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India is divided into five electrical regions.








• • Very complex power transmission network Its functioning. . from power generation to power distribution is more or less the same across all regional zones.

• • Power frequency reflects the balance between load and power generation in the grid at a given instant.2 Hz. .5 to 50.• The stability of a grid is determined by keeping a check on the demand and supply. 2010. effective May 3. Permissible frequency band specified by the Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC) of the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. is 49.

• Stability of the grid depends on a delicate equilibrium of demand-supply chain. LOAD DEMAND CURVE .

wind. snow. rain. dust. floods. storms ) • • • Brown out: ( drop in electric power supply ) Black out: ( complete loss of power to a geographic area ) Power surges: ( leads to rapid overheating and loss of critical and expensive equipment ) • Electrical treeing: ( effects high power installations ) . ice.• Natural causes: ( lightening.


05 50 49.9 49.8 49.6 Frequency July 30. 50. the grid frequency was in between the specified limits.85 49.2012 july 31. (PSOC).2012 0 5 Time 10 15 .65 49.7 49.75 49.15 50.95 49.1 50.• According to the data available from the Power System Operation Corporation Ltd.

• Weak Inter-regional Corridors due to multiple outages: oSystem was weakened by multiple outages of transmission lines in the WR-NR interface. o400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra (one circuit) was the only main AC circuit available between WR-NR interface prior to the grid disturbance. • High Loading on 400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra link: oOverdrawal by some of the NR utilities contributed to high loading on this tie line. .

Loss of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior link: • oDue to load encroachment (high loading of line resulting in high line current and low bus voltage).• Inadequate response by SLDCs to the instructions of RLDCs to reduce overdrawal by the NR utilities and underdrawal/excess generation by the WR utilities. .

effectively 400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra (one circuit) was the only main circuit available between WR-NR. resulting in lower voltage at Bina end.• Weak Inter-regional Corridors due to multiple outages: oSystem was weakened by multiple outages of transmission lines in the NRWR interface and the ER network near the ER-WR interface. 2012. oOn this day also. • High Loading on 400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra link: oAlthough real power flow in this line was relatively lower than on 30th July. . the reactive power flow in the line was higher.

Loss of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior link: • oTripping of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior line on zone-3 protection of distance relay. due to load encroachment. caused the NR system to separate from the WR system.• Inadequate Response by SLDCs to RLDCs’ instructions on this day also to reduce overdrawl by the NR utilities and underdrawal by the WR utilities. .


. • the system survived because of support from generators and quick operator action. • led to subsequent cascade tripping of other parallel lines in the corridor.• A similar near-miss situation occurred on November 28. 2009. when the same circuit carrying around 1000 MW tripped on one of its phases.

. • They are overcome by using superconducting magnetic energy storage units at critical junctions can store or release power for a few seconds to allow control systems to catch up and actuate isolating procedures. • nearby elements are then pushed beyond their capacity so they become overloaded and shift their load onto other elements. • common in power grids when one of the elements fails (completely or partially) and shifts its load to nearby elements in the system. • The primary problems with preventing electrical grid failures is that the speed of the control signal is no faster than the speed of the propagating power overload. • It may happen in many types of systems. including power transmission.• A cascading failure is a failure in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of a part can trigger the failure of successive parts. computer networking. finance and bridges.



Traffic signals went on the blink. More than 100 Delhi Metros stalled. Power supply to the Indian rail network was also hit which lead to over 300 trains coming to a standstill.• • • • • It led to 14. . major water treatment plants across the states came to a halt. The water distribution system.000 MW generation losses. 684 million people from 21 states & UTs were affected.

insuring that they’re serviced. Businesses need to keep track of their transformers. Power plant operators must consistently follow the strictures and operating procedures presented to them by the individual plant manufacturer. . Making sure that plant technicians are aware of all requisite safety information.• • • • At a hospital or other piece of vital public infrastructure. and cleaned. make sure the back-up generators are maintained at optimum levels at all times. tested.

• DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TO MEET PEAK DEMAND. Circuit breakers disconnect a power line when monitors detect an overload. • SMART GRID APPLICATION. . Power is redistributed across the remaining lines. • UPGRADATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES: Upgrading the existing lines to higher value can also help in prevention of frequent tripping of the lines.• CREATING REDUNDANT LINES: The combination of power lines provides excess capacity. • GOVERNMENT SHOULD TRY TO ENFORCE THE LAWS VERY STRICTLY LIKE IN USA AND UK. • UNEVEN REGULATION SHOULD BE PREVENTED.

• • • • In July 2012. . for two consecutive days millions of people in India suffered from a crippling power crisis after power grids failed in many parts of the country. A variety of urgent measures are needed to overcome the various challenges that are spreading like a wildfire. But India seems to have suffered arguably the worst crisis in terms of the population that got affected. India is not the only country that suffers from grid issues.