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■ Theoretical (Geometrical) Surface Roughness

Theoretical Surface Roughness at Turning indicates the minimum roughness value from the cutting conditions and it is shown by the formula as follows:

f Rz(h) R （rε ）

Rz(h)＝

f2 8R(rε)

×10

3

Rz(h)：Theoretical Surface Roughness〔μm〕 ｆ：Feed Rate〔mm/rev〕 Ｒ(rε)：Corner Radius of Insert〔mm〕

**How to Obtain Surface Roughness Values
**

Type Symbol How to Obtain

Ry is obtained from the distance in micron meter between the highest peak and the lowest valley in the range of sampled reference length (ℓ) to the direction of mean line of the roughness curve.

**Relationship with Triangle Symbol
**

Explanation Arithmetical Max. Height Ten PointsMean Note: Mean Roughness Roughness Roughness (Relationship Ra(μm) Rz(μm) RzJIS(μm) with Triangle)

Max. Height Roughness

Rp

Rz

ℓ

Ry

m

Rv

0.025 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.3 12.5 25 50 100

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.3 12.5 25 50 100

Rz＝Rp＋Rv Rz is obtained from the total in micron meter of the mean value of the each distance between the mean line and 5 peaks (Yp) from the highest one, and the mean value of the each distance between the mean line and the 5 valleys (Yv) from the lowest one, of the roughness curve in the range of sampled reference length “ℓ”. （Yp1＋Yp2＋Yp3＋Yp4＋Yp5）＋（Yv1＋Yv2＋Yv3＋Yv4＋Yv5） 5

Yp1 Yp3 Yp4 Yp2 Yv5

m

Yv5

3.2 6.3 12.5 25

Yv1

Yv2

Yv3

Ten Points Mean Roughness

ℓ

RzJIS

RzJIS＝

Yp1,Yp2,Yp3,Yp4,Yp5: Distance from the mean line to highest 5 peaks in the range of sampled reference length “ℓ” Yv1,Yv2,Yv3,Yv4,Yv5: Distance from the mean line to the lowest 5 valleys in the range of sampled reference length “ℓ”

Yv4

Note: Finishing symbol (Triangle▽and wave~) was abolished from JIS standard from 1994 Revision. ・How to Indicate Example ①When Ra is 1.6μm→1.6μmRa ②When Rz is 6.3μm→6.3μmRz ③When RzJIS is 6.3μm→6.3μmRzJIS

Arithmetical Mean Roughness

Ra

Ra is obtained from the following formula in micron meter when the roughness curve is expressed by y=f(x), taking X-axis to the mean line direction and Y-axis to the vertical magnification of the roughness curve in the range of sampled reference length “ℓ”. 1 ℓ Ra＝ ｛ f(x)｝ dx ℓ 0

Y m

Ra

X ℓ

∫

**Indication in JIS Standard
**

Example of Ra Indication

①When indicating the upper limit only (when upper limit is 6.3μmRa)

Example of Ry, (Rz) Indication

6.3

①When indicating upper limit onlyIndicate surface roughness following the parameter symbol.

Rz6.3

R

Rz6.3~1.6

V= ×D×N 1000

②When indicating both lower and upper limit (when upper limit is 6.3μmRa, lower limit is 1.6μmRa)

6.3 1.6

Note: The indications of Ra and Rz are different.

**■ Surface Roughness Symbol Caution
**

The above information is based on JIS B 0601-2001. However, some symbols were revised as shown in the right table in accordance with ISO Standard from JIS B 0601-2001 version. Ten Points Mean Roughness (Rz) was eliminated from 2001 version but it still remains as RzJIS reference, since it was popular in Japan.

Type

Max. Height Roughness Ten Points Mean Roughness Arithmetical Mean Roughness

Symbol of JIS B 0601-1994 Ry Rz Ra → → →

Symbol of JIS B 0601-2001 Rz （RzJIS） Ra

R3

Technical Information

②When indicating both lower and upper limit Indicate surface roughness as (upper limit ~ lower limit) following the parameter symbol.

This portion is presented in a new graph with the X axis extending in the same direction as the average line and the Y axis representing the magnitude. surface undulation.5 25 50 100 a a a a a a a a a 0.8 1. Honed Surface said portion with the reference length ℓ.3 s 12. Yv2.1 s 0. Reference Under ISO 1302. Yp2.8 Upper and Lower Limits of Ra (a) 6. is cut out over the reference length. which may be regarded as a flaw.5 s 25 s 50 s 100 s 200 s 400 s 0. Code Meaning The trace left by a cutting instrument is parallel to the projection plane in the drawing. average concave to convex distance(Sm). maximum height(Ry). Ex.1 a 0. respectively.2 12.025 a 0. cut-off value or reference length.4 3.3 z 12. Ex. Yp3. Reference A portion without an abnormally high peak or abnormally low trough.2 a 0.2 0.2 s 0. Trace Left by a Cutting Instrument Removal of Material by Machining is required Ry=Rp+Rv Rv Ten-spot Average Roughness Rz Yp 1 Yp 2 m Yp 4 Yp 5 Yp 3 A portion stretching over a reference length in the direction in which the average line extends is cut out from the roughness curve. 2839 2840 .6 ~ 6. Varieties of Surface Roughness Indicators Definitions and presentations of arithmetic average roughness(Ra). Yp4. *Ra:The evaluation values of Ry and Rz are the cut-off value and the reference length each multiplied by five. Faced Surface Grain Direction 0. The average of the levels(Yp)of the highest peak to the fifth highest peak as measured from the average line and the average of the levels(Yp)of the lowest trough to the fifth lowest trough similarly measured in the said portion are added together.3 ~ 25 ~ 100 2.08 0. in microns(μm).08 0.8 0. in microns(μm).3 1. Ex.4 0.2 z 0. etc.6 3.5 8 − ~ The pattern left by a cutting instrument is virtually radial around the center of the plane in the drawing. Ra 0 1.6 z 3.5 50 ~ 1. Cylindrical Cut Removal of Material is Prohibited Y V3 Y V1 Y V2 Y V4 Y V5 Trace Left by a Cutting Instrument Upper Limit of Ra (a) 25 (b) 6.5 8 − 2. Superfinished Surface and Surface Finished with a Front Mill or End Mill The pattern left by a cutting instrument is virtually concentric around the center of the plane in the drawing. Positions of Auxiliary Symbols for Surface Symbol A surface roughness value. Yp5 : Levels of the highest peak to the fifth highest peak in the The pattern left by a cutting instrument diagonally crosses the projection plane in the drawing.4 s 0.6 (b) 0. ℓ The trace left by a cutting instrument is perpendicular to the projection plane in the drawing. Shaped Surface Illustration Maximum Height Ry A portion stretching over a reference length in the direction in which Rp ℓ Examples of Graphical Representation of Surface Texture Surface Symbol m Ry the average line extends is cut out from the roughness curve. Ex. Surface roughness is the arithmetical average of values at randomly extracted spots on the surface of an object. [Centerline average roughness(Ra75)is defined in the supplements to JIS B 0031 and JIS B 0601. Yv4. Ra is represented by the equation shown at right. The gap between the peak line and the trough line is measured in the direction in which the magnitude axis extends.1 z 0. a finish range should be indicated as e in Fig. Yv1. 1 below.4 z 0. Fig.3 12.2 s 6. Trace Left by a Cutting Instrument 25 6.8 s 1. in microns(μm).8 z 1. Lapped Surface.012 a 0. 1 Positions of Auxiliary Symbols a : Ra Value b f c' g b : Machining Method c : Cut-Off Value.3 (c) 25 Rz= Yp1 + Yp2 + Yp3 + Yp4 +Yp5 + Yv1 + Yv2 + Yv3 + Yv4 + Yv5 5 Yp1.012 ~ 0.3 25 Reference Relation between Arithmetic Average Roughness(Ra)and Conventional Parameters Arithmetic Average Roughness Ra Standard Series Cut-off Value c(mm) Maximum Height Ry Ten-spot Average Roughness Rz Graphical Representation of Surface Texture Standard Series Reference Length of Ry(Rz) ℓ(mm) Conventional Finish Symbol The pattern left by a cutting instrument crosses in various directions or has no grain direction. Evaluation Length d : Grain Direction f : Parameter other than Ra(tp:Parameter/Cut-Off Level) g : Surface Undulation(JIS B 0610) Y m Ra = 1 ℓ ℓ 0 f ( ) dx a e d c g e d X ℓ Reference These symbols except a and f are provided when they are needed. grain direction.[Technical Data] JIS B 0601(1994) Surface Roughness Excerpts from JIS B 0031(1994) [Technical Data] Excerpts from Drawing Indications of Surface Texture JISB0031(1994) 1.05 z 0.2 6. machining method.25 0. Yv3. Shaped Surface(Side View) Circular Cut.05 s 0.6 6.2 (b) M *Interrelations among the three types shown here are not precise. 10 spot average roughness(Rz). Ex.2 3. are indicated around the surface symbol as shown in Fig. 1. average distance between local peaks S and load length rate tp are given as parameters indicating the surface roughness of an industrial product.6 s 3. and are presented for convenience only. Rz is this sum.05 a 0.25 0.2 z 6.3 1.] Typical calculations of surface roughness Arithmetic Average Roughness Ra A portion stretching over a reference length in the direction in which the average line extends is cut out from the roughness curve. Machining Method (a) Milled 3. Evaluation Length c' : Reference Length. Yv5 : Levels of the lowest trough to the fifth lowest trough in the said portion with the reference length ℓ.5 z 25 z 50 z 100 z 200 z 400 z 0.

1mm at any point on the cylinder surface when the cylinder part is rotated about the datum axial straight line A-B with a relative movement in the axial direction.08mm apart.01mm perpendicular to the datum plane A. φ0. the centers of which are situated on a line having the theoretically exact profile.03 AB The point shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a circle of 0. the centers of which are situated on a theoretically exact profile line.1 Rmax.6 6. 0.1mm on any measuring plane normal to the datum axial straight line when the cylinder is rotated by one rotation about the datum axial straight line A-B. The surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two planes parallel to the datum plane A and 0.01 A A t Precision Precision The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes inclined at the specified angle to the datum plane and a distance t apart from each other.08 A The median surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two parallel planes 0. the tolerance zone is a zone within a cylinder of diameter t whose axis agrees with the datum axial straight line.6 −S 0. The axis of the cylinder shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0.1 The tolerance zone is a zone held between two lines enveloping circles of diameter t.08 This surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.4 −S 0.08 Where a tolerance frame is connected to the dimension showing the diameter of a cylinder. φ φ0. 0.1mm apart. the axis of the cylinder shall be contained a cylinder of 0.08mm apart from each other and arranged symmetrically about the datum median plane A. Medium Rough True location 100 A Precision φ0. The considered surface shall be contained between two coaxial cylinder surfaces 0.from the datum straight line A A and from the datum straight line B.2 0. Where symbol φ is attached before the numerical value indicating the tolerance.05 0.5 ▽ ▽ Precision Precision φt The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes a distance t apart.02 Sφ ｔ 0. 0. the tolerance zone is a zone within a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum plane.5 −S 6. the centers of which are situated on a theoretically exact profile surface. Examples of diagrammatical indication and its interpretation φ0.1mm apart on the same plane. The tolerance zone is a zone between two coaxial cylinders having axes agreeing with the datum axial straight line and a distance t apart from each other in the radial direction.3 −S 3. Cylindricity tolerance Profile tolerance of line Precision Profile tolerance of surface Parallelism tolerance Orientation Perpendicularity tolerance tolerance Angularity tolerance Positional tolerance Coaxiality tolerance Location or tolerance concentricity tolerance Symmetry tolerance Measuring plane The tolerance zone is a zone contained between two coaxial cylinder surfaces a distance t apart.1 0.01mm apart from each other in the direction of the arrow of the leader line. φ Maximum peak Ry 0. The total radial run-out of the cylinder surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall not exceed 0. t t The tolerance zone in the considered plane is a zone between two concentric circles a distance t apart.01 A The axis shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a cylinder of 0. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes parallel to the datum plane and a distance t apart from each other. The considered surface shall be contained between two surfaces enveloping the spheres of diameter 0.1 Form tolerance The circumference in any section normal to the axis shall be contained between two concentric circles 0.2 −S 0.04mm in diameter.25 ▽ ▽ ▽ ▽ 0. this tolerance zone is a zone in a cylinder of diameter t. hereinafter referred to as the“true location”.1 A−B φ φ t A B 0. −S 0.01mm diameter whose axis agrees with the datum axial straight line A. φ 0.04 In any cross-section parallel to the projection plane the considered profile shall be contained between two lines enveloping circles of 0. The run-out in the radial direction of the cylinder surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall not exceed 0. The tolerance zone is a zone held between the two surfaces enveloping the spheres of diameter t.1 A−B φ A B Lines used in the drawings in the column of“definition of tolerance zone”indicate the following meanings： Thick solid line or broken line ：Feature Thin alternate long and short dash line ：Center line Thick alternate long and short dash line ：Datum Thin alternate long and two short dashes line ：Supplementary projection plane or sectional plane Thin solid line or broken line ：Tolerance zone Thick alternate long and two short dashes line ：Projection of a feature to supplementary Projection plane or sectional plane 1129 φ 1130 .〔Technical Data〕 Surface Roughness by Different Processing Methods 0.3 25 −S 12.025 0.8 3.2 −S 0. 0.02mm. 2.01 A Cutter grinding Precision boring Filing Working method Round grinding Boring Drilling Reaming Broach grinding Shaving Grinding Hone finishing Super finishing Buffing Paper finishing Lapping Liquid honing Burnishing Surface rolling Electric discharge carving Wire cut electric spark Chemical polishing Electrolytic abrasion Precision Precision Precision Precision Precision Precision Precision Fine Precision Precision t A Precision Fine Precision Medium Rough φt Where symbol φis attached before the numerical value indicating the tolerance. 0. φt t t A Run-out tolerance Precision Circular run-out tolerance Total run-out tolerance The tolerance is a zone between two concentric circles whose centers agree with the datum axial straight line on any measuring plane normal to the datum axial Toleranced straight line and which are a distance t apart surface from each other in the radial direction.8 ▽ ▽ ▽ 1.5 50 −S 8 ▽ 25 100 −S 50 200 −S 25 − 100 400 −S 〔Technical Data〕 Indications of Geometrical Tolerance on Drawings Excerpt from JIS B 0021 （1984） Arithmetical mean roughness Ra Former designations Standard values of of standard length surface (mm) roughness Triangular indication Forging Casting Die casting Hot rolling Cold rolling Drawing Extruding Tumbling Sandblasting Rolling Face cutter grinding Planing Carving （Slotting） Kinds and Symbols of Geometrical Tolerances Kind of tolerance Straightness tolerance Flatness tolerance Circularity tolerance t Symbol Definition of tolerance zone Where symbol φ is attached before the numerical value indicating a tolerance zone.2 12. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes a distance t apart from each other and arranged symmetrically about the datum median plane. respectively.08 A α 40° A B 60 The surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two parallel planes which are inclined at 40°with theoretical exactness to the datum plane A and which are 0.08mm apart from each other in the direction of the arrow of the leader line.03mm diameter having its center at the true location 60mm and 100mm apart.8 −S 0. The tolerance zone is a zone within a circle or sphere of diameter t having its center at the theoretically exact location. t 0.4 1.08mm diameter. the centers of which are situated on a surface having the theoretically exact profile.

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