You are on page 1of 7

# Foundation Design Philosophy for Rotating Equipment References has been taken from, 1.

Design of structures and foundations for vibrating machines by S. Arya, M. O'Neill and G. Pincus 2. Foundation analysis and design by J. E. Bowels 3. Dynamics of bases and foundations by D. Barkan 4. Design of Machine Foundations - Lecture Notes of Professor M.H. El Naggar, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B9 In this page I will talk about the rigid block foundation for Centrifugal (Pump) and Reciprocating machines (Compressor). We are considering the concrete block is infinitely rigid and thus a lump mass model can be considered in computer 3D modelling. To start the design of a block foundation, we need to follow the following steps to collect the design data: Step-1 : Review of pump / compressor drawing (Vendor Equipment Drawing) The machine data pertinent to the dynamic analysis and design of the block foundation should be obtained from vendors.
       

Plan dimension of pump / compressor base frame Height of rotor / shaft center line from the bottom of skid Anchor bolt location, size and embedment depth Weight of machine parts and the rotor parts (pump / compressor rotor and motor rotor) Location of center of gravity both vertically and horizontally Operating speed of machines and power rating of motor (RPM) Magnitude and direction of unbalanced forces. For reciprocating machines both primary and secondary unbalanced forces and couples and respective CG locations needs to be checked. Limit of deflection and vibration amplitudes at center line of rotor.

Step-2 : Collection of Geotechnical / soil data (Pl discuss with soil consultant and look into project design criteria) The Geotechnical data are used for evaluating the soil / pile stiffness and damping coefficients, and are required for both static and dynamic design and analysis of of block foundations. Following soil parameters are required:

In this case machine will pass the resonance during machine start up and coast down condition. Variable Speed machine: The variable speed machines operate at a speed range as prescribed by vendor. Foundations should be designed for this type of machines high tuned or low tuned side whchever more practical. should be designed for this type of machines. High Speed machine: The high speed machines operate at a speed range of more than 1000 RPM. should be designed for this type of machines.    Step-4 : Preliminary sizing of foundations: A block foundation consists of massive concrete blocks. High tuned foundations. having first natural frequency less than machine's operating speed. In this case machine do not pass the resonance during machine start up and coast down condition. having first natural frequency more than machine's operating speed.      Soil weight density Poisson's ratio Dynamic shear modulus (G) Shear wave velocity (vs) Dynamic modulus of sub-grade reaction (ks) Allowable soil bearing pressure or pile load carrying capacity for design of foundation Step-3 : Categorization of rotating machines based on machine speed: The rotating machines are categorized based on machine speed. dynamic amplitude shall be checked during start up and coast down condition. If the foundation is low tuned. The preliminary sizinng of block should be based on the following:  Weight of the block foundation should be at least 4 times the weight of reciprocating machines and 3 times the weight of centrifugal machines. Intermediate speed machine: The intermediate speed machines operate at a speed range 500 RPM to 1000 RPM. Low tuned foundations. A detail dynamic analysis of foundation is required for a range of machine operating speeds to ensure that the dynamic design criteria are met. Following are different categories of machines:  Low Speed machine: The low speed machines operate at a speed range of less than 500 RPM. Foundations should be designed for this type of machines high tuned or low tuned side whchever more practical. . You need to ensure that there is no adverse effect to machine operation during the resonant conditions. Dynamic amplitude shall be checked during start up and coast down condition. piers and mat foundation.

a = maximum cantilever projection (inches). For a rigid mat. If you are doing the dynamic analysis of concrete block. Dynamic analysis is not required if the power rating of motor is less than 200hp. mp-rotor = weight of pump rotor.5 times the vertical distance from the bottom of foundation to the center line of the shaft / rotor. The center of mass of machine foundation (machine+foundation system) should coincide with the centroid of the soil foundation or pile group resistance. then you will calculate the force as follows: Un-balance force for pump: Fpump = mp-rotor x e x w2 Un-balance force for motor: Fmotor = mm-rotor x e x w2 Where. Following are the general criteria for not performing any dynamic analysis of foundation supporting rotating equipment:   Dynamic analysis is not required if the weight of machine is less than 25kN. then follow Step-4 for foundation sizing and put it into 3D model for any interference check. If you are not doing any dynamic analysis of concrete block foundation.0012 x (ks x (a)4)1/3 ft. lbs/in3. mm-rotor = weight of motor rotor . measured from face of block (Refer: Foundation analysis and design by J E Bowles) o o Step-5 : Requirement for dynamic analysis of foundations: Dynamic analysis of concrete foundations are not required for all the foundations supporting rotating equipment. Step-6 : Calculation of un-balanced forces for dynamic analysis of foundations: If unbalance force is not mentioned in the Vendor equipment drawing. whichever is greater . Horizontal eccentricity should be limited to 5% of the corresponding foundation dimension. You need to refer your project design criteria for the conditions for dynamic analysis. The width of foundation should be at least 1. from soil report. t = 0. ks = soil dynamic modulus of subgrade reaction. Maximum thickness of the mat will be 1500 mm Minimum thickness of mat. following criteria to be followed: o   Minimum thickness of the mat will be 600 mm or 1/5 th of least foundation dimensions or 1/10 th of largest foundation dimensions. then follow the following steps.

e = rotor eccentricity.5 1 0. Natural frequency analysis of foundation: This rigid block has six degree of freedom. You can also use the different tables that I have attached here (click for the table).Dyna5) or use any text books to calculated the natural frequencies of foundation.8-107) / (f)2 (12000/f)1/2 1. f = speed of machine from vendor drawing (RPM).5 Now you are having all the information to start the foundation analysis and design. So. You can put all the above data in any computer software program (say . you will calculate all the following uncouple natural frequencies: . depends on machine speed Eccentricity Table ( Refer reference -1) Machine Pump / compressor Pump / compressor Motor Motor Motor Operating Speed (f in RPM) f < 3000 f > 3000 f < 1500 1500< f < 3000 f > 3000 Eccentricity e (mils) (1.w = circular frequency = 2 x pi x (f / 60).

rotational mode When the CG of foundation system is far above the foundation base. Rocking Frequency about Y. Coupled condition: 1. Sliding Frequency along horizontal X-direction 2. Rocking Frequency about X. Sliding along Y & Rocking about X Once. You can calculate the coupled natural frequency using the formula mentioned in the table. Sliding Frequency along vertical Z-direction 4. please check the foundation for the following conditions: Resonance Frequency Check: . rotational mode 5. Sliding along X & Rocking about-Y and 2. Sliding Frequency along horizontal Y-direction 3. In this case sliding mode and rocking mode frequencies overlap each other and as a result foundation dynamic analysis may be more critical.1. rotational mode 6. Rocking Frequency about Z. analysis is completed. coupling effect needs to be considered to calculate the foundation natural frequency.

. Please avoid any foundation upliftment in seismic / wind condition. Rebar spacing should not be more than 300 mm. you can use minimum reinforcement as follows: 0.8 or greater than 1. Resonance frequency can be calculated as follows: fd = fn / (1-2 x D2)½ where. For a typical pump foundation drawing click here I hope this page will be very helpful to you to understand the basic design of a Pump foundation.2% rebar on all face of concrete block and mat. Maximum Velocity check: Maximum velocity should fall in "Good Condition" per table-1 of attached table Environmental condition Maximum displacement amplitude of vibration at foundation level should lie within or below "Zone-B" of figure -1 and it should fall below the Zone "Troublesome to persons" of figure -2 in the attached table.Calculate resonanace frequency and check that the ratio of machine frequency vs resonance frequency (f / fd) is either less than 0. 1% rebar for all concrete pedestal. However.2 in all six degrees of freedom. Anchor Bolt: Anchor bolt shall be checked for start-up and coast down contion. Reinforcement: Reinforcement shall be provided per project approved design code. D = Damping ration (see table 5 and 12) Soil Bearing Pressure / Pile Capacity Check Soil bearing pressure or pile load should not exceed 75% of the allowable. fn = foundation natural frequency.

Please donate generously for more development of this site: .