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What does health mean to individuals?

Definitions
1913: The state of being hale, sound or whole, in body, mind or soul; especially, the state of being free from physical disease or pain. 1947: World Health Organisation: A state of complete, physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease infirmity. 1957: WHO: Health is a condition or quality of the human organism which expresses adequate functions under given genetic and environmental conditions. 1986: Australian Better Health Commission ( In ‘Looking Forward to Better Health’): To the community, good health means a higher standard of living, greater participation in making implementing community health policies and reducing health costs.

Dimensions
Physical Health
 Efficient functioning of the body  Capacity to participate in everyday activities  Absence of disease  Can include: - Body size/shape - Level of fitness Weight - Ability to recover from illness

- Energy level

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Mental Health
      Includes: emotion, spiritual and social health Ability to adapt to change Cope with adversity Communication/relating skills Resilience Self-esteem

Social Health
    Ability to form and maintain satisfying relationships May include: Parents, friends, family, teachers Following accepted behaviours Interacting positively in groups

Emotional Health
      Ability to express emotions when appropriate Avoid expressing inappropriately and control them Ability to develop good self-esteem Positive image Resolve conflict Realistic perspectives into situations

Spiritual Health
      A belief in a supreme being Way of life prescribed by religion Greater scheme Assists to make decisions Feelings of unity and belonging Sense of guidance and value

Relative Nature of Health
   In relation to another period of time Potential Relative to different communities

Dynamic Nature of Health
 Health changes over time

Health is an interaction between the dimensions. Eg severe cold influences us to be socially less interactive -Lifestyle-related disease is the prime cause of morbidity (level of illness) and mortality (death rate).

Health continuum: Measures our health status at any moment of time.

Perceptions of Health
  Understanding develops over time Subjective rating - Gender - Disability - Ethnicity - Geographic location

HEALTH INEQUALITIES - Age - Social/Economic Status

SOCIO-ECONOMIC EXAMPLES - Material Resources - Childhood living conditions - Exposure to racism and discrimination - Access to educational resources - Safe working conditions - Effective health services By studying perception, reasons of why particular problems occur in group can be identified. SOCIO-ECONMOICALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS - Indigenous Australians - Prisoners - Remote/rural areas where people live - People born overseas - Defence force members - Homeless people  Concepts can change through life changes  Babies and their mothers  Children  Adolescents  Adults  65 yrs +  Young people rely on parents to provide physical, emotional and economic support

Implications of different perceptions of Health
     Major implications for public health Public health: Planned response to protect and promote health and to prevent its illness, injury and disability. Basis for identifying public health issues and priority areas Focus on prevention, promotion and protection (rather then treatment) An individual perception of health determines:

Whether or not they take appropriate action.
  Perceptions of health influence the extent and quality of health services Affect range of determinants; socio-economic, environmental and behaviour of individuals.

Health as a Social Construct
        Social circumstances depicts an individual’s personal meaning of health. Varies from one society to another Socio-cultural perspective – viewpoint of society in whole. Identifies contributing factors relating to health status Health is not only an individual concern Interrelated socio-cultural influences Social Environment: Social, cultural, physical, political and economic. People with a low socio-economic status are more likely than people from a higher socio-economic groups to smoke, drink alcohol and participate in drug-taking and have an inadequate diet.

 Health as a social construct means health is not solely the responsibility of the individual. Public Health Approach
     Developing Social solutions A social construct identifies the factors in the health of the community as a whole Greater access to health services for disadvantaged social groups Including health literacy skills – ability to understand health information and apply knowledge by selecting appropriate health services. Social justice principles – supporting individual/group needs of community

Determinants of Health
   

Biomedical and genetic factors Health Behaviours Socio-economic Factors Environmental
Knowledge, skills and attitudes Genetics

Individual
 

Socio-cultural Factors
      Family Peers Media Religion Culture Aboriginality (marginalisation)

Socio-economic
   Employment Education Income

Environmental Factors
   Geographic Location Access to health Access to technology

The degree of control individuals can exert over their health – Modifiable and non-modifiable health determinants  Individual behaviours can be changed  Factors that influence behaviour include predisposing, enabling and reinforcing.  Predisporing: experiences, knowledge, culture and ethnicity, age, sex, income, family background, educational, background and access to health care.  Skills and Ability: Physical, emotional and mental capabilities, community and government priorities and approaches to health, health resources and facilities are enabling factors. Positive enablers: encourage positive behaviour

Negative enablers: barriers, work against intention to change unhealthy behaviours Reinforcing: Presence of support/encouragement

What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?
    Process that enables people to improve or have greater control over their health Identify and realise aspirations Satisfy needs Change with the environment

Health Promotion
       Preventative health services Organisational Development Public Policies Economic/regulatory activities Health education Environmental health Community-based work

Responsibility for health
     Individuals Community groups/schools Non-government organisations Government International organisations

Promotion & Stratergies
Lifestyle/behaviour approaches - Individual Lifestyle - Socio-environmental - Harm minimisation - Zero tolerance Preventative Medical Approaches Public health Approaches - Health Promoting schools - Health Promoting workplaces

Stratergies
1. Enabling

2. Creating environments that are supportive of health 3. Advocating to create essential conditions for health

Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework
   1978: WHO + UNICEF: health care conference Declaration of Alma Ata 1986: Ottawa Charter

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Develop personal skills Create supportive environments Strengthen community action Reorient health services Build health public policy

Principles of Social Justice
Equity Diversity Supportive environments

How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
Anatomy & Physiology
      Anatomy: Study of body structure and relationship between body structures. Physiology: Study of how the body works and various functions of the body. Helps to understand how the body reacts to stress. Musculoskeletal: Muscular and skeletal system Protects vital organs Ability to Move

SKELETAL SYSTEM  Bone tissue, bone marrow, cartilage and periosteum (membrane around bones)  Support – provide framework for attachment of soft connective tissue  Protection – internal organs (ribs protect heart + lungs)

 Movement – contractions of muscles pull bones  Blood cell production – cell formation occurs in red bone marrow  Storage of energy – yellow bone barrow; stored source of lipids

Major bones involved in movement

Long
- Curved shape; absorb shock & distribute pressure - Diaphysis (long shaft) covered by membrane - Medullary cavity (red bone marrow in childhood – yellow bone marrow in adulthood - Two end portions (epiphyes) – covered by articular cartilage – reduce friction

Short
- Cubed shaped - Wrists, ankles, fingers and toes

Flat
- Flattened out - Skull + breastbone

Irregular
- Don’t fit in other categories - Unusually shaped - Fit variety of positions - Vertebra, facial bones, shoulder blade

 206 bones  2 parts  Axial Skeleton - Forms long axis of the body and includes the skull, vertebra, ribs, sternum and hyoid bone. - Vertebral column protects the spinal cord, 42 movable vertebrae. - 7 Cervical - 12 thoracic - 5 Lumbar - Sacrum: 5 fused - Coccyx: 4 fused  Appendicular Skeleton - Bones of the pectoral girdle - Upper body - Pelvic Girdle - Lower body

Structure and Function of Joints
    Joints provide mobility The point where bones meet Hold skeleton together Allow movement

Provide resistance to forces pulling alignment from bones Function and stability of a joint is determined by 1. How articulating bones fit 2. Flexibility of connective tissue binding the joint 3. Position of the muscle, tendons and ligament

Joint Classification Fibrous – no cavity between bones - held together by strong connective tissue Cartilaginous – no cavity between bones - held together by cartilage Synovial – joints have cavity - held together by ligaments - synovial fluid is in the cavity - all synovial joints are movable Flexion/extension - Head - Arm - Hand - Forearm - Trunk Pronation/supination - Forearm Abduction/Adduction - Fingers - Hand Arm

Elevation/depression Protraction/retraction Dorsiflexion/Panter flexion Inversion/eversion Rotation

Agonist:
Prime movers Main force

Antagonists
Muscles that react Opposes or reverses or a particular movement

Stabilisers
Synergists and fixators Aids agonists by promoting the same movement or by reducing unnecessary movement

Muscle of muscle contraction
Isotonic  Fibres produce tension or force, as they fit lift the load the movement range  Shorten and lengthens – tension develops  Concentric Isotonic: Shortens to pull bones and bring them close together  Eccentric Isotonic: Muscle lengthens  Examples: squats, pull ups, push ups, kicking ball Isometric  Tension develops but no shorten or lengthening  Produce energy with out movement

Few muscles operate in isolation

Muscular System
Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

Respiratory System
   Metabolic reactions: cell uses oxygen to create energy Respiration: provides oxygen, eliminates CO2 & other wastes Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs.

Components of blood  Blood: specialled connective tissue  8% of total body weight  Transports nutrients, oxygen CO2, waste products and hormones  Protects us from bleeding to death  Acts as a regulator of temperature  Erythrocytes – red blood cells; carry haemoglobin  Leucocytes – white blood cells; combat infection and inflammation  Thrombocytes – platelets; process of clotting, help repair slightly damaged vessels The heart  Involuntary muscle with striated muscle fibres  Two chambers – atrium & ventricle  Blood vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries

Pulmonary circulation - Circulates blood from right side of heart to lungs, then back to heart Systemic circulation - Pumps blood from left side of the heart to all body tissue, then back to right side Blood     Pressure Force that the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels Millimetres of mercury ( mmHg ) Systolic Diastolic

What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?
Components of fitness  Cardiorespiratory endurance  Supply nutrients and oxygen efficiently to working muscles  Multistage fitness / step tests  Muscular Strength  Maximal for or tensions  Dynamometers Muscular endurance  Sustain/repeat muscular effort  Situps/pushups Flexibility  Range of movement preformed in and around a joint  Sit and reach Body composition  Proportions of various tissues and their influence on body mass  BMI/Skinfold

Skill-related components  Power  Strength x speed  Vertical jump  Speed  Rate of change in position  20-60m sprint tests Agility  Change direction/position rapidly  Shuttle run/burpee test

Coordination  Flow of movement  Catch Balance  Stable position/equilibrium  Stork Stand/ one foot balance Reaction time  Time to respond to stimulus  Ruler reaction test

Measuring physical fitness  Evaluate progress  Make comparisons with others  Develop accurate training programs  Set realistic, achievable fitness goals  Identify baseline and follow ups  Asses individual weaknesses and strengths  Identify medical problems  Motivate to improve results

Aerobic
        Help break down metabolise energy resources to create movement Low moderate intensity Extended time Beneficial; cardiorespiratory system Frequency: how often aerobic should occur Intensity: level Maximum heart rate = 220 - Individuals age 60 – 85 % = Target heart rate (THR)

Anaerobic
   Short duration – Intense Stored energy limited + lactic acid build up = short time & slows or impairs contraction Eg sprinting

Immediate physiological response to training
Heart rate increases with intensity Ventilation rate Stroke volume – the amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the heart also increases Cardiac output – volume of blood that is pumped out of the heart per/min (Q=HR x SV) Lactate levels – acid: lactate ions + hydrogen ions in water