BY Deshmukh Priyanka GUIDE Mrs. Manisha Jadhav

Deparment of computer science and IT MGM college,nanded.


Most consumers are unaware of the toxic materials in the products they rely on for word processing, data management, and access to the internet, as well as for electronic games. In general, computer equipment is a complicated assembly of more than 1,000 materials, many of which are highly toxic, such as chlorinated and brominated substances, toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. The health impacts of the mixtures and material combinations in the products often are not known. The production of semiconductors, printed circuit boards, disk drives and monitors uses particularly hazardous chemicals, and workers involved in chip manufacturing are now beginning to come forward and reporting cancer clusters. In addition, new evidence is emerging that computer recyclers have high levels of dangerous chemicals in their blood. The fundamental dynamism of computer manufacturing that has transformed life in the second half of the 20th century --

especially the speed of innovation -- also leads to rapid product obsolescence.. The average computer platform has a lifespan of less than two years, and hardware and software companies – especially Intel and Microsoft -- constantly generate new programs that fuel the demand for more speed, memory and power. A May 1999 report -– "Electronic Product Recovery and Recycling Baseline Report" --published by the well-respected National Safety Council’s Environmental Health Center, confirmed that computer recycling in the US is shockingly inadequate:

In 1998 only 6 percent of computers were recycled compared to the numbers of new computers put on the market that year.

By the year 2004, experts estimate that we will have over 315 million obsolete computers in the US, many of which will be destined for landfills, incinerators or hazardous waste exports.
E-WASTE 2.1 Definition of electronic waste : Electronic waste includes computers, entertainment electronics, mobile phones and other items that have been discarded by their original users. While there is no generally accepted definition of electronic waste, in most cases electronic waste consists of electronic products that were used

for data processing, telecommunications, or entertainment in private households and businesses that are now considered obsolete, broken, or unrepairable. Despite its common classification as a waste, disposed electronics are a considerable category of secondary resource due to their significant suitability for direct reuse, refurbishing, and material recycling of its constituent raw materials. Reconceptualization of electronic waste as a resource thus preempts its potentially hazardous qualities. In 1991 the first electronic waste recycling system was implemented in Switzerland beginning with the collection of refrigerators. Over the years, all other electric and electronic devices were gradually added to the system. Legislation followed in 1998 and since January 2005 it has been possible to return all electronic waste to the sales points and other collection points free of charge. There are two established PROs (Producer Responsibility Organizations): SWICO mainly handling electronic waste and SENS mainly responsible for electrical appliances. The total amount of recycled electronic waste exceeds 10 kg per capita per year. The European Union is implementing a similar system described in the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE 2002/96/EC). The WEEE Directive has been transposed in national laws and become effective. The manufacturers became financially responsible for the compliance to the WEEE directive since 13 August 2005. By the end of 2006 – and with one or two years' delay for the new EU members – every country has to recycle at least 4 kg of e-waste per capita.


Definition of electronic waste according to the WEEE directive :
• • • • • • • • • •

Large household appliances (ovens, refrigerators etc.) Small household appliances (toasters, vacuum cleaners etc.) Office & communication (PCs, printers, phones, faxes etc.) Entertainment electronics (TVs, HiFis, portable CD players etc.) Lighting equipment (mainly fluorescent tubes) E-tools (drilling machines, electric lawnmowers etc.) Sports & leisure equipment (electronic toys, training machines etc.) Medical appliances and instruments Surveillance equipment Automatic issuing systems (ticket issuing machines etc.)

3.2 Risks related to some e-toxics found in computers Lead Lead can cause damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood system and kidneys in humans. Effects on the endocrine system have also been observed and its serious negative effects on children’s brain development have been well documented. Lead accumulates in the environment and has high acute and chronic toxic effects on plants, animals and microorganisms. Cadmium Cadmium compounds are classified as toxic with a possible risk of irreversible effects on human health. Cadmium and cadmium compounds accumulate in the human body, in particular in kidneys. Cadmium is adsorbed through respiration but is also taken up with food.

Mercury When inorganic mercury spreads out in the water, it is transformed to methylated mercury in the bottom sediments. Methylated mercury easily accumulates in living organisms and concentrates through the food chain particularly via fish. Methylated mercury causes chronic damage to the brain. In addition, hexavalent chromium compounds are toxic for the environment. It is well documented that contaminated wastes can leach from landfills. Incineration results in the generation of fly ash from which chromium is leachable, and there is widespread agreement among scientists that wastes containing chromium should not be incinerated. Of the more than 315 million computers destined to become obsolete between 1997 and 2004, about 1.2 million pounds of hexavalent chromium will be present.


Waste management concepts

5.1 Waste management concepts

The waste hierarchy There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage between countries or regions. The waste hierarchy:
• • •

reduce reuse recycle

Classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability. The waste hierarchy has taken many forms over the past decade, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.


5.1.1 Resource recovery A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials, with new technologies and methods being developed continuously. 5.1.2 Recycling

A materials recovery facility, where different materials are separated for recycling Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most



CONCLUSION"Electronic products should actually be considered chemical waste products. Their number is increasing and their life is decreasing. Electronic waste piles are growing, as is their pollution potential. Most of these problems have their source in the development and ddesign of the products concerned." We have the need of “Clean Computers”. So that many companies have shown they can ddesign cleaner products. Industry is making some progress to ddesign cleaner products but we need to move beyond pilot projects and ensure all products are upgradeable and non-toxic.





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