CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY FOR

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
THIRD EDITION

by David Porter

A & C Black Ⴇ London

www.acblack.com

For Ana Rita

First edition published 2001 Second edition published 2003 This third edition published 2007 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

© Copyright A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-10: 0 7136 8285 X ISBN-13: 978 0 7136 8285 4

eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0232-9
Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, Norfolk

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Contents

Contents
Page Title Unit One
4 5 6 6 7 8 9 1a – Fill in the gaps 1b – Choose the right word 1c – Finish the sentence 1d – Word substitution 1e – Choose the best word 1f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Page Title Unit Seven
43 43 44 45 46 47 48 7a – Fill in the gaps 7b – Choose the right word 7c – Finish the sentence 7d – Word substitution 7e – Choose the best word 7f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Two
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2a – Fill in the gaps 2b – Choose the right word 2c – Finish the sentence 2d – Word substitution 2e – Choose the best word 2f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eight
49 49 50 51 52 53 54 8a – Fill in the gaps 8b – Choose the right word 8c – Finish the sentence 8d – Word substitution 8e – Choose the best word 8f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Three
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3a – Fill in the gaps 3b – Choose the right word 3c – Finish the sentence 3d – Word substitution 3e – Choose the best word 3f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Nine
55 56 56 57 58 59 60 9a – Fill in the gaps 9b – Choose the right word 9c – Finish the sentence 9d – Word substitution 9e – Choose the best word 9f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Four
24 24 25 26 27 28 29 4a – Fill in the gaps 4b – Choose the right word 4c – Finish the sentence 4d – Word substitution 4e – Choose the best word 4f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Ten
61 61 62 63 63 64 65 10a – Fill in the gaps 10b – Choose the right word 10c – Finish the sentence 10d – Word substitution 10e – Choose the best word 10f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Five
30 31 32 33 34 35 23 5a – Fill in the gaps 5b – Choose the right word 5c – Finish the sentence 5d – Word substitution 5e – Choose the best word 5f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eleven
66 67 68 69 70 71 72 11a – Fill in the gaps 11b – Choose the right word 11c – Finish the sentence 11d – Word substitution 11e – Choose the best word 11f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Six
37 38 38 39 40 41 42 6a – Fill in the gaps 6b – Choose the right word 6c – Finish the sentence 6d – Word substitution 6e – Choose the best word 6f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Answer key
73 74 75 Units One to Four Units Four to Eight Units Eight to Eleven

76

Index

1
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

but in normal situations. were included in the list of answers. write it into your vocabulary notebook. Sample Answers With the exercise from which these sentences were taken. you will need to obtain a good English-English dictionary. we can see from the phrases not exactly identical and copied much of his book that the adjective in the first example must mean something like almost the same. the two books are so similar to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and formulate new policies. Although not exactly identical. This will help you to learn the word. appearing instead together with other words. you should copy either the sentence from this book or the example from the dictionary. Because of the grammar of these words and their meanings – which we can check in the dictionary if necessary – the completed sentences will look like this: 1. With any new word. Using your Dictionary A dictionary is really a long list of individual words. Keep Your Own Notes Next. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). notice that the other words in the sentences can help you to guess the meaning of the missing words. the vocabulary you will learn in this book is presented in example sentences which will help you to understand the words. such as the Easier English Dictionary for Students (ISBN: 978 07475 6624 3) published by A&C Black Publishers Ltd. but one small example will be enough to show you how to use the book. . words are very rarely used on their own. the two books are so ___?adj?___ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. whenever you find out what a new word means. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and ___?v?___ new policies. because the policies mentioned in the second example are described as new. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and __________ new policies. 2 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 1. the two books are so __________ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. which you can organise in alphabetical order like a dictionary. For this reason. and to use them correctly. In the examples above. notice first of all that the other words in these sentences show you the grammar of these words – here an adjective and then a verb. to remember them more easily. Advice to the Student Obtain a Dictionary Before attempting to use this book. the words similar (adj) and formulate (v). Although not exactly identical.Introduction Introduction The purpose of this book is to help students learn a common core of vocabulary which will be useful for almost any subject studied at college or university. 2. 2. the verb in the second example seems to mean plan or prepare: 1. In the same way. 2. In these two sentences from Unit One. Working Out the Word or Meaning Also. which this workbook has been based on. Doing the Exercises There are different types of exercise in this book. Although not exactly identical.

with special attention being paid to any dependent prepositions and collocations. If you compare these. you may find that one word has many meanings. it is important that students do not regard simply filling in blanks as the sole purpose of this book. . Similarly. Boston. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Since the order of the eleven units presented in this book reflect this ranking. this book will have succeeded in its wider aim. In all cases. but also how to use them. and word-completion. P. each word is presented in an example sentence which aims firstly to provide a context from which students may be able to infer the meaning of the word in question and secondly to give instances of associated words such as collocates and dependent prepositions. It is envisaged that this book will be used to supplement an English for Academic Purposes/Study Skills course. if it can encourage students to take a more active. the words in Unit One have a wider range of application than those in Unit Two and so on. and far preferable that they use an English-English learner's dictionary rather than a translation dictionary. I. It may either be used in class or be assigned for study on a self-access basis. choose one central meaning for the word from the dictionary entry write down your new word with an example sentence to help you remember its meaning note down any dependent prepositions or collocations to help you use the word correctly Advice to the Teacher The purpose of this book is to equip non-native speakers of English at upper intermediate level and above with a core of sub-technical vocabulary relevant to the full range of university subjects. Inside the units. you will often find that they are not so different from each other. This information will help you to use the new words correctly. P. To sum up: ț ț ț ț ț ț decide if the word in the example sentence is a verb. word matching.Introduction Introduction Words With Many Meanings When you do look in your dictionary. at foundation. Nation*. This form of presentation will allow students to find out not only what words mean. undergraduate or postgraduate level. S. In approaching the exercises. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. *Nation. MA: Heinle & Heinle. identifying synonyms. however. Word That Go Together Remember also to write down any other words which are often found together with your new word. The exercises include gap-filling. plans or programs and so on which are formulated (examples of 'collocations'). a noun or an adjective read the other words to help you guess the meaning of the new word then if necessary use your dictionary to select a suitable answer if possible. which culminated in a series of approximately 800 words ranked in sets according to their frequency of occurrence in texts drawn from a number of very different academic subjects. For example. matching sentence fragments. Although the immediate goal is for students to learn the words here. The vocabulary items presented here are based on research by I. the style and content of the examples I have written are intended to be typical of language used in academic contexts. This means keeping a vocabulary notebook in which they should be encouraged to write an example for each new word. 3 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. students should approach vocabulary learning actively. Instead. S. notice in your dictionary that we normally use the word to after the word similar (a 'dependent preposition') and that it is usually policies. which means that students should work through the book sequentially. so try to look for one central meaning. thoughtful approach to vocabulary learning. it is vital that students use dictionaries appropriately.

but just make a _____________________ of the most important points. and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web. 12. while another may be set free: it all seems completely __________________. defence or taxation. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 2. the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ the first browser. We use the term "class" to _________________________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the instructions on the paper. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Although not exactly identical. 7. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and _________________ new policies. the layout of the columns is _____________________. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people's spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant _____________________ on people's sexual behaviour. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences. a murderer may go to prison for life. the two books are so _____________________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other. 3. In 1990. 11. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 9. 6. In newspapers. 4 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 14. 4. 13. we have to decide the ____________________. . In one case. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties. It is often possible to guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it — that is to say. 5. while the rows run across the page horizontally. the _____________________. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: arbitrary (adj) ț assign (v) ț context (n) ț criterion (n) ț data (n) denote (v) ț devise (v) ț formulate (v) ț ignore (v) ț impact (n) similar (adj) ț summary (n) ț usage (n) ț vertical (adj) 1. although they appeared at the top of every page.Unit One 1a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. such as unemployment. 8. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. Before we can judge a government's success.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 10. 1. 9. The United Kingdom makes / publishes more books than any other country. 6. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate / judge the secondary school system there. 7. it became increasingly evident / visible that companies in the West were uncompetitive. 11. Assessment on this course includes / consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%). There has been a major road accident. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). involving / including 23 cars and 16 lorries. During the 1970's and 1980's. the library has an excellent range / variety of books. 12. the design of buildings is being adjusted / modified to allow easier access for disabled people. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted / narrowed the expansion in student numbers which the university was planning. On the basis of the latest survey. 4. 8. Although the world is getting warmer slowly. . Many students acquire / derive a great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time at university. people are becoming more worried about the danger of pollution and its effect on the environment / ecology. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Although it is not very big. journals and other resources for study. the police followed / pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them. 5. 2. Following the bank raid. we know that most people have a very negative / bleak view of politicians and their parties. the increase in temperature varies / fluctuates from country to country. In many parts of the world. Increasingly.Unit One 1b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 3. 5 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 13.

j. 9. …at a cost of over £8 billion. the police viewed the crimes as random… It may be the case that no solution is possible. given the magnitude… Although computers are becoming increasingly complex. 1d – Word substitution From the list below. we need to interpret… In spite of warnings about cancer. 3. …your points by providing some supporting examples. 10. …of this problem. 11. d. 6. Anybody driving a car is obliged by law to have insurance. …language learning for international students. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 8. 5.Unit One 1c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. many Westerners equate… Advertisers use a variety of techniques… At first. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness. If a company does not observe health and safety laws. University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules to graduate. …the man they had seen commit the robbery. a. l. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 2. but realised later that there was a pattern linking them. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services. g. 4. $4 was equal to £1. it may be fined very heavily if any of its workers are injured. ____________________ For many years. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 12. …them to understand what they actually mean. 3. but we probably all define… Many universities now have language centres to facilitate… Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: comply with (v) ț conclude (v) ț equivalent (adj) ț guarantee (n) imply (v) ț method (n) obvious (adj) ț presume (v) ț proceed (v) ț require (v) ț specify (v) ț sum (n) 1. b. from which they have to select the most convincing. e. k. but I want you to illustrate… What will the result be if in the future we assume… Students may be asked to compare many alternative… The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed… Everyone wants to be happy. . 13. …events. h. m. 4. …that nearly everyone has access to a motor car? …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate. I like your essay. …happiness in many different ways. c. 6 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2.… The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify… …theories. 7. f. i.

the biggest _________________________ health risk for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents. adjust c. prime c. 6. sections b. but they are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today. measure In a seminar or tutorial. a. 7. 5. 8. a. following c. distinguished Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking when they go shopping. subsequent The clothing of men and women used to be quite ___________________________. way b. claims b.Unit One 5. points out In political terms. a. dominate c. pieces c. overwhelm b. many organisations pay higher salaries to _________________ for the high cost of living there. everyone should take part rather than allow one person to _______________________ the discussion. In this first assignment. theoretical Water is made up of two _______________________. places c.or two-year warranty in case something should go wrong. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). it was clear that most students had completely misunderstood the first part of the paper. with cancer in second place. a. compensate b. certain c. 4. method c. elements Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of different ________________ inside. we believe that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died. a. b or c: 1. 6. a. 8. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest a link between the two. which is a very large amount of money. ____________________ Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years. 10. potential b. the Middle East is one of the most unstable __________________________ of the world. a. definite b. but thousands more died from _________________ radiation sickness. choose the best word from a. regions The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart disease. a. a. distinct b. succeeding b. aspects c. parts Because Paris is expensive. . indicates c. whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men. approach Surprisingly perhaps. a. 3. 9. we will _______________________ your work and then give you detailed feedback on how to improve your writing. 12. 2. The lecturer gave the students a 10 minute break before continuing with the rest of her lecture. the lecturer finished with a brief review of the main points. diverse c. a. 11. 11. oppress Although it is impossible to give a _________________________ age. initial 7 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. redress Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At the end of her talk. components b. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ It may cost an overseas student around £15.000 per year to live and study in ____________________ Britain. Most electrical products have a one. 10. judge c. 13. 12. a. possible c. On the basis of their examination results. the best _________________________ to the problem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it. first b. assess b. ____________________ ____________________ 1e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. absolute Rather than try to treat it. locations b. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques. namely oxygen and hydrogen. 9. 7.

unless you have a _________________ _________________ such as illness. with many choosing to leave the city and head for the countryside. address and indicate your _________________ _________________. When some scientists originally _________________ _________________ known as global warming. Unfortunately. . and yet today it is accepted by nearly everyone. please give your name. the idea was not taken seriously. valid can be joined with reason. although the _________________ _________________ were very promising. 8. but _________________ _________________ rests with the Board of Directors. 14. On the form. One travel company is now advertising a completely _________________ _________________ in tourism: flights into outer space by rocket. the project failed in the long run because of a lack of interest. Most universities require international students to have an IELTS score of at least 6 as a _________________ _________________ for English language competence. 10. a Court of Appeal may _________________ _________________ reached at the first trial and released somebody who has been wrongly held in prison. The Managing Director may run the company. there was a very _________________ _________________ in the capital. At the bottom of the ocean. For example.Unit One 1f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. In some instances.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: new ț analyse ț ț ț valid new tense ț ț ț ț ț leading marital initial constant status ț responsibility ț role concept ț the hypothesis results ț dimension temperature ț reason a link ț atmosphere ț results the verdict ț requirement ultimate establish reverse minimum put forward 1. perhaps more so than doctors. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Investigators have been able to _________________ _________________ between childhood illnesses and industrial pollution. 6. 8 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. If you submit work late. 3. Engineers have played a _________________ _________________ in improving our health by giving us clean water supplies. 12. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 13. The growth of China will add a _________________ _________________ to the economic and political situation in the Far East. 2. 5. Students are expected not just to describe what they have done but also to _________________ _________________ when they write a research report. the water remains at a _________________ _________________ irrespective of changing weather conditions at the surface. Following the demonstrations by thousands of students. 4. 7. you will lose marks and may even be given a fail grade. 9. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. nationality. 11.

.Unit One 9 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

10. 7. The Internet was first _____________________ of as a way of linking computers in the USA together. Japanese and Korean companies have invested heavily in the UK. some politicians _______________________ other people to get what they want. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Over a _________________ of twenty years. Some academics have argued that standards have been falling because more students are _______________ first class degrees. . By ____________________. we have a __________________ of public lectures given by guest speakers from other universities. Since consumers are always demanding new products. 15. Although the arrival of coffee in Britain ___________________ that of tea. it is the second drink which is the more popular today. 4. 9. 14. ț series (n) ț stable (adj) ț tradition (n) In order to be successful. Most planes today are controlled not by human pilots but by a computer system known as an ________________ pilot. 12.' After a very difficult night. 3. Most employers insist that their employees have qualifications in English and _______________. Serious unrest and rioting _____________________ as a result of the decision to ignore the result of the election. 8. 2. which is even responsible for taking off and landing. companies which can be __________________ are more likely to succeed. his blood pressure became ___________________ again and his family were allowed to visit him. wedding guests in most cultures give presents or money to the newlymarried couple. the economy grew at an average of 8% per year. 13. 10 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Two 2a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 11. In addition to the regular lectures. Reports are usually divided into separate _____________________ with headings such as 'Findings' and 'Conclusions. The price of a product will not change if there is _________________ between the supply and the demand for that product. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: ț automatic (adj) ț conceive (v) ț create (v) ensue (v) ț equilibrium (n) ț manipulate (v) mathematics (n) ț innovative (adj) ț period (n) ț precede (v) achieve (v) section (n) 1. 6. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). _______________________ thousands of new jobs.

it is possible to convert / exchange other forms of carbon into diamonds. . the course director and the subject tutor explained their respective / single roles to the new students. 11. 1. 5. Member countries award / contribute money to the United Nations to pay for the running of the organization. it is not always possible for exporters to know how much money they will receive from sales. 6.Unit Two 2b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 13. 3. tanks and aeroplanes consumes a large piece / portion of a country's wealth. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 10. Most universities need to earn money from private sources. but the important / major part of their funding still comes from the government. decide which bold word is more suitable. 2. Although their plan / design was often very good. Students should not be inert / passive but should try instead to contribute as much as possible to discussions in seminar groups. 11 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 9. It is now possible to infer / imply a link between using mobile phones and contracting some forms of cancer. a law court can authorise / let the police to enter a house without the owner's permission. In some situations. Because foreign exchange rates ebb and flow / fluctuate. 4. 12. The fact that population growth is still accelerating / catching up is one of the most important problems we face. the quality of many British cars tended to be poor. Expenditure on weapons such as guns. The main concentration / focus of Greenpeace is on problems concerning pollution. On the first day. Prehistoric man could not think / comprehend why the moon appears to grow bigger and then smaller each month. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 14. 8. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Although it is very expensive. A new moon occurs / takes place every 28 days. 7.

h. b. Einstein published the first part of his theory… Environmentalists point out that electric cars just shift… Most metals expand… As a result of the intense… Fifty years ago. the front half of the train was completely destroyed. …that all objects (heavy or light) fall at the same speed. 7. …to the library where students can take a break. rather than from that of the original inhabitants. …of separating the larger pieces of metal from the smaller pieces. 9. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 4. …of relativity. 11. 14. g. …at a young age. …by the fact that the patient had a history of heart disease. …decision to reduce the number of atomic weapons. n. 3. c. 12. …on your work and so it is a good idea to take a break. 10. .Unit Two 2c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. i. it becomes difficult to concentrate… Some children show a great deal of maturity… Sadly. which completely changed our ideas of time and space. …of the European immigrants. o. …when they are heated.… In the seventeenth century. …over 30% of marriages end in divorce within five years. 6. …heat of the fire. m. j. …the pollution problem from the car itself to the electricity station. a. Galileo demonstrated… In the 1980's. f. there is a coffee bar adjacent… After studying for two hours. …what they say so that the readers cannot read the truth. e. most smokers were not aware… The new grading machine has the function… In many universities. l. k. d. 5. while others may continue to be irresponsible. 13. 12 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 8. 15. In 1905. 2. according to government statistics. the US and Soviet governments made the crucial… Politicians often complain that newspapers distort… The history of the Americas is usually from seen from the perspective… An already difficult operation was complicated… …of the dangers of smoking.

we have seen an enormous growth in the number of home personal computers. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 2. ___________________ 14. whereas today we accept this concept as completely normal. ___________________ 13. 13 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 11. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Most economists forecast that China will become a leading world economy in the twenty-first century. Lecturers often speak more loudly and more slowly when they want to stress an important point. The organisation of the company has changed completely. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. One difficult aspect of writing an essay is selecting material which is relevant to the topic and excluding irrelevant information. generate (v) select (v) consequent (adj) pertinent (adj) undergo (v) signify (v) structure (n) Over the previous ten years. ___________________ 10. The decision to give longer prison sentences indicated a hardening of the government's attitude towards drug offenders. ___________________ 6. ___________________ 8. Until the sixteenth century. through the lungs and along the arteries before reaching the small blood vessels within the skin. When the government increased the tax on petrol. One important function of newspapers is to uncover dishonest behaviour and wrong-doing by those in power. ___________________ 3.Unit Two 2d – Word substitution From the list below. Pollution is a problem which has an effect on every country today. ___________________ 4. the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun was regarded as a ridiculous idea. there was a resultant rise in transport costs. . ___________________ 5. The first thing to do is to choose the courses which you would like to study and then look at each university prospectus. The company has experienced a number of significant changes in the last few years. ___________________ 7. with far fewer senior managers. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential customers. In the first instance. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: affect (v) ț ț capillary (n) ț ț ț notion (n) ț ț ț decade (n) ț ț ț emphasise (v) expose (v) predict (v) 1. the blood passes out of the heart. ___________________ 9. ___________________ ___________________ 12.

but we must have _______________ evidence to support them. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). distinctive Good theories are important of course. 8. a. true c. realistic 2. contrast c. . certify c. science b. magnetic c. process b. a. a. outlying There is a marked ______________ between the poverty of the poorest members of society and the affluence of the richest. separate b. headings b. chemical Just as dividing up an orange into _____________ makes it easier to eat. a. the ______________ age of the universe is about 4. 9. coincidental Students are often advised to look at the first and last ______________ of a book before attempting to read it in detail. a. a. there is no tax on books on the ______________ that education should not be taxed. got As everyone knows. empirical b. 11. contemporary c. sections One problem for any teacher is that each student has his/her own ______________ needs. always try to break up a longer piece of text into small blocks of words. 5. rough Some economists argue that new ______________ causes unemployment while others feel that it allows more jobs to be created. a. technology After you have submitted your application. a. general c. pieces c. 12. a. 10. investigate Young children go through a ______________ in their development when they try to copy everything they hear. 6. approximate b. titles Although this is far from certain. a. a. idea c. the university will attempt to ______________ that the information you have supplied is correct.b or c: 1. obtained b. 3. variation The allied forces launched ______________ bombing raids on several important sites in and around the enemy capital.6 billion years. 7. chapters c. external c. verify b. a. 4. opposite b. 14. concept Further information can be ______________ from the nearest British Council office. 13. electrical b. outside b. phase c. engineering c. 14 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. choose the best word from a. principle b. individual c.Unit Two 2e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. a. doctors later found that he was suffering from internal bleeding. a. Although he had no _____________ injuries. segments b. found c. certain metals such as iron and steel can have a __________________ field while others like copper cannot. simultaneous b. transition In the some countries.

4. a _________________ _________________ even though it is not written down like a formal contract. the satellite is still continuing to _________________ _________________ to Earth. There is considerable doubt over whether the proposal by the American government for a manned trip to Mars is technically and _________________ _________________ Tigers (and other large cats) are now an _________________ _________________ and may disappear altogether in the future. African nations started to _________________ _________________ to become independent. 11. After the Second World War. 15 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. In spite of its age. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). One threat facing companies today is _________________ _________________ computer 'hackers' who break into the most advanced computer systems. The company _________________ _________________ to the suggestion that its products were unsafe. 7.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: endangered separate transmit precise natural ț ț ț ț ț assert reacted sequence of ț ț ț highly inhibit verbal events signals details ț ț ț sophisticated species agreement ț ț ț ț ț angrily the right devote feasible entities growth phenonema time and money economically 1.Unit Two 2f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. The accident was the result of a tragic _________________ _________________ which could have been prevented with better safety procedures. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. drug companies have to _________________ _________________ on a huge scale to their research and development activities. 9. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. In spite of advances in technology. we are still at risk from _________________ _________________ such as earthquakes and floods. In order to produce new medicines. 12. In law. Most economists believe that high taxes _________________ _________________ in the economy. the Minister admitted that several people had been arrested. While she refused to give any _________________ _________________. 13. 8. 10. 3. Are the mind and body the same thing or are they two _________________ _________________? 2. . 5. is still a contract.

Unit Two 16 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

12.Unit Three 3a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. the others had the __________________ of analysing the data. most ___________________ point to a significant increase in average air temperatures in the next 100 years. and so on. Most economic theories assume that people act on a ___________________ basis. Everyone knows that diseases such as malaria are on the increase again. One of the roles of the Managing Director is to ___________________ the work of different departments to ensure that they work well together. while at the opposite __________________ many Third World countries have not grown at all. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. source (n) Paying for large purchases by credit card instead of in cash has become the ___________________ in many parts of the world. In __________________. Remember that some verbs may need to be followed by a _____________________. 10. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: co-ordinate (v) norm (n) ț ț discrete (adj) pole (n) ț ț ț ț estimate (n) ț ț ț geography (n) rational (adj) underlie (v) preposition (n) task (n) scheme (n) 1. 4. Although we cannot be sure. 9. Although speech is mostly continuous sound. 6. we study the physical features of the world – such as rivers and mountains – and how we make use of them. result in. 11. 7. The government has launched a new ___________________ aimed at reducing youth unemployment. . While half of the students were responsible for writing the questionnaires. but this doesn't take account of the fact that we often use our emotions instead. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 5. such as lead to. 17 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. but what we are not so sure about is the ___________________ cause of this. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The purpose of a bibliography at the end of an essay is to show the ____________________ of information used in writing the essay. 2. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 3. written language is divided up into ___________________ units which we call words. Most countries in the Far East have developed very quickly. 8.

In order to discuss the implications of the crisis. he/she may suffer poor health as a result. 11. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 12. Students usually dress casually at university. 10. viewers have access to more television channels. Although the characters were very convincing. 18 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. the tale / plot was so weak that the film was a failure. 7. The opinions expressed in a newspaper usually reflect the views of the proprietor / landlord. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Because of the growth in the number of communication stations / satellites in space. 4. An important social and political topic / issue in many developed countries is the growing number of old people. . Sometimes. The transition / transit from a communist to a free-market economy has been very difficult for a number of countries.Unit Three 3b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Extreme religious groups living in isolated communes / societies have been responsible for a number of violent crimes. 9. 1. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 3. 6. the astronauts abandoned / left their attempt to launch the space shuttle. 2. If somebody has a diet which is deficient / inadequate in vitamins. but this style of dress is not correct / appropriate when they start work. There are many reasons behind the success of the fastest-growing economies. unexpected economic changes force an organisation to deviate / divert from its original business plan. but one common factor / idea seems to be high levels of education. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 5. 8. Because the weather was so bad. the President convened / gathered a meeting of his top advisors at the White House.

g. f. …of the future. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). h. j. 4. e. 2. Edinburgh and Cardiff. 10. …to London. …to their new environment more quickly than their parents. Resentment and jealousy over jobs is a common source of conflict… Many members of the public question the relevance… Retraining courses for the unemployed may just be a way to exclude… The letters L. …although the police were heavily armed and very aggressive. l. …child workers by paying them very low wages. c. …of the monarchy to life in modern society. 11. …more people from the unemployment totals. 19 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. E and C on the map correspond… Some environmentalists have a very bleak vision… One way in which some countries can produce very cheap goods is to exploit… The demonstrators refused to disperse. …local companies in developing economies willing to act as partners. …this during the year rather than to try to learn everything the night before the examinations. 8. 3. . d.Unit Three 3c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …within society and can lead to violence. b. …on its axis once every 24 hours.… Multi-national companies are often keen to seek… The Earth rotates… It is better to work at a constant rate and to maintain… Nowadays. while others are much more optimistic. 6. 5. 7. most people have a more favourable attitude… If a family moves abroad. k. the children often adapt… a. i. 12. 9. …towards women having top positions in the workplace.

At examination time. ___________________ 3. Environmentalists are keen to persuade us to throw away rubbish and waste in more environmentally-friendly ways. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. many regions of the world will become drier while others may become wetter. . ___________________ 8. Although Mozart lived for only 40 years. ___________________ 4. go to the library early as all the places tend to be filled very quickly. ___________________ 5.Unit Three 3d – Word substitution From the list below. He suffers from a lack of self-confidence. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 2. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: accomplish (v) conduct (n) exert (v) ț ț ț adequate (adj) ț ț ț area (n) ț ț ț chemical (n) dispose of (v) rely on (v) consume (v) manifest in (v) credible (adj) occupy (v) 1. ___________________ 6. If global warming continues. the USA exercises considerable influence over world politics. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 20 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Prisoners are sometimes released from prison early if their behaviour has been good. The North Americans use more energy and resources than any other nation. as shown by his very poor examination results. Poisonous substances released into the sea may be absorbed by fish and then find their way into the human food chain. a university will make sure that the student's English is sufficient. he achieved a great deal in his short life. A growing number of scientists find it plausible that other life forms may exist elsewhere in the universe. ___________________ 12. ___________________ 9. Because of its economic and military strength. Some countries have such great economic problems that they are forced to depend on aid from richer countries in order to feed their inhabitants. ___________________ 7. Before accepting an overseas student. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Three 3e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. complete A large number of people became ill after receiving blood transfusions ______________________ with the AIDS virus. 7. biggest In special ______________________. a. a. a. explained One important aspect of marketing is to create a positive ______________________ of a company or product. a person who is found guilty of murder may receive no punishment at all from the court. explicit c. a. a. and as a result the pilot made an error and crashed. times c. 21 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. appreciate b. contaminated Joining a newsgroup allows computer users to make ______________________ with other people who share a similar interest. 13. a. 12. objective b. introduce The instructions from air traffic control were not fully ______________________. minute Although most cars can travel much faster. poisoned c. a. approach c. superficial c. 4. acting c. drama b. a. polluted b. style Today. value 2. b or c: 1. picture c. respect c. 9. the ______________________ speed limit in the UK is 70 mph (110 kph). change The changes companies make to their cars are often very ______________________ and may not change the basic structure of the cars at all. choose the best word from a. touch b. Before giving a presentation. displayed b. 8. a. contact If you have time. revealed c. instruct c. . purpose The first two weeks of the course are designed to ______________________ new students and to allow them to settle into university life. move c. adjust b. maximum b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 5. a. 11. people are probably more familiar with ______________________ on the television and radio rather than in the theatre. image b. orientate b. circumstances The results of the government inquiry ______________________ that there had been no deliberate attempt by the company to deceive investors. play Police could not understand why the arrested man had murdered his neighbour since he appeared to have no ______________________. highest c. a. 6. a. always ______________________ the focus on the projector so that everyone can read what is on the screen. a. microscopic b. I would really ______________________ some help with this assignment. places b. 10. 3. total b. motive c.

) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: global ț common ț ț ț ț computer ț ț ț final positive classic shortage prestige experience aspects ț ț ț ț personality example decision network ț ț ț ț exercise critic feature economy power and outspoken physical previous dynamic labour 1. Mercedes-Benz cars are very famous because they are regarded as symbols of _________________ _________________. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. is really a huge _________________ _________________. . she was kept under house arrest for a number of years. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). linking computers all over the world. Those language learners who focus on the _________________ _________________ of living in a new culture rather than on the disadvantages tend to learn more quickly. 9. 8. 12. there was a _________________ _________________ in Britain and so workers from other countries had to be recruited. while others preferred to regard her as having a forceful and _________________ _________________. 22 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Some people found Mrs Thatcher's style somewhat aggressive. earning millions of dollars. 2.Unit Three 3f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Without doubt. Tourism is now a very significant part of the _________________ _________________. 7. 5. as the name implies. 6. Coca-Cola is probably the _________________ _________________ of a product that is known world-wide. His doctor advised him to give up fatty foods and to take some form of _________________ _________________ such as golf. Employers are always keen to recruit staff with good qualifications and relevant _________________ _________________. 11. 3. The university refused to make a _________________ _________________ on his application until he had taken a language test. 10. rising crime rates seem to be an increasingly _________________ _________________ of life in big cities today. The Internet. After the Second World War. Because she was an _________________ _________________ of the government. Unfortunately. In most countries.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .Unit Three 23 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Einstein is best known for his work in the sphere / globe of physics. The imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the Earth's axis / axle. 2. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Psychology / Biology can help the police understand how criminals think. question papers were _________________ to all of the candidates in the hall. 10. Usually. 6. ț ț ț analogy (n) ț ț speculate (v) ț assemble (v) ț ț distribute (v) ț text (n) impress (v) intervene (v) perpendicular (adj) spontaneous (adj) She so _________________ the interviewers that they gave her the job. 4. 1. A large number of people _________________ outside the Parliament to show support for their party. 12. Artificial intelligence draws an _________________ between the digital computer and the human brain. 24 . the house was unsafe because the walls were no longer _________________. Studying a language can take up a great deal of time. Although there is very little evidence. but some researchers think that this comparison is too simplistic. Following the explosion at Chernobyl. the bank praises / appraises all of its staff and gives a bonus to the best performers. Following the earthquake. The police have a duty to _________________ the law fairly and give everyone the same treatment. money and _________________. At the end of the year. 2. the United Nations decided to _________________ and provide emergency food supplies. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: administer (v) energy (n) reject (v) 1. 3. At the beginning of the examination. 5. many scientists _________________ that life may exist on other planets. decide which word in bold is more suitable. 11. 4b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 3. scientists were keen to assess / investigate the cause of the accident. Because hundreds of people were dying. the majority of applications are _________________ because the competition for places is so great. 7. Although he was interested in many fields. 4. 5. use each word only once to complete the sentences below.Unit Four 4a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. For some university courses. but sometimes we may make _________________ decisions instead. The spell-check facility on a computer allows students to check the _________________ of their assignments for basic errors. 9. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 8. we try to reach a conclusion after careful thought.

he started to acquire / obtain a marked Australian accent. 10. …their colleagues from prison. 4c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …his decision to reduce spending on education. 3. …for several days. …outcome was agreement on all the main points. l. After he had moved to Australia. some approximate / tentative conclusions can already be drawn from the responses we have so far. 7. On the screen above me. but the eventual… Heavy rains persisted… …terms. with no conclusions as yet. In a dangerous situation. 8. …that all the goods had to be delivered within four weeks. The two sides have been engaged for some hours now in a lengthy discourse / chat on the issue of weapons.Unit Four 6. g. 11.… The terrorists demanded that the government release… One journalist asked the minister to justify… The negotiations went on through the night. 10. If you are taking notes in a lecture. causing heavy flooding. d. b. while others show no emotion / sympathy at all. a. Although the work is far from finished. 12. 9. with many more part-time and mature students. you can see a diagram… In mathematics. 25 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. e. …more UV radiation is reaching the Earth. f. but are not always very practical. most people panic and become very frightened. i. 5. 2. k. a statement is known as a theorem… The student population is much more diverse… Older university buildings may be wonderful in aesthetic… The contract stipulated… The Internet may soon not be capable… The police usually contact parents about any incident… Because of pollution in the atmosphere. …if we can prove it by using logic and reasoning. …showing the different parts of the system. c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). j. 4. 7. resulting in more skin cancer. use shapes / symbols such as "+" and "=" as opposed to the words 'and' and 'equals. 6. …which involves young children. . …of sending all the information users want. 8. …than in the past. 9.' The principle of heredity / inheritance explains why children tend to look like their parents. 11. h.

___________________ 9. Global warming will change the way we live: everybody will experience some change. ___________________ 26 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 2. When the interest in the company declined. Your research proposal doesn't need to be too detailed: keep it simple and concentrate on the main points.Unit Four 4d – Word substitution From the list below. many companies stopped trading in British beef and associated products. ___________________ 7. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. ___________________ 8. ___________________ 6. investigators examine every piece of the wreckage to determine the cause of the crash. During the last twenty-five years. philosophy (n) reservoir (n) subside (v) The prisoner claimed that he had been attacked by the police. but there was no evidence to prove this. Following an air accident. the value of its shares began to fall. there has been a significant increase in the number of overseas students in British universities. The most recent management thinking encourages managers to listen more carefully to the ideas of their employees. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allege (v) ț ț alter (v) ț ț ț cease (v) ț ț elaborate (adj) litigation (n) ț upsurge (n) fragment (n) induce (v) 1. . A number of universities are worried about legal action in the law courts by students who are dissatisfied with their courses. there is a pool of people who are unemployed because they do not have any skills. As so many jobs require good skills. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 10. The government's refusal to accept the result of the election prompted thousands of people to come out on to the streets and protest. Because of the possible link between disease in cows and humans.

research c. thought c. trials The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom was a huge engineering __________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. a. exterminated A computer cannot blindly guess the answer to a question. logic b. integrate b. a. a. constitute b. 4. enforce c. superimpose In a nuclear power station. inside b. The former West Germany tried to __________________ its business approach onto the former East Germany. way The recent rise in leukaemia and similar diseases has been __________________ radiation leaking from the nearby nuclear power station. led to c. are composed of 2. a. a. a. since all its operations are based on __________________. a. 3. unite c. a. understanding The __________________ of the American space programme in the 1960's was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. 7. choose the best word from a. ambition b. policy c. development c. point c. chunks c.Unit Four 4e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. experiments b. 10. revolt b. 12. project b. a. internal c. 6. imprint b. eradicated c. __________________ of uranium are split into smaller particles. 27 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. eliminated b. attributed to One of the reasons for the relatively high price of many drugs is the huge cost of __________________ and development. 8. and another for contacting people outside the university. b or c. 5. comprise c. atoms b. 1. releasing huge amounts of energy. a. combine Approximately 30 of the world's most industrialised countries __________________ the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. attempt We have two e-mail systems here: one for __________________ use. 11. indoors The police interviewed three men but later __________________ them from their investigation as they were all innocent. elements Young army officers led the violent __________________ which brought down the democraticallyelected government. . goal If public transport is to succeed in serving the public. it is important to __________________ services such as trains and buses so that they work together and offer a more convenient service. 9. credited to b. a.

4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). insisting that every precaution had been taken. the probability that they will be used again increases. As more countries acquire the technology necessary to produce _________________ _________________. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Because of the growth in fax machines and _________________ _________________ .) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: atom ț flatly ț ț mobile ț high fog ț proportion ț bombs ț ț ț ț phones culture embodies dedicated military ț dense Western ț judicial system contradicted service his life the principle 1. _________________ _________________ has been rejected in favour of a more traditional view of society. . One major criticism of the _________________ _________________ in Britain is that there are not enough female judges. 2. An official spokesman _________________ _________________ allegations that the company had been responsible for the deaths of three employees. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 3. 9. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. an airport may be closed down to prevent the possibility of an accident. The policy of privatisation _________________ _________________ of a property-owning democracy. 8. Nelson Mandela _________________ _________________ to achieving equality between black and white people in South Africa. 10. 5. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 28 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7. 6. we will need more new telephone numbers. A _________________ _________________ of people released from prison continue to commit offences. In many European countries compulsory _________________ _________________ is the norm. whereas in Britain no one is required to join the armed forces. When there is heavy snow or _________________ _________________ .Unit Four 4f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. In some countries.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Four 29 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. .

Unit Five 5a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. but the second witness gave a very different __________________ of events. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 11. 8. Japan may well be the most ____________________ as the great majority of its people are from the same race. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aid (n) ț ț biology (n) ț ț ț edit (v) ț ț enlighten (v) ț symptom (n) ț homogeneous (adj) trait (n) 1. 3. 5. Jealousy is one of the most unpleasant human ________________________. 4. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Headaches may just be the result of tiredness but can be a ____________________ of a more serious problem. inadequate exercise and too much ____________________. Of all the countries in the world. 6. These experiments may seem ____________________ but they are in fact extremely important. 7. 9. With the __________________ of new medical techniques. 2. but luckily their tutor was able to ____________________ them. One big advantage of a word processor is that it allows you to check and then _________________ your work easily. 12. Two students had great difficulty in solving the equation. She found physics easy because some of the course ____________________ with the maths she had studied at school. . 30 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ____________________ can be defined simply as the study of life. 10. The first witness accused the defendant of murder. overlap (v) stress (n) trivial (adj) version (n) x-rays (n) __________________ are not simply used to photograph broken bones but also to fight against cancers within the body. Heart disease can be caused by a bad diet (especially too much fat). couples who were previously unable to have children may now be able to start a family.

Of all recent inventions. 7. So many contrary / unlike opinions were expressed that no agreement was possible. conjunctions (and. but) and prepositions (to. 12. When the government tried to implement / start new employment legislation. 1. 31 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Examination candidates are not allowed to eat. The opening of a new car factory stimulated / aroused the local economy and improved employment possibilities. 4. verbs (come. 8. each of the others made a full confession. 10. smoke or talk for the time / duration of the examination. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. there was a general strike. green). drink. go). 6. During the process known as photosynthesis. .Unit Five 5b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Although one of the prisoners refused to respond / answer to any questions. decide which word in bold is more suitable. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Adjectives (big. The UK Government can decide to suspend / expel an overseas student who does not have a visa and refuse permission for the student to return. 11. 5. Divorce arouses such strong feelings that it is difficult to remain honest / objective and logical about the best way to tackle this problem. 2. plants soak up / absorb CO2 and release oxygen. 9. it is perhaps the motor car which has transformed / modified our lives more than anything else. During times of war. for) are all categories / groups of words. The United Nations representative managed to secure / acquire agreement between the two sides who had been fighting over an area of land rich in oil. governments usually stop / suppress any newspaper reports which contain bad news. in.

the date and the page number: (Brown 1996:76). …of conduct to show people how they should behave. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). impersonal style… Some clothes can be made from synthetic… Inside the hydrogen atom. g. d. 11. l. 4. 10. …moving around the proton at the centre. e. The European Union has insisted that all new aircraft incorporate… In today's economy. and to avoid contractions such as 'isn't' and 'doesn't'. . …the author's name. 6. 3. c. full-time permanent jobs… Most British students used to receive a grant… The police officer denied… At the end of a quotation. …materials such as nylon as well as natural materials such as cotton. f. 32 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 8. …are disappearing to be replaced by part-time temporary employment. j. 9. i. k.… The measurements taken by researchers must be accurate… Religion has many aspects. …clear memories of their childhood. remember to put in parentheses… Because the universe is so vast. food and books. …that he had accepted money from any criminal group. b. they may completely forget recent events.Unit Five 5c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 2. …from the government to pay for costs such as rent. …additional safety features. 7. h. it is best to use a formal. one of which is to provide a code… Although many elderly people retain… At university. 5. …it is unlikely that man will be able travel to other galaxies. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 12. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. there is one electron… a. …otherwise the conclusions they come to will be useless. …in your writing.

all the employees were relocated to another factory belonging to the same company. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. __________________ 7. . __________________ 2. while opponents argue that such service disrupts young people's education. __________________ 11. __________________ 3. The prisoner said repeatedly that he was innocent until he was released.Unit Five 5d – Word substitution From the list below. Most metals shrink as they become cooler. Some organisations have a dress code which lays down what their employees should wear. Although not all the votes have been counted. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. __________________ 4. __________________ 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Although the two cases seemed to be identical. __________________ 9. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: advocate (v) ț ț compound (n) ț insist (v) ț ț ț contract (v) ț ț dictate (v) graph (n) retard (v) preliminary (adj) transfer (v) subtle (adj) tiny (adj) 1. Those who support military service claim that it promotes discipline. One of the many effects of the hole in the ozone layer is that increased radiation will delay the growth of plants and lead to food shortages. 33 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. one lawyer showed that there were some slight differences between them. If you look at this second chart. initial results suggest that the President has won the election. you can see that unemployment has been in decline for the past six years. In spite of a massive advertising campaign. only a very small proportion of consumers made a permanent change in their buying habits. __________________ 10. choose one word which could be used to replace the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Although the factory had to be closed. __________________ 5. __________________ 8.

but now they are highly developed. You can buy goods on the Internet with a credit card. manage b. execute 3. . tag 11. a. confronted b. the number of ______________ and strikes has also decreased. extension 5. embezzlement 34 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In the early years. In many cultures. especially when they are __________________ by violent criminals carrying weapons. disseminate 7. label b. a.Unit Five 5e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. reinforcement b. encountered 6. a. a. use c. inform 10. inferior c. a. diffuse c. a. scatter b. As trade union membership has declined. reinstate b. a. facilities for tourists were rather ___________________. The invention of printing allowed ideas to __________________ much more quickly than before. client 12. post-graduate students are asked to become teaching assistants in order to ___________________ undergraduates. disagreements c. rudimentary c. uncomplicated 9. b or c. supplement c. crude b. but there is a danger of ____________________ if someone else obtains the number. Cigarette packets on sale are required to carry a _________________ clearly stating the dangers of smoking. Many athletes take extra vitamins as a/an ________________ to their diet when they are preparing for competition. restore 4. a. fraud c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The role of the middle manager is not to formulate new policies but to ______________ them. better b. a. 1. Engineers worked throughout the night to ________________ electricity to homes whose supplies had been cut off by heavy snow. a. Police officers face many dangers. arguments b. choose the best word from a. a. met c. message c. superior 8. but this attitude has been changing rapidly in recent years. Increasingly. customer c. disputes 2. patient b. a. it was traditionally believed that men were _________________ to women. corruption b. drill c. renew c. A defence lawyer has a duty to try to establish the innocence of his/her ____________________. instruct b.

10. Because of the work of _________________ _________________. it is better to _________________ _________________ and recheck the results. where the two _________________ _________________ we find the ideal balance. 6. everyone who was _________________ _________________ of 500 metres of the bomb was evacuated. In the 1970's. 3.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: force of at regular lines ț ț ț abstract imposed crisis of ț ț ț ț err on within a research a ban concern thought confidence ț ț ț ț crimes gravity ț ț ț intersect institutes radius intervals legitimate perpetrated the side of caution 1. Following the rise in violence. 9. On this graph. perhaps every month or every quarter. 7. . There is a tradition that a falling apple helped Newton develop his theory about the _________________ _________________. the price of oil increased dramatically. the government _________________ _________________ on the private ownership of guns. most animals appear to experience a range of emotions. 4. causing an international economic _________________ _________________. He _________________ _________________ which were so terrible that a massive manhunt was launched by the police to find him. Because of the danger of an explosion. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 2. 5. 11. Most academic journals are published _________________ _________________. Most people accept that fighting against terrorism is a _________________ _________________ of any government. 35 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Before publishing the results of new research. there is increasing hope that effective treatments for AIDS will soon be available.Unit Five 5f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 8. While it is probably true they are not capable of _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Five 36 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: academic (adj) contend (v) ț ț ț arouse (v) ț ț benefit (n) hierarchy (n) ț ț ț compute (v) instinct (n) ț strata (n) degenerate (v) interlocking (adj) metabolism (n) radical (adj) 1. but it is still too early to claim that machines can actually think for themselves. 7. a young baby will start to cry if it is hungry. During the 1930's. while others stress the disadvantages. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 2. and so he made the driver stop. 3. Some religious groups _______________________ that Darwin's theory of evolution is completely wrong.Unit Six 6a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. We can make machines which can _________________ huge numbers of mathematical problems. The fact that the car was being driven very badly ___________________ the policeman's suspicions. or in pain. An organisational chart shows the company __________________ . 11. 12. 10. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 8. 9. The argument became so heated that it soon _______________________ into accusations of dishonesty and corruption. Students at university are encouraged to play sports or join clubs in addition to following their ________________ studies. 37 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Some people emphasise the _________________ of new technology. 4. By _______________________. Animals with a very fast ___________________ have to eat very frequently and do not live very long. cold. 6. from the managers at the top down to the employees at the bottom. All the equipment is made up of __________________ pieces which can be easily assembled in weightless conditions. . ___________________ of rock likely to contain oil have recently been located under the ice-sheet in Antarctica. 5. President Roosevelt introduced _______________ new policies to solve the American unemployment problem.

38 . any parts which are not of uniform… When selecting new employees. Queen Victoria reigned… …the witness to the court to ensure that he would be safe. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). g./ Middle-sized companies are often more flexible than larger organisations. He is such a powerful boxer that all his opponents are in awe / fright of him. and these special words can make progress very slow.000 people participated / contributed in the experiment. …to the same safety and pollution regulations. Many police officers argue that ex-prisoners commit / perform as much crime after they come out of prison as before they went in. …in our solar system. l. Government safety inspectors found abnormal / unlikely levels of radiation in the area around the nuclear power station. 13. 7. m.… At the end of the process. 6. 11. before her son became king in 1901. so all the minor… Mercury is the smallest planet… Whatever type of job you may be contemplating. …roles were played by people from the local area. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. h. 3. …shape and size are rejected and sent back for recycling. 6. …the university careers service can give you advice. 5. The decision to expand the airport has caused a great deal of controversy. More than 30. 9. i. k. 2. In India. If you are taking medicine. Mahatma Gandhi refused all food and indeed nearly died in his protest / complaint against British control of his country. f. 8. it is important to ignore subjective… Buildings in places such as California have to be reinforced… In the United Kingdom. e. 2.Unit Six 6b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. The appeal / claim by protesters for more money to be invested in education was rejected by the Government. 8. 9. decide which word is more suitable: 1. Companies which cannot adapt to changing situations very often go into decline / decrease. 11. 10. 4. b. d. …centres today. …was the fact that the murderers were both under 10 years old. because of pollution and congestion problems. Medium. Studying a new subject means having to learn a lot of new vocabulary / terminology. …of the Catholic Church – the representative of God here on Earth. you should avoid alcohol as the two may interact / cooperate and make you ill. j. 12. 3. The tone / style of the meeting was rather serious and formal. …for most of the previous century. 7. Most universities oblige / force overseas students to take an English language test before they start their course. 5. 12. c.… The murder was a very strange case but the most striking aspect… All new cars on the market today have to conform… The Pope in Rome is – according to the doctrine… Cars are not allowed to enter many civic… The police accompanied… The film was made on a very low budget. …but construction has already started and should be completed soon. 6c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …impressions and to base decisions on facts instead. …so that they will not collapse in the event of an earthquake. a. 4. 10.

but it is impossible to maintain this for very long and so it is not recommended. In recent environmental demonstrations. One of the main causes of the increase in inner-city lawlessness is the number of young people dependent on drugs. most children are able to talk with an adult in a limited fashion. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 6. Students should not read every page of a book but instead identify and then take out only those ideas which are relevant. he is disposed to believe that most people are basically very selfish. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 3.Unit Six 6d – Word substitution From the list below. students are not allowed to talk to or help other students in any way. . By the age of three. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Some students will stay up all night to finish their work. During examinations. 2. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Heavy smokers have a tendency to develop lung cancer and other serious illnesses. 39 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 8. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: activist (n) ț assist (v) ț ț ț clarify (v) ț ț converse (v) extract (v) propensity (n) 1. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. campaigners have protested against the building of new roads. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 9. It is impossible to grow crops without an adequate supply of water. Because of unhappy childhood experiences. ___________________ 10. incline (v) propagate (v) ț urban (adj) ___________________ sustain (v) The lecturer tried to explain her point more clearly by using another example more familiar to her students.

cheer The ______________________ of world trade increased enormously during the twentieth century. 3. persuaded While South Korea has ______________________ over the last fifty years. employees receive extra ______________________ if they do extra work. achieved In most companies. an adult c. console b. reproduce The age at which a child becomes ______________________ in the United Kingdom is 18. 40 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. tobacco companies ______________________ the public for years that smoking was not a direct cause of cancer. comment b. fertile c. discuss Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary. revenue c. size b. assist b. scope To improve teamworking. 4. mention c. a. legal b. agricultural Most universities have trained counsellors who can reassure and ______________________ students who have academic or personal problems. an individual Many scientists believe that most dinosaurs were killed as a result of a huge meteor which ______________________ with the Earth 65 million years ago. 9. 11. promised b. 12. crashed b. a. rewrite b. 13. a. compulsory c. locate c. and people who do not so may be punished in the courts. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. salary Following unification. a. prospered c. productive b. a. 10. place There are many parts of the world which are ______________________ enough to produce food but do not have enough water. a. unite c. assured c. 7. 8. position b. b or c: 1. volume c. students are often asked to ______________________ to produce a group report or presentation together. Wearing a seatbelt when travelling in a car is now a ______________________ requirement in many countries. collided The journalist asked the Prime Minister repeatedly about the scandal but he refused to ______________________ on it. revise c. binding Because the strikers still refused to return to work. sympathise c. a. a. succeeded b. a person b. co-operate 2. a. a. the employers agreed reluctantly to _____________________ their pay offer to the workers. income b. North Korea is still relatively underdeveloped. 6. a. 5.Unit Six 6e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. a. hit c. . choose the best word from a. the German government decided to move the capital from Bonn and ______________________ it once more in Berlin.

Some insects are so small that they can only really be seen properly _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Six 6f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. concentrate on what you can do! 2. After two months of non-stop fighting there was a _________________ _________________ of peace on Christmas Day before the fighting started again. In order to increase pressure on the government. 11. 9. . Most _________________ _________________ not only look alike but also behave and even dress similarly. 3. 7. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Some lecturers are difficult to follow because they _________________ _________________ and talk about something completely different. women are still not able to _________________ _________________ as easily as men in terms of reaching the top positions. _________________ _________________ were imposed preventing the sale of oil. _________________ _________________ is now so advanced that pilots train with it. university life just seems to be an _________________ _________________ of assignment after assignment.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: keep identical attain ț ț ț virtual 1. the Rolls Royce has only ever been aimed at a _________________ _________________. The countries in the _________________ _________________ are in general poorer than those in the northern. 41 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In spite of equal opportunities policies. Sometimes. 10. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. niche brief under ț ț ț ț southern economic go off at hemisphere reality ț ț your nerve ț ț cycle ț ț sanctions ț interlude twins market their goals a tangent endless the microscope When you look at your exam paper. try to _________________ _________________ and don't panic. 5. 6. 8. While the Volkswagen car was designed to appeal to the masses. 4.

. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Six 42 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

7b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: adolescent (n) collapse (v) friction (n) ț ț ț affiliate (v) ț ț ț aristocracy (n) democracy (n) ț ț ț cell (n) dissolve (v) ț saint (n) commodity (n) invoke (v) muscle (n) repudiate (v) 1. citizens can ______________________ the right to silence if they do not want to answer a question in court. 3.Unit Seven 7a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Without any warning. In the USA. the royal family and the ___________________ in Russia were overthrown and a communist government was installed. At the public enquiry. 6. 4. In times of unemployment. 11. most people looked up to him almost as a ____________________. 43 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Individuals who have become very rich through business usually also have a lot of political ___________________ and can therefore influence political decisions. In swimming pools. 7. _____________________ are the tiny. ___________________ markets allow traders to buy and sell raw materials such as cotton. steel and sugar. there has been a worrying increase in the number of _____________________ taking drugs. 2. 4. the economy remained depressed / distressed because consumers still felt insecure about their jobs. trade unions usually ___________________ to a national union organisation. In many countries. basic building blocks from which all living creatures are made up. As a result of the revolution of 1917. Sugar and salt ___________________ easily in water. 3. in fact. 8. 2. the Managing Director ___________________ all suggestions that the company had tried to avoid responsibility for the accident. 9. . 5. ___________________ can arise between people who have jobs and those who do not. 12. the building ___________________ killing more than 300 people inside. Many political scientists argue that it is impossible to have a truly modern economy without ___________________ and a more open society. Some religious groups are strongly opposed to modern science. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. and refute / contradict even wellestablished theories such as evolution. He was more than a national hero. decide which word in bold more suitable 1. Computer equipment can become obsolete / antique very quickly because new technology emerges so fast. 10. 13. there is a slight odour / fragrance because of the chlorine in the water. In order to become more powerful. Although unemployment was falling.

Unit Seven 5. it seems that politicians who are dogmatic / pragmatic rather than rigid in their views tend to be more successful. e. a. …is responsible for making laws. the UK Parliament… Early computers were very cumbersome… The Government has reduced the number of ships in the navy… …due to the economic growth of the last 30 years. 4. f. 7c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1.… Electrical equipment is usually supplied with a fuse. 6. …the company. One branch of mathematics is geometry. …we are interested in the study of society and how people behave within it. …between the communist and capitalist worlds. Increasingly. which many had thought was beyond hope. When designers choose material for making new clothes. 10. …and concentrated resources on the airforce instead. b. 5. I just want to give you a brief sketch… Fifty years after the Second World War. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a state of tension prevailed… Like the United States Congress. 13. 3. 9. 10. …the neighbouring country of Kuwait. 2. j. called the Cold War. 8. 9. Before the election. There are so many aircraft using Heathrow Airport these days that the noise is almost incessant / eternal.… People in Japan enjoy a great deal of affluence… In this lecture. President Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded… The new management team managed to revive… When we talk about sociology. k. If the pattern / configuration of the control panel in an aircraft makes it difficult for the pilot to read the instruments. Some species of birds migrate / commute from North Africa to Britain. 12. 8. they are particularly interested in the colour and the touch / texture of the material. i. c. the chance of an accident will increase. …which will blow if a fault develops. 6. …rather than speak in great detail about this new topic. …but today they are much smaller. Recent tests show that girls are getting higher scores / results than boys in most school subjects. l. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The creditors / debtors of a company are those individuals or organisations to whom that company owes money. 7. The defendant is allowed to discuss / confer with his/her lawyer before and during the trial. all the main political parties tried to explain their main policy / line to the voters through television broadcasts and newspaper advertisements. 12. 44 . …law based on the Koran.… Muslims have a system of divine… In 1991. h. …which is concerned for example with lines and the shapes and angles they make. 7. 11. d. g. 11.

Increasingly. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 45 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The 1949 revolution in China was successful because the agricultural workers and farmers gave their support to the communists. ___________________ 9. I am impressed by her business sense. . Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: alcohol (n) defer (v) ț ț competence (n) ț ț ț ț conserve (v) ț ț ț corporate (adj) ț incentive (n) domestic (adj) fraction (n) horror (n) negotiate (v) 1. the sale of strong drink was illegal in the USA. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. ___________________ 11. and yet consumption of drink actually increased. employers are keen to recruit people who have at least a basic ability in computing. There is growing pressure on governments to protect forests and wild animals. the authorities tried to have discussions with the terrorists to secure the release of the hostages. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). and I thought that her decision not to expand the company showed a great deal of wisdom. open spaces.Unit Seven 7d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 10. its opposite being claustrophobia. 2. If you wish to travel or work before studying. Only a small proportion of the competitors in the Olympic Games actually ___________________ win a medal. It is now common organisational policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aim of the organisation. some kind of drum is used to provide the beat. During the 1930's. 8. ___________________ 4. Some products are exported and may not be available at all in the home market. ___________________ 13. ___________________ 12. Agoraphobia can be defined as a dread of large. Companies often give employees inducements such as bonuses and pay rises to encourage them to work harder. ___________________ 6. Rather than use force. peasant (n) prudence (n) rhythm (n) ___________________ In many types of music. it is possible to postpone your entry to university by one year.

Many food products carry a 'sell by' date since they ________________________ over time and become unusable. the building should be ready for use by the end of the year. a. a.b or c: 1. make 10. Switzerland declared that it would remain _______________________ and not take part in any of the fighting. it is increasingly common for people to _______________________ business without actually meeting. impartial 8. astrology c. b. the only telescope up in space. a. and yet the ___________________ of the two-parent family still exists. a. flesh c. food b. neutral b. astronomy b. tissue b. triangle b. choose the best word from a. A simple everyday example of the _______________________ is the standard postcard. nutrients 9. . icon b. more and more children live with one parent. schedule c. a. In the US today. a. The study of ___________________ has been helped considerably by the Hubble telescope. square c. Finance 2. In any large company.Unit Seven 7e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. matter 5. timing b. transact c. disinterested c. a. perform b. degenerate c. rectangle 46 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. stereotype c. a. corrupt 12. a. Monetary c. redraw c. rewrite b. The roots of a plant absorb water and ______________________ from the soil in which it grows. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). astronomer 7. region b. Economic Some political parties want to ________________________ the process by which we vote in general elections so as to make it more representative. reform 3. a. a. time 11. symbol 6. In the Second World War. Because of modern communications. the ________________________ Department is responsible for managing money within that organisation. continent c. According to the _______________________. Mad cow disease was probably caused by allowing cows to eat nerve _____________________ from sheep and other cows. degrade b. nutrition c. the ________________________ of Asia will become the most significant sector of the world economic market. area 4. In the next century.

10. the discussions are still only in the _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). the _________________ _________________ from underground hot water supplies can be used to produce electricity. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. _________________ _________________ refers to the competition which often exists between the children in a family for the attention and love of their parents. Although there has been some success. Although he _________________ _________________. The decision by Japanese companies to invest in the UK was _________________ _________________ Britain being part of the European Union. 9. 2. The water evaporated. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 12. 4. leaving behind only _________________ _________________. Doctors have a _________________ _________________ which requires them to act in the best interest of their patients. including hijacking.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: sibling thermal code ț contingent 1. both on the extreme left and extreme right. but in academic writing we need to be much more formal. 8. One extreme political group started a _________________ _________________. the court sentenced him to three years in prison. 7. The _________________ _________________ is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The results of the vote showed agreement across the _________________ _________________. When speaking. 5. we tend to use _________________ _________________. 47 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. 6.Unit Seven 7f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. ț ț ț pleaded salt ț ț ț political campaign colloquial ț US not guilty a crisis crystals ț ț energy ț ț stages rivalry of terror ț ț ț ț of ethics spectrum upon language Congress precipitated intermediate The shortage of oil in the 1970's _________________ _________________ in the world economy. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 11. In areas with active volcanoes. . kidnapping and bombing.

.Unit Seven 48 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

If a student does not follow / adhere to the regulations concerning examinations. 3. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. In this company. The _____________________ value of all the companies in the group was in excess of $250 million. The _____________________ Court in the United States is the highest and most important court in the country. more than in any other country. In many cases. like a _____________________. Some students complained because the extra lecture coincided / synchronised with one of their religious festivals. you are allowed to _____________________ up to 10% of a book for your own personal study. 4. _____________________ energy provides approximately 80% of the electricity used in France. Karl Marx _____________________ that the structure of a society is determined by the economic structure of that society. they are _____________________ to fail their examinations. subordinate (adj) supreme (adj) By putting two _____________________ together. followed by more high growth again. he/she may fail. 2. In any strike action by a trade union. 2. 6. 8. ___________________ support from workers in other unions can be very important for it to succeed. 49 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Eight 8a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. . which is vital for life on Earth. 4. In his book The Plague. By law in the UK. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 7. 3. 9. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aggregate (adj) nuclear (adj) ț ț ț fraternal (adj) ț ț lens (n) ț ț ț liable (adj) postulate (v) oxygen (n) pendulum (n) reproduce (v) 1. About 20% of the atmosphere is made up of _____________________. Periods of high economic growth tend to be followed by low growth. Camus uses the disease mentioned in the title as a metaphor / simile to represent fascism and other extreme political ideas. the supervisors are _____________________ to the inspectors. The former President's personality was so strong that her influence invaded / pervaded every aspect of political life. If students do not attend lectures. 5. 10. 8b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. countries which may have been enemies in the past are often allies / friends today. 5. 11. it is possible to make a simple telescope. who in turn report to the Production Manager.

6. to the detriment / expense of their education and even their health. children have to work very long hours. 10. with capitalist countries aiding the South. 4. … The US Navy has the largest fleet… Medical researchers managed to correlate… University courses used to be very rigid… From a very early age. k. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The idea that HIV and AIDS only affect homosexuals is a complete error / fallacy. 8c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 5. 10. . …up and down or from side to side. 3. j. While our reserves of oil and coal are fixed / finite.… The European Union has reduced most of the bureaucracy… Because of radio telescopes. 50 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The contents / index at the back of a book allows the reader to find specific information. we can now detect… It is vital to make sure that the structure of a bridge will not oscillate… …awareness allowing them to understand where things are around them. …abilities develop fully so that it can communicate and learn. b. It is very important that a child's linguistic… Teachers have noticed an increase in aggression. d. 8. …associated with customs. communist countries aligned… Some countries have a president. Some students are reluctant / unhappy to ask questions because they are shy. The number of people living on our planet is on an upward trend / pattern and is expected to top 10 billion in the years to come. c. 7. i. 9. a. …distant stars which are invisible from Earth. 11. 2. f. g. 11. …of ships in the world. e. …and offered students no real choice or flexibility. …asbestos to lung cancer and other respiratory diseases many years ago. h. 8.Unit Eight 6. while others have a monarch. …which may be caused by the food which children are eating. children develop a spatial… During the Korean War. as this would cause it to collapse. 9. In some parts of the world. …either a king or a queen. 7. thereby simplifying trade regulations. …themselves with the North. energy sources such as the wind or the sun will in effect never end.

__________________ 5. In the course of a trial. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. __________________ 9. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 51 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. __________________ 4. There is a very real danger that medicines currently used to treat infection will become completely ineffective if they are used too often and indiscriminately. it was not possible to notice any real improvement in the condition of the patient. In the twentieth century. __________________ 10. Many companies in the developed world are trying to provide for older customers as the proportion of young people decreases. __________________ 6. __________________ 8. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allude (v) evolve (v) ț ț cater (v) launch (v) ț ț ț discern (v) proclaim (v) ț ț ț drug (n) rebel (n) territory (n) testify (v) utilise (v) 1. The witness was so nervous that he refused to give evidence when the case came to court. The independence of the United States of America was announced in 1776. Britain developed gradually from an industrial economy into a service economy. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). .Unit Eight 8d – Word substitution From the list below. __________________ 3. The government has decided to initiate an investigation into the increase in deaths from drugs. Most animals will attack other animals which try to enter their space. One of the most important skills to learn as a student is how to make use of your time effectively. __________________ 11. Despite the efforts of the doctors. Revolutionaries overpowered the troops holding the radio station so that they could announce the change of government to the people. lawyers are forbidden to mention or even refer to any previous criminal activity the accused may have been responsible for in the past. __________________ 2. __________________ 7.

52 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Students on the new technology course became very _____________________ at the lack of suitable books in the library. The G8 is a _____________________ of the world's eight richest countries. money b.Unit Eight 8e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. deprived c. a. as the politicians simply voted along _____________________ lines: the left-wing all supported the Prime Minister. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. accepted all over Europe. partisan b. sad 6. The decision of the House of Commons surprised no one. leak c. frustrated c. flows b. a. league 8. sticky liquid to attract insects. and the right-wing all opposed him. some UFO's can appear and disappear again as if by _____________________. In the seventeenth century. provoked c. choose the best word from the following list: 1. allocates 3. According to witnesses. trickery b. pours 7. denied 4. finance c. miracle 9. a. exude b. division b. If children are _____________________ of love and security they may have problems in later life. biased Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. currency 10. the university _____________________ each student a limit of 500 pages of computer printing. . club c. factional c. The decision of the university to close the swimming pool at weekends _____________________ an angry reaction among students. a. despondent b. allots b. stimulated 5. magic c. a. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). William Harvey showed that blood _____________________ around the body on a continuous basis. Some plants _____________________ a sweet. a. To cut down on costs. Many political parties support the introduction of a common _____________________. drip 2. a. a. a. circulates c. stripped b. created b. gives c.

Some years ago. 10. young people can get married below the age of 18. which just _________________ _________________ for no good reason. 8. Many students make the mistake of reading without considering first why they are reading. In some countries. 6. 7. There is very little evidence to suggest that _________________ _________________ as portrayed on television and in film actually cause antisocial behaviour. _________________ _________________ this would reduce the number of serious injuries. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.Unit Eight 8f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. . 53 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: solar imperial dissipates ț ț ț Peace ț invest ț ț give utter against energy money ț ț ț violence control ț ț ț power that Treaty sex and legislate their consent waste of time on the premise 1. One common complaint is that companies do not _________________ _________________ in new developments for the long-term future. 9. since the sun produces so much heat. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 2. The _________________ _________________ signed at Versailles marked the end of the First World War. perhaps a quarter of the world's population was under British _________________ _________________. During the nineteenth century. 5. 3. 4. if both pairs of parents _________________ _________________. It is almost impossible to _________________ _________________ people who use the Internet for criminal purposes. seat-belt legislation was introduced. One obvious source of energy is _________________ _________________. Most of the students complained that the lectures were an _________________ _________________ because it was impossible to understand the lecturer.

. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Eight 54 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

and that the Sun moved around the Earth. 5. 4. Astronomers' work is becoming more difficult as the night sky is increasingly _________________ by electric street lighting from urban areas. The grid on the left of your handout is known as a square __________________. In the United Kingdom. 55 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. A great deal of research has shown that poverty. 3. In this exercise. 11. The element _________________ is all around us. lack of education and unemployment can _________________ social unrest. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 8. Car batteries also have to be handled with care as they often contain an _________________ which can burn holes in clothes or even cause injury.Unit Nine 9a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. it was believed that the Earth was _________________. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. and don't bother with any fractions or decimal points. 6. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: acid (n) illuminate (v) ț ț battery (n) integer (n) ț ț ț breed (v) lustre (n) ț ț ț carbon (n) matrix (n) molecule (n) prince (n) stationary (adj) 1. in the air we breathe. just use _________________. One of the biggest problems for electric cars is that the __________________ they use for power are rather heavy. 10. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). the '_________________ of Wales' is the official title of eldest son of the monarch. . 9. Two atoms of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen together produce one __________________ of water. Until 400 years ago. 7. as the number of columns and the number of rows are the same. 2. The music was really quite boring and had no real __________________. even in the pencils with which we write. use each word only once to complete the sentences below.

7. 10. 8. In some countries. . 2. 2. …required. Most universities have a special fund / finance for students who have run out of money and need help. i. you must confine… Because of the special apparatus… From the Vatican in Rome. e. After six weeks trapped in the embassy. the police regularly use torture / torment to force prisoners to give them information. 6. 3. a. 9c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …to stealing books from the library. 56 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.' which we now see in place names like Lancaster. c. d. 8. She won the championship by a margin… Examples of animals imported by man replacing the indigenous… In 1685. 5. 10. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. …of Monmouth led a rebellion against the English king. some students are not averse… …and so the people in it are free to work on what they like. 6. 4. j. Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich states accumulated / collected vast sums of money through the sale of oil. as opposed to those who simply want a degree. …of only one point. Sometimes a piece of music can evoke / provoke very strong memories and emotions. 9. h. The prediction that we will completely tire / exhaust our reserves of oil in the not too distant future seems now to be incorrect. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …into several different families. k. …yourself to giving relevant ideas and information only. …in a country start fighting each other. In the 1970's. the Pope… The organisation of the department is really quite amorphous. the hostages were finally emancipated / liberated. the whole penal / punishment system will have to be changed.… The Romans built a large number of castles or forts… Because of their high price. Because of the rise in the number of prisoners. …called 'castra. 11. The most successful students are probably those who have a strong integral / intrinsic interest in their subject. 5.Unit Nine 9b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 3. The biggest issue on which the two parties' policies divide / diverge is the amount of money to be spent on education. Because he lied to his colleagues and family about his girlfriend / mistress. when they like. b. higher fees are charged for science and technology courses. f. the minister destroyed not only his marriage but also his career. …has the power to influence the lives of millions of Catholics. …species already living there can be seen in all countries. 7. an aristocrat by the name of the Duke… Civil war may break out very quickly if different factions… Plants can be subdivided… When you write an essay. 4. 9. g.

Unit Nine 9d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 7. all sales were halted until more tests could be carried out. Some industry experts believe that the Internet will supplant television and all programmes will be viewed from a computer. The noise of the explosion echoed through the empty streets. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ambiguity (n) efficient (adj) ț ț annual (adj) innate (adj) ț ț ț construe (v) material (n) ț ț ț displace (v) orbit (v) residue (n) 1. ___________________ 8. ___________________ 6. with the remainder used for new equipment. ___________________ 10. reverberate (v) suspend (v) The yearly external examiners' meeting is held at the end of every academic year to discuss the examination papers which the students have written. ___________________ 3. while others think that we know nothing about language at birth. He is a very pleasant colleague. ___________________ 11. and very proficient at his job. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Most of the money was spent on salaries. . Because of reports that the meat was not safe. He lost a great deal of political support because his speeches were so full of uncertainty and anomalies. ___________________ 5. Aluminium is a very suitable substance for aircraft because it is light and strong. 57 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. ___________________ 4. Some psychologists think our language ability is intrinsic. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 2. The International Space Station circles the Earth about every 90 minutes. The workers went on strike as they viewed the management's plans as an attack on their job security.

. evaporates b. dehydrates c. condense b. numbered b. The chief _______________________ which many companies have today is not the property they own but rather the creativity and skills of their employees. unduly b. choose the best word from a. The supervisor was not __________________ concerned about the student asking for a week's extension to finish his essay. highly 10. miracle c. a. liability 5. marvel 6. odd c. b or c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). absolutely c. collapse 4. asset b. the movement of the drum causes the air molecules to __________________. attach c. a. vibrate c. breach 2. a. link b. enumerated c. a. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. bizarre 8. a. shake 7. When you hit a drum. they work very well together and produce some very good ideas. Although the research team are all somewhat _____________________ people. Please _____________________ two colour passport photographs to the application form. 1. which we hear as sound. The professor __________________ several possible explanations for the rise in recorded crime. wonder b. a. His health is so bad that it will be a _______________________ if he is alive next year. a. break b. named 9. fix Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. benefit c. shrink c. a. a. In very hot climates. dries 3.Unit Nine 9e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. When writing a summary. conventional b. try to ____________________ the main ideas into just a few short sentences. 58 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. but warned him that there would be no more extensions after that. There are still too many countries which regularly ____________________ their citizens' human rights. reverberate b. violate c. a. a considerable amount of petrol ____________________ from car fuel tanks and into the atmosphere.

(Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. After retiring. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 8. high ț ț umbilical ț ț low wide of science areas government ț ț ț complement velocity ț ț momentum ț cord ț action work frontiers gained voluntary ț federal morale vocabulary In the United States. the astronauts are connected to the spacecraft by a long life-line. _________________ _________________ can set in. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 6. whereas today most of us live in cities. 5. 4.Unit Nine 9f – Make a collocation Unit 0000 Start by reading through the sentences below. 7. 59 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. the _________________ _________________ has overall responsibility for foreign affairs and defence. Policemen carrying _________________ _________________ rifles surrounded the building. Young children need a stimulating environment so that they can develop the _________________ _________________ of intellectual and social skills. While walking in space. 11. sometimes resulting in a revolution against the government. often referred to as the '_________________ _________________'. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. If soldiers are not paid on time. The company was losing so much money that only _________________ _________________ by the management – including the dismissal of 15% of the employees – enabled it to survive. Researchers work at the _________________ _________________ in order to increase our knowledge. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. All students will need a _________________ _________________ in order to understand the sources of information they have to use.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: full drastic ț ț rural 1. 2. . 3. 9. most people lived and worked in _________________ _________________. Political change in Central Europe _________________ _________________ when President Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Until very recently. many people choose to do some type of _________________ _________________ even though they receive no pay for this.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .Unit Nine 60 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

6. 5. 10b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below.Unit Ten 10a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 4. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. The ____________________ between a mother and a child is very important for the emotional development of the child. 9. 8. 2. Recent research has shown that drinking heavily during pregnancy can harm the ____________________. If you have made a plan for your writing. Although many drugs are illegal. make sure that the words you write are exactly the same as those in your source. it appears to be increasingly easy for teenagers to procure / secure drugs if they want them. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: anthropology (n) province (n) ț ț ț foetus (n) ț ț ț intimacy (n) ț repress (v) quote (v) render (v) sift (v) surplus (n) triangle (n) 1. students should revise thoroughly and try to assimilate / ingest what they have been studying. The Canadian capital Ottawa is in the ____________________ of Ontario. ____________________ is the scientific study of man including such topics as religion and culture. A huge trench was dug to channel / deviate excess water away from farming areas. 4. . it becomes much easier to ____________________ through your notes and decide which ideas to include. If you have a lot of data which you want to include. When you want to _______________________ something. 3. attempts to ____________________ movements for political change failed completely. When there is a ____________________ of oil. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. In nearly all parts of Eastern Europe. 2. 10. 61 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. an appendix / index at the end of the report or essay is the best place for it. the price on the world market falls. 7. One of the simplest but strongest shapes is the ____________________. The costs were so enormous that they ____________________ the project impossible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Before they take their examinations. 3.

it is a huge advantage to be fluent… Although the lecturer's explanation was very cogent. …high levels of stress and insecurity. there is a strange anomaly… In recent years. 6. …to slow down the ageing process. 8. students should always append / affix a bibliography. 9. d. At the end of an essay. Many people working today find it difficult to tolerate… In Canada. g. the idea that executions help to prevent murder is a complete myth / legend. 10. …of choosing extra subjects to study if they wish. …in both French and English. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 4. b. 11. For health reasons. …from almost nothing to become major economic players. k. …but in the majority of cases the name of the author appears with the article. j. According to opponents of the death penalty. 6. 10c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 7. i. a. giving details of the sources of information they have used.… …whereby a 16 year-old may get married but is not allowed to buy a beer. 9. some Asian countries have emerged… Some analysts think that many customers will dispense… New government proposals will increase the rigour… University students usually have the option… A new drug developed by a leading company purports… Although it was particularly radical and ingenious. …some students still could not understand the solution to the problem. . 2. 7.Unit Ten 5. …the design for the Concorde was just too expensive to produce commercially. smoking is restricted if not completely embargoed / prohibited in many public places. …with conventional phones altogether and use mobile phones instead. …of the law by introducing longer prison sentences.… In some American states. 8. 3.… Sometimes articles are anonymous. France's road and rail networks diverge / converge on Paris because it is the capital. c. 5. e. h. f. 62 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The influence of television is so great that actors can be elevated / lifted to superstar status almost overnight. the shapes of cars were very angular / bent whereas today they are much more rounded. 10. Some years ago.

forcing car manufacturers to look for customers elsewhere. Wages and inflation are closely linked. obligation c. In Britain. solicit b. 4. the Queen must give her agreement to a new law before it can come into force. The result of the experiment was a complete surprise to everyone: the new process was a success! The market for cars in Europe is almost full to capacity. draft People who smoke heavily experience a/an_________________ to smoke. 7. perpetual b. a. addiction Although we now believe this to be impossible.Unit Ten 10d – Word substitution From the list below. The USA is composed of 50 states. . A significant number of students decide to study for a Master's degree to boost their knowledge. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ascribe (v) ț assent (n) embrace (v) ț enhance (v) outcome (n) ț 1. 5. a. 6. a. which makes it very difficult for them to stop. 2. b or c: 1. 63 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. 6. skeleton c. conscious b. in that as one rises or falls so does the other. ț comprise (v) ț emancipate (v) inconsistent (adj) ț interrelate (v) ț saturate (v) ț vague (adj) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ The minister resigned because many people felt that his behaviour was at variance with his role in public life. choose the best word from a. everlasting c. compulsion b. 3. it will not _________________ the type of information required from the people completing it. that is. expressive b. The President's speech was so __________________ that many people were persuaded to accept the need for change. obtain 2. elicit c. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 3. 8. early scientists tried to produce ________________ motion machines. machines which would never stop. deliberate The outline is a kind of ______________________ which gives in general terms the basic structure and content of a piece of work. Some people argue that robots in the home will liberate us from having to do the housework in the not too distant future. sketch b. purposeful c. 9. The clear increase in skin cancer has been attributed to the fact that more people now take holidays in hot countries. A recent survey has found that most people have only an uncertain understanding of how and why we study theoretical science. The new law course attempts to cover all aspects of international law. 5. 10. eloquent Car crashes are almost always accidental. 11. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). articulate c. a. a. 10e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. undying If a questionnaire is badly written. but on rare occasions they may be _________________.

Because the original information was incorrect. 10. withdrawn c. 11. episodes b. 10f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 2. but playing sports and joining clubs will help to ___________________ a student's time at university. domiciled b. Many successful business figures want to enter government in order to satisfy their _________________ _________________. bolster No doubt every country has ____________________ in its history which its people now regret. repeat b. interviews ț clinic ț exponents instinct ț ambitions ț fuels void ț benefits ț access to inflation ț the auspices of In many universities. Because they increase the availability of information. a. The building of a new airport will bring _________________ _________________. settled One of the biggest problems with malaria is that the disease can _________________ and give the patient serious medical complications again and again throughout his or her life. removed b. politicians often ignore what they are asked. 9. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. stages c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 5. _________________ _________________ of computer technology argue that computers help protect our freedom. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 10. 7. _________________ _________________ is usually an economic disaster. a. boost b. sections Students who are ____________________ on the campus make more use of the university sports facilities than those living outside. students now _________________ _________________ information from academic libraries all over the world. Books are usually electronically protected so that they cannot be _________________ from the library unless they have been issued in the proper way.Unit Ten 7. the court decided that the contract was _________________ _________________. a. 6. In _________________ _________________. 9. causing prices to rise and the value of money to fall. resident c. 8. recur c. One of the problems with _________________ _________________ such as coal and oil is that they will not last for ever. 4. a. 64 . such as improved communications and more jobs in the local area. 11. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Many feminists now argue that women do not have a _________________ _________________ towards children. An international rescue operation was organised _________________ _________________ the United Nations.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: maternal ț political ț null and television ț health ț tangible high ț leading ț under have ț fossil 1. extracted Studying is important. there is a/an _________________ _________________ provided especially for students and staff. Through the Internet. enrich c. 3. preferring instead to discuss their own interests. a. arise 8.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Ten 65 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). .

000 kilometres. 2. but in practice these machines are often not suited to local conditions and so tend to break down. During the 1980's. what used to be considered as ___________________ goods are now regarded as necessities. With any quotation you wish to use. 13.Unit Eleven 11a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. 9. while others may stay with a host family as a ___________________ measure before renting their own houses. . 12. major industrial companies are finding that consumers are concerned about any ________________ created by the manufacture of their products. 3. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. Supplying ________________ to Third World farmers may seem an excellent idea. 7. 4. ț ț ț diameter (n) ț ț ț ț enable (v) import (n) ț ț expert (n) luxury (n) ț tractor (n) fundamental (adj) starve (v) pollution (n) temporary (adj) The ________________ of live animals is strictly controlled so as to prevent diseases from being brought into the country. 66 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Some business leaders become bored with well-established organisations and prefer instead the ________________ of setting up a new company. 5. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: challenge (n) export (n) pest (n) 1. One major problem with some early insecticides was that they tended to kill not only harmful ___________________ but also those insects which actually helped the farmer. In many developed countries. 11. 8. thousands of people ________________ in Sudan and Ethiopia because there was no food. with a ___________________ of about 570. Most international students choose to live in university accommodation. The Director reminded the middle managers that full cooperation from all workers was _________________ to the success of the company. which will ________________ you to practise the language skills you will need later. 6. The USA has a huge domestic market and so is less reliant on ___________________ for the success of its economy. Increasingly. We recommend that you take a pre-sessional study skills course. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. make sure that the author you are quoting is an ________________ or academic authority.

Very small bubbles / blobs of air can become trapped in liquid metal. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Two of the missing children have been rescued but the fate / destiny of the other six is still unknown. The introduction of the fax and more recently e-mail has made it much easier to communicate / contact with other people all around the world. At first. . 6. but they soon realised that this would help them to improve their technique. 5. large parts of Holland were drained / emptied of water to produce new farmland.Unit Eleven 11b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 10. 7. 8. 11. the number of deaths from accidents has fallen sharply. causing it to become weak. In the past. 2. The area around the Great Pyramids is one of the most important archaeological sites / spots for the study of ancient Egypt. 4. students were hostile / unfriendly to the idea of being videoed during their presentations. 3. and yet today these countries make many high-quality products. The process / action by which plants use sunlight to produce food is known as photosynthesis. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 67 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Until recently. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 9. goods from countries such as Taiwan and Korea were often thought to be worse / inferior. The government lost the election because of a whole brochure / catalogue of scandals and political errors. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. Car theft / burglary remains higher in Britain than in any other European country. Following the decision to pass legislation to compel / urge employers to improve safety standards at work.

…and warm. c. i. …– such as solar power – since oil will not last for ever. …about the safety of the national railway system. h. …conducted in the UK. …used in modern hospitals has increased the cost of health care. j. 3. unlike the decimal… Although the new equipment performed well under laboratory… a. …system (0-9) which we use in everyday life. 11. e. 9. k. …based on the lunar cycle. 4. universities are being asked to undertake… As people can now make purchases on impulse… Computers make use of the binary system (0.Unit Eleven 11c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 12. …is its people. 7. it was simply not robust enough for everyday use. …with credit cards. According to a recent large-scale government survey… Car manufacturers are keen to develop other sources of fuel… An increase in the number of accidents led to a public debate… Although it means that people live longer. 10. d. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. l. 8. the equipment… Japan's greatest resource… A group of students decided to complain because one tutor cancelled… Some countries use a thirteen-month calendar… Young plants will grow quickly if the soil is moist… Increasingly. but not if it is too damp or cold. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 5. buying habits have changed. g. …conditions. f. 2. levels of reading and writing skills are still low. …research in order to develop new products on behalf of large companies. since it has very few sources of raw materials or energy. 68 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6.1). rather than the more normal twelve-month system. b. …all tutorials for a week.

Unit Eleven

11d – Word substitution
From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:
bulk (n) inspect (v) shrink (v) 1. ț ț ț fluid (n) instance (n) switch (v) ț ț ț fulfil (v) ț ț huge (adj) ț revolve (v) vital (adj)

novel (n) topic (n)

In some cases, the patients did not make any improvement, but generally the treatment was a huge success. While a few students stay in university halls of residence, the majority of students choose to rent their own accommodation at some point in their studies. In the course of a marathon, a runner needs to drink water periodically in order to make up for the liquid lost through sweating. Before starting work on your dissertation, make sure that you have discussed the subject with your supervisor. Staff responsible for examining aircraft checked the plane and declared it unsafe. Some students find it very confusing when a lecturer changes from the topic under discussion to share a joke with his audience. The stories of Charles Dickens give us a very clear picture of life in Britain in the nineteenth century. Many students complained when the university failed to keep its promise to allow students 24 hour access to the computer centre. Each time the star rotates, it sends out a radio signal which we can detect on Earth, allowing us to calculate the speed of rotation.

___________________

2.

___________________

3.

___________________

4.

___________________

5.

___________________

6.

___________________

7.

___________________

8.

___________________

9.

___________________ 10. It is absolutely essential that you check your examination entries to make sure they are correct; if they are not you may not be allowed to sit your examination. Most universities have found that demand for engineering courses has decreased, while new subjects such as media studies have become very popular. The amounts of money owed by some Third World countries were so enormous that in many cases it was decided to cancel the debts since they would probably never have been repaid.

___________________

11.

___________________

12.

___________________

69
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11e – Choose the best word
For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:
1. In addition to reading books and journals, the other main source of information available to university students is the ________________ given by the academic staff. a. lectures b. lessons c. classes

2.

The atmospheres of most planets are not ________________, making it difficult for us to see the surface. a. transparent b. lucid c. clear

3.

Three terrorists managed to escape but all of them were ________________ within 24 hours and returned to prison. a. trapped b. snared c. captured

4.

Anybody who joins the army as a soldier has to accept that danger is an ________________ part of the job. a. inside b. internal c. inherent

5.

Students without the normal academic qualifications but who have relevant work experience may be offered a place on an easier diploma course on the ________________ towards an MBA. a. journey b. direction c. route

6.

In Egypt, water from the River Nile has been used for thousands of years to ________________ the dry desert land so that crops may be grown. a. irrigate b. moisten c. fundamental

7.

Improvements in quality control techniques have resulted in more high-quality products with very few ________________. a. mistakes b. failures c. defects

8.

As you can see from your handout, the first ________________ of figures down the left-hand side shows the growth in population. a. line b. column c. string

9.

The ________________ of men to women in China is unusual, in that there are more men than women. a. ratio b. number c. quantity

10.

According to a recent survey in Europe, most workers expressed a preference for increased ________________ time rather than the chance to do more overtime and earn extra money. a. leisure b. hobby c. relaxation

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

70
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11f – Make a collocation
Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:
public television air ț ț ț gas electrical academic ț career ț ț ț mental tropical cassette fares circuits ț ț cylinders ț ț illness ț tapes

change ț

journals ț

stations

transport

rain forests

1.

In modern cars, sound systems play CDs rather than _________________ _________________.

2.

The _________________ _________________ of the Amazon contain over 10% of all known plant species found on Earth.

3.

One of the most important developments in the history of the computer was the printing of tiny _________________ _________________ on small chips of silicon.

4.

The explosion was caused by terrorists, who had packed a number of _________________ _________________ with home-made explosive.

5.

Increasingly, cars are being excluded from city centres and improved _________________ _________________ is being developed instead.

6.

For the most recent developments in any subject, _________________ _________________ are a much better place to look in than text books.

7.

Psychologists have shown that living in very tall buildings can lead to depression, or even _________________ _________________.

8.

Thanks to the introduction of satellite communications, we can confidently expect the growth in the number of _________________ _________________ to continue.

9.

Increased competition among the airlines in Europe has meant that _________________ _________________ has become much cheaper.

10.

After several years working as a lawyer, she decided to have a _________________ _________________ and become a university lecturer instead.

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

71
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven 72

Vocabulary sheet
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

11. external. proceeding. 12. 8. satellites. 11. summary. equilibrium. 9. establish a link. 10. 6. data 1b 1. definite. 10. 6. explicit. 5. individual. regions. chemicals. affects. e. 11. n. contrast. 3. 13. 8. 11. 8. endangered species. select 1. pole. 2. accomplished. 10. 2. new dimension. 5. 9. 7. 6. 6. comprehend. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. 4. 9. impressed. circumstances. similar. l. computer network. constant temperature. energy. signified. 11. a. ensued. assembled. b. 4. 10. achieving. factor. heredit. 4. h. 2. 9. manifested. 12. emphasise. 2. stable 2b 1. 5. 7. undergone. sources. geography. 9. 13. 5. is required. h 73 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. valid reason. 9. f. l. m. 5. 6. 13. 8. exerts. 6. e. spontaneous. denote . emotion 4c 1. 11. 12. 5. empirical 2f 1. 6. concluded 1e 1. c. 12. deviate. e. adjust. derive. positive aspects. 12. f. acquire. 4. 8. k. respective. symbols. credible. 11. underlying. co-ordinate. new concept. 14. i. 11. 6. 12. 14. 9. 4. 12. 9. motive. 2. 7. 5. scheme. 4. evident. k. 2. 6. 11. impact. notion. 4. 11. obvious. specify. l. preceded. h. compensate. 10. appraises. focus. 8. preposition. 10. 6. 6. sphere. 3. manipulate. communes. 5. vertical. transmit signals. 14. 3. 9. expose. g. abandoned 3c 1. indicates. a. 8. k. speculate. generated. 6. sequence of events. chapters. 4. publishes. capillaries. 5. 3. ultimate responsibility. period. 9. c. occurs. portion. consume. outspoken critic. 11. modified. 8. task 3b 1. k. structure. innovative. 2. 7. common feature. perpendicular. drama . 8. 8. convened. 11. 11. 4. subsequent. revealed. contact. 12. assigned. 3. formulate. 7. 8. criteria.Answer key Answer key Unit One 1a 1. 2. ignored. 3. 7. fluctuate. 9. global economy Unit Two 2a 1. automatic. 5. 12. 13. 15. approximate. components. conduct. 10. 12. 5. 6. a. g. 13. segments. discourse. occupied. administer. passive. 11. 8. 14. 9. rely on. verbal agreement. superficial. creating. inhibit growth. issue. 12. 11. 5. 8. 3. 9. accelerating. technology. 6. 12. 4. mathematics. 10. proprietor. 3. 7. tradition. 10. assess. power and prestige. 2. tense atmosphere. 5. 4. 7. series. separate entities Unit Three 3a 1. 2. labour shortage. 12. put forward a hypothesis. 11. 6. consists of 1c 1. 4. 2. 7. m. predict. 10. infer. methods. d. a 3d 1. 4. arbitrary. 2. discrete. 2. 11. 4. 13. final decision. rejected. 3. 14. evaluate. 10. 10. elements. imply. 9. 3. j. 3. 7. j. 13. distributed. major. investigate. 9. economically feasible. comply with. 9. dominate. 7. 10. verify. 2. 4. 5. 12. image. decade. c. 9. plot. 10. context. usage. 2. assert the right. 3. design. authorise 2c 1. 6. phase. adequate. 5. 4. 4. orientate. maximum. axis. highly sophisticated. 3. norm. initial results. rational. 12. 6. guarantee. principle. magnetic. range. dynamic personality. b. 10. h. 3. 5. 6. 4. 3. 7. precise details. 6. 3. 7. 8. 2. 2. reverse the verdict. e. leading role. 14. 4. 8. 8. contribute. natural phenomena. 13. 7. 3. equivalent. 9. involving. 3. dispose of. o 2d Unit Four 4a 1. pursued. devised. 10. 8. sections. 8. j. i. 7. distinct. 7. deficient. 7. intervene 4b 1. 5. d. contaminated. conceived. classic example. appropriate. analogy. f. 12. 2. physical exercise. 4. 10. 10. pertinent. 11. 8. g. presuming. 12. 6. 11. 7. areas 3e 1. 12. environment. simultaneous. previous experience. convert. 5. 2. g. 11. appreciate 3f 1. approach. . 3. 9. 5. reacted angrily. potential. f 1d 1. b. 10. 4. 2. 3. 4. 5. obtained. 5. 2. j. marital status. 7. 12. devote time and money. prime 1f 1. 9. d. l. 15. 8. 13. b. tentative. 6. d. estimates. 9. 13. 7. minimum requirement 2e 1. i. I. text. c. 11. 8. 3. analyse results. restricted. transition. sum. 7. 13. 12. psychology. varies. negative. 10. 13. consequent.

restore. superior. fallacy. 10. reluctant. obsolete. rudimentary. subordinate. c. 6. 5. decline. 11. 7. continent. 7. 5. niche market 6d 1. negotiate. friction. 3. 10. 6. dense fog. 8. crisis of confidence. 4. precipitated a crisis. index. interlocking. 3. collapsed. 10.Answer key Answer key 4d 1. console. activists 6e 1. 8. reproduce. . research institutes. fraud 5f 1. err on the side of caution. client. repudiated. compute. aroused. i. 10. f. 3. 10. graph. 10. 2. 7. 10. Sibling rivalry. atom bombs. 12. neutral. aristocracy. judicial system. 9. elaborate. 8. 2. contrary. confer. dictates. absorb. fragment. b. 8. 5. k. 2. configuration 7c 1. 9. 11. 4. 8. 3. m. 6. 4. 12. colloquial language. 9. degenerated. 9. abnormal. 4. 2. virtual reality. 11. peasants 7e 1. 2. 9. f. migrate. 2. 2. Medium-. 4. 9. 6. 2. 11. e. a code of ethics. 3. cells. 11. conserve. depressed. g. 2. 10. volume. b. 6. 9. reservoir. campaign of terror. 4. execute. pendulum. Supreme. 10. 10. protest. 7. h 7d 1. detriment. attributed to. liable. pervaded. 3. 7. prudence. biology. 12. 3. endless cycle. 10. 3. 11. 6. sustain. 3. preliminary. 1. 12. 5. 4. 2. 11. g. fraternal. secure. 8. enlighten 5b 1. postulated 8b 1. nutrients. 6. high proportion. diffuse. 2. 10. 7. assured. tone. insisted 5e 1. 13. 6. 7. revise. label. 6. 7. 12. 3. h. instinct. 6. constitute 4f 6f 1. 6. 11. 5. 11. 5. strata. 10. 8. retard. 2. adolescents. 9. corporate. overlapped. 13. 11. 6. converse. transformed 5c 1. c. 12. l. 5. embodies the principle. 6. clarify. affiliate. terminology. inclined. texture. 4. 5. 9. 8. subtle. 7. 9. horror. j. pleaded not guilty. aid. 2. symptom. dedicated his life. 7. contingent upon. incentives. 8. 8. integrate. 8. 3. 7. X-rays. 7. attain their goals. 9. ceased. j. 12. 11. 9. 4. 5. 8. propensity. 6. project. 3. edit. 3. 4. 12. within a radius. revolt. 8. 3. 12. logic. 12. philosophy. 11. 5. objective. 2. 3. income. 7. creditors. 10. 8. 7. force of gravity. 6. radical. b. 3. 8. 2. military service 1. propagate. 8. degrade. incessant. flatly contradicted. 12. oblige. 9. alleged. 9. 5. contend 6b 1. imposed a ban. 5. 4. compound. domestic. l. 3. categories. 7. 3. fertile. 4. invoke 7b 1. implement. saint. 1. 7. an adult. a. 6. 11. 10. 5. 5. 2. 11. l. interact. awe. 3. j Unit Eight 8a 1. advocate. 4. odour. coincided. contract. legal. 2. Nuclear. 3. h. 8 subsided. 13. muscle. expel. 2. urban. oxygen. refute. 9. fraction. 7. g. 10. i. metabolism. 12. litigation 4e 1. allies. 7. intermediate stages. 2. 4. 5. 5. 3. traits. 6. political spectrum. alcohol. 2. tissue. under the microscope. 7. scores. 5. 10. legitimate concern. Western culture. trend. d. d. eliminated. lenses. 4. 74 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 9. 13. 3. 11. southern hemisphere. aggregate. research. 4. mobile phones. abstract thought. 2. f. k. d 5d 1. 6. US Congress Unit Six 6a 1. pragmatic. 9. internal. schedule. stress. metaphor. induced. 4. upsurge. 5. democracy. at regular intervals. disputes. 5. 10. identical twins. 6. assist. 4. e. 5. 11. keep your nerve. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). competence. 8. a. 12. 10. 10. a. instruct. 9. respond. 5. go off at a tangent. tiny. trivial. superimpose. 4. appeal 6c 1. atoms. rhythm. c. prospered. academic. rectangle 7f 1. 8. 4. co-operate Unit Five 5a 1. 3. 7. finite 4. defer. economic sanctions. brief interlude. 13. 9. 11. comment. transferred. 4. 10. 11. 2. suppress. 10. stimulated. salt crystals. astronomy. 11. homogeneous. 10. policy. e. 8. supplement. commit. 12. Finance. 5. 9. adhere. 12. duration. collided. 9. 9. dissolve. participated. 9. confronted. extracts. version. thermal energy. i. alter. 6. goal. commodity. 7. 2. 11. 4. 7. 6. benefits. reform. stereotype. locate. hierarchy. lines intersect. perpetrated crimes Unit Seven 7a 1. 8. 6. k. 7. transact. 8. 6. 5. 8.

6. 12. 9. 4. 10. exhaust. a. full complement. 9. accumulated 9c 1. high velocity. f. 3. reverberated. 8. 9. 4. 11. leading exponents. sex and violence. 2. High inflation. mental illness. 6. 5. outcome. 5. under the auspices of 10c 1. 6. triangle. on the premise that. gas cylinders. 5. 12. recur 10f 1. topic. 3. h. liberated. compel. 8. 3. 4. 3. fundamental 11b 1. 3. ascribed. enrich. c 9d 1. sift. b. k. a. 10. annual. 2. enhance. 8. enumerated. Federal Government. assimilate. 8. emancipate. gained momentum. construed. 7. c. 5. j. 5. penal. 4. 7. 3. e. 3. 10. novels. 8. fossil fuels. 2. 4. displace. inferior. . transparent. utilise. 6. 2. e. vague. invest money. Rebels 8e 1. 2. expert. prohibited. k. 7. 11. ratio. 6. condense. embrace. drained. angular 3. catalogue. 4. efficient. channel. 7. 10. rendered. inconsistent. odd. 10. g. 5. 2. g. removed. 9. diverge. 11. 6. 5. d. b Unit Nine 9a 1. instances. 8. h. 7. elevated. 3. illuminated. 6. irrigate. 10. 9. 9. 4. 4. frustrated. foetus. 7. 4. 3.Answer key Answer key 8c 1. 2. 5. vibrate. intrinsic. 4. imperial control. 3. partisan 8f 1. b. 11. inspecting. fate. 8. solar power. 8. episodes. carbon. d. 5. diameter. c. air fares. 9. a. 2. provoked. dissipates energy. 9. temporary. 6. surplus. 4. i. 10. 9. pests. 9. 5. inherent. ambiguity 9e 1. 5. 4. 8. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). k. 9. 3. exude. interrelated 10e 1. 2. 8. cater. 8. 9. rural areas. torture. 9. tangible benefits. 6. elicit. skeleton. 5. huge Unit Ten 10a 1. 8. lectures. 7. d. evolved. batteries. import. d. compulsion. c. Prince. 4. enable. utter waste of time. b. innate. 6. 3. 5. 11. 12. matrix 9b 1. exports. fund. 9. 7. sites. stationary. 8. currency. 6. defects. 11e 1. 9. 7. 8. television stations. frontiers of science. low morale Unit Eleven 11a 1. intimacy. captured. evoke. 2. 13. violate. province. 7. 8. 4. political ambitions. bubbles. i. f. 9. allude. 4. 9. 9. quote 10b 1. assent. 6. 6. 8. 5. 4. 8. e. 2. e. have access to. myth. 5. umbilical cord. unduly. h 11d 1. attach 9f 1. 4. health clinic. f. saturated. route. career change 75 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7. voluntary work. eloquent. magic. perpetual. 9. 10. 7. 6. 10. 6. comprises. 2. vital. 9. fluid. 3. deliberate. 3. j. public transport. starved. proclaimed. 7. wide vocabulary. 10. l. 8. 7. 2. Peace Treaty. 4. 3. j. 10. 11. circulates. shrunk. 7. integers. 2. launch. 5. 11. theft. material. 5. j. 10. tropical rain forests. pollution. g 8d 10d 1. 2. revolves. 10. 5. 2. k. 8. 5. switches. territory. 10. 8. 3. lustre. league. i. 9. 7. 2. 10. 5. deprived. molecule. 2. 3. 10. testify. hostile. 11. 4. electrical circuits. 10. 11. communicate 11c 1. allocates. a. orbits. 6. luxury. legislate against. 4. challenge. appendix. h. 5. 8. 2. resident. bulk. 7. 6. 6. leisure 11f 1. 10. 7. drastic action. 11. repress. 6. discern. evaporates. drugs. maternal instinct. 3. procure. column. 7. 5. academic journals. breed. 6. 2. 6. asset. 11. 10. 7. 7. 11. 10. 10. 9. residue. miracle. 4. 11. converge. 3. 11. cassette tape. suspended. append. 2. 3. Anthropology. 3. process. mistress. 4. fulfil. g. 7. i. 6. 2. acid. null and void. f. tractors. 10. give their consent 1. television interviews. 8.

simply use the alphabetical list below which will give you the exercise listing and item number: assess asset assign assimilate assist assume assure astronomy atmosphere atom attach attain attitude attribute auspices authorise automatic averse aware awe axis 1e 9e 1a 10b 6d 1c 6e 7e 4c 4e 9e 6f 3c 4e 10f 2b 2a 9c 2c 6b 4b 1 4 11 3 5 2 6 6 8 2 10 4 11 4 11 14 6 11 5 11 4 comply component compound comprehend comprise compulsion compute conceive concentrate concept conclude condense conduct confer configuration confine conflict conform confront congress consent consequent conserve consist console constant constitute construct construe consume contact contaminate contemplate contend context continent contingent contract contradict contrary contrast contribute controversy convene converge converse convert co-operate co-ordinate cord corporate correlate correspond create credible creditor crisis criterion critic crucial crystal culture cumbersome currency cycle cylinder 1d 1e 5d 2b 10d 10e 6a 2a 2c 1f 1d 9e 3d 7b 7b 9c 3c 6c 5e 7f 8f 2d 7d 1b 6e 1f 4e 1c 9d 3d 3e 3e 6c 6a 1a 7e 7f 5d 4f 5b 2e 2b 6c 3b 10a 6d 2b 6e 3a 9f 7d 8c 3c 2a 3d 7b 5f 1a 3f 2c 7f 4f 7c 8e 6f 11f 1 7 10 13 6 4 8 3 8 2 12 3 11 10 13 6 1 3 5 12 10 7 3 13 11 3 12 4 3 6 12 11 9 12 3 3 11 2 1 2 2 9 1 7 8 3 12 13 3 6 6 4 4 2 3 9 4 12 9 12 3 4 11 9 3 4 deficient define definite degenerate degrade deliberate democracy demonstrate denote dense deny depress deprive derive design detect detriment deviate devise devote diagram diameter dictate diffuse dimension discern discourse discrete dispense disperse displace dispose dispute dissipate dissolve distinct distort distribute diverge diverse divine doctrine domestic dominate drain drama drastic drug duke duration dynamic 3b 1c 1e 6a 7e 10e 7a 2c 1a 4f 5c 7b 8e 1b 2b 8c 8b 3b 1a 2f 4c 11a 5d 5e 1f 8d 4b 3a 10c 3c 9d 3d 5e 8f 7a 1e 2c 4a 9b 4c 7c 6c 7d 1e 11b 3e 9f 8d 9c 5b 3f 1 5 3 10 11 2 12 11 9 7 4 1 3 10 11 10 8 10 4 10 1 10 7 6 4 7 8 2 6 7 10 1 1 2 8 10 13 2 7 3 3 4 2 2 8 7 2 5 3 10 2 A abandon abnormal absorb abstract academic accelerate access accompany accomplish accumulate accurate achieve acid acquire adapt adequate adhere adjacent adjust administer adolescent adult advocate aesthetic affect affiliate affluence aggregate aggression agitator aid alcohol align allege allocate allude ally alter alternative ambiguity amorphous analogy analyse angular annual anomaly anonymous anthropology apparatus appeal append appendix appraise appreciate approach appropriate approximate arbitrary area aristocracy arouse ascribe aspect assemble assent assert 3b 6b 5b 5f 6a 2b 10f 6c 3d 9b 5c 2a 9a 4b 3c 3d 8b 2c 3e 4a 7a 6e 5d 4c 2d 7a 7c 8a 8c 6d 5a 7d 8c 4d 8e 8d 8b 4d 1c 9d 9c 4a 1f 10b 9d 10c 10c 10a 9c 6b 10b 10b 4b 3e 1e 3b 2e 1a 3d 7a 6a 10d 6c 4a 10d 2f 12 4 1 2 1 5 9 6 7 10 7 8 10 9 12 5 2 7 1 8 2 3 1 4 10 6 7 3 2 10 7 9 7 1 2 9 1 4 3 11 9 3 5 10 1 4 11 2 7 12 7 2 5 13 4 4 5 10 12 11 4 2 2 11 7 7 B battery benefit biology bomb breed bubble bulk bureaucracy 9a 6a 5a 4f 9a 11b 11d 8c 9 9 11 2 6 3 2 9 C calendar cancel capable capture carbon career catalogue category cater cease cell challenge channel chapter chemical circuit circulate circumstance civic clarify classic client clinic code cogent coincide collapse collide colloquial column comment commit commodity commune communicate compel compensate competence complement complex complicate 11c 11c 4c 11e 9a 11f 11b 5b 8d 4d 7a 11a 10b 2e 3d 11f 8e 3e 6c 6d 3f 5e 10f 5c 10c 8b 7a 6e 7f 11e 6e 6b 7a 3b 11b 11b 1e 7d 9f 1c 2c 7 6 6 3 1 10 5 5 3 2 1 4 4 4 2 3 6 4 5 1 6 11 1 8 3 4 3 4 10 8 5 9 5 6 11 6 8 12 4 12 15 E economy edit efficient elaborate electron element elevate elicit eliminate eloquent emancipate embody embrace emerge emotion emphasise empirical enable energy enhance enlighten enrich ensue 3f 5a 9d 4d 5c 1e 10b 10e 4e 10e 10d 4f 10d 10c 4b 2d 2e 11a 4a 10d 5a 10e 2a 12 2 2 3 12 6 9 6 8 1 4 8 3 5 11 2 14 2 4 5 12 8 4 D data debate decade decimal decline dedicate defect defer 1a 11c 2d 11c 6b 4f 11e 7d 14 3 1 11 7 6 7 4 76 .Index Index To find the entry for any word in this workbook.

Index Index entity enumerate environment episode equate equilibrium equipment equivalent err establish estimate ethics evaluate evaporate eventual evident evoke evolve exclude execute exert exhaust expand expel expert explicit exploit exponent export expose external extract exude 2f 9e 1b 10e 1c 2a 11c 1d 5f 1f 3a 7f 1b 9e 4c 1b 9b 8d 3c 5e 3d 9b 2c 5b 11a 3e 3c 10f 11a 2d 2e 6d 8e 13 8 5 9 8 10 4 2 7 6 7 5 6 2 11 1 6 1 3 2 9 2 3 11 11 10 6 4 6 3 1 6 1 G generate geography geometry goal grant graph gravity guarantee 2d 3a 7c 4e 5c 5d 5f 1d 6 4 1 10 3 5 3 7 interval intervene interview intimacy intrinsic invade invest investigate invoke involve irrigate issue 5f 4a 10f 10f 9b 7c 8f 4b 7a 1b 11e 3b 1 12 3 4 9 4 9 3 13 3 6 9 monarch morale motive muscle myth 8c 9f 3e 7a 10b 8 11 8 7 5 N navy negative negotiate nerve network neutral niche norm notion novel nuclear null nutrient 7c 1b 7d 6f 3f 7e 6f 3a 2d 11d 8a 10f 7e 12 4 11 1 11 7 11 1 9 7 6 7 8 H hemisphere heredity hierarchy homogenous horror hostile huge hypothesis 6f 4b 6a 5a 7d 11b 11d 1f 9 7 6 5 8 4 12 12 J job journal judicial justify 5c 11f 4f 4c 2 6 5 10 L label laboratory labour launch league lecture legal legislate legitimate leisure lens liable liberate linguistic litigation locate logic lustre luxury 5e 11c 3f 8d 8e 11e 6e 8f 5f 11e 8a 8a 9b 8c 4d 6e 4e 9a 11a 10 12 1 10 7 1 1 5 5 10 1 2 5 1 11 9 9 4 9 I identical identify ignore illuminate illustrate image impact imperial implement imply import impose impress impulse incentive incessant incident incline income inconsistent incorporate index indicate indigenous individual induce infer inferior inflation ingenious inherent inhibit initial innate innovative insist inspect instance instinct institute instruct integer integrate intense interact interlock interlude intermediate internal interpret interrelate intersect 6f 1c 1a 9a 1c 3e 1a 8f 5b 1d 11a 5f 4a 11c 7d 7b 4c 6d 6e 10d 5c 8b 1e 9c 2e 4d 2b 11b 10f 10c 11e 2f 1f 9d 2a 5d 11d 11d 6a 5f 5e 9a 4e 2c 6b 6a 6f 7f 4e 1c 10d 5f 6 13 13 7 1 6 6 7 8 9 1 9 1 10 5 7 7 4 8 1 1 7 11 2 13 9 4 10 2 10 4 11 8 4 5 11 5 1 11 10 9 3 11 4 2 5 10 7 7 7 11 8 O objective oblige obsolete obtain obvious occupy occur odd odour option orbit orientate oscillate outcome overlap oxygen 5b 6b 7b 2e 1d 3d 2b 9e 7b 10c 9d 3e 8c 10d 5a 8a 6 6 2 10 5 8 1 7 3 8 7 9 11 8 10 9 F facilitate faction factor fallacy fare fate feasible feature federal fertile final finance finite fleet fluctuate fluent fluid focus foetus formulate fort fossil fraction fragment fraternal fraud friction frontier frustrate fuel fulfil function fund fundamental fuse 1c 9c 3b 8b 11f 11b 2f 3f 9f 6e 3f 7e 8b 8c 2b 10c 11d 2b 10a 1a 9c 10f 7d 4d 8a 5e 7a 9f 8e 11c 11d 2c 9b 11a 7c 6 4 11 9 9 1 5 10 1 10 5 1 11 3 8 2 3 10 9 2 10 10 7 5 7 12 4 5 5 2 8 6 1 13 2 M magic magnetic magnitude maintain major manifest manipulate margin material maternal mathematics matrix maturity maximum medium mental metabolism metaphor method microscope migrate military minimum minor miracle mistress mobile modify moist molecule momentum 8e 2e 1c 3c 2b 3d 2a 9c 9d 10f 2a 9a 2c 3e 6b 11f 6a 8b 1d 6f 7b 4f 1f 6c 9e 9b 4f 1b 11c 9a 9f 9 11 11 10 6 10 1 1 6 5 7 11 9 3 3 7 2 3 8 8 12 10 14 7 5 3 9 8 8 5 8 P parenthesis parliament participate partisan passive peasant penal pendulum period perpendicular perpetrate perpetual persist perspective pertinent pervade pest phase phenomenon philosophy physical planet plead plot pole policy pollution pope portion positive postulate potential 5c 7c 6b 8e 2b 7d 9b 8a 2a 4a 5f 10e 4c 2c 2d 8b 11a 2e 2f 4d 3f 6c 7f 3b 3a 7b 11a 9c 2b 3f 8a 1e 5 10 5 11 2 13 4 4 9 5 11 5 12 14 12 5 7 8 1 6 3 8 4 2 10 11 12 8 7 8 11 5 77 .

Index Index pragmatic precede precipitate precise predict preliminary premise preposition prestige presume prevail previous prime prince principle proceed process proclaim procure prohibit project propagate propensity proportion proprietor prosper protest province provoke prudence psychology publish purport pursue 7b 2a 7f 2f 2d 5d 8f 3a 3f 1d 7c 3f 1e 9a 2e 1d 11b 8d 10b 10b 4e 6d 6d 4f 3b 6e 6b 10a 8e 7d 4b 1b 10c 1b 6 13 1 9 11 3 8 6 4 6 9 7 13 2 9 11 2 2 1 6 6 2 9 3 5 7 1 8 4 10 2 2 9 12 render repress reproduce repudiate require research reservoir resident residue resource respective respond restore restrict retain retard reveal reverberate reverse revise revive revolt revolve rhythm rigid rigour role rotate route rudimentary rural 10a 10a 8a 7a 1d 4e 4d 10e 9d 11c 2b 5b 5e 1b 5c 5d 3e 9d 1f 6e 7c 4e 11d 7d 8c 10c 1f 3c 11e 5e 9f 1 7 10 9 4 5 10 10 9 5 3 4 3 9 9 9 5 8 13 2 5 3 9 1 5 7 9 9 9 8 3 spatial species specify spectrum speculate sphere spontaneous stable starve station stationary statistics status stereotype stimulate stipulate strata stress structure style subdivide subjective subordinate subsequent subside subtle sum summary superficial superimpose superior supplement suppress supreme surplus survey suspend sustain switch symbol symptom synthetic 8c 2f 1d 7f 4a 4b 4a 2a 11a 11f 9a 2c 1f 7e 5b 4c 6a 5a 2d 5c 9c 6c 8a 1e 4d 5d 1d 1a 3e 4e 5e 5e 5b 8a 10a 11c 9d 6d 11d 4b 5a 5c 6 6 3 8 6 1 10 15 5 8 8 10 11 5 7 5 3 6 4 10 5 11 8 9 8 8 10 8 2 1 7 4 9 5 6 1 5 7 6 6 8 11 thermal tiny tissue tolerate tone topic torture tractor tradition trait transact transfer transform transition transmit transparent transport treaty trend triangle trivial tropical 7f 5d 7e 10c 6b 11d 9b 11a 2a 5a 7e 5d 5b 3b 2f 11e 11f 8f 8b 10a 5a 11f 2 4 4 1 8 4 8 3 11 9 9 6 12 3 12 2 5 3 10 3 4 2 U ultimate undergo underlie undertake unduly uniform upsurge urban usage utilise utter 1f 2d 3a 11c 9e 6c 4d 6d 1a 8d 8f 10 13 8 9 9 10 7 8 7 6 6 S saint sanction satellite saturate schedule scheme score section secure seek segment select sequence series sex shift shrink sibling sift signify similar simultaneous site skeleton sketch sociology solar sophisticated source 7a 6f 3b 10d 7e 3a 7b 2a 5b 3c 2e 2d 2f 2a 8f 2c 11d 7f 10a 2d 1a 2e 11b 10e 7c 7c 8f 2f 3a 10 2 8 9 10 11 8 14 3 8 12 14 3 12 1 2 11 6 5 5 1 3 9 3 8 6 4 2 5 Q quote 10a 10 R radical radius random range ratio rational react rebel rectangle recur reform refute region reign reinforce reject release relevance reluctant rely remove 6a 5f 1c 1b 11e 3a 2f 8d 7e 10e 7e 7b 1e 6c 6c 4a 4c 3c 8b 3d 10e 7 6 10 7 9 9 4 11 12 11 2 4 12 13 12 9 9 2 6 4 7 V vague valid vary vast velocity verbal verify version vertical vibrate violate virtual vision vital vocabulary volume voluntary 10d 1f 1b 5c 9f 2f 2e 5a 1a 9e 9e 6f 3c 11d 9f 6e 9f 10 1 11 6 10 8 7 3 5 6 1 7 5 10 9 12 7 T tangent tangible tape task technique technology temporary tense tentative terminology territory terror testify text texture theft theorem theory 6f 10f 11f 3a 1c 2e 11a 1f 4b 6b 8d 7f 8d 4a 7b 11b 4c 2c 5 8 1 12 9 6 8 7 10 10 8 9 4 7 5 7 2 1 X x-ray 5a 1 78 .

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