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A Pressure Vessel

The Shady Visions Sunglass Co. has asked you to design a large cylindrical pressure vessel to hold the toxic by-product of their lens manufacturing process. The site is on a bluff above the local playground.

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A Clever Solution to Contain the Pressure

Lots of Weight to Hold Down the Lid

In your effort to make your bid the most competitive, you have devised a way to reduce construction costs for the pressure vessel. Your solution is to place a metal plate over the top of the pressure vessel rather than to weld on a circular top.

To insure that the top does not lift off the vessel when it is pressurized you have added large weights on top of the metal sheet.

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Failure Theories: 2 (3/30/00)

Calculate the Stresses in the Pressure Vessel

Make Sure that the Stresses Are Safe!!!

Being an engineer of sound mind and body of knowledge you have the tools to calculate the principal stresses acting in the pressure vessel. You are very careful to include the contribution from the cover plate in your calculation of the longitudinal

You then compare the principal stresses to the yield strength of the material, σys, to insure that the material does not fail. Every thing is A-OK, so you begin pumping the toxic goo into the vessel.

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OOPS !!!

**Toxic Spill: WHAT WENT WRONG???
**

.....and the vessel proceeds to promptly fail, creating an unsightly mess and leaving you with a Mr. Yuck sticker on your professional license.

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... fail).Failure Theories: 3 (3/30/00) Needless to say....then the material will yield (i.... Uniaxial Test Currently. we know that if we put a specimen in a testing machine and load it to the point where the stress in the specimen equals the yield stress for the material.e. 9 Hide Text 10 Hide Text Uniaxial Limit General Case . How can we take this knowledge of when a material fails for a uniaxial test and use it to predict when the material will fail for a more complicated state of stress? This will be the major focus of our discussion on failure theories. 11 Hide Text 12 Hide Text .

They are ductile failure and brittle failure. As we pull the material further apart. How does a ductile failure appear under a microscope? Imagine that the matrix of circles shown above represent an isotropic material. its resistance becomes greater. 13 Hide Text 14 Hide Text Ductile Failure Ductile Failure As we load the material it stretches linearly. 15 Hide Text 16 Hide Text . The material continues to stretch linearly until the yield stress of the material is reached. we first introduce the two general types of failure the following theories try to predict.Failure Theories: 4 (3/30/00) Two Types of Failure: Ductile and Brittle Ductile Failure Before failure theories are presented.

.. Planes of maximum shear exist in the material at 45°. Planes of maximum shear exist in the material at 45°. and the material begins to slide along these planes. We call this a yield of the material. The sliding between relative planes of material allow the specimen to deform noticeably without any increase in stress.. Planes of maximum shear exist in the material at 45°.Failure Theories: 5 (3/30/00) Ductile Failure Ductile Failure At this point the material begins to behave differently. and the material begins to slide along these planes.. 19 Hide Text 20 Hide Text .. At this point the material begins to behave differently. and the material begins to slide along these planes..... 17 Hide Text 18 Hide Text Ductile Failure Ductile Failure At this point the material begins to behave differently.

the material fails suddenly by fracture. σult. 24 Hide Text 23 Hide Text . and is initiated by stress concentrations due to irregularities in the material at the microscopic level. The brittle material also behaves in a linear fashion as we begin to load it. 21 Hide Text 22 Hide Text Brittle Failure Brittle Failure The material continues to stretch as more and more load is applied.Failure Theories: 6 (3/30/00) Brittle Failure Brittle Failure Now let's look at how a brittle material behaves at the molecular level. This tensile failure occurs without warning. When the normal stress in the specimen reaches the ultimate stress.

Let's take a closer look at the surface of the specimen where the failure occurred. ductile failure is preferable to brittle failure. there is often adequate visual warning (sagging beams.Failure Theories: 7 (3/30/00) Ductile vs Brittle Tensile Test Failure Notice that for the ductile material. 26 Hide Text Tensile Test Failure Tensile Test Failure The failure surface looked something like the figure at the right. 27 Hide Text 28 Hide Text . show on the left. 25 Hide Text Recall the failure of our mild steel specimen in a simple tension test. etc. and ( b) if redistributing the loads does not prevent failure. larger strains occur before ultimate failure.) before failure occurs. For these reasons. In reality this means that (a) the material has a chance to change its shape in order to redistribute loads.

32 Hide Text 31 Hide Text . Mohr's circle grows in size until some limiting value of shear stress is reached and the material yields. so Mohr's circle for the stress at this point will always pass through the origin. Large deformations of the material in the necking region result in tensile stresses in the radial directions of the specimen. Brittle Failure on Inside Due to Tri-axial Tension (Confinement) At the interior of the specimen. resulting in the smooth. the radius does not necessarily get bigger). and a brittle failure region at the interior. 45° failure surface at the outer portion of the specimen. we begin by considering the material on the outer surface. The yielding occurs on planes oriented at 45° to the axis of the specimen. As we increase the axial stress in the specimen. The failure is composed of both a ductile failure region near the outside of the specimen. In this case the material reaches ultimate normal stress before reaching the shear stress required for yielding.Failure Theories: 8 (3/30/00) Cross-Section of Failure Surface Brittle & Ductile Failure ! If we took a cross-sectional view of the failure surface it would appear as above. and the material fractures. If we plot Mohr's circle for this stress state it becomes apparent that as the axial stress increases. the picture of stress becomes more complicated. We know that one of the principal stress must be zero at the free surface.e. 29 Hide Text 30 Hide Text failure surface Yielding at Free Surface Due to Maximum Shear Stress To understand the dual nature of this failure. the maximum shear stress does not necessarily increase (i.

The plot of stress at failure vs. We often think of steel as a ductile material.40° F) many steels begin to lose their ductile properties.Failure Theories: 9 (3/30/00) Temperature Effects Three Failure Theories Maximum Normal Stress Maximum Shear Stress Maximum Distortional Energy A final note on brittle versus ductile materials. independent of whether other components of the stress tensor are present. 33 Hide Text 34 Hide Text Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. The theory states that a brittle material will fail when the maximum principal stress exceeds some value. A number of simple tension tests are performed to determine the ultimate stress of the brittle material. At low temperatures (on the order of 20°. 35 Hide Text 36 Hide Text . Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. Experiments in uniaxial tension and torsion have corroborated this assumption. Here we see that below some transition temperature we can no longer treat steel like a ductile material. however this is not always the case. temperature for a typical steel is shown above. The theory of failure due to the maximum normal stress is generally attributed to W. Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. M. J. Rankine.

Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. If we plot Mohr's circle for the stress state in the pressure vessel..Failure Theories: 10 (3/30/00) Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. The presence of the longitudinal stress did not come into play. .. When will a pressure vessel made of a brittle material fail according to the maximum normal stress theory? 37 Hide Text 38 Hide Text Maximum Normal Stress Theory W.. Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test..we see that the vessel fails when the hoop stress (= 2x longitudinal stress for a pressurized cylinder) reaches the ultimate stress for the material.. Here we plot Mohr's circle for this stress state. 39 Hide Text 40 Hide Text .

Rankine ~1850 To help us visualize the maximum normal stress failure Failure will occur when the criterion. some material.. Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. 43 Hide Text 44 Hide Text . Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. stress reaches that which caused This is the type of failure we observe fracture in aasimple tension test. we plot a figure known as the fracture magnitude ofenvelope the major principal envelope. that σ1 =which ± σult. If we plot Mohr's circle for pure shear.Failure Theories: 11 (3/30/00) Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. The edges of the reflects the points stress reaches at which the material fails.. i.. and it lies on or outside of the envelope. Rankine ~1850 . Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test.. 42 Hide Text 41 Hide Text Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. we say that the material fails.e. σ ult.caused σ2 = ± fracture in a simple tension test. When will a torsion bar fail according to the maximum normal stress theory? Torsion loading in a bar with circular cross-section induces pure shear in the bar..we see will that the torsion bar will Failure occur when thefail when the maximum shear stress equals the ultimate magnitude of the major principal normal stress. Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. when we twist piece of chalk.

Rankine ~1850 Failure will occur when the magnitude of the major principal stress reaches that which caused fracture in a simple tension test. any stress state which plots outside of the fracture envelope represents a point where the material 45 Hide Text 3D Failure Envelope Recall that yielding of a material occurred by slippage between planes oriented at 45° to principal stresses.. Again. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. and therefore bears his name.. Exactly such a theory was forwarded by H. Maximum Shear Stress H. the fracture envelope becomes a cube. Tresca to the French Academy.. and the yield stress is noted. In the case of 3-D stress. Plotting Mohr's circle at yield. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. A simple tension test is performed on the ductile specimen.Failure Theories: 12 (3/30/00) Maximum Normal Stress Theory W. 47 Hide Text 48 Hide Text . Maximum Shear Stress H. 46 Hide Text Maximum Shear Stress H. This should indicate to you that yielding of a material depends on the maximum shear stress in the material rather than the maximum normal stress..

Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. 51 Hide Text 52 Hide Text . The condition for yield is that the difference between the smallest and largest principal stresses equals or exceeds the yield stress. 49 Hide Text 50 Hide Text Maximum Shear Stress H. In the case of plane stress. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. the maximum shear stress depends on both σ 1 and σ 2. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. The maximum shear stress is calculated as the diameter of the circle divided by two (Ah ha! the radius of the circle).. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. Maximum Shear Stress H..we see that for a simple tension test the maximum shear stress is one half of the yield stress. Maximum Shear Stress H.Failure Theories: 13 (3/30/00) Maximum Shear Stress H. .

Failure Theories: 14 (3/30/00) Maximum Shear Stress H. the maximum shear stress does Similar to what we did for the maximum normal stress theory. σ1 = σ2 = H. Note how this envelope deviates from the previous one in the second and fourth quadrants. Tresca 1868 Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches that which caused yielding in a simple tension test. 55 Hide Text Previous Envelope 56 Hide Text 3D Yield Envelope . will the Yielding will occur when the material yield according tostress the Tresca theory? maximum shear reaches that If we simply plug inyielding the values in fora σ 1 and σ2 which caused simple it would appeartest. tension You should observe thattest. 53 Hide Text 54 Hide Text Maximum Shear Stress H. In this which caused yielding in a simple case the maximum shear stress is actually about tension test. tension Maximum Shear Stress H. three times as great as we originally estimated. Tresca 1868 σ3. Tresca 1868 Given this case of plane strain. Maximum Shear Stress hexagon projected down the hydrostatic axis. This means that the theory predicts no change in material response with the addition of hydrostatic stresses. we can plot a yield envelope representing the maximum shear stress failure criterion. that the material is safe. Tresca 1868 But we aren't that simple !!! We know that the Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stressshear will occur out of plane if that the maximum stress reaches sign of the two principal stresses is the same. The yield envelope in three dimensions appears as a Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches You can confirm this by plotting 3-D Mohr's circle that and which caused yielding in a simple then increasing each principal stress by a constant value.

Note that it is a function of the deviatoric portion of the normal stresses. Maximum Distortional Energy (R. T. Like the maximum shear stress or Tresca failure theory. 59 60 Hide Text Hide Text . we may assume that we are working with principal stresses without any loss of generality. Hencky (1925). isotropic materials. von Mises. von Mises. The yield condition for combined stress is established by equating the distortional strain energy for yield in a simple tension test to the distortional strain energy under combined stress. We need to express the distortional strain energy in terms of principal stresses.Failure Theories: 15 (3/30/00) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. von Mises. 57 Hide Text What is Distortional Energy? 58 Hide Text Maximum Distortional Energy (R. Therefore. so lets give ourselves some space. Maximum Distortional Energy (R. The theory was proposed by M. 1913) The value of the distortional strain energy is independent of the coordinate system. A second criterion for yielding in an isotropic material is based on strain energy concepts. and the shear stresses. the maximum distortional energy failure theory addresses ductile. von Mises (1913) and H. Do you remember the value of the shear stresses in the principal directions? Recall the expression for the distortional strain energy. von Mises. and was furthered by R. τ.. s. Huber of Poland in 1904.. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test.

1913) Substituting in the principal stresses we note that the shear stresses are zero. such as pressure vessels. 61 Hide Text 62 Hide Text Maximum Distortional Energy (R. 1913) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. 1913) At this point we are going to narrow the scope of our theory to the case of plane stress. Again. Recall that normal components of the deviatoric stress tensor are calculated as each normal stress minus the average value of all three normal stresses. we are remaining fairly general.Failure Theories: 16 (3/30/00) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. von Mises. von Mises. 1913) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. beams. etc. Now that we have the deviatoric normal stresses we can substitute them into the expression for distortional strain energy. 63 Hide Text 64 Hide Text . because plane stress problems. shafts. plates. von Mises. von Mises.

67 Hide Text 68 Hide Text . Now that we have expressed the distortional strain energy in terms of principal stresses (for 2-D stress) we are ready to develop the maximum distortional energy failure For a simple tension test the distortional strain energy at yield is σys^2/6G. Algebraic Reduction Machine 65 Hide Text 66 Hide Text Maximum Distortional Energy (R.Failure Theories: 17 (3/30/00) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. 1913) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. Luck is with us for we have a handy-dandy algebraic inspector-detector reduction device. 1913) After making this substitution we need to reduce the expression. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. von Mises. von Mises. von Mises. Maximum Distortional Energy (R. von Mises.

1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. von Mises. 1913) Lookingwill at the 3-D case of stress. Let's save this result. von Mises. von Mises. for the previous two failure theories we plotted a "yield envelope" in the σ1. do you recognize how the equation above will plot? Multiplying both sides of the equation by 6G we arrive at the condition for yield under combined stress. Maximum Distortional Energy (R.Failure Theories: 18 (3/30/00) Maximum Distortional Energy (R. The yield envelope for the maximum distortional energy plots as an ellipse for plane stress. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. How does this compare to the yield envelope for the maximum shear stress theory? 71 Hide Text Show Tresca 72 Hide Text 3D Yield Envelope . Yielding occur when the we see that the addition of a hydrostatic stress (σ1 = distortional strain energy reaches σ 2 = σ 3) does not contribute to the yield of a that value which causes yielding in material. Maximum Distortional Energy (R. and then interpret what it means. 1913) Yielding will occur when the distortional strain energy reaches that value which causes yielding in a simple tension test. cylinder centered along the "hydrostatic axis" (σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3). The 3-D yield envelope plots as a a simple tension test. the failure surface becomes an ellipse as previously shown. Recall. Assuming that σys is constant. σ2 space. σ2 plane. von Mises. Note that where the cylinder intersects the σ1. 69 Hide Text 70 Hide Text Maximum Distortional Energy (R.

let's see if we can explain why the pressure vessel full of toxic guck failed. The distortional energy criterion is more comprehensive. The maximum distortion energy increases the limit to ~0. Experiments with many ductile materials tend to plot closer to the 73 Hide Text Both Yield Envelopes 74 Hide Text Why Did the Vessel Fail? Geometry of the Vessel Now that we have our failure theories. In order to hold the volume of toxic crud pressurized to 60 psi. Maximum-Shear vs Maximum Distorsional Energy for Plane Stress In general. We begin by retracing the steps used in designing the pressure vessel. The wall thickness was determined to be 75 Hide Text 76 Hide Text . by considering the energy caused by shear deformations in three dimensions. Since shear stresses are the major parameters in both approaches.Failure Theories: 19 (3/30/00) Maximum-Shear vs Maximum Distortional Energy for Plane Stress How does the maximum shear stress yield theory compare to the maximum distortional energy yield theory? The first relies strictly on the maximum shear stress in an element. At the point where two of the principal stresses are equal but of opposite sign (pure shear) the maximum shear stress theory predicts yield when the principal stresses equal σys/2. we determined that we need a vessel with a radius of 20 feet. the maximum shear stress theory is more conservative than the distortion energy theory. the differences are not great.557σys.

Is this a safe design or what? We can now calculate the principal stresses acting in the vessel. 77 Hide Text 78 Hide Text A Safe Weight Calculate the Stresses To insure that the lid never lifts off in a high wind storm or earthquake. Note that the longitudinal stress is reduced by the weight placed on the lid.857 kips. we place a load of 20.956 sq inches.Failure Theories: 20 (3/30/00) Area of Open Top Force Created by Internal Pressure The force trying to lift the lid is calculated as the pressure in the vessel times the area over which it acts. 79 Hide Text 80 Hide Text . The total uplifting force on the cover is calculated to be 10.000 kips on the lid. The area is calculated to be 180. Quite a large force.

we see that alone each principal stress is safe. Normalizing the principal stresses by the yield stress for steel (= 36 ksi).Failure Theories: 21 (3/30/00) Normalize by the Yield Stress The Material Will Fail !! But if we plot the point on our yield envelopes. we see that according to either the maximum shear stress or the maximum distortional energy criteria. the material will have yielded. 81 Hide Text 82 Hide Text 83 Hide Text .

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