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Imperial College London

Faculty of Natural Sciences

Centre for Environmental Policy

Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries. A Case Study - Buea, Cameroon

by

BRENDAN SHERRY

A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the MSc Environmental Technology, and Diploma of Imperial College

September 2009

DECLARATION OF OWN WORK

I declare that this thesis

Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries. A Case Study - Buea, Cameroon
is entirely my own work and that where any material could be construed as the work of others, it is fully cited and referenced, and/or with appropriate acknowledgement given.

Signature:.....................................................................................................

Name of student : BRENDAN SHERRY

Name of supervisor: Dr. Mike Templeton / Dr. Nick Voulvoulis

Abstract
This case study is an investigation into community water supply solutions in the Bonduma area of Buea, a town in Cameroon. The project was proposed by „Helps International‟ (HINT), a community NGO based in Buea, and approved as an „Engineers without Boarders UK‟ research project. For a community of 1500, spread across 3 Villages, the collection of water for daily life represents a significant social burden, especially for women and children. A field study was conducted to identify potential water sources. Using that data, and existing research, the different sources were evaluated against environmental, technical, financial, and management feasibility criteria, to ascertain the potential of each to serve the communities water needs. Research indicated several community water schemes in the area are struggling due to lack of management, and these issues were discussed, and recommendations made for consideration by the community of Bonduma. Of the identified potential sources, the Ndongo Spring and Rainwater Harvesting presented as the most appropriate for exploitation. Some consideration was also given to the existing public water supply capacity, and potential to augment that source. An overriding theme of the environmental assessment is the lack of water source protection, which impacts on the ability of the community to harness natural sources for potable use. These concerns were presented, along with suggested strategies for addressing the issue. Results of the study, which include a multi criteria analysis, provide grounds for endorsement of household roof water collection and storage, to provide the community with a sustainable, safe, supplementary water supply.

Acknowledgements
I wish to acknowledge all of the kind assistance provided by the wonderful folks in Buea, especially Pastor Genesis Tinshu and his family, along with the Helps International team.

For his guidance and patience, special thanks to Dr Mike Templeton.

Thanks to Uncle Willy Douglas, for making a fine research companion. And thanks to Eddy Nkehacha for his knowledge, support and enthusiasm. I am most grateful to the following individuals and institutions, who helped me negotiate a new learning arena;
Mulla Lyonga Mr Fidelis Folifac Ms Lydia Lifongo Mr Ndumbe Ekema Stephen Mr Peter Kreuzinger Mr Fomanyi Pius Mr Charles Terence Nyongo

The Pan Africa Institute for Development, and diligent members of the Alumni

CONTENTS

Table of Contents
1 Introduction................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background & Setting ............................................................................. 2 Cameroon ........................................................................................ 2 Buea ................................................................................................ 2 Bonduma ......................................................................................... 4

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2

Policy and Stakeholders .......................................................................... 4 Regulation ....................................................................................... 5 Institutions ....................................................................................... 5 Funding ........................................................................................... 6

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3

Project Focus & Approach ...................................................................... 7 Quantity Issues ................................................................................. 8 Quality Issues ................................................................................... 9

1.3.1 1.3.2 2

Research Aims........................................................................... 10 2.1 2.2 Quantitative Aims ................................................................................. 10 Qualitative Aims ................................................................................... 10

3

Methodology............................................................................. 11 3.1 3.2 Baseline Evaluation............................................................................... 11 Spatial Analysis and Hydrology............................................................. 12 Feasibility Study ............................................................................. 13 Existing water supply...................................................................... 14 Rainfall .......................................................................................... 14

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 4

Environmental data............................................................................... 14 Existing Community Water Projects ...................................................... 14 Stakeholder identification and role appraisal .......................................... 15

Water and Technology in the Developing World ............................... 16

CONTENTS

4.1 4.2

Community mobilization ...................................................................... 16 Community Supply – Quantity .............................................................. 18 Ground water extraction................................................................. 18 Surface water intake – rivers, streams, dams .................................... 20 Spring water tapping....................................................................... 20 Rainwater harvesting ...................................................................... 22 Existing supply ............................................................................... 23

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.3

Community Supply - Quality ................................................................ 23 Water Treatment ............................................................................ 24

4.3.1 4.4 5

Community Supply - Distribution ......................................................... 25

Results & Analysis ..................................................................... 26 5.1 Bonduma – Survey Data ....................................................................... 26 Community Buildings .................................................................... 27

5.1.1 5.2

Buea Water Quantity ............................................................................ 28 Basic Demand forecasting for Project Design .................................. 29 Peak Hour Demand........................................................................ 30 Ndongo Spring Yield ...................................................................... 31 Rainfall .......................................................................................... 31 Rainwater Harvesting Calculations ................................................. 32 Required roof catchment area ......................................................... 33 Yield of roof rainwater harvesting ................................................... 35 Roofwater storage tank sizing. ........................................................ 36 Summary of water quantity calculations .......................................... 37

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.2.9 5.3

Buea Water Quality .............................................................................. 38 Health Indicators ............................................................................ 38 Environmental appraisal ................................................................. 38

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 5.5

Rapid Environmental Assessment (Ndongo Spring) ............................... 39 Ndongo Sample Analysis ...................................................................... 41

CONTENTS

5.6 5.7

Water Quality – Public Supply (CDE / CAMWATER) ......................... 42 Community Water Schemes .................................................................. 44 Local Community Schemes ............................................................ 45 Issues highlighted by neighbouring community schemes .................. 46

5.7.1 5.7.2 5.8 6

Construction Material Costs .................................................................. 52

Solutions and Discussion ............................................................. 54 6.1 Scope or Proposed Solutions ................................................................. 54 Assumptions .................................................................................. 54 Report Limitations ......................................................................... 54

6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 6.3 6.4

Technology Standardization .................................................................. 55 Source evaluation – Quantity ................................................................ 56 Ndongo Spring ..................................................................................... 57 Pumping ........................................................................................ 57 Hydraulic Ram ............................................................................... 59 Spring Box ..................................................................................... 60 Pumphouse .................................................................................... 61 Reservoir Sizing ............................................................................. 61 Pipe lines........................................................................................ 62 Standtaps ....................................................................................... 63

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7 6.5

Rainwater Harvesting............................................................................ 63 Household roofwater costs .............................................................. 63 Community building roofwater costs............................................... 64

6.5.1 6.5.2 6.6 6.7

Public Supply Augmentation ................................................................. 65 Source evaluation – Quality................................................................... 65 Rainwater ...................................................................................... 67 Public Supply ................................................................................. 67

6.7.1 6.7.2 6.8

Community Water Management ........................................................... 67 Opportunities ................................................................................. 67

6.8.1

CONTENTS

6.8.2 6.8.3 6.9 6.10 7

Challenges ..................................................................................... 68 Approach ....................................................................................... 70

Financial status of the community. ........................................................ 71 Multi Criteria Analysis ...................................................................... 72

Conclusions .............................................................................. 74 7.1 7.2 Comparison results ............................................................................... 74 Objectives ............................................................................................. 75 A question of Quantity ................................................................... 75 A question of Quality ..................................................................... 76

7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3 7.4

Water Committee Management ............................................................ 77 Future considerations ............................................................................ 77 Sustainability ................................................................................. 78 Serving the population – beyond Bonduma ..................................... 78 Capacity Building ........................................................................... 79

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 8 9

Recommendations ...................................................................... 80 Appendices ............................................................................... 86

CONTENTS

List of Appendices

Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

Rainfall data for Buea and surrounds Photos of buildings (roof size calculations) Reported cases of water-borne illness in Buea Summary of review reports of Community Water Schemes in Buea, (Pan African Institute of Development)

Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix 9 Appendix 10 Appendix 11 Appendix 12

Maps, Geographical, and Topographical Data GPS Coordinates and GIS Topography Maps Construction costs Environmental observations in Bonduma Cumulative Demand Curves – Tank Sizing Pumping Gradient Lines Multi Criteria Analysis Focus Group Meeting Transcript

TABLES & FIGURES

List of Tables
Table 1. Monthly volume of water treated by CDE for distribution (’08-’09)........................ 28 Table 2. Volumes of raw source-water available to CDE for treatment and distribution .........28 Table 3. Observed volume of water collected per household at public tapstands in Buea .........29 Table 4. Typical requirements, public stand - Sub Saharan Africa ......................................30 Table 5. Monthly Rainfall in Buea, Cameroon (5 years) ..................................................31 Table 6. Bonduma Community Building Roof Surface Areas .............................................35 Table 7. Roofwater harvesting tank sizing options ......................................................... 37 Table 8. Summary of water quantity calculations ........................................................... 37 Table 9 Biochemical analysis of Ndongo Spring sample ................................................... 41 Table 10. Community Perception of Water Sources ....................................................... 44 Table 11. Community Perception of Water Management ................................................44 Table 12. Ranked Issues by users of Bolifamba Community Water Scheme .......................... 45 Table 13. Water levies charged by SNEC in 2006............................................................ 46 Table 14. Household contributions to the Bolifamba Community Water Scheme ..................49 Table 15. Household contributions to the Bonakanda/Bova Community Water Scheme ........49 Table 16. Number of working public tapstands in Buea ................................................... 51 Table 17. Buea Water Distribution Zones ....................................................................51 Table 18. Numbers queuing at Public Tapstands ............................................................ 51 Table 19. Comparison of pumping technologies ........................................................... 58 Table 20. Evaluation of Hydraulic Ram system .............................................................. 60 Table 21. Sizing options of water storage tank for Bonduma ............................................61 Table 22. Cost estimates of storage tanks for communiity buildings ...................................64 Table 23. Observed container washing practiced prior to water collection. ........................... 66 Table 24. Multi Criteria Analysis results .....................................................................73 Table 25. Cost estimates of alternative water project components .....................................74

TABLES & FIGURES

List of Figures
Figure 1. Occurrence of Springs. (IRC, Small Community Water Supplies, 2002) Figure 2. Bonduma Area Map (2009) 26

21

List of Plates
Plate 1. Unofficial municipal waste dump in dry watercourse. Buea 2009 Plate 2. CDE water treatment plant. Buea, 2009. Plate 3. Public Tapstand. Bonduma, 2009

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

List of Abbreviations
CDD – Cameroon Community Development Department CDE – Camerounaise des Eaux SNEC - Societé Nationale des Eaux du Cameroun WHO – World Health Organisation UB – University of Buea IRC – International Water and Sanitation Centre WTP – Willingness to Pay ATP – Ability to Pay WMC – Water Management Committee CFA – Central African CFA Franc (currency of Cameroon) GTZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (German Government Technical Development Agency) DED – Deutschen Entwicklungsdienstes (German Development Service) SOWEDA – South West Development Authority RUMPI – Village Development Plan program, being implemented by SOWEDA CAPEX – Capital expenditure OPEX – Operating expenditure NGO – Nongovernmental Organisations RWH – rain water harvesting DRWH – Direct roof water harvesting EWB-UK – Engineers Without Boarders, United Kingdom HINT – Helps International ONEP - Office National de l‟Eau Potable (Morocco) AfDB - African Development Bank Group AFD - Agence Française de Développement WMC – Water Management Committee MCA – Multi Criteria Analysis

INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction
This case study is an investigation into community water supply solutions in the Bonduma area of Buea, a town in Cameroon. The project was proposed by „Helps International‟ (HINT), a community NGO based in Buea, and approved as an „Engineers without Boarders UK‟ research project. Potential solutions will be evaluated against the following criteria, to assess their suitability to meet the needs of the user group;          Environmental parameters Cameroon water policy framework, and resource ownership Source sustainability & future population demand forecast Resource management Water catchment protection Health – current issues & potential benefits of enhanced water supply Operation and maintenance considerations Community water management committee structure and responsibilities Previous regional community water scheme successes, failures, & lessons learnt  Financial viability – CAPEX & OPEX

This study does not constitute an engineered design, and is concerned primarily with ascertaining the suitability and sustainability of water sources, and community scheme management principles. Calculations are used for making high-level estimates, which may be used for comparative assessment of suggested solutions. All decisions relating to source and distribution of resources in community managed schemes must be made in consultation with representatives of all user 1

INTRODUCTION

groups within that community. This report is an initial feasibility study to aid the decision making process, but does not include the views of user groups within the community.

1.1

Background & Setting

1.1.1 Cameroon Cameroon is in equatorial West Africa. The Germans took on sovereign rule of Cameroon in 1884, and occupied the country until being ousted by Allied forces in 1916. A League of Nations Treaty divided rule of the country between the French and English in 1919. Buea lies in the Anglophone region. French Cameroon achieved independence in 1960, and the Country was reunited in 1961 after an UNsponsored referendum. (West, 2008) Cameroon has a population growth rate of 2.2%, and an annual rate of urbanisation change (2005-10 est) of 3.5%. (CIA, 2009). Therefore, it is estimated that Buea is experiencing a growth in excess of 5% per anum. The proportion of Cameroon‟s urban population using improved drinking-water sources is 88%, and access to improved sanitation facilities is 58% (UNICEF, 2009). 1.1.2 Buea Buea is a sub-division and capital of the South-West Province of Fako covering approximately 870 km2, with a population estimated at 200,000. The town is located at the base of Mount Cameroon, an active volcano, and consists of 85 villages, grouped into 11 administrative „suburbs‟, the boundaries of which were formalized by the German administration, which was based in Buea from 1901 until 1909. The area was first settled by members of the Bomboko Clan, from the Bakweri Tribe, which have lived in the region of Mt. Cameroon for 4000 years. (Buea Municipal Council, 2008). Today the Bakweri constitute the largest ethnic group, but the Town‟s inhabitants represent a broad range of ethnicities from Cameroon, and beyond.

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INTRODUCTION

The main tarred road runs roughly on a NW heading from Mile 16 at an elevation around 500m/above sea level (asl)™, to Buea Town at the upper extent of the settlement at around 1000m.asl, and suburbs of Buea branch off the main road for short distances, before giving way to agricultural development, or forest. Buea is identified as a semi-rural settlement, however there is progressive urban development in line with a rapidly increasingly population. The town has electricity supplied from the national grid, which is operated by the national corporation, SONEL™. The University of Buea (UB) ™ opened in 1993, and in the 2006/7 academic year had a student population of 10,295 (University of Buea, 2009), contributing an estimated 20,000 residents to the town during term time. Additionally, many private tertiary institutions have opened in the vicinity, which has increased demand on utilities, services, and the local environment. As the provincial administrative centre, Buea is home to a vast array of Governmental bodies and associated civil servants. The primary source of income for Buea inhabitants is agriculture, including the cultivation of fruit and vegetables, or small scale farming of pigs, goats, or chickens. Sole trading is the primary business enterprise model, including convenience stores, general stores, mobile phone service points, internet facilities, & food and beverage outlets. There are a remarkable number of churches in Buea. Buea‟s climate is cross Humid/Monsoon Tropical, the dry season running from November until May, with very little or no rain between December and February. The wet season runs from May through October, with heavy precipitation in August and September. The average annual rainfall in Bonduma is around 1700mm. (see Appendix 1), and there are on average 9 wet months a year (>40mm). With a mean temperature around 25ºc, the relatively cool, agreeable climate is favoured by retirees and holiday makers. A great deal of construction work in Buea and surrounds was observed in the course of the study, including large modern houses, churches, and multi-tenanted mixed-use buildings. There are very limited municipal waste disposal services or facilities in Buea, and domestic waste is generally dumped in dry/wet water-courses, collective public areas, or burnt. 3

INTRODUCTION

1.1.3 Bonduma The area of Bonduma is made up of 3 villages, Bonduma, Wotolo, and Bokoko, located roughly around the middle of Buea, scattered about 700 m/asl. The area is distinctive by its limited development, absence of commercial premises, and farming that encroaches on the main road in places. There is no census data available, however an estimate of Buea‟s population in 2003 was 53,000, while the three villages were Bokoko-3320, Wotolo-1968, and Bonduma-2351, totalling 7369. There is an average of 7 inhabitants per household in Bonduma (Schmidt-Soltau, 2003). For the purposes of the project, the number of residents to be served by the community water scheme in Bonduma is 1500. The average household occupancy = 7 The villages are traditional in social structure, enjoying the oversight of a village chief, and village council. The Bonduma and Bokoko Chiefs are very active within their respective communities, and currently there is an acting caretaker in place of the Wotolo Village Chief, who is recently deceased. Communities defer to chiefs for financial advice and governance where appropriate, and in cases of community development these hierarchal roles are pivotal to the success of schemes.

1.2

Policy and Stakeholders

UNESCO (2009) highlights some of the challenges faced by Cameroonian communities under the current administration. „Although endowed with abundant freshwater resources, the country (Cameroon) faces a lack of comprehensive information, an inadequate legal and institutional framework, weak enforcement capacity, poor coordination among agencies and other obstacles to sound, sustainable water management. Cameroon is lagging on the Millennium Development Goals, in part because its water sector is highly fragmented and underfunded.‟ (p.2)

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INTRODUCTION

1.2.1 Regulation The Government of Cameroon has established legal framework of Water Resources through Law 98/005 of 14 April 1998, which stipulates governance and management of water resources, and public ownership and access rights thereof. Subsequent decrees of application (2001) relate to source-water and catchment protection, allowing for exclusion zones, and prohibiting the pollution of groundwater. (Folifac et al, 2009) 1.2.2 Institutions Water in urban areas of Cameroon has been provided by the Cameroon National Water Company, Societé Nationale des Eaux du Cameroun (SNEC) since the early 1980s (Page, 1990). This state owned entity was dissolved into a Public – Private Partnership structure in 2009. The national water authority is now the Cameroon Water Utilities Corporation (CAMWATWER), an asset-holding public company whose role is to develop national water strategy, oversee investment in construction projects, and implement national water policy. Water catchment management, treatment, distribution, and works maintenance are now the responsibility of Camerounaise des Eaux (CDE). The management of CDE has been transferred to a consortium, led by the Moroccan „Office National de l‟Eau Potable‟ (ONEP). Members of the general population are predominantly unaware of these developments, and the demarcation of responsibilities between the two bodies remains unclear. The current public water treatment and distribution system was first developed by the German Administration – using a water source taken from a spring on the lower mountain – known as the „German Spring‟ and later adapted to include Mosel Spring, and expanded for a population of 20-50,000. There is additional treatment capacity, but distribution volume is restricted by the supply at these two sources, and by loss through wastage in the network via leakages and illegal connections. The Buea Municipal Council does not intercede in the provision of utilities on behalf of the population, acting instead as a facilitator to the development of public works, and enablement of community development schemes. There are several 5

INTRODUCTION

such water schemes operating in the region, usually providing service to more remote villages, with varying degrees of effectiveness. These schemes will be reviewed in greater detail in the technology review, and discussion sections of this report. The primary means of water distribution in Buea is via public tap stand, with more affluent households having the benefit of private water connections. The demand for water exceeds that which is available, so a method of rationing is employed, whereby the supply is manually diverted to sectors of the town, leaving others dry. The issue is exacerbated in the dry-season, leaving areas without supply for days or even weeks. Buea is renowned for its high-quality ground water percolating into the volcanic sub-strata of the mountain, and surfacing as natural springs in various locations towards the middle and lower regions of the town. These „traditional‟ water sources and the streams flowing from them supplement public supply, and are heavily used by the townspeople for activities ranging from drinking, to construction, and the washing of vehicles. 1.2.3 Funding The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) approved a loan of 40 million Units of Account (UA), equivalent to US$61 million (January 2009), to help finance a Semi-Urban Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, and The Agence Française de Développement has approved a 60million euro loan to CAMWATER (June 2009) to improve drinking water supply in Yaoundé and three secondary cities. In 2004 a rural development project named „RUMPI‟ was initiated, with co-funding of 17bilion FCFA (aprox US$ 40million) provided by the African Development Bank, Technical Assistance Fund, and the Government of Cameroon. The program is facilitated by the Southwest Development Authority (SOWEDA). Under this program, a 2009 budget of FCFA 1.2 billion was allocated to 34 water projects in the Southwest Province, and CFA 365 million to Buea/Molyko area (Nyongo, 2009). Whilst none of these projects were expected to impact directly on the focus communities of this report, there are villages on the outskirts of Buea that 6

INTRODUCTION

will benefit from new community water schemes, meaning some alleviation of pressure on the current water demand in Buea.

1.3

Project Focus & Approach

Brikke & Bredero (2004) list the five steps of technology selection for community water supply as follows; 1. Community first make a request for improved services. 2. Carry out a participatory assessment. 3. Analyse data. 4. Hold discussions with the community. 5. Come to a formal agreement on the chosen technology This thesis looks to address the first three steps of this process, and the data and recommendations can then assist with the following stages as appropriate. The initial project activity was to conduct a baseline survey and feasibility study including an audit of the current resource demand and uses, to gain an understanding of challenges faced by the community, as outlined in the results section. Whilst the primary focus of the project is technical appraisal of potential water provision solutions, it was important to explore and understand the legal, social, and policy framework relevant to management of water as a resource at national and local levels. The stakeholder and policy framework is identified in the introduction, and revisited later in the discussion. Appropriate technologies are discussed in section 4 of the report, and related to research findings in the results and solutions sections. Complexities of community resource management in developing countries, and the specific social peculiarities of Buea will also be expanded on in the discussion section of the report. The detail of the geographical environment, provided in the results and analysis section, outlines potential water sources for the community, including limitations and challenges posed by each. The solutions section includes an assessment of the merits of these against environmental, economic, and social parameters. In the

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INTRODUCTION

methodology section, those parameters are described, along with strategies used to gather data, and define the context of a proposed scheme. Due to the lack of spatial topography publicly available at the time, data gathered which relate to the study area is presented in the results section of the report, and referred to in the discussion. Technical considerations will also be relayed in the results and discussion sections, and finally the Author‟s conclusions and recommendations are presented.

1.3.1 Quantity Issues The community of Bonduma do not have sufficient access to potable water. Throughout the year, long queues form at tap-stands, and in the dry season there may be several consecutive days on which there is no public supply. The number of public tap stands in the area has declined over the years, so there are now just 3, which are also utilised by people from outside the community. The remaining taps were stopped due to outstanding accounts from SNEC, unpaid by the Buea District Council (Asanga, 2006). Predominantly the children of the community fetch household water, often taking vessels to the tapstands in the early-hours of the morning to avoid lengthy queues, and to limit absence from school. Many households are further than 500 meters from the nearest tap, on unpaved tracks. A lack of information provided on the rationing schedule which alternates supply amongst 4 geographic areas within the town, leads to inefficient collection practices such as leaving taps open whilst dry. This increases wastage of available water, and damage to property through flooding. (Folifac et al, 2009) Users of the public supply do not distinguish water usage from source, so that treated potable water is used for any domestic or commercial application. One concerning example of such activity is the existence of several commercial car-wash businesses in Buea, connected to the public supply network. The author understands that these businesses are given preferential service over rationed domestic users (personal verbal communication, Key Stakeholders Seminar, BueaJune 2009). 8

INTRODUCTION

When the public supply is off, Bonduma residents collect water from other sources, including the Ndongo Spring and Stream. The Spring is accessed via steep tracks on foot, and presents logistical obstacles to the collection of sufficient volumes of water, also increasing time spent in this activity. 1.3.2 Quality Issues The source-water of the Ndongo Spring is commonly perceived as safe and clean, and has been identified by the community as the most likely source for development. The report considers the Ndongo as one alternative water source, under research findings and subsequent discussion, whilst source protection is discussed in each area of the report. Water catchment protection is not practiced in Buea, and anthropogenic activities are considered as a possible origin of source-water contamination, where pathways which may enable this risk to materialize.

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RESEARCH AIMS

2 Research Aims
In assessing potential new water sources, supply volume and quality are the focal points of the thesis, and are addressed by the specific aims listed below. 2.1 Quantitative Aims

 

To identify alternative water sources for the community of Bonduma. To investigate the financial and management commitment required of the community to implement the alternative solutions.

To assess the potential of appropriate technologies for the collection and distribution of supplementary water supply throughout the year, especially through the dry season.

To determine the priority for water usage – consumption (drinking, food preparation), or general domestic/commercial uses.

To assess the environmental impact of implementing one of the alternative strategies.

2.2

Qualitative Aims

 

To assess the suitability of available source-water for human consumption To identify appropriate technological solutions for making source-water potable within the financial means, and practical capacity, of the target beneficiaries.

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METHODOLOGY

3 Methodology
3.1 Baseline Evaluation In order to commence research on the technical provision of water in Bonduma, a baseline assessment of the current situation was necessary. There is very little information relating to water projects in the sub-division available through conventional research methods. It was quickly established that fieldwork must be carried out to obtain reliable data, and the decision was made to travel to Cameroon. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the current themes and technologies employed in community water schemes, under various environmental conditions, and including the following research areas, which will be elaborated on in section 4 – Water Technology in the Developing World.       Water harvesting techniques and technologies Catchment protection and pollution risk Water treatment and distribution approaches Community development projects Capacity building opportunities in the context of community development Barriers to successful implementation and longevity of community water schemes On arrival in Cameroon the priority was to become familiarized with the social and environmental aspects of the location, and community. This was done through the following activities;   Spatial orientation, guided walking tour of villages and boundaries Visual inspection of potential spring water source points, and anthropogenic use of the water resources  Familiarization with water collection methods amongst the communities, through observation. 11

METHODOLOGY

Interviews and discussions with stakeholders and key-informants, to better understand the opportunities and obstacles in embarking on community projects

Formal introduction to relevant authorities within the villages and wider community, in order to obtain permission to conduct research

Visits to existing community water projects, and interviews (formal and informal) with water management committee members

Visit to agricultural sites to understand the method of cultivation, and income generation within the villages

General observation of daily life in Bonduma

These activities were useful in gaining insight to the wider issues facing the community, which include socio-economic stagnation, underdevelopment, unemployment and underemployment, gender inequality, corruption, and abuse of power by persons in positions of authority. There were also some very positive outputs of the orientation exercise, such as appreciation for the available natural resources in the region, including water, successes of other community water schemes, and the availability of skills and construction materials in the immediate surrounds. 3.2 Spatial Analysis and Hydrology

Topography Research into the availability of maps or spatial analysis resources was carried out via internet search, and consulting map collections of libraries and geological societies, with no success. On reaching Cameroon, research uncovered one example of a Cameroonian South West Province map (NB-32-IV), drawn by the French administration in 1969. The map contains topography lines, and major waterways, with settlements as they were circa 1968. Later in the project an amateur cartographer was identified and commissioned to create a localized map of Bonduma, using an electronic (scanned) base map of the original 1968 version (see section 5.1). Towards the end of the field study, cross-referenced, feature 12

METHODOLOGY

augmented GIS scanned copies of the same were obtained, which enabled plotting of survey data. A GPS unit was used to obtain reference points relating to the villages – (model Garmin GPSmap 60CSx) Map Datum WGS84. In order to extrapolate distances on the ground required for design calculations, the web resource calculation tool (GPSVisualizer.com, 2009) was utilised. This tool converts Decimal Degrees into distance along a great circle on the earth‟s surface, taking into account the ellipsoid shape of the globe (see appendix 6). Relevant points were plotted with detailed location notes, in order to mark the boundaries of the service area, and to understand the topography relevant to the distribution of water. The catchment areas of the relevant springs were observed, photographed and plotted, with consideration of anthropogenic activities and catchment protection. Unfortunately efforts to work with the Geology Department at UB were unsuccessful, and it was not possible to obtain any hydrogeological or geophysical data for the area. 3.2.1 Feasibility Study In order to evaluate the potential of a spring, the IRC (2002) recommend carrying out a feasibility study, including the following steps, to assess the suitability of the source for development.  Rapid environmental assessment. The main aims of this exercise are to evaluate the possible impact on the environment of developing a spring, and to ascertain what are the current uses and impacts of anthropogenic activity in the catchment, the area immediately adjacent to the spring, and downstream of the source. This was done for the Ndongo spring, as detailed in section 5.  Spring Water Quantity and Quantity assessment. A detailed study of the Ndongo Spring and Stream was carried out by Nkehacha, a student of Environmental Studies at UB, in 2008. Those results were used in the feasibility study. – See section 5.2.5 13

METHODOLOGY

3.2.2 Existing water supply An interview was conducted with the management of CDE in Buea, to understand the water collection, treatment, and distribution of the public supply, and to gain insight into the issues around meeting demand and maintaining the network. Community schemes in the area were reviewed, and water management committee members interviewed, in order to gain an insight into supply and demand balances, management issues under current conditions, and potential to increase coverage. (see also 3.4) 3.2.3 Rainfall Data on rainfall was obtained from two sources; a) The Ministry of Transport Meteorological Data station, at Ekona research farm. b) Cameroon Development Corporation plantation meteorological data, provided by the centralized administration unit in Tikko. 3.3 Environmental data

Central to a project looking to supplement community supply is a water resource audit. The basic goal of the exercise is to identify, with the help of the community, availability, usage trends, and projected demand of water in the area. (IRC, 2002) In order to understand the housing situation with respect to occupancy, roof surface area, general hygiene and sanitation practice, water usage, and attitudes toward resource management, data was collected through informal interviews, observation, visual inspection, photographs, and collection of statistics on health issues. Where anthropogenic activities involving or affecting water and catchment areas, these were observed, photographed, and relevant points plotted using GPS coordinates. 3.4 Existing Community Water Projects

There are several community water schemes in existence within the sub-division. None of the schemes reviewed are providing a satisfactory service, principally due to the demands of population growth. 14

METHODOLOGY

There is a post graduate college located in Buea – the Pan African Institute of Development (PAID), where students undertake research into African development topics. Investigation revealed a number of relevant studies into the facilitation and management of community water schemes at various life-cycle stages. A review of this research was conducted to better understand issues faced by water management committees (WMC), and partner stakeholders in the initiation and development of community schemes in Cameroon. Additionally, at the time of writing an expansive government sponsored development program (RUMPI) was to be implemented via Village Development Plans, with the aim of meeting prioritized development goals of rural communities. Water provision featured highly on several of these plans, and construction plans had been entered for a tender process. A review of those schemes was undertaken, and will be related in the discussion section. 3.5 Stakeholder identification and role appraisal

There are many stakeholders party to the provision of water in Buea, and some insight has been gained into the relationships and participation of these through interviews, informal discussions, a stakeholder seminar, research, focus group meetings, and a review of national regulations pertaining to ownership and resource management in Cameroon. The roles of different stakeholders are referred to in greater detail in the results and discussions sections of the report. Some of the data used in this thesis was obtained from stakeholders, and this theme is an important social and economic consideration in any proposed community water project.

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WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

4 Water and Technology in the Developing World
4.1 Community mobilization Central to the implementation of appropriate technologies in developing communities is the relevance of the perceived and real benefits afforded the community by such undertakings. The importance of engaging the target community at the earliest stages of a project is highlighted by Wateraid (2009);

„Through discussions and meetings the community identifies their needs in terms of water supply, sanitation and hygiene and shares their knowledge of the local environment and resources. The community then decides on the type of project it needs, where the project should be based, how much it can afford to spend and what each family should contribute. A crucial part of the planning stage is ensuring that the projects are appropriate to everyone in the community and that poorer families can still afford to benefit from the schemes.‟ (p.2) By ensuring a community believes there is a genuine need for improved water supply, and they agree with the selection of delivery technique prior to initiating such a project, the chances of achieving a successful long-term solution are greatly increased. An initial water resource audit assists in identifying realistic sources, potential demand, treatment, and distribution options. Additionally, cultural, economic, and environmental considerations need to be evaluated. Ultimately community water supply schemes exist within broader societal and legal context. Access rights and resource control issues represent potential barriers to long-term sustainability of community schemes. All approaches rely on the ability and skills of managers or committees to facilitate efficient and safe functioning of the selected technologies, which means there is potential for resource contention and operational error. (Mollinga, 1997) When schemes fail, there is a tendency to focus on the shortcomings of those responsible for the operation of a scheme, whereas there may be underlying issues with the technology selection criteria, and related capacity building activities. (Cairncross, 1980) If a water committee are left without the motivation, skills, and

16

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

resources for sustainable management, then it may be argued the project that has failed them, and not the reverse. Another important issue raised by Wateraid (2009) is the need for users to pay for water use, and understand why there are costs associated with the provision of water. Subscribers to a service should also be aware of how revenues are allocated back to the operation and maintenance of the scheme, or to pay the wages of caretakers or technicians. The scope for capacity building in the context of community water schemes extends to several different areas, which include;  Training of technicians and caretakers in practical skills associated with the provisioning of a solution, and subsequent maintenance and operational tasks  Involvement and empowerment of women in community decision making process  Inclusion of the needs and interests of minority groups in the planning and design of the scheme  Management and financial skills development, as required for decision making responsibilities associated with a community scheme  Piloting technology and autonomous community approaches in the provision of utilities, which may be learned from and emulated within other communities  revenue collection and accumulation for funding long-term aspirations of the community, as agreed upon in a balanced diplomatic forum  Implementation of accountability measures and governance practice within a multi-village community group

17

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

4.2

Community Supply – Quantity

The number of people in the world without access to improved water is estimated at more than 1.1billion. (WHO, 2009) Through decades of relief and development efforts, organisations have proposed and refined many methodologies to establish the most appropriate water system(s) to meet the unique needs of target communities, and the techniques for implementation and ongoing management of such schemes. Each community has unique geological and topographical considerations, meaning some supply alternatives can be immediately discounted. In locations where there is a single source of water, allowances can be made for variation in consumption, according to the volume of water and potential replenishment / recharge rates. Where there are more than one source, water can be allocated to the most appropriate use according to availability and quality, and mixed source/use models may be employed to exploit the resources in the most sustainable manner. In the case of Buea, the location and climate means there are distinct wet and dry seasons. There is a very large mountain, which serves as an enormous rainfall catchment area; there is tropical forest, rivers, and springs. The hydrogeology of the area is complex, due to the volcanic activity of Mt.Cameroon. Highly permeable pyroclastic rock makes up much of the substrata, interspersed with impermeable igneous rock, which is extremely hard (Suh et al, 2003). The obvious potential water sources that were considered as alternates for Bonduma are discussed below; 4.2.1 Ground water extraction Where available, ground water is a preferred option for community supply due to the natural filtering process, as water moves through soil and rock layers into aquifers or fissures from where it can be extracted (Clapham, 2004). In a nonindustrialised settlement such as Buea, there is unlikely to be any significant pointsource contamination to affect sub-strata water bodies, and the high-rainfall in the region, especially on the mountain, mean that recharge rates are expected to be considerable and stable. Where a ground source is to be exploited, the recharge

18

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

rate of the aquifer should be established, and withdrawal should not exceed this rate in order to maintain water quality within the aquifer. (IRC, 2002). The method of extracting ground water is a key indicator of the suitability of the source.; The most common methods of drawing ground water the surface is through small boreholes, or large diameter wells (IRC 2002). Boreholes are drilled using the most appropriate techniques for the earth and rock that need to be penetrated. The resulting column is lined and supported with pipes to the depth of the water table, and then with permeable screens to allow water to pass into the tube from the saturated depths. Water is either forced up the tube as a result of water pressure, or pumped to the surface. Any extraction point should be located at a safe distance from pit-latrines, or other potential contamination sources (Caircross & Feacham, 1991). Wells may be hand dug or excavated using machinery – depending on the soil and rock layers, and available tools. Some are lined in order to protect the integrity of the well, whilst in other locations this is not necessary. However, all wells should be capped for protection against contamination, and the water extraction method must be carefully managed for the same reason. An advantage of wells in a village setting is water can be lifted using a bucket and rope or pulley system, so water is still accessible if the cost of a pump is too high (Caircross & Feacham, 1991). The exact hydrogeological and geophysical conditions of Bonduma are unknown, and at the time of writing no known detailed studies had been carried out. However, it is likely that there are significant volumes of ground water moving through the substrata, from the higher slopes of the mountain towards the sea. The volcanic nature of the area means that igneous and lava layers may contain isolated or connected water-bearing fissures and pores. The presence of several springs in the area suggests water moving through fissures in the substrata. The active nature of the Volcano – with significant eruptions occurring as recently as 1999 & 2000 (Suh et.al, 2003), means there is the potential for significant spatial shifts, as well as potential for drilling activity to cause existing localised aquifers to drain (Suh, 2009).

19

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

4.2.2 Surface water intake – rivers, streams, dams In many communities, the cheapest and most convenient water supply is from an above ground stream, river, or lake. Surface water that is exposed to humans and animals, and run-off from farmed land, has an increased potential for contamination and water quality is often poor (Clapham, 2004). Where a watercourse is mountainous with no human settlements above the extraction point, then the water is normally potable. Where a watercourse is located on relatively flat or low lying land, its movement is slowed, and the water is usually contaminated, requiring treatment before it is safe to consume. (IRC, 2002) Stream intakes are designed to give the appropriate volumes, without becoming fowled or blocked. Where ever possible, an intake is positioned to make use of gravity to distribute the water to users, however where pumping is required there are a variety of methods which may be employed to provide the required energy, including hydraulic rams, and many varieties of pump, which may be driven by hand, wind, animal, solar power, electric or diesel motor (IRC, 2002). Electric motors are usually more reliable than diesel engines, and require less maintenance, however are susceptible to fluctuations in electricity supply. Where possible, a motor situated above ground is preferred for ease of maintenance access (Caircross & Feacham, 1991). The choice of the energy source is dependent on locally available supply, skills, maintenance capacity, budget, terrain, and appropriateness as a long-term sustainable solution. Where suitable a hydraulic ram system provides a self powered, low maintenance option, which uses the force of the main flow to lift a smaller water volume to a reservoir for distribution (Clapham, 2004). There are several streams in and around Buea, but only one in Bonduma. This stream originates at the Ndongo spring, and is heavily utilized by residents of Bonduma and those communities living further downstream, for an extensive range of anthropogenic activities. 4.2.3 Spring water tapping Springs often provide a reliable supply of high quality water. The soil structure and activities carried out in the area surrounding the spring catchment, impact the water quality. The time taken for water to percolate through the soil and rock layers of 20

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

the recharge or infiltration area will affect the microbial and chemical properties of the water when it surfaces again at the spring. There are several categories of spring, all of which take the form of water emerging from the ground, and often creating a resultant stream or river.  Gravity springs are the result of moving groundwater meeting a depression which dips below the water table, or an impervious layer in its path forcing the water up to the surface.  Artesian springs are caused by ground water that is prevented from surfacing by an impervious layer, emerging only where a fissure in the rock allows water to be forced to the surface under pressure from the underlying aquifer (fissure), or a depression in the impervious layer allows water moving with gravity to breach the surface (depression), or the impervious layer ends (overflow). (IRC, 2002)

Figure 1 Occurrence of springs. (IRC, Small Community Water Supplies, 2002)

The springs in Buea are of the artesian type, and the characteristics of the Ndongo indicate it is either an overflow or fissure artesian. There is a high volume of cool, clear water, which shows little variation between the wet and dry seasons. Other springs in the surrounding region display the same characteristics, suggesting the 21

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

recharge area is located some distance uphill from the spring discharge, and suggests that water may be transported between impermeable sub-strata layers, possibly of igneous rock or lava flows. By harnessing a spring at source and protecting the associated water catchment area, the source-water is often directly potable, and may be distributed without further treatment. However care must be taken to prevent surface water entering the spring box which may cause contamination (Caircross & Feacham, 1991). The most suitable method of distributing water from the spring box is via gravity, however this is dependent on terrain. The various pumping methods as described for surface water in 4.1.4 are also applicable to springs.

4.2.4 Rainwater harvesting The practice of collecting and storing rainwater is as old as human history, and takes countless forms around the globe. There are different approaches and techniques, linked with climate, rainfall, and uses of the resource. Rainwater is clean when it falls as it has been through a natural process of distillation and is thus pathogen free, even in locations with high levels of atmospheric pollution. Storage under correct conditions increases the quality of water, without affecting the taste (Thomas & Martinson, 2007). Where rainwater is collected off roofs, there is the distinct advantage in the close proximity of supply to users (Caircross & Feacham, 1991). There is potential for rainwater to become contaminated in the collection stage, by coming into contact with bird excreta, for example. Most commonly rainwater is contaminated whilst in storage, through introduction of bacteria or pathogens from hands, animals, or unclean vessels being used to scoop water. However, where managed correctly rainwater often forms a vital supplement to populations with low quantity or poor quality alternatives. The main methods of collecting water are from rooftops, tree canopies, ground surface drainage, and rock catchments – whereby runoff is channelled via rock placements to a storage reservoir (IRC, 2002). Water is either stored for community use, or more often at the household level for personal use. The range of suitable containers (jars) encompasses a myriad of designs, and the choice is 22

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

dependent on local conditions. The selection criteria for the most appropriate storage vessel should include the ability to manufacture within the community, at low cost, and with locally available materials and skills. Buea has a high annual rainfall, and practically all buildings are roofed with corrugated iron sheets. For roofwater harvesting to be considered as a suitable community water source, Thomas & Martinson (2007) state there should be a positive answer to the following 3 questions. „Is current water provision thought by some householders to be seriously inadequate in quantity, cleanliness, reliability, or convenience? Is there an existing capacity to specify and install direct roofwater harvesting (DRWH) systems in the area, or could one be created in a suitable time? Is there adequate hard roofing area per inhabitant (20 l / day, dropping to 14 in the dry season, and 7 l/day for drinking water only)?‟ (p.32) The answer to each questions is „yes‟ in the case of Bonduma. 4.2.5 Existing supply The management of water as a resource is becoming more important on both global and local scales, in line with increasing demand related to population growth, increasing scarcity as a result of depletion of aquifers, desertification caused by climate change, and urban migration. In Cameroon there is a distribution loss in excess of 30% through leaks and wastage (Fonkwo, 2009). There are no figures available for Buea, but there was visual evidence of significant loss, as well as illegal connections, and wastage through mismanagement of treated supply. There is also additional capacity for water treatment in the CDE facility, and available water supplies in the region that might be utilised to augment the public supply. 4.3 Community Supply - Quality

In order for water to be potable, it must be aesthetically, biologically, and chemically favourable to human taste. The prevalence of water borne illness and disease is of considerable detriment to individuals and communities, impacting on the ability to break out of the cycle of poverty, and retarding progress of less developed countries around the world. On a global scale, illness attributed to 23

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

unsafe water and inadequate sanitation is estimated to account for up to 9.1% of the total disease burden, whilst this figure could be as high as 20% for children under 14. (WHO, 2008) In assessing sources that may be exploited for community water schemes, the water quality is of great importance, as this will impact on technical design and any treatment required to make the water safe for human consumption. The WHO water quality standards provide stringent measures for countries to strive for in the provision of improved water supply. Whilst it is normal for supply in developing countries to fall short of these standards, in recommending design of a community scheme it is essential that both technological and human capacity are incorporated, to enable the delivery of water that is fit for consumption (IRC, 2002). If a potential water supply tests positive for pathogens or their indicators, the first consideration should be one of alternative sources more suitable for consumption. In community supply schemes, it is preferable to implement multi-barrier protection approach, ensuring that source-water is not contaminated at any stage between origin and consumption (Clapham, 2004). 4.3.1 Water Treatment There are several effective methods of water treatment, broadly categorised as „disinfection‟ and „contaminant removal‟. Few are suited to small community supply schemes, due to the labour, cost, and ongoing attention to detail required for operation (Caircross, 1991). Methods of disinfection include; chlorination, Ozonation, and U.V. irradiation. Better suited to a village setting are contaminant removal techniques, which include; filtration, flocculation, coagulation, sedimentation, and aeration. However Caircross & Feacham (1991) express the view that neither filtration nor chlorination are suitable, but if filtration is required then slow sand filters should be used. Storage will improve water quality with time, under the correct conditions. The two main processes that contribute to this are sedimentation as heavy particles settle out of the water, while some pathogenic organisms die-off due to starvation, or unfavourable conditions in the storage tank. Potential applications of water treatment will be revisited in the solutions section. 24

WATER & TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

4.4

Community Supply - Distribution

To meet the needs of the community, thought must go into the most appropriate means of distributing water. The considerations of how and where water should be delivered depends on the volume available to distribute, the volume users will collect and distance to transport home, distribution of the population who will travel to fetch water, local terrain, financial means of implementing technology, resource/scheme management structure, and water treatment and storage requirements. There are several techniques in use in Sub-Saharan Africa, including but not limited to;       Public tapstands Water vending via kiosk (free or levied) Delivery to communal collection point Distribution to households / compounds Centralized storage tank collection points Individual household collection and storage

Where a piped water network is to be implemented, the design will be of branched or loop network types. Tapstands should be located so as to limit the distance users have to travel to reach them, and should be no greater than 200m wherever possible (IRC, 2002). The storage reservoir should be located uphill of the distribution network, and as close to the source as feasible, to keep costs to a minimum. The pipeline route also needs to be taken into account in respect of land use, ownership, and access rights.

25

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5 Results & Analysis
5.1 Bonduma – Survey Data

The following data and information was gathered in the field, using GPS and historical topographical information. Figure 2 is a bespoke map created for the specific area of study. This includes detail of landmarks, elevation contours, and streams (wet & dry).

Figure 2 Bonduma Area Map (2009)

26

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

A larger image of this map can be found in Appendix 5. The villages of Wotolo, Botolo, and Bonduma – grouped together under the general area known as Bonduma, are spread along both sides of the main road as indicated, which intersects the map, and increases in elevation from east to west. The stream course which runs from the map‟s north-west quadrant to the south-east is now permanently dry. The second stream, which appears on the map at the main road where it meets the secondary road leading to the Fakoship premises, is also dry until it joins the Ndongo Stream, flowing from Ndongo Spring. At the junction of the dry stream bed and the roads is an unofficial dumping site (44). Within the area are several churches, and village community buildings. Between the two steams, heading north from the main road, is a secondary road which runs through Bonduma Village. 5.1.1 Community Buildings The first church indicated on the road is the Bokoko Baptist Church, with a roof surface area of (6x30) x2 + (4x3) x2 = 384m2. Continuing up the track, at the crossing of the 700m contour, is the site of the Bonduma Community Hall which has a roof surface of (3 x 12)x2 = 72m2. (55) Slightly north as marked on the map, is the location of the Bonduma Government (Primary) School. There are two buildings - A & B (52/53), separated by playing fields at a distance of aprox 120m, which serve as classrooms. These have roof surface area of 210m2, and 144m2 respectively. Located amongst cultivated fields, on the south side of the main road in Wotolo, is the Baird Memorial College (47) – a boarding school. This group of buildings has an estimated roof surface area of 300m2. In the north west quadrant of the map is the Upper Bonduma Primary School, set amongst cultivated farm land, with a roof surface area of 240m2.

27

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.2

Buea Water Quantity

Public water supply in Buea. The public water supply is sourced from the Mosel and German Springs, treated, and distributed to the town of Buea by CDE. The quantity of treated water as presented in Table 1, is limited by availability at source, and is further reduced in distribution through leakage and wastage.
Table 1. Monthly volume of water treated by CDE for distribution (’08-’09)

Month Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 Apr-08 May-08 Jun-08 Jul-08 Aug-08 Sep-08 Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 Jan-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09 May-09

Volume (m3) 151433 141771 124831 119888 134622 130887 152273 161980 152810 152290 146249 139678 139110 114424 110426 101732 110379

The costs of water to consumers (July 2009)

1 – 10 m3/mth @ CFA 293 > 10m3/mth @ CFA 364

(+ 19.25% Tax)

The difference in volumes between the wet and dry seasons is described in Table 2 below, as provided by Fonkwo (2009).
Table 2. Volumes of raw source-water available to CDE for treatment and distribution

Volume / m3 / day German (upper) Spring Mosel (lower) Spring

Wet Season - max 3300 (38.2 l/s) 3300

Dry Season - min 600 (6.95 l/s) 2700

There is reservoir capacity of 3,950m3 (Fonkwo, 2009) for the town of Buea, comprised of; (1250 m3 x 2 tanks) + (500 m3 x 2 tanks) + (450 m3 x 1 tank) 28

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

The utility serves a current population of 100,000 (est), with community supply schemes, and unofficial sources serving the water requirements of an additional 50,000-100,000 residents.

Asanga (2006) found consumption is strongly influenced by the ability to transport water from the point of supply to the household, and is affected in some cases by the number of inhabitants. Table 3 below replicates the observed volume of water collected, and compares with the WHO minimum standard of 35l/capita/day.

Table 3. Observed volume of water collected per household at public tapstands in Buea Inhabitants 3 10 24 15 16 6 5 7 12 8 12 10 7 8 10 15 3 16 7 194.0 x 35l (WHO) 105 350 840 525 560 210 175 245 420 280 420 350 245 280 350 525 105 560 245 6790.0 actual collected 60 70 200 80 160 150 60 65 60 120 100 90 70 140 100 150 70 150 70 1965.0 l/cap 20.0 7.0 8.3 5.3 10.0 25.0 12.0 9.3 5.0 15.0 8.3 9.0 10.0 17.5 10.0 10.0 23.3 9.4 10.0 224.5

5.2.1 Basic Demand forecasting for Project Design The following calculations adapted from IRC (2002), are included in the thesis to illustrate the demand/supply dynamics that exist in Buea & Bonduma at the time of research.

29

RESULTS & ANALYSIS Table 4. Typical requirements, public stand - Sub Saharan Africa (adapted from p.64 - IRC, 2002)

Residents Daily Requirement @ 30l/day (pop 1,500) School Daily Requirements @ 15 l/day (400 students) Growth factor (5% x 15 yrs) (p.67) (Includes 20% loss in distribution) Reservoir holding capacity @ 25-40% (p.46)

45,000 l 6,000 l 2.08 106,080 l/day (1.2 l/s) 26,520 – 42,432 l 26.5m3 – 42.5m3

5.2.2 Peak Hour Demand Due to fluctuations in water demand at different times of day, system design should take into account „peak hourly demand‟ to ensure there is adequate storage to supply users over a 24hour period. Often there are spikes in demand early in the morning, and late in the afternoon, corresponding to community cleaning and bathing activities (IRC, 2002). Community supply schemes need to include a growth factor to allow for the increase in population and demand, as usage trends change in a developing community, without overstretching the financial capabilities of the proposed beneficiaries in the short term. In addition, a peak hour factor in the range of 1.52.5 is appropriate. The peak hour factor used for this study is 2. Calculation 1 Q (Peak Hour Demand) = k1 x k2 x avg hrly demand (peak day) Where k1 = Peak Day Demand k2 = Peak Hour Factor Peak hour demand Q = 2.95 l/s 30 106,080 x 1.2 x2 254,592 / 24 127,296 l/day 254,592 10,608 l/hr

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.2.3 Ndongo Spring Yield An estimate of the yield at Ndongo spring was carried out by Nkehacha in 2008, using a floating object velocity measurement technique, and recorded a spring yield of 90.4 l/s (7,810 m2/day). There is expected to be significant variation (±50%) in the spring yield due to seasonal ground water fluctuations, and allowing for inaccuracies in the employed measuring technique. 5.2.4 Rainfall Data relating to monthly rainfall in the Buea region (see Table 4 below) was obtained from the Cameroon Development Corporation Meteorological Department. Based at the Tikko Rubber plantation, the unit collates meteorological data recorded at plantation sites around the South West Region. Where available the monthly data is provided over a period of 5 years, the average annual rainfall calculated. See Appendix 1 for raw data. Molyko is located 3 km from Bonduma, with Tole located 7 km to the North West, and Ekona 10km to the South East. As there is considerable variation in local rainfall with change in latitude, longitude, and elevation about the base of Mt.Cameroon, the most accurate indicative rainfall for Bonduma is taken from Molyko data.
Table 5. Monthly Rainfall in Buea, Cameroon (5 years)

Molyko 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Avg

Yrly Total Mthly avg 1397.5 1488.0 1770.7 1977.6 1904.2 1490.6 1708.9 347.9 12085.4 1726.5 127.0 124.0 147.6 164.8 158.7 135.5 142.4 87.0 1087.0 135.9

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.2.5 Rainwater Harvesting Calculations The following calculation adapted from Thomas & Martinson (2007), relate to the volume of water required from Rainwater Harvesting techniques to satisfy the user demand, at different daily consumption rates. Volumes are calculated to supplement or to replace the public water supply. In the case of Rainwater harvesting, there are two scenarios to consider. Drinking water only @ 7 l / cap / day All water needs @ 30 l/cap / day

In the case of Spring Water Catchment, there is only one scenario. All water needs @ 30 l / cap / day.

Calculation 1 V (required storage Volume) = (t x n x q) Where t = number of dry days (max 90, see Table 1) q = total avg consumption / capita / day n = number of people using tank

General use at q = 30lt 18,900 (household) 22,700 l 4,050,000 (Village) 4,860,000 l

V = (90 x 30 x 7) 20% Contingency V = (90 x 30 x 1500) Contingency

32

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

Drinking and food preparation water only at q = 7lt 4,410 (household) 5,300 l 945,000 (Village) 1,134,000 l

V = (90 x 7 x 7) Contingency V = (90 x 7 x 1500) Contingency

5.2.6 Required roof catchment area The following calculation is used to ascertain the roof area required to harvest sufficient rainwater to supply the user community, at both Village and Household level, under different demand scenarios. Firstly the annual consumption volume is calculated, and then a run-off coefficient applied to account for water loss through leaks, splash, & evaporation. Thomas & Martinson (2007) give a run-off coefficient of 0.85 for hard roof surfaces in the humid tropics, which takes into account loss through evaporation, splash, and wastage. NB: Average roof Area in Bonduma = 60m2 (6 x 10m pitched iron)

(See Appendix 2 for photographed of examples of residential dwellings used to calculate avg –roof area.

Calculation 2 Qa (annual consumption) = 365 x q x n Where 365 = number of days in a year q = quantity consumed/capita/day n = number of consumers

33

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

General use at q = 30lt = (365 x 30 x 1500) = (365 x 30 x 7) 16,425,000 76,650

Qa (Village) Qa (household) 

Drinking water only at q = 7lt = (365 x 7 x 1500) = (365 x 7 x 7) 3,832,500 17,885

Qa (Village) Qa (household)

Calculation 2 A (required roof area) = Qa/(Cr x p) Where Qa = annual consumption Cr = Run-off coefficient p = annual precipitation

General use at q = 30lt (from Calculation 3 above) = 16,425,000/ (0.85 x 1770) = 76,650/(0.85 x 1770) 10,920 m2 51 m2

A (Village) A (household)

Drinking water only at q = 7lt (from Calculation 3 above) = 3,832,500/(0.85 x 1770) = 17,885/(0.85 x 1770) 2,548 m2 12 m2

A (Village) A (household)

34

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.2.7 Yield of roof rainwater harvesting The volume of water that can be collected from suitable roof surfaces is dependent of the annual rainfall, the size of storage tank, and the run-off coefficient of the roof. There are several sizable community buildings within the study area (see Appendices 2,5,6 for details), and the roof surfaces of these are listed below.
Table 6. Bonduma Community Building Roof Surface Areas

Community Building Bonduma GS Primary School (building A) Bonduma GS Primary School (building B) Bokoko Community Hall Bokoko Baptist Church Baird Memorial School Upper Bonduma GS Primary School

Roof surface area (m2) 210 144 72 384 300 240

Total surface area Community Buildings Average household roof area (see 5.2.8) Calculation 4 Q (Quantity of run-off) = 0.85 x R x A Where 0.85 = Runoff coefficient R = Total annual rainfall (mm) A = Guttered roof area (m2)

= 1350m2 = 60m2

Q (Household) Q (Village)

= 0.85 x 1770 x 60 = 0.85 x 1770 x 1350 35

90,270 l/yr 2,031,075 l/yr

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.2.8 Roofwater storage tank sizing. The size of storage tank required for rainwater collection can be calculated using the typical rainfall patterns for the area, and user satisfaction goals of the solution. There is a balance to obtain between the cost of construction, the efficiency of the storage tanks, and the satisfaction of the users taking into account the supply and demand balance of water reserves. There tends to be a reduction in user satisfaction over a certain size and associated cost for a tank. In managing their reserves, users can adopt different demand strategies, as advised by project contributors or water management committee members.    Constant – users draw what they need as long as reserves last Adapted – users draw daily amounts based on the volume of reserve, more when the tank is fuller, decreasing in-line with the reserves Seasonal – More when it‟s raining, less in the dry season

Experience dictates that Adaptive strategy provides the greatest level of satisfaction for users. (IRC, 2002) For Bonduma, we are using an „N‟ factor suited to a „unimodal rainfall zone‟ – one wet season, and one dry season of duration up to 3 months. (Thomas & Martinson, 2007) Calculation 5 V (Tank volume/l) = ADR x N Where ADR (Average Daily Runoff) = (roof area m2) x (local annual rainfall mm)/430 (430 accounts for days in the year, and the run-off coefficient of 0.85) N = volume in days of average run-off. Table 7 below gives the tank sizes for 2 options. 8 days, which gives a low-cost tank size, with satisfaction rating estimate of 75%, and 40 days, which gives a medium cost solution, with a satisfaction rating of 85%. 36

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

Table 7. Roofwater harvesting tank sizing options

Building Bonduma GS Primary School (building A) Bonduma GS Primary School (building B) Bokoko Community Hall Bokoko Baptist Church Baird Memorial School Upper Bonduma GS Primary School Average Household

Roof Area 210 144 72 384 300 240 60

Rainfall/430 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12

ADR (l) 865 593 297 461 1236 989 247

V (N=8) 6920 4744 2376 3688 9888 7912 1976

V(N=40) 34600 23720 11880 18440 49440 39560 9880

5.2.9 Summary of water quantity calculations In Table 8 below, a summary of calculations in section 5 is presented, which relate to water volume quantities and source alternatives.
Table 8. Summary of water quantity calculations

Village Public Stand demand @ 30l/day - 15 years projected Rqd reservoir capacity (25-40%) Village Peak Day Demand Peak Hour Demand Ndongo Spring Yield - Day Annual Rainfall Community building roof area Household roof area (average) Annual Runoff - village Annual Runoff - household Village roofwater harvest tank volume -8 days Village roofwater harvest tank volume -40 days Household roofwater harvest tank volume -8 days Household roofwater harvest tank volume -40 days Required village dry season storage volume - rain @ 30l/cap Required household dry season storage volume - rain @ 30l/cap Required village storage volume - rain @ 7l/cap Required household dry season storage volume - rain @ 7l/cap Required village roof area - rain only source @ 30l/cap Required household roof area - rain only source @ 30l/cap Required village roof area - rain only source @ 7l/cap Required household roof area - rain only source @ 7l/cap

106,080 l 26.5 - 42.4 m3 127,296 l 10,608 l 7,810 m3 1,770mm 1,350 m3 60m3 2,031 m3 90.2 m3 35.5 m3 177.6 m3 2 m3 10 m3 4,860 m3 22.7 m3 1,134 m3 5.3 m3 10,920 m3 51 m3 2,548 m3 12 m3

1.21 l/sec

2.95 l/sec 90.4 l/sec

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.3

Buea Water Quality

5.3.1 Health Indicators To ascertain the likely impact of unsafe water consumption on the health of the community, data was gathered on potential water-borne illness cases from the South West Regional Health Authority reports in Buea. See appendix 3. There are very limited health data available for Buea, but the prevalence of reported cases of Diarrhoea and Typhoid (monthly avg 9 & 75 cases respectively at the district hospital) over other illness indicate that there is a high rate of waterborne illness in the wider Buea community. 5.3.2 Environmental appraisal Of significant influence on the characteristics of water extracted or harvested for consumption is the exposure to pollutants in the environment, either naturally occurring, or as a result of anthropogenic activity. Buea is not an industrial town, so there are few obvious chemical pollutants being discharged into water bodies, or percolating from surface deposits into the ground. Areas of potential concern as observed in Bonduma include the activities of motor garages, and fuelling stations. There appears to be significant deposition of petro-chemicals onto the ground, which provides a pathway for chemicals to pass through the earth to water in the substrata. Secondly, there is widespread use of pesticides within the community for vegetable cultivation, which leech into the earth, and are also carried to waterways as run-off in heavy rains. Municipal waste is dumped indiscriminately throughout Buea. There are some commercial skips provided by the council, which are emptied at a refuse landfill out of town, however there are a greater number of unofficial dumping sites located in areas of high density, where both household and commercial rubbish are tipped and left open to the elements and vermin. Often the chosen location for dumping is into a water-way, where there is a very high risk of point source pollution contaminating

38

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

sub-surface water bodies, and moving rapidly to pollute large areas. Small fires are another observed method used by residents to dispose of municipal waste. The general sanitation arrangements for sewage are septic tank, or pit latrine. Septic tanks are not emptied, but rely on natural decomposition of solid waste. Pit latrines are located for convenience and privacy in the case of households, and communal facilities. Observations suggest pits are generally at safe distances from any water bodies by design, however with the increasing population and associated unregulated construction in Buea there is ever increasing encroachment on „traditional‟ water sources, and in some cases latrines are constructed within meters of water drawing sites. It is not uncommon, especially in the dry season, for people to defecate directly into streams, or dry watercourses. In speaking with residents of Buea it was noted by the author the majority believe spring water to originate from high up the Mountain side, far away from settlements and human activity, and therefore to be pure and potable. Observations and test results strongly indicate this is incorrect, and as local water catchment areas are often heavily polluted, there is a very real possibility that all „traditional‟ water sources are polluted to unsafe levels through anthropogenic activities. There are no observed water catchment protection practices employed in Buea. Even the public supply source - German Springs, located above to town at the base of the Mountain, has significant exposure to farming and cultivation, which is encroaching on the source and providing pathways for contaminants to enter the water body prior to its surfacing.

5.4

Rapid Environmental Assessment (Ndongo Spring)

The Ndongo Spring feeds the Ndongo stream, which runs a course through populated areas of Buea and beyond, for several kilometres downstream. The estimated yield of the Spring is 90.04 l/s. The stream is used directly at source for collection of drinking water, and thereafter for many anthropogenic activities, including;

39

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

       

collection for domestic water bathing Laundry washing growing crops (fertilizer and pesticide mixing, small scale irrigation) washing cars washing vegetables for market dumping of domestic waste toileting

(See Appendix 8 for photographs depicting anthropogenic activities) The spring is located at 660m/asl. The nearest private dwelling is located at 120mt, and +16mt elevation. There is land marked out closer to the spring for subdivision and residential development. The activities in the immediate vicinity of the spring are primarily agricultural, in the form of cropping. This land is fertilized, and pesticide is used on the crops. There is a large unofficial refuse dump in a dry riverbed which runs through a culvert intersecting the main road, at a distance of 300m, and + 30m elevation. See Plate 1 below, and also maps in Appendix 5 for details.

40

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

Plate 1. Unofficial municipal waste dump in dry watercourse. Buea 2009

Further downstream, commercial car-washes rely on the water to operate. In the dry season, water vendors are known to fetch water from the spring on behalf of customers who are unable to collect their own supply. In places along the stream course, untenanted land is cultivated. Many residents, including the large student population of Molyko, rely on the stream for domestic water, which is boiled for drinking, or used for other tasks such as washing clothes. 5.5 Ndongo Sample Analysis

Table 9 below describes the laboratory test results of water samples collected by Nkehacha from the Ndongo spring (2008);
Table 9 Biochemical analysis of Ndongo Spring sample

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) March ‟08. April ‟08. 6.9 6.5

Temp (˚C) 23 24

pH 6.7 6.9

Nitrite (mg/l) 0.19 0.23

Clarity (cm) >117 >117

MPN /100ml 1,100 1,100

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

The bacteria count was derived using the Most Probable Number (MPN) thermotolerant coliform bacteria method, to give an indication of potential faecal contamination. The World Health Organisation (2009) uses the following description of coliform as safety quality indicators; „The term “coliform organisms” refers to Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria capable of growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface-active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties and able to ferment lactose at 35–37°C with the production of acid, gas, and aldehyde within 24–48 hours.‟ The WHO guideline for potable water is „no detectable‟ coliform bacteria in 100ml. (WHO, 1997) The raw source-water is not safe for consumption in its untreated condition.

5.6

Water Quality – Public Supply (CDE / CAMWATER)

In Table 2 the volume of water provided via the CDE public distribution network was presented. The quality of the raw source-water was described as very high (Fonkwo, 2009), and required little treatment prior to distribution. The water from the Upper Spring is held in a reservoir at 1250m/asl, before being gravity fed to the treatment plant, which is co-sited with the lower spring at 810m/asl. At this point samples of source water are tested for bacterial indicators, the results of which inform the treatment activities of technicians, who dose with chlorine and adjust volume and processing times as required. The treatment technique employed by CDE is settlement, followed by sand filtration, and finished with chemical treatment. See Plate 2 below for a photo of the treatment plant.

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

Plate 2. CDE water treatment plant. Buea, 2009.

Treated water is then pumped uphill to be distributed from around 1000m/asl. and supply is allocated to zoned areas of the town on a rationing basis, in line with available volumes. The large losses in volume due to leakages and wastage in the distribution network give rise for concern about water contamination post treatment. Observations of the water delivered to Bonduma fluctuated between no observable residual chlorination present, to heavy residual, resulting in clouded water requiring settling prior to consumption. Where leakages in pipelines exist there is potential for pollutants to enter the network, especially when there is little or no water pressure in the pipes due to the zoned rationing practice. Asanga (2006) reports observing residents cracking (interrupting) pipelines to divert the flow to containers, before reconnecting the pipeline when the required volume was collected. This presents a significant risk of contamination.

43

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.7

Community Water Schemes

Community Perception of Water Supply In his study on the water schemes operating in the Fako Division, Schmidt-Soltau (2003) found there are differing views of the quality of service provided, depending on the source of community supply, as described in Table 10.
Table 10. Community Perception of Water Sources (adapted from Schmidt-Soltau, 2003)

Type Pipe-borne Spring Stream/River Well with Pump Well without Pump

Number 92 40 24 2 4

Good 8 9 5 0 1

Fair 48 21 14 2 2

Need Repair 26 2 4 0 0

Poor 10 8 1 0 1

Schmidt-Soltau (2003) also found mixed views of the service, depending on the body responsible for the management of water supply, as detailed in table 11 below.
Table 11. Community Perception of Water Management (adapted from Schmidt-Soltau, 2003)

Type Community Individual None SNEC Water Committee

Number 99 31 4 20 8

Good 16 5 0 0 2

Fair 51 17 2 13 4

Need Repair 19 5 0 6 2

Poor 13 4 2 1 0

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

The data indicate that, in the user‟s perception at least, spring water sources and community run schemes presented the least effective supply methods, and WMCs provide the best level of service. 5.7.1 Local Community Schemes Nchari (1997) concluded that a lack of transparency and communication between the Bolifamba Water Committee and users, led to a reduction in willingness to pay (WTP) within the community, due to uncertainty around allocation of funds and spending activities. Additionally, it was found that women‟s involvement in the water project was hampered by traditional social structures, such as chieftaincy, which consider females unfit for leadership. A survey was used by Nchari to obtain the data in Table 12, which gives an insight to the perceived issues with the scheme.
Table 12. Ranked Issues by users of Bolifamba Community Water Scheme

Problem 1 Poor (distribution) within quarters 2 Damage of taps caused by children 3 Lack of information flow 4 Shortage of Water 5 Lack of Tools (maintenance) 6 Poor contribution of annual dues

Score Rank 4 3 4 2 1 6 4 5 4 6 7 1 2 8

7 Some sectors within quarters unserved 5 8 Leakage of control valves 0

In his study of the same scheme, Gamnje (1999) identified similar community perceptions, indicating WTP was affected by the limited involvement of women in the management of the scheme. Additionally, a lack of assessment into the appropriate level of household contribution to the scheme, set at flat rates according to the demographic composition of households, meant that some did not have the ability to pay (ATP). A subsequent fund-raising effort involving voluntary contributions proved ineffective. Many community members believed that either 45

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

the project initiating NGO, or the Government of Cameroon should fund the ongoing operational costs of the scheme. The costs of public water supply in 2009 were less than those shown in Table 13, as described by Asanga (2006). See 5.2.1
Table 13. Water levies charged by SNEC in 2006

CFA / m3 Private Public stands

< 10 m3 337

> 10 m3 325 335

At the time, an estimated 4000 private connections existed, and there was evidence the community held a view that connection rates, as well as the levied per-unit charge should be reduced in order to allow more civil servants and low-income households access to private connections. Of those surveyed (54 households), the following perceptions were noted;      75% of private consumers say rates are too high 15% of private consumers say rates are moderate 95% of public households dissatisfied with the volumes of water available 97% of private households dissatisfied with conditions of payments. High water rates and rationing mean consumption is restricted.

5.7.2 Issues highlighted by neighbouring community schemes In reviewing the findings of investigations into water schemes in the South West Province, the following themes are considered relevant to future community projects; 5.7.2.1 General Management Nchari (1997) found capacity of the Bolifamba project was designed in 1983 for less than half the population relying on it at the time of investigation (6,000). In his report, Nchari (1997) highlights the lack of structured contributions to the scheme 46

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

meant there was no fund to carry out the required expansion. Reasons given by community members for failing to make regular contributions to the fund included; Initial contribution for the project was (considered) high New (regular) levy - introduced at some stage, post construction. The importance of the collection of dues was not clear to many within the community. New sectors (expansion of housing areas) are without substantial (sufficient) taps, and do not enjoy full service, or only partial service from scheme Lack of transparency, cannot see the investment of contributions. Receipt books not distributed to the quarter heads, so not issued to contributors Quarter heads unable to meet with each individual household D.O. (traditional council) not sanctioning defaulters, so others are reluctant to pay Private connection levies considered too high Some community members do not accept (assume) ownership of the project, and feel it is a government responsibility Some community members are (live) close to alternative (traditional) water source, and due to proximity are unwilling (reluctant) to pay. However, Gamnje (1998) states the scheme was scalable to provide for 10,000 – an expansion allowed for in original design, to cater for future demand. Further issues with the project identified in this subsequent report include; Insufficient management capacity lack of confidence in committee leadership lack of expertise & skills inappropriate gender balance (representation) inadequate hygiene and sanitation (maintenance) of the project

Specific issues relating to the management committee were; At one time the chief took it upon himself to collect funds & manage the water system alone. This caused confusion amongst the community, who were unsure of where or to whom they should pay contributions. 47

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

-

Funds misused / mismanaged – dissuading further contributions Irregular meetings No formal committee action plan or budget. The Cameroon Community Development Department (CDD) failed to supply support service due to lack of funds, hence no advice on establishment of project / maintenance committee, or training programmes. Inappropriate gender balance. 1 woman on committee of 12, who was not encouraged to attend meetings unless finance on the agenda. No bank account where scheme funds can be deposited

-

-

The frequent breakdowns of the system, caused by lack of ongoing repairs and/or preventative maintenance, meant shortages in supply of days or weeks. In turn this lead to non-payment of wages to community caretakers, and difficulties procuring spare parts. In evaluating the public-private partnership between the stakeholders of the BwassaLikombe, community water scheme, Tamba (2008) found there were frequent periods without supply due to demand exceeding supply, or breakdowns and equipment failure. A lack of formal operating procedures meant the process for dealing with maintenance issues, or initiating an expansion project were unclear, leaving room for ambiguity in leadership, and lack of accountability amongst stakeholders. In a study of the Bova/Bonakanda water scheme, Roland (1982) found embezzlement of community contributions (Attributed to the Bakweri Area Council), as well as perception of favouritism towards one village over another, were some of the issues that hindered progress of the project. Some respondents believed that including the name of Bonakanda village in the project, and the proposed location of the reservoir tank in Bova, meant there would be greater benefits afforded to residents of those villages. Through better communication with those concerned, an understanding was reached, and funding was achieved to develop the scheme. A lack of contributions to the scheme since that time means there was no funding available to expand the supply in line with increased demand, resulting in a severe shortage of water in the villages served by the scheme. 48

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

5.7.2.2 Finances A theme central to all reviews is the problem of financing the maintenance and operational aspects of a community water scheme. Informal interviews left the author with the understanding that due to Buea‟s location at the base of Mt.Cameroon, and the presence of springs in the town, means that the residents do not feel it should be necessary to fund the provision of water, beyond project startup. Nchari (1997) found in the two years prior to the report, only 28 of 70 households paid their levies. The collection of levies was initially tasked to the Water Management Committee (WMC), but subsequently taken on by the village quarter heads. Both demonstrated poor performance. Table 14 below shows the funding levied from the user group for the initial project, and the budgeted annual operational and maintenance rates for the community.
Table 14. Household contributions to the Bolifamba Community Water Scheme (Nchari, 1997)

CFA/person Men Women Private Connections

Initial Contribution 7500 3500 40-60,000 (size dependant)

Annual Levy 500 250 5000

The scheme also supplied water to 21 private connections (1997), with new connections priced between CFA 40-60,000, depending on the size of the structure (residence). Table 15 gives the contributions levied from the communities to benefit from the Bonakanda/ Bova water project.
Table 15. Household contributions to the Bonakanda/Bova Community Water Scheme (Adapted from Roland, 1982)

CFA/Person Men Women

Initial Contribution 5000 3000

Annual Levy 100/mth/household -

49

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

Children Working woman (categories C & D) Working woman (categories 9-12) Worker (categories 4-8) Worker (categories A & B) Worker (categories 9-12)

1500 7000 15000 7000 10000 15000

-

In each the schemes detailed above, there were additional contributions made „In Kind‟ to the scheme, taking the form of labour and materials (sand / stone/timber) provided by each village. In both schemes, ongoing regular contributions to the scheme from each household were not forthcoming, and difficulties arose in collecting levies. Each of the schemes reviewed were financed in the majority by external donors, and Tamba (2008) points out that the contributions of cash and „In Kind‟ does propagate a sense of ownership towards the scheme within the community. In the case of the Bwassa/Likombe the collection of CFA 100/month/adult was somewhat effective in maintaining a fund for the required operational expenses of the scheme. 5.7.2.3 Maintenance In analysing the public supply, Asanga (2006) provides a valuable insight into the issues faced by residents in Buea, where the number of public tapstands has been in decline (54% between ‟91 – ‟06) for some years, due to non-payment of the account by the Council. The numbers reflected in Table 16 below are in spite of the population growth, and Table 18 gives us more detail on resident‟s time spent collecting water from the stands.

50

RESULTS & ANALYSIS Table 16. Number of working public tapstands in Buea

zones 1 2 3 4

1991 6 9 16 6

2006 4 6 5 2

The zones do not directly equate with the area addressed by this thesis, which falls across Zones 2 & 3 (see Table 16 below). Zone 3 has seen the greatest reduction, and the number of working tapstands in the study area (Bonduma) has decreased accordingly, by around 50% over the same period.
Table 17. Buea Water Distribution Zones (adapted from Asanga, 2006)

Zone 1 2 3 4

Included Villages Bokwaongo villages, Federal Quarters, Campsic, Bostal Institute Clerk‟s Quarters, Long Street, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko Buea Town, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko Buea Town, Lower Farms, Upper Farms, Station

The result of these reductions is a relative increase in the number of residents relying on the remaining stands for supply, and this increases queuing time in addition to traveling time in most cases.
Table 18. Numbers queuing at Public Tapstands (adapted from Asanga, 2006)

Children Location B.Town Bonduma Time of observations 8-10am 8-10am male 42 30 female 63 50

Adults male 15 5 female 30 12 total 150 97 Number of containers 47 39

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RESULTS & ANALYSIS

There are three public tapstands that work in the Bonduma area, and there are three that do not. Queues form at tapstands before daybreak, and remain for as long as the tap runs. The water is generally supplied on a daily basis between 7am and 12pm during the wet season, and is supplied to public and private connections at the same time. These times are loosely adhered to, so residents have an idea of when water will be allocated to their zone, but the schedule is not strictly observed, and there is no published schedule. During the dry season, there are periods of days or weeks when there is no water delivered to the Bonduma area. The busiest tapstand within Bonduma (illustrated in Plate 3) is situated on the main road, and is also used by residents of other areas to supplement their supply, due to the easy access via motor-vehicle and footpath – an important consideration when pushing a wheel-barrow or cart.

Plate 3. Public Tapstand. Bonduma, 2009

5.8

Construction Material Costs

In order to estimate construction costs for different water provision solutions, pricing data on materials was obtained from a local wholesaler, and compared to estimates of water projects being carried out in the region by other NGOs. See Appendix 7 for a detailed break-down of the costs. 52

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

High level cost estimates have been prepared for construction of the following solutions;  The construction of a spring catchment tank (Ndongo), pump unit to move water to a holding / treatment reservoir, and piped network to present water at suitable tapstands.  The construction of household water storage tanks, and associated modifications to household roofs for harvesting rainwater  The construction of community rainwater storage tanks, and associated modifications to community structure roofs for harvesting rainwater

53

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

6 Solutions and Discussion
6.1 Scope or Proposed Solutions

The focus of this thesis is to present and compare potential solutions for a community water scheme in Bonduma. In the previous (results and analysis) section, relevant environmental data for the study area was presented, and is now interpreted in the context of practical technological considerations for supplying more water to the community. Cost estimates provided in the following sections are indicative, based on wholesale material costs, and similar project designs in the region at the time of research. For the purpose of funding applications, estimates should be quoted as ± 50 %. 6.1.1 Assumptions The following general assumptions were made in the formulation of the solutions;     The community from all three villages are willing and able to contribute to the scheme in labour, and construction materials. The owners / users of Community buildings would be willing to allow the use of the roofs to be used to harness rainwater. The locations identified for the construction of water tanks, pipelines, and Access to water sources for community use would not be contested by the stand taps would be made available to the community for the purpose. government, or by the incumbent public water provider.

6.1.2 Report Limitations Many of the data relayed in Section 5 are extrapolated from other research efforts and where possible verified by the author, however additional research is necessary to complete technical specifications for a project design. Field research was conducted over a period of eight weeks in the wet season, from June until August, 2009. Observations are taken under conditions of frequent, often heavy precipitation. A detailed feasibility study should contain measurements taken over a 12 month period. 54

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

Due to the limited time frame, topographical information is accurate at specific points but not for intermediate terrain. Where water transmission and distribution routes are suggested, the ownership and land usage has been considered, but legal access rights are unverified. Hydraulic design examples and calculations are included in the report to give an approximation for practical feasibility and environmental impact assessment of proposed solutions. Detailed design should be conducted by qualified technicians before undertaking a community project. Data obtained from official sources is of limited integrity, due to inconsistencies in collection and storage methods, or because records were missing for some periods. Most official Cameroon Government records accessed are kept manually, and collated into paper files for storage.

6.2

Technology Standardization

In line with accepted development principles, a degree of standardization should be adopted within a region or country. This allows for cross-skilling, access to spare parts and equipment, and prevents the isolation of a community with unsupported technology when external project resources have left. As discussed in section 5, there are several community water schemes in operation in the greater Buea area. Additionally there are plans to implement new as well as upgrade older schemes, as part of the RUMPI program. These projects include gravity supply spring catchment, rainwater harvesting techniques, and pumping from surface water sources. At the time of writing the program was in the project tender phase, and external contractors were unknown, so it was not possible to establish specific details on equipment to be deployed, eg. pumps. In their work with villages in the Southwest Province, DED provide community water solutions which incorporate hydraulic rams. This choice of technology is appropriate to remote locations, where access to fuel and spare parts is limited, and in the rainy season communities may be isolated for several weeks. These 55

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

communities are generally subsistence hunter gatherers, with some limited agricultural cultivation, and very little money. However, the technology employed is viewed as appropriate for communities like Bonduma.

6.3

Source evaluation – Quantity

Of the five categories of supply sources reviewed in Section 4 (Ground, Surface, Spring, Rainwater, & Augmentation of existing public supply), both ground and surface water extraction are immediately discounted as potential sources for this study.  In the case of ground water extraction, a significant study of the geo-physical environment would need to be carried out in order to evaluate the potential of aquifers in Bonduma, and in the case of a positive outcome from that evaluation, speculative drilling to locate suitable sources (Suh, 2009). These activities represent significant investment before reaching project implementation, believed to be beyond the community‟s financial means.  In the case of surface water extraction, no suitable sources were identified in the assessment of the study area. The only potential water course that could be tapped is the Ndongo Stream, and it would be preferable to take water at the (spring) source, before being exposed to heavily polluting anthropogenic activity. The remaining sources will be discussed in the following section.

56

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

6.4

Ndongo Spring

The topology of Bonduma means that to utilise the Ndongo for community water supply, the spring would need to be secured at source, and the required volume of water pumped to a reservoir for treatment, storage, and subsequent distribution under gravity feed. Whilst this study concentrated on addressing the water supply issues of the Bonduma Community, the majority of communities in the Buea region experience similar problems, or worse, with quantity and quality of available water. In tapping the Ndongo for supply, an important environmental consideration of the project were the extraneous uses of the Ndongo by downstream communities. Commercial and agricultural users depend on the water supply for their livelihoods, and others for basic living needs. In tapping the Spring, only a small proportion of the yield should be harnessed to allow significant onward flow via the existing water course.

6.4.1 Pumping The energy options for pumping from source to reservoir using motorised pumps are solar, diesel, or electricity. IRC endorse the use of motorised pumping technologies only where there are reliable and readily available fuel sources, and maintenance capabilities (2002). These conditions exist in Bonduma, although electricity is intermittent, and solar radiation is limited in the wet season due to long periods of drizzle or cloud to ground level. Table 19 compares the energy against feasibility criteria.

57

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION Table 19. Comparison of pumping technologies

Positive Solar -Inexpensive (OPEX) -Independent of utility -Not susceptible to power outages -Capacity building potential -Abundant sunshine hours (dry season) -Can be co-located with the pump -No regular visits to deliver fuel -low noise pollution -low environmental pollution -well suited to areas with limited provision of fuel or electricity Electric -reliable method of pumping -low maintenance -skills amongst community -common use of technology in the region -additional capacity building opportunities -can pump on demand, ie. Alter pumping schedule to meet demand over 24 hour period -low noise pollution -low environmental pollution -no regular visits to deliver fuel

Negative -Expensive (CAPEX) -No local supplier of system or spares -No existing skills within the community for maintenance or repairs -Potential target for theft -Requires additional security measures -limitations in the lift capacity of pump (100-200m)

-power supply intermittent -requires ongoing OPEX to purchase electricity -additional commissioning cost of connection to mains

58

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

Diesel

-skills amongst community -common use of technology in the region -additional capacity building opportunities -can pump on demand, ie. Alter pumping schedule to meet demand over 24 hour period Readily available fuel supply in Buea

-requires fuel delivery -noise pollution -environmental pollution -operating costs susceptible to market fluctuations in fuel pricing -requires regular maintenance activity

An estimate of 3,500,000 CFA (roughly €5000) was used for budgeting purposes in this report, to allow for the broad spectrum of vendor and design options available for Solar, Electric, and Diesel pumps.

6.4.2 Hydraulic Ram

Where an abundant and reliable supply of water is available, there is an opportunity to have a constant volume of water lifted without the need for an external energy supply, although this may be at a significantly reduced rate to that provided by motorized pumping. Table 18 below lists the qualities of a ram system in the context of Bonduma. As a general rule, an hydraulic ram will lift 1/10th of the received volume, to 10x the height of the feed fall (Lifewater, 2009). This means that to lift roughly 130m2/day to 100m the ram(s) would need to be fed 1300m3/l from at least 10m fall. The volume of the Ndongo is >7000m3/day, and the water can be moved from the spring via a supply line to a suitable location to join the drive pipe and ram housing. Where there is insufficient volume or fall to lift the required volume to a reservoir, multiple rams can be used in parallel.

59

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION Table 20. Evaluation of Hydraulic Ram system

Hydraulic -Inexpensive (CAPEX & OPEX) Ram -Can be manufactured locally -Low maintenance -no external energy source required - can be expanded with demand -low noise pollution -low environmental pollution -capacity building potential

-limitations in lift capacity (may be overcome with the use of a battery of rams)

Based on projects of a similar nature at the time of writing, an estimate of supplying the hydraulic ram pumping mechanism(s) for this project is CFA 300,000 each. Due to the large volume of water required, 3 rams are budgeted for, with an additional CFA 1,000,000 for the drive pipes and ram housings; (Total 1,900,000) 6.4.3 Spring Box Regardless of the water lifting method employed, the spring must be secured and water diverted to supply Bonduma, whilst leaving adequate supply for the downstream users who depend on the Ndongo for activities other than consumption. The purpose of the Spring Box construction is twofold; firstly to secure the water supply from external pollution sources, including human, animal, and surface water incursion. Secondly, to harness the required volume of water, whilst allowing the residual to flow away from the spring in an unrestricted manner, and via the existing water course. Based on projects of a similar nature at the time of writing, an estimate of constructing a reinforced cement Spring Box of 10m3 is CFA 1,500,000.

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SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

6.4.4 Pumphouse To protect the equipment from damage, weather, floods, and theft, a pumphouse must also be constructed at the site of the springbox, or at the site of the hydraulic rams. Where a diesel pump is used, then the fuel depot should be separate, but attached to the pump house. In the case of a solar powered system, the battery assembly (and possibly current converters) would also be housed in this building. As the location of the Spring is in a cleared area with open sky above, it is envisaged that should a solar array be selected as the pumping technique the photovoltaic cells would also be mounted on a shaft or pole attached to this structure. Additional security modifications (fencing etc), would be required to secure the assets. Based on projects of a similar nature at the time of writing, an estimate of constructing a reinforced concrete pumphouse is CFA 750,000.

6.4.5 Reservoir Sizing The appropriate sizing of a storage tank is calculated using a Cumulative Mass Curve (See Appendix 9), taking into account fluctuation in demand over a 24 hour period. Using a peak day demand (k1) of 127,296 l - as calculated in section 5.2.2, various tank sizes are proposed in Table 21, according to different pumping schedules.
Table 21. Sizing options of water storage tank for Bonduma

24 hour 12 hour 4 x 2 hour

Supply surplus Supply deficit Hour % of total Rqd Tank Size (l) 24890 6 20 45826 20733 19 16 9064 10 7 14002 4630 20 4 19672 10 16 30551 10125 19 8

A favourable pumping schedule is dependent on the energy source used, and the ability of the equipment to meet the demand profile. The hydraulic gradient of the pipe line to the reservoir, and pipe material will determine the required pump capacity. A solar powered solution will operate during the hours of daylight, 61

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

where-as an electric pump may be scheduled to run at night time if favourable electricity tariffs are available at those times. The recommended schedule for operation of pumps is for longer durations with fewer intervals, in order to minimise wear and tear on the equipment. The suggested tank sizes are in line with estimates calculated in section 5.2.5 (26.5m3 – 42.5m3). In the case of a 12 hour pumping schedule, as may be suited to a solar system, a smaller tank is possible but this leaves little margin for reserve, and represents a greater risk if constant supply is required. For the purpose of the study, the 4 x 2 hour pumping schedule, requiring a reservoir capacity of 30m3 was selected. For tank construction, conservative cost estimates for ferrocement tanks are calculated at CFA 166,666/m3. is CFA 5,000,000. Skills exist within the community for tank construction. An estimate of constructing a cylindrical tank

6.4.6 Pipe lines The design of the distribution network and selection of pipe sizes are essential elements of a community water scheme, but the complexity of the calculations place the exercise outside the scope of this report. However, it is important to note that the cost estimate is not dependent so much on the size of the pipes used, rather the length of the pipe network (IRC, 2002). Using the gradient profiles in Appendix 10, estimates on the distances required to construct the network can be made. The solution suggested in this report is a branch network, with 4 public tapstands located in the areas of Bonduma with the highest population density. This will reduce the demand and queues at the existing three tapstands in the area, as well as reducing the residents‟ travelling distance and time.

In taking the example provided with the greatest length of pipe line (from appendix 10), the following represents a conservative pipeline cost estimate.

62

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

Spring to Reservoir Reservoir to Tap A Reservoir to Tap B Reservoir to Tap C & D Total

= 2000m = 621m = 806m = 1140m = 4567m

Based on projects of a similar nature at the time of writing, an estimate for pipeline construction is CFCA 100,000/km laid. This gives a total of CFA 4,567,000. The soil was not tested for composition, but this may be a consideration when selecting piping materials as some combinations are susceptible to corrosion. The observed existing pipelines in Bonduma were galvanised iron, and PVC. 6.4.7 Standtaps At the time of writing the price of construction materials for standtaps, footings, drains, and soak-aways was 210,000 each. The estimate of providing 4 tapstands is CFA 840,000

6.5

Rainwater Harvesting

As there is a high average annual rainfall of 1770mm, residents of Bonduma have access to a free resource, at close proximity, which may serve well as a supplementary supply for consumption only or general use, after an initial capital investment is made. 6.5.1 Household roofwater costs Guttering may be constructed using a variety of materials, including corrugated iron – observed to be used in Bonduma, PVC, and even timber. However, for this study locally sourced PVC guttering and brackets was used, to provide a high conservative margin in the estimate. The length of guttering is also dependent on the construction style of the roof, and a standard pitched roof is used for household calculations. This requires 2 x 10m lengths for the long edges, + 5 m for delivery to tank. (see appendix 7 for costs) 63

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

Guttering = 68,750 + 17 Brackets (1/1.5m) = 7,650 Using the household tank sizes in Table 7, tanks are priced for 2m3, and 10m3. The suggested technology for rainwater tanks to be used at the household level would be the well known Thai Jar, which has been adopted with some success in other parts of Sub Saharan Africa. Whilst these units are mass produced very cheaply in Thailand, and on a community scale in Uganda, it is difficult to estimate the construction costs for a new project initiative. However, a conservative estimate for the purposes of the report was made of CFA 45,000 (roughly €70) for the 2m3 jar, and CFA 135,000 for the 10m3 jar, as the construction cost diminishes with the volume of the vessel (Thomas & Martinson, 2007). The cost of guttering for a 60m2 roof surface is CFA 76,400 6.5.2 Community building roofwater costs. For the community buildings, cost estimates were made for ferrocement tanks, at CFA 166,666/m3. Using the roof areas provided in Section 5.2.7, Table 22 gives the details of cost estimates for the collection and storage of roofwater from appropriate community buildings identified in Bonduma.
Table 22. Cost estimates of storage tanks for communiity buildings

Building Bonduma GS Primary School (building A) Bonduma GS Primary School (building B) Bokoko Community Hall Bokoko Baptist Church Baird Memorial School Upper Bonduma GS Primary School

Roof Area (m2)

vol (l) N=8

CFA

vol (l) N=40

CFA

Guttering

210

6920

1,153,328

34600 5,766,643

267,175

144

4744

790,663

23720 3,953,317

183,000

72

2376

395,998

11880 1,979,992

91,500

384

3688

614,664

18440 3,073,321

250,250

300

9888

1,647,993

49440 8,239,967

303,350

240

7912

1,318,661

39560 6,593,306

152,350

64

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

6.6

Public Supply Augmentation

There is capacity in the CDE operated public water system to provide additional volume to the town of Buea, if there were more source water to treat. Over the years, the number of public stand taps that work has reduced, while the population continues to grow. There are several potential water supplies that may be suitable for inflow to the existing infrastructure, including the Ndongo Spring, and the three springs in Great Soppo. There are also major rivers which flow from the mountain within kilometres of Buea. There is a waiting list for private connections to the network, and demand far exceeds supply, requiring zoned rationing. The water lost in the distribution network was believed to be in excess of 30% at the time of writing, and this should be addressed under any circumstances to maximise the volume that may be delivered to the community. There is no distinction made in the use of treated water for consumption, and other activities. If no financial value is placed on treated water for general public supply, then there is no incentive for users to manage the resource accordingly, and collection for all uses will be made from the most convenient source.

6.7

Source evaluation – Quality

Ndongo Spring The raw source water from the Ndongo spring is contaminated at source, and not safe for consumption. This means the water must be treated if it is to be supplied for the purpose of consumption. There are two process stages where water may be treated – at the supply level, or the consumption level. If the water is to be treated at supply, this means engineering an additional stage into the solution. The options include sedimentation, filtration, chemical, and biological treatment. Additional CAPEX and OPEX considerations, as well as maintenance tasks associated with ongoing testing and treatment of the raw source-water, adds an extra layer of complexity to the design. There is a corresponding reduction in the long-term 65

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

sustainability of the scheme due to financial demand on the community, and operational overheads. Should the treatment be passed on to the consumer, there is a real risk that the procedure will be overlooked in a proportion of users, and therefore present a serious health risk. A solution which consisted of household treatment and storage would require an educational program on health and sanitation, along with an appropriate treatment means. As the water is clear, and palatable – ie. has no odour and a fresh taste, the addition of chlorine drops or tablets to the water is an option, but may reduce palatability. A proven technology for household treatment is bio-sand filters, and at the time of writing a successful project was being run by „Thirst Relief International‟ in partnership with „The Water Project‟ in Cameroon, to install bio-sand filters at the household level. (Thewaterproject.org, 2009) The cost of a filter which serves 10 users is quoted at $50 (CFA 23,000). In Bonduma, 1 filter per 2 - 3 households may suffice. An advantage of treating the water at household level is the reduction in potential for contamination of treated water that is carried from an outlet to the home, through the introduction of bacteria to inappropriate containers, or using unclean containers for transporting the water. In an observational study of the water collection practices in Buea, Gamnje (1999) collected the data presented in Table 23, which suggests there is a lack of basic water protection practiced when water is collected.
Table 23. Observed container washing practiced prior to water collection.

Age Group 4 – 10 10 – 14 15 – 20

Number observed 12 5 2

Number that washed containers 2 1 2

66

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

6.7.1 Rainwater As discussed in section 5.2.4, rain water is safe for consumption. There is potential for the water to become contaminated when in contact with a collection surface. In the case of roofs, the first-flush method of water collection alleviates this problem. There are more than one design that support a first-flush method, whereby the first part of the available water volume is discarded, either manually by diverting the guttering/pipes away from the storage container, or automatically by building in an overflow feature to the system. Guttering and pipes must also be regularly cleaned and maintained to minimise contamination potential, especially at the end of the dry season. Subsequent to the collection of water, the storage must be in a suitable enclosed tank, which is light-proof, and sealed from animals and insects. The water quality will improve with storage time, as bacteria and pathogens die off. The designs for adding collected water to the tank, and for taking water off storage for use, are also very important considerations for managing the quality of the stored water. 6.7.2 Public Supply There was no available data on the quality of the public supply at the time of writing, but there were concerns of potential for contamination to occur in the distribution network. If an augmentation project were undertaken by the utility provider, there should also be corresponding investment in the network to secure the integrity of pipelines, to ensure adequate pressure remains in all areas of the network to further minimise risk, and to upgrade tapstands in a state of disrepair.

6.8

Community Water Management

6.8.1 Opportunities Each of the described solutions bring opportunities for capacity building, in the form of training, skills, and experience for those community members directly involved in the project and ongoing management of the scheme. Generally specialist engineers and technicians oversee the design and construction of a scheme, and local resources are included at every stage in the project, so at the 67

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

same time acquire the skills necessary to carry out the ongoing operation and maintenance of the system. Training costs are budgeted at CFA 300,000. Additionally, a full set of tools required for these duties needs to be procured at the commencement of the project, and this is budgeted at CFA 150,000. Should a household rainwater scheme be adopted, the opportunity for storage jar manufacturing creates employment opportunities at household and community levels. 6.8.2 Challenges Njoh (2002) identifies 12 Barriers to Community Participation, as listed below; 1. paternalistic posture of authorities * 2. prescriptive role of the state * 3. embellishment of successes 4. selective participation * 5. inattention to negative results * 6. hard-issue bias 7. intra/inter-group conflicts * 8. gate-keeping by leaders * 9. excessive pressures for immediate results 10. lack of interest * 11. population size * 12. belief systems

These findings were based on analysis of the Mutengene community water scheme, a neighbouring town of Buea. Of those 12, 8 (as marked with an asterisk) are viewed by the author as relevant to the development of a Bonduma community managed scheme, and elaborated on below. 68

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

1) There is a top-down governance model in Cameroon, moving towards decentralization, but on the whole dominated by central administration in Yaoundé. At the district level there is a Mayor and Council, normally affiliated with the ruling party, as is the case in Buea. Within villages exist chiefdoms, which are the central authority at community level. All activities carried out must be sanctioned by the hierarchical chain of command, and decisions are traditionally made on behalf of constituents. 2) The state controls the finances, policy, and infrastructure of Cameroon. Allocation of funding for development and provision of utilities is not transparent, and the framework for the management of assets and resources is unclear. 4) There are individuals or groups within the studied community reported to benefit from the efforts of others, which is a normal phenomenon within structured societies. However, there was noted an unsettling propensity towards individualism or protective behavioural characteristics. An example of such behaviour is the indiscriminate dumping of refuse into waterways without consideration of downstream users. There may be inertia of willingness to contribute towards a project that will benefit not only the immediate community, but also has the potential to benefit neighbouring communities. 5) The reported failings of other community water schemes in the region are not generally being acknowledged, and there is no forum in place to share this information, experiences, and lessons learnt. 7) Amongst the three villages included in the case study, there is a lack of outward information from central figures to others in the same or neighbouring villages. For example, at the end of the field study it was brought to the attention of the author that a parallel feasibility study had recently been conducted in a neighbouring village, which overlapped the study area. This information was known to key informants, but was withheld for unknown reasons. With the development of a successful community project comes not only immediate obvious benefits to the 69

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

community, but additional preferential access to resources by community heads, and kudos associated with the autonomy that is afforded by the service. 8) All development work must be sanctioned (see 1 above). Planning and consent information is not freely available, and there are administrative and bureaucratic bottlenecks which have the potential to hinder progress. An obvious skills-gap exists within the regional bodies responsible for the governance of the study area, and external resources are mobilised by NGOs to enable progress. There are a great number of skilled, qualified and gifted Cameroonians that are unemployed due to lack of opportunity in the Southwest Province, and Cameroon in general. The regional and national gatekeepers are unwilling or incapable of creating opportunities to foster the skills of their constituents, which would lead to empowerment of the populous, and improve the outlook of Cameroon. 10) With an average rainfall of 1770mm/year, there is no scarcity of water in Bonduma. Queues were observed at tapstands even on days of heavy rainstorms, leading the Author to conclude that management of the resource is the main cause of water problems for the community. 11) The case study is confined to 1500 people. There are estimates of the population in Bonduma which exceed 7000 (See section 1.1), and the population of Buea is rapidly expanding. Any new community scheme, risks being inundated by settlers moving into the area to benefit from improved services. There is also a concern raised by residents (Kong, 2009) that in due course, all successful community owned and managed schemes will be taken over by the national water corporation, in order to levy rates from subscribers. 6.8.3 Approach There are many lessons learnt to be taken from other community schemes in the area, and around the world. The fundamental principles which must be adhered to in the management of a community water scheme are; 70

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

    

Proportionate representation of all user groups Regular, enforced, financial contribution to the scheme by all users Transparency of financial management Documented operating procedures Regular system maintenance

The distribution of water to the population needn‟t take the form of conventional local approaches. Water kiosks, for example, have proven to be a successful solution to water supply issues elsewhere in Sub Saharan Africa (GTZ, 2009). This is an option for a community managed scheme, which allows for quality control, affordable safe drinking water, and a self funding project that may inspire similar initiatives. In the view of the author there exists a pervasive culture in Cameroon of reliance on external aid organisations and NGOs for development. Some suggest this stems from the colonial history of the country, but whatever the reason there is an underlying expectation from the governing bodies and communities alike, that all problems will be dealt with via such mechanisms given sufficient time. However, there exists the skills and enthusiasm within communities to mobilize toward realizing their own development initiatives, given the right level of support and governance from the central administration. 6.9 Financial status of the community.

There is little information available on the financial means of households in Bonduma. It is known that informal extended family associations exist, in order to share wealth, and assist those with limited resources. As a measure of commodity prices, below are listed some basic general consumer products, with costs at the time of writing; Item Bar-b-q corn (street vendor) 100 Washing Powder sachet Tin of Sardines 200 350 71 Cost

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION

Loaf of Bread Litre of Petrol Bottle of Beer Cigarettes Omelette - local cafe Cup of tea/coffee

350 700 500 500 250 100

Bearing these figures in mind, it would seem that a suggested monthly contribution to water use of CFA 1000 (Kong, 2009), is not beyond the means of the majority of community households. Helvetas (2009) found Cameroon household spending in 2006 was ranked in the following order; 1. Funerals and Cry-dies (funereal wake) 2. Education and Health 3. Alcoholic Drinks 4. Food (subsidised by growing own food) 5. Development Projects – (incl. maintenance, and water and electric rates) 6. Transport 7. Other social activities 8. Luxury goods, eg mobile phone, Television This data appears in line with spending habits of developed nations, with the exception of accommodation, and food. It also suggests that there is some capacity for unessential spending.

6.10 Multi Criteria Analysis Taking the data from section 5, an analysis of alternatives against the various criteria discussed in this section was conducted. Table 24 below shows the results of a multi criteria analysis exercise, the full workings of which can be seen in appendix 11. 72

SOLUTIONS AND DISCUSSION Table 24. Multi Criteria Analysis results

Water Source Spring - Solar Pump Spring - Electric Pump Spring - Diesel Pump Spring - Hydraulic Ram Rainwater - Village Rainwater - Household Augment Existing

Score 6 2 1 5 3 8 6

73

CONCLUSIONS

7 Conclusions
7.1 Comparison results

In the Author’s opinion, household rain water collection as a year -round supplementary potable supply is the most suitable solution when evaluated against criteria appropriate to a community water supply development project, as reflected by the MCA results in table 24. The use of Ndongo as a community supply is feasible, with a suitable water treatment process – either incorporated into the supply, or at household level. The option requires greater project scope, to include catchment protection activities. A hydraulic ram system used to provide spring water to be treated at the household level is also a favourable option on environmental, sustainability, and financial basis. Community roofwater harvesting is not recommended in general, due to issues over ownership, management, maintenance, and rights to the water collected (Thomas & Martinson, 2007). However, financial implications and water volume calculations of this study also rule out the option. Table 25 below shows the budget estimates of project components as provided in section 6, and aims to assist the community assess viability of alternative options;
Table 25. Cost estimates of alternative water project components

Springbox Pumphouse Spring source reservoir Pipelines Tapstands Training Toolbox Subtotal - Spring source and reservoir

1,500,000 750,000 5,000,000 4,567,000 840,000 300,000 150,000 13,107,000

74

CONCLUSIONS

Total with Pump Option Total with Hydraulic ram and drive pipes option Biosand Water filter – Household Rainwater Tanks @ 8 days- Village Rainwater Tanks @ 40 days- Village Rainwater Jar @ 8 days- Household Rainwater Jar @ 40 days- Household Guttering - Village Guttering - Household

16,607,000 15,007,000 23,000 5,921,308 29,606,546 45,000 135,000 1,247,625 76,400

7.2

Objectives

This project set out to research the status of water supply in Bonduma, and then assess alternative sources for their suitability to replace or subsidise the existing service. With the potential of a community managed water scheme in mind, various options have been evaluated for technical requirements, and should a development project be initiated by the HINT, the feasibility study component of the report will enable technical resources to evaluate the design implications of such an undertaking. With respect to specific aims, the following responses are presented for evaluation; 7.2.1 A question of Quantity To identify alternative water sources for the community of Bonduma.  Appropriate alternative sources have been identifies as Spring and Rainwater, with additional consideration given to increasing supply of the public service. To investigate the financial and management commitment required of the community to implement the alternative solutions  The investment required to develop these alternatives has been estimated to allow the community to evaluate the options in light of their financial

75

CONCLUSIONS

means. The fundamentals principles of establishing a water management committee and overseeing a scheme have also been outlined. To assess the potential of appropriate technologies for the collection and distribution of supplementary water supply throughout the year, especially through the dry season.  Technology selection has been addressed with respect to appropriateness to meet the community demand schedule, and prevailing environmental and social conditions. To determine the priority for water usage – consumption (drinking, food preparation), or general domestic/commercial uses.  Different approaches to water use, in line with quality and supply parameters have been discussed, and this may assist in the identification of the most appropriate system suited to meeting those demands. It is hoped that these may also prove useful to the authorities responsible for the health and welfare of the citizens of Buea, with regard to the allocation of treated public supply water to the most important uses. Water use and management ideas should also be included when planning sensitisation exercises and hygiene and sanitation education.

To assess the environmental impact of implementing one of the alternative strategies.  In evaluating the options available to the community of Bonduma in selecting an appropriate new water source, the impact on the local environment has been discussed, and consideration of users outside of the study area taken into account.

7.2.2 A question of Quality To assess the suitability of available source-water for human consumption

76

CONCLUSIONS

Observational assessment and data relating to the quality of raw-source water brought unexpected results, in opposition to commonly held belief that spring water in Buea is free of contaminants at source. This lends particular weight to the proposition of supplying water at community level, as quality control becomes critical to the health and welfare of users.

To identify appropriate technological solutions for making source-water potable, within the financial means and practical capacity of the target beneficiaries.  Water quality and extent of water treatment required by alternatives have been identified, which must be taken into account by the community when selecting the most appropriate solution to meet their needs.

7.3

Water Committee Management

At the outset of a community water scheme, user groups within the service community need to be consulted for their views on the current situation, and ideas on how to address any issues. The need for additional water supply was evident, and the call for assistance was raised by the partner NGO – Helps International. In order to answer the call, the preliminary assessment results are presented herewith to provide a platform for moving forwards. 7.4 Future considerations

Catchment Protection There is a great deal of work to be done in Buea to protect the bountiful resources available to the communities of the area. The author recommends the immediate adoption of water catchment protection, with the goal of restoring spring and surface water sources to consumable quality. This will bring economic benefits, especially in the alleviation of health burden resulting from the consumption of unsafe water, and provide for the welfare of future generations in the area. The first step must be to provide a municipal waste management strategy, and remediate polluted dumping sites.

77

CONCLUSIONS

7.4.1 Sustainability The sustainability of any development incorporating environmental resources is paramount to the success of the project, as well as the welfare of communities and ecosystems that depend on the resource for their survival. Water systems are designed with a lifespan of 15 years for practical planning reasons, however schemes are designed to run indefinitely, or for at least as long as they service a need within the community for which they are designed. In the case of Bonduma, the current water demand is easily meet by either rainfall at the household level, or the Ndongo Spring at community level, however there is a definite need to incorporate population growth, and change in demand associated with social development. As better services are provided in areas of Buea, so will additional settlement be encouraged, which may lead to pressure on the supply, and management of the scheme. Therefore household rainwater collection becomes a more sustainable option. 7.4.2 Serving the population – beyond Bonduma There is a demand for water delivered at public tapstands beyond the financial capabilities of the council to support. However, there is potential to levy all consumers at minimal rates in order to support the service. If a nominal fee were charged for treated supply, this would generate additional revenue for system maintenance, as well as an incentive for users to be more stringent in the use of treated water. It may be more suitable to divert funding from community schemes to the Council, for allocation to appropriate projects in partnership with CDE. It is very important to recognise that the community in Buea believe that water should be provided free of charge, and is a human right. There may be resistance to water levies, and by developing a system of charging per unit volume, only those that value the water will purchase it and ensure the resource is not wasted, however others may continue to consume water from unsafe „traditional‟ sources.

78

CONCLUSIONS

7.4.3 Capacity Building There is an opportunity for capacity building in terms of training and the promulgation of health and sanitation practices, but also in community contribution to the scheme. Where possible raw materials and labour should be provided by the community to minimize costs, and develop a sense of ownership for scheme. With a high number of unemployed youths, who will ultimately inherit and become responsible for the operation of the community scheme, this is an opportunity to engage this demographic in the decision making process, as well as the construction and realization of the project, which has potential social benefits beyond the provision of water.

79

RECOMMENDATIONS

8 Recommendations
The following activities are required before project initiation, and need to be carried out by professional resources; Land survey Spring yield / flow Water sample testing Water distribution design Detailed tank design and construction Should HINT or other groups within the community choose to proceed with initiating a water project on the basis of this study, the appropriate platform to inform the community of the findings, and a forum for voicing responses need to be established. From that point, a preliminary water committee may be established, and the direction of the project determined. The stages of the project are clearly established through tried-and-tested field experience, both within and outside of Cameroon. The Swiss NGO Helvetas worked on water projects in Cameroon for 45 years, and there are a great many resources available online specific to their experiences. The author refers interested parties to the website in references section. A regular public water forum, including stakeholders and interested parties from the Buea region would be an excellent platform to initiate information sharing, and research effort collaboration. In the author‟s view there is a solid case for the augmentation of the public supply. This view stems from the importance of water quality, and the economic considerations of implementing independent water schemes, when there is a significant investment already made in the town of Buea that may be upgraded to meet the demands of the wider community. This will also lead to longevity in sustainability, and ability to expand with forecast demand growth. End.

80

REFERENCES

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REFERENCES
Seet, j. & van Wijk, C. (eds.) (2002) Small Community Water Supplies. Thechnology, People and Partnership. IRC Technical Paper Series, Delft, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. Suh, C., Ayonghe, S., Sparks, R., Annen, C., Fitton, J., Nana, R. & Luckman, A. (2003) The 1999 and 2000 eruptions of Mount Cameroon: eruption behaviour and petrochemistry of lava. Bulletin of Volcanology, 65 (4), . Suh, E. Professor, University of Buea. (Personal communication, 6/4/2009)Personal Interview. Tamba, H. (2008) Public Private Partnership ; The case of Bwassa / Likombe Water Project. MSc. Pan African Institute for Development. Thomas, T. & Martinson, D. (2007) Roofwater harvesting. A handbook for professionals. Technical Paper Series, 49th edition. Delft, The Netherlands, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. WHO, World Health Organisation. (1997) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 2nd edition. Malta, WHO, World Health Organisation. World Water Council. Home WWC. [Online] Available from: http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/ [Accessed 06/11/2008].

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Bibliography
IRIN Africa | West Africa | Cameroon | CAMEROON: Epidemic looms as town's water dries up | Early Warning Environment Health & Nutrition Water & Sanitation | News Item . [Online] Available from: http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=83781 [Accessed 5/4/2009]. allAfrica.com: Cameroon: Buea Denizens Suffer Water Shortage (Page 1 of 1). [Online] Available from: http://allafrica.com/stories/200902170178.html [Accessed 5/4/2009]. allAfrica.com: Cameroon: Researcher Attributes Buea Water Shortage to Mismanagement (Page 1 of 1). [Online] Available from: http://allafrica.com/stories/200803311281.html [Accessed 5/4/2009]. DTU Publications on Water Lifting. [Online] Available from: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/lift/pubs/ [Accessed 9/3/2009]. FAKO NEWS CENTRE - buea water shortage. [Online] Available from: http://www.fakonewscentre.com/bueawatershortage.htm [Accessed 5/4/2009]. HDR 2006 - Human Development Reports (UNDP). [Online] Available from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/ [Accessed 11/9/2008]. WELL - Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health. [Online] Available from: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/Small water enterprises.htm [Accessed 5/5/2009]. WELL - Resource Centre Network for Water, Sanitation and Environmental Health. [Online] Available from: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/water and live.htm [Accessed 5/5/2009]. Hofkes, E. H. (ed.) (1981) Small Community Water Supplies. Technology of Small Water Supply Systems in Developing Countries. , John Wiley & Sons. Lammerink, M. P. (1998) Community managed rural water supply: experiences from participatory action research in Kenya, Cameroon, Nepal, Pakistan, Guatemala and Colombia. Community Development Journal, 33 (4), 342-352. Ngai, T. K., Shrestha, R. R., Dangol, B., Maharjan, M. & Murcott, S. E. (2007) Design for sustainable development--household drinking water filter for arsenic and pathogen treatment in Nepal. Journal of Environmental Science and Health.Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 42 (12), 1879-1888. Njoh, A. J. (2002) Barriers to community participation in development planning: lessons from the Mutengene (Cameron) self-help water project. Community Development Journal, 37 (3), 233-248. Njuakom, F., Kamdem, R., Magha, N. & Achu, W. (2008) The use of Rights Based Advocacy and Community Based Volunteers Approaches in Managing and Resolving Water Conflicts in Cameroon; The Case of the North West Province. Nola, M., Njine, T., Djuikom, E. & Foko, V. S. (2002) Faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci community in the underground water in an equatorial area in Cameroon (Central Africa): the importance of some environmental chemical factors. Water Research, 36 (13), 3289-3297.

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Obiyan, A. Sat. (2005) A Critical Examination of the State versus Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Policy Sphere in the Global South: Will the State Die as the NGOs Thrive in Sub-Saharan African and Asia? African and Asian Studies, 4 (3), 301-325. Page, Ben. (2003) Communities as the Agents of Commodification: The Kumbo Water Authority in Northwest Cameroon. Geoforum, 34 (4), 483-498. Pongou, Roland, Ezzati, Majid & Salomon, Joshua A. (2006) Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon. BMC Public Health [Computer File], 6, 98. Ronchi, Elettra. The science of clean water - OECD Observer. [Online] Available from: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/938/The_science_of_clean_water.html [Accessed 06/11/2008]. Tchounwou, P. B., Lantum, D. M., Monkiedje, A., Takougang, I. & Barbazan, Ph. (1997) The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 33 (1), 17-22.

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9 Appendices
Appendix 1 – Rainfall data for Buea and surrounds
Monthly Ekona (aprox 400m/asl) jan 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 total mthly avg 68.3 78.6 13.10 60 135.7 22.62 8.3 2 26.2 38.3 11.2 feb march 13.4 191.2 88.5 25.5 108.8 130.1 557.5 92.92 april 194.6 77.3 214.4 369.3 200.5 253 1309.1 218.18 may 285.9 127.4 193.8 158.6 159.8 230 1155.5 192.58 1299.5 259.90 1905 381.00 1773 354.60 1428.1 285.62 959.9 191.98 578.5 115.0 143.2 28.64 june 198.4 180.8 222.3 340.3 357.7 july 260.7 324.7 646 347 326.6 aug 357.5 280.4 383.9 359.6 391.6 sept 162.2 296.9 462.1 214.1 292.8 oct 176 226.3 123.9 274.1 159.6 nov 196.6 60.8 82.8 224.9 13.4 dec 31.8 27.2 7.1 4.5 72.6 total 1877.1 1827.5 2465.1 2329.1 2083.4 741.4 10582.2 2116.44 5 yr avg/mm mthly avg 156.43 152.29 205.43 194.09 173.62 148.28 1030.13 171.68833 2116.4

Monthly Molyko (E 09'17 : N 04'10 - 573 m/asl) jan 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 17.2 63.1 feb 14.9 33.2 187.2 49.9 32.7 mar 167.8 11.7 apr 143.8 112.4 243.1 117.2 124.4 145.8 may 192.4 38.9 199.1 136.3 216.1 106.4 jun 145.9 117.5 233.8 174.8 66.8 222.3 182.3 226.1 390.8 564.6 jul aug 167.5 375.9 331.8 338.2 345.1 514.2 sep 273.1 263.7 192.4 366.6 373.4 216.3 oct 189.8 219.7 186.8 203.4 119.1 148.9 44.8 86.8 nov 102.3 132.7 157.6 dec total 1397.50 1488.00 1770.70 1977.60 1904.20 1490.60 mthly avg 127.05 124.00 147.56 164.80 158.68 135.51

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2008 2009 total mthly avg 32.6 32.60 4.08 83.4 211.80 26.48 125.3 64.6 639.20 79.90 148.8 167.3 1202.80 150.35 1022.50 146.07 1396.30 199.47 1632.10 233.16 2348.30 335.47 1860.00 265.71 1215.60 173.66 524.20 74.89 0.00 0.00 133.3 435.2 268.3 275.6 174.5 147.9 1708.90 347.90 12085.40 1726.49 7 yr avg/mm 142.41 86.98 1086.98 135.87 1676.8

Monthly Tole (E 09'14 : N 04'07 - 785 m/asl) jan 2001 2002 2003 total mthly avg 0 0.00 32.8 69.1 101.9 33.97 feb mar 66.5 92.6 37.3 196.4 65.47 apr 149.6 151.2 120.5 421.3 140.43 may 226.7 118.9 51.5 397.1 132.37 jun 280.3 136.8 185.9 603 201.00 jul 768.5 175.7 213.8 1158 386.00 aug 498 378.8 386.3 1263.1 421.03 674.7 224.90 sep 408.1 266.6 427.7 142.57 oct 230.2 197.5 91.1 30.37 nov 10.9 80.2 20 6.67 dec 2 18 total 2640.80 1649.10 1064.40 4289.90 2144.95 2 yr avg/mm mthly avg 220.07 137.43 133.05 490.54 163.51 2145

Ekona 5 yrs jan 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 8.3 2 26.2 38.3 11.2 feb march 13.4 191.2 88.5 25.5 108.8 april 194.6 77.3 214.4 369.3 200.5 may 285.9 127.4 193.8 158.6 159.8 june 198.4 180.8 222.3 340.3 357.7 july 260.7 324.7 646 347 326.6 aug 357.5 280.4 383.9 359.6 391.6 sept 162.2 296.9 462.1 214.1 292.8 oct 176 226.3 123.9 274.1 159.6 nov 196.6 60.8 82.8 224.9 13.4 dec 31.8 27.2 7.1 4.5 72.6 total 1877.1 1827.5 2465.1 2329.1 2083.4 10582.2 Molyko 5 yrs 2116.44 mthly avg 156.43 152.29 205.43 194.09 173.62 881.85 176.37

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APPENDICES
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 17.2 63.1 187.2 49.9 32.7 125.3 243.1 117.2 124.4 145.8 148.8 199.1 136.3 216.1 106.4 133.3 233.8 174.8 66.8 222.3 435.2 268.3 226.1 390.8 564.6 331.8 338.2 345.1 514.2 275.6 192.4 366.6 373.4 216.3 174.5 186.8 203.4 119.1 148.9 147.9 44.8 86.8 157.6 1770.70 1977.60 1904.20 1490.60 1708.90 8852.00 1770.40 147.56 164.80 158.68 135.51 142.41 748.96 149.79

Molyko data Tabulated
2002 jan feb march april may june july aug sept oct nov dec Yrly Total Yrly avg 14.9 167.8 143.8 192.4 145.9 167.5 273.1 189.8 102.3 1397.50 127.05 1488.00 124.00 33.2 11.7 112.4 38.9 117.5 182.3 375.9 263.7 219.7 132.7 2003 243.1 199.1 233.8 226.1 331.8 192.4 186.8 157.6 1770.70 147.56 2004 63.1 187.2 117.2 136.3 174.8 390.8 338.2 366.6 203.4 1977.60 164.80 2005 49.9 124.4 216.1 66.8 564.6 345.1 373.4 119.1 44.8 1904.20 158.68 2006 17.2 32.7 145.8 106.4 222.3 514.2 216.3 148.9 86.8 1490.60 135.51 2007 125.3 148.8 133.3 435.2 268.3 275.6 174.5 147.9 1708.90 142.41 7 2008 mth total Mth avg 32.60 4.08 211.80 26.48 639.20 79.90 1202.80 150.35 1022.50 146.07 1396.30 199.47 1632.10 233.16 2348.30 335.47 1860.00 265.71 1215.60 173.66 524.20 74.89 0.00 0.00 347.90 12085.40 1726.49 86.98 1086.98 135.87 yr avg/mm = 1676.79 2009 32.6 83.4 64.6 167.3

-

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Appendix 2 - Photos of buildings (roof size calculations)

rainwater collection technique

examples of typical housing constrction

photo of tapstand (Bueatown)

example of typical housing construction

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APPENDICES

BOKOKO BAPTIST CHURCH, Bonduma 2009 (Roof Surface Area – 384m2

BONDUMA COMMUNITY HALL, Bonduma 2009 (Roof Surface Area – 72 m2) 90

APPENDICES

Bonduma GS School. Building A. (Roof Surface Area - 210m2)

Bonduma GS School. Building B. (Roof Surface Area – 144m2)

Upper Bonduma GS School. (Roof Surface Area – 240m2) 91

APPENDICES

Appendix 3 – Reported cases of water-borne illness in Buea
Buea Provincial Hospital Annex (113 Beds) 2008 Jan Feb 5 125 29 96 102 73 94 68 57 79 61 45 44 43 51 1 2 Diarrhoea Typhoid Tuberculosis Yellow Fever Polio Meningitis

March 10 April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 17 11 12 9 9 7 9 4 10

Good Shepherd Health Clinic (pop 8311) 2008 Jan Feb Diarrhoea Typhoid Tuberculosis Yellow Fever Polio Meningitis 1 18 12 32 92 26 -

March April May June July Aug -

APPENDICES

Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 3 2 2

25 39 54 45

-

-

-

-

Buea Road Health Clinic (pop 18170) 2008 Jan Feb Diarrhoea Typhoid Tuberculosis Yellow Fever Polio Meningitis 2 1 4 2 4 2 1 1 -

March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1 3 1 3 2 -

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Appendix 4 – Summary of review reports of Community Water Schemes in Buea, ( Pan African Institute of Development )
Summary of reports from PAID Locations: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bolifamba (mile 16) Bolifamba Buea Bwassa/Likombe Bonakanda / Bova

1) Lwanga Nforba Nchari, 1997 The Community Management of Self-help projects for sustainability. Bolifamba Community Water Scheme – Case Study 1983, 75% of the population (c 8000) in the area are dependant on a water supply, which was constructed with a capacity of 2500, meaning severe short-fall. Dues were not being paid by users, which was hampering the committee in carrying out repairs to the network, repairing leaking tap heads, replacing pipes, or purchasing treatment chemicals. There is no money for the expansion of the distribution network. The lack of transparency and communication between the committee and user population lead to the reduction of WTP of the community, as it is not clear where the funds were being allocated. The water management committee meets (up to) fortnightly. The traditional council strengthens (endorses) the policies set by the WMC, and sanctions defaulters. Research carried out by the following methods; - Semi-structured interviews, conducted with random representation of community members - Pairwise Ranking, identifying problems of greatest magnitude as faced by the community – taken from semi-structured interviews - Questionnaire, key informants - ZOPP Aproach, Project Planning Matrix (?)

[Graham, 1990.] Togo eg – Communal farm proceeds into central bank account. Used to keep handpumps working, and to finance other community development projects.

Cameroon Community Development Department (CDD). Role is to assist with development of structures within communities for decision-making and project tasks. 94

APPENDICES

Findings; Women’s attitudes (opinion) still constrained by existing (social) structures, such as chieftaincy, which consider women unfit for leadership. Collective involvement and commitment of female population appears not to exist in the water project. Funding; Initial contribution – Men 7500, Women 3500 fCFA Annual Levy Private Connection Men 500, Women 250 fCFA 5000 pa. (accounts for 68% of revenues)

Aprox 21 existing connections, and new connections priced between 40-60,000 depending on the size of the structure (residence). CFA/person Men Women Initial Contribution 7500 3500 Annual Levy 500 250

Private Connections 40-60,000 (size dependant) 5000

Maintenance; Storage tank cleaning carried out on a monthly basis by men. Tap Caretakers, ensure the taps are well maintained, but poor drainage leads to puddles (standing water). [query report reference – active period of natural water preservatives ??] 11 Tap stands, all operational 3 Wash stands, 1 operational

Problems as ranked by Community Problem 1 Poor (distribution) within quarters 2 Damage of taps caused by children 3 Lack of information flow 4 Shortage of Water 5 Lack of Tools (maintenance) 6 Poor contribution of annual dues Score Rank 4 3 4 2 1 6 4 5 4 6 7 1

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APPENDICES

7 Some sectors within quarters unserved 5 (?) 8 Leakage of control valves 0

2 8

In the two years prior to the report (‘95/6) only 28 of 70 households paid their levies. The collection of levies was the task of the WMC, but subsequently taken on by the quarter heads. Both demonstrated poor performance. Reasons provided for non-payment; Initial contribution for the project was high (significant) New levy - introduced at some stage, post construction. The importance of the collection of dues not clear to many within the community. New sectors (expansion of housing areas) are without substantial (sufficient) taps, and do not enjoy full service, or only partial service from scheme Lack of transparency, cannot see the investment of proceeds. Receipt books not distributed to the quarter heads Quarter heads unable to meet with each individual household D.O. (traditional council) not sanctioning defaulters, so others are reluctant to pay (free riding) Private connection levies are considered too high Some community members do not accept (assume) ownership of the project, and feel it is a government responsibility Some community members are close to the alternative (traditional) water source, and due to proximity are unwilling (reluctant) to pay.

Problems facing the WMC and community; No extensions No maintenance, leading to leaks in the network Increasing population Pipes become blocked with mud I the wet season Aprox 4 x month, ½ day of low flow (avg) Bush fires (set by farmers) destroy / damage exposed pipes

Damage to Tapstands is repaired once sufficient funds have been collected. This can be up to 2 months. The resulting leaks compound wastage and shortages; The delays in collecting monies are due to; Some of the community have alternative taps within reach, so don’t i.d. themselves as users of the damaged stand Quarter heads are not receipting the payments collected, lack of transparency 96

APPENDICES

-

High frequency of damage caused by children, means some refuse to pay for repairs as they are not responsible for the damage Fee collectors are uncommitted (unmotivated ?) There are no severe penalties for users who don’t pay (in many instances, those that fail to pay are refused water at the tapstands by those who have, and opt to use traditional/alternative water sources).

Taps are supposed to have a lifespan of 2 years, but are often damaged within 3 months. 4/5 users are children, and observed to be ‘…fond of tampering with taps in the most improper way’. Some of the children collecting water are very young, (are not instructed in the correct use of the tap), and there is no posted or understood ‘code of conduct’. Damage is often not reported because the committee are viewed as unresponsive, (or slow to take action), or not understood (responsibilities ?)

2) Tansah John Gamnje 1999 Strategies for improving fund raising and management on community water schemes. Bolifamba Community Water Scheme – Case Study Major problems facing the community scheme; insufficient management capacity lack of confidence in committee leadership lack of expertise & skills inappropriate gender balance (representation) inadequate financing inadequate hygiene and sanitation (maintenance) of the project

Opportunities for improvement sizable population to mobilize as labour-force, and for financial contributions resources – timbre, quarries, fertile soil Community Development Department (CDD – technical and management advice)

Problems in management of community water schemes Constraints Frequent breakdowns of the system means shortages in supply of days or weeks, due to lack of finance and poor management In turn this leads to non-payment of wages to community caretaker, and difficulties procuring spare parts 1980 – Technical services of CDD (Fako Division) 97

APPENDICES

System designed for 5000, population 2500. Volumes for 10k if properly managed, (’76) 12,309,000 CFA (2500 CFA/capita) Located at 500mt asl, Diagram of community hierarchy / institutions; (source; village council ’99)

Village Council --------------------------I I

Traditional Council (Bakweri)

----------------------Development Committee -----------------------------------------I I Vigilant Committee I I Health Committee I I Water Management I I Other Committee

Water Management Committee; 12 members, meet when there is an emergency breakdown. Only woman member is the treasurer. Chair, Vice Chair, Sec, Vice Sec, Caretaker, Advisors (chief + 4 elders), Auditor, public sec

Using the maintenance guidelines proposed by CDD. Scheme is approaching end of life as per design (in ’00), requiring extension and reconstruction. There are no funds for this work. Reference : Sijbesma, Christine Van Wijk. What Price Water? IRC, Hague 1989. (occasional paper series no.10) User participation in paying for community based water supply Issues with the management of the scheme; At one time the chief took it apon himself to collect funds & manage the water system alone. This caused confusion amongst the community, who were unsure where to pay contributions. Funds misused / mismanaged – dissuading further contributions Irregular meetings (ref Van Wijk) …retartds progress of overall programme and discourages participation of population. No action plan or budget. Requirement to have project plan with accompanying budget to ensure adequate liquidity.

-

98

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Distribution map with outlets marked, and population contribution to ongoing budget. Funds should be kept in credit in order to service debt and accumulate funds for future CAPEX requirements. no skills or expertise exist on the board, no training given, leading to poor repairs and maintenance, poor (limited) community participation, poor organisation and resource management. CDD failed to supply support service due to lack of funds, hence no advice on establishment of project / maintenance committee, or training programmes. Appropriate gender balance. 1/12 on committee, who was not encouraged to attend meetings unless finance on the agenda. (ref: Evans, Phil et.al. ’93 – Women as fund raisers) Catchement protections. Fence around the catchement in disrepair, and inhabitants of Bulu-native fetch water directly from the source, leading to potential contamination. Farming encroaching on the catchement, and potential for animals to stray. Window in the storage tank (reservoir) in disrepair ‘dilapidated’, vector for insects / lizards etc. Suckaway Pits. Of 14 tapstands, 3 have malfunctioning suckaway pits, and 3 have no suckaway pit. Drainage from taps for pools of water. From 12 committee members surveyed, 2 were aware of the potential health hazard of standing water. Number observed 12 5 2 Washed hands / containers 2 1 2

-

-

-

Age Group 4 – 10 10 – 14 15 – 20

Conditions of storage in households – of 10 interviews, 3 hh had pans / cups reserved for water dishing (contact with drinking water). ‘Non-stable containers’ employed as storage vessels Community Views; WTP may be affected by lack of women represented Some community members believe govt. or NGOs that initially financed the scheme should continue to finance the Bolifamba community water system. There is no sense of ownership, which impacts WTP and community perception. No assessment of h’h income made in relation to contributions; Men 500, Women 250. The ability to Pay, or appropriateness of the amount not taken into consideration.

-

Bolifamba using a voluntary contribution fund-raising method, which proves ineffective to date. 99

APPENDICES

Finance; There is no project bank account, no balance sheet, no disclosure of the allocation of funds at public meetings, lack of transparency leading to decrease in WTP. Bolifamba population made up of different ethnic groups, with a lack of common culture, and aspect which has retarded the project process. Bulu inhabitants don’t respect catchement protection, imposing (potential) danger to users downstream. No data available on the population using the system, or potential users. No remittance to caretakers The number of private connections unknown Recommendations; Seasonal collection of levies in line with sugarcane and coffee harvest issue receipts keep public accounts

3) Njwi George Asanga, 2006 Potable Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development. Case Study – Buea Buea Subdivision 169km2 1976 Census pop 20,692

1985 estimated pop - 96,000 (Sonko et.al. Buea Zonal Studies) 2005 est 106,000 for Buea Town, perm residents. + university /other tertiary institutes. – unverified source quoting census results. (Cletus) Mayor quotes 200,000 in Sub-division. After colonial administration, the govt continued to operate water supply from the German Springs, free of charge, and without treatment. Responsibility of the Ministry of Mines and Power. Low rates charged for private connections. The failing economy of Cameroon, and expansion in population of Buea put pressure on govt. resources.

In 1982 SNEC was formed, public company to manage the utility. 60% state opex. Main reservoir of 780m3 (1km from German Spring) Secondary res of 1250m3 (in centre) – now CDE treatment site. 100

APPENDICES

Chlorine + Lime added (5kg.200m3) to neutralise pH. Daily production 3450m3. District Zones 1 Bokwaongo villages, Federal Quarters, Campsic, Bostal Institute 2 Clerk’s Quarters, Long Street, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko 3 Buea Town, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko 4 Buea Town, Lower Farms, Upper Farms, Station Aprox connections 4000 (?) Private connections 1991 Zone A Zone B Zone C 429 648 296

The distribution network covered Koke, Clerk’s Quarter, Lower Farm, and Buea Town. The development of the following sources; Bokoko, ->Myliko (SNEC) Wondongo -> Buea Town (Community) 54 (of 3000) Houses surveyed, 3 from each qtr. 28 Private / 26 Public supplied 6 (of11) Chiefs surveyed Small community groups consisting of family members, conduct meetings, organised into financial organisation consisting of President, Treasurer, Secretary. Generate revenue to improve the living standards of it’s members. 95% of public households dissatisfied with the volumes of water available 97% of private households dissatistied with conditions of payments. High water rates, and rationing means consumption is restricted. Private Connection costs (FCFA) Deposit Pipes Meter 60,000 2,080 / m from mains 17,491 size 15 } refundable 21,505 size 20 Commercial connections are not fixed, rate reductions with volume. 101

APPENDICES

Water rates (FCFA) < 10m3 > 10m3 337/m3 325/m3

Public stands 335/m3 Council responsible for charges relating to connection and water consumption at public stands. Funded through council tax, local markets, business taxes (but many do not pay). In 1985 the district council owed SNEC 53million FCFA 75% of private consumers say rates are too high 15% of private consumers say rates are moderate 10% of private consumers say ‘water is a great necessity’ (???)

Per Capita consumption is 7.74l/day (35l/d recommended) ref WHO ’81 = 50l/day 2006 supply (SNEC) Oct Nov Dec Produced 150000 150000 150000 450000 Consumed 195500 181600 166400 543500

There is a reduction in consumption between October and March ( population/avail) (No rainfall in Dec, Jan, Feb) 3 days without bathing is not uncommon, and longer for those living further from water supply.

children Time at Tap Stand B.Town Bonduma 8-10am 8-10am

adult line-up containers waiting 47 39

male 42 30

female 63 50

male 15 5

female 30 12

total 150 97

102

APPENDICES

36% loss of capacity in dist. Network. Risk of contamination / pathogens entering at leakage points. Some people use these leakage points as an alternative to public stand. It is also possible for people to break the public pipe, and take what they need before connecting it back again.

District Zones 1 Bokwaongo villages, Federal Quarters, Campsic, Bostal Institute 2 Clerk’s Quarters, Long Street, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko 3 Buea Town, Great Soppo, Upper Bonduma, Molyko 4 Buea Town, Lower Farms, Upper Farms, Station

There is a 54% reduction of Public Tapstands between ’91 – ‘06

Tapstands zones 1 2 3 4 1991 6 9 16 6 37 charges Private Public 216 / 268 172 337 / 425 337 2006 4 6 5 2 17

Survey results suggest connection charges should be reduced to allow more civil servants and low-income households access to water in the house.

4) Harriet Manga Tamba, 2008 103

APPENDICES

Public Private Partnership ; The case of Bwassa / Likombe Water Project Q? what are the contributions of various partners to the management of the project, and how can this partnership be enhanced ? Two villages, joint supply and management scheme. Location, 7km west of Buea to Bwassa (pop 400), and a further 4km to Likombe (pop 300) The water supply is not continuous, and there is a long trek to collect water from alternative source. There are large families within the communities. Demand exceeds supply, and rationing is used. To address the issue an appeal is made by the community for external assistance. Pipes to be run from Bokwango, tapped from the SNEC source, after local feasibility study shows no local available potable water source. The council wrote to the Senior Divisional Officer, and agreement reached that SNEC would be reimbursed to execute the connection contract, and that would be the end of the engagement. Funding for the community project provided by; Government (Limbe) Botanic Gardens Buea Rural Council British Embassy National Water Corporation (SNEC) Community contributions Govt paid the first phase of the project, and Botanic Gardens paid SNEC. The extension of pipework to Likombe paid by British Aid. This came about as they were active in the area evaluating an agricultural development project, (Green Revolution program). Community contributed to the project providing labour, digging trenches, laying pipe. SNEC provided the skills for connection to Bokwango. Maintenance management. Small works to be carried out by community water council, with large works supported by the Buea council, however issues with mobilising this support due to bureaucracy and delay in allocation of funds. 2 Village Committees formed, 3 members + chiefs. Duties include; collection of monthly contributions

3) Control of tap use to prevent wastage 4) Maintenance of village network 104

APPENDICES

Central committee of 12 Responsible for the main pipeline, and 3 from each community committee trained as technicians for maintenance. Duties include; 5) care of main pipeline 6) seek assistance in the case of breakdowns In case of major breakdown a letter is written to the council. When the work has been signed-off (request endorsed by Mayor), council technicians are sent to the field to evaluate the cost of repairs. A check is made of the committee accounts to establish if funds are available, and withdrawal made + supplement to cost. Most often the council technicians work with local technicians to pass on knowledge. But delays to the request made by the committee mean community members strain to raise additional funds, and after repairs apply for reimbursement. At times 3rd parties request funds (individual donor contributions). Community contributions; 100CFA / month (adults 18+) = ownership and control of local water supply. Provides and incentive to actively participate in management and maintenance of the project. Council sponsored training of community members, in collaboration with Mt.Cameroon Eco Tourism board. There is no clear policy documented, working constitution. Recommendations by researcher; 7) Seek new partners for the construction of a larger tank (reservoir) 8) Time table rationing (to set expectations) 9) Council subvention budget in order to reduce the delays experienced in honouring request for assistance 10) Govt policy to enhance partnership. 5) Fancho Roland, 1982 Case Study – Bonakanda / Bova Water Supply Est pop 4k. Communities; Bonokanda Bova Boteva Bokulu Bonganjo Upper Bwiteva 105

APPENDICES

Bokova Dry season Oct – Feb. Wet March – September Health centre in Bova, not used due to lack of water, and traditional medicine is used instead. Initial collection started for water supply, but an estimated 48k embezzled – lost at council level, where funds were to be held in accumulation.

Supply required for government school in Bova (only primary school in the area), and the health centre. 6th Feb ’82, laying of foundation stone for the project. An on-the-spot contribution of 763k realized at the ceremony. 8k from Bonokanda. A reliable water source of water a Bwintingi. (koka springs)

Originating Village Bova 1 Bova 11 Bonakanda Boteva Bonganjo Bokova Upper Bwiteva

Distance to Source (km) 1.6 5.4 8.6 5.4 5.4 4.8 3.2

Source Location Buea Native Bwitingi Bwitingi Lysoka Lysoka Bwitingi Bwitingi

Alternative Sources; 1 2 3 Volumes Spring 1 2 Lt/s 5 2.5 106 M3/day 432 216 Rainwater. Atmospheric impurities (?) & storage for months causes dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera Banana Stems. Squeezed (adverse effect?), and tree roots Purchase water from Buea, transported at cost of 800cfa/drum

APPENDICES

Proposed engineering; 2 x pump stations, reservoir of 40m3 ea. Twin storage tanks of 120m3 – location Bova, alt 938’asl

Est cost of development 70million cfa. Fund source Community SATA + CDD Buea Rural Council Foreign Aid Government Total Cash (CFA) 6,991,600 6,350,000 5,179,840 31,462,200 14,682,360 64,666,000 5250 8,000,000 3,000,000 Kind (Lab+mats) 5250 At time of rpt 763,000

At the time of the report (’82) funds totalling 11,763,000 were attributed to the project, Govt 8mil, Buea Rural Council 3mil, Communities 763k. Levies per capita; Demographic Men Women Children Working woman (categories C & D) Working woman (categories 9-12) Worker (categories 4-8) Worker (categories A & B) Worker (categories 9-12) Rate 5000 3000 1500 7000 15000 7000 10000 15000

Communities also contribute in kind, by carrying sand and stones to roadside waypoints. 107

APPENDICES

Project Issues; Embezzlement – initital fund raising effort stolen by Bakweri Area Council. Name – calling the project after Bonakanda appears to indicate favouritism. Storage Tank Location – Bova, shows a greater importance of this village, which already has primary school and health centre.

To overcome these issues; Communities shown an area map, and the central location of Bonokanda which lends it’s name to the scheme. Children of residents with experience outside of village returned to council elders on the location of tanks etc, and encourage them to accept technical aspects in good faith.

An additional issues arose when one of the villages elects to opt out of the program (Bokova, pop 300). Occurred in the planning stage, (>’80 launch). Contribution of 13000cfa, and 20000 of in-kind – sand + stones. The village believed (claimed) that the CDC would provide a piped water source to their village, but this was not officially confirmed by CDC. At the 2nd launching of the project (6/2/82) the Senior Divisional Officer for Fako spoke at length, making it clear that initiation of a communal project imposes inescapable duties and responsibilities on the member villages, once designed, deliberated, and accepted by it’s sponsors, and approved by the Government. This brought them back into line. Survey elevations Bonakanda a Bonakanda b Bonakanda c Bova Government School Bova 11 Bova Bova 1 880 915 870 900 906 915 935 *

Institutions Project Development Committee;

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APPENDICES

Chair, Sec, Treasurer, all chiefs. Function is to organise funds and labour, record keeping, administration. To mobilize the community population to achieve aims and objectives of the project. SATA; Technical support, supply hardware, supervise construction Department of Community Development (CDD); Government representation, policy in rural areas, present project to the government, highlight the importance of the project to the stakeholder communities, organise labour and collection of funds, administration and supervision of sub-contractors, Community Development assistance, to work with the communities to assist and guide the project committee, organise the foreign-aid contributions.

Lessons learnt – technical skills, aid application, mobilization of communities Water Consumption and Supply calculation; Stage Actual Stage 1 Stage 11 Consumption per capita 100 m3/day 320 m3/day 800 m3/day Balance (excess) 548 m3/day 328 m3/day 152 m3/day

109

APPENDICES

Appendix 5 – Maps, Geographical and Topographical Data

110

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Appendix 6. GPS Coordinates and GIS Topography Maps
Name Elv (M) X (DD) Y (DD) label 34 track opp Cogeni - top 745 9.262 4.158 34 0 HINT office 704 9.265 4.157 41 299 Ndongo 659 9.272 4.156 43 1063 Bonduma Tap main road 699 9.266 4.157 46 431 Baird Memorial School 698 9.266 4.154 47 627 Cnr main road and botoko village 696track 9.268 4.158 48 689 1st bokoko tap off main rd 700 9.268 4.159 50 721 School build A 707 9.269 4.16 52 785 GS bonduma/boko School build 710 B 9.268 4.161 53 775 Community Hall 717 9.267 4.161 55 677 Dry Tap Stand by Lyonga 718 9.266 4.162 56 674 Last junction 724 9.268 4.169 59 1418 Tapstand at last jctn 726 9.268 4.169 60 1447 Jctn with farm track to village770 9.261 4.166 62 911 Presbyterian compound 748 9.263 4.164 63 754 Upper Bonduma school 775 9.26 4.166 64 966 Penticostal Compound, Bondouma 756 9.26 4.159 70 299 path up from ndongo - 1st lvl 672 section. 9.271 4.156 78 1000 Path - 1st house is 10mt on rhs, 675 block9.27 stacks. 4.156 79 944 1st house on lhs path up from676 Ndongo, 9.27 route4.156 to ndongo 80female 948 top of trk, twds main road 687 9.263 4.157 81 114 Cnr with main rd 689 9.269 4.158 82 779 intsct track to ndongo fm, and671 road (end 9.27 tar)4.155 83 924 Ndongo female 662 9.27 4.155 89 902 cnr footpath back to genesis / 681 football 9.265 field from 4.153 Baird 96 599 farm footpath meets road, next 697 to trash 9.263 in dry 4.152 stream 99 679 GCSE Cnr 710 9.261 4.152 102 671 Mini coquette 694 9.265 4.158 109 358 top of track, jctn, larg house contrauction 733 9.264 4.16 113 298 Next main junction, just down738 from (69), 9.263large 4.16 construction 114 245 (114) joins main track up from 728 Bokoko 9.265 village 4.163 (48-55) 120 1117 Francis house (Chief) 715 9.267 4.162 122 675 41 299 0 778 146 289 435 491 611 630 594 612 1406 1438 1130 891 1163 595 712 656 653 186 526 627 604 391 569 669 173 341 397 686 606 43 1063 778 0 634 660 402 428 554 633 776 823 1403 1435 1081 1335 1668 1341 70 123 160 958 335 206 253 809 1054 1271 722 925 1043 1027 807 46 431 146 634 0 266 293 357 498 530 529 557 1347 1380 1147 917 1213 720 570 514 517 324 383 495 477 419 639 777 148 381 470 673 547 47 627 289 660 266 0 464 551 664 770 790 820 1605 1638 1386 1168 1450 856 590 542 506 447 535 466 427 175 423 616 406 620 685 937 810 48 689 435 402 293 464 0 91 278 343 432 475 1194 1228 1238 958 1285 952 354 302 345 595 92 350 361 639 884 1052 333 523 642 660 461 50 721 491 428 357 551 91 0 188 251 363 408 1106 1139 1170 909 1241 967 392 346 403 636 94 416 434 725 968 1128 364 520 642 604 393 52 785 611 554 498 664 278 188 0 80 234 280 918 951 1064 800 1135 989 535 500 567 721 260 588 612 896 1131 1274 452 529 649 489 265 53 775 630 633 530 770 343 251 80 0 165 208 852 885 991 727 1098 959 615 579 645 721 336 665 687 939 1168 1298 462 502 617 417 194 55 677 594 776 529 790 432 363 234 165 0 47 818 851 830 566 901 825 749 707 765 644 454 777 792 948 1158 1259 421 384 487 255 31 56 674 612 823 557 820 475 408 280 208 47 0 795 827 784 520 855 806 796 753 811 649 501 822 836 975 1179 1272 441 378 472 209 16 59 1418 1406 1403 1347 1605 1194 1106 918 852 818 795 0 33 938 809 976 1443 1410 1389 1464 1421 1174 1492 1522 1766 1974 2057 1235 1128 1179 765 838 60 1447 1438 1435 1380 1638 1228 1139 951 885 851 827 33 0 950 829 986 1395 1442 1422 1497 1451 1207 1525 1555 1798 2006 2088 1267 1158 1208 794 834 62 911 1130 1081 1147 1386 1238 1170 1064 991 830 784 938 950 0 265 71 746 1561 1513 1559 988 1264 1560 1563 1480 1590 1561 999 768 707 575 800 63 754 891 1335 917 1168 958 909 800 727 566 520 809 829 265 0 335 673 1301 1254 1303 808 1003 1306 1311 1280 1418 1424 769 550 520 311 535 64 966 1163 1668 1213 1450 1285 1241 1135 1098 901 855 976 986 71 335 0 786 1632 1584 1630 1046 1335 1631 1633 1541 1645 1608 1066 833 769 646 870 70 299 595 1341 720 856 952 967 989 959 825 806 1443 1395 746 673 786 0 1281 1225 1235 413 1037 1215 1195 879 911 833 621 460 342 705 812 78 1000 712 70 570 590 354 392 535 615 749 796 1410 1442 1561 1301 1632 1281 0 57 94 894 298 141 188 739 985 1201 663 873 989 996 780 79 944 656 123 514 542 302 346 500 579 707 753 1389 1422 1513 1254 1584 1225 57 0 78 837 253 119 163 696 944 1156 607 819 934 950 738 80 948 653 160 517 506 345 403 567 645 765 811 1464 1497 1559 1303 1630 1235 94 78 0 838 312 47 94 650 894 1113 625 846 958 1003 796 81 114 186 958 324 447 595 636 721 721 644 649 1421 1451 988 808 1046 413 894 837 838 0 686 813 790 500 610 640 274 294 288 665 647 82 779 526 335 383 535 92 94 260 336 454 501 1174 1207 1264 1003 1335 1037 298 253 312 686 0 329 351 709 958 1134 422 601 722 698 485 83 924 627 206 495 466 350 416 588 665 777 822 1492 1525 1560 1306 1631 1215 141 119 47 813 329 0 47 606 849 1070 611 837 945 1011 807 89 902 604 253 477 427 361 434 612 687 792 836 1522 1555 1563 1311 1633 1195 188 163 94 790 351 47 0 563 804 1026 600 829 935 1020 822 96 599 391 809 419 175 639 725 896 939 948 975 1766 1798 1480 1280 1541 879 739 696 650 500 709 606 563 0 959 464 542 731 773 1072 965 99 679 569 1054 639 423 884 968 1131 1168 1158 1179 1974 2006 1590 1418 1645 911 985 944 894 610 958 849 804 959 0 244 738 886 898 1250 1172 102 671 669 1271 777 616 1052 1128 1274 1298 1259 1272 2057 2088 1561 1424 1608 833 1201 1156 1113 640 1134 1070 1026 464 244 0 841 934 913 1305 1268 109 358 173 722 148 406 333 364 452 462 421 441 1235 1267 999 769 1066 621 663 607 625 274 422 611 600 542 738 841 0 236 335 533 434 113 298 341 925 381 620 523 520 529 502 384 378 1128 1158 768 550 833 460 873 819 846 294 601 837 829 731 886 934 236 0 123 371 379 114 245 397 1043 470 685 642 642 649 617 487 472 1179 1208 707 520 769 342 989 934 958 288 722 945 935 773 898 913 335 123 0 415 476 120 1117 686 1027 673 937 660 604 489 417 255 209 765 794 575 311 646 705 996 950 1003 665 698 1011 1020 1072 1250 1305 533 371 415 0 225 122 675 606 807 547 810 461 393 265 194 31 16 838 834 800 535 870 812 780 738 796 647 485 807 822 965 1172 1268 434 379 476 225 0

111

APPENDICES

GIS topographical points for design planning.

112

APPENDICES

GIS Structure map for design planning

113

APPENDICES

GIS Water feature maps for design planning

114

APPENDICES

Appendix 7. Construction costs
Item size unit Ste CoGeni Training Labour Labour cement Sand stones Form work Rebar lump sum Plummer general man day man day bag m3 m3 m2 11m 12m cost (FCFA) Quoted Quoted project 1 project 2 300000 300000 3000 1584 2000 4700 10000 1000 15000 15000 1500 3100 4800 2000

4900

6mm 8mm 10mm 25m 3/4' 1' 1 1/4' 1 1/2' 2' 2 1/2' 4' 32mm 40mm 50mm 63mm 100mm 110mm 125mm

1200 2700

Binding Wire Galv Pipe

PVC Pipe

Guttering Brackets Fittings Elbows

5.8m " " " " " " 4m " " " " " " 4m Ea 90 45 90 45 ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea 2 stg handle

2175 7000 9700 14500 18000 21000 32000 1400 1600 1650 1700 3500 6500 6800 11000 450 850 800 350 300 1150 475 1400 700 500 250 750 600 750 400 350 825

58000 3500 5500 2600 3000 3500

lump sum 100mm 63mm

150000

322180

T Join Y Join Clips Blocks/caps Reducers

100mm 63mm 100mm 63mm 100mm 63mm 100mm 63mm 100 / 63 63 / 40 63 / 32 1/2'

Stopcock

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APPENDICES " " stainless gate valve twist tap ea 1400 1350 3000 210000 85000 85000 80000 210000 85000 80000 85000 No. 3m 2m 3x150x150x60m2 3" 1m/35mm 1m/35mm 5500 3700 59500 4050 3000 150000 3000 150000

Tap Stand taps/pipes High Points Low Points Stream Crossings Washout Valves Pipeline Indicator Tool Box Roof Iron (Al/Zn) Reinforcing trellis Nails

5kg

4000

Estimates from 2009 development project in the South West Province Description
STREAM CATCHMENT Lean concrete pc 150kg/m3 Reinforced concrete pc 350kg/m3 Formwork Stones G.I pipe 4” Fittings Foundation Walls/ slab Formwork Lean concrete pc 150kg/m3

Unit m3 m3 m2 m3 Ml Ls m3 m3 m2 m3 m3 m/d m2 m2 ls No. Pcs Pcs Pcs 116

Qty 0.5 5 12 2 60

u.cost (CFA) 68.5 100 15 15 10

DRIVE PIPE

PUMP HOUSE

0.75 4 12.8 0.7 10 50 7.1 50 4 200 4 60

68.5 100 15.6 68.5 100 15 60 2.8 210 3.5 2.6 3

STORAGE TANK 15M3 Reinforced concrete pc 300kg/m3 for walls and slab Formwork for walls and slab Flooring Plastering Fittings and installation

STAND PIPES PIPING PVC pipe 42x50mm PVC pipe 28x 32mm PVC pipe 35x40mm

APPENDICES
Fittings Labour plumber Excavation/ backfilling Pipeline indicator

TOOL BOX WATER MANAGEMENT TRAINING COST OF FABRICATING PUMPS

Ls Ml Ml No. No. Ls No.

1584 1584 12 1 2

50 600 3 150 250

117

APPENDICES

Appendix 8 – Environmental observations in Bonduma

Laundry washing in pool formed by Ndongo Spring

Eg. of Municipal waste dumping, dry culvert in Bonduma. water from drain inflow after rain. 118

Children collecting

APPENDICES

Appendix 9. Cumulative Demand Curves – Tank Sizing
Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Cumtlv Daily 4x2 Demand Dmnd supply 24 hour Balance hour 12 hour 0 0 0 15000 0 0 1157 1157 5304 5304 13843 0 0 1157 2314 5304 10608 12686 0 0 1157 3471 5304 15912 11529 0 0 1157 4628 5304 21216 10372 0 0 1157 5786 5304 26520 9214 0 0 1157 6943 5304 31824 8057 0 0 12730 19672 5304 37128 11240 15912 10608 12730 32402 5304 42432 14422 31824 21216 12730 45132 5304 47736 1692 31824 31824 6365 51496 5304 53040 -4672 31824 42432 6365 57861 5304 58344 4875 47736 53040 6365 64226 5304 63648 14422 63648 63648 6365 70591 5304 68952 8057 63648 74256 6365 76956 5304 74256 1692 63648 84864 8911 85866 5304 79560 8694 79560 95472 8911 94777 5304 84864 15695 95472 106080 8911 103688 5304 90168 6784 95472 116688 8911 112598 5304 95472 -2126 95472 127296 8911 121509 5304 100776 4875 111384 127296 1157 122666 5304 106080 19630 127296 127296 1157 123823 5304 111384 18473 127296 127296 1157 124980 5304 116688 17316 127296 127296 1157 126138 5304 121992 16158 127296 127296 1157 127295 5304 127296 15001 127296 127296 127296

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APPENDICES

Supply surplus 24 hour 12 hour 4630 4x2 hour 10125 24890

Supply deficit 20733 9064

Hour 6 19 10 20 10 19

% of total

Rqd Tank Size 20 45826 16 7 14002 4 16 8 30551

19672

120

APPENDICES

Appendix 10. Pumping Gradient Lines
Gradient 1. Ndongo – Pentecostal Compound via Baird memorial school

121

APPENDICES

Gradient 2. Ndongo – Pentecostal Compound via Main Rd Tapstand

Gradient 3. Ndongo – Upper Bokoko Tapstand

122

APPENDICES

Gradient 4. Reservoir fall to Tapstand sites (109, 56, 107, 44)

123

APPENDICES

Appendix 11. Multi Criteria Analysis

Water Source Spring - Solar Pump Spring - Electric Pump Spring - Diesel Pump Spring Hydraulic Ram Rainwater – Village Rainwater Household Augment Existing

Quantity Quantity Treatment treatment Financial Management Capacity Village Household Potable (village) (household) feasibility feasibility building Sustainibility + O + O O + + + + + + + O + + + + O + + + + + O + O + O O + + + + + + + + O + + + + + + + + O + + + +

Env. Impact + O + + + O

Score (+=1,O=0,=-1) 6 2 1 5 3 8 6

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APPENDICES

Appendix 12. Focus Group Meeting Transcript
Presbyterian Women‟s Fellowship President‟s Meeting. Saturday, June 20. 9am – Bova 1 Village Presbyterian Church Background; This is the first gathering of Presidents since their election to the post. The credentials are +18 years, and a desire to serve their communities. Approximately 30 in attendance, and ages 30 – 70 years.

The aim of the group is to encourage Christian women to serve the Lord, Home, Communtiy, Congregation. Works and activities of the group include; Training women on income generating activities, such as making soap, producing palm oil, etc. Conflict management & intervention, in the home and community Visiting underprivileged, sick & poor Providing financial assistance to individuals and projects

Questions to the group; 1 What is the current water situation in Buea? Horrible, very poor provision of water to communities. There is a supply shortage, rotational rationing, ¼ of a day to each main area. Aprox 3 days without water in 3 months. Some areas are not served. Quality is not an issue, only quantity. For those with domestic connections, the water rates are considered too high, and can be greater than a household‟s electricity bill. 2 What are the effects and impacts on the community of these issues Reduction in the opportunities of individuals, eg. Children spending time collecting water means they can be late for school, or miss school completely. Poor sanitation in houses, houses smell when they have flush toilets and no water. Diseases are more prominent, environment unpleasant, water is used in every aspect of life. Restriction on economic growth, business opportunity impacted, eg restaurants are restricted in their operation. 125

APPENDICES

Long distances travelled in the collection of water. Offices and work places are also affected. Documents can be destroyed (?). 3 What would constitute an acceptable supply situation Size of the water catchement is too small for the population of Buea. Responsibility lies with the council, government, NGOs - potential for competition, other companies working allongside SNEC. Current monopoly.

Expectation is that the community should have a 24hour water supply, no service interruptions, Pressure in the system (eg 20lt/min (1-2 mins). There should be no requirement for community to have to pump water. Council and Government should work together to solve the problem. what opportunities exist for Women to speak on the issue, and when, if ever, are their opinions asked ? In Cameroon a culture of greed prevails. The opportunity depends on the situation of an individual, can interfere with… (?) The formation of partnerships could be helpful. Information – the problem is well known, there is a crisis situation; ‘…even a child born delivered this day knows about the water problem in Buea’ Women don‟t march. Government and council do not follow up on promises made to the people. Clarification required. The people are the government, and egs of mobilization (digging). Need for government representative who feels for the people. Water is life – not a political issue. Women are crying for water. There is a need for technical expertise to assist, as wisdom of the community is not an appropriate tool to address this problem. Council done given money for Ndongo project. Lyongevelle etc given grants. Eg of Council purchasing equipment, but no progress on project, and instruments removed (stolen), so now have to be replaced. Water needs to be provided with regard to the environment, when electricity fails then pumps go down (or a fuse blows). Systems should be gravity-fed, and design must consider appropriate technology, and use correct maintenance practice. 126 4

APPENDICES

Information should be provided to the people, to women. 5 (Chair question) How many women would attend a meeting specifically on water ?

Groups are not invited to meetings. Write your mama, as president of Presbyterian Women‟s Fellowship. Town crier & church meetings should announce a public meeting to discuss water, and all would attend rather than go to the bush / farm for the day (morning).

Women make a particular effort to attend community meetings. Village women‟s meetings should be visited (to advise on matters relating to water). 6 What are the other primary concerns of the community?

Rural (lack of) electricity 1, Water 2, Lights 3, Roads

END

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AUTHORISATION TO HOLD ELECTRONIC COPY OF MSc THESIS

Thesis title:

Comparison of alternative community water supply technologies in developing countries. A Case Study - Buea, Cameroon

Author:

BRENDAN SHERRY

I hereby assign to Imperial College London, Centre of Environmental Policy the right to hold an electronic copy of the thesis identified above and any supplemental tables, illustrations, appendices or other information submitted therewith (the “thesis”) in all forms and media, effective when and if the thesis is accepted by the College. This authorisation includes the right to adapt the presentation of the thesis abstract for use in conjunction with computer systems and programs, including reproduction or publication in machine-readable form and incorporation in electronic retrieval systems. Access to the thesis will be limited to ET MSc teaching staff and students and this can be extended to other College staff and students by permission of the ET MSc Course Directors/Examiners Board.

Signed: __________________________

Name printed_______________________

Date: __________________________

128