Map - Key 00. Limestone Quarry and Crushing plant 01. Limestone Stockpile 02. Additives Hopper 03. Additives Storage 04.

Raw Mill Building 05. Blending and Storage Silo 06. Preheater 07. Gas Conditioning Tower and ESP 08. Kiln 09. Cooler 10. Deep Bucket Conveyor 11/12. Clinker/Gypsum Storage 13. Coal Mill Building 14. Cement Mill and Bag House 15. Cement Storage Silo 16. Packing & Dispatch 17. Central Control Room

00 Limestone Quarry and Crushing Plant The major raw material for cement production is limestone. The limestone most suitable for cement production must have some ingredients in specified quantities i.e., calcium carbonates, silica, alumina, iron, etc.Typically, cement plants locations are based upon the availability of good quality limestone in the vicinity. The quarrying operations are done by the cement producer using the open cast mining

The selection of the crusher depends mainly on the characteristics of the raw materials. In order to blend and homogenize the raw materials properly. bauxite. cross-sectional slices.A number of layers are stacked in circular or longitudinal piles and are reclaimed in transverse. various sizes of balls are used and classifying liners are used to maintain the position of different sizes of balls.Normally the energy consumption level in VRM is 10 to 20 percent lower than in ball mills.Ball mills are suitable for low and medium moisture content in the range of five to six per cent and are preferred for abrasive material.These additives are stored at the plant in separate hoppers and are extracted using belt conveyors in conjunction with belt-weighing equipment. circular or longitudinal stock piles are used to store the material. The raw material is simultaneously dried. VRM uses the compression principle to grind the raw material. ranging from a few inches to meters in size. quartzite and flourspar are added in required quantities. a compression type crusher is used in the first stage for raw crushing.The stock piles consist of separate layers/piles of different kinds of raw material. certain additives such as iron ore. The main advantage of VRM is higher grinding efficiency and ability to accept material with higher moisture content. and finally financial considerations. This grinding is done using either ball mills or vertical roller mills (VRM). The required quantity of the various raw materials is thus easily extracted for use. As there are various sources of raw materials. The impact technology is used in hammer crusher/impact crusher. laterite.Quarrying is done through drilling and subsequently. suitable for feeding into the kiln. cone crusher.process. 05 Blending and Storage Silo Normally there are various sources of limestone. There are many types of compression type crushers such as jaw crusher. the size of the plant. In single stage crushing. This is used in segregating the raw material quality-wise.The variations in the composition of kiln feed have very adverse impacts on the efficiency of the kiln. roll crusher. Typically. In the two stage crushing system. the energy consumption levels.The choice between a ball mill and VRM is governed by many factors such as the moisture content of the raw material.The quarried raw material is then transported to the cement plant. the abrasiveness of the material.compression type or impact type crushers. continuous blending silos are used. each with different qualities. or by vehicles like wagons and trucks. This selection is further guided by the particle-size distribution requirements of the down-stream equipment such as raw mills and lastly by financial considerations. which are added with various additives to get the required composition of raw mix.Crushing is done either in two stages or in a single stage. . These varying sizes of limestone need to be crushed to a size of about 10 mm in order to be prepared for finish-grinding. using heavy earth moving equipment such as bulldozers. an impact type crusher is used. 04 Raw Mill Building The raw material is finish-ground before being fed into the kiln for clinkering.There are mainly two types of crushers available for this purpose. 01 Limestone Stock Pile The raw material is stored at either the quarry or at the plant.The quarried limestone is normally in the form of big boulders. payloaders and dumpers. The larger sized balls are utilized for impact grinding and the smaller balls for attrition. Inside the ball mills. it becomes necessary to blend and homogenize these different materials efficiently to counteract fluctuation in the chemical composition of the raw meal. 02 & 03 Additives Storage Hopper In order to get the required composition of raw material. It results in undesired coating and ring formation inside the kiln.The extraction of different qualities of raw material is monitored and controlled in order to maintain the desired composition of raw meal. reliability. using mechanical conveying equipment such as ropeways or belt conveyors. This ensures that only the required quantities are extracted and added to the raw material. followed by impact/hammer crusher in the second stage.Ball mills use impact with attrition principles for grinding the raw material. gyratory crusher.

Same advantage can be achieved through stacker reclaimer type as well However. The output of the kiln is called clinker 09 Cooler The clinker coming out of the kiln is hot.06 Preheater The most important activity in cement manufacturing is clinkering (or burning) of raw material.By the action of electric field.Through ESPs. 08 Kiln A kiln is the heart of any cement plant. during which it passes through one or more high voltage electric fields formed by alternate discharge electrodes and plate type collecting electrodes. there is a little bit of dust generated.The Electrostatic Precipitators are used in cement plants particularly for removal of dust from the exit gases of cement kilns and from the exhaust air discharged by dryers. If the storage space is used for gypsum storage. If the storage space is used for gypsum storage. cold air is blown to effect heat exchange between hot clinker and cold air. 07 Gas Conditioning Tower and ESP The conditioning tower is used to reduce the temperature and to increase the moisture level of the dusty exhaust gas from the kiln. Same advantage can be achieved through stacker reclaimer type as well. Gantry type is not used in modern cement plants because of its environmental unfriendly nature. Gantry type is not used in modern cement plants because of its environmental unfriendly nature. if it is used for clinker storage purpose. before it is passed through the bag house and ESPs. Clinkering takes place in the kiln and the preheater system. Silo type clinker storage has the advantage that there is no dust pollution and spillage of clinker. This storage is called clinker storage. if it is used for clinker storage purpose. thus making it more suitable for the ESP and bag house to extract dust from it.Limestone coming out of quarry is crushed in multiple . It is cooled in a set-up called a cooler. it is called gypsum storage. Limestone and additives are calcined in this. fly to the collecting electrodes and are deposited there. 10 Deep Bucket Conveyor The deep bucket conveyor is essentially an equipment to lift material vertically.The storage may be of silo type or covered stacker reclaimer type or simply a gantry type. combined grinding and drying plants. and rotates in a horizontal position. 12 Gypsum Storage The output of the kiln is stored before it is fed to the cement mill for conversion to into cement. It is basically a long cylindrical-shaped pipe. In the cooler. the dust-laden gas is made to flow through a chamber usually horizontally. Its internal surface is lined by refractory bricks. which have become electrically charged by negative gas ions which are formed at the discharge electrodes and attach themselves to the particles.Preheater systems offer heat transfer from the hot kiln gases. there is a little bit of dust generated. It is called a conditioning tower because it conditions the hot gas. the dust particles. The dust is dislodged from these electrodes by rapping and thus falls into the receiving hopper at the base of the precipitator casing. finishing mills and raw mills through water injection. it is called gypsum storage. 11/12 Clinker/Gypsum Storage The output of the kiln is stored before it is fed to the cement mill for conversion to cement. However. This storage is called clinker storage. Silo type clinker storage has the advantage that there is no dust pollution and spillage of clinker.The storage may be of silo type or covered stacker reclaimer type or simply a gantry type.

The term bag house is applied to large filters containing a number of tubular bags mounted in a usually rectangular casing. This is also called primary crusher. In a bag house system discharge gas containing dusty particles is passed through a series of bags made of strong fabrics. It is the place from where all the process parameters are controlled. The dust laden air is drawn through them by suction. This fine ground coal is used for burning in the kiln. Hammer crusher has got metallic hammer mounted on the axes and the sizing achieved by the impact of the hammer. coal mill and kiln.The mills used for coal grinding and drying are either trumbling mills (tube mills) or roller mills. Jaw crusher and Hammer crusher. there is a cylindrical shell lying horizontal which contains metallic balls and as it rotates. The output of a cement mill is the final product viz. Crusher are mainly of two types viz. 13 Coal Mill Building The coal mill building houses the mill for grinding lumpy coals. the crushing action of the balls helps in grinding the clinker to fine powder. In a cement mill. 15 Cement Storage Silo The cement storage silo is used for storing the finished product .The bag house is used to remove dusty particles from discharge of different equipment such as cement mill. Jaw crusher is basically a simple mechanism having two plates one fixed and another moving. 16 Packing and Dispatch The cement is packed with the help of a rotary packer and finally dispatched to the market 17 Central Control Room It is the nerve center of the cement plant since all equipment is controlled from this place. Cement.cement. 14 Cement Mill and Bag House Clinker. is ground in a cement mill. along with additives. .stages in a sizing plant before it is put in limestone stockpile.

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