against an impervious formation.mzhelu@gmail. 3314.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a packer in which the packing element is held in position by brass or steel pins. or line pipe. the external diameter is the same for 473 Petroleum Engineer: M. threaded device made up on the bottom of drill pipe or tubing and used to screw into the box of a stand of drill pipe or drill collars lost in the hole. hollow cylinder. and drill pipe are designated by external-diameter. usually steel. Because lengths of pipe are joined by external-diameter couplings threaded by standard tools. pin tap a short. 3313. shearing the pins and allowing the element to fold and pack off. When weight is put on the packer. See Cracking a Valve. Casing.through which fluids are conducted. Thus. two metal sleeves telescope. an increase in the wall thickness can only be obtained by decreasing the internal diameter. Oilfield tubular goods are casing (including liners). the lost pipe can be retrieved. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Once the pin tap is engaged. pipe a long. 3316. drill pipe. 3317. tubing. 3315. pinch in to decrease the size of the opening of an adjustable choke when a kick is being circulated out of a well. PINCHING A VALVE Closing a valve part way to reduce the flow of liquid or gas through a pipeline.

tees. pipe dolly PIPE FITTER any device equipped with rollers and used to move drill pipe or collars. etc. 3323.) used for connecting lengths of pipe. 3321. 3318. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pipe fittings the auxiliary parts (as couplings. Z. 474 Petroleum Engineer: M. An "oil patch plumber" according to pipeliners who traditionally work with large-diameter pipe 3320.com . PIPE LAY BARGE PIPE MILL. elbows. PORTABLE See Lay Barge. It has a handle on one end and two semicircular pieces on the other end that are designed to fit under the shoulder of a joint of pipe and avoid damage as the pipe is lifted with the tool.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering all weights of the same size pipe. a circular device with a frictional gripping arrangement used to suspend casing and tubing in the well. pipe jack a hand tool used to lift and move a stand of pipe that is set back in the derrick. usually of small diameter. pipe hanger 1. One who installs and repairs piping. 3319. 3322. Grading depends on the yield strength of the steel. See Portable Pipe Mill. 3324. a device used to support a pipeline.mzhelu@gmail. crosses. Weight is expressed in pounds per foot. 2.

3331. a pneumatic or hydraulic device often used on drill ships that.mzhelu@gmail. handling. pipe rack pipe racker a horizontal support for tubular goods. Z. outlet. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. either picks up pipe from a rack and lifts it into the derrick or takes pipe from out of the derrick and places it on the rack. (obsolete) 1. 3326. pipe rams a sealing component for a blowout preventer that closes the annular space between the pipe and the blowout preventer or wellhead.It eliminates the need to stand pipe in the derrick while it is out of the hole. pipeyard press equipped with hydraulically powered mandrels for taking the kinks and bends out of pipe. upon command from an operator. 3329.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3325. PIPE SLING A stirrup-like sling made of heavy belting material used on the winch line of boom cats for lifting. pipe repair clamp pipe saddle a clamp used to make a temporary repair of a leak in a pipeline. 3328. 475 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. and lowering in of pipe. The replaceable mandrels come in all size 2" to 12". a worker who places pipe to one side in the derrick. 3327.com . Fabric slings are used to prevent scarring or damaging the pipelines protective coating. PIPE STRAIGHTENER A heavy. a fitting made in parts to clamp onto a pipe to stop a leak or provide an 3330.

PIPELINE DELUMPER A motor-driven chopping machine that is flanged Into a pipeline to break up any solid material that may have found its way into the fluid stream. oil. The electric motor furnishes power for the chopper blades.1 disappears-until the next pipeline job." held in a slot in the head. impermanent construction hand. 3337. 3336. used in laying a screw pipeline. The head (called the butt) is shaped like a parrot's beak and uses one corner of a square "tong key. usually buried in the earth or laid on the seafloor.mzhelu@gmail. PIPE TONGS Long-handled wrenches that grip the pipe with a scissors-like action. Delumpers are used for the most part on coal slurry pipelines. A hard-working. used to wipe off mud. 3335. 476 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3334. a boomer.com . or other liquid from the pipe as the pipe is pulled from the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pipeline connection the outlet from a well or tank by which oil or gas is transferred to a pipeline for transportation away from the field. that is used for transporting petroleum and natural gas. Z. pipe wiper a disk-shaped device with a hole in the center through which drill pipe or tubing passes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3332. experienced pipeline construction worker who stays on the job until is flanged up and the. to bite into the surface of the pipe in turning it. pipeline a system of connected lengths of pipe. PIPELINE CAT A tough. 3333.

the sea floor. PIPELINE PRORATIONING The refusal by a purchasing company or a pipeline to take more oil than 4 needs from the producer by limiting pipeline runs from the producer's lease an informal practice in the days of overproduction when market conditions 477 Petroleum Engineer: M. pipeline oil a crude oil whose BS& W content is low enough to make the oil acceptable for pipeline shipment. PIPELINE GAS Gas under sufficient pressure to enter the high-pressure gas lines of a purchaser. pipeline patrol a watch. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3343. butane. usually maintained from an airplane. PIPELINE GAUGER PIPELINE INSPECTION SPHERE 3340. A manned bathysphere for inspection of offshore pipelines or to investigate the underwater terrain.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3338. gas sufficiently dry so that liquid hydrocarbons-natural gasoline. The diving sphere is lowered to the sea floor by a boom and tackle extending from the deck of a work boat or diving tender equipped with support systems. to check the route of a pipeline for leaks or other abnormal conditions.mzhelu@gmail. for a proposed route for laying a pipeline.com . 3339. 3341. See Gauger. 3342. and other gas liquids-usually present in natural gas will not condense or drop out in the transmission lines.

See Spread. The line rider has been replaced by the pipeline. broadly. piston ring a yielding ring. costing and wrapping operators. 478 Petroleum Engineer: M. for short local lines. 3345. 3344. cat drivers. that surrounds a piston and maintains a tight fit inside a cylinder.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. by the pickup truck and the man on foot. 3348. (4) filler pass. maintenance.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering were unsatisfactory or when the pipeline system lacked storage space. piston a cylindrical sliding piece that is moved by or moves against fluid pressure within a confining cylindrical vessel. and operation of a pipeline system. connection men. anyone who is involved in the building. One who does pipeline construction or repair work welders. PIPELINE SPREAD PIPELINE WELDING 3346. (3) third pass or hot fill (for heavy-wall pipe). Also referred to as purchaser prorationing. the bevelled ends of two joints are brought together and aligned by clamps. Welders then lay on courses of weld metal called passes or beads designated as (1) stringer bead. PIPELINE RIDER One who covers a pipeline by horseback looking for leaks in the line or washed-out sections of the right of way. usually metal. ditching machine operators. (2) hot pass. In pipeline welding.mzhelu@gmail. and (5) final or capping pass. patrol using light planes or. 3347.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) (See Pit Volume Totalizer. PITCHER PUMP A small hand pump for very shallow water wells. 3350. Z. a metal shaft in a mud pump. a dark brown to black bituminous material found in natural beds. the alarm sounds to warn the driller that action may be necessary to prevent a blowout.com . also produced as a black. See Brea. one end of which is connected to the piston and the other to the pony rod. PVTs usually consist of float devices in the mud pits that sense mud-level data and transmit the data to a recording and alarm device mounted near the driller's position on the rig floor. 2. the pitcher pump is built on the order of the "old 479 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Asphalt. 3354. piston rod 1. a metal shaft that joins the piston to the crankshaft in an engine.mzhelu@gmail. pit-level indicator pit-level recorder PITCH (See Pit Volume Totalizer. If the mud level in the pits drops too low or rises too high. cast-iron cream pitcher. Looking much like a large. Pit Volume Totalizer (PVT)a trade name for a series of devices that continuously monitor the level of the drilling mud in the mud pits. heavy residue in oil refining.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3349. 3355. PIT LINERS Specially formulated plastic sheeting for lining earthen or leaking concrete pits to prevent seepage of oil or water into the ground. 3352. 3351. 3353.

See Anode. crater-like holes or pits. used in drilling reports. which is directly related to the rate of flow. packer.com . used in measuring the velocity head of a flowing medium.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering town pump" with one exception. Z. 3358. Pitot-tube meter a meter that uses a Pitot tube and a manometer or other differential-pressure mechanism to measure flowing fluids. 3360. pitman the arm that connects the crank to the walking beam on a pumping unit by means of which rotary motion is converted to reciprocating motion. The difference between the pressure on the Pitot tube and the static pressure is the velocity head of the flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3357. Pitot tube an open-ended tube arranged to face against the current of a stream of fluid. 3361. Water is pumped by the suction created by a leather cup and valve arrangement in the throat or lower body of the pump together with a foot valve 20 feet or so down in the tubing. also Rectifier Bed. 480 Petroleum Engineer: M. The pitcher pump's handle. pk pkr pink. used in drilling reports. does not have a string of pump rods attached. working on a fulcrum.mzhelu@gmail. 3359. 3356. A simple and elegantly fundamental pumping machine. PITTING (OF PIPE) Line pipe corroded in such a manner as to cause the surface to be covered with minute.

a graduated wheel and disk indicate the area encompassed. PLANT OPERATOR An employee who runs plant equipment. planimeter an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure. Z. 481 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. plastic squeezing the procedure by which a quantity of resinous material is squeezed into a sandy formation to consolidate the sand and prevent its flowing into the well. The resinous material is hardened by the addition of special chemicals which creates a porous mass that permits oil to flow into the well but holds back the sand at the same time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3362. plasticity the ability of a substance to be deformed without rupturing. As the point on a tracing arm is passed along the outline of a figure. (See sand consolidation. and keeps the necessary operating records. makes minor adjustments and repairs. See Turbulent Flow. PLASTIC FLOW The flow of liquid (through a pipeline) in which the liquid moves as a column. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .) 3366. 3363. 3364. flowing as a river with the center of the stream moving at a greater rate than the edges which are retarded by the friction of the banks (or pipe wall). 3365. plastic viscosity an absolute flow property indicating the flow resistance of certain types of fluids. 3367. Plastic viscosity is a measure of shearing stress.

3374. used on offshore platforms. produced. a support that is firmly secured to the ocean floor and to which the legs of a platform are anchored. an assembly of control and production valves. PLAT BOOK A book containing maps of land plots arranged according to Township and Range for counties within a state. PLATFORMATE High-octane gasoline blending stock produced in a catalytic reforming unit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3368. PLATFORM BURNER platform jacket See Forced-draft Burner. PLAT A map of land plots laid out according to surveys made by a Government Land Office showing section. and range. 3370. 482 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. 3371.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. or both.v. 3369.com . commonly known as a platformer (q. Z. 3372. platform an immobile offshore structure constructed on pilings from which wells are drilled. township. a grid-like representation of land areas showing their relationship to other areas in a state or county. PLATFORM TREE A production Christmas tree (q. 3373. through which wells are produced. See Plat.) on an offshore platform.

an offshore. Some offshore drilling and production platforms are provided with plenums as a safety measure. submerged manifold connected to the shore by-pipelines that serve a tanker loading station of the multibuoy mooring type (q. The line is set in accordance with local and international rules for safety of life at sea. 3380. 3376. PLENUM A room or enclosed area where the atmosphere is maintained at a pres. 3377. play PLEM the extent of a petroleum-bearing formation.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a refinery unit that produces high-octane blending stock for manufacture of gasoline. 3379.mzhelu@gmail. PLATFORMER A catalytic reforming unit which converts low-quality straight-chain paraffins or naphthenes to low-boiling.v. Pipeline-end manifold.). Z. sure greater than the outside air. 3378. branched-chain paraffins or aromatics of higher octane. Central control rooms at refineries are usually kept at pressures of a few ounces above the surrounding atmosphere to prevent potentially explosive gases from seeping into the building and being ignited by electrical equipment.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3375. Plimsoll mark a mark placed on the side of a floating offshore drilling rig or ship denoting the maximum depth to which it may be loaded or ballasted. PLUG 483 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Acoustic Plenum.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering To fill a well's borehole with cement or other Impervious material to prevent the flow of water. or drill pipe.mzhelu@gmail. 3381. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. wells were often improperly plugged or left open. tubing. In the industry's early years. 484 Petroleum Engineer: M. sidetrack. or oil from one strata to another when a well is abandoned to screw a metal plug into a pipeline to shut off drainage or to divert the stream of oil to a connecting line. PLUGGING A WELL To fill up the borehole of an abandoned well with mud and cement to prevent the flow of water or oil from one to another or to the surface. to place cement in or near the bottom of a well to exclude bottom water.com . plug and abandon plug back (P&A) to place a cement plug into a dry hole and abandon it.) a fluid moving as a unit in which all shear stress occurs at the pipe wall. 3386. to stop the flow of oil or gas. 3385. a stop. or produce from a formation already drilled through. 3383. plug container plug flow PLUG VALVE (See cementing head. Z. A type of quick-opening pipeline valve constructed with a central core or "plug. Plugging back also can be accomplished by a mechanical plug set by wireline. 3382." The valve can be opened or closed with one-quarter turn of the plug. 3384. gas.

3387. 3388. (See hydraulic control pod.). moving forward and backward or up and down in cylinders.mzhelu@gmail. 3391. hoists. 3389. p od POGO PLAN 3392. pumps. 3393. etc. 485 Petroleum Engineer: M. draw in a volume of liquid and. push the fluid out into a discharge line.com .) A reciprocating pump in which plungers or pistons. as a valve closes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) A plan for financing oil and gas exploration developed for off shore exploration. The form of the plan is usually corporate. Plugging material a substance used to temporarily or permanently block off zones while treating or working on other portions of the well. Several pneumatic controls are used on drilling rigs to actuate rig components (as clutches. pneumatic control a control valve that is actuated by air. Z. plunger PLUNGER PUMP (See sucker-rod pump. engines. the investors receiving shares of stock in the corporation and other securities. Air injection pneumatic hoist.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Modern practice requires that an abandoned well be properly and securely plugged. 3390.

3395. polar compound a compound (as water) with a molecule that behaves as a small bar magnet with a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3394. Double-pole masts give added strength and stability. He is the "brains" of the crew as he keeps his men pulling and "hitting" in unison and In time with the other tong crews working on the same joint of screw pipe. that is telescoped together to be moved or extended and locked to obtain maximum height above a well. Z. 3398. POINT MAN The member of a pipeline tong crew who handles the tips (the points) of heavy pipe-laying tongs. 3397. pole mast a portable mast constructed of tubular members. (p) the viscosity of a liquid in which a force of 1 dyne (a unit of measurement of small amounts of force) exerted tangentially on a surface of 1 cm' of either of two parallel planes 1 cm apart will move one plane at the rate of 1 cm per second in reference to the other plane with the space between the two planes filled with the liquid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .mzhelu@gmail. A pole mast may be a single pole. usually of two different sizes. 486 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3396. point-reaction force poise a force that counteracts another force at a single point.

PONTOONS The elements of a floating roof tank that provide buoyance. polymerization is used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stock from cracked gases. used for lifting fluid by the rodpumping method. plastic house wares. It has a uniform diameter and is smoothly polished to effectively seal pressure in the stuffing box attached to the top of a well. 3404. and toys. polymer mud a drilling mud to which has been added a polymer. airtight. 3403. 3402.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3399. pony rod (1). (2). the union of light olefins to form hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight. the rod joined to the connecting rod and piston rod in a mud pump.com . The main ingredient of polyethylene is the petrochemical gas ethylene. a sucker rod less than 25 ft long. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. a chemical that consists of large molecules that were formed from small molecules in repeating structural units. 3401. metal tanks that float on the fluid and support the moveable deck structure of the roof. to increase the viscosity of the mud. 3400. 487 Petroleum Engineer: M. POLYETHYLENE A petroleum-derived plastic material used for packaging. polished rod the topmost portion of a string of sucker rods. POLYMERIZATION A refining process of combining two or more molecules to form a single heavier molecule.

portion of a producing reservoir.com . to do something on a shoestring.) a spring-loaded safety valve that opens automatically when pressure exceeds the limits for which the valve is set. to make do. resulting in a parcel of "land large enough for the granting of a well permit under applicable spacing regulations. PONYRODS Sucker rod made in short lengths of 2' to 8' for use in making up a string of pumping rods of the correct length to connect Vie polished rod of the pumping jack. It also is called a relief valve or a safety valve.). 3408. Unitization describes a joint of all or some significant.v.). Pony rods are screwed Into the top of the string just below the polished rod (q. POOLS. POOL POOLING 3407. contiguous tracts.mzhelu@gmail. (See put on the pump. It is used as a safety device on pressurized vessels and other equipment to prevent damage from excessive pressure. 3409. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 3406.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3405. 3410. homemade. Pooling is often erroneously used for unitization (q. putting on the pump. 488 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. used in drilling reports. See Oil Pool. 3411. SALT-DOME/SALT-PLUG poor boy POP pop valve See Salt-dome Pools. The bringing together of small.

a super. After the liquid hydrocarbons were extracted. substandard. oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. POP-OFF VALVE popcorn POPPET VALVE See Relief Valve.) A cylindrical steel drum with steel bristles protruding from the surface. A type of check valve installed in a riser or a downhole packer to prevent fluid from rising vertically in the pipe or the well bore. 3418. p or PORCUPINE porosity or pores. 3413.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3412. the gas was "wasted" as there was no ready market for it. 3415. unsafe. 3414. A spring-loaded vertical valve that permits downward flow as fluid pressure opens the valve. Z. especially with respect to sour gas and casinghead gas. or all three). pore an opening or space within a rock or mass of rock. 3417. gas. usually small and often filled with some fluid (as water. 489 Petroleum Engineer: M. POPPING The discharge of natural gas into the atmosphere. 3416. pipe-cleaning pig for swabbing a sediment-laden pipeline. used in drilling reports. or cheap. a common practice in the 1920s and 1930s.mzhelu@gmail. (See pore. Compare vug. Pressure from below moving upward is blocked by the valve's clapper held shut by spring tension.

portland cement position-reference system (See cement. the volume of the pore space expressed as a percent of the total volume of the rock mass. And with good permeability (q.).) any system or method by which surveillance is maintained on the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead. a well penetrating the formation should be a producer. 3421. POROSITY The state or quality of being porous. and strung out behind the machine as it moves forward.v. the quality of a rock that allows liquids to flow through it readily. welds. an important property of oil-bearing formations. The pipe is made from rolls of sheet steel (skelp) shaped into a cylindrical form. 3424. PORTABLE PIPE MILL Avery large. Good porosity indicates an ability to hold large amounts of oil in the rock. self-propelled "factory on wheels" that forms. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . electric welded.) 3422. 3420. the rig should always be directly over the wellhead to minimize wear on subsea 490 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3423. (See telescoping derrick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3419. Z. and lays fine pipe in end continuous operation.mzhelu@gmail. port portable mast (nautical) the left side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow). a mast mounted on a truck and capable of being erected as a single unit. Ideally. tested.

are directed into the intake manifold and from there they mix with the gasoline to be burned. 3427. positive choke a choke in which the orifice size must be changed to change the rate of flow through the choke. 491 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. a metal box under a truck bed that holds pipeline repair tools. (See acoustic position reference and taut-line position-reference system. a plunger or rotary pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The displacement of a fixed volume of fluid may be accomplished by reciprocating or oscillating pistons. POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP A pump that or moves a measured volume of liquid on each stroke or revolution a pump with no significant slippage. The emissions-oil and unburned gasoline vapors. positive-displacement meter a mechanical. 3428.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering equipment and facilitate operations involved with the equipment.) 3425.mzhelu@gmail. 3426. POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM A system installed on automobiles manufactured after 1968 to reduce emissions from the engine's crankcase. also known as a volume meter or voltmeter. a receiving tank situated at the end of the mud-return line. by rotating vanes or buckets. The flow of mud comes into the bottom of the device and travels over baffles to control mud flow over the shale shaker. fluid-measuring device that measures by filling and emptying chambers of a specific volume. possum belly 1. by nutating disks. 2. or by using tanks or other vessels that automatically fill and empty.com .

) 3434. POTS (PUMP VALVE) pounds per cubic foot pounds per gallon pounds per square inch See Valve Pots.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3429. (ppg. Once literally posted in the field. 3430. the maximum volume of oil or gas that a well is capable of producing. square. lblgal) a measure of the density of a fluid (as drilling mud). POSSUM BELLY A metal box built underneath a truck bed to hold pipeline repair tools shove's. chains. 3433.mzhelu@gmail. 3431. 3435. posthole digger posthole well potential (slang) a small or makeshift drilling rig. 3432. pcf) a measure of the density or weight of drilling fluid. (slang) a relatively shallow well. tongs. bars. POSTED PRICE The price an oil purchaser would pay for crude oil of a certain API gravity and from a particular field or area. (psi) an English measure of the amount of pressure on an area that is 1 in. Z. 3436. 3437. (lb/ft'. and wrenches. 492 Petroleum Engineer: M. potential test a test of the rate at which a well can produce oil or gas.com . (See potential. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

or casing in a well in lieu of a rotary. so that a column of 10-ppg mud that is 1.52 psi/ft. a measure of the amount of pressure. 3443. 3441. For example. pounds per square inch per foot (psi/ft) n.) a hydraulically powered device used to turn the drill pipe. also Drilling Rig.com . 3442. the lowest temperature at which an oil will flow. as drilling mud. pour point a temperature 5 F above that temperature at which an oil is solid. 3445.) power slips (See slips. 3440. (See mechanical rig. DRILLING RIG power takeoff See Drilling Rig.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3438. tubing. that a column of fluid. See Central Power. Mechanical. in pounds per square inch.. (See pressure gradient. exerts for every foot of length at the bottom of the column.) 3439. POUR-POINT DEPRESSANT POWER power rig power sub A chemical agent added to oil to keep it flowing at low temperatures. POWER SYSTEMS. Z. 10-ppg mud exerts 0. (PTO) a gearbox or other device serving to relay the power of a prime mover to auxiliary equipment. 493 Petroleum Engineer: M.000 ft long exerts 520 psi at the bottom of the column. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Electric. 3444.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Conventional tongs are operated by a mechanical pull provided by a jerk line connected to a cathead. pozzolans reduce slurry weight and viscosity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3446. Most mud pumps have double-acting pistons. 3449. pozzolan a natural or artificial siliceous material commonly added to portland cement mixtures to impart certain desirable properties. ultimate strength. 3450. tubing. operated through cranks and connecting rods by power supplied to its crankshaft from an electric motor or internal-combustion engine. 494 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Added to oil-well cements. It is usually a duplex (with two cylinders) but may be triplex (with three cylinders). or casing to which the torque is provided by air or fluid pressure. power-driven mud pump a reciprocating pump for circulating drilling fluids. 3448. but some have single-acting pistons that function.com . as plungers. casing or tubinq. and influence factors such as pumping time. POWERTONGS An air or hydraulically powered mechanism for making up and breaking out joints of drillpipe. increase resistance to sulfate attack. Z. and watertightness. After a joint is stabbed. 3447. pozzolan-cement mixture a mixture of pozzolan and cement. the power tongs are latched onto the pipe which is screwed in and tightened to a predetermined torque. power tongs a wrench that is used to make up or break out drill pipe.

Parts per million (of water)LBS-H20/MMSCF. pozzolanic reaction 1. 3453.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3451. 3452. pozzolan-lime reaction the reaction between pozzolans and lime in the presence of water. a pozzolan-lime reaction. PRAIRIE-DOG PLANT A small. 3455.000 barrels a day) set up at a remote drilling site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment such as a light-plant engine . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ppg ppm PPM/VOL PPM/WT pounds per gallon. 3456. the reaction between a pozzolan and any other material used to form a cementation product. parts per million. forming a cementitious material primarily composed of hydrated calcium silicates. Z. Parts per million (of water) in a given weight of gas. 2. welding unit. etc. basic refinery located in a remote area. 495 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.com . used to express water content in a small amount of gas. a "distillation system" (q. temporary refinery (200 to 1.mzhelu@gmail. See also LBS-H2O/MMSCF 3457. 3454.) which is very small.

3462. For example. 3461. 3459.. a diaphragm. pressure drop a loss of pressure as a fluid passes from an area of small volume to an area of larger volume. a weighted piston. 3460. Z. the pressure gradient of a column 496 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In the U. Compare overflush. 3463. pressure the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface (as that exerted against the inner wall of a container or piping system by a fluid or that exerted on a wellhead by a column of gas in the well).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3458. preignition a condition in an internal-combustion engine characterized by a knocking sound and caused by the fuel-air mixture having been ignited too soon because of an abnormal condition. pressure gauge an instrument for measuring ]fluid pressure that usually registers the difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the fluid by indicating the effect of such pressures on a measuring element (as a column of liquid. Pre-flush the quantity of fluid used ahead of the acid solution pumped into a well in an acid-stimulation treatment.S.com . sometimes called spearhead. or other pressuresensitive device). a Bourdon tube.mzhelu@gmail. resulting from friction. pressure gradient a scale of pressure differences in which there is a uniform variation of pressure from point to point. pressure is usually expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).

usually early in the life of the field. earth lifting. usually occurring because the fluid is moving against the surface.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of water is about 0. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.51 kPa/m). 3464. 0.79 kPa/m). 2.mzhelu@gmail.v. It is sometimes called breaking or cracking the formation. 3466. pressure maintenance a method for increasing ultimate oil recovery by injecting gas.).. to reduce or eliminate a decline in pressure. water. 3465. Pressure losses occur as the fluid is circulated. PRESSURE SNUBBER A pulsation dampener (q. pressure loss 1.com .e. or other fluids into the reservoir before reservoir pressure has dropped appreciably. The normal pressure gradient in a well is equivalent to the pressure exerted at any given depth by a column of 10 percent salt water extending from that depth to the surface (i. a reduction in the amount of force a fluid exerts against a surface. 497 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. or formation fracturing. the amount of pressure indicated by a drill-pipe pressure gauge when drilling fluid is being circulated by the mud pump. pressure parting a phenomenon in which a rock formation is caused to be broken apart along bedding planes or in which natural cracks are widened by the application of hydraulic pressure. 3467.465 psi/ft or 10.433 psi/ft of vertical elevation (9.

has a wall thickness greater than that of the usual storage tank. primary cementing the cementing operation that takes place immediately after the casing has been run into the hole. or pop valve. analysis pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3468. 3471. and temperatures to determine the characteristics and behavior of the fluid. and temperature (PVT) an examination of reservoir fluids in a laboratory under various pressures. 3469. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. safety valve. preventer preventive maintenance (See blowout preventer. pressure storage tank a storage tank constructed to withstand pressure generated by the vapors inside. volumes. also called a relief valve. volume. 3472.com .mzhelu@gmail. Such a tank is often spherical. 3470. 3474. pressure vessel any container designed to contain fluids at a pressure substantially greater than atmospheric. 3473. pressure-relief valve a valve that opens at a preset pressure to relieve excessive pressures within a vessel or line. used to provide a protective sheath around the 498 Petroleum Engineer: M. and has a concave or convex top.) a system of conducting regular checks and testing of equipment to permit replacement or repair of weakened or faulty parts before failure of the equipment results.

3476. or the interest in the property reverts automatically to the lessor or landowner. in the oil field it refers to engines and electric motors. the power source. Prime mover is also applied to large four-wheel-drive trucks or tractors. PROCESSING PLATFORM PROCESSS TEAM A production platform (q.. Of the energy used in the U. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PRIVATE BRAND DEALER A gasoline dealer who does not buy gasoline from a "major" supplier.mzhelu@gmail. the lease must be renewed.com .) 3475. 3480. (See secondary cementing and squeeze cementing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering casing. primary recovery oil production in which only existing natural energy sources in the reservoir provide for movement of the well fluids to the wellbore. Z. PRIMARY TERM The period of time an oil and gas lease is to run or be valid.v.S. PRIME MOVER The term describes any source of motion. but retails under the t>rand name of an independent supplier or his own brand name. a large 499 Petroleum Engineer: M. When a lease's primary term expires. if possible. 3477. also Delay Rental. to segregate the producing formation.) Steam produced in a refinery's or chemical plant's boilers to heat a process stream or for use in a refining process. See Or Lease. and to prevent the migration of undesirable fluids. 3478. 3479.

End product gas gas resulting from a special manufacturing process. Z. 3482.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering percentage is consumed in the production of process steam. 3481.com . high-pressure steam.! an angle from the vertical away from the platform. When the wells are completed. producing zone Producing/Production PRODUCT GAS the zone or formation from which oil or gas is produced. it is pumped into a salt water disposal well. 3483. 3485. the drilling equipment is removed and the platform is given over to operation of the producing wells. natural gas. When water and oil are mixed in the production stream they go into a gun barrel or other type of oil/water separator. synthetic 500 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Flowing oil and/or gas from a well to the production systems.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as many as 60 wells are drilled from a singer large platform by slanting the hole P. the water to an evaporation pit or. The oil goes to the lease tanks. Petrochemical plants are important users of superheated. PRODUCED WATER Salt water produced from the oil from a well. (See pay sand. 3484. in offshore operations. where there are large volumes of water. PRODUCING PLATFORM An offshore structure with a platform raised above the water to support a number of producing wells.

i.3%. 2. 3488.e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3486. needless to say. jet fuel and kerosene. these product percentages can be changed depending upon market demand. Product lubricated equipment. production casing the last string of casing or liner that is set in a well. The pump is constructed with channels and wells that I ill with product and in which the bearings or other moving parts run. gas oil and distillates. 3490. the phase of the petroleum industry that deals with bringing the well fluids to the surface and separating them and with storing. PRODUCT YIELD (AVERAGE) From a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil the average yield is as follows gasoline. 49.. residual fuel oil.6%. the amount of oil or gas produced in a given period. PRODUCT IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to a refiner or marketer to import products from abroad. inside of which is usually suspended the tubing string. lubricating oils.com . 9. 6. 7. handles only clean liquids. and otherwise preparing the product for the pipeline. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3487.mzhelu@gmail.2%. With modern-day refining methods. PRODUCT LUBRICATED Describes a pump whose bearings are lubricated by the liquid it is pumping.3%.6%. 3489. various kinds of oils with lubricating qualities. production 1. other products.0%. (See oil string and long string. 21.) 501 Petroleum Engineer: M. gauging. 6.

com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 502 Petroleum Engineer: M. close to shore. To pay off the loan the operator "carves out" a royalty payment to the lending institution from his seveneighths working interest. an island can be landscaped to hide the pumping wells and other equipment from view. the islands are less offensive to the esthetic eye. PRODUCTION PAYMENT LOAN A loan that is to be repaid out of the production of a well or a lease. PRODUCTION ISLAND An island made by dredging up material from the bottom of a lake or the ocean bottom to support one or more producing wells.mzhelu@gmail. 3492. It is a common practice in the oil country to borrow money on a producing well to finance further Development of a lease. Also. PRODUCTION PACKER An expandable plug-like device for sealing off the annular space between the well's tubing and the caning. And with a lower profile. and are usually cheaper to build than steel production platforms. The production packer is ran as part of the packer is mechanically or hydraulically expanded and "set" firmly against the casing wall isolating the production formation from the upper casing while permitting the oil or gas to flow up the tubing. See Carved-Out Interest. a spinner survey. also Overriding Royalty.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3491. 3494. Z. This overriding royalty conveyed to the bank or other lender is free and clear of any costs of production or maintenance. 3493. Production islands are constructed in shallow water. production log a well-logging method that measures and records the flow of fluid past an indicating device placed at varying depths in a producing or injection well.

separating. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pump. Z. pits. The production string is the longest and smallest diameter casing run in a well. See Production Platform.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3495. production rig a portable servicing or workover outfit. 503 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3496. A well-servicing unit consists of a hoist and engine mounted on a wheeled chassis with a self-erecting mast. and begins its function of receiving. and pumping the oil and gas to shore stations. The production platform supports receiving tanks. 3497. PRODUCTION STRING The casing set just above or through the producing zone of a well. storing. and other auxiliaries to permit handling and working a drill string.com . PRODUCTION PLATFORM An offshore structure built for the purpose of providing a central receiving point for oil produced in an area of the offshore. A workover rig is basically the same. treaters. separators. usually mounted on wheels and selfpropelled. It reaches from the pay zone to the surface. PRODUCTION SKID A prefabricated oil and gas production unit assembled on a base or skid on the shore and transported to an offshore platform by one or more derrick barges. plus a substructure with rotary. treating. 3498.mzhelu@gmail. and pumping units for moving the oil to shore through a submarine pipeline. After the skid has been lifted into position and secured to the platform it is connected to the flow lines of the offshore wells it is to serve.

productivity index (PI) a well-test measurement indicative of the amount of oil or gas a well is capable of producing. also referred to as a flow tank or lease tank. 3501. Z. products line PROFIT-SHARING BIDS a pipeline used to ship refined products. It may be expressed as PI= __Q_______ 3504. In some 504 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3500. An arrangement of heavy duty valves and fittings installed on the wellhead to control flow from the well and/or to facilitate injection operations. PRODUCTION TAX Production Tree See Gross Production Tax. production tank a tank used in the Field to receive crude oil as it comes from the well. 3502. products cycle the sequence or order in which a number of different products are batched through a pipeline. gas. 3506. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 3505.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3499. Production Well A well drilled and completed for the purpose of producing crude oil or natural 3503. A type of bidding for federal and sometimes state oil leases in which a relatively small cash bonus is paid for the lease acreage plus a share in the net profits should the lease prove to be commercially productive.com .

3509. 505 Petroleum Engineer: M. or other miniature pellets suspended in the fracturing fluid that are forced into the formation and remain to prop open the cracks and crevices permitting the oil to flow more freely. Lead Operator. Project Sands The Proponents term for those reservoir zones that they recognize as having sufficient gas volumes and producibility to form the basis of the production forecast.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering instances bidders have offered a 75 to 90 percent share in net profits for an especially promising parcel. C&Ha. beads. 3511. This type of bidding substantially reduces the front-end cost for an operator but extends the payout time for his wells. It is a constituent of LPG.) Material used in hydraulic fracturing (q. Z.) for holding open the cracks made in the formation by the extremely high pressure applied in the treatment. Mobil Oil Canada Properties.v. 3508. proppant PROPPANTS (See propping agent.com .mzhelu@gmail. 3510. propane a parafrin hydrocarbon. Proponents The parties proposing to carry out SOEP. Shell Canada Limited. specifically. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Imperial Oil Resources Limited and Nova Scotia Resources Limited. 3507. the sand grains. that is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. Joint Operator.

and gravity studies that are privately owned. 3514. Z.mzhelu@gmail. propping agent a granular substance (as sand grains. land and offshore reconnaissance surveys from seismic. 3515. 3516. PROPRIETARY DATA Information on subsurface. or other material) carried in suspension by the fracturing fluid that serves to keep the cracks open when the fracturing fluid is withdrawn after a fracture treatment. walnut shells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3512.) 506 Petroleum Engineer: M. and from fields to leases. geological formations gathered or purchased from a supplier of such data by an operator and kept secret. PRORATIONING Restriction of oil and gas production by a state regulatory commission. usually on the basis of market demand. and then allocated to individual wells. protection casing a string of casing set to protect a section of the hole and to permit drilling to continue to a greater depth. 3513.com . proration a system enforced by a state or federal agency or by agreement between operators that limits the amount of petroleum that can be produced from a well or field within a given period. Prorationing involves allowables which are assigned to fields. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. inter mediate casing. (See intermediate casing string.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pounds per square inch per foot. 3524. pounds per square inch absolute. 3523. 3519. 3521. Z. a calibration tank. 3520. is the static bottomhole pressure (psi).mzhelu@gmail. a small. psig pounds per square inch gauge. prove prover tank Ps . 3518. Q is the rate of production (b/d). 3522. Psig is the pressure in a vessel or container as registered on a pressure gauge attached to the container.Pf to determine the accuracy of a petroleum measurement meter. PROTECTIVE STRING A string of casing used in very deep wells and run on the inside of the outermost casing to protect against the collapsing of the outer string from high gas pressure encountered. 507 Petroleum Engineer: M. Psia is equal to the gauge pressure plus the pressure of the atmosphere at that point.com . psi Psi/ft psia pounds per square inch. where PI is the productivity index (b/d per psi of pressure differential). P. and Pf is flowing bottom-hole pressure (psi).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3517. mobile tank used to check the accuracy of meters.

v.mzhelu@gmail. Stripped threads. 1. 3532. the agitation of cement slurry in molds with a rod to remove trapped air bubbles. PTO puddling power takeoff. 3528. 3533. pull a well pull casing pull it green PULL ONE GREEN In to collapse a derrick. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in cement evaluation work. 3527. 3530.) Shackle rod (q. to pull a bit from the hole for replacement before it is greatly worn. in field practice. 3526. pull out PULL ROD PULLEDTHREADS (See come out of the hole. 2. 3529. threads on pipe or tubing damaged beyond use by too much torque or force used in making up the joint. to remove casing from a well. To pull a drill bit from the hole before it is worn out to pull a bit before it is 3531.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3525. necessary. Z. the reciprocation or rotation of the casing during or after a primary cementing operation.com .). 508 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3534. PULLING TOOLS Taking the drillpipe and bit out of the hole. It exerts a strong upward pull on the fish by hydraulic power derived from fluid that is pumped down the fishing string. Rods must also be pulled when they have parted downhole.v. PULLING THE CASING Removing the casing from the hole after abandoning the well. the lower section must first be reprieved with a "fishing tool" (q. 3536. See Doubles.mzhelu@gmail. 3539. It is rare that all the casing can be removed from the hole. 3535.com . The rods above the break are pulled in a normal manner. the drillpipe is unscrewed in two or three-joint sections (stands) and stacked in the derrick.) 509 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. Often part of the string must be cut off and left in the hole. Prior to plugging the well with mud and cement. Z. 3537. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pulling tool a hydraulically operated tool that is run in above the fishing tool and anchored to the casing by slips. pulling unit a well-servicing outfit used in pulling rods and tubing from the well. PULLING MACHINE PULLING RODS A pulling unit (q. 3538. The operation of removing the pumping or sucker rods from a well in the course of bringing up the bottom-hole pump for repairs or replacement. If the tools are to be run again (put back in the hole).). (See production rig.). as much of the casing as can be pulled is retrieved.

3541. rhythmic surges in pressure that occur when fluid is pumped by reciprocating pumps. submersible pump.) are installed on discharge instrument from the incessant pounding fine-mesh sleve-like disks are placed in the small tubing or piping to which the gauge is attached this arrangement "filters out" much of the surging which can damage delicate gauges. On such pumps air chambers (q. pump barrel the cylinder or liner in which the plunger of a sucker-rod pump reciprocates. centrifugal pump. rotary pump.v. residual oil saturation. 3544. pump a device that increases the pressure on a fluid or raises it to a higher level. 3545. and bottom-hole pump. 3542.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3540.mzhelu@gmail.com . (See sucker-rod pump and working barrel. PULLIROD LINE pulsation dampener See Shackle Rod. Various types of pumps include the reciprocating pump. jet pump. 3543. pulsed-neutron survey a special. PULSPATION DAMPENER Various devices for absorbing the transient. hydraulic pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 510 Petroleum Engineer: M. and fluid contacts in the formation outside the casing of an oil well. chambered device that minimizes periodic increases and decreases in pressure (as from a mud pump). any gas. Z.or liquid-charged. sucker-rod pump. casedhole logging method that uses radioactivity reaction time to obtain measurements of water saturation. mud pump.

3547. A pump with 511 Petroleum Engineer: M. Usually several pump jacks are operated by pull rods or cables from one central power source. 3552. Z. pump house a building that houses the pumps. and in some pumps they provide a method of conveniently changing the displacement and capacity of the pumps. Liners are an inexpensive means of replacing worn cylinder surfaces. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3551.mzhelu@gmail. metallic section that forms the working barrel of some reciprocating pumps. pump manifold an arrangement of valves and piping that permits a choice in the direction of routing of suction and discharge fluids between two or more pumps. and control panels at a pipeline gathering station or trunk station. pump liner a cylindrical. accurately machined.com . 3549. a pump must be installed at the proper depth in the fluid. 3550. pump off to pump (a well) so that the fluid level drops below the standing valve of the pump and it stops working. pump jack a surface unit similar to a pumping unit but having no individual power plant. engines. 3548. pump pressure PUMP SPECIFICATIONS fluid pressure arising from the action of a pump A plunger pump designated as 6 x 12 duplex is a two-cylinder pump whose cylinders are 6 inches in diameter with a stroke of 12 inches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3546. To prevent pumping off.

Oil is discharged from the pump into the casing and out the wellhead. 3554.) 3555. DUPLEX A two-cylinder reciprocating plunger pump.v. 3556. 3557. DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP. (See standing valve and traveling valve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering replaceable liners (cylinders) may carry a specifications plate that reads 4. PUMP. 512 Petroleum Engineer: M. a packer (q. Z. and other equipment to route and maintain the flow of oil. 3553. This pump can be fitted with liners and pistons from 4 inches to 6 inches in diameter. pump valve any of the valves on a reciprocating pump (as the suction and discharge valves) or on a sucker-rod pump (as a ball-and-scat valve). DOUBLE-DISPLACEMENT See Double-Acting Pump.mzhelu@gmail.) on top or bottom of the pump barrel provides packoff or seal between the pump and the wall of the casing at any desired depth. A casing pump is run into the well on the sucker rods. PUMP. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PUMP. CASING A sucker-rod pump designed to pump oil up through the casing instead of the more common method of pumping through tubing. A type of downhole rod pump which has plungers placed In tandem and operated simultaneously by the pump rods.com . its stroke is 10 inches.6 x 10. pumps. 3558. pump station an installation built at intervals along an oil pipeline to contain storage tanks.

like other rotary pumps. at high pressures. they mesh in a rolling action like an old-fashioned clothes wringer. The locking device is a hold-down. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. rotary pump for handling viscous or abrasive liquids. and powered by an electric motor. PUMP. The pumping element is an Archimedes screw housed in a sturdy. POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP. metal-to-metal seal. cylindrical body. SCREW An oil well pump operated by a shackle-rod line. See Rocker.com . 3561. PUMP. the pump is locked to the tubing to permit relative motion between plunger and barrel. When rotated on their shafts in the pump housing. and consists either of cups or a mechanical.. ROD-LINE PUMP. 3563.mzhelu@gmail. a pumping jack. fluid is taken in the suction port and forced out the discharge port. plunger. often of high viscosity. and standing valve are assembled and lowered into the well through the tubing. When lowered to its pumping position. Z. As the gears rotate. 3560.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3559. PUMP. Gear pumps. 3562. 513 Petroleum Engineer: M. efficiently handle small volumes of fluid. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel. A small-volume. GEAR A type of rotary pump made with two sets of meshing gears. ROD See Positive-displacement Pump.

PUMP. Simplex pumps are simple. pumpability the physical characteristic of a cement slurry that determines its ability to be 514 Petroleum Engineer: M. as the name implies. The barrel is installed on the bottom of the string of tubing and is run into the well on the tubing string.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3564. 3566.mzhelu@gmail. Submersible pumps are run by electricity and. 3567.com . operated by rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TUBING See Triplex Pump. PUMP. 3565. pumped. instead of the plunger reciprocating in the barrel as in more conventional pumping devices. SIMPLEX A one-cylinder steam pump used in refineries and processing plants where extra or excess steam is available. PUMP. PUMP. directacting pumps with the steam piston connected directly to the pump's fluid plunger. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel of the pump is an integral part of the tubing string. The plunger assembly is lowered into the pump barrel on the string of pump rods. TRIPLEX PUMP. TRAVELING-BARREL A downhole pump. 3568. SUBMERSIBLJ A bottom-hole pump for use in an oil well when a large volume of fluid is to be lifted. Z. 3569. operate below the fluid level in the well. in which the barrel moves up and down over the plunger.

3571. testing. usually a beam arrangement driven by a crank attached to a speed reducer. CRANK-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its counterweights on the two cranks that flank the unit's gear box. 3574. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PUMPING UNIT. the walking beam on this type unit is short and is not used as a balancing member. The polished rod works through a stuffing box on top of the tee and in the run of the tee to operate a sucker-rod pump in the well. 3572. He supervises any number of wells. Pumped fluid is discharged through the side opening of the tee. He is also called a switcher or lease operator. The weights are usually in the form of heavy iron plates added to the walking beam until they balance the pull or weight of the string of pumping rods. and so forth. BEAM-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its well-balancing weights on the walking beam on the end opposite the pump rods. Z. preparing reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3570. 3573. 515 Petroleum Engineer: M. pumping unit the machine that imparts reciprocating motion to a string of sucker rods extending to the positive-displacement pump at the bottom of a well.com . The string of pump rods is balanced by adding sufficient extra iron weights to the heavy cranks. pumper the oil company employee who attends to producing wells.mzhelu@gmail. gauging. PUMPING UNIT. ensuring steady production. pumping tee a heavy-duty steel. T-shaped pipe fitting that is screwed or flanged to the top of a pumping well.

small-volume plunger pump actuated by the to-and-fro motion of a shackle-rod line and an attached counterweight. PUMPING. The hook up is such that the load on one well counterbalances. 3581. from the bottom of the well to the tubing hanger in the wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3575. Short sections of well tubing made to American Petroleum Institute standards. API a length of drill pipe. 3579. 3580. Made at the pipe mill under controlled conditions. A single-barrel. PURCHASER PRORATIONING PURIP. pusher PUSHER. 3576. the upstroke load of the other well. also Gang Pusher. The jerker pumps on the pull stroke of the rod fine. Z. See also Central Power. 3577. Jerkers pump small volumes but can buck high pressure. pup joint PUP JOINTS. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tubing. Petroleum Engineer: M.) See Tool Pusher. or casing shorter than 30 ft. BACKSIDE An arrangement that permits one prime mover (electric or engine) to operate two pumping wells.com .mzhelu@gmail. Pup joints come in different lengths to make up a string of tubing of the proper length. the short joints are of the same quality as the rest of the tubing. 3578. TOOL 516 (See tool pusher. JERKER See Pipeline Prorationing. it takes in fluid (the suction stroke) as the counterweight pulls the plunger back from the pumping stroke.

PVC Polyvinylchloride. (See pressure. an instrument for measuring temperatures. petroleum-derived plastic that can be extruded or molded and is used for pipe. durable. light structural members. volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and temperature analysis). PVT 1. See Kerogen and Kerogen Shales.volume. 3588. to install a pump jack or pumping unit.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3582.. put a well on put on the pump to start a well flowing or pumping. especially above the range of mercury thermometers (e. pressure. fittings. and bottomhole pump in 3584. and temperature analysts. a tough. and temperature. 3585. a well.g. the exhaust temperature of an engine).com . PVT analysis PYROBITUMEN pyrometer pressure. 3586. 517 Petroleum Engineer: M. sucker rods. 3587. 3583. volume. Pit Volume Totalizer. PVC is highly resistant to salt water and chemicals. 2. Z.


used in drilling reports. ball valve. Qtz Qtze Quad Quarter-tjrnvalve quartz. which is used as a thinning agent for drilling mud. A valve made with a plug or Sphere with a full-bore opening on the horizontal axis that can be opened or Closed with a quarter or 90'c. Turn of the handle. quartzite. or butterfly valve. 3593. 3594.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Quartz a hard mineral composed of silicon dioxide. 3595. 519 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3591. 3590. 3592. Z. Quench to rapidly cool heat-treated metal by immersion in an oil or water bath. Quebracho a south american tree that is a source of tannin extract.com . and sedimentary rocks. A butterfly valve with its disk that rotates on a shaft or trunion in the valve body also is opened and closed with a quarter turn of the handle. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3589.000 trillion. A plug valve. Short for quadrillio 1. a common component in igneous metamorphic.

remise.mzhelu@gmail.v. . Z. To release. The key phrase of a quitclaim is " . hot metal. title.com . An instrument or document releasing a certain interest in land owned by a grantor at the time the agreement takes effect. and interest in the following described land. Quicklime Quitclaim unslaked lime (calcium oxide).) Used in steel mills to cool 3597. 3598. Quench oil A specially refined oil with a high flash point (q." 520 Petroleum Engineer: M. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3596. and forever quitclaim all right. Chemical symbol is cao.

521 Petroleum Engineer: M. cash and carry at the refinery's loading dock. See pig. The price of petroleum products at the refinery loading rack. 2. See also tubing board.o. 3604. 3602. At the refinery. Z. (see rankine temperature scale. water and to test for obstructions. where the derrick man Stands when racking tubing being pulled from the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3600. See pilot plant. Rabbit A plug put through lease flow fines for the purpose of clearing the lines of foreign matter. 3601. 3605.com . often used to denote a function up to the stage where the commercial potential of a process or technology can be Evaluated. To stand pipe on the derrick floor when coming out of the hole.mzhelu@gmail.) Research and development. Radial flow the flow of fluids into a wellbore from the surrounding drainage area. with the customer picking up pipeline or other transportation charges. Racking board A platform high in the derrick. Rack pipe 1. To place pipe withdrawn from the hole on a pipe rack. Rack pricing Selling to petroleum jobbers or other resellers at f. on well-service rigs. R R&d degrees rankine.b. 3603.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3599.

Radioactivity log a record of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations. a radioactive material (often carnotite) put into a well to allow observation of fluid or gas movements by means of a tracer survey. Radioactivity the property possessed by some substances (as radium. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or thorium) of releasing alpha panicles. 3607. Radioactivity well logging the recording of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations. Radiation logging Radiator (see radioactivity well log gang. uranium. 3608.) an arrangement of pipes containing a circulating fluid used for heating an external object or cooling an internal substance by radiation. beta particles. or gamma particles as the substance spontaneously disintegrates. 3609. 3611. The two logs may be run simultaneously in conjunction with a collar locator in a cased or uncased hole. Z. (see radioactivity well logging. 522 Petroleum Engineer: M. Radioactive Radioactive tracer exhibiting radioactivity. Both indicate the types of rocks in the formation and the types of fluids contained in the rocks. A radioactivity log. also known as a radiation log.) 3612.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3606. 3610. normally consists of two recorded curves a gamma-ray curve and a neutron curve.mzhelu@gmail.com .

Rainbow (1) the irridescence (blues."just a rainbow on a bucket of water. 523 Petroleum Engineer: M. pipe. Blind rams. raffinate is that portion of the oil being treated that remains undissolved and is not removed by the selective solvent. or shear-may be installed in several preventers mounted in a stack on top of the wellbore. permitting the upper section to be removed from the bop stack. Z. A closure mechanism on well's blowout preventer stack fitted with chisel like jaws that are hydraulically operated. 3616. shear rams cut through drill pipe and then form a seal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. greens.com . When the ram is closed on the Pipe the jaws or blades cut the pipe. One -of three type-sblind. Raffinate In solvent-refining practice. seal around the pipe. form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it. pipe rams. and reds) imparted to the surface of water by a thin film of crude oil.mzhelu@gmail. Ram the closing and scaling component on a blowout preventer. 3617. when closed." 3615. 3618. (2) the only evidence of oil from an unsuccessful well. 3614. Ram blowout preventer a blowout preventer that uses rams to seal off pressure on a hole that is with or without pipe. when closed. Ram preventer Ram.shear ram blowout periventer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3613. It is also called a ram preventer.

Range oil Rankine temperature scale Kerosene-type product used in old kerosene stoves or cooking ranges.60' and boils at 671. (3) in 524 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 3624. Range length a grouping of pipe lengths. water freezes at 491. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rat hole (1) a slanted hole drilled near the well's borehole to hold the kelly joint when not in use. before running the fishing tool. a temperature scale with the degree interval of the fahrenheit scale and the zero point at absolute zero. On the rankine scale. (see absolute temperature scale. 3620. (2) the section of the borehole that is purposely deviated from the vertical by the use of a whipstock (q.69'. to reduce the size of the box or collar on the lost tool.) 3622. 3621. The kelly is unscrewed from the drillstring and lowered into the rat hole as a pistol into a scabbard.v.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3619. (2) production in accordance with allowables set by a state regulatory commission. Rasp a mill used in fishing operations. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Api designation of range lengths are as follows- Range of stability the maximum angle to which a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig may be inclined and still be returned to its original upright position. 3623. Ratable take (1) production of oil and/or gas in such quantities that each landowner whose property overlies a producing formation will be able to recover an equitable share of the oil and/or gas originally in place beneath his land.

3627. 3625. The length to be added is placed in the rathole. lined with casing that projects above the floor. Gas straight from the well before the extraction of the liquefied hydrocarbons (gasoline.v. 525 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rate of penetration (ROP) a measure of the speed at which the bit drills into formations. wet gas. A hole in the rig floor 30 to 35 ft deep. pulled out of the rathole.) And common purchasers of gas and oil are prohibited from discriminating in favor of one supplier over another.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering some states.mzhelu@gmail. made up to the kelly. to reduce the size of the wellbore and drill ahead. 2. Raw crude Raw gas a crude oil before it is refined. Rathole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. 3630. into which the kelly and swivel are placed when hoisting operations are in progress. 3629. usually expressed in feet per hour. Rathole 1. common carriers (q.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. butane). and made up into the string. 3628. Raw gasoline gasoline extracted from wet natural gas. A hole of a diameter smaller than the main hole that is drilled in the bottom of the main hole. 3626. Z.

Reboiler A refinery heater that reheats or reboils a part of a process stream drawn off a distilling column and then is reintroduced to the column as a vapor.v. Raw mix A stream of mixed components butane.) Reclaimed oil (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3637.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3631. 3633. 3636. 3634. to enlarge the wellbore by drilling it again with a special bit. and others. Z.mzhelu@gmail.). a milling tool used to cut the casing downhole. 3632. Reamers are run on the drillstring and are built with cutting blades or wheels that can be expanded against the walls of the hole. See field butanes. 526 Petroleum Engineer: M. Reaming An operation to restore a wellbore to its original diameter (occasionally. Rdx Re-refined oil Ream (see cyclonite. hexane. the product of gas processing plants that is sent on to fractionating plants for the separation of the various components. Reamer A toot used to enlarge or straighten a borehole. 3635. propane.com . Reboiling is a process of reworking a part of the charge in a distilling column to ensure more complete fractionating. Often a rathole is reamed or opened to the same size as the main wellbore. a wellbore will cave in).

v. Reciprocating pumps are used extensively in the field and at refineries for moving crude oil and products. after a period of service. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Reciprocation a back-and-forth movement (as the movement of a piston in an engine or 3642. a type of compressor that has a mechanism functioning as a check valve to separate the high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction. Reciprocating pump A pump with cylinders and pistons or plungers for moving liquids through a pipeline a plunger pump (q. and sold for reuse. 3641. The pistons or plungers move forward and backward alternately drawing in fluid into the cylinders through the suction valves and discharging the liquid through discharge valves into a pipeline. re-refined. 527 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rec Reciprocating compressor recovered. Large volumes of oils as are moved in trunk or main lines are pumped with large high-speed centrifugal pumps (q.mzhelu@gmail. Z. a positive displacement compressor. pump).). 3639. 3640. Reciprocating compressors are used extensively in the transmission of natural gas through pipelines.com . Reclaimed oil Lubricating oil which. used in drilling reports.).v. They handle relatively small volumes but do so at high pressures.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3638. is collected.

Recovery factor the percentage of oil or gas in place in a reservoir that ultimately can be withdrawn by primary and/or secondary techniques.com . produced. Recording gauge a device that provides a chronological record of gauge indications (as by tracing values of pressure. 3647. voltage) on a paper form. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3644. Metal corrosion is a chemical action which produces minute quantities of current that normally flows away from the metal into the ground. vacuum. Recovery the total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated to be produced from a well or field. It is driven by a clockwork mechanism. Recoverable Reserves That part of the hydrocarbon volumes in a reservoir that can be economically 3645. the rectifier installation converts the ac to dc (direct current) and allows the dc to flow into the metal to be protected.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3643. Using a source of ac electric current. the percentage of the oil or gas in place (expressed in stock-tank barrels or in thousands of cubic feet) that will ultimately be recovered. Hibited. Rectifier bed A source of electric current for protection against corrosion of pipelines. 3646. By reversing the flow of electric current.mzhelu@gmail. Z. tanks. and other metal installations buried or in contract with the earth. 528 Petroleum Engineer: M. the corrosion is in.

3 3652. 3650.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3648.com . Reducing crude towers its api gravity. especially one of the permian or triassic age. 529 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3655. Red bed a layer of sedimentary rock that is predominantly red. Red-lime mud a clay. water-base mud containing caustic soda and tannates to which lime has been added. 3654. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Recycling (gas) Injecting gas back into a formation to maintain reservoir pressure so as to produce a larger percentage of oil from the formation. 3656. Reducing flange Reducing nipple a flange fitting used to join pipes of different diameters. a pipe fitting that is threaded on both ends and decreases in diameter from one end to the other. 3649. Z. Reducing elbow a fitting that makes an angle between two joints of pipe and that decreases in diameter from one end to the other.mzhelu@gmail. Reduced crude oil Crude oil that has undergone at least one distillation process to separate some of the lighter hydrocarbons. Reducing tee a t-shaped pipe fitting with openings of two different sizes. 3653.

made up of the skeletal remains of animals. The tubing is inserted in the well through the wellhead valves and is used basically for i rushing out the well and reestablishing a circulating path. and paid out over the stern of the barge in the manner of a hawser. Reentry To reestablish contact with the well's borehole in offshore waters. 3662.mzhelu@gmail. run through straightening mandrels inspected. Reel barge A pipe-laying barge equipped with a gigantic reel on which fine pipe up to 12 inches in diameter is spooled at a shore station. To lay the pipe.com . requiring pressure maintenance techniques to sustain production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3658. it is unspooled. Reef reservoirs are often characterized by high initial production which falls off rapidly. 3659. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is the standard of viscosity measurement in great britain. after having moved off location because of weather or other reasons halting Drilling operations. Redwood viscosity a unit of viscosity measurement obtained when using a redwood viscometer. expressed in seconds. usually limestone. Reef A type of reservoir trap composed of rocks. 3660. Reeled tubing A well-service tool used in well workovers. 3661. A notable example of reentering was that of the deep Sea drilling program by the scripps institution of oceanography when the crew of 530 Petroleum Engineer: M. The one-inch or so flexible tubing is carried on a larger spool mounted on a specially equipped truck.

531 Petroleum Engineer: M. the physical plant and attendant equipment used in the process of refining. and ethylene) not found in natural gas.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the drillship glomar challenger reentered the hole nine times while drilling in 14. butylene. Reeve to pass (as the end of a rope) through a hole or opening in a block or similar 3664. Reeve the line to string a wire-rope drilling line through the sheaves of the traveling and crown blocks to the hoisting drum. but it consists essentially of the same paraffin hydrocarbons as natural gas plus olefins (as propylene. See acoustic reentry. Refine Refiner-marketer Refinery Refinery gas to manufacture petroleum products from crude oil. and/or heating oils who operates his own refinery. Reeving a line To string up a tubing or other line in preparation for hoisting. to run a fine from the winch up and over a sheave in the crown block and down to the derrick floor 3666. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. device. 3665. 3668. Z.mzhelu@gmail. A marketer of gasoline. the gas produced from certain petroleum refinery operations (as cracking or reforming). The composition of refinery gas varies in accordance with the process by which it is produced. 3667. 3663. 3669.000 feet of water in the atlantic.

3671.com .100 f. Registered breadth the width of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig or a ship measured at its points of greatest width and used to determine its registered tonnage. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. such a midget "distillation system" can be trucked to a remote drilling site and can supply fuel for diesel drilling engines and gasoline for auxiliary equipment. Z.) 532 Petroleum Engineer: M. causing the oxidation of the carbon leaving the catalyst clean and regenerated. Is mixed with the spent catalyst.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3670. Regenerator A refinery vessel into which inactive or spent catalyst is pumped to egenerate it. to burn off the coating of carbon or coke. 3673. 3674. Regular cement (see common cement. For example. Refinery. basic r(@fining unit that is transportable by lowboy trailer to locations where low-grade or straight-run gasoline and diesel fuel are needed and a source of crude oil is available. Reforming processes The use of heat and catalysts to effect the rearrangement of certain of the hydrocarbon molecules without altering their composition appreciably. 3672.mzhelu@gmail. skid-mounted A small. the conversion of low-octane gasoline fractions into higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished gasoline also the conversion of naphthas to obtain more volatile product or higher octane number. Air at a temperature of 1.

Relative permeability the effective permeability divided by the absolute permeability. At absolute humidity) at a given temperature and pressure. Z. Relative humidity the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount it would contain if completely saturated (i. its ability to vaporize. 3679. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). 3676. the specific designation. Reid vapor pressure A measure of volatility of a fuel. is named after the man who designed the test apparatus for measuring vapor pressure (q.e.. 3681. released oil could be sold at free market prices.v. 3677.mzhelu@gmail. 3680. Reid vapor pressure. Release a statement filed by the lessee of an oil and gas lease indicating that the lease has been relinquished. released oil is old oil production equal to any volume of new oil produced.com . Released oil Under the emergency petroleum allocation act of 1973. Regulator a device that reduces the pressure or volume of a fluid flowing in a line and maintains the pressure or volume at a specified rate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3675. Relief valve 533 (see pressure-relief valve. When a rock is saturated with more than one fluid. Unlike old oil.) Petroleum Engineer: M. relative permeability is used to express the permeability of the rock to each fluid. 3678.

v. that is manipulated to control the amount of drilling fluid being circulated out through the choke manifold. and so forth at a point distant from where the indications are actually taken. Relief well A directional well drilled near an out-of-control or burning well to kill the well by flooding the formation with water or drilling mud. delay Payment of a sum of money by lessee to the lessor to delay the drilling of a 3687. well. voltage. Repeater station An electronic installation. 3685. Remote choke panel a set of controls. usually placed on the rig floor. In some instances more than one relief well is drilled to reduce the flow of the blowing well. a well drilled as close as possible or prudent to an out-of-control well and into the same formation in order to vent off or relieve the flowing pressure of the blowout so that the wild well may be brought under control. vacuum.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3682. 3684. Part of a surveillance and control system for offshore or other remote production operations. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Remote bop panel a set of controls used to open and close the blowout preventers. This procedure is necessary when a kick is being circulated out of a well. 534 Petroleum Engineer: M.). Remote reading gauge an instrument that provides indications of pressure. Rental. 3683. placed some distance away from the rig so that they can be operated without personnel present on the rig floor. Z. 3686. A killer well (q.com .

Reserve buoyancy the buoyancy above the waterline that keeps a floating vessel upright or seaworthy when the vessel is subjected to wind. See service well.mzhelu@gmail. Repressure to increase or maintain reservoir pressure by injecting a pressurized fluid (as air. a reservoir.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3688. for maintaining reservoir pressure. 3689. and other forces of nature or when the vessel is subjected to accidental flooding. 3691. a standby pit containing already-mixed drilling mud for use in an emergency when extra mud is needed. 3693. Reserves pl the unproduced but recoverable oil or gas in place in a formation that has been proved by production. 535 Petroleum Engineer: M. Repressuring operation The injection of fluid into a reservoir whose pressure has been largely depleted by producing wells in the field. See recycling (gas). currents. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. Repressure gas Gas purchased for injection into an underground formation. 3690. Reserve pit An excavation connected to the working mud pits of a drilling well to hold excess or reserve drilling mud. This secondary recovery technique used to increase the reservoir pressure in order to recover additional quantities of oil. gas. waves. 3692.com . or water) to effect greater ultimate recovery.

Reservoir modeler A reservoir engineer or geologist who. In a 536 Petroleum Engineer: M. and rock samples. Z. 3696. thermal recovery of oil. test-hole findings. changes in gas-oil ratios. for example.com . The hydrostatic pressure exerted by a column of oil 5. It is equal to the shut in pressure (at the wellhead) plus the weight in pounds of the column of oil in the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3694. By various means. It is necessary also in projects such as water-flooding. simulates petroleum reservoirs. cores.000 feet high. Reservoir engineer A petroleum engineer. a structural trap. This is accomplished with inferences based on an assumed continuity of the data in hand. would be several thousand pounds. rates of production.v. 3697. gas and water encroachment. Reservoir A porous. The work of the reservoir modeler is important in producing a field at the maximum efficient rate (mer) (q. and feasibility of secondary and tertiary recovery programs.). a stratigraphic trip (q. seismic information. Using data from wells in the area. Reservoir pressure The pressure at the face of the producing formation when the well is shut in.). permeable sedimentary rock formation containing quantities of oil and/or gas enclosed or surrounded by layers of less permeable or impervious rock. the modeler projects and expands his information beyond what is known and provable into 'he realm of the conjectural. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 3695. and hydraulic fracturing.v. one who advises production people on matters relating to petroleum reservoirs estimating and determining effects of reservoir pressure drops.

formed cons ago. 3700. the reservoir pressure would be sufficient to overcome the pressure of the hydrostatic head. limestone and other permeable formations into which petroleum. See tail gas.) A term used to describe oils that are "leftovers" in various refining processes. pressure is reduced. allowing the gas to expand and provide the driving energy. 537 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. (see residuals.mzhelu@gmail. water-drive Reservoir-drive mechanism See water-drive reservoir. Residue gas Gas that remains after processing in a separator or a plant to remove liquids contained in the gas when produced. 3701. Gas drives depend on the fact that. 3702. Reservoir rocks Sandstone. 3704. 3698. 3699. 3703.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering flowing well. migrated and accumulated in reservoirs. the natural energy by which reservoir fluids are caused to flow out of the reservoir rock and into a wellbore. Water-drive reservoirs depend on water pressure to force the hydrocarbons out of the reservoir and into the wellbore. Reservoir. Resid market Residual fuel Residuals The market for residual oils black oils market. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. heavy black oils used in ships boilers and in heating plants. as the reservoir is produced.

3706. (see cementing materials. etc. Resistivity the electrical resistance offered to the passage of current. black.) That is used to prolong the thickening. or into the open hole around the shoe. sodium tannate. lime.) 538 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. setting. and portland cement that provides an improved cement bond. Retarded cement a cement in which the thickening time is extended by adding a chemical 3710. the opposite of an accelerator. Residuum What is left after crude oil been refined to extinction. or hardening time of oil-well cements. The "bottom of the barrel. 3709. retarder.com . water.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3705. a heavy. tar-like substance remaining after all useable fractions have been distilled off. Z. because its high cost prohibits its use for routine cementing of casing. 3707. It is used to close off the annular space between tubing or drill pipe and casing to allow the placement of cement or fluid through the tubing or drill pipe at any predetermined point behind the casing or liner. around the shoe. It is mainly used in remedial operations. conductivity. Resin cement an oil-well cement composed of resins. Retainer a cast-iron or magnesium drillable tool consisting of a packing assembly and a back-pressure valve." literally. Retarder a chemical compound (as gypsum. the opposite of 3708.

.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3711. or increased safety. 3713. Retractable bit a bit that can be changed by wireline operations without withdrawing the drill string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. but its practicability is undetermined. . the formation rock is "wet" by the condensate which is then not as recoverable as when it was in a gaseous state. 3714. Some hydrocarbons exist naturally above their critical temperature in the reservoir.g. they condense to form a liquid. Z. To retro (go back) and i it or make a change or refinement in the original item of equipment or plant. 539 Petroleum Engineer: M. instead of expanding to form a gas. Retrograde gas condensate A liquid hydrocarbon (condensate) formed in deep formations as the reservoir pressure is reduced through production of natural gas.. Lewis gas plant was retrofitted with automation ." After years of hand operation the plant was modernized and made more efficient. As the pressure is reduced. item of equipment.mzhelu@gmail. Retrograde condensation in reservoir mechanics. Hence the term "retrograde gas condensate. when pressure is decreased. "the ft. the gas condenses to form a liquid instead of the usual pattern of liquid changing to gas. the formation of liquid droplets in a gas as the well is produced and the pressure drops. or operating plant something new for the sake of efficiency. Field tests have indicated its economic feasibility. as a result. e. better performance. ." As liquefaction occurs. 3712.com . Retrofitting To modify or add to an engine.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3715. and so forth that circulate up the hole to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. the solvent (water) diffuses through the manmade membrane leaving the salt and other contaminants behind. Most oil-field emulsions consist of water dispersed in oil.com . and through ports in the sides of the basket the drilling mud is jetted to the bottom of the hole and back into the open end of the tool. Returns Reverse circulation pl the mud. 3720. cuttings. A junk basket (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the diffusion through a semipermeable membrane of a solvent leaving behind the solute or dissolved substance. 3719. 3718. In reverse osmosis. Z. just above the junk to be retrieved. Reverse osmosis A process used in the industry for removing salt and other contaminants from water. A technique used in fishing for "junk" in the bottom of the well's borehole.) Is lowered into the hole. 3717. Return bend a u-shaped section of piping that connects two other pipes parallel to each 3716. A ball is then pumped down to cause the drilling fluid 540 Petroleum Engineer: M. other. The process uses the phenomenon of osmosis. washing the junk back up into the junk basket. Reverse emulsion a relatively rare oil-field emulsion composed of globules of oil dispersed in water.v. Reverse-circulation junk basket a special junk basket that is lowered into the hole to a position over the junk with normal circulation.

See doodle bug. Propane.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to exit through nozzles in the tool so that reverse circulation occurs and creates a vacuum inside the tool so that the junk is sucked into it. i. Rhaboomacy Rheology The "science" of divination by rods.. engineers. etc. A high resolution down hole logging tool which records reservoir pressures at multiple points in a well and may on occasion be configured to obtain several small samples of gas. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. wands. 3723.e. cleaning out an accumulation of sand and silt from the bottom of the well. Rich gas Natural gas containing significant amounts of liquefiable hydrocarbons. if conditions warrant. of special importance to mud 3726. Reverse-pressure perforating Reworking a well (see perforate under-balanced.).) To restore production where it has fallen off substantially or ceased altogether.com . Wet gas. RFT Repeat Formation Tester. 3722. 541 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3725. 3724. the well may be hydraulically fractured to open new cracks and fissures in the formation. Casinghead gasoline. is detonated in the bottom of the hole. Or. oil and/or other fluids over a reservoir interval. the study of the flow of gases and liquids. a squib shot (q. A small charge of nitroglycerine.. In addition to removing or washing out sand and silt accumulations.mzhelu@gmail. butane.v. And switches. 3721.

bolts. (1) a drilling rig (q. 3729.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3727. One who Rig manager supervises all aspects of offshore rig operation. Rig floor the area immediately around the rotary table and extending to each corner of the derrick or mast. rotary table.com . 3731. (2) originally. Z. are much 542 Petroleum Engineer: M. and the adz to fit the wood to his pattern. (2) a large tractor-trailer.mzhelu@gmail. Rich oil Rich-oil demethanizer Rig a lean oil that has absorbed heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas. a person who built derricks on the spot out of rig timbers and lumber on which he used crosscut saws. Steel derricks are erected by bolting parts together. augers. (rod) a vessel used in gas-processing plants to remove methane from rich oil. 3733. guy wires.). and so forth rest. 3732. Rig irons pl the metal parts (with the exceptions of nails.v. hammers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and sand lines) used in the construction of the standard cable-tool rig. Rig builder (1) a person whose job is to build or (in a modern context) to assemble a derrick. the area immediately above the substructure on which the drawworks. 3728. 3730. Large semisubmersibles anchored miles at sea with hundreds of workers. axes.

somisubmersibles. 3735. roughcut timbers used in the trade by rig builders when derricks were built rather than assembled. with the rotary and its pipe-turning mechanism on top of the first joint of drillpipe 30 feet or so up in the a-frame. 3736. The rig manager is the resident boss of this floating microcosm. and other pertinent information. A push-down rig has a conventional mud system. drilling engines. heavy. The register. drillships. push-down A drilling rig which is a modification of rigs used by the mining industry and for drilling water wells. or other heavy equipment. was introduced by the petroleum engineer magazine. but the rig is practical only for drilling holes 10 about 3. The drillpipe is supported within an a-frame. It is kept current and lists the vessel's or platform's depth capability. Z.com . 3737. Rig. equipment. the pipe is pushed downward hydraulically until the first joint is in the hole and the rotary is at floor level. 543 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rig register A roster of offshore drilling equipment-jackups. whether self-propelled or towed. As the drillpipe and bit are rotated. 3734. platforms. A second joint is then added and the rotary is raised to the top to turn and push down on the second joint. Large-dimension wooden beams used to support the derrick.mzhelu@gmail.500 feet in relatively soft formations. Rig superintendent Rig timbers a tool pusher. tenders and drilling barges-deployed around the world. a modern jane's fighting ships as it were.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering like a small town engaged in drilling a well in hundreds of feet of water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3738. To prepare to move the drilling rig and associated tools and equipment to another location or to storage. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. government agency representatives for permission to lay a pipeline through their property or 544 Petroleum Engineer: M. lay the derrick down (a jackknife or other portable rig). fill the mud pits. and fittings on hand. municipal authorities. See dress up crew. Right-of-way man A person who contacts landowners. to get all equipment in place ready to make hole dig the cellar and mud pits. Right-of-way a strip of land usually 50 to 80 ft wide on which permission has been granted by the landowner to construct a pipeline. reeve the lines. tubular goods. rams. to stack the tools. Z. and other obstructions from the right Of way. 3741. Right-of-way gang A work crew that clears brush. and load up the pipe and fittings and other equipment ready for transport to another well site. 3742. connect the lines of the mud system and set auxiliary equipment. timber. The crew also installs access gates in fenced property. Rig.mzhelu@gmail. Also have necessary bits. 3743. 3739. Valves. 3740. set engines and pumps. ss class 2000 Rig-down See ss class 2000 rig. disconnect the engines. set up the derrick. to disassemble the mud system. Rig-up To make preparations to drill.com .

in which heat required in upsetting causes the heated end to have a different grain structure from the rest of the pipe. and highways from the proper authorities. It occurs in a ring a few inches from the upset. The riser consists of several sections of pipe and includes special devices to compensate for any movement of the drilling rig caused by waves. He also arranges for permits to cross navigable waterways.com . Riser (1) a pipe through which liquid or gas flows upward. See marine riser system. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. railroads. jackup. fixed platform. A riser pipe serves as a guide for the drill stem from the drilling vessel to the wellhead and as a conductor of drilling fluid from the well to the vessel. Cause of ringworm corrosion his been traced to the upsetting process. or drillship. and the drilling equipment. 3 3745. Riser pipe the pipe and special fittings used on floating offshore drilling rigs to establish a seal between the top of the wellbore. It is also called marine riser. a riser is the casing extending from the drilling platform through the water to the sea bed through which drilling is done. (2) in offshore drilling by semisubmersible.mzhelu@gmail. which is on the ocean floor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the political subdivision.) a form of corrosion sometimes found in the tubing of condensate wells. located above the surface of the water. Z. 3746. 3747. Ring Ringworm corrosion (see piston ring. 545 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3748. Normalizing prevents this condition.

mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports. a small angle should be maintained on the flex joint to minimize drill-pipe fatigue and wear and damage to the blowout preventers and to maximize the case with which tools may be run. 3755. an aggregate of different minerals. 546 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3752. Rivet buster An air-operated (pneumatic) chisel-like tool for cutting off rivet heads. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and sedimentary.) running. Z. 3753.(see ream. metamorphic. movement.com . used in drilling reports. Usually. River clamps Heavy steel weights made in two halves bolted on screw pipe at each collar to strengthen the joints and keep the line lying securely on the river bottom or in a dredged trench.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3749. Riser-angle indicator an acoustic or electronic device used to monitor the angle of the flex joint on a floating offshore drilling rig. Rocks are divided into three groups on the basis of their mode of origi igneous. Used by tankies when tearing down an old tank or other vessel put together With rivets. 3751. Riser tensioner line a cable that supports the marine riser while compensating for vessel 3750. Rmg Rng Rock reaming. 3754.

3758. shales become slates. These factors act to cause recrystallization of the minerals of the rock. and shale and mud-stone.mzhelu@gmail. metamorphic Rocks formed by the metamorphosis of other rocks." The three classes of clastic sedimentary rocks are sandstone. and chemi. Rock a well to initiate flow by alternatively bleeding pressure from and closing off the casing and tubing of a well that is loaded up.com . pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3756. An early-day term for a well's shutin or wellhead pressure when all valves are closed and the pressure is observed at the surface. Z. 547 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3761. clastic One of the categories of sedimentary rock. 3759. a so-called secondary rock which consists of particles that are fragments of preexisting rocks. Rock. limestone becomes marble. 3760. Granite may become Gneisses or schists. 3757. Rock bit Rock hound Rock pressure (see roller-cone bit. conglomerate. their character and appearance are changed. Rock.) (slang) a geologist. They may range in size from "blocks the size of boxcars down to colloids so fine as to remain in suspension almost indefinitely. When either igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to enough heat. sandstones become quartzites. Cal action.

so on the return stroke the line is kept taut by a counterbalance. Rockers often are in the shape of a box or crate filled with rocks. they can form volcanic cones or spread out in flows or sheets. or they can fill crevices and then solidify as "dikes. 548 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rod lines can only pull. Rod (1) sixteen and one-half feet. they can be forcibly thrust up between beds of other kinds of rocks in what are called sills. 3763. from the greek god of the lower regions. Rockhound A geologist. pluto.igneous Rocks that have solidified from a molten state deep in the earth.com . a humorous but affectionate colloquialism for a person who Assiduously pursues rock specimens in a search for evidence of oil and gas deposits. Z. Rockers A counterbalance installed on a shackle-rod line. 3764. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an engine's connecting rod. the unit of measure used in buying certain types of pipeline right of way. (2) a sucker rod.mzhelu@gmail. Those rocks that hive reached the surface while still molten are called lavas. operating a pumping jack." Rocks that have solidified deep beneath the earth's crust are referred to as plutonic. to pull the rod line back after its power stroke. 3765. a piston rod. Rock.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3762. Granite is an example of plutonic rock. One edge of the box is attached to a fulcrum bearing on which it moves back and forth like a rocking chair.

automatic latch to close the hook opening when weight is suspended from the hook. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (see sucker rod.mzhelu@gmail. (see sucker-rod pump. 3771. Rod back-off wheel a device used to unscrew rods when the pump is stuck or sanded up and the well has to be stripped out.) a ratchet mechanism actuated by a fixed rod or chain connection with the walking beam of a pumping unit that provides a slow rate of rotation to the rod string. 3772. (see sucker rod. Rod line Rod pump Rod rotor See shackle-rod line.) Rod hanger a device used to hang the sucker rods on the mast or in the derrick. Rod hook a small. Rod elevator a device used to pull sucker rods.com .). Z. 3767. (see sucker rod. It has a bail attached to the rod hook to pull or run sucker rods.) 549 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3768.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3766. Rod blowout preventer a ram device used to close the annular space around the polished rod or sucker rod in a pumping well. 3770. 3769. distributing the wear uniformly on both rods and tubing. swivel hook having a fast-operating.

The fee paid to a landowner for the easement of a pipeline right of way across his property.com . rod. Z. Right of way is measured in rods (16 1/2 feet) hence the term roddage fee. Rodhanger A rack with finger-like projections on which rods are hung when pulled from the well. See right of way. Rod stripper a device used when rods are coated with heavy oil or when the well may flow through the tubing while the rods are being pulled. 3779. jek er. It is a form of blowout preventer. See pump. a vertical rack for hanging lengths of pumping rods. Rod-line pump Roddagefee See pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3773. 3777. whiplike motion of the rods in a sucker-rod pumping system caused by vibration of the rod string. 3776.mzhelu@gmail. the rapid. 3774. 3778. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 550 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rodjob Rodpump See pulling rods. 3775. Rod wax Rod whip a paraffin wax that forms on the sucker-rod string. 3780.

They are also called rock bits. 551 Petroleum Engineer: M. Roll-dampening tanks pl the compartments on a floating offshore drilling rig that are filled with water to offset the tendency of the rig to roll. 3783. Roll in To include the cost of new facilities. The surface of each cone is made up of rows of steel teeth or rows of tungsten carbide inserts.com . Roll the angular motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig as its sides move up and down. Z. 3782. Roll atank To agitate a trank of crude oil with air or gas for the purpose of mixing small quantities of chemical with the oil to break up emulsions or to settle out impurities. or cutters. and supply as part of the overall cost of operating a company for the benefit of all customers served by a pipeline or other common carrier. 3784.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3781. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Roller bit The rock-cutting tool on the bottom of the drillstring made with three or four shanks welded together to form a tapered body. Each shank supports a conelike wheel with case-hardened teeth that rotate on steel bearings. that are mounted on extremely rugged bearings. Roller-cone bit a drilling bit made of three cones. 3786. to roll in the cost of new supplies and facilities for the purpose of arriving at a new rate structure. 3785. service.

552 Petroleum Engineer: M. Ron Research octane number. motor octane number. as it is pushed down and rotated by the drillstring. Rolling pipe Turning a joint of screw pipe into the coupling of the preceding joint by the use of a rope looped once around the pipe and pulled by a rope crew. This procedure was used on larger diameter line pipe-10 and 12-inch-to make up the connection rapidly before the tongs were put on the pipe for the final tightening. 3790. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. steel tool with a tapered end has a series of rollers. Rootrun The first course of metal laid on by a welder in joining two lengths of pipe or other elements of constructio the stringer bead (q. a measure of a gasoline's antiknock quality determined by tests made on engines running under moderate conditions of speed and load. or collapsed casing and tubing in the hole. the series of refers forces the damaged pipe open and restores it to its original diameter and roundness. The tool is forced into the damaged pipe and.). The long. See octane rating. Rollers. Mon. 3791.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3787. 3789.mzhelu@gmail. is a measure of gasoline's antiknock characteristics determined by tests under more severe conditions of load and speed. 3788. casing and tubing A steel tubular device for opening up and reconditioning buckled. dented.com . Roofrock A layer of impervious rock above a porous and permeable rock formation that contains oil and gas.

Modern rotary machines have a special component.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rotary the machine used to impart rotational power to the drill stem while permitting vertical movement of the pipe for rotary drilling. hook or chain.) 3794. Rop Rope socket rate of penetration. Z. which permits vertical movement of the kelly while the stem is turning. and through which the kelly joint moves downward ass drilling Procedes. A device for securing the end of a steel cable into a connecting piece-a clevis. to turn the kelly bushing. 3796. Rotary helper (see roughneck.mzhelu@gmail.) 553 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3797. Additional joints of drill pipe are added as drilling progresses. A metal cup or socket (like a whip socket) into which The cable end is inserted and which then is feted with molten lead or babbitt. bushing is turned by the rotary table and the bushing rotates the kelly and drillstring. 3793. (p. the rotary bushing. Rotary drilling a drilling method in which a hole is drillid by a rotating bit to which a downward force is applied. v. The kelly. which also provides a passageway through which the drilling fluid is circulated.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3792. The bit is fastened to and rotated by the drill stem. 3795. Rotary bushing The metal casting that fits into the master bushing of the rotary table on a drilling well.

and auxiliary equipment.. Rotary pump a pump that moves fluid by positive displacement. Rotary shoe a length of pipe whose bottom edge is serrated or dressed with a hard cutting material that is run into the wellbore around the outside of stuck casing. maintaining full diameter. i. thus cutting less than a full hole. mud pumps. or tubing to mill away the obstruction. or lobes. 3801. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Draw works. a modern Drilling unit capable of drilling a borehole with a bit attached to a rotating column of steel pipe.e. Rotary hose the hose on a rotary drilling rig that conducts the drilling fluid from the mud pump and standpipe to the swivel and kelly. pipe. 3799. The vaned pump has vanes extending radially from a rotating element mounted in the casing. 3800. gears. Rotary reamer A rock-cutting tool inserted in the drill column just above the drill bit for the purpose of keeping the hole cut to full diameter. Rotary rig A derrick equipped with rotary drilling equipment. The following reamer trims the hole wall. Drilling engines. hardrock formations the bit will become worn or distorted. Often in drilling deep. rotary table.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3798. The geared rotary pump uses oppositely rotating.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 3802. also called the mud hose or the kelly hose. using a system of rotating vanes. meshing gears or lobes.com . 554 Petroleum Engineer: M.

3807. usually installed above the main blowout preventers. or rotary machine.com .) a sealing device used to close off the annular space around the kelly when drilling with pressure at the surface. closed system that does not require the introduction of additional gas from an 555 Petroleum Engineer: M.) (see rotating head. the principal component of a rotary. the head prevents the well from blowing out. Z. 3806. 3808. The rate of penetration through such formations is usually rapid. used to turn the drill stem and support the drilling assembly. high-volume fluids.mzhelu@gmail. A rotating head makes it possible to drill ahead even when there is pressure in the annulus that the weight of the drilling fluid is not overcoming.) Rotary slips Rotary table 3804. Rotary tongs Rotating blowout presenter Rotating head pl (see tongs. Rotation gas lift a gas-lift system in which the gas that is injected and subsequently produced is recompressed and reinjected into the well. pl (see slips. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. effecting a continuous. 3805. It is used mainly in the drilling of formations that have low-pressure. It has a beveled-gear arrangement to create the rotational motion and an opening into which bushings are fitted to drive and support the drilling assembly.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3803.

three 8-hour shifts. 3814." as it is more commonly called. It is also called tripping the pipe. 3809. Round-point shovel A digging tool whose blade is rounded and tapers to a point in the center of The cutting edge.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering extraneous source for operation. or rig crewman. sometimes called a rotary helper. except that needed to make up losses in the system. Roundtrip the action of pulling out and subsequently running back into the hole a string of drill pipe or tubing. Roughneck a worker on a drilling or workover rig. 3812. A roustabout may also be a 556 Petroleum Engineer: M. floorman. may take 24 hours. Round trip Pulling the drillpipe from the hole to change the bit and running the drillpipe and new bit back in the hole. tend the drilling engines and mud Pumps. 3810. subordinate to the driller. and on "trips" operate the pipe tongs breaking out or unscrewing the stands of drillpipe. up in the derrick racking pipe.mzhelu@gmail.com . the driller's assistants who work on the derrick floor. Roughnecks Members of the drilling crew. 3813. 3811. round trips or "a trip. A long-handled shovel. usually on the property of the oil company. Roustabout a worker who assists the foreman in the general work around producing oil wells. On deep wells. Z. standard equipment for digging ditches by hand. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Royalty bidding An uncommon practice of bidding on federal leases by offering a high royalty interest to the government on any production discovered on the tract in lieu of the traditional cash bonus. In case the lease is unproductive. 557 Petroleum Engineer: M. This is the basic form of royalty. Z. See landowners royalty. The advantages to a company bidding royalty interests instead of cash could be a savings in millions of dollar. But as you will note there are variations and "refinements" to the concept of what belongs to the king. the 1andowner usually any consideration received or to a lessor on the execution of a lease in excess of the customary one-eighth royalty is called a bonus or royalty bonus.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering helper on a well-servicing unit or one who does utility work on an offshore drilling rig. 3815. Originally. Royalty A share of the minerals (oil and gas) produced from a property by the owner of the property. 3816.com . the sovereign is the landowner who traditionally receives 12 1/2 percent or oneeighth of the oil and gas produced from his land. 3817. the company is out only the cost of the well and any seismic or other exploratory expenses. of front money. Royalty interests as high as 70 and 80 percent of gross production have been offered. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the right or prerequisite of the king to receive a percentage of the gold or silver taken from the mines of his realm. Today. Royalty bonus Describes an overriding royalty or oil payment reserves by the lessor.mzhelu@gmail.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3821. 3824. Royalty. Royalty. Most royally interests are created for a fixed period and so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced. 3823. Royalty interest. The minimum amount of royalty income a royalty owner is to receive under the lease agreement. Royalty oil Oil owned by the government. fixed-rate Royalty calculated on the basis of a fixed rate per unit of production. fixed length of time with no qualifying 'thereafter" clause. Royalty. term A royally not in perpetuity but for a definite period of time. landowner's royalty traditionally one-eighth of gross production free of any cost. 3820. federal. Oil on the outer continental shelf and on federal land is royalty oil. fee The lessor's share of oil and gas production. 3822.com . Royalty. Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3818.mzhelu@gmail. But there are such interests that run only for a specified. innovator's 558 See innovator's royalty. also oil on land owned by a state or a municipality is royally oil. slate or local. without regard for the actual proceeds from the sale of the production. guaranteed. 3819. Z. Royalty. regardless of his share of actual proceeds from the sale of the lease's production. compensatory Payments to royalty owners as compensation for loss of income which they may suffer due to the failure of the operator to develop a lease properly.

3829. 3828. 559 Petroleum Engineer: M. rigging up and cable tools. Rp Rpm Rt Ruct rock pressure. landowner's A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on a property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas.com . used in drilling reports. 3826. Royalty. Z. Royalty. shot-in Payment to royalty owners under the terms of a mineral lease which allows the operator or lessee to defer production from a well which is shut in for lack of a market or pipeline connection. which varies from the normal 16@ percent up to 110 percent of the value of the production. used in drilling reports. 3831. 3830. usually offshore. revolutions per minute.mzhelu@gmail. Royalty. As the value of production increases the percentage of royally also increases to a maximum of 50 percent. rotary table. 3827.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3825. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production. sliding-scale Royalty paid to the federal government on oil and gas production from a government lease.

drill pipe. Run-around Running the tools a platform encircling the top of the derrick Putting the drillpipe. running oil from a tank into a pipeline for delivery to a purchaser. into the hole in preparation for 3840.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3832. Run A transfer of crude oil from a stock tank on a production lease to a pipeline gathering system for transportation to the buyer's facilities. 3839. It is the basic legal instrument by which the lease operator is paid for oil produced and sold. a safety plug. Z. 3836. and so forth. a record of the oil transferred from the producer's storage tank to the pipeline. 3 3835. 3838. 3837. Rupture disk A thin. metal plug or membrane in a fitting on a pressure line made so as to blow out or rupture when the pressure exceeds a predetermined level. to lower a string of casing into the hole. See soft plug.com .mzhelu@gmail. 3833. Run a tank Run in Run pipe Run ticket to transfer oil from a stock tank into a pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drilling. with the bit attached. to go into the hole with tubing. 560 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Z.mzhelu@gmail. Rur Rw rigging up rotary rig. This symbol is used in petrophysical calculations to represent the electrical resistivity of formation water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3841. 3842.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. 561 Petroleum Engineer: M.


caustic. S/t Sack sample to . bentonite. The society of exploration geophysicists. 3844.E.G. 3849. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. 3 3846. 563 Petroleum Engineer: M. for stopping the flow of oil or gas from holes or spies in a pipeline. Sacks (bags) contain the following amounts 3848. a professional organization of geophysicists engaged in exploration for oil and gas. heavy bearing located on top of the samson post to support the walking beam on a circle tool drilling rig or an oil @veil pumping jack 3850. and so forth. ilmenite. fitted with a gasket. used in drilling reports. Saddle A clamp.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. second. a devise for making temporary repairs to a line. Z. (sx) a container for cement. S S. The clamp conforms to the curve of the pipe and is held in place by u-bolts that fit around the pipe and extend through the clamp.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3843. Saddle bearing A broad. 3847.mzhelu@gmail. barite. Ps.

Thus. A standard established by the society of automotive engineers. the safety joint permits easy disengagement of the string of pipe above the safety joint. 3854.com .v. Safety clamp a device used to suspend a rod string after the pump has been spaced or when the weight of the rod string must be taken off the pumping equipment. 564 Petroleum Engineer: M.) an accessory to the fishing tool. 3852. 3853.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3851. part of the safety joint as well as the tool attached to the @isa remain in the hole and become part of the fish. placed above it. 3856. sae 1ow. He also wears a safety harness (attached to the mast or derrick) to prevent him from failing. Sae 20. Safety platform the monkeyboard or platform on a derrick or mast on which the derrickman works. Safety latch a latch provided on a hook or swivel to prevent it from becoming detached 3857. 30. If the tool cannot be disengaged from the fish. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. multiviscosity lubricating oil (q. Safety goggles a protective eye covering worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger to the eyes of being struck by flying objects or harmed by corrosive substances. 3855. prematurely.). Sae number A classification of lubricating oils in terms of viscosity only. Safety hat Safety joint (see hard hat.mzhelu@gmail.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3858. 3859. the opposite of hogging. 3863. Z. Safety valve Sagging See relief valve. Safety shoes metal-toed shoes or boots with nonskid.v. 565 Petroleum Engineer: M. To exit by the safety slide. pools formed by the intrusion of underlying salt formations into overlying Porous and permeable sedimentary layers creating traps favorable to the presence of oil and gas. corrosion-resistant soles worn by oilfield workers to minimize falls and injury to their feet. one end of which is attached to the derrick and the other end to the surface. Safety slide a device normally mounted near the safety platform to afford the derrickman a means of quick exit to the surface in case an emergency arises. Salt dome/salt-plug pool Structural or stratigraphic traps (q. 3860. the distortion of the hull of a vessel when the middle is lower than either end because of excessively heavy or unbalanced loads. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Also called a geronimo.) Associated with rock-salt intrusions. 3861.mzhelu@gmail. logs provide an estimate of the relative amounts of oil. Salinity log a special radioactivity well log that is electronically adjusted to reflect gammaray emissions resulting from the collision of neutrons with chlorine atoms in the formations. Salinity. or chlorine.com . or salt water in a formation. gas. It is usually affixed to a wireline. the derrickman grasps a handle on it and rides it down to the ground. 3862.

the method and system for the disposal of salt water produced with crude oil. 3865. 3867. 3866.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3864. 3868. Salt water Salt-bed storage a water that contains a large quantity of salt. Thick formations or underground layers of salt in which cavities are mined or leached out with super-heated water for the storage of petroleum products. leaving them truncated. forming traps for petroleum. propane. Healing oils. brine. A typical system is composed of collection centers (in which salt water from several wells is gathered). butane. Cavities leached out of underground salt formations by the use of superheated water for the storage of petroleum products. Formations above the salt plug are usually arched so that they dip in all directions away from the center of the dome.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.com .g. Salt-brine cement Salt-dome storage a cementing slurry whose liquid phase contains sodium chloride. 3869. Saltplug Saltwater disposal See salt dome. A piercement salt dome is one that has pushed up so it penetrates the overlying sediments. and other lp-gases. Especially lp gases. e. Salt dome a dome that is formed by the intrusion of rock salt into overlying sediments. a central treating plant (in which salt water is 566 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3870..

) And examined by the geologist to identity the formation. The cuttings. depth at which cuttings were taken. Sample bag A small cotton bag with a drawstring to hold rock cutting samples.v. Rock samples are collected from the shale shaker (q. Saltwater mud a drilling mud in which the water has appreciable amounts of salt (usually sodium chloride) dissolved in it. This record shows the characteristics of various strata drilled through. brought to the surface by the bailer. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the type of rock being drilled. Sample log A record of rock cuttings as a well is being drilled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering conditioned to remove scale. Treated salt waste is injected into a suitable formation). 3875. especially in cable-tool drilling.or corrosion-forming substances). etc. 3871. Each bag with its sample is tagged with identifying information. 3872. location. well name.mzhelu@gmail. 567 Petroleum Engineer: M. are saved and the depth where obtained is recorded. and disposal wells (in which. 3874. lease. 3873.com . Sample Cuttings of a rock formation broken up by the drill bit and brought to the surface by the drilling mud. Sampler a device attached to a flow line to permit continuous sampling of the oil or gas flowing in the line.

3877. In informal usage. Z. Sandstone formation. sometimes in the shape of a lens.mzhelu@gmail. 568 Petroleum Engineer: M. vertical limber that supports the well's walking beam (q. Sand Short for sandstone. Samples n pi 1. The well cuttings obtained at designated footage intervals during drilling. The walking beam rests on the samson post on a broad paddle bearing and moves up and down like a child's teeter-totter.v. Small quantities of well fluids obtained for analysis. From an examination of these cuttings. the geologist determines the type of rock and the type of formation being drilled and estimates oil and gas content. Samson post A heavy." 3880. Sampling the taking of a representative sample of fluid from a tank to measure its temperature. one of the more prolific sedimentary rock formations. the samson post is located just ahead of the band wheel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. On a cable-tool rig. a geologic trap favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas. Other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. sandwiched between two impervious layers of rock.com .).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3876. 3879. and bs&w content 3878. Sand body A sand or sandstone formation defined by upper and lower layers of impervious rock. 2. specific gravity.

Sanding out is usually the result of a slowed fracture-fluid velocity. It is also called screening out. Sand out to plug a well inadvertently with proppants during formation fracturing. Sand consolidation any one of several methods by which the loose. 3886. 3883. See gravel packing.) Sand fill Sand lens Sand line a column of sand that has entered and accumulated in the wellbore.com . Z. 3884. 3882. Sand control A technique for coping with sand from unconsolidated (loose. that allows the proppants to become separated from the fluid instead of being carried away from the wellbore. (see lens.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3881. 569 Petroleum Engineer: M. In diameter and several thousand feet long. unconsolidated grains of a producing formation are made to adhere to prevent a well from producing sand but permit it to produce oil and gas. unpacked) formations that migrate (drift or wash) into downhole pumping equipment or into the borehole. a wire rope used on well-servicing rigs to operate a swab or bailer. It is usually 9/16 in.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or screening effect. 3885.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3887. 3890. Sandstone a detrital. from drilling mud.) And by removing most of the abrasive material reduces wear on mud pumps and bits. Sand pump A cylinder with a plunger and valve arrangement used for sucking up the pulverized rock. other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. 3891. wound. iron oxide. Sanded-up 1. under restricted production because of sand accumulation in the wellbore.v." 3892. especially because of sand accumulation.) In informal or loose usage. and other porous rock.com . (oil is also found in limestone. Sands Common terminology for oil-bearing sandstone formations. sludger. sand. and water from the bottom of the well bore. sedimentary rock composed of individual grains of sand (commonly quartz) that are cemented together by silica. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Of a well." pulverized rock and sand. The sand separator is used in addition to the shale shaker (q. 570 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Impeded or hindered. 2. Sand separator A device for removing "drilled solids. Sand reel a metal drum on a drilling rig or workover unit around which the sand line is 3889. Shell pump. Sandstone is a common rock in which petroleum and water accumulate. calcium carbonate. Z. dolomite. and so forth. 3888. shales. More effective than a simple bailer.

A facility that supports the main processing plant. and others. Saturates is a synonym for hydrocarbons whose carbon atoms are "saturated with hydrogen atoms. used in drilling reports.com . Z.)." These gas streams are further refined in a facility called by refinery engineers the sats gas plant. Saturates Components of refinery-process gas streams methane. (2) the extent to which gas is dissolved in the liquid hydrocarbons in a formation.v. 3894. Saturation (1) the extent to which the pore space in a formation contains hydrocarbons or connate water (q.v. 3898. ethane. Satellite platform Satellite Wells Production platform (q. 571 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3896. Sat Satellite plant saturated or saturation.v.).mzhelu@gmail. butanes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Subsea wells located remote from the production facility and connected to the facility by flowlines. 3895. 3897.) To be stripped out of the gases.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3893. Sats gas plant A refiner's term for the part of the refinery that processes gas streams carrying saturates (q. a plant that derives its feed stock or raw material from the main processing unit. propane. 3899.

3905. Scantlings pi (nautical) the dimensions of the structural members in the hull. Saver sub a device made up in the drill stem to absorb much of the wear between frequently broken joints (as the kelly and drill pipe. Saturation pressure The pressure at which gas begins to be released from solution in oil.) 3902. 3904. 3903.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3900. Sbr is used in the manufacture of tires. bubble point. Saybolt seconds Saybolt viscometer See seconds saybolt furol. Sbm system Sbr Single-buoy mooring system (q. 572 Petroleum Engineer: M. See 3901.mzhelu@gmail.v.). also seconds saybolt universal. and 210 f). hose. The time required for the flow of a specific volume of fluid is recorded in seconds at three different temperatures (100 f. 3906. Initials for synthetic butadiene rubber. consisting basically of a container with a hole or jet of a standard size in the bottom. Z. an instrument used to measure the viscosity of fluids. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . shoes. 130 f. the main ingredients of which are derived from petroleum. other heavy-duty products.-it is referred to as the saybolt viscosity and written as saybolt second universal (ssu).

Schlumberger one of the pioneer companies in electric well logging. S cop e the ratio of the total length of a mooring line (as on a mobile offshore drilling rig) to the depth of the water. 3913. A person in an oil-dispatching office who plans the future movement of batches of crude oil or product in a pipeline system. keeping batches separated and making arrangements for product input and downstream deliveries. Scour Erosion of the seabed caused by the action of waves and currents. standard cubic feet of gas per day. Today. many companies provide logging services of all kinds. The rig is powered by a small diesel engine. See dispatcher. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pronounced "slumberjay". Z. Automatic welding heads ("bugs") are moved ahead on the pipe as the joints are welded. Scat (welding) rig A rack that carries welding generators.mzhelu@gmail. 3908. gas bottles (c02). S cf Scf/d Scheduler standard cubic feet of gas. and spools of welding wire along the pipe being welded. 573 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3910. 3911.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3907. 3912. named for the french scientists who first developed the method.com . 3909.

the hanging of a section of the line one to several feet off bottom. Z. Excessive scouring causes spanning. drilling rates. Scraper trap a specially designed piece of equipment that is installed in a pipeline to launch or receive a pipeline scraper. If allowed to go uncorrected the Pipeline welds crack or the pipe ruptures from its unsupported weight. 3915. and geophysical reports.com . leasing. 574 Petroleum Engineer: M. Subsea lines are inspected for scouring and spanning by side-scan sonar devices or by diver inspection. 3918. 3917. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. about a competitor's well the depth. Scouring caused by sea currents is a serious problem for under. Formations encountered. drilling rates and depths. by all available means. well logs.mzhelu@gmail. Scouting a well Gathering information.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3914. survey data. and well potentials. Sea lines. or flow lines. rods. casing. Scout A person hired by an operator or a company to seek out information about activities of drilling wells in an area. Scraper any device (as a line scraper) that is used to remove deposits (as scale or paraffin) from tubing. Scouring The erosion or washing away of the sand/clay covering of a buried subsea pipeline. 3916.

mzhelu@gmail. Z. 3922. and Other foreign matter from pipelines. Screen out Screen pipe (see sand out.) And is pushed along by the pressure of the moving column of Oil. removes the cake so that the cement can bond solidly to the formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is also called a screen pipe. and toothed rollers used to clean accumulations of wax. wire Brushes. 3921. Scratcher a device fastened to the outside of casing that removes the mud cake from the wall of the hole to condition the hole for cementing. formed of stiff wire. the scratchier.com . Scraper. The scraper is inserted in the fine at a "trap" (q. 3920. plug-like device equipped with scraper blades. Screen liner a liner that is perforated and arranged with a wire wrapping to act as a sieve to prevent or minimize the entry of sand particles into the wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3919. By rotating or moving the casing string up and down as it is being run into the hole.v. pipeline A pig. a cylindrical.) a perforated pipe with a straining or filtering device (usually closely wound coils of wire wrapped around the pipe) to allow the flow of well fluids but exclude sand. 3923. rust. a screen liner. 575 Petroleum Engineer: M.

3927. two. 3925. usually are driven by electric motors but can be hooked up to gas engines. sulfur. which are small. Screw packer a packer in which the packing element is expanded by rotating the pipe. Screw pump A rotary pump made with one. cement. the screws closely mesh and take in fluid at the suction end of the pump and force it out the discharge port in a continuous stream. traces of other gases and microscopic droplets of water. 3926. as well as liquid hydrocarbons. Screw pumps and other types of rotary pumps are used in refineries. and chemical plants to handle highly viscous fluids and as transfer pumps for small volumes of liquid at high pressures.com . or three screws or spiral members. etc. matter. Scrubber a vessel through which fluids are passed to remove dirt and other foreign 3928. solid material pelletized plastics. When rotated on their shafts. Z. Natural gas when it is produced or when it Flows from the well under pressure usually contains impurities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used when it is not desirable to put tubing weight on the packer. Screw pumps. 576 Petroleum Engineer: M. Screw conveyor A mechanism for moving dry. also the Removal of entrained water. Archimedes thought of it first.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3924.mzhelu@gmail. through a water or chemical wash. Scrubbing Purifying a gas by putting it.-from one location to another by means of a helix or screw rotating in a cylindrical conduit.

Seals Thin strips of metal. 3936. thus restricting or preventing the formation from producing. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Before it can be accepted by a gas transmission line. Z. the gas must be stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons. a trunk line. shut down for orders. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3931. imprinted with serial numbers. used in drilling reports. scrubbed and dried out. sandy. 3929. the penetration of a drilling fluid into a potentially productive formation'. used to "seal" a valve in an open or closed posit on. 3930. Scrubbing plant A facility for purifying or treating natural gas for the removal of hydrogen sulfide or other impurities.com . Sd Sdo Sdy Seal Seal-off sand or sandstone. used in drilling reports. 3933.mzhelu@gmail. to close off or secure against a flow of fluid. 3935. Sealines Submarine pipelines lines laid on the ocean floor from offshore wells to a production platform and to receiving stations onshore. 3932. The metal strip has a locking snap on one end 577 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3934.

Seating nipple a special tube installed in a string of tubing. any cementing operation after the primary cementing operation. locking it securely. or permit installation of a flow regulator. 3940. 3942. See lap-welded pipe. 3941. in which a plug of cement is positioned at a specific point in the well and allowed to set. 3939. 3937.com . Wells are plugged to shut off bottom water or to reduce the depth of the well for other reasons. used in drilling reports. Secondary cementing includes a plug-back job. anchor a pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Into which the free end is inserted. shallow-draft vessels. having machined contours to fit a matching plug with locking pawls. It is used to regulate or shut off flow. Seamless pipe Pipe made without an axial seam.mzhelu@gmail. Seat Seaterminal the point in the wellbore at which casing is set. Z. An offshore loading or unloading facility for large. 3938. (see squeeze cementing.) 578 Petroleum Engineer: M. pipe made from a billet or solid cylinder of hot steel and "hot-worked" on a mandrel into a tubular piece without a seam. The terminal is served by filling lines from shore or by smaller. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. deep-draft tankers. Seals are used on Tanks in a battery to prevent the undetected opening or closing of a valve. Sec Secondary cementing section.

The seconds required to flow through is the oil's viscosity its ssf number. Seconds saybolt furol (ssf) A measurement of the viscosity of a heavy oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and other methods to recover additional amounts of oil. either hydraulically or mechanically. against the casing wall. The mill is attached to the end of the drillstring and lowered into the hole to the point where the casing is to be cut. 3946. The Cutter arms are then expanded. Sixty cubic centimeters of an oil are put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through a standardized orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature.mzhelu@gmail. As the drillpipe is rotated. Seconds saybolt universal (ssu) A measurement of the viscosity of a light oil. 3945. Secondary recovery The extraction of oil from a field beyond what can be recovered by normal methods of flowing or pumping the use of waterflooding.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3943. gas injection. A measured quantity of oil usually 60 cubic centimeters. 3944. Section mill A downhole cutting tool made with expendable arms used to cut sections out of the casing in the hole.is put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through an orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature. the cutters do their work. The number of seconds required for the flow through is the oil's ssu number.com . Z. its viscosity. 579 Petroleum Engineer: M. See also seconds saybolt universal.

3948. is actually removed by cutting with a mill.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3947. The matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid. Seep the natural surface appearance of oil or gas that results when a reservoir rock becomes exposed to the surface. basic sediment. (2). Z.com . Section of land Sed Sediment One square mile 640 acres. also called tank bottoms. 3953. Sedimentary Basin A geographical area. where much of the rock is sedimentary (as opposed to igneous or metamorphic) and therefore likely to contain hydrocarbons. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually casing. (1). 580 Petroleum Engineer: M. sixteen 40-acre plots. buried layers of sedimentary rock. and limestone are sedimentary rocks.mzhelu@gmail. Sedimentary rock a rock composed of materials that were transported to their present position by wind or water. shale. and so forth. 3951. 3949. Sandstone. thus allowing oil or gas to flow out of fissures in the rock. 3952. Section milling the process by which a portion of pipe. 3950. such as Scotian Basin. used in drilling reports. sediment. In geology.

).v. used in drilling reports. 3960. See vibrator vehicle.com . 3 3962. used in prospecting for probable oil-bearing structures. A device that records vibrations from the earth. a device that detects vibrations in the earth. Segregation drive Seis Seismic sea streamer (see gravity drainage. 3956. Seismogrami Seismograph The record produced by a seismographic survey. A cable.v. 3955. towing a series of hydrophones along the sea floor recording seismic "signals" from underwater detonations.) seismograph. As used in the exploration for oil and gas. a seismograph records shock waves set off by explosions detonated in shot holes (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. harmless electronic or air detonations are set off which are reflected from rock formations beneath the sea floor and picked up by the sensitive. Vibrations are created by discharging explosives in 581 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 3958. As the vessel moves slowly ahead.) And picked up by geophones (q.mzhelu@gmail. Seismic shot hole Seismic thuiwper Seismogram See shot hole. 3959. trailed from a geophysical vessel. sound-detecting hydrophones. 3957.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3954. See geophone.

3966.v. It has a mat or legs that are lowered to the seafloor and a main deck that is raised above the surface of the water to a distance where it will not be affected by the waves. The type and velocity of the vibrations (as recorded by the seismograph) indicate the general characteristics of the section of earth through which the vibrations pass.mzhelu@gmail. a jack-up drilling rig.com . as two pieces of metal that have become hot from excesive friction as one piece moves relative to the other. a seismograph which measures the movements of the ground. Seize To stick together. 582 Petroleum Engineer: M.). 3963. as a button to a cylinder from heat and pressure. Seismometer A device for receiving and recording shock waves setoff by an explosion or other seismic sources and reflected by underground rock formations. to bond or adhere. 3964. 3965.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shallow boreholes or by striking the surface with a heavy blow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Seismographic survey Geophysical information on subsurface rock formations gathered by means of a seismograph (q. The investigation of underground strata by recording and analyzing shock waves artificially produced and reflected from subsurface bodies of rock. Self-elevating drilling unit an offshore drilling rig. usually with a large hull. Z.

low-compression diesel hot-plug engine. hot-head or hot-plug diesels. After the gun is fired. Living quarters.) a floating offshore drilling structure that has hulls submerged in the water but not resting on the seafloor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3971. Semidiesel A misnomer for a diesel-cycle engine whose compression is not highEnough to create sufficient heat to ignite the injected fuel when starting cold. the strip is retrieved. Semidiesels or. it is one of the basic curves obtained by an electrical well log. Semisubmersible Semisubmersible drilling rig (see semisubmersible drilling rig. (see gun-perforate.mzhelu@gmail. storage space. are equipped with a plug that extends into the firing chamber healed by a torch or by electricity to assist in the ignition of the diesel fuel until the engine is running and up to operating temperature. Z. 3968. Also referred to as a spontaneous potential.com . 3969.) 3970. more correctly. a small.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3967. Semisubmersible rigs are either self-propelled or towed to a drilling site and either anchored or dynamically positioned over the 583 Petroleum Engineer: M. Semiexpendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metallic strip on which encapsulated shaped charges are mounted. Self-potential (sp) one of the natural electrical characteristics exhibited by a formation as measured by a logging tool lowered into the wellbore. and so forth are assembled on the deck.

) 3972. 3977. a chemical used with an acid in a well treatment to inhibit the precipitation of insoluble iron hydroxides. (see oil and gas separator. (see dynamic positioning. 3 3976. which form when the acid contacts scales or iron salts and oxides. Serpentine an igneous rock composed in part of hydrated magnesium silicate. low-temperature (gas) Separator. 584 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 3974. Separator a cylindrical or spherical vessel used to isolate the components in mixed streams of fluids. 3973.-also decanting centrifuge.com . such as found in corrosion products on casing. See sand separator.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Semisubmersibles are more stable than drill ships and are used extensively to drill wildcat wells in rough waters such as the north sea. sand Sequestering agent Natural gas separated out of the oil by a separator at the well. Separator gas Separator. 3978. See lxt unit. Z. Senior orifice fitting a one-piece orifice fitting that allows the orifice plate in it to be changed without the flow of gas in the line being disturbed. 3979. Hydrocarbons may be associated with serpentine. but this is unusual.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering site or both.

3983. and workover of oil and gas wells. acidizing and shooting are some of the service tools and procedures provided by the numerous service companies that perform specialized work in the oil field.com . 585 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3982.v. Set back to place stands of drill pipe and drill collars in a vertical position to one side of the rotary table in the derrick or mast of the drilling or workover rig. An automatic device for controlling large amounts of power with a small amount of force an example of a servomechanism is the power-steering on an automobile. Servo Servomech. 3981.6nism Short for servomechanism (q. See servomechanism. Service tools A variety of downhole equipment used in drilling.). completion. Servomotor A power-driven mechanism that supplements a primary control operated by a comparatively small force. Service well A non-producing well used for injecting water or gas into the reservoir or producing formation in pressure maintenance or secondary recovery programs also a salt-water disposal well. Any small force on the steering wheel activates a hydraulically powered mechanism that does the teal work of turning the wheels. 3984. fracturing. Temperature and pressure gauging fishing. 3985. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. so-called wireline tools such as logging. sampling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3980. Z.mzhelu@gmail.

3988. to set pipe. Settling the separation of substances because of different sizes and specific gravities of components in the substances. Settling pit the mud pit into which mud flows and in which heavy solids are allowed to settle out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3986. The space on the derrick floor where stands of drillpipe or tubing are "set back" and racked in the derrick. On transportable. 3987. 586 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3992. Set casing Set pipe Set up Setback to run and cement casing at a certain depth in the wellbore. Offshore drilling platforms often list the stand capacity of their setbacks as an indication of their pipe-handling capability and capacity. setbacks are outside the derrick proper.) Tapers off.) to harden (as cement). Settled production The lower average production rate of a well after the initial flush production (q.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3990. the production of a well that has ceased flowing and has been put on the pump. Often auxiliary equipment (as desanders) must be installed to speed this process. Z.v.mzhelu@gmail. 3989. 3991. mast-type derricks used on land. (see set casing.

used in drilling reports. standard of califonia. texaco. Seven sisters A term applied to the seven large international oil companies exxon. and british petroleum and royal dutch shell.mzhelu@gmail. Z.. The term was first used by enrico mattei then head of the italian government oil company ente nazionale ldrocarburi. 3996.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3993. 3994. It is slid that these seven companies control a major portion of production and refinery runs in the free world.v. shale.com . 587 Petroleum Engineer: M. used to connect a central power (q. 3995.) With a well's pumping unit or pumping jack. Severancetax A tax levied by some states on each barrel of oil or each thousand cubic feet of gas produced. Sg Sh Shackle rod show of gas. Sewage-treatment plant a system on offshore locations used to render human and other wastes biologically inert before the wastes are discharged overboard. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Shackle-rod lines are supported on metal posts (usually made of 2-inch line pipe) topped with wooden guide blocks which are lubricated with a heavy grease. The two overseas sisters. gulf. Jointed steel rods. Production tax. approximately 25 feet long and 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter. 3997. 3998.s. and mobile of the u.

com . When the shale is heated the resulting vapors are condensed and then treated in an involved process to form what is called shale oil or synthetic oil. usually the first pit into which the mud flows after returning from the hole.) the mud pit adjacent to the shale shaker.mzhelu@gmail. 4002. Shale A type of sedimentary rock composed of fine particles of older rock laid down as deposits in the water of takes and seas. 4004. Shake out To force the sediment in a sample of oil to the bottom of a test tube by whirling the sample at high speed in a centrifuge machine. 4001. 4000. Shale oil Oil obtained by treating the hydrocarbon kerogen found in certain kinds of shale deposits. Shaker Shaker pit (see shale shaker. The size of the openings in the sieve is carefully selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling fluid and the anticipated size of cuttings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3999. 588 Petroleum Engineer: M. Shale shaker a series of trays with sieves that vibrate to remove cuttings from the circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations. 4003. Z. the percent of bs&w (sediment and water) is read on the graduated test tube. It is also called a shaker. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Most shales are compacted mud and consequently do not contain oil or gas in commercial quantities. After the sample has been whirled for three to five minutes.

A vibrating screen for sifting out rock cuttings from drilling mud. 4009.mzhelu@gmail. the charge releases a small. 4006. kerogen Shaleshaker See kerogen shales. 4007.). square-ended shovel used in digging.v.) Term for his mules. 589 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4005. cement. 4010. Quantities of explosives are made in special configurations and detonated at the bottom of the hole against the casing wall to make the perforations. Upon detonation.com . Z. Shave-tails A skinner's (q. Drilling mud returning from downhole carrying rock chips in suspension flows over and through the mesh of the shale shaker leaving the small fragments of rocks which are collected and examined by the geologist for information on the formation being drilled. Shaped charge a relatively small container of high explosive that is loaded into a perforating gun. Shales. (see gunperforate. high-velocity stream of particles (a jet) that penetrates the casing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sharpshooters are one of the pipeliner's digging tools used for squaring up a ditch or the sides of a bell hole (q.) 4008. a narrow. Sharpshooter A spade.v. Shaped-charge perforation A perforation technique using shaped explosive charges instead of steel projectiles to make holes in casing.-and formation.

4015. permitting an element of the tool to assume a predetermined attitude. (see gel) 590 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4011. 4014. Shear strength Shearometer (see gel strength. of a drilling fluid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4013.mzhelu@gmail. Then when thrust or torque is applied. Shear pin A retaining pin or bolt or screw designed to shear or give way before damage can be done to the item of equipment it is holding in place. Z. preventing damage to the shaft or other parts of the power train. Should the propeller strike an obstruction. or gel strength. shear pins or screws are used in downhole tools or equipment to hold a part in position until the tool is landed or in place. or shear. In other applications.com . Shear action or stress that results from applied forces and that causes or tends to cause two adjoining parts of a body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. 4012. the pin will shear. A common use for a shear pin is to secure a propeller to a shaft.) an instrument used to determine the shear strength. through drill pipe and form a seal against well pressure. the pin or screw shears. Shear rams pl the components in a blowout preventer that cut. Shear rams are used in mobile offshore drilling operations to provide a quick method of moving the rig away from the hole when there is no time to trip the drill stem out of the hole.

Shock sub a trade name for a device positioned in the drill stem between the bit and drill collars that absorbs impact loads and vibration from the up-and-down motion of the drill stem. drill ship. usually a buried sandbar or filled channel. thus acquiring the name. Z. narrow sand deposit.com . 4022. the part of a drilling bit on which the cone is anchored. 591 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4021.mzhelu@gmail. Shirttails extend below the threaded pin of the bit and are usually rounded on bottom. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4017.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4016. 4018. Shock subs are designed to transmit torque while absorbing reciprocative loads that decrease the efficiency of the drill bit. Sheave Shell Shepard's canes (pronounced "shiv") a grooved pulley. 4019. the body of a tank. Shoestring sand a long. Shipshape drilling rig Shirttail 4020. an earth-resistivity meter used to measure the resistance of soil to the passage of electrical current.

Shot hole A small -diameter hole. Shooting has been almost completely replaced by formation fracturing and acid treatments. for "planting" explosive charges in seismic operations. In seismographic work.) 4026.v.) 4024. Short trips may be necessary to raise the drill up into the protective string of casing to avoid having the Drillstring stuck in the hole by a cave-in or sloughing of the wall of the borehole below the protective casing. Shot 1.). usually drilled with a portable. The point at which a detonation is to be made in a geophysical survey. Shoot (1).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4023.) 2. now largely replaced by formation fracturing. 4025. Truck-mounted drill. Shot point The shot hole (q.mzhelu@gmail. detonated in a well to shatter the formation and expedite the recovery of oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To explode nitroglycerine or other high explosives in a hole to shatter the rock and increase the flow of oil. A point at which a photograph is made in a single-shot survey. 4027. (2). (see shoot and nitro shooting. Z. Short trip Pulling the drillstring partway out of the hole. to discharge explosives to create vibrations in the earth's crust.com . 592 Petroleum Engineer: M. A charge of high explosive. (see directional survey. usually nitroglycerine. (see seismograph.

a show of oil usually signifies the well will not be a commercial producer. and so forth of a 4030. On a small-production or stripper lease. A heated part is placed around a companion piece. 4029. As it returns to normal temperature. or cores. The water is drawn off through a "syphon" which may be adjusted to take off only the water. and as the heated part cools. Shrinkage a decrease in oil volume caused by the evaporation of solution gas or by lowered temperature. Shotgun tank A tall. As the oil and water are pumped into the tall column. drilling well. samples.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4028. 4031. 593 Petroleum Engineer: M. the shotgun serves as a water and sediment knockout vessel. an expansion fit may be made by cooling a part (a valve-seat insert. Show the appearance of oil or gas in cuttings. Z. a shri fit results. 4032.com . Shrink fit An extremely tight fit as the result of "shrinking" one metal part around another. Conversely. the oil frees itself from most of the water and floats on top of the water where it gravitates through a take-off line into the stock tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. slender tank for separating water and sediment from crude oil. the water and sediment settles to the bottom. Show of oil A small amount of oil in a well or a rock sample.mzhelu@gmail. a tight "expansion fit" will result. for example) to extremely low temperature with "dry ice and placing the part in position.

com . however. Shut off to stop or decrease the production of water in an oil well by cementing or mudding off the. Shut-in pressure the pressure when the well is completely shut in. shut-in pressure should be zero. A shut in well often wit! Be waiting on tankage or a pipeline connection. waiting on orders from the operator etc. waiting on cement. 4036. also describes a well on which the valves have been closed. A well is shut down when drilling ceases. There is a great difference between a shut down and a shut in. Z. 4037.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4033. On a flowing. shut-in pressure should be above zero. shutting off production. A well is shut in when its wellhead valves are closed. because the pressure exerted by the drilling fluid should be equal to or greater than the pressure exerted by the formations through which the wellbore passes. When drilling is in progress.mzhelu@gmail. Shut down Shut down-shut in well to stop work temporarily or to stop a machine or operation temporarily. as noted on a gauge installed on the surface control valves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which can happen for many reasons failure of equipment waiting on pipe. 594 Petroleum Engineer: M. Shut in To close the valves at the wellhead so that the well stops flowing or producing. 4034. 4035. producing well. Water-producing interval.

Systeme internationale. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Si (1). 4040. is shut in for lack of market for the gas.mzhelu@gmail. 4043. (2). Shutin pressure Pressure as recorded at the wellhead when the valves p re closed and the well is shut in. To allow the pressure to buildup to its peak. 595 Petroleum Engineer: M. capable of producing in paying quantities. This permits the gas to move out of the formation toward the borehole and build its head of pressure. used in drilling reports. Shut in. (see international si metric system. 4039. This type of royalty or some form of rental is usually required to prevent termination of the lease. 4044.Used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4038. See reservoir pressure.) 4042. Z.com . shut-in casin Sibhp Sicp Side bootacats shut-in bottom-hole pressure. 4041. See boomcats. Shutin royalty Payments made when a gas well. the well is shut in for 24 hours or even longer. Shutdown rate a rate provision usually contained in a drilling contract that specifies the compensation to the independent drilling contractor when drilling is suspended at the request of the operator.

By beginning the deviation of the hole several hundred feet above the junk in the original hole. or other mud motor. 596 Petroleum Engineer: M. i. turbodrill. 4049. In length.) 4047. A downhole tool which forces the drill bit to drill at a slight angle from the vertical.) With a hinged latch that opens on one side to permit it to be fastened around the pipe and secured for hoisting.v. This can be done with the use of a whipstock (q. the new hole %mil bypass the obstruction and may be taken on down to the pay zone. Side-door mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel.mzhelu@gmail. to 1 3/16. Core samples of this type usually range from 3/4. In.. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Side-pocket mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel. In diameter and from 3/4 to 1 in. Z. 4046. a coring technique especially useful in soft rock areas in which @ore samples are obtained from a zone that has already been drilled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4045.) Sidetrack to drill around broken drill pipe or casing that has become lodged permanently in the hole by the use of a whip-stock.).e.com . (see directional drilling.v. 4048. Side-door elevators Casing or tubing elevators (q. Sidetracking Drilling of another well beside a non-producing well and using the upper part of the non-producer. pipe or other material blocking the hole. A hollow bullet is fired into the formation wall to capture the core and then retrieved on a flexible steel cable. A method of drilling past obstructions in a well. Lost tools. Sidewall core/sample Sidewall coring A sample of rock taken from the wall of the well's borehole.

4056. 4057. 4 4053. Sight glass A glass tube in which the height of a liquid in a tank or pressure vessel may be observed. 4051. 4054. the attendant opened the valve on the filling hose which permitted the gasoline to gravitate into the vehicle's tank. The glass tube is supported by fittings that extend through the vessel wall thus allowing the fluid in the tank to assume a corresponding level in the glass.mzhelu@gmail. Sigma Silica flour Society of independent gasoline marketers of america. Sidpp Sieve analysis shut-in drill-pipe pressure. sio2. 4055. Z.com . a silica. the determination of the percentage of particles that pass through several screens of graduated fineness. used in drilling reports. Sidewalltap or cock A small-diameter valve inserted in the wall of a tank or other vessel for drawing samples or bleeding off pressure. Sight pump An "antique" gasoline dispensing system in which the gasoline was pumped by hand into a ten-gallon glass tank atop the pump in plain sight of the customer. When the glass cylinder had been pumped full. Gravity pump. 597 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4050. ground to a fineness equal to that of portland cement.

(see directional survey. and fourble. It provides weight so that the tool can be lowered into the well properly.mzhelu@gmail.). 598 Petroleum Engineer: M. thribble. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4059. An offshore floating platform (20 to 35 feet in diameter) connected to Pipelines from the shore for loading or unloading tankers. Sinter to bond pieces of metal into a mass of metallic powder by heating them. The sbm system is anchored in deep water thus permitting large tankers to off load or "lift" cargo in areas where it is impractical to build a loading jetty or the close-in water is too shallow for deep-draft vessels. Sip shut-in pressure. 4060.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4058. Tungsten carbide inserts are often bonded to the cones of button bits by sintering when the bits are being manufactured. Compare double. Single-point mooring Single-shot survey Sinker bar Single-buoy mooring (q. 4062.) a heavy weight or bar placed on or near a lightweight wireline tool.v. 4061. 4063. used in drilling reports. 4064. Single Single-buoy mooring system a joint of drill pipe. Z.com .

roundness is very important. Sizing scraper A cylindrical. etc. out-of-round pipe is more vulnerable to collapsing pressures encountered in the hole.g. and other interested parties who literally sit waiting for the wells drill to bore into what is expected to be the producing formation. 599 Petroleum Engineer: M. On a "big well. Sitting on a well The vigil of the geologist. 4069. on small or marginal wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. There are a number of downhole tools which must be run. Siphon a bent tube of pipe through which a liquid flows.com . pumps.. the operator.mzhelu@gmail. e. 4066. plug-like toot that is pushed or pulled through a length of pipe to lost for roundness. Also. Can be pulled or carried on a truck." a very good well. And if the pipe were out of round the tools and equipment would not go down. first rising to a higher level than that of the tube of pipe inlet and then flowing downward and through. The geologist examines the cuttings brought up by the drilling mud to ascertain just when the pay zone is penetrated. Skidding the rig allows the move to be accomplished with little or no dismantling of equipment.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4065. 4068. Packers. Z. In casing and tubing which is to be run in a well. everyone knows when the pay is reached. the geologist may be the only one who recognizes it. swabs. Skid tank A product-dispensing tank mounted on skids or runners. Skid the rig to move a rig with a standard derrick from the location of a lost or completed hole preparatory to starting a new hole. 4067.

Transportable folding or jackknife rigs are seldom skidded. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 4075. 4071. Skimming plant (1) a topping plant (q. and the water is disposed of. Skid-mounted units are usually readily movable by pulling as a sled or by hoisting onto a truck. Z. The use of skids.v. often lined with concrete. Skimmer A type of oil-spill clean-up device propelled over the water that sucks or paddles oil into a tank. The minute quantities of oil are skimmed off the top of the water in the pit.mzhelu@gmail. and a truck or tractor. 4072. Skid-mounted Refers to a pumping unit or other oil field equipment that has no permanent or fixed foundation but is welded or bolted to metal runners or timber skids.) An engine and suction pump on board takes the oil off the top of the water much like a vacuum cleaner. into which water with small amounts of oil is pumped. flatbed truck.). As the boat is maneuvered to where the oil has been corralled by an oil-spill boom (q. rollers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4070. Skim pit an earthen pit. Skidding the rig Moving the derrick from one location to another without dismantling the structure. and pumps it into a tank on board. transporting the rig from a completed well to another location nearby. they are folded down to a horizontal position and moved on a large. (heavy timbers). The skimmer is mounted on a skiff or small boat. 4 4074. 600 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .

Slant rig A drilling derrick designed to drill from offshore platforms at angles of 20 to 35 degrees from the vertical. Z. canted from the vertical.) Skin effect Skinner Slab patch 4078. The slant rig. Slack off to lower a load or ease up on a line. 4077. 4076.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) a facility built alongside a creek or small stream to catch and skim off oil that. 4079. a positive value denotes formation damage and a negative value indicates improvement. Skin is expressed in dimensionless units.mzhelu@gmail. A driller will slack off to put additional weight on the bit. See mule skinner. has a 601 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4080. See half sole. 4081. The area of the formation that is damaged because of the invasion of foreign substances into the exposed section of the formation adjacent to the wellbore during drilling and completion. (see skin. The pressure drop from the outer limits of drainage to the wellbore caused by the relatively thin veneer (or skin) of the affected formation. was turned into @reeks or accidentally discharged from lease tanks or from broken pipelines. A metal patch made out of a section of pipe welded over a pitted or corroded section of pipeline.com . in the early days in some fields. 2. Skin 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Slick line (see solid wireline.mzhelu@gmail. and kelly joint-moves up and down on rails which are an integral part of the derrick. hook. With a slant rig it is possible to reach farther out from a drill platform.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering companion structure for racking the drillpipe vertically when coming out of the hole on a trip. a cemetery or industrial property where direct. 4083. See killer well. on-site drilling would be impractical or unsafe. Slant holes are drilled to reach a formation or reservoir under land that can not be drilled on. The rigs traveling equipment-block. Slant holes also are drilled to flood a formation with water or mud to kill a wild or burning well. than with a conventional rig using directional drilling techniques. When the sleeve is in place. beneath a water-supply lake. 4084. Slant well Slant-hole technique Directional well. 4085. A procedure for drilling at an angle from the vertical by means of special downhole drilling tools to guide the drill assembly in the desired direction. Sleeve fitting A collar or nipple that is slipped over a length of pipe to repair a leak caused by a split or corrosion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. particularly in relatively shallow water. the ends are welded to the pipe beyond the damaged section.com . 4082. swivel. such as a town site.) 602 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.

) 603 Petroleum Engineer: M. thereby lessening the cost of completion.) 4089. The slings. pipeline A wide. Slide valves Very large. Sliding-sleeve nipple a special device placed in a string of tubing and operated by a wireline tool to open or close orifices. Slim-hole drilling drilling in which the size of the hole is smaller than the conventional hole diameter for a given depth. A full slip would hold about one-half cubic yard. thus permitting circulation between the tubing and annulus. Slip joint (see telescoping joint. 4087. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4088. Teams and slips were used to dig slush pits and build tank dikes before the days of the bulldozer. Made from street steel. a load of earth. or to open or shut off production from alternate intervals in a well.mzhelu@gmail.com . The slip has two handles by which the teamster guides the metal scoop into the ground at a slight angle to skim oil. This decrease in hole size enables the operator to run smaller casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4086. are used to minimize scuffing or damaging the pipelines anticorrosion coating. earth-moving scoop. Slip A horse -drawn. the valves are mechanically or hydraulically operated. at the end of the boom cat's hoisting lines. box-like valves for flues and stacks. rubber and fabric sling for lowering-in or handling coated and wrapped pipe. (set miniaturized completion. 4091. 4090. Sling.

the full weight of the remaining string of pipe is held by the slips. Z. coming out of the hole with drillstring 10. Slip load The weight of the string of drillpipe. tubing or casing suspended in the drillhole by the slips (q. mix is stored. When making a trip. This is a slip load.v. Packers and other downhole equipment are secured in position by slips that engage the pipe by action directed at the surface. the traveling block and the hook will be lifting hundreds of thousands of pounds. and quite a load it is. 4094.). 4 4096.mzhelu@gmail. for example. Power slips are pneumatically or hydraulically actuated devices that allow the crew to dispense with the manual handling of slips when making a connection. a log-log rule. an instrument consisting of a ruler and a medial slide graduated with logarithmic scales used for rapid calculations. Rotary slips fit around the drill pipe and wedge against the master bushing to support the pipe. Slip stick An engineer's slide rule.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4092. 4093.000 feet long. But when one stand is above the rotary table and is being unscrewed to be set back into the derrick's pipe rack. Sloptank (1) on a products pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Slips pl wedge-shaped pieces of metal with teeth or other gripping elements that are used to prevent pipe from slipping down into the hole or to hold pipe in place. a tank where off-specification products or interface 604 Petroleum Engineer: M.

(3) any vessel used for retaining contaminated oil or water until it can be properly disposed of. carbon. see caving) a manufactured cement in which the thickening time is extended by the use of a coarser grind. 4097. 4099. Api classes n. and the addition of a chemical retarder. 605 Petroleum Engineer: M. heavy emulsion containing water. the elimination of the rapid hydrating components in its composition.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) at a marine terminal.. Sludge An oleo-like substance caused by the oxidation of oil or by contamination with other material a thick. A tank for holding the oil water mix from a vessel that has washed down its compartments. and oxidized oil. Sloughing Slow-set cement (pronounced "sluffing".mzhelu@gmail. 4100. 4098. A measured amount of liquid injected into a pipeline.com . grit. d. a batch. Z. 4101. sand. e. and f are slow-set cements. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A pipeline scraper or pig. Sludger Slug See sand pump. or other deposits. SLOWING A WELL Opening a well to let it blow for a short period to free the well tubing or casing of accumulations of water. 4102.

com .mzhelu@gmail. (2) a small slug of acid pumped into a pumping well to open up the formation as part of a well workover operation. A pipeline is the cheapest and most efficient 606 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4105. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Slugging (1) intermittent flow in a pipeline. or a slug. Slug the pipe to pump a quantity of heavy mud into the drill pipe. Before hoisting drill pipe. thus. it is desirable (if possible) to pump into its top section a quantity of heavy mud. 4107. 4104. when a stand of pipe is unscrewed. Slurry pipeline A pipeline whose primary service is carrying a mixture of crushed solids in a water or oil medium. Z. Slugging compound a special chemical demulsifier that is often added to the emulsion samples to determine the total amount of sediment and water in the samples. there it supports the casing and provides a seal in the wellbore to prevent migration of underground fluids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4103. When gas and oil are pumped in the same line. The common use of the term refers to a pipeline carrying pulverized coal in water. the oil will accumulate in low places until sufficient gas pressure builds behind it to push it out forcibly as a slug. the drilling fluid has been emptied out of it so that the crew members and the rig floor are not contaminated with the fluid. 4106. Slurry a plastic mixture of cement and water that is pumped into a well to harden. that causes the level of the fluid in the pipe to fall. also called knockout drops.

4109. expressed in pounds per gallon (ppg). Modern rotary drilling rigs are generally provided with three or more pits.) 607 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4112. 4110. valves. Slush pump (see mud pump. etc. notably coil in water. In recent years the pumping of smallparticle solids. and mud agitators. Slush pit the Mud pit in which rotary drilling cuttings are separated from the mud stream or in which mud is treated with additives or temporarily stored before being pumped back into the well. the sum of the absolute volumes of solids and liquids that constitute a slurry. 4111. has gained favor with shippers who are attracted by the pipeline's economics and safety. fluid-loss control agents. 4113.mzhelu@gmail. 4108. Slurry viscosity Slurry volume Slurry weight the consistency of a slurry. kilograms per liter (kg/liter). usually fabricated steel tanks fitted with built-in piping. as well as environmental acceptance.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering form of transportation for liquids.).com . etc. pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3). measured in poise. Z. the density of a cement slurry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Slurry yield the volume of slurry obtained when one sack of cement is mixed with the desired amount of water and additives (as accelerators.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Slush-pit launder

A wooden or metal square-sided conduit or sluice box where the bailer is dumped, the water, mud, and rock chips flushing down the launder into the slush pit. This device, a cousin to the launder used in washing ore from a mine, is part of a cable-tool drilling scene.

4115. 4116.

Slushpump Smoke point

Mud pump (q.v.).

One of the specifications on jet-engine fuel. Kerosene or jet fuel with a low smoke point is not as desirable as fuel with a high smoke point. Hydrotreating the fuel reduces the smoke or gives it a higher smoke point. This is not a contradiction, as it appears. The high and low smoke points indicate the high and low points on the wick of a testing device made like an old fashioned kerosene lamp. The higher the wick can be turned up while burning the sample of jet fuel without producing smoke, the cleaner burning it is; thus the high smoke point.


Smokeless flare

A specially constructed vertical pipe or stack for the safe disposal of hydrocarbon vapors or, in an emergency, process feed that must be disposed of. Smokeless flares are equipped with steam jets at the mouth of the stack to promote the complete combustion of the vented gases. The jets of steam induce greater air i low and cool the flame resulting in complete combustion without smoke or ash.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A member of a work gang who manages to find easy jobs to keep himself busy while the heavy work is being done by his companions. A fully occupied loafer.

4119. 4120.

Snatch block Sng

a block that can be opened up to put a line over a roller or sheave.

Synthetic natural gas; gas manufactured by various processes from coal, tar sands, or kerogen shales (q.v.). Substitute natural gas.

4121. 4122.

Sniffer Snow-bank digging

(see explosimeter.)

Colloquial expression for the relatively soft, easy drilling in sand, shales, or



To check a running line by taking a turn around a post or fixed object; to take up and hold fast the slack in a line to secure or hold on object from moving with an attached rope turned around an anchoring piece.



An ingenious rig-up of lines and blocks to push down on joints of pipe that must be put into the well through the blowout preventer stack against very high well pressure. With a special hookup, the upward pull of the rig's traveling block and hook is transmitted to lines and a yoke that push down on a joint of drillpipe, forcing it by the packing of the rams in the bop stack while 609

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the rams are holding the well pressure leak-light. After a number of joints of pipe are forced in (the joints are screwed together), their weight equals the up thrust of the well's pressure so the snubbers may be removed and the remainder of the pipe



A procedure for servicing wells that are under pressure. Tubing, packers, and other downhole tools are withdrawn from the well through a stack of rams (valve-like devices that close around pipe or tubing being withdrawn and seal off the well pressure). As each joint of tubing is withdrawn, it is unscrewed.



a tank safety device that seals the vapor vent manually and prevents vapor from escaping into a fire, thus snuffing out the flame.

4127. 4128. 4129. 4130.

So S o &g S o &w Socket

show of oil; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and gas; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and water; used in drilling reports.

(1). A hollow object or open device that fits or holds an object. (2). Any of several fishing tools used to grip the outside of a lost tool or a joint of pipe.


Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

(see carboxymethyl cellulose.)

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Sodium chloride

common table salt; sometimes used in cement slurries as an accelerator or a retarder, depending on the concentration. Chemical symbol is NaCl.

4133. 4134.

SOEP Soft rope

Sable Offshore Energy Project

Rope made of hemp, sisal. Jute, or nylon, as distinguished from wire rope which is a steel cable.

4135. 4136.

Soft water Softplug

(see hard water.)

A safety plug in a steam boiler, soft enough to give way or blow before the boiler does from excessive high pressure; the plug in an engine block that will be pushed out in case the cooling water in the block should freeze, thus preventing the ice from cracking the block.



The collection of programs used in a particular application for use in a computer. Tapes, cards, disk packs containing programs designed for a process or series of processes.



An electrical unit consisting of a coil of wire in the shape of a hollow cylinder and a moveable core. When energized by an electric current, the coil acts as a bar magnet, instantly drawing in the moveable core, a solenoid on an 611

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

automobile's starting mechanism causes the starter-motor gear to engage the toothed ring on



a uniform mixture of two or more substances. The dissolved substance is the solute; the substance in which the solute is dissolved is the solvent.


Solution gas

Natural gas dissolved and held under pressure in crude oil in a reservoir.See solution-gas field.

4141. 4142.

Solution gas-oil ratio Solution-gas drive

(see gas-oil ratio.)

a source of natural reservoir energy, in which the solution gas coming out of the oil expands to force the oil into the wellbore.


Solution-gas field

An oil reservoir deriving its energy for production from the expansion of the natural gas in solution in the oil. As wells are drilled into the reservoir. The gas in solution drives the oil into the well bore and up to the surface.



A liquid capable of absorbing another liquid, gas, or solid to form a homogeneous mixture a liquid used to dilute or thin a solution.



a logging tool assembly, especially the device in the logging assembly that senses and transmits formation data. 612

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Sonic interface-detector

A pipeline sensing "probe" for detecting the approach of a product interface by identifying the change in sound velocities between the two products being pumped. The electronic device has a probe inserted through the wall of the pipeline. Protruding into the fluid stream. The probe picks up the variations in sound velocities, and through the proper linkage proper give an audible alarm or actuate valves when the interface arrives.


Sonic logging

the recording of the time required for a sound wave to travel a specific distance through a formation. Difference in observed travel times is largely caused by variations in porosities of the medium, an important determination. The sonic log, which may be run simultaneously with a spontaneous potential log or a gamma-ray log, is useful for correlation and often is used in conjunction with other logging services for substantiation of porosities. It is run in an uncased hole.



Nitroglycerine used in "shooting" a well. Nitro in its pure form is a heavy, colorless, oily liquid made by treating glycerin with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. It is usually mixed with absorbents for easier handling. Nitro, when used in well shooting, is put in tin "torpedos," 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and lowered into the well on a line. The bottom of each torpedo can is made to nest in the top of the preceding one, so as many cans as necessary for the shot can be lowered in and stacked up, nitro is measured in quarts the size of the shot depends upon the thickness and hardness of the formation to be fractured. 613

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



containing hydrogen sulfide or caused by hydrogen sulfur or another sulfur


Sour corrosion

embrittlement and subsequent wearing away of metal, caused by contact of the metal with hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

4151. 4152. 4153. 4154.

Sour crude Sour crude oil Sour gas Sour products

sour crude oil.

oil containing hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide.

Gasolines, naphthas, and refined oils which contain hydrogen sulfide (h2s) or other sulfur compounds. Sourness is directly connected with odor.


Sour-service trim

A designation by manufacturers of oil field fittings and equipment that their products have finishes resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide (h2s) and other corrosive a agents in "sour" oil and gas. See sour gas.


Source rocks

Sedimentary formations where nearly all the world's petroleum has been found. Nearly 60 percent of the world's petroleum reserves are in sandstone the other 40 percent are in limestone, dolomite, et al. 614

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Source station

a pump station at a pipeline junction by which oil is pumped from a main line into a branch or lateral line.

4158. 4159.

Sp Spacers and washes

self-potential or spontaneous potential.

Specially formulated fluids for removing drilling mud from a well's borehole just ahead of the cement in a downhole cementing job. It is essential to a good cement job that the mud be removed and the wall of the hole be clean to ensure a good bond between cement and the wall. Spacers are thick fluids which displace the drilling mud ahead of the cement in a slug or piston-like manner, owing to the fluid's high viscosity and weight differential. Washes are much thinner fluids which separate the drilling mud from the cement being purred downhole and simultaneously remove the coating of mud left on the formations. This is accomplished through a combination of turbulent and surfactant action.

4160. 4161.

Spacing Spacing clamp

(see well spacing.)

a clamp used to hold the rod string in pumping position when the well is in the final stages of being put back on the pump.


Spacing pattern

Geographic subdivision established by government authority, usually state, defining the number of acres to be allotted to each well drilled in a reservoir. 615

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

This is a conservation measure for it is generally agreed that increased recovery from a reservoir is not a function of the number of wells drilled. One oil well on 40 acres is a general rule, in some states. But there are many exceptions. Gas wells, one or two to a section (640 acres), depending upon well depth, producing formation, and other factors.

4163. 4164. 4165.

Spaghetti Spd Spe

tubing or pipe with a very small diameter.

spudded; used in drilling reports.

society of petroleum engineers. (see aime.) a fishing tool used to retrieve pipe lost in a well. The spear is lowered down the hole and into the lost pipe, and, when weight, torque, or both are applied to the string to which the spear is attached, the slips in the spear expand and tightly grip the inside of the wall of the lost pipe. Then the string, spear, and lost pipe are pulled to the surface.

4166. 4167.

Spearhead Spears

(see preflush.)

Fishing tools for retrieving pipe or cable lost in the borehole. Some spears resemble harpoons with fixed spurs, others have retractable or releasing type spurs.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Specific gravity

the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance at the same temperature. For example, if 1 in3 of water at 39 f weighs 1 unit and 1 in.' of another solid or liquid at 39 f weighs 0.95 unit, then the specific gravity of the substance is 0.95. In determining the specific gravity of gases, the comparison is made with the standard of air or hydrogen. (see gravity.)


Specific heat

the amount of heat required to cause a unit increase in temperature in a unit mass of a substance, expressed as numerically equal to the number of calories needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 c.


Speed droop

the number of revolutions per minute that an engine slows down from running at maximum, no-load speed to running at maximum, full-load speed. Usually expressed as a percentage, speed droop should not exceed 7 percent.



of a substance whose strength or merit has been exhausted in a process. For example, after a well has been acidized, any acid that remains in the well is said to be a spent acid because its strength has been used up in the acidizing process.


Spherical blowout preventer

A large, barrel-shaped well closure mechanism attached to the top of the well's casing. Its purpose is to close around the drillpipe in the event of a severe gas kick or threatened blowout. When the preventer's closing 617

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

mechanism is hydraulically actuated, pressure is applied to a piston which moves upward, forcing the packing element to extend into the well bore and around the drillpipe in a pressure-tight seal. Should the spherical preventer be damaged or for some reason not hold pressure, rams in the bop stack below can also be closed on the pipe to hold the pressure until the well is killed (the pressure is equalized) by the injection of heavier drilling mud.



As it applies to the industry, a spheroid is a steel storage tank in the shape of a sphere flattened at both "poles," designed to store petroleum products, mainly lp-gases, under pressure. See hortonsphere.



a circular steel device that holds slips supporting a suspended string of drill pipe, casing, or tubing.



The hinged, latching device attached to the elevators (the hoisting arms that lift pipe and casing in the derrick). An elevator spider is a unit attached to the travelling-block hook for hoisting pipe, casing, and tubing out of the hole and lowered in. The spider is manually locked around a length of tubing just below the tool joint. Some advanced types of elevator spiders are air operated.



To screw one stand of drillpipe or tubing rapidly into another with a spinning Chain (q.v.). After making up the joint in this manner, the heavy pipe tongs are applied to make the joint fight. 618

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



The name of the gusher brought in by capt. Anthony lucas, near beaumont, texas, in 1902. The well, the first important producer ever drilled with Rotary tools, blew in (literary) and produced, at the rate of 75.000 to 100,0000 barrels day.


Spinner survey

a production-logging method that uses a small propeller turned by fluid movement. By use of a recording arrangement, the number of turns of the propeller can be related to the fluid quantity flowing past the instrument to obtain a production log.


Spinning cathead

a spooling attachment on the makeup cathead to permit use of a spinning chain to spin up or make up drill pipe.


Spinning chain

a y-shaped chain used to spin up (tighten) one joint of drill pipe into another. In use, one end of the chain is attached to the tongs, another end to the spinning cathead, and the third end is free. The free end is wrapped around the tool-joint and the cathead pulls the chain off the joint, causing the joint to spin (turn) rapidly and tighten up. After the chain is pulled off the joint, the tongs are secured in the same spot, and continued pull on the chain (and thus on the tongs) by the cathead makes the joint up to final tightness.


Spinning tongs

See spinning wrench.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Spinning wrench

An air-operated drillpipe or tubing wrench used in place of the spinning chain (q.v.) And the winch-powered tongs. After the joint of pipe is stabbed into the toot joint or collar, the air wrench is latched on and spins the pipe in and applies a measured or fixed amount of torque, thus ensuring the equal tightening of all joints.


Spirally grooved drill collar

a drill collar with a round cross section that has a long continuous groove or flute machined helically into its outer surface. The spiraled groove provides space between the wall of the hole and the body of the collar, minimizing the area of contact between the hole wall and collar; thus the possibility of differential pressure sticking is reduced.

4184. 4185.

Splash box Splash zone

(see mother hubbard.)

the area on an offshore structure that is regularly wetted by seawater but is not continuously submerged. Metal in the splash zone must be well-protected from the corrosive action of seawater and air.



to join two parts of a rope or wireline by interweaving individual strands of the line together. Unlike a knot, a splice does not significantly increase the diameter of the line at the point where the parts are joined.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Split sleeve

A type of pipeline repair clamp made in two halves that bolt together to form a pressure tight seal over a hole or split in the pipe. Split sleeves also are made to enclose leaking valves and flanges until they can be permanently repaired.

4188. 4189.

Split-level drilling rig Spm

See drilling rig, split- level

Strokes per minute; indicates the speed or pumping rate of reciprocating


Sponge oil

A type of lean oil (q.v.) Used in refinery absorber columns to absorb light petroleum fractions or a fighter lean oil that has vaporized in an upstream process.



An air chamber along the sides of a barge or small ship to increase buoyancy and stability. Sponsons are used on crane barges for additional buoyancy and to minimize listing when heavy, off-side lifts are being made with the crane.


Spontaneous potential

(sp) one of the basic electric-logging curves obtained by measuring natural earth currents; also called self-potential but referred to as 'sp'.


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For example. spoof pieces are used to connect a seabed i low line to a platform riser. the proper angles or they may include a valve or other fittings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4193. A cylindrical device with a rim at each end on which wireline is wound.com . 2. S p ool 1. Spools. Spool piece A short section of piping specially cut to join the ends of two pipelines lying at unusual attitudes to each other in tight. used in christmas tree assemblies to separate and support the various valves iii the stack. flanged on both ends. 4195. Spools act as spacers for the valves in the blowout preventer. Difficult-to-reach places. In undersea work. Spool pieces are difficult to measure and cut because of the pitch and yaw angle of the pipes to be joined. 622 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Spool pieces may either be a simple nipple with the ends cut a. Z. 4194. casing and tubing Short-length castings. a drum. 10 bbl of diesel oil may be spotted around an area in the hole in which drill collars are stuck against the wall of the hole in an effort to free the collars. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. S p ot to pump a designated quantity of a substance (as acid or cement) into a specific interval in the well. to wind or roll onto a spool or drum. 4196. A flanged joint placed between two blowout preventers to provide a space for a tool joint. or two undersea lines.

the spread is a concentration of the equipment for the work. 623 Petroleum Engineer: M. as compared to long-term charter rates.) Who can obtain certain quantities of oil for a price and for a one-time sale. 4200. Spot market sales (1) the term applied to sales of crude oil or products on one time basis and usually at prices above the going rite or world prices. Spread A contractor's men and equipment assembled to do a major construction job. Spot charter rates fluctuate.v.mzhelu@gmail. (2) sales of domestic crude oil by major produces to independent refiners from the majors temporary over production or surplus. 4199. or other jobs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the stud duck.com . Often these sales are arranged by an oil broker (q. a "spread' may be literal. These spot sales usually are intermittent and often at prices somewhat below the posted prices. 4198. Spread boss The person in charge of men and equipment on a large pipeline or other construction project. As the men and equipment are strung out along the right of way for several miles.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4197. On well workover. widely with demand and availability of tonnage. Spot charter tanker rates The cost per ton to move crude oil product by tanker from one port to another on a one-time basis. Z.

Spud to move the drill stem up and down in the hole over a short distance without rotation.com . machinery. chain. coil.. rather than teeth. compressed spring is to close a valve after being opened by a momentary greater force (a pop-off or relief valve). Spread mooring system a system of rope.) 4204. sticky formations. Careless execution of this operation creates pressure surges that can cause a formation to break down. 624 Petroleum Engineer: M. Spring loaded Refers to an item of equipment. a machine's working part to assume its original position after being acted upon for a split instant by a larger force. This stored-up energy of the. (spiral. to start the hole. A spring .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4201.g. e. 4203. exerts a pressure or force against whatever is compressing it equal to the compressive force. or leaf) which. 4202. 4205. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Spud in to begin drilling. (see spud in. or combination of the two attached to anchors on the ocean floor and winches on the structure to keep a floating vessel near a fixed location on the sea surface. which results in lost circulation. Spud bit a special kind of drilling bit with sharp blades.automobile's exhaust and intake valves after being opened by the engine's push rods and rocker arms. When compressed.mzhelu@gmail. Z. or valve incorporating one or more springs to effect an action or motion. The instantaneous closing of an . It is sometimes used for drilling soft.

used to control the straightness or direction of the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4208. Z. 4210. Squ Square drill collar squeeze. sometimes mounted on a truck or trailer. a cementing operation in which cement is pumped behind the casing under high pressure to recement channeled areas or to block off an uncemented zone.Square but with rounded edges. forcing cement to the bottom of the casing 625 Petroleum Engineer: M. a special drill collar. Squeeze a well A technique to seal off with cement a section of the well bore where a leak or incursion of water or gas occurs. on each side. Spudder Spur line a portable cable-tool drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail.com . an oil pipeline that picks up oil from the gathering lines of several oil fields and delivers it to a main line or trunk line. Square meter (m2)a unit of metric measure of an area equal to a square that measures 1 m 4213. 4207. 4211. used in drilling reports. 4212. square.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4206. often part of a packed-hole assembly. Sq Sqeeze 4209.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and up the annular space between the casing and the will of the borehole to seal off a formation or plug a leak in the casinghead a. freeing the producing interval of sand and silt. a locking device is actuated to seat the joints. Squnch joint a special threadless tool joint for large-diameter pipe. Ss sand or sandstone. repair casing leaks. 4218.) 4215. When the box is brought down over the pin and weight is applied. squeeze job. 4216. seal off water. Squeeze job Squib shot See squeeze a will. used to isolate a producing formation." 4217.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a small explosive charge may be set of. especially conductor pipe. 626 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4214. sometimes used on offshore drilling rigs. It is a secondary-cementing method. their use can save time when the conductor pipe is being run. and so forth. Because no rotation is required to make up these joints.com . Squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry by pressure to specified points in a well to cause seals at the points of squeeze. Z. A small charge of nitroglycerin set off in the bottom of a well as part of a workover operation after cleaning out a well.' to 'wake up the well. (see cementing. used in drilling reports.

saybolt seconds universal. pumping of the cement downhole begins. Sso Sstt Ssu Ssu & ssf Stab slight show of oil.) Seconds saybolf universal and seconds saybolt furol (q. and reaches the surface.000ton deck-load capacity. to guide the end of a pipe into a coupling or tool joint when making up a 4225. Stab-in cementing (of a well) A method of cementing large-diameter casing in the borehole in which cement is pumped down through the drillpipe.000 feet of water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4219.000-ton displacement.com . filling the annular space. This displaces the cement to the bottom of the tubing. Ss. 4220. (see saybolt viscometer. 2. 4222. Stab-in cementing uses less cement than 627 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. cement pumping is stopped and water and drilling mud are started down the pipe behind the cement. and capable of drilling in 2.mzhelu@gmail. connection. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. subsea test tree.).2000 The designation for the class of semisubmersible drilling platforms (the largest built to date 1979) which are of 18. used in drillingReports. The drilipipe is landed in a special casing shoe at the bottom of the casing. 4221. 4224. When the drillpipe is locked into the casing shoe.v. 4223. When the cement works its way up the outside of the casing.

mzhelu@gmail. The board may be wooden or fabricated of steel girders floored with antiskid material and powered electrically to raise or lower it to the desired level. 4227. Stabbing jack Stability (see jack board. 4229. 4226. 628 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The floorman (roughneck) centers the joint of pipe being lowered into the tool joint (q. (3) on a drilling rig. Stabber (1) a pipeline worker who holds one end of a joint of pipe and aligns it so that it may be screwed into the collar of the preceding joint. the pipeline stabber worked only half a day because of the exhausting nature of his work. (2) on a pipe-welding crew. A stabbing board serves the same purpose as a monkeyboard or safety platform but is temporary instead of permanent.) the ability of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig to return to an upright position when it has rolled to either side by an external force (as waves).com . the stabber works the line-up clamps or line-up mandrel.v. The derrickman or another crew member works on the board while casing is being run in a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering pumping down the casing and minimizes contamination at the cement/drilling mud interface. Before the days of the welded line. 4228. Stabbing board a temporary platform erected in the derrick or mast 20 to 40 ft above the derrick floor. Z.).

629 Petroleum Engineer: M. Stabilizer (1). A vessel in which hydrocarbon vapors are separated from liquids.mzhelu@gmail. 4235. (see packed-hole assembly.) to store a drilling rig on completion of a job when the rig is to be withdrawn from operation for a time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4230. Z. Stabilizer sleeve A bushing the size of the borehole inserted in the drill column to help maintain a vertical hole. If the rig is transportable. stabilizers are used to maintain correct hole angle.) 4232.) (2). 4231. Stable emulsion Stack Stack a rig (see emulsion.) (see blowout premier. A tool placed near the bit and often above it in the drilling assembly and used to change the deviation angle in a well by controlling the location of the contact point between the hole and drill collars. (the lugs protrude from the body of the sleeve. The bushing or sleeve can be the fixed or rotating type with permanent or replaceable wings or lugs. Conversely. it is folded down and made ready to move. 4234. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to hold the bit on course.com . Stack the tools Pulling the drillpipe and laying it down (stacking outside the derrick) in preparation for skidding or dismantling the derrick. making contact with the wall of the hole. 4233.

and so forth. A section of drillpipe or tubing (one. or drillpipe.mzhelu@gmail. Stage separation is an efficient process in that a high percentage of the light ends of the fluid are conserved. The operating pressure of each succeeding separator is lower than the one preceding it. Staked lime Stalks Stand of pipe (see hydrated lime.com . Stage separation an operation in which well fluids. pumps.) Colloquialism for joints of line pipe. Stake a well to precisely locate on the surface the point at which a well is to be drilled. 4239. a certified and registered land surveyor drives a stake into the ground to mark the spot where the well is to be drilled. cooling systems. treating systems. tubing. two.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4236. 4241. are separated into liquid and gaseous components by passing consecutively through two or more separators. or three-sometimes four joints) unscrewed from the string as a unit and racked in the derrick. 4237. After exploration techniques have revealed the possibility of the existence of a subsurface hydrocarbon-bearing formation. usually under pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4238. The height of 630 Petroleum Engineer: M. in a series with another unit or units of like design to improve operating efficiency and results. 4240. Staging the placement of compressors. Z.

Portable workover rigs are usually fitted with a mast that holds stands about 60 ft long (doubles). Z. Standard cubic foot of gas The volume of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14.65 pounds per square inch absolute and a temperature of 60'f. which is pre-assembled.7 psia. 4244. Stand tubing to support tubing in the derrick or mast when it is out of the well rather than laying it on a rack.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Standard derrick a derrick that is built piece by piece at the drilling location as opposed to a jackknife mast. 4242. equivalent to 4246. Standard derricks have been replaced almost totally by jackknife masts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the derrick determines the number of joints that can be unscrewed in one "stand of pipe. 14. 5 c) as its standard temperature during measurement 631 Petroleum Engineer: M. Standard temperature a predetermined temperature used as a basic measurement. 4243. 4245. Volumes of gas re bought and sold corrected to the standard pressure and temperature.mzhelu@gmail. The petroleum industry uses 60 f (1 5." See doubles. Standard pumping rig A conventional pumping unit consisting of an engine or electric motor operating a walking beam which raises and lowers the sucker rods in an up and down pumping action. Standard pressure the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high. 4247.

4251. 4253. Compare double and fourble. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Standard tools Standby rig time See cable tools. Conversion is aided by the use of api conversion tables. Payment made during the period of time when the drilling rig is shut down awaiting a decision from the lease owner and other interested parties whether or not drilling is to continue. 4249. The volume of a quantity of oil at its actual temperature (assuming it is not 60 f) is converted to the volume the oil would occupy at 60 f. the distance a jet or bullet must travel in the wellbore before encountering the wall of the hole. Z.v. 4248. 4252. On a rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of oil. the usual stand is 90 ft long (three lengths of pipe screwed together) or a thribble. The standing valve and its cage do not move as does the traveling valve. Standoff in perforating.mzhelu@gmail.) The standpipe extends part way up the derrick and connects to the mud hose which is connected to he gooseneck (a curved pipe) of the swivel. 4250. 632 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . Stands the connected joints of pipe racked in the derrick or mast when making a trip. Standing valve a fixed ball and scat valve at the lower end of the working barrel of a suckerrod pump. Standpipe The pipe that conveys the drilling mud form the mud pump to the swivel (q.

4258.). a complex carbohydrate sometimes added to drilling fluids to reduce filtration 4256. (3) a guy wire. (2) a line used to actuate part of a device or mechanism when the line is pulled. 633 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4257. any wire or line.v.com . loss. A pump whose capacity or pumping rate is greater in volume of fluid being fed into it is being "starved".mzhelu@gmail. Static pressure the force exerted by a fluid that is at rest and confined within a tank or line as measured by a gauge. Static fluid level the level to which fluid rises in a well when the well is shut in. the other end attacted to an upright construction for support. which can cause cavitation (q. Starve a pump To have insufficient suction head at the pump's intake connection.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4254. Static line (1) a wire line to drain off or ground static electricity that may have built up from friction in a vehicle or its content. an anchored line for stabilizing a pole. or a-frame. as the static line which is attached to jumper's parachute and to the plane to open the chute. net positive. 4255. Starboard Starch (nautical) the right side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow).) Particularly in rotary and centrifugal pumps. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See suction head.v. one end anchored to a deadman (q. rig. a grounding line for gasoline transports to prevent arcing or static charges when unloading.

com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4259. Steam pump A reciprocating pump that receives its poweer from big -pressure steam. The water from the coded and condensed steam is pumped out of the well with the oil and separated at e surface. standard. Z. stock tank barrels per day. 4263. 4261. see heavy oil process(hop). 4266. stock tank barrel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4265. Station keeping S tb Stb/d S td S td s Steam Steam flooding See dynamic stationing. 4262. used in drilling reports. Pressure steam is injected into an oil formation to heat the oil. driving them 634 Petroleum Engineer: M. A secondary or tertiary oil recovery method in which superheated high. 4260. water in its gaseous state. to reduce its viscosity so it will separate from the oil sand and drain into the well bore.mzhelu@gmail. stands. 4264. Steam is piped into the pump's steam chest an from there it is admitted to the power cylinder where it arts upon the pump's power pistons.

4270. In the 1920s and 30s vast tank firms of sleet tankage were filled with crude 635 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A device on a steam line designed to trap air and water condensate and automatically bleed the air and drain the water from the system with a minimum loss of steam pressure.com . Steam rigs have been replaced almost totally by mechanical or electric rigs. Steel storag Refers to the storage of crude oil and products in above-ground steel Tanks. 4271. Steam soak Steam trap See steam flooding. a malleable alloy of iron and carbon that also contains appreciable amounts of manganese and other elements. 4269. 4268. Steam rig a rotary drilling rig on which steam engines operate as prime movers. see pump simplex. 4273. Steaming plant Steel See treating plant. Z. Steel reef Refers to the artificial "reels" fromed by the substructures of offshore drilling and production platforms that attract a variety of marine life from barnacles and algae to many kinds of fish.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to and fro as the steam valves open and close. Highpressure steam is furnished by a boiler plant located near the rig. The fluid end of the pump is driven by the steam pistons. 4272. 4267.

Stile Steps made for walking up and over a fence or other obstruction. In a few years. See gas welding. Stick-electrode welding Electric-arc welding in which the welding rod or electrode is hand-held as compared to automatic to automatic. 636 Petroleum Engineer: M.and store it in 55. the oil stayed in the ground until the market could handle it. Steel-tooth bit Step-out well (see roller-cone bit.com . Still any vessel in which hydrocarbon distillation is effected. the restriction of production by state regulatory bodies. came into effect sharply reducing the amount of oil stored on tank farms. Under prorationing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. prorationing. 4274. however.mzhelu@gmail.) a well drilled adjacent to or near a proven well to ascertain the limits of the reservoir.000-barrel tanks. an outpost well. 4275. See cattle guard. where it was set afire by lightning and suffered great losses through evaporation. stiles are used on farms and fenced leases to get to the other side without going through a gate. which was the going size in those days. 4276. Made in the shape of the letter a. 4278.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering oil. 4277. The market could not absorb all of the country's production but oil still flowed from the wells as each operator or company tried to produce as much oil as possible-.

the stinger controls the conformation of the pipe as it leaves the barge. The vapors are then condensed into a liquid product. used in drilling reports.). No distillation or fractionation takes place in the still proper.v. or nitro shooting). 4281.) 4282. Z. similar to certain kinds of heat exchangers. There are two main chambers in a pipe still one where the oil is preheated by flue gases (the convection chamber).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4279. 4280. Still. the radiant-heat chamber where oil is raised to the required temperature. S tn stain. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The hot oil is piped to a bubble tower or fractionation tower where the oil flashes or vaporizes. Stimulation any process undertaken to enlarge old channels or create new ones in the producing formation of a well (e. Acidizing. 637 Petroleum Engineer: M. the other. formation fracturing. On a reel-type lay barge where the coiled pipe is straightened before being laid over the end of the barge.. pipe A type of distillation unit in which oil to be heated passes through pipes or tubes in the form of a flat coil. Still. 4283. (see acidize. Stinger The pipe guide at the laying-end of a lay barge (q.mzhelu@gmail.com . shell The oldest and simplest form of a distillation sti11 a closed vessel in which crude oil is heated and the resulting vapors conducted away to be condensed into a liquid product.g.

S to p c o c k A type of plug valve usually installed on a small-diameter piping pet cock.com . an adjustable frame holding a set of steel dies or cutting teeth that is clamped over the end of the pipe to be threaded. When the valve is turned a quarter turn to shut it off. Stock and dies A device for making threads on the end of a joint of pipe or length of rod. 4288. cutting away excess metal. When properly aligned the dies are Rotated clockwise in the flame. 4289.mzhelu@gmail. preventing a freeze up in cold weather. 4286. a small port or hole in the valve body is uncovered. Stop-and-waste valve A type of plug valve that when in a closed position drains the piping above or beyond it. Stop-and-waste valves are used mainly on small-diameter water piping. Stock tank Stock-tank oil a crude oil storage tank. S to p A common term for a type of plug valve used on lease tanks an d lowpressure gravity systems. leaving course of threads. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4284. 4287. Stock-tank oil lacks much of the dissolved gas present at reservoir pressure and temperatures. 4285. Z. Permitting water above the valve to drain out. 638 Petroleum Engineer: M. oil as it exists at atmospheric conditions in a stock tank.

12-inch or smaller mud is packed in the end of the line to dim up the drainage. Storage gas 639 gas that is stored in an underground reservoir. when the line is repaired the pump is started and the mud plug is pushed along inside the line. 4291.mzhelu@gmail. 4293. When the repair is made. The sphere effectively fills the line and makes a good dam.com . Z. Stopcocking Shutting in wells periodically to permit a buildup of gas pressure in the formations and then opening the wells for production at intervals. an inflatable rubber sphere is inserted in the cut line and inflated with compressed air. Storage Facilities Facilities used for storing natural gas. But when the pipe is cut some oil may still be draining from a higher level of the line. for example. Petroleum Engineer: M. Stoppel A plug inserted in a pipeline to stop the flow of oil while repairs are being made a specially designed plug inserted in a pipeline through the use of a tapping machine (q.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4290. the pump is shut down and the line is drained as completely as possible. It disintegrates and will end up either in a storage tank or at a scraper trap. cutting out a short section of the pipe.). pumping is resumed and the inflated sphere is pushed ahead to take-off point just as a batching sphere (q.). On largediameter lines. On small-diameter lines. To block this drainage a stoppel or plug is put in. In making a pipeline repair. They generally come in two forms gaseous storage facilities and liquified natural gas (LNG) storage facilities. 4292. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Gaseous storage facilities are usually salt caverns or depleted natural gas or crude oil reservoirs.v.

some are 100 feet in diameter and 900 feet deep.mzhelu@gmail. the well is wide open. Jug-shaped cavities are leached or washed out of salt beds using super-heated water under pressure. 4295. 4296. salt-bed Storelease a tank in which oil is stored pending transfer to a pipeline or purchase. hundred-year See hundred-year storm conditions. the resulting underground caverns. Storage tank Storage. bay. Z. See salt-bed storage. the tubing valve acts as an automatic shut-off in the event there is damage to the control valve or the christmas tree. 640 Petroleum Engineer: M. A preprinted lease form (bought at the store) with blanks to be filled in by the parties to the lease. are ideal storage wells for petroleum products. 4299. Storm conditions. 4297. Should the flow valves be damaged or be torn away by a storm or other cause. Primarily used on offshore. See salt-bed storage.com . 4298. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. shutting the well in completely. Storm choke A safety valve installed in the wells tubing below the surface to shut the well in when the flow of oil reaches a predetermined rate. Storage jug The name applied to underground salt cavities for the storage of lp-gases and other petroleum products. Or town site locations. It is at this moment that the high-pressure stream activates the storm choke. Flowing full stream.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4294.

selective testing of an interval or formation by the use of two packers.) 4303. Z.000 feet of 10-inch pipe can be carried on the massive reel and payed out like a giant hawser as the barge moves through the water at about a mile an hour. (see packer. 4302.v. 4301.mzhelu@gmail. A reel barge can lay as much pipe in an hour or so as can be welded and laid from a conventional lay barge in a day. 4304.) May be of short duration as in the north sea or in the extremely hostile environment of arctic waters. A straddle packer may be used to isolate sections of open hole to be treated or tested or to isolate certain areas of perforated casing from the rest of the perforated section.v. Straddle plant Straddle test See on-line plant. over the stinger (q.) And onto the sea floor. Adding one joint at a time (as in building a stovepipe) in laying an offshore pipeline from a weld-and-lay barge. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. one above and one below the zone being tested.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4300. This capability is very important where "weather windows" (q. On some of the largest reel barges 12.com . Stove oil Stovepipe method (laying pipe) A fight fuel oil or kerosene used in certain kinds of wickless-burner stoves. Straddle packer two packers separated by a spacer of variable length. In contrast. 641 Petroleum Engineer: M. reel-barge pipe laying is done by unreeling a spool of pipe over the stern of the reel barge.

or processing plants. without the use of pressure or catalysts. Strap in to measure a length of pipe as it is run into the hole.) 4311.com . a refinery. Z. (see gauging tables. 4307. pot An inline strainer used to catch and hold debris being pumped through a pipeline in a products line. Straight hole a hole that is drilled vertically or nearly vertically so that no part of the hole is more than 3 degrees off the vertical per 100 ft of hole. an instrument used to measure minute distortions caused by stress forces in mechanical components.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4305. Straight run Refers to a petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil. The strainer is flanged and is bolted into a pipeline. 4308. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Strainer. the simple vaporization and condensation of a petroleum fraction.mzhelu@gmail. 4310. 4309. Strap to measure and record the dimensions of oil tanks to prepare a tank table to determine accurately the volume of oil in a tank at any measured depth. Strain Strain gauge to effect a change of form or size as a result of the application of a stress. 4306. 642 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Strat test a well that is drilled primarily to obtain geological information and that is usually not completed even if commercial quantities of petroleum are found. The caches of crude are located in various areas across the country.) 4317. 4315. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 4313. and computing deadwood (q. Crude oil stored in underground formations and scaled caverns as a fuel reserve in the event of a national emergency or a prolonged oil embargo by foreign suppliers. their porosity. 4316.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4312.) Are made from these.) 643 Petroleum Engineer: M.). (see strata. Stratification natural layering or lamination characteristic of sediments and sedimentary rocks.measurements. Stratigraphic test (see strat test. Strapping Measuring a tank with the use of a steel tape to arrive at its volume Strapping involves measuring the circumference at intervals. Stratigpaphic test hole A hole drilled to gather information about a stratigraphic formation. and permeability.v. top to bottom. 4318. steel thickness. Tank tables (q. Strata Strategic Petroleum reserves distinct. usually parallel beds of rock. 4314. An individual bed is a stratum. the general character of the rocks.com . height. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v.

when applied to an object. composition. Stratigraphic trap A type of reservoir (q. and succession of rock strata. Stream day includes an allowance for regular downtime. To have a well in a producing reservoir. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stress a force that. Stream day An operating day on a process unit as opposed to a calendar day.) Stratum Straw in the cider barrel 4322. (see strata. distribution.mzhelu@gmail. 4321. ignoring regular downtime for turnarounds or for other reasons. Strike (see formation strike. Stratigraphy Geology that deals with the origin. 4323. 4324.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4319. or a break in its continuity--which forms the trap or reservoir. Stream day computations include only days the plant was on stream. 4320. In computing a plant's throughput on a daily basis.) 644 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Capable of holding oil or gas.v. formed by a change in the characteristics of the formation-loss of porosity and permeability. distorts or deforms it. calendar days would include lime not on the line and therefore give a distorted result.com . or to have an interest in a well in a producing field.

(2) a good well. a textile-covered fuse with a core of very high explosive. to make a strike is to find oil in commercial quantities. 645 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.) A welding term that refers to the first bead or course of molten metal put on by the welder as two joints of line pipe are welded together. or drill pipe run into a hole.com . a hit. String-shot back-off Stringer bead (see string shot. tubing. One end of the line is secured to the hoisting drum and the other to the derrick substructure. the casing string. String up to thread the drilling line through the sheaves of the crown block and traveling block. Strike (1) the angle of inclination from the horizontal of an exposed strata of rock.mzhelu@gmail. String shot an explosive device that uses primacord. to create an explosive jar inside stuck pipe or tubing to back off the pipe at the joint immediately above the stuck point. (see shot. 4327. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4331. Strike plate an extra piece of metal placed on the bottom of an oil storage tank to protect it from the repeated striking of the plumb bob at the end of the gauger's tape.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4325. 4328. See pipeline welding. String the entire length of casing.) 4329. Compare drill string and drill stem. 4330. 4326.

and the exposed sucker rod is then backed off and removed.com . 4333.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4332. After "doubling" the sections of pipe are hauled to the job and strung along the right of way. Strip To disassemble. On large-diameter pipelines two joints are welded together in a "doubling yard" (q. Screwing or welding the joints together to form a pipeline. coated and wrapped and two joints welded together. Strip chart In lieu of the circular chart for recording gas flow through an orifice meter. as long as 35 to 40 feet. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 646 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. need not be changed more than once a month it the operator desires. Strip charts. An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project Where the pipe is unloaded from railway flatcars. 4334.. Tubing must be stripped over the rods a joint at a time. i. permitting more accurate readings. the speed at which the long chart moves through the meter is adjustable so the recording of fluctuations in gas flow may be spread out. to remove liquid components from a gas stream.e.). 4335. Strip a well to pull rods and tubing from a well at the same time. Also. Z. to dismantle for the purpose of inspection and repair.mzhelu@gmail. See also stripping the pipe. Stringing pipe Placing joints of pipe end to end along a pipeline right of way in preparation for laying. Strip charts are sometimes used.

4338. Stripped gas Stripper a processed gas from which liquefied hydrocarbons have been removed.” water from knockout drums. a well producing less than 10 barrels a day. closed. Stripper rubber (1). Strip pipe (1). Stripper head a blowout prevention device consisting of a gland and packing arrangement bolted to the wellhead.mzhelu@gmail.) 4341. Z. To remove the drill stem from the hole while the blowout preventers are (2). a tower for the physical removal of contaminants from “sour water. Stripper tower.com . condensates from accumulators. 4339. 4337.s. To pull the drill stem and the washover pipe out of the hole at the same time. An oil well in the final stages of production. The pressure-sealing element of a stripper blowout preventer. In 1978 there were nearly 400. producing 20 percent of the country's oil. and 647 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4340.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4336. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Most stripper wells are pumped only a few hours a day. sour-water A refinery vessel. (2). (see stripper head. A rubber disk surrounding drill pipe or tubing that removes mud as the pipe is brought out of hole.000 stripper wells in the u. It is often used to seal the annular space between tubing and casing.

Strks Structural mast streaks. used in drilling reports. through a wellhead plug equipped with a hydraulic closure mechanism (ram) that maintains pressure contact with the pipe being withdrawn. a portable mast constructed of angular as opposed to tubular steel members. 4343. Stripping job the simultaneous pulling of rods and tubing when the sucker-rod pump or rods are frozen in the tubing string.) 648 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4346. The pipe is “stripped” by withdrawing it. Stripper wheel A hand wheel which is attached to the upper rod in a string of sucker rods in the well to unscrew them. Stripping the well To pull the rods and tubing from the well at the same time. The job of removing drillpipe or tubing from a well under pressure. a stand” at a time. 4342. 4344.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4345. 4347. The tubing must be “stripped” over the rods. while maintaining control of the well. Stripping plant Stripping the pipe See gasol no plant.com . (see jackknife mart.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering other processing units. 4348. Z. before it undergoes biological treatment or is discharged in the plant’s waste-water system. a joint at a time.

casing. or tubing that has inadvertently become lodged immovably in the hole.mzhelu@gmail. 4353. and faulting of different kinds form structural traps. a wrench-like device attached to one threaded end of a stud bolt without damaging the threads.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4349. 4355. Stuck pipe drill pipe. 4350. An auxiliary fine attached to an existing fine by use of a tap saddle (q. Structure Subsurface folds or fractures of rock layers which may form a reservoir capable of holding oil or gas. A mechanical device for driving or screwing stud bolts into a bored and threaded hole. Structure contour map Stub line See contour map. 4352. 4354. or when the drill pipe is being hoisted. drill collars. the other end of 649 Petroleum Engineer: M. when casing is being run in the hole. salt domes. Anticlines. Z. Stuck point Stud driver the depth in the hole at which the drill stem. When torque is applied. 4351.v.) Or by welding on a nipple or other fitting. or casing is stuck. tubing. It may occur when drilling is in progress. See stratigraphic trap. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Structural trap A type of reservoir containing oil and/or gas formed by movements of the earth’s crust which seal off the oil and gas accumulation in the reservoir forming a trap.

across the shorter dimension of the link to prevent kinking and deformation under load. bent sub.) 4361. threaded piece of pipe used to adapt parts of the drill stem that otherwise cannot be screwed together because of differences in thread size or design.) 650 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. (2). Z. bumper sub. Submersible (see submersible drilling rig. the big boss. Drill-press or air motors. and kelly saver sub. Sub (1).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the bolt screws into the hole. lifting nipple.com .). A threaded device made up in the drill stem that serves some special purpose. saver sub. 4359. 4357. A short.v. Simple stud drivers are hand held. 4358. Stuffing box A packing gland a chamber or “box” to hold packing material compressed around a moving pump rod or valve stem by a “follower” to prevent the escape or gas or liquid. manifold or vessel and make the connection by cutting a hole in the existing installation and welding on a nipple or other fitting. or stud. But for large jobs they can be adaoted for impact wrenches (q. Studin To attach a line (usually of smaller diameter) to an existing line. Stud duck Stud-link chain Top man. (nautical) an anchor chain on which each link has a bar. 4356. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (see junk sub. 4360.

or adjust wellhead connections. submersible. In cooperation with shell oil company. (see formation testing.) 651 Petroleum Engineer: M. Submersible pump Subsea completion system See pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4362. Z. Of necessity.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. When on location. repair. most submersible rigs are used only in shallow waters. 4363. One type of modular unit is lowered from a tender and fastened to a special steel. the vessels hull is submerged by flooding its compartments leaving the derrick and its equipment well above the water line. Submersible drilling rig an offshore drilling structure that has several compartments that are flooded to cause the structure to submerge and rest on the ocean floor. Men work in a dry. A self-contained unit resembling a bathysphere to carry men to the ocean bottom to install. Submersible barge platform A type of drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel used in shallow coastal Waters. Wellhead cellar. Normal atmosphere. 4365. The underwater wellhead system was developed by lockheed petroleum services ltd. 4364. Subsea test tree (sstt) a device designed to be landed in a subsea wellhead or blowoutpreventer stack to provide a means of closing in the well on the ocean floor so that a drill-stem test of an offshore well can be obtained. 4366.

the study of rocks that lie beneath the surface of the earth.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4367. containing space for storage and well control equipment. (see tubing safety valve. 4368. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sucker rod a special steel rod.) a procedure in which a bottom-hole sampler is lowered into the well and filled with a sample that is representative of the reservoir conditions and that contains all the constituents of the fluid in their true proportions. 4372. several rods screwed together make up the mechanical link from beam-pumping unit on the surface to the sucker-rod pump at the bottom of a well.mzhelu@gmail. 4371. 4373. Lengths are 25 or 30 ft. Subsurface Subsurface geology Subsurface safety valve Subsurface sampling below the surface of the earth (as subsurface rocks). Substitute natural gas Substructure (sng) see synthetic (substitute) natural gas.com . diameter varies from 1/2 to 1 'a in. Z. 652 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sucker rods are threaded on each end and manufactured to exact dimension standards and metal specifications set by api. the foundations on which the derrick or mast and (sometimes) engines sit. Tests run on this sample help to obtain an accurate knowledge of the physical properties of the reservoir fluid under actual conditions. 4370. 4369.

com . 4378. hollow sucker rods are used. 4377.mzhelu@gmail. slim-hole pumping. 4375. plunger. Sucker rods. Sucker-rod pump the downhole assembly used to lift fluid to the surface by the reciprocating action of the sucker-rod string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the pump is installed in the seating nipple or a packer-type pump anchor is used. Two types of sucker-rod pumps are the tubing pump. Sucker-rod pumping a method of articifical lift in which a subsurface pump located at or near the bottom of the well and connected to a string of sucker rods is used to lift the well fluid to the surface. Basic components are the barrel. 4376. serving the dual purpose of rod and production tubing in the same string. pump. The weight of the rod string and fluid is counterbalanced by weights attached to a reciprocating beam or to the crank 653 Petroleum Engineer: M. and the rod. The guides prevent excessive wear of the tubing and the rods as well. Small washer-like devices attached to a pumping well's sucker rods to confer the rods in the tubing as the rods move up and down. Sucker-rod coupling Sucker-rod guides an internally threaded fitting used to join sucker rods. The rods are attached to the cage or pull tube (traveling barrel). Traveling-barrel pumps are most often used with hollow-rod pumping. valves.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4374. hollow In certain applications. Z. and hold-down. or insert. which is run into the well as a complete unit. in which the barrel is attached to the tubing.

Suction line the line that carries a product out of a tank to the suction side of the pumps. the height of the column of liquid required to ensure that the liquid its above its bubble point (q. the perforated disks (several to each rod) scrape off the paraffin attempting to coat and then build up on the tubing. Z. As the rods move up and down. 4383.v. 4382.) Pressure at the impeller eye of a centrifugal pump. 4381. reducing the amount of oil that can be pumped from the well. net positive Working in a pipeline gang laying screw pipe.).com . The hydrostatic head. also called the loading line. The additional two feet of liquid level are needed to overcome the friction of connecting piping.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering member of a beam-pumping unit or by air pressure in a cylinder attached to the beam. pumping rods. Suckerrod Steel rods that are screwed together to form a "string" that connects the pump inside a well's tubing downhole to the pumping jack on the surface. hitting the hooks (q. 654 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. then the minimum liquid level above the pumps immediate intake connection should be 12 feet. 4379.mzhelu@gmail. SUCKING THE TONGS Suction head. Sucker-rod scrapers Perforated disks attached to the string of sucker rods of a pumping well to prevent the build up of paraffin on the inside of the tubing. 4380. if a pump requires 1 0 foot of not positive suction head to fill properly and prevent cavitation.v.

4385. When such a formation is encountered. Z. 4387. a troublesome scale. Sul wtr Sulfate resistance Sulfate-reducing bacteria sulfur water.com . one end threaded. 4391.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4384. Suction pit the mud pit from which mud is picked up by the suction of the mud pumps. SULL NOSE A screw-end pipeline plug a pipeline fitting one end of which is closed and tapered to resemble a bull's nose. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. bacteria that digest sulfate present in water. also called a sump pit. and the crews pack their suitcases and move to another job. causing the release of hydrogen sulfide. 4388. 4386. Suitcase sand a formation found to be nonproductive. the name. Sump a low place in a vessel or tank used to accumulate settlings that are later removed through an opening in the bottom of the vessel. operations are suspended. the ability of a cement to resist deterioration by sulfate ions. a nipple-like fitting. A suction pit Sump pit 655 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. the other end closed. which combines with iron to form iron sulfide. 4390. hence. 4389.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4392. Sur survey. deep-draft oil tankers. used in drilling reports.com . 4396. 4397. Supertanker Supply-boat mooring system (ssms) The largest crude oil carrier yet designed. Superport A terminal or oil-handling facility located offshore in water deep enough to accommodate the largest. A type of sea terminal for tinkers and supply boats featuring a single log securely fixed to the ocean floor with a truss-like yoke which attaches to the bow of the vessel being loaded. Loading fines are supported by the yoke which is hinged to the boat allowing free articulation to accommodate any kind of sea condition during loading. Supercharger A mechanism such as a blower or compressor for increasing the volume of air charge to an engine over that which can normally be drawn into the cylinders through the action of the pistons on the suction strokes. See supercharger. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4394.mzhelu@gmail. The leg of the mooring system is equipped with a universal joint and is able to rotate as the ship weathervanes. Z. Supercharge To supply air to an engine's intake or suction valves at a pressure higher than the surrounding atmosphere. 656 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4393. 4395. Superchargers are operated or powered by an exhaust-gas turbine in the engine's exhaust stream.

4400. Compare conductor pipe. Surface pressure Surface safety valve the formation pressure measured at the wellhead. 4404. 4401. Surface-motion compensator Surface-readout device a heave compensator.com .) Surface drilling unit an offshore drilling rig that is either a drill ship or a drilling barge. 4405. Surface-active agent (see surfactant. so called because the rig floats on the surface of the water. 4402.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4398. Usually such waste is regulated by federal or state agencies. Some states require a minimum length to protect fresh-water sands. inexpedient storage. an electronic device in which a probe is inserted into the drill stem near a directional-drilling deflection tool. and so forth. Surface casing Surface pipe (see surface pipe. 4399. 4403. Z. a valve mounted in the christmas tree assembly that stops the flow of fluids from the well if damage occurs to the assembly. varying in length from a few hundred feet to several thousand. The probe sends to the surface continuous 657 Petroleum Engineer: M. Surface waste waste incurred by line leaks.) the first string of casing set in a well after the conductor pipe. seepage.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

These muds were originally designed for use in deep. etc. 4408.) 4406. Readout devices greatly simplify the accurate orientation of the drilling assembly so that numerous directional surveys can be eliminated. especially the front-to-back motion of the rig when it is moored in a seaway. lower plastic viscosity. but their many advantages (high chemical and thermal stability. Surfactant a substance that affects the properties of the surface of a liquid or solid by concentrating on the surface layer. Z. Surge the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a direction in line with the centerline of the rig. 658 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. high-temperature wells. a drilling mud prepared by adding a surfactant to a water-base mud to change the colloidal state of the clay from that of complete dispersion to one of controlled flocculation. Surfactants are useful in that their use can ensure that the surface of one substance or object is in thorough contact with the surface of another substance.mzhelu@gmail. Surfactant flooding Surfactant mud See micellar-surfactant flooding. 4409. 4407.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering signals that show the direction and angle at which the bit is drilling. (see directional drilling.) Extend their applicability. minimum swelling effect on clay-bearing zones.

Surgetank A vessel on a flow line whose function is to receive and neutralize sudden. controlling such increases. transient rises or surges in the stream of liquid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 659 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4414. 4412. survey Survey Suspension/Suspend (see directional).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4410.com . Line company after filing a rate increase. Escrow money. 4413. 4415. which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. fails to approve the increase.mzhelu@gmail. 4411. Surge effect a rapid increase in pressure downhole that occurs when the drill stem is lowered rapidly or when the mud pump is rapidly brought up to speed after starting.) Owing to entrained gas. Surge tank a tank or vessel through which liquids or gases are passed to steady flow and eliminate pressure surges. The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. Surge tanks often are used on systems where fluids flow by heads (q. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. Z.

92 inches. 4417. salt water. Suspension/Suspend Sw The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. 4422. each link equaling 7. A transit is commonly used by surveyors for running levels. 660 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . or a well location. used in drilling reports. the route of a pipeline. Surveyor's chain Surveyor's transit A measuring instrument. Survey stakes may bear notations indicating elevation or location. Survey stakes Wooden markers driven into the earth by a survey crew identifying the boundaries of a right of way. 4421. a chain of 100 links. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a theodolite. Escrow money. developed. Suspended discovery An oil or gas field that has been identified by a discovery well but is yet to be 4420. which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. controlling such increases.mzhelu@gmail. for measuring horizontal as well as vertical angles. 4418. fails to approve the increase. Z. Line company after filing a rate increase. 4419. A telescope mounted on a calibrated base.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4416. on a tripod.

Swab a hollow. the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a linear direction from side to side or perpendicular to a line through the centerline of the rig. Swabbing is a temporary operation to determine whether or not the well can be m 4424. tractor. 4428. or other machine. rubber-faced cylinder mounted on a hollow mandrel with a pin joint on the upper end to connect to the swab line. sway braces hold the legs (the corner members) of the rig in place. Along with the horizontal girts. Swage nipple An adapter. 661 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 4426.com . a short pipe fitting. used to force open casing that has collapsed downhole in a well. A check valve that opens upward on the lower end provides a way to remove the fluid from the well when pressure is insufficient to support flow. especially.g. Swage A heavy. 4425. to operate a swab on a wireline to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally. Z. 4427. tapered at one end. Swaybraces The diagonal support braces on a rig structure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the side-to-side motion when the rig is moored in a seaway. steel tool. e. a nipple. Swamper Sway (slang) a helper on a truck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4423. that is a different size on each end. 2-inch to 3-inch 2-inch to 4-inch.

used in drilling reports. Sweet crude Sweet crude oil Sweet gas sweet crude oil. Sweet corrosion the deterioration (‫ )ﻓﺴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬of metal caused by contact with carbon dioxide and acids. Swbd Sweet swabbed. oil containing little or no sulfur and especially little or no hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas free of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) when 4435. 662 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . Z. 4434. to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from gas or oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Having a good odor a product testing negative to the "doctor test"-free of sulfur compounds. Crude oil containing very little sulfur and having a good odor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4429. 4431. 4432. 4437. Sweet gas a natural gas containing little or no hydrogen sulfide. 4436. produced. 4433. Sweet Oil and Gas Sweetcrude Sweeten Petroleum containing little or no hydrogen sulphide. 4430.

two evening shifts. and valves. A check valve (q.mzhelu@gmail. 663 Petroleum Engineer: M. flanges. The swing shift covers the days off of the other so the swing man works two day shifts. Swing joint A combination of pipe fittings that permits a limited amount of movement in the connection without straining the lines. Swept-frequency explosion A type of controlled explosion used in seismic work in which a string of small detonations are set off in sequence instead of the more conventional single.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Swing line an extension of the suction line that pivots vertically inside an oil tank.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4438. In oil and gas exploration.v. swept-frequency explosions are a vibration or shock source in conducting seismographic surveys. It reduces stratification by allowing an operator to withdraw product from varying heights in the tank. 4443. The other graveyard shift is worked either by another swing man or another plant worker who is not a regular shift worker. 4441. there are three shifts of workers. A swing line may be used in place of a mixing nozzle or other circulating system. In a refinery or pump station operating 24 hours a day. Z. large explosion. and one graveyard or hoot-owl shift. Swing man One whose job is working in place of other employee son their days off.). 4439. Swing shift Swingcheck See swing man. 4440. and a swing shift. 4442.

the reverse of an anticline.2 mmcfd of pipeline gas. Sx Syncline sacks. 4446. It also provides a connection for the rotary hose and passageway for the flow of drilling fluid into the drill stem.com . synthetic methane.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4444. If the lease had only pumping wells. Switicher Swivel (obsolete) a pumper or lease operator. designated as synthane. turning the production into other tanks. a downwarped. 4448. used in drilling and mud reports. Designed to produce 1. 4450. Synfuel Synthane plant Short for synthetic gas or oil (q. When a tank is full he switches valves. Switcher A person who works on an oil lease overseeing the filling of lease stock tanks. 664 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4445. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. stratified rocks. a rotary tool that is hung from the rotary hook and trailing block to suspend and permit free rotation of the drill stem. A coal-to-gas pilot plant operated by the energy research and development administration in Pennsylvania. he would be called a pumper. 4449.v.mzhelu@gmail. A switches works on a lease with flowing production. 4447.). trough-shaped configuration of folded. Z.

Synthetic gas Commercial gas made by the reduction or gasification of solid hydrocarbons coal. Synthetic oil A term applied to oil recovered from coat. Hydrogen must be added to the product to make up for deficiencies in the original hydrocarbon source. See gasification.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4451.mzhelu@gmail. oil shales. 4452.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.v. 665 Petroleum Engineer: M. and tar sands (q. oil shale and tar sand.). Synthetic (substitute) natural gas (sng) A gas that is obtained either by heating coal or by refining heavier hydrocarbons. 4453.

TAIL TAIL CHAIN To carry the light end of a load. 4456.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4454. 4461. 4460. used in drilling reports. tag line a utility rope or cable that is attached to unwieldy loads being hoisted by a crane to allow a load handler better control of the movement of the load. Total depth. 4459. on the end of a winch line. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an instrument that measures the speed of an engine. temporarily abandoned. Said of a well drilled to the depth intended. 4458. to extricate a vehicle from a ditch or mud. with a hook attached. The short length of chain. T T. 666 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4462. 4455. 4457.com . Z. abbreviated tach. tag to touch an object downhole with the drill stem as to tag bottom (of the hole) or to tag the top of the fish.mzhelu@gmail. TA tachometer TACK WELD top of. D. Spot weld temporarily joining two joints of pipe to hold them in position for complete welding.

over which pendant lines travel when an anchor is being brought in or dropped. For example. kerosene has begun to boil or vaporize.com . 4466. tail out rods to pull the bottom end of a sucker rod away from a well when laying rods 4465. the end point (q. tail pipe tail roller a pipe run in a well below a packer. any gas from a processing unittreated as residue. So before naphtha reaches its end point.v. 4469. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4468. This unavoidable overlap 667 Petroleum Engineer: M. TAILINGS TAILS ENDS Leftovers from a refining process. TAILING-OUT RODS Unscrewing and stacking rods horizontally outside the derrick. when naphtha and kerosene are being distilled. 4467. but the initial boiling point of kerosene is about 305'F. 4464.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4463. a worker takes the free end and. as the elevator holding the other end is stacked off.mzhelu@gmail. a large roller located across the stern of an anchor-handling boat. TAIL GAS Residue gas from a sulfur recovery unit. tail ends are the overlapping ends of the distillation curves of two products. refuse material separated as residue. he "walks" the rod to a rack where it is laid down.) of naphtha is about 325'F. Z. As a rod is unscrewed. down. In a distillation column at a refinery.

plastic. it is important to keep tab on the footage of pipe run in the hole. TANDEM A heavy-duty. by counting the number of joints run. or tubing that is to be 4472. TALUS Rock fragments at the base of a cliff. 4471. flat-bed truck with two closely coupled pairs of axles in the rear. knows to the foot where the bottom of the casing is downhole. 4473. tank a metal. sometimes forming a slope of chips and larger fragments one-fourth to one-third the way up the face of the disintegrating rock cliff. in general. larger and of stronger construction. 668 Petroleum Engineer: M. TALLYING THE PIPE In setting pipe. Z. Two types include production tanks and storage tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casing a well. So before lowering a joint it is carefully tallied (measured) so the operator. 4474. casing. 4470. to measure and record the total length of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering results in tail ends. run in a well. the high end of one product and low end of a closely related product. the latter are. 4475. a ten-wheeler.mzhelu@gmail. take out tally to remove a joint or stand of pipe from the drill stem. or wooden container used to store a liquid.com .

4 4483. tank farm a group of large tanks maintained by a pipeline used to store oil after it has been transferred from the production tanks before transportation to the refinery. 4477. 4484. flat-bottomed vessel divided into compartments and used to carry crude or fuel oil. a group of production tanks located in the field that store crude oil. protrudes through the 669 Petroleum Engineer: M. a fire. (See basic sediment and water and bottoms. Z. or the tank running over. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4481. TANK BATTEIIY tank battery tank bottoms 4478. 4479.) 4480. A mound of earth surrounding an oil tank to contain the oil in the event of a rupture in the tank. pl the settlings in the bottom of a storage tank. See Battery.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4476. TANK MIXER Motor-driven propeller installed on the shell of a storage tank to stir up and mix tank sediments with the crude. The propeller shaft. tank car TANK DIKE a railroad car used to transport petroleum or petroleum products.com .mzhelu@gmail. tank barge a large.

4489. See Densmore. (See strap.com .). with the motor mounted on the outside. "Tank Train" tank cars are interconnected which permits loading and unloading of the entire train of cars from one track connection. 4485. and other liquids developed by General American Transportation (GATX). products. Tank tables are prepared from tank strapping measurements. tank table a table giving the barrels of fluid contained in a storage tank corresponding to the linear measurement on a gauge line. hold. Tank tables are made from dimensions furnished by tank strappings (q.mzhelu@gmail. This arrangement does away with the need for the conventional loading rack (q.v. Z. TANK TABLES A printed table showing the capacity in barrels for each one-eighth inch or one-quarter inch of tank height.). TANK TRAIN A new concept in the rail shipment of crude oil. 670 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Strapping. Turbulence created by the prop thrust causes the BS&W to remain suspended in the oil as it is pumped out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shell. Amos. the person who measures a tank at various levels to see how much it will 4487. and vapors from the filing operation can be more easily contained. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See tanker. from bottom to the top gauge point of the tank.) tank ship tank strapper 4486.v.) 4488.

See Sea Terminal. also called a tank ship. tank truck TANK. Tankers whose capacity is 100. Z. or SNG.) is used. A jetty or pier equipped to load and unload oil tankers. See Bullet Tanks. 4493. BULLET tankage tanker a truck designed to transport petroleum or petroleum products. either very large crude carriers or ultralarge crude carriers. 4495. 4496. 671 Petroleum Engineer: M. TAP SADDLE A type of pipeline clamp with a threaded hole in one of the two halves of the bolt-on clamp for use when a pipeline is to be tapped.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4490. LNG. 4491. 4494. 4492. a hole or opening in a line or vessel in which a gauge or valve may be inserted and screwed tight. LPG. the total capacity of a number of tanks in a field. 4497.000 deadweight tons or more are supertankers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a ship designed to transport oil.v. nipples are welded to the pipe and a tapping machine (q.mzhelu@gmail. Tap saddles are used on field lines. to have a hole made in it for drawing off gas or liquid.com . TANKER RATES. SPOT CHARTER TANKER TERMINAL tap See Spot Charter Tanker Rates. for tapping larger lines. 2" to 10".

screwed. a flanged connection is one furnished with a screw or weld flange. working through the open valve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an elongated.mzhelu@gmail.v. with a full-opening valve attached. The tapping drill is withdraw. Tapped is an internally threaded (female) connection into which an externally threaded piece may be. durable cutting material. the valve is closed. tapered string drill pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4498. 4 4503. 4499. A nipple. tapered grinding and pulverizing bit (tapered from several inches to one or two inches in diameter) whose surface had been hard-faced with super-hard. 672 Petroleum Engineer: M. and so forth with a diameter larger near the top of the well than that below. TAPPED OR FLANGED CONNECTIONS Indicates the two types of pump or process unit connections available from suppliers. The tapping machine is screwed onto the valve and. Z. sucker rods.). 4501. bores a hole in the line. is welded to the line. TAPER MILL A type of junk mill (q. permitting the fish to be pulled and recovered. TAPPING AND PLUGGING MACHINE A device used for cutting a hole in a pipeline under pressure. A connection can then be made to the pipeline at the valve.com . tubing. 4500. taper tap a fishing tool that is run into a hollow fish (as a drill collar) and rotated to cut sufficient threads to provide a firm grip. and the tapping machine is unscrewed from the valve.

because the line is assumed to be straight from the rig to the ocean floor. and. are the charges made by common carrier pipelines for moving crude oil or products. 800-mile pipeline was completed in the summer of 1977. 4507.com .000 deadweight tons displacement. 4506. thus it is costly to obtain usable hydrocarbons from them.mzhelu@gmail. The 48-inch.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4504. Compare acoustic past reference and position-reference system. Its designed throughput is 1. tarlike hydrocarbons. any angle in the lines indicates that the rig has moved. a large-diameter pipeline built from the oil rich North Slope of Alaska to the warm-water port of Valdez on the state's south shore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.2 million barrels a day.000 acres and is one of the world's largest. TARIFF A schedule of rates or charges permitted a common carrier or utility pipeline tariffs. 4505. The terminal has four loading berths for tankers up to 200. An inclinometer measures the slope of the line at the rig. Z. TAPS Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. taut-line reference system a system for monitoring the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead by stretching a taut steel line from the rig to the ocean floor. tar sand a sandstone that contains mostly very heavy. 673 Petroleum Engineer: M. The Valdez crude oil terminal covers 1. The system's weakness is that the taut line can be distorted by currents and thus give inaccurate readings. Tar sands are difficult to produce by ordinary methods.

Z. the horse and wagon was the most dependable mode of transportation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.200 horse and mules). 4513. 4511.mzhelu@gmail. T cf (Trillium Cubic Feet) A volume measurement of natural gas. TEAMSTER See Mule Skinner. accessories. and 4509.com . top dead center. Tcfld TD TDC TEAMING CONTRACTOR trillion cubic feet of gas per day. approximately equivalent to one Quad. 4512. batteries. 4510. 4514. T BA Among marketing department people. Some large teaming contractors in the early days kept stables with 600 teams (1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4508. A person who furnished teams of horses and mules and oil field wagons for construction and earth work in the oil fields. total depth. TBA stands for tires. In the days of drt roads in the booming oil fields. 674 Petroleum Engineer: M.

one at the drillers stand. 4519. tear down to dismantle a rig at the completion of a well and prepare it to be moved to the next location. 4520. The "telegraph" consisted of a wire or a small cable running between the pulleys. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When the lever is depressed. 4516. TEAPOT DOME Part of the Naval Petroleum Reserves set aside by Congress in 1923. Z. Harding. Teapot Dome in Wyoming was the center of controversy and scandal in the 19205 during the presidency of Warren G. By turning his wheel. closing the electric circuit which energizes two small coils into magnets.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4515. TELEGRAPH KEY A Morse code sending instrument made with a spring loaded lever on a fulcrum.com . the driller regulated the speed of the engine by opening or closing the steam valve. 4518. 4517. the other mounted on the steam valve of the engine. The magnets draw down a small bar on the telegraph sounder. making a dot or a dash sound depending upon the length of time 675 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. TECTONIC MAP A geological map structural map showing the folding and faulting of subsurface formations. A device for the remote control of a steam drilling engine on a cable-tool rig. the brass lever or key makes contact with a fixed terminal. TEG TELEGRAPH triethylene glycol.

TELEGRAPHER'S BUG An automatic Morse code sending machine operated by pressure from the telegrapher's thumb and forefinger. and pole mart. portable mast.) 676 Petroleum Engineer: M. waves. Dots are short. Generally the upper section of a telescoping derrick is nested (telescoped) inside the lower section of the structure and raised to full height either by the wireline or hydraulically. 4521. telescoping Joint a device used in the marine riser system of a mobile offshore drilling rig to compensate for the vertical motion of the rig caused by wind. It consists of an inner barrel attached beneath the rig floor and an outer barrel attached to the riser pipe and is an integrated part of the riser system. Z. The advantage of the bug is that it makes dots in rapid succession by a slight pressure on the thumb lever. 4523. (See production n .com .mzhelu@gmail. dashes are slightly longer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (split seconds) contact is made by the telegrapher. dashes are made one at a time with the forefinger. (See riser pipe. A popular.) 4524. or weather. telemetry data that is gathered by electronic or other sensing devices and is transmitted to points remote from the place where the data was collected. usually by a tackle that hoists the wireline or by hydraulic pistons. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. telescoping derrick a portable mast that is capable of being erected as a unit. patented bug is the Vibroplex which has a beetle on the nameplate. hence the name. g. 4522.

v. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ('F.)+ 32'. 4529. One technique involves attaining a temperature sensitive probe in a Protective sleeve attached to a carrier mounted on the drillpipe.mzhelu@gmail. expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or centigrade. temperature a measure of heat or the absence of heat. TEMPER SCREW A device on the cable of a string of cable fools . 4530.) 4528. indicating that the packing must be renewed. 4527. = 9/5 ('C. 677 Petroleum Engineer: M. TEMPERATURE BOMB A device used downhole to measure bottom-hole and circulating temperatures on a drilling well. Z. Attached to the walking beam. ('C.com . temper or temple screw a part on a cable-tool rig used to regulate the force of the blow delivered to the drill bit. = 5/9 ('F . fluid spurts out of the telltale hole with each stroke of the piston.32').Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4525.) 'C.hat permits the driller to adjust tension on the drilling fine. A temper screw is made in the general form of a turnbuckle" (q. to 'F) 'F. The latter is the standard used in countries on the metric system. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. it controls the feed rate of the drilling tools. to 'C. 4526. telltale hole a hole drilled into the space between rings of packing material used with a liner in a mud pump. When the liner packing fails.

is taken out to location by a crane barge where it is into the frame. 4533. the increase in temperature of a well as its depth increases. Z. In addition. it is used to determine the height of cement behind the casing and to locate the source of water influx into the wellbore. or water leaking into the hole. temperature gradient 1. 4534. temperature survey an operation to determine temperatures at various depths in the wellbore. 4538. temporarily abandoned temporarily shut in but not plugged. The platform. 4 4536.) An offshore platform whose supporting legs fit into a frame previously constructed and anchored to the sea floor.mzhelu@gmail. the rate of change of temperature with displacement in a given direction. 4537.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 4532. One important use of the logging device is to determine the location of cement in the annular space between casing and well bore after a cement job. constructed on. The curing or hardening cement gives off heat which alters the flow of electric current observable at the surface.com . gas. 2. 678 Petroleum Engineer: M. template TEMPLATE PLATFORM (See temporary guide base. TEMPERATURE LOG Recording temperature variations downhole by the use of an electrode containing a length of platinum wire that readily assumes the temperature of drilling mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. shore.

com . storage space. Regulations set the minimum amount of oil that will be accepted for transportation. usually containing living quarters. indicating the tension on a scale a strain gauge. TENSIOMETER A gauge attached to a cable or wire rope to detect the tension being applied. (See yield point. It serves as an anchor for the guidelines and as a foundation for the permanent guide base and has an opening in the center through which the bit passes. 4541. temporary guide base the initial piece of equipment lowered to the ocean floor once a mobile offshore drilling rig has been positioned on location.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4539. tender 1. Z. From two positions on a section of the cable a sensitive gauge measures the stretch and twist of the cable under load. a shipment of oil presented by a shipper to a pipeline for movement. and the mud system. tensile strength a measure of the load required to part metal. the barge anchored alongside a relatively small offshore drilling platform. 4540. TENDERS A quantity of crude oil or refined product delivered to a pipeline for transportation. 679 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.) 4543. 2. 4542. Tensile strength is greater than yield strength. It is also called a template.

tensioner system devices installed on a floating offshore drilling rig to maintain a constant tension on the riser pipe despite any vertical motion the rig makes. 4546.mzhelu@gmail. Two types of systems are used the deadweight system and the pneumatic system. 4547.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4544. 4545. TENSION-LEG PLATFORM A semisubumersible drilling platform held in position by multiple cables anchored to the ocean floor. The constant tension of the cables makes the platform immune to heave.com . The guidelines must also be tensioned. 4548. conditions that affect conventional semisubmersibles. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and a separate tensioner system is provided for them. The primary phase is flowing and finally pumping down the reservoir until it is "depleted" or no longer economical to operate. It usually includes a tank farm and may include tanker-loading facilities. Secondary recovery usually involves re-pressuring or 680 Petroleum Engineer: M. pitch. terminal a point to which oil is transported through-pipelines. TERTIARY RECOVERY The third major phase of crude oil recovery. Z. and roll caused by wave action. Tensioning systems serve the dual purpose of compensating for the vertical motion of the drilling vessel or platform and maintaining a constant tension or lifting force on the riser.v. TENSIONER SYSTEMS Tensioner systems are installed on deep water floating drilling platforms to maintain a constant tension on the marine riser (q.

cold. 4552. which are diverted through the testing devices on a lease.com . humidity and other conditions of stress to test durability and performance under simulated operating conditions.mzhelu@gmail. The test includes a hand-cranked telephone instrument whose lead wires are clipped to the phone lines. This is accomplished by flooding the formation with water mixed with certain chemicals that "free" the oil adhering to the porous rock so it may be taken into solution and pumped to the surface. test separator an oil and gas separator that is used to separate relatively small quantities of oil and gas. TEST COUPONS Small samples of materials-metals. reducing surface tension.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering simple water-flooding. coatings. 4549. TESTING.. when the lineman wants to call in to the switchboard. alloys. HYDROSTATIC See Hydrostatic Testing. 4551.g. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. plastics and ceramicswhich are subjected to heat. Z. 681 Petroleum Engineer: M. test well a wildcat well. TEST SET (TELEPHONE) A lineman's portable equipment for testing the circuit on a telephone line. 4550. See Micellarsurfactant Flooding. e. The third or tertiary phase employs more sophisticated techniques of altering one or more of the properties of crude oil. pressure.

Thermal Decay Time THERMAL OXIDIZERS (TDT) Log a proprietary name for a type of pulsed-neutron survey. v.mzhelu@gmail. Thermal cracking is used to increase the yield of gasoline obtainable from crude oil. 4558. TETRAETHYL LEAD A lead compound added. A refining process in which heat and pressure are used to break down. for burning refinery gases before they are vented to the I la re tower (q. to gasoline to improve itsantiknock quality. The upper deck of any offshore drilling rig that has two or more platform levels. 4557.).). or combine hydrocarbon molecules. TEXAS DECK The top deck of a large semisubmersible drilling platform.v. TEXAS TOWER A radar or microwave platform supported on caissons anchored to the ocean floor. in small amounts. with refractory lining and banks of burners at various levels. Z. A large. 682 Petroleum Engineer: M. hence the name.com . cylindrical furnace. 4555. THEODOLITE THERMAL CRACKING (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ A surveyor's transit (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a petrochemical gas. 4559. The tower resembles an offshore drilling platform in the Texas Gulf. 4554. Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is manufactured from ethyl chloride which is derived from ethylene. rearrange. 4556.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4553.

Thermometers provide a way to characteristics (as a gas that expands when heated).) which has a thermometer as an integral part of the instrument to show the temperature of the liquid. Z. estimate thermometer temperature from its effect on a substance with known an instrument that measures temperature. a temperature-measuring device used extensively in refining. The most common thermometer is the mercury-filled glass tube that indicates temperature by the expansion of the liquid mercury. when one junction is at a higher temperature than the other. the millivolts can be measured on a temperature scale. Various types of thermometers measure temperature by measuring the change in pressure of a gas kept at a constant volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Hydrometers used by pipeline gaugers are thermometric hydrometers. This is of first importance as the density or API gravity varies with the temperature.mzhelu@gmail. the change in electrical resistance of metals. THERMOCOUPLE A pyrometer. 4561." When the hot junction is heated. The welded ends are known as the "hot junction" which is placed where the temperature is to be measured. known as the "cold junction. THERMOMETRIC HYDROMETER A hydrometer (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4560. or the galvanic effect of dissimilar metals in contact. The thermocouple is based upon the principle that a small electric current will flow through two dissimilar wires properly welded together at the ends.v. The two free ends are carried through leads to the electromotive force detector. 4562. 683 Petroleum Engineer: M.

4565.) 4564. 4568. up to 1 00 poise as measured on the consistometer. also called pumping time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4563. THIEF A metal or glass cylinder with a spring-actuated closing device that is lowered into a tank to obtain a sample of oil. THIEF HATCH An opening in the top-of a tank large enough to admit a thief and other oil.com . thief sand THIEF ZONE (See thief formation.sampling equipment. thief formation a formation that absorbs drilling fluid as the fluid is circulated in the well. 684 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. (See pumpability.) A very porous formation downhole into which drilling mud is lost.Thief zones. 4567.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4566. or to the bottom of the tank to take a column of heavy sediment. thickening time the length of time a slurry is pumpable. Lost circulation is caused by a thief formation. also called a thief sand or a thief zone. The thief is lowered into the tank on a line that when jerked will trip the spring valve enabling the operator to obtain a sample at any desired level. which also include crevices and caverns. must be sealed off with a liner or plugged with special cements or fibrous clogging agents before drilling can resume.

thin to add a substance such as water or a chemical to drilling mud to reduce its 4571. when added to a drilling mud. THIRD-GENERATION HARDWARE Equipment developed from earlier. 4573.com . the latest in the evolution of specialized equipment. thinning agent a special chemical or combination of chemicals that. reduces its viscosity.v. 4572. Most drilling fluids must be thixotrophic so that the cuttings in the fluid will remain in suspension when circulation is stopped. thixotrophy the property exhibited by a fluid that is in a liquid state when flowing and in a semisolid. This procedure may be repeated until the predetermined setting time of the cement is reached. viscosity. gelled state when at rest." become rigid when pumping ceases. But when force is again applied (pumping is resumed) the cement again becomes a pumpable slurry.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4569.mzhelu@gmail. 685 Petroleum Engineer: M. less sophisticated models or prototypes. Z. THIXOTROPIC The property of certain specially formulated cement slurries-used in cementing jobs downhole-that causes them to "set.). 4574. THIEFING ATANK Taking samples of oil from different levels in a tank of crude oil and from the bottom to determine the presence of sediment and water with the use of a thief (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4570.

4577. Z. the monkeyboard when it is located at a height in the derrick equal to the length of three lengths of pipe joined together. throttling the choking or failing that occurs when a mud pump fails to deliver a full amount of fluid through one or more of its valves. THREAD PROTECTOR A threaded cap or lightweight collar screwed onto the ends of tubular goods (pipe. Compare double board and fourble board. And tubing) to protect the threads from damage as the pipe is being handled. Throttling is usually caused by improper lift of the valve. 686 Petroleum Engineer: M. Crew members become proficient at throwing the chain in such a way as to put several wraps on the pipe with one deft motion.com . thribble thribble board a stand of pipe made up of three joints and handled as a unit.mzhelu@gmail. The stand or joint of drill pipe to be made up is turned or spun by a pull on the spinning chain from the cathead on the drawworks. 4581. throw the chain to flip the spinning chain up from a tool-joint box so that the chain wraps around the tool-joint pin after it is stabbed into the box.) around the drillpipe in preparation for running the pipe up or backing it out. 4 4580.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4578. THROWING THE CHAIN Wrapping the spinning chain (q. 4576.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4575. casing.

thruster THRUSTERS (See dynamic positioning. tight formation a petroleum. 4586.com . The term also refers to that portion of the continental shelf between the shore and the boundaries claimed by states.or waterbearing formation of relatively low porosity and 687 Petroleum Engineer: M. permeability. THUMPER TIDELANDS See Vibrator Vehicle. 4585. 4584. 4583. Land submerged during high tide. driliships. The Federal government now has the right to produce oil and gas from this area of the continental shelf.mzhelu@gmail.) Jets or propellers on large tinkers. TIE-IN An operation in pipeline construction in which two sections of line are connected a loop lied into the main line a lateral line to a trunk line.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4582. and deep water drilling platforms that provide a means to move the vessel sideways-at right angles to the ship's normal line of travel-when docking or in maintaining position in water too deep for conventional anchors. 4 4589. See Dynamic Stationing. Z. 4587. tie-down a device to which a guy wire or brace may be attached. the anchoring device for the deadline of a hoisting-block arrangement. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

an 688 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 4591. For example. conventional onshore gas wells by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. derby-like. and other expensive treatments to free the gas from the relatively impermeable formations. one that will not give up its gas readily or in large volumes. TIGHT GAS Natural gas produced from a tight formation. such g as has been given an incentive price of 150 percent of the price of gas from new. TLP Term-limit pricing an agreement on price between a supplier and a wholesaler or jobber that runs for a specified length of time. logs-is kept secret by the operator. In view of these constraints. Compare key seat.mzhelu@gmail. 4594. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4593. reducing the hole diameter and making it difficult to run the tools in and out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4590. TO LAY OFF AN INTEREST To sell off a portion of one's interest in a well to another person to reduce the financial loss should the well be noncommercial or dry. acidizing. T I N HA T The metal. The production of tight gas is more costly and therefore less attractive to producers owing to the need for fracturing. tight spot a section of a borehole in which excessive wall cake has built up. Z. TIGHT HOLE A drilling well about which all information-depth. safety hat worn by all workers in the oil fields. drilling rate. refineries. and plants to protect their heads. 4595. formations encountered. 4592.

Z. 689 Petroleum Engineer: M.5 barrels. drilling rigs. (nautical) a volume measure equal to 100 ft' applied to mobile offshore (2). ton-mile a measurement of the amount of use a wireline has received. 4601. If a wireline has moved a 1-ton load a distance of 1 mile. (3).000 lb. 4600.5 to 8.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering investor who has a 30 percent interest in a well to be drilled may lay off five or 10 percent of his interest for cash he needs to minimize his risk or to reduce his "exposed position. depending on the oils specific gravity.5 barrels equals a metric ton or long to 1.mzhelu@gmail. tongman the member of the drilling crew who handles the tongs. 4598. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TOLUENE An aromatic hydrocarbon resembling benzene but less volatile and flammable. For rough approximation. (metric) a measure of weight equal to 1. a measure of weight equal to 2.) 4599.com . (See tonnage. 7. TON OF CRUDE OIL A ton of crude oil is.204.000 kilograms or 2. the line has received 1 ton-mile of usage. to n (1). 6. TOEBOARD The enclosure at toe height around a platform or on a catwalk to prevent tools or other objects on the platforms from being kicked off accidentally.6 pounds. 4597.000 kg." 4596. It is used as a solvent and as an antiknock agent in gasoline.

once responsible for sharpening or dressing the drill bit. (See also chain tongs. variously called casing tongs. or other pipe. Power tongs are pneumatically or hydraulically operated tools that serve to spin the pipe up tight. DRILLPIPE AND CASING Large wrenches for making up or breaking out (tightening ox loosening) joints of pipe or casing. The backup tongs are anchored by a rope or chain secured to a substantial rig member. TONGS. and so forth according to the specific use. sometimes called a toolie. Z. 4605. 4604. 4606. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4603. Tool joints have coarse. tool joint a heavy coupling element for drill pipe made of special alloy steel. tapered threads and seating shoulders designed to sustain the 690 Petroleum Engineer: M. a driller's helper on a cable-tool rig. in some instances. A chain and rope lanyard attached to the handle of the torque tongs is bulled by a friction turn or two around the cat head (operated by the driller).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4602. the two tongs (one for applying torque. Where a joint of pipe is to be tightened. The tongs are counterbalanced because of their weight and size.com . and upon making contact with the pipe a latching device clamps the tongs onto the pipe. casing. to apply the final makeup torque. the other for backup) are swung toward the pipe by the floormen. tongs pl the large wrenches used for turning when making up or breaking out drill pipe.mzhelu@gmail. tonnage tool dresser (nautical) the size of a ship or spaces within a ship as measured in tons. tubing. and. rotary tongs.

withstand the strain of frequent coupling and uncoupling. A hard metal facing is often applied in a band around the outside of the tool joint to enable it to resist abrasion from the walls of the borehole.v.000-psi pressure or more on the outside circumference of the joint and holds the pressure for a few seconds. 4607. tool pusher TOOLIE TOOLJOINT a drilling foreman or rig superintendent.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering weight of the drill stem. is attached to one end of a length of drill pipe. The leak detector puts a 1. The smallest leak in the connection is indicated on a gauge by a drop in pressure.com . A tool -dresser (q.) of such length that they can be racked in the derrick. Z. threaded joints specially designed to couple and uncouple drillpipe into "stands" (q. is attached to the other end. 4609. 691 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. TOOL JOINT LEAK DETECTOR A hydraulic testing device which is clamped around a tool joint after it is made up light in the drillstring and before it is lowered in the hole. or the pin. The male section of the joint. The tool joint may be welded to the end of the pipe or screwed on or both.) on a cable-tool rig. Heavy-duty. 4 4611. and provide a leakproof seal. or box. and the female section. 4608.mzhelu@gmail. intermediate couplings between the tool joints are made with regular pipe collars. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

4613. A. the top. nitroglycerin was substituted for the powder. TORQUE A turning or twisting force. TOPPING PLANT An oil refinery designed to remove and finish only the lighter constituents of crude oil. The well-shooting torpedo was invented and used by Col. often marked on the flywheel.mzhelu@gmail. later. E. L. process.com . In such a plant the oil remaining after these products are taken off is usually sold as fuel oil. 4617. such as gasoline and kerosene. TOPS The "tops" in a refinery operation are the fractions or products distilled or flashed off at the top of a tower or distillation unit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 4616. Roberts.) a well. top dead center (TDC) the position of a piston when it is at the highest point possible in the cylinder of an engine.) have been removed by a simple refining 4615. tends to.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4612. a force that produces a rotation or torsion. The first torpedoes used black powder as an explosive. or 692 Petroleum Engineer: M. a Civil War veteran.v. 4618.v. TORPEDO An explosive device used in shooting (q. in 1865. TOPPED CRUDE OIL Oil from which the fight ends (q. TOP OUT To finish filling a tank to put in an additional amount that will fill the tank to 4614.

The forsion balance has been superceded by the less complicated (to use) gravity meter or gravimeter. TORQUE CONVERTER An item of hydraulic equipment which is installed between the prime movers (drilling engines. evening. TOWER HAND Toxicity A member of the drilling crew who works up in the derrick derrick man. The degree to which a toxin is harmful. Z. 4622. The most common divisions of tours are daylight. Sometimes 12-hour tours are used. continuous flow of power.mzhelu@gmail. 4623. 4624. 693 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4620. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and graveyard. See The torque 4621. total depth tour (TD) the maximum depth reached in a well. the geophysicist had some idea as to where sedimentary formations that might contain oil were located in relation to non-sedimentary rocks.com . if 8-hr tours are employed. As minute variations in magnetic of the subsurface features were plotted over a wide area. (pronounced "tower") an 8-hr shift worked by a drilling crew or other oil-field workers. for example) and the driven components (mud pumps and rotary) to transmit a smooth. especially on offshore rigs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4619. TORSION BALANCE A delicate instrument used by early-day geophysical crews to measure the minute variations in magnetic attraction of subsurface rock formations.

4626. Dyes and radioactive substances are used as tracers in underground water flows and sometimes helium is used in gas. When samples of the water or gas taken some distance from the point of injection reveal signs of the tracer. In the field. larger diameter tracer lines are used to heat low-gravity. 694 Petroleum Engineer: M. listing all entries affecting described land.com . or solid. liquid. tracer survey a survey used in an oil well to obtain a reading of radioactivity from a quantity of special material injected into the well.mzhelu@gmail. See also Heat Tape. viscous crude oils so they may be pumped. 4627. the route of the fluids can be mapped. More often tracer lines carry steam. Radioactive tracers may be gas. 4628. TRACER LINES tubing paralleling and in contact with process or Small-diameter instrumentation piping in a refinery or other plant to provide heat or cooling for the fluid or gases in transit. which in sufficient quantity is harmful to biota. Toxin TP tracer Any substance. tubing pressure. 4629. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. TRACT BOOK A record book maintained by the district land offices of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). a substance added to reservoir fluids to permit the movements of the fluid to be followed or traced. Z. 4630.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4625.

TRANSDUCER A device or instrument actuated by power from one kind of system and in turn supplies power to another system. 4635. 4634. able electric current. 4632.v. A Classic example of a transducer is the telephone receiver which is actuated by electric power and supplies acoustic power to the atmosphere. composition pipe for handling corrosive liquids and salt water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an oil broker. Another and true form of transducer is the thermocouple (q. abbreviated tram.) wherein heat on two dissimilar pieces of metal will create a small. one who operates in the international oil market. less volatile than motor gasoline. A form of transducer is an air or hydraulic system that will actuate an electric system by pressure on a contact switch. 695 Petroleum Engineer: M. trammel a metal rod of precise length used to measure distance between two points where accessibility is limited.com . 4633. Z. TRANSITE PIPE A patented. measure. TRACTOR FUEL A low-octane fuel. arranging for supplies and trading surpluses of one product for others.mzhelu@gmail. It is often used to mark crankshaft positions on engines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4631. TRADER One who deals in bulk petroleum or products both domestic and foreign. used in low compression farm tractors.

are installed.mzhelu@gmail. made with one end acceptable to the plastic pipe and the other end a standard thread end or weld end. transmission line 1.. Z. the area in which underground pressures begin to change from normal to abnormally high as a well is being deepened. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2. it is usually necessary to make connection with steel tank fittings or a pipeline. transmission the gear or chain arrangement by which power is transmitted from the prime mover to the drawworks.com . or rotary table of a drilling rig. deep-water terminal where crude oil and products are delivered by . special transition fittings. 4639. 4640. TRANSSHIPMENT TERMINAL A large. a pipeline used to transmit natural gas or other fluids.v. "super-tanker" (LCCV) (q. TRANSPONDER A radio or other electronic device that. Such terminals have large storage capacities and high-volume 696 Petroleum Engineer: M. If so. upon receiving a designated signal. emits a signal of its own. transition zone (1). the areas in the drill stem near the point where drill pipe is made up on drill collars. a high-voltage line used to transmit electric power from one place to another. 4641. 4638. mud pump.) and transshipment of product is by smaller tankers. TRANSITION FITTINGS When using plastic pipe in the field or at a plant.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4636. (2). 4637.

4642.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering unloading facilities to accommodate the mammoth vessels that carry more than two million barrels of oil each trip. traveling block an arrangement of pulleys. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TRAP A type of geological structure that retards the free migration of oil and concentrates the oil in a limited space. the ball member of the valve is seated. The traveling valve moves with the movement of the sucker-rod string. A mass of porous.com . permeable rock which is sealed on top and down both flanks by nonporous. 697 Petroleum Engineer: M. supporting the fluid load. which in turn is connected to the bottom holddown. traveling barrel pump a sucker-rod insert pump in which the working barrel travels and the plunger remains stationary. traveling valve one of the two valves in a sucker-rod pumping system. through which drilling cable is reeved. the ball is unseated. which moves up and down in the derrick or mast. or sheaves. Z. Compare standing valve. the standing valve is connected to the top of the plunger. On the downstroke. impermeable rock thus forming a trap. (See block and crown block. allowing fluid to enter into the production column. 4643. On the upstroke. See Anticline. 'Re working barrel is connected to the sucker-rod string through a connector and the traveling valve.) 4645. 4644.

coalesce. 4651. 4650. See Bubble Cap Trays. electricity. TREE SAVER A patented. cylindrical refining or processing columns fitted with internal. The patented dehydrator uses some heat in its process. treat to subject a substance to a process or to a chemical reagent to improve its quality or remove a contaminant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The water and other foreign matter settle to the bottom of the tank and are then drawn off. horizontal trays or baffles over which charge stock flows from top to bottom in a vaporization or absorption process. TREATING PLANT A facility for heating oil containing water. 4648. ELECTROSTATIC An oil treater that uses AC and DC electrical force fields to cause the water droplets in the oil-water emulsion to come together. 698 Petroleum Engineer: M. TREATER. heat. and then drop out by gravity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4646. TRAYED COLUMNS Any of several kinds of vertical.com . mandrel-like piping made to slip into and through the valves and connecting spools of a Christmas tree when a well is to be stimulated. particularly on low-gravity crude oils. treater a vessel in which oil is treated for the removal of BS& W. by the addition of chemicals. 4647. Z.mzhelu@gmail. and other impurities and with the addition of chemicals causing the water and oil to separate. or all three. emulsions. 4649.

A storage battery.) 699 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4655. or jets.mzhelu@gmail. (See bit and directional drilling. The mandrel or inner sleeve takes the pressure. triethylene glycol (TEG) a liquid chemical used in gas processing to remove water from the gas. or hydrofracked under high pressure. A one-eye bit is used in soft formations to drill a deviated hole. self-propelled machine with digging buckets fixed to an "endless" chain bolt or circular frame that. Z. a large. protecting the tree both from the high pressure and any corrosive or abrasive fluids during the stimulation operation.com . Should the main source of power fail. See Tour. through which the drilling fluid is discharged. usually for standby. emergency service. when rotated. The bit body is often fitted with nozzles. kept charged by a small amount of current from a primary electrical source. fully charged. (See glycol dehydration. 4652.) 4656. tricone bit a type of bit in which each of three toothed and conical cutters is mounted on friction-reducing bearings and is forced into the formation by the weight and rotary motion of the drill stem. is ready for use. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4653. TRENCHER A ditching machine. TRICK TRICKLE-CHARGED BATTERY 4654. the battery. scoops out a ditch to predetermined width and depth.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering acidized.

) a small mud pit with a capacity of 10 to 15 bbl. TRIM. 4659. on the wellhead. i. usually with 1 bbl divisions. used exclusively to ascertain the amount of mud necessary to keep the wellbore full with the exact amount of mud that is displaced by drill pipe. See Round Trip.e.com . removing the drillstring through the wells stack of control valves. the blowout preventer.. the crew must resort to stripping the pipe (q. in order to come out of the hole under high-pressure conditions. 4661.). Sometimes. trim (nautical) the difference between the draft forward and the draft aft on a mobile offshore drilling rig.v. 4660.) (See come out of the hole. 4658. Z. High-pressure gas encountered in drilling deep wells that can cause serious problems of control when the tools are pulled out of the hole in making a trip. 700 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 4663. trip in trip out trip tank (See go in the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. SOUR SERVICE TRIP TRIP GAS See Sour Service Trim.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4657. 4662. Sufficient mud must be in the hole to provide the hydrostatic head necessary to contain the downhole gas pressure. The driller must exercise extreme care to prevent loss of control or a blowout.

The triplex pump discharges fluid more evenly than a duplex or two plunger pump. Handling thribbles calls for a large.) See Round Trip.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering When the bit comes out of the hole. a main line.com . Tripping doubles requires one-third more pipe connections to make up and break out by the floor men than if they were tripping "thribbles. and a trip tank again can be used to keep track of this volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. When the bit goes back in the hole. the drillpipe must be pulled a stand at a time in order to reach the bit.). TRIPPING THE BIT Removing the bit from the hole and running it in again. (In removing the bit. as three-joint stands are 90 feet high and can present problems in windy areas. tall derrick. Z. 4665. TRIPPING DOUBLES An expression meaning pulling the drillpipe out of the hole (or going in) in two-joint stands (q.v. TRIPLEX PUMP A reciprocating pump with three plungers or pistons working in three cylinders. trunk line 701 Petroleum Engineer: M. a volume of mud equal to that which the drill pipe occupied while in the hole must be pumped into the hole to replace the pipe. as it has a power stroke every one-third or a revolution of the crankshaft compares] to every half revolution for the duplex pump." three -joint stands. 4664. 4667. the drill pipe displaces a certain amount of mud. 4666.

4670.com .). The tubes or pipes. TUBE STILL TUBE TURN A pipe still (q. 4673.mzhelu@gmail.v. A weld or flanged fitting in the shape of a U used in construction of manifolds. and other close pipe work. 4669. tstg tube TUBE BUNDLE testing. to run tubing in a well. are spaced equidistance apart in parallel rows and are supported by perforated endplates thus forming a "bundle.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4668. Trunnion valves are opened and closed by a quarter turn of the handle. used in drilling reports.v. effecting a pressure-tight connection between the tubes and the heads of a condenser or heat exchanger." 4672. TRUNNION VALVE A type of butterfly valve whose orifice is opened and closed by a disk rotating on trunnions or pins seated in the valve body. Z. 702 Petroleum Engineer: M.). The name given to the tubes in the core of a heat exchanger (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. aft the same length. 4674. tube sheet a metal plate through which the tubes in the tube bundles are placed for support. exchanger bundles. 4671.

tubing elevators pl a clamping apparatus used to pull tubing. packer-like device run in a string of tubing that clamps against the wall of the casing. 4677.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4675. dented or collapsed well tubing or casing. The tubing anchor prevents the "breathing" of the tubing. deformed diameter of the damaged pipe. As the cylindrical tool is forced lower and rotated it pushes out dents and restores the pipe to its original diameter. The elevators latch onto the pipe just below the top collar. 4679.mzhelu@gmail. TUBING ANCHOR A downhole. TUBING AND CASING ROLLERS A downhole tool for reconditioning buckled. the cyclic up and down movement of the lower section of tubing as the well is pumped by a rod pump. 4680. tubing small-diameter pipe that is run into a well to serve as a conduit for the passage of oil and gas to the surface. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4678. tubing hanger an arrangement of slips built into a steel housing and engaged in the upper end of the wellhead that serves as a support for the suspended tubing string. TUBING BOARD A small platform high in the derrick where a "derrick man" (a member of the drilling crews who is not affected with acrophobia) stands to rack drillpipe or tubing as it is being pulled and set back (q. 703 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.com .). The elevators are attached by steel links or bails to the hook. The tool is lowered into the hole. 4676. entering the small. Z.

Z. hydraulically. Similar in design and function to the casinghead. 4684. See Pump. the formation pressure on the tubing in a well at the wellhead. or pneumatically. the tubing head supports the string of tubing in the well. 4686.mzhelu@gmail. and provides connections at the surface to control the production of gas or oil. tubing job tubing pressure TUBING PUMPS tubing safety valve the act of pulling tubing out of and running it back into a well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4682. forged-steel fitting that is flanged to the casinghead and intowhich the tubing hangers fit. tubing spider a device used with slips to prevent tubing from failing into the hole when a joint of pipe is being unscrewed and racked. 4685. an element of the above-ground well completion hookup. TUBING HEAD The top of the string of tubing with control and flow valves attached. 4683. seals off pressure between casing and the inside of the tubing. Tubing safety valves are widely used in offshore wells to prevent pollution if the wellhead fails for any reason.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4681. 704 Petroleum Engineer: M.tubing tongs n pl the large wrenches used to break out and make up tubing. a device installed in the tubing string of a producing well to shut in the flow of production if the flow exceeds a preset rate. TUBING SPOOL A heavy. They may be operated manually.com . 4687. Tubing.

) 4691. (See pipe. casing. The movement of liquid through the meter exerts a force on the curved vanes. as on a water wheel. The spindle is connected to a counter and readout mechanism. showing rate of flow and total daily or monthly throughput. LIQUID a type of roller-cone b'9 or rock bit. causing the spindle to turn. Even in the warmest months of summer. The meter is constructed with vanes on a spindle inside a housing that can be flanged into a flow fine. also called tungsten carbide insert bits. Oil-filed tubular goods include tubing.mzhelu@gmail. dry-gas reservoirs.com . 4689. 4690. 4692. 4693. tungsten carbide bit TURBINE METER. tubingless completion a method of producing a well in which only a small diameter production casing is set through the pay zone. with no tubing or inner production string used to bring formation fluids to the surface. This type of completion has limited application in small volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and line pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4688. 705 Petroleum Engineer: M. tubular tubular goods tubular goods. drill pipe. A mechanism inserted into a liquid flow fine that measures volumetric flow rate and total flow. the subsoil remains frozen. TUNDRA A vast area in the Arctic lying between the permanent ice cap and the m' ore southerly forested region. Z. also called tubular. any kind of pipe. the top few inches supporting only limited vegetation.

TURBULENT FLOW The movement of liquid through a pipeline in eddies and swirls which tends to keep the column of liquid "together" rather than running like a river with the center of the stream moving faster than the edges. When a turbodrill is used. Turbine.com . 4697. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 4695. turbodrill a drilling tool that rotates a bit attached to it by the action of the drilling mud on the turbine blades built into the tool. TURBODRILLING A type of rotary drilling in which a fluid-drive turbine (motor) is placed in the drillstring just above the drill bit. it is used most often in directional drilling. 4698. hence there is no kelly joint being turned by the rotary table. Although straight holes can be drilled with the tool. TURBINE PUMP TURBOCHARGER See Pump. 706 Petroleum Engineer: M. rotary motion is imparted only at the bit. thus it is unnecessary to rotate the drill stem.mzhelu@gmail. Z. A centrifugal blower driver) by an engine's exhaust-gas turbine to supercharge the engine. The drillpipe does not rotate as in conventional drilling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4694. See Plastic Flow.) is to supply air to the intake of an engine at a pressure higher than the surrounding atmosphere. 4696. To supercharge (q. The mud pressure from the pumps at the surface pumping mud down through the drillpipe turns the turbine that rotates the drill bit.

a right-and left screw link used for tightening a rod. Z. turn to the right on a rotary rig.mzhelu@gmail. the expression "on bottom and turning to the right" indicates that drilling is proceeding normally. TURNBUCKLE A link with a screw thread at one end and a swivel at the other. TURNAROUND The planned. construction. TURNKEY WELL A well drilled under a turnkey contract (q. 707 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4700. completion. 4701. When drilling ahead.com . 4703. turnkey contract a drilling contract that calls for the payment of a stipulated amount to the drilling contractor on completion of the well. TURNKEY A verb made from the adjective "turnkey. a guy wire.v. the preventive maintenance and safety check requiring the shutting down of a refinery and the cleaning.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4699. the contractor furnishes all material and labor and controls the entire drilling operation. periodic inspection and overhaul of the units of a refinery or processing plant. 4702. and testing of a project before turning it over to the owner for operation. In a turnkey contract. procurement. or stay." to perform a complete job as under a turnkey contract (q.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. independent of supervision by the operator. 4704. to take over and perform all necessary work of planning.).). to rotate the drill stem clockwise. inspection and repair of piping and process vessels.

he "delivers. all for an amount specified in the contract. MOORED ICE-DRILLING BARGE A drilling barge of new concept developed by Dome Petroleum Ltd. the vessel is free to rotate around the turret axis and head into oncoming seas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4705. When on production. 4708. for use in Arctic waters where floating or moving ice is a danger to conventional drillships or barges. This maneuver reduces the tension on the mooring lines to a small fraction of that on a vessel moored in a fixed position. TURNTABLE. it to the owner ready to "turn the key" and start the oil running into the lease tank. At the approach of advancing ice on the barge's beam..mzhelu@gmail. TURNKEYCONTRACT A contract in which a drilling contractor agrees to furnish all materials and labor and do all that is required to drill and complete a well in a workman like manner. 708 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4706. The new barge has a 16-anchor mooring system attached to a swivel directly beneath the drilling derrick. Z. the vessel weathervanes until its bow is headed into the ice flow. turret mooring a system of mooring a drill ship on the drilling site in which mooring lines are spooled onto winches mounted on a turret in the center of the vessel.com . regardless of direction. Because all mooring lines are connected to the turret. ROTARY DRILLING TURRET See Rotary Table. 4707.

4713. The connector is in the general configuration of an English walnut. to part or split primarily because of metal fatigue in the pipe or because of mishandling.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TWISTATAIL To bring pressure to bear in order to speed up a job or to get action from someone who is suspected of dragging his feet.). Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4709. 4712. the two halves are held together by a bolt and nut. 4714. TVD is always less than a well's total depth (TD) because of the inevitable deviation from the vertical of the well bore.mzhelu@gmail. TVD Total vertical depth. 4715. TURTLEBACK A two-part clamp for joining lengths of shackle rod (q. TWO-CYCLE ENGINE An internal combustion engine that produces one power stroke for each revolution of the crankshaft intake. power and exhaust stroke are accomplished in one revolution. TWO-STAGE COMPRESSOR Two-stage identifies a type of compressor that intakes gas and compresses or raises the pressure in the first chamber of the compressor and passes the gas 709 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4710. twist off of drill pipe or drill collars. compression. 4711.v. twin a well drilled on the same location as another well and closely offsetting it but producing from a different zone.

710 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering into the second-stage chamber where it. used in drilling reports. 4716. raising the pressure to the required level.com . is further compressed. Z. Twp township.

Ulcc Ullage ultralarge crude carrier. and duties. U-bolt A bed in the shape of a u. geological survey an agency of the federal government that. U. 4721. the drill stem serves as one arm of the u and the annulus as the other.s. U.s. among its many service. especially on ships.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4717. regulates the placement of wells in federal offshore lands.mzhelu@gmail. 4722. U-bolts or u-clamps are used to hold two ends of wire lines together or to make a loop in a length of wire cable by turning back the running part (the loose end) on the standing part of the cable and clamping them together. Z. 4719. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The drill stem in the hole is a u-tube configuration. 711 Petroleum Engineer: M. U-tubing the action of fluids flowing in a u-tube (as heavy mud forcing lighter mud down the drill stem and up the annulus). 4718.g. Ullage in a tank is necessary to allow space for the expansion of the oil in the tank when the temperature increases. both ends of which are threaded. to cause a fluid to flow in a u-tube. A follower or saddle piece fits over the threaded ends and is held in place by nuts.com . the amount by which a tank or vessel lacks being full.s. 4720. U-tube a u-shaped piece of pipe.

Unbranded gasoline Gasoline sold by a major refiner to jobbers and other large distributors without bearing the name of the refiner. Ultimate recovery Ultralarge crude carrier total ancipated recovery of oil or gas from a well. For example. 4727. if they lie at an angle to each other. lease. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Unassociated gas Natural gas occurring alone. if the rock layers on either side (top and bottom) are parallel. not in solution or as free gas with oil or condensate.000 deadweight tons or more.com . it is a parallel unconformity. Where the two dissimilar formations touch or meet. or pool. it is an angular unconformity. 4726. The resulting intimate mixture of fuel and air makes for greater combustion efficiency. a layer of sandstone is lying on a layer of limestone. 4724. 4725. Z. 712 Petroleum Engineer: M. the upper layer does not conform to the lower layer or vice versa. Ultrasonic atomizer A development in burners for heating oils in which high-frequency sound waves are focused on the stream of fuel. a super-tanker whose capacity is 500. Compare tanker and very large crude carrier.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4723. See associated gas. Uncomformity The surface that separates two rock units. forming a spray of microscopic fuel droplets. 4728. this surface is an unconformity.

Unconformity 1.mzhelu@gmail. 4730. Geologists have known of these sources for many years but. 1. (see angular unconformity and disconformity. If an unconsolidated sandstone produces oil or gas.com .) 4732. it will produce sand as well if not controlled or corrected.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4729. and in geopressurized reservoirs along the gulf coast. in certain shales in the appalachian basin. Such sources are to be found in tight sandstone reservoirs in the western and southwestern states. Unconsolidated sandstone a sand formation in which individual grains do not adhere to one another. more cheaply producible conventional gas.) 4733. Unconventional natural gas The term applied to natural gas so difficult and expensive to produce that the sources have been bypassed in favor of more easily obtainable supplies. The surface of contact between rock beds in which there is a discontinuity in the ages of the rocks. (see angular unconformity and disconformity. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Lack of continuity in deposition between rock strata in contact with one another corresponding to a gap in the stratigraphic record. Unconf Unconformity unconformity. The surface of contact between rock beds in which there is a discontinuity in the ages of the rocks. because of the low prices for conventional.) 4731. 2. the unconventional gas supplies 713 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see sand control and sand consolidation. Lack of continuity in deposition between rock strata in contact with one another corresponding to a gap in the stratigraphic record. used in drilling reports. 2.

Often the borehole. Also. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). and at great cost.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering have remained untouched. A tool with expanding arms or lugs that. Underground waste Underream loss of recoverable reserves as a result of damage to the reservoir. a type of under-reamer. 4735. Bit worn down to 6 5/8 in. to get at these marginal sources advances in technology have to be developed. 4737.mzhelu@gmail. salt water. All caverns are not suitable. is sometimes used 714 Petroleum Engineer: M. Underground blowout an uncontrolled flow of gas. is under-reamed to enlarge the exposed area of the hole and increase the flow of oil into the hole. 4738. or other fluids out of the wellbore and into another formation 4736. can be released at any depth to ream the hole with steel or insert cutters. when lowered into the hole.v. 4734. A belling tool. some are not naturally sealed and would permit the stored oil to leak into subsurface water sources. A 6 7/8 in. Z. Underground storage In certain areas of the country where there are underground caverns petroleum and products are stored for future use.com . Is undergauge. See salt-dome storage. Undergauge bit a drilling bit whose outside diameter has been worn down until it is smaller than the bit specifications allow. To enlarge the size of the borehole of the well by the use of an under-reamer (q. which has penetrated the producing formation.

One lease that is operated by several companies. 4743. 4741. A piece or several pieces of equipment performing a complete function (as a beam-pumping unit). 4740. threaded collar on the union. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Underreamer Unibolt coupling a device used to underream. 4739.com . Several leases that are operated by one company. Underreamef A type of drilling loot used to enlarge the diameter of the borehole in certain downhole intervals. 3. the coupling is tightened.mzhelu@gmail. Unibolt couplings are for medium-diameter piping and take up less space than conventional multibolt flanges. The mating surfaces are pulled together by a flanged. drawing the bolt lugs together. The under-reamer is made with expendable arms fitted with cutters. 4742. When torque is applied to the two halves by a single bolt.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to excavate a bell-shaped hole just below the production string of tubing or casing for the same purpose. The two mating halves of the coupling have tapered shoulders. When in position the expendable arms are released and the cutters chew away the rock to enlarge the hole. to enlarge or increase the face area of the hole. Z. Unit 1. 2. 715 Petroleum Engineer: M. Union a coupling device that allows pipes to be connected without being rotated. When the reamer is pulled from the hole the arms fold in toward the body of the tool. A patented coupling or flange for joining two lengths of pipe.

each lease bears its prorata share of the expense of any project undertaken. a moveable coupling for transmitting power from one shaft to another when one shaft is at an angle to the other's long axis. In such an arrangement. Cleaning out. unitization was the logical arrangement to maintain as long as possible the productive life of the pool. Z. Unit operator the oil company in charge of development and producing in an oil field in which several companies have joined together to produce the field. 716 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .mzhelu@gmail. which is not the same as unitization. Unitoperator Head well puller. Unitization A term denoting the joint operation of separately owned producing leases in a pool or reservoir. For another type of joint venture see pooling. with its own pressure system and a continuous oil-bearing strata. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pressure maintenance.g. or secondary recovery programs. pulling rods and tubing. 4745.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4744. Unitization makes it economically feasible to undertake cycling. e. 4747. the man in charge of the pulling unit crew that does routine subsurface work on producing wells. changing pumps. 4746.. Universal A shaft coupling able to transmit rotation to another shaft not directly in line with the first shaft. With the knowledge that a pool or a reservoir is a unit or an entity. as well as a share of the production.

) Which usually takes the following form "if no well is commenced on said land on or before the date hereof.Dollars ($-----) which shall operate as rental and cover the privilege of deferring the commencement of a well for 12 months from said date. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.).mzhelu@gmail. most intermediate booster stations on large trunk lines are unmanned and remotely controlled from the dispatcher's office.com ." 4750.v. 4749. See delay rental. 4752. There is no single form of the unless lease. but it is known as the unless lease because of the wording of the delay rental clause (q. the other common type is the or lease (q. Unlesslease A type of lease in general use. Unproven area Unsaturated hydrocarbon a wildcat area. stopped. this lease shall terminate as to both parties unless the Lessee on or before that date shall pay or tender to lessor the sum of--.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4748. Unmanned station A pipeline pumping station that is started. 717 Petroleum Engineer: M. a straight-chain compound of hydrogen and carbon whose total combining power has not yet been reached and to which other atoms or radicals can be added. Unless clause The clause in an unless lease that provides for the termination of the lease interest unless the lessee commences drilling or pays rental during the primary term of the lease. Through telecommunication systems. and monitored by remote control. Z.v. 4751.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. responsible for the enforcement of rules pertaining to the drilling and production of oil and gas in offshore areas of the u. In the manufacture of casing and drillpipe. the additional metal is usually put on the inside. Upsettubing Tubular goods that are "upset" are made thicker in the area of the threads in order to compensate for the metal cut away in making threads.s. 4754.com . especially the smaller sizes. Updip well A well located high on a structure where the oil-bearing formation is found at a shallower depth. but in well tubing. 4756. 4755.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4753.mzhelu@gmail. 718 Petroleum Engineer: M. Upstream in the direction opposite that of the flow in a line. Usually upsetting is performed to provide the thickness needed to form threads so that the tubular good can be connected. Usgs united states geological survey. the point in a line or system situated opposite the direction of flow. 4757. Upset to forge the ends of tubular products so that the pipe wall acquires extra thickness and strength near the end. the thickening is on the outside. Z. This is known as exterior-upset tubing.

The V-belts.I. compressor. 4761. Vacuum 1.0. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bigger and tougher versions of the automobile fan belt. V. 2. a space that is devoid of all matter and that exerts zero pressure. and other tools from the pipe rack. The V-door is opposite the drawworks and is used as an entry to bring in drill pipe. or other equipment. part of a full-scale advertising information program conducted by the American Petroleum Institute to tell the oil industry's story to the public.C. Voluntary Oil Industry Communications Effort.I.E.O.C. casing. 4762. V. or VOICE is part of the Program in which speakers from the industry appear before interested groups to tell oil's story.com .mzhelu@gmail. A type of "endless" V-shaped belt used in transmitting power from an engine's grooved drive pulley to the grooved sheave of a pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4758. Z. V V-BELT 4759. V-door An opening at floor level in a side of a derrick or mast shaped like an inverted V. volt. Theoretically. 719 Petroleum Engineer: M.E. 4760. are used in sets of from two to twenty belts depending upon the size of the drive pulley. A condition that exists in a system when pressure is reduced below atmospheric pressure.

/sq. For example water which boils at 212 degrees F. VACUUM TAR 720 Petroleum Engineer: M.7 lbs. Boils at 102 degrees at a pressure of one pound. VACUUM FLASHER A refinery vessel. The pressure in some flasher vessels is less than one-third atmospherics or 5 pounds per square inch. lighter fractions of the heavy charge stock will flash off or vaporize. See Asphalt. Under the atmospheric pressure of 14.mzhelu@gmail. The lower the pressure. At this reduced pressure. In. a large-diameter column where charge stock is distilled at less than atmospheric pressure. VACUUM DISTILLATION (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺨﻠﻲ‬ Distillation under reduced pressure (less than atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of the liquid being distilled. 4767. Z. 4766. VACUUM STILL A refining vessel in which crude oil or other feed-stock is distilled at less than atmospheric pressure. 4764. the lower the boiling point for all liquids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4763. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Vacuum gauge an instrument used on gas or gasoline engines to indicate the performance characteristics and load. 4765.com . So vacuum distillation saves in refinery fuel costs and may prevent the breaking down or changing of molecules which might occur at higher distillation temperatures. This technique with its relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or decomposition of the charge stock.

check valve. The stem of the packless valve does not rotate.com . One disk can be rotated through 90'. and relief valve. plug valve. Packless or packingless valves usually are for small-diameter piping 721 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Valve pots are on the fluid end of the pump. the orifices in the two disks are in perfect alignment. Z. VALVE. For full flow through the valve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4768. and are covered and sealed by heavy. 4772. VALVE. it is raised and lowered into the valve body by a connecting stem outside the fluid cavity. Those with extensive usage include the gate valve. A special kind of valve that uses a welded bellows rather than soft packing around the valve stem. 4 4770. threaded plugs or metal caps bolted over the top of the pots. to open or shut off a line completely. MULTIPLE-ORIFICE A patented orifice valve with two orifice plates or disks in pressure tight contact. VALVE POTS The wells in the body of a reciprocating (plunger) pump where the suction and discharge valves are located. or to serve as an automatic or semiautomatic safety device. To reduce the flow. thus restricting the flow through the valve. 4771. the moveable disk is rotated a certain number of degrees which partially covers the orifice in tile fixed disk. needle valve. globe value. NEEDLE VALVE. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PACKLESS See Needle Valve. 4773. Valve a device used to control the rate of flow in a line.

com . Z. Pa.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (one-quarter to 2-inch) and are used on piping carrying hazardous or toxic fluids or gases and for high-pressure steam. VANE PUMP A type of rotary pump designed to handle relatively small volumes of liquid products gasoline and fight oils as well as highly viscous fluids.mzhelu@gmail. A pilot valve is usually employed to modulate or dampen the action of a larger valve as it opens to relieve the system pressure. The line was two-inch and ran from Pithole City. VAPOR LOCK A condition that exists when a volatile fuel vaporizes in an engines fuel line or carburetor preventing the normal flow of liquid fuel to the engine. thus sounding the knell for the teamster and his wagonload of oil barrels. through a linkage of pressure piping. VAN SYCKEL. SAMUEL The man who invented and successfully operated the first crude oil pipeline. 4778. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To a railroad five Miles away. Controls the opening of a larger relief or safety valve. or the fines and carburetor cooled sufficiently to condense the gas back to a liquid. 4776. 4777. Vapor a substance in the gaseous state that is capable of being liquefied by compression or cooling. It pumped 81 barrels the first day.. 4774. To handle gas lock or vapor lock the gas must be bled off the system by removing a line or loosening a connection. 722 Petroleum Engineer: M. PILOT A small relief valve that. 4775. VALVE.

For example. 4781. The vapors are drawn into a collecting tank and by pressure and cooling are condensed to a liquid. Susceptible to or affected by vapors.com . an electrical switch is made vapor proof so that a spark issuing from it will not cause an explosion in the presence of combustible gases. and service stations. Vapor phase Vapor pressure of a substance. The act or process of converting a substance into the vapor phase. Vapor recovery VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT a system or method by which vapors are retained and conserved. 4785. Equilibrium is established when the rate of evaporation of a substance is equal to the rate of condensation of its vapor. Vaporization (1). Z. VAPORTENSION See Vapor Pressure. the pressure exerted by the vapor of a substance when the substance and its vapor are in equilibrium. The state of substances being in the vapor phase. VR units significantly reduce air pollution by petroleum vapors. existence in the gaseous state. 4783. 4780. A facility for collecting and condensing vapors of volatile products being loaded into open tanks at refineries. 4784. (2). 4782.mzhelu@gmail. Vapor proof adj. 723 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4779. terminals.

straight. a short tube with a calibrated constriction in it that is used in instruments.com . Vertical an imaginary line or shaft drilled at right angles to the plane of the horizon. Z. The effect of the tube is to increase the velocity and decrease the pressure at the point where the tube’s diameter is reduced. or quantity discharged. Vent Venturi tube an opening in a vessel. The tube.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4786. VENTURIMETER An instrument for measuring the volume of flowing gases and liquids. Of a wellbore. is flanged into a pipeline carrying the fluid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. not deviated. 4787. 724 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4790. Venturi-tube meter a flow meter used to determine the rate of flow that uses a ٛenture tube as the primary element for creating differential pressures in flowing gases or liquids. developed according to the principle that a fluid flowing through a constriction has increased velocity and reduced pressure. Compare orifice meter. 4791. or pump to permit the escape of air or gas. line. in the shape of an elongated hourglass. It consists of two parts—the tube through which the fluid flows and a set of indicators which show the Pressures.mzhelu@gmail. rate of flow. The relationship between the line pressure and the pressure at the narrow “waist” of the tube is used in computing the rate of flow. 4 4789.

mzhelu@gmail. 4794. an oil company is said to be vertically integrated when it finds and produces oil and gas. Specifically. and markets the product all as one integrated operation. refines or processes it. and markets its products under its brand name. VERTICAL-MOORED PLATFORM A buoyant drilling-producing platform moored to the sea floor by flexible risers cemented into the seabed.) a device affixed to an engine crankshaft to minimize stresses that result from torsional vibration of the crankshaft. When all wells are drilled and completed the VMP becomes a producing platform. refines it.000 deadweight tons but less than 500. The buoyancy of the platform exerts sufficient tension on its mooring systems to stabilize it in all kinds of weather. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4792. 4796. this is not in the country’s best interest. See Horizontal Integration. 725 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4793. Wells are drilled through the risers by conventional methods and completed at the platform deck.com . VERTICAL INTEGRATION Refers to the condition in which a company produces raw material. (See tanker and ultralarge mole carrier. transports it.) 4795. Very large crude carrier (VLCC) a super-tanker whose capacity is larger than 100. According to the critics of the industry. Vibration dampener Vibration damper (See Shock Sub.000 dwt. transports it in its own pipelines.

4802. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.000 deadweight tons or larger. When the coupling is tightened with the two bolts. rated 100. 4801. 4803. 726 Petroleum Engineer: M. also called a 4799. rated 0. 4800.” of a fluid. a crude oil tanker of 160. viscosimeter. 4798. Very large crude carrier. Reference oils are highly paraffinic Pennsylvania oil. VISROSEIS VLCC Producing seismic shockwaves by the use of “thumpers” or vibrator vehicles. ViscosimeterViscosity Viscosity index (See viscometer. capable of transporting one million barrels or more. Before the halves of the coupling are put in position. An index used to establish the tendency of oil to thin out at increasing temperatures. The rubber is compressed. Z. a rubber ring is placed over the junction of the two lengths of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4797. making a pressure tight connection. and Gulf Coast naphthenic oil.) The resistance to flow. Viscometer a device used to determine the viscosity of a substance.com . or “stickiness.mzhelu@gmail. VICTAULIC COUPLING A patented pipe coupling made in two halves that wrap around the grooved ends of two lengths of pipe and are forced together by bolts.

(See vapor and vaporization. 4805. readily vaporized. being a small catch vessel for water and drip gasoline (q.mzhelu@gmail. Is that gas from the lease is piped to each gas engine through a small pipe. The volume tank is usually located a few feet away from the gas engine fuel line takeoff. cavities in a rock that do not contain solid material but may contain fluids. 4807. 4806.). 4808.) (See positive-displacemmi meter. 727 Petroleum Engineer: M.) A small cylindrical vessel connected to a gas fine in the oil field to provide an even flow of gas to an engine and to trap liquids that may have condensed in the gas line.v. Z.com . One reason for volume tank. 4809. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) The extent to which gasoline or oil vaporizes. often one inch. Voltmeter Volume meter VOLUMETANK (See positive-displacement meter. besides its.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4804. VLPC Voids n pl Volatile VOLATILITY Very large product carriers (oceangoing tankers). the ease with which a liquid is converted into a gaseous state. 4810. and as the engine intakes gas the small pipe would not provide a steady and continuous enough supply.

a secondary rock porosity formed by the dissolving of the more soluble portions of a rock in waters containing carbonic or other acids. a cavernous formation. is an example of a vugular-type sedimentary rock. Then the volumetric efficiency of the pump is about 97 percent. 4812. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. But the fluid put out by the pump is 290 cu in. Vs Vug Vugular formation Vugular porosity 4813. Pumps are seldom 100 percent efficient. 4816. if the pump pistons displace 300 cu in. versus. which often contains pits and cavities. a rock formation that contains vugs.com . 4815.mzhelu@gmail. a cavity in a rock. Volumetric efficiency the actual volume of fluid put out by a pump divided by the volume displaced by a piston or pistons (or other device) in the pump. 728 Petroleum Engineer: M. Volumetric efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4811. VUGULAR-TYPE ROCK Rock with large pits or cavities in its structure.. Limestone. Z. 4814. For example.

Z. the wall hook centers it in the hole so that it may be recovered with an overshot. 4824. If the upper end of the lost pipe is leaning against the side of the wellbore.) 729 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4820.) 4822. usually with rocking or reciprocating motion. horizontal member of a beam-pumping unit.) (See differential-pressure sticking. 4823. watt.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4817.mzhelu@gmail.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. water cushion. Walking beam the steel. (See sucker-rod pumping.) a device used in fishing for drill pipe. Wall sticking (See differential-pressure sticking. which is run on the fishing string and attached to the wall hook. (See cushion. 4819. Wall cake Wall hook (See filter cake. W W/C Wail-stuck pipe Waiting on cement 4818. 4821.) (WOC) pertaining to or during the time when drilling or completion operations are suspended so the cement in a well can harden sufficiently. used in drilling reports.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) a packer that supports itself against the wall of the casing in which it is set.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4825.com . 4828. A short length of surface-hardened pipe that fits inside the swivel and serves as a conduit for drilling fluid through the swivel.) 4827. Washover pipe. Wall-hook guide Wall-hook packer (See wall hook. Z. Wash pipe (1). Wash over to release pipe that is stuck in the hole by running washover pipe. 4829. (See hook-wall packer. used to remove the water from the crude. A fluid-cut opening caused by fluid leakage. Excessive wellbore enlargement caused by solvent and erosional action of the drilling fluid. Wash tank a tank containing heated water. mud.Through which crude-oil emulsion is forced to flow. The washover pipe must have an outside diameter small enough to fit into the borehole but an inside diameter large enough to fit over the outside diameter of the stuck pipe. 4826. which cuts away the formation. is made up on the bottom joint of the washover pipe. and the assembly is lowered into the hole. Rotation of the assembly frees the stuck pipe. A rotary shoe. (2). 2. It is also called a gun barrel. 4830. 730 Petroleum Engineer: M. Washout 1. Several washovers may have to be made if the stuck portion is very long.mzhelu@gmail. or whatever is sticking the pipe.

Washover assembly Washover pipe (See washover pipe.) (See water-distillation unit. thus enabling the washed-over portion of the fish to be retrieved.mzhelu@gmail. and pulling to be carried out in one round trip (See wash over and back off.) an accessory used in fishing operations to go over the outside of tubing or drill pipe that is stuck in the hole because of cuttings. that have collected in the annulus. 4834. 4837. Water block a reduction in the permeability of a formation. caused by the invasion of water into the pores. 4835. 4836. It is sometimes called wash pipe. Z.com .) 4832. Washover back-off connector tool a fishing tool that is made up in a length of washover pipe connected to the top of the fish once the washover is completed and then backed off the fish.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4831. The washover pipe cleans the annular space and permits recovery of the pipe.) 731 Petroleum Engineer: M. The tool permits washover. Water loss Water maker (See fluid loss. and so forth. back off. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4833. mud. Water encroachment the movement of water into a producing formation as the formation is depleted of oil and gas by production.

To reduce the weight or density of a drilling mud by adding water. the ratio of water to cement in a slurry. The paste is applied to a plumb bob. 4845. Water-based Mud Water-cement ratio A drilling mud in which the continuous phase is water. In water-base muds. The underground level at which water is found. 4839. (2). It is expressed as a percentage. (1). Water-base mud a drilling mud in which the continuous phase is water. (2). Water-back (1). 4843. Water-cut paste a material that changes color (usually to red) in water. Water Saturation Water string Water table The percentage of pore space in a formation occupied by water. Underground water supplies used for irrigation and industrial plants. Compare oil-base mud. which 732 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 4840. 4844. indicating the number of pounds of water needed to mix 100 lb of cement. The use of water-cut paste is one method by which the level of water in the bottom of an oil storage tank can be determined. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4842. a string of casing used to shut off water above an oil sand. To reduce the solids content of a mud by adding water. any additives are dispersed in the water. The top of the drilling derrick or mast that supports the crown block.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4838. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 4841. (3).

4847. 4851. in which the oil is totally underlain by water. 4850. blocks the passage of and withstands the pressure of water. 4848. Bottom-water drive is more efficient. Water-distillation unit a system used mostly on offshore or desert locations to convert seawater to fresh. Watertight door a door on ships or mobile offshore rigs that. 4846. potable water by distillation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is lowered to the bottom of the tank and then retrieved. in which only the edge of the oil is in contact with the water. having gone to water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Water-drive the reservoir-drive mechanism in which oil is produced by the expansion of the underlying water. which forces the oil into the wellbore.mzhelu@gmail. there are two types of water drive bottom-water drive. 733 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . In general. and edgewater drive. The water level is then measured off the bob by noting the depth of the red portion of the bob. Z. when closed. Usually. a method of secondary recovery in which water is injected into a reservoir in order to remove additional quantities of oil from the reservoir that have been left behind after primary recovery. 4849. Water-wet rock Watered-out Waterflood (See wettability.) of a well. a waterflood Involves the injection of water through wells specially set up for water injection and the removal of the water and oil from the wells drilled adjacent to the injection wells.

Weevil Weight indicator (See boll weevil. used in drilling reports.) wildcat.com . Weight up to increase the specific gravity. 734 Petroleum Engineer: M. weight on the bit can be estimated during drilling.mzhelu@gmail. a hollow.) an instrument near the driller's position on a drilling or workover rig that shows the weight suspended from the hook when the bit is off the bottom. 4858. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Weight on the bit the difference between the net weight of the entire drill stem and the reduced weight resulting when the bit is resting on bottom. 4855. 4859. From this reading. Z. 4856. 4857. of the drilling fluid by adding weighting material. 4853. cylindrical device attached to a joint of drill pipe midway between the tool joints that minimizes wear to the outside of the pipe at points where the pipe touches the wall of the hole. usually the lowest zone in the reservoir. or density. Wax WC Wear sleeve (See paraffin. 4854.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4852. Waterzone the portion of an oil or gas reservoir occupied by water.

Weighting material a material with a specific gravity greater than that of cement. to drill a well. and sonic logging. Well Well completion the hole made by the drilling bit. the activities and methods necessary to prepare a well for the production of oil and gas. Weir a device installed in a separator or treater and used to determine the amount of liquid flowing over it when the depth of the liquid is known. These techniques include open-hole completions. Z. or both. (See electric well log. 4862. Logging methods include records kept by the driller. drill-stem tests. 4863. tubingless completions. and miniaturized completions. Well permit authorization. sand-exclusion completions.) 4865. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually by a governmental conservation agency. conventional perforated completions. mud logging. cased. A permit is sometimes required for deepening or remedial work also. multiple completions. It can be open.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4860.com . 4864. the method by which a flow line for hydrocarbons is established between the reservoir and the surface. Well logging the recording of information about subsurface geologic formations. radioactivity well logging.mzhelu@gmail. 4861. used to increase the density of drilling fluids or cement scurries. 735 Petroleum Engineer: M. The method of well completion used by the operator depends on the individual characteristics of the producing formation or formations. core analysis. mud and cutting analyses. and electric and radioactivity procedures.

4872. 4869. and so forth. formation fracturing. Well stimulation any of several operations used to increase the production of a well. Z.com .) 4870. (See roustabout and crew chief. gas-lift valves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The hole drilled by the drill bit. 4873.) A program of work performed on an existing well. packers. electric well log. as a well-servicing company. Well surveying Well Workover Wellbore Wellbore soak (See deviation survey. 4868. 4871. and radioactivity well logging. Well spacing the regulation of the number and location of wells over a reservoir as a conservation measure. also called wellbore cleanup. rods.mzhelu@gmail. Well puller Well servicing a member of a well-servicing crew. (See acidize. and nitro-shooting. It is a relatively 736 Petroleum Engineer: M. an acidizing treatment in which the acid is placed in the wellbore and allowed to react by merely soaking in it. relating to well-servicing work. tubing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4866. Usually it involves repairs to the pump.) the maintenance work performed on an oil or gas well to improve or maintain the production from a formation already producing. 4867.

either in an emulsion or as free water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. If oil and water are both present. Wet box a shield set up to prevent oil or mud from splashing over the floor or on machinery and workmen while tubing or drill pipe is being pulled. most often the water is in contact with the surface of each grain. 4877.mzhelu@gmail. if the oil contacts the surface. and the rock is called water wet. including the casing head. the rock is oil wet. Wet oil Wettability an oil that contains water. which are often liquid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering slow process because very little of the acid actually comes in contact with the formation.com . 4875. the relative affinity between individual grains of rock and each fluid that is present in the spaces between the grains. Z. 4878. 4874. However. Wet gas a natural gas containing an appreciable amount of heavier hydrocarbons. tubing head. and Christmas tree. Wellhead the equipment used to maintain surface control of a well. 4876. pertaining to the wellhead (as wellhead pressure). 4879. Wetting the adhesion of a liquid to the surface of a solid. a mother hubbard. 737 Petroleum Engineer: M.

also called a gusher. 4881. 4883. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. water. a sprocket tooth in a wildcat. used in drilling reports. (nautical) a geared sheave of a Windlass used to pull anchor chain. Wild well a well that has blown out of control and from which oil. Wh Whelp Whipstock white. to drill wildcat wells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4880. A well drilled in an area where no oil or gas production exists. 738 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . Z. With present-day exploration methods and equipment. Wildcatter Winch one who drills wildcat wells. (2). or gas is escaping with great force to the surface. 4885. steel casing that uses an inclined plane to cause the bit to deflect from the original borehole at a slight angle. 4884. and to sidetrack to avoid unre-trieved fish. a machine that pulls or hoists by winding a cable around a spool.mzhelu@gmail. 4882. a long. Whipstocks are commonly used in controlled directional drilling. 4886. about one wildcat out of every six proves to be productive although not necessarily profitable. Wildcat (1). to straighten crooked boreholes.

4889. Windlass a device on an anchor-handling boat that propels the anchor chain to and from a chain locker where it is stored. 4891. usually made to permit sidetracking. Window a slotted opening or a full section removed in the pipe lining (casing) of a well. Typical wind resistance in derricks is 75 mph with pipe standing in the derrick and 115 mph or higher without. Wind-load rating a specification used to indicate the resistance of a derrick to the force of wind.) a horizontal stiffening and structural member installed near the top of a floating-roof tank to reinforce the tank wall against wind pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4888. 4890. Wind girder Wind guy Wind ring (See wind ring.com . 739 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4887.mzhelu@gmail.) (See guy line. also called a wind girder. 4892. The wind-load rating is calculated according to API specifications. 4893. Windward (nautical) upwind. Z.

coring line. It is also called wireline or cable. 4899. Wiper plugs also remove drilling mud that adheres to the inside of the casing. Wiper plug a rubber-bodied. used to cut another wireline stuck in a 4900.) a device usually run on a solid wireline. 4897. well.) (See core barrel. 4895. Wireline preventer a manually operated ram blowout preventer that is specially adapted for closure around a wireline. 4898. (See wire rope.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4894.or aluminum-cored device used to separate cement and drilling fluid as they are being pumped down the inside of the casing during cementing operations. Wire rope a rope composed of steel wires twisted into strands that are in turn twisted around a central core of hemp or other riber to create a rope of great strength and considerable flexibility. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 740 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . servicing line. Wire rope is used as drilling line (in rotary and cable-tool rigs). Wire-wrapped screen Wireline Wireline core barrel Wireline cutting tool a type of liner. 4896.mzhelu@gmail. and so on. winch line. plastic.

4904. 4907. waiting on cement. squeeze cement. The traveling valve closes. Examples of workover operations are deepening. the standing valve in the working barrel opens. and the fluid is forced from the 741 Petroleum Engineer: M. plugging back. Working barrel the outer shell of a downhole plunger pump. the standing valve closes. The pumping cycle starts with an upward stroke of the rods. 4905. used in drilling reports. which pulls the plunger up through the working barrel. Wireline spear a special fishing tool fitted with prongs to catch and recover wireline that has broken off and been left in a well. Wireline wiper a flexible rubber wiper used to scrape mud or oil from a wireline as it is pulled 4903. 4902. and fluid enters the barrel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pulling and resetting liner. to perform one or more of a variety of remedial operations on a producing oil well to try to increase production. water-oil ratio. Z.mzhelu@gmail. WO/O WOC WOR Work over waiting on orders. the traveling valve opens.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4901. 4906. from a hole. and so on.com . On the stroke of the plunger.

4909.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering working barrel through the plunger and into the tubing. 4914. Working-interest oil Workover Workover fluid (See net production and working interest. A workover fluid is compounded carefully so it will not cause formation damage. 4913. 4908.e. The portion remaining after deduction of royalty interest). Z.mzhelu@gmail. a flat area on an otherwise round fitting to which a wrench can be applied (as on sucker-rod couplings). Workover rig Worm Wrench flat (See production rig and pulling unit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Working interest the portion of oil production money out of which operating and development costs are paid (i. 4911.) (slang) a new and inexperienced oilfield worker. temperature. a special drilling mud used to keep a well under control when it is being worked over. 742 Petroleum Engineer: M. Repeated strokes bring the fluid to the surface. It is also called a wrench square. Working pressure the maximum pressure at which an item is to be used at a specified 4910. 4915.) Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production.. 4912.com .

) 743 Petroleum Engineer: M. Wrench square (See wrench flat. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4916.com .

any of three flammable hydro. 4918. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. C6H4.mzhelu@gmail. 744 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .(CH3)2. Z. used in drilling reports. xln xylene crystalline. similar to benzene. A commercial mixture is used as a solvent when oil-filed emulsions are being tested.carbons.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4917.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.) 745 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4920. the angular motion as the or stern moves from side to side.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4919. square yard. the maximum stress that a solid can withstand without undergoing permanent deformation either by plastic flow or by rupture. yard. to move from side to side (as a ship). 4922. cubic yard. 4923. (see tensile strength. Yaw on a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. Z. the angular motion about a line perpendicular to a horizontal plane through the rig or ship. Yd Yd2 Yd3 Yield point 4921.com .

Zone isolation A method of scaling off. Zone of lost circulation An interval in a subsurface formation so porous or cut with crevices and fissures that the drilling mud is lost in the pores.com . 4926.mzhelu@gmail. temporarily. cracks. 4925. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 746 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4927. A special substance is forced into the formation where it hardens allowing time for the well bore to be taken on down. After a certain length of time. or even a cavern. Zone a rock stratum that is different from or distinguished from another stratum (as pay zone).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4924. Zeolttic catalyst Catalyst formulations that contain zeolite (any of various hydrous silicates. leaving none to circulate back to the surface. a mineral) for use in catalytic cracking units. the substance again turns to a liquid unblocking the producing formation. a producing formation while the hole is being deepened.