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Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 1

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design Requirements

**• Context in the NEHRP Recommended • • • • • • •
**

Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 2

**Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions
**

Design basis: Strength limit state Using NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Structural design criteria: Chap. 4 Structural analysis procedures: Chap. 5 Components and attachments: Chap. 6 Design of concrete structures: Chap. 9 and ACI 318

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 3

Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems Reinforced Concrete Unbraced frames (with rigid “moment resisting” joints): Three types Ordinary Intermediate Special R/C shear walls: Ordinary Special Precast shear walls: Special Intermediate Ordinary Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .4 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • Context in the Provisions • Concrete behavior Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 .

in.002 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . psi 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 0.500 psi Stress.001 0.6 .003 0./in.500 psi 17. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Unconfined Concrete Stress-Strain Behavior 20000 18000 16000 14000 4500 psi 8800 psi 13.004 Strain.

001 0.0005 0. psi ⎡ 2ε ⎛ ε ⎞2 ⎤ fc = fc' ⎢ c − ⎜ c ⎟ ⎥ ε ε ⎢ ⎣ o ⎝ o⎠ ⎥ ⎦ 2fc' εo = Et Et = 1.0025 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Idealized Stress-Strain Behavior of Unconfined Concrete 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 Stress.0035 0. psi 0.003 0.7 .002 0.004 Strain Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0015 0.8 x106 + 460fc' .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Confinement by Spirals or Hoops Asp fyhAsp ds fyhAsp Confinement from spiral or circular hoop Forces acting on 1/2 spiral or circular hoop Confinement from square hoop Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.8 .

9 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Confinement Rectangular hoops with cross ties Confinement by transverse bars Confinement by longitudinal bars Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Opened 90° hook on hoops Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.10 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

03 0.375 in.01 0. psi 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 0. x 12 in. cylinders .11 no confinement 4. Tests of 6 in.5 in. ¼ in. dia.Confined Concrete Stress-Strain Behavior 8000 7000 6000 Stress. spiral 1.75 in. 2.9 in.75 in.04 Average strain on 7. gauge length Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . Pitch of 3.02 0.

/in. 9 in. psi 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.012 0.Idealized Stress-Strain Behavior of Confined Concrete Kent and Park Model 4500 4000 3500 Stress. Confined Area 12” x 16” Strain. Design for Concrete Structures 11 .008 0. Design Examples . in. 6 in. 12 in.016 No Hoops 4 in.12 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.004 0.

ksi Grade 60 60 Grade 40 E = 29.000 ksi 20 rupture~10-12% 40 strain hardening~ 1-3% rupture ~18-20% 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Microstrain Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Reinforcing Steel Stress-Strain Behavior 100 Grade 75 80 Stress. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .13 .

Δ Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Reinforced Concrete Behavior steel yields Load failure cracked-inelastic cracked-elastic uncracked Mid-Point Displacement.14 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

15 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Behavior Up to First Yield of Steel b c d As εc fc φ εs Strain εsEs < fy Stress Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Behavior at Concrete Crushing b c d As ε c.16 .max f'c C φ εs >εy Strain fy Stress jd Asfy Forces Mn = Asfyjd Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .0125 100 200 300 φ x 10-5 in-1 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. in-kip 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 fy = 60 ksi b = 8 in d = 10 in ρ = 0.17 .Typical Moment Curvature Diagram 700 w/ strain hardening 600 f’c = 4 ksi w/o strain hardening M.

5% ρ = 1. in-kip 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 ρ = 2.5% φ x 10-5 in-1 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5% ρ = 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Influence of Reinforcement Ratio 5000 f’c = 4 ksi 4000 fy = 60 ksi b = 10 in d = 18 in M.18 .

0125 0 0.0125 0 M 2 lb / in bd2 400 6 7 0 0 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .19 .0125 0 0.0250 0.016 0.0375 0.0375 0.Influence of Compression Reinforcement 1600 1200 3 2 5 800 Beam 1 2 3 1 4 5 6 4 7 ρ 0.008 0.0250 0.0250 0.0375 0.0125 ρ' 0.0125 0.024 φ Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples .max c f'c φ As εs >εy Strain fy Stress Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Moment-Curvature with Confined Concrete ε c.20 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

#8 Confining Steel .#4 hoops at 4 in. Tension Steel . #10 Compression Steel .24 in.21 . in-k 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Beam . c-c without confining with confining curvature. microstrain/in. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .12 ea.5 ea.Moment-Curvature with Confined Concrete 35000 30000 Moment. x 36 in. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

22 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Plastic Hinging l M idealized φ actual plastic rotation lp Mu φu −φy φu Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

23 .Strategies to Improve Ductility • Use low flexural reinforcement ratio • Add compression reinforcement • Add confining reinforcement Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Other Functions of Confining Steel • Acts as shear reinforcement • Prevents buckling of longitudinal • reinforcement Prevents bond splitting failures Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.24 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

25 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Structural Behavior Frames Story Mechanism Sway Mechanism Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Story Mechanism Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.26 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

27 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Structural Behavior .Walls Δs H V N H V T V N V V V C Flexural failure Horizontal tension Sliding on flexural cracks Sliding on construction joint Design for Concrete Structures 11 . Design Examples .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Structural Behavior Walls Vu 1 2 hw 2 45 lw 1 Vu Compression Vu Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.28 .

P. in-kip Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. M. Design Examples Curvature.29 . kip 600 400 200 1.Structural Behavior Columns 1000 800 Ultimate yield 14 in square 4-#11 bars f' c = 4 ksi f y = 45 ksi Axial load.001 0 Moment.75” bending axis 0 0 400 800 1200 1600 0. φ. rad/in Design for Concrete Structures 11 .002 0.

Influence of Hoops on Axial Strength Gross column Area = A g Confined concrete Area = A core Before spallingP = Agf’c After spallingP = Acore(f’c + 4 flat) After spalling ≥ Before spalling Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.30 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

31 .Column with Inadequate Ties Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Well Confined Column Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.32 .

33 . Design Examples 4 Drift. % Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Hysteretic Behavior of Well Confined Column M 1.0 Mu 0.0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 -4 -0.5 -1.

34 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Δ Structural Behavior Columns M1 V M1 V L V M2 M2 P M1 + M2 2Mu = V= L L Range of P Mo Mu M Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Column Shear Failure Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.35 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

36 .V Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. shear force Vj = T. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Structural Behavior Joints V fc h ft T Cc Cs Max.

5 -1 -0.0 0.5 5 6 Drift. % Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Hysteretic Behavior of Joint with Hoops M Mu 1.37 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

5 -1 -0.38 . % Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Hysteretic Behavior of Joint with No Hoops M Mu 1.5 5 6 Drift.

39 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Joint Failure – No Shear Reinforcing Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

40 .Anchorage Failure in Column/Footing Joint Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Summary of Concrete Behavior • Compressive Ductility – Strong in compression but brittle – Confinement improves ductility by • Maintaining concrete core integrity • Preventing longitudinal bar buckling • Flexural Ductility – Longitudinal steel provides monotonic ductility at low reinforcement ratios – Transverse steel needed to maintain ductility through reverse cycles and at very high strains (hinge development) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.41 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .42 . prestressed): low damping • Potential Problems – Shear failures are brittle and abrupt and must be avoided – Degrading strength/stiffness with repeat cycles • Limit degradation through adequate hinge development Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Summary of Concrete Behavior • Damping – Well cracked: moderately high damping – Uncracked (e.g.

43 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • Context in the Provisions • Concrete behavior • Reference standards Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

44 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .ACI 318-05 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Use of Reference Standards • ACI 318-05 – Chapter 21. Special Provisions for Seismic Design • NEHRP Chapter 9. Concrete Structures – General design requirements – Modifications to ACI 318 – Seismic Design Category requirements – Special precast structural walls – Untopped precast diaphragms (Appendix to Ch.45 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .9) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Detailed Modifications to ACI 318 • • • • • • • Modified definitions and notations Scope and material properties Special moment frames Special shear walls Special and intermediate precast walls Foundations Anchoring to concrete Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.46 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

47 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • • • • Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

5 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Moment Resisting Frames Seismic Force Resisting System Special R/C Moment Frame Intermediate R/C Moment Frame Ordinary R/C Moment Frame Response Modification Coefficient. Cd 5.5 5 4.5 3 2. R 8 Deflection Amplification Factor.48 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Design Coefficients .

R Deflection Amplification Factor. Cd 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.49 .Design Coefficients Shear Walls (Bearing Systems) Seismic Force Resisting System Special R/C Shear Walls Ordinary R/C Shear Walls Intermediate Precast Shear Walls Ordinary Precast Walls Response Modification Coefficient. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .50 .5 4.5 4 4 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Design Coefficients Shear Walls (Frame Systems) Seismic Force Resisting System Special R/C Shear Walls Ordinary R/C Shear Walls Intermediate Precast Shear Walls Ordinary Precast Walls Response Modification Coefficient. Cd 5 5 5 4. R 6 Deflection Amplification Factor.

5) 5 (ASCE 7-05 values where different) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Design Coefficients Dual Systems with Special Frames Seismic Force Resisting System Dual System w/ Special Walls Dual System w/ Ordinary Walls Response Modification Coefficient.5 (5. Cd 6.51 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . R 8 (7) 6 Deflection Amplification Factor.

1.5 Design for Concrete Structures 11 .3 and ACI 21.4 and ACI 21. and 21. Design Examples .2.12 ACI 21.Frames Seismic Design Category A and B Minimum Frame Type ACI 318 Requirements Ordinary Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22 ACI 21.52 C Intermediate D. 21. E and F Special Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.2.2.4.1. 21.3.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . E and F Special ACI 21.2 and 21.7 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.4 and ACI 21.53 .2.Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Seismic Design Category Minimum Wall Type ACI 318 Requirements A.1. B and C Ordinary Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22 D.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .1.2.2.3 and ACI 21.13 ACI 21.54 .1.2. 21.Precast Concrete Shear Walls Seismic Design Category A and B Minimum Wall Type ACI 318 Requirements Chapters 1 thru 18 and 22 ACI 21.8 Ordinary C Intermediate D.4 and ACI 21. E and F Special Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .55 .Additional Provisions Requirements • Category C – Discontinuous members – Plain concrete • Walls • Footings • Pedestals (not allowed) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .56 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • • • • • Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Performance Objectives • Strong column – Avoid story mechanism • Hinge development – Confined concrete core – Prevent rebar buckling – Prevent shear failure • Member shear strength • Joint shear strength • Rebar development Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.57 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Frame Mechanisms “strong column – weak beam” Story mechanism Sway mechanism Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.58 .

2∑ Mnb M nb2 M nb1 M nc2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.59 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Required Column Strength M nc1 ∑ Mnc ≥ 1.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Hinge Development • Tightly Spaced Hoops – Provide confinement to increase concrete strength and usable compressive strain – Provide lateral support to compression bars to prevent buckling – Act as shear reinforcement and preclude shear failures – Control splitting cracks from high bar bond stresses Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.60 .

Hinge Development

Before spalling

After spalling

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 61

Hinge Development

Bidirectional cracking

Spalled cover

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 62

**ACI 318-05, Overview of Frames:
**

Beam Longitudinal Reinforcement

200 fy ≤ ρ ≤ 0 .025

At least 2 bars continuous top & bottom Joint face Mn+ not less than 50% MnMin. Mn+ or Mn- not less than 25% max. Mn at joint face Splice away from hinges and enclose within hoops or spirals

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 63

s ≤ d/2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 6dh ≥ 3” extension Maximum spacing of hoops: d/4 8db 24dh 12” Longitudinal bars on perimeter tied as if column bars 2d min Stirrups elsewhere. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . Overview of Frames: Beam Transverse Reinforcement Closed hoops at hinging regions with “seismic” hook 135º hook.64 .ACI 318-05.

0L + 0.25fy .0 Ve1 ln Ve = Mpr1 + Mpr 2 ln w ul n ± 2 Ve2 ≥ Ve by analysis If earthquake-induced > 1 V e 2 shear force and Pu < A f ' g c then Vc = 0 20 Design for Concrete Structures 11 . with φ = 1 .2D + 1.ACI 318-05.65 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.2S Mpr2 Mpr = Mn fs = 1. Overview of Frames: Beam Shear Strength Mpr1 1. Design Examples .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . Overview of Frames: Beam-Column Joint Vcol T C Vj = T + C − Vcol T = 1. top C = 1.ACI 318-05.25fy A s.25fy A s.66 . bottom Vj Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

67 . Overview of Frames: Beam-column Joint ⎧20⎫ ⎪ ⎪ Vn = ⎨15 ⎬ f 'c A j ⎪12 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ • • • • Vn controls size of columns Coefficient depends on joint confinement To reduce shear demand. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .ACI 318-05. increase beam depth Keep column stronger than beam Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

2∑ Mnb M nc2 At joints (strong column-weak beam) Mnc based on factored axial force. consistent with direction of lateral forces Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .01 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.ACI 318-05: Overview of Frames: Column Longitudinal Reinforcement M nc1 0.68 .06 M nb1 M nb2 ∑ Mnc ≥ 1.

12 fyt A sh and A sh ⎛ ⎞⎛ A g ⎞ f ' c ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0.45⎜ − 1 ⎜A ⎟f ⎝ ch ⎠ yt and f 'c ρs ≥ 0.09sbc fyt Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .ACI 318-05.3 sbc − 1 ⎜A ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ f yt ⎠⎝ ch ⎠ ⎝ f 'c ≥ 0.69 . Overview of Frames: Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential Hinging Region Spirals Hoops ⎛ Ag ⎞ f 'c ⎟ ρs = 0.

hx ≤ 14” Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Overview of Frames: Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential Hinging Region hx hx ⎛ 14 − h x ⎞ so = 4 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ Spacing shall not exceed the smallest of: b/4 or 6 db or so (4” to 6”) Distance between legs of hoops or crossties.ACI 318-05. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .70 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . hoops are required over full height of column if Pe > • • f 'c A g 10 For shear strength. Overview of Frames: Potential Hinge Region • For columns supporting stiff members such as walls.71 .same rules as beams (concrete shear strength is neglected if axial load is low and earthquake shear is high) Lap splices are not allowed in potential plastic hinge regions Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.ACI 318-05.

72 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Splice in Hinge Region Terminating bars Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Overview of Frames: Potential Hinge Region d ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ clear height ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ lo ≥ ⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 18" ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.73 .ACI 318-05. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Moment Frame Example A A’ B C C’ D 1 2 N 7 @ 30’ = 210’ 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 @ 20’ = 100’ Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.74 .

Design Examples 15' 18' 11 @ 12.75 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Frame Elevations A A’ B C C’ D A A’ B C C’ D 11 @ 12.5' .5' 15' 18' Column Lines 2 and 7 Column Lines 3 to 6 Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Story Shears: Seismic vs Wind seismic E-W seismic N-S wind E-W wind N-S Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .76 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .77 .Story Shears: E-W Loading frame 1 frame 2 frame 3 1 2 3 includes shearwall 0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Story Shears: 25% rule Frame 1 25% Frame 1 w/ walls w/o walls Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.78 .

5” 30” Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.6” 29.6” 22.79 32” .Layout of Reinforcement 4 28. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

6L Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 L + E 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .68D .2D + 1.E 1.Bending Moment Envelopes: Frame 1 Beams A A’ 4708 B 4515 C L C Seismic 715 Dead 5232 5834 5761 492 Combined: 834 4122 4222 4149 1.80 .42D +0.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .875 ⋅ 29.6 Choose: 2 #9 and 3 #8 As = 4.5” d = 29.875d) 60 ⋅ 0.6” f’c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Mu 5834 φ 0 .0066 < 0.81 .37 in2 ρ = 0.Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal Max negative Mu = 5834 in-kips b = 22.17in2 fy (0.9 A s req'd = = = 4.025 OK φMn = 6580 in-kips OK Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

5 in.Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal (continued) Positive Mu at face of column = 4222 in-kips (greater than ½(5834) = 2917) b for negative moment is the sum of the beam width (22.5 in./ft)/12. Design Examples . b = 42.94in2 = = fy (0.9 = 2.6 Design for Concrete Structures 11 .82 Mu 4222 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.9d) 60 ⋅ 0.) plus 1/12 the span length (20 ft x 12 in.9 ⋅ 29. A s req'd φ 0.

57 in2 φMn = 5564 in-kips OK Run 3 #8s continuous top and bottom φMn = 3669 in-kips This moment is greater than: 25% of max negative Mn = 1459 in-kips Max required Mu = 834 in-kips Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.83 .Beam Reinforcement: Longitudinal (continued) Choose 2 #7 and 3 #8 As = 3. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Beam Reinforcement: Preliminary Layout

A

2 #8

A'

2 #9

B

3 #8

C

2 #9

C'

2 #8

D

2 #7

2 #7

3 #8

3 #8

2 #7

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 84

**Moments for Computing Shear
**

Hinging mechanism

B C C'

9697

8999

10085

20.0'

10085

9.83' 10.5' 20.0'

Plastic moments (in-kips)

150.4 94.2 150.4 90.9

**Girder and column shears (kips)
**

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 85

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

**Joint Shear Force
**

150.5 kip 355.5 kip 355.5 kip

**T = 1.25fy A s,top = 355.5 kips
**

560.5 kip

C = 1.25fy A s,bot = 355.5 kips Vj = T + C − Vcol = 560.5 kips v j = 15 f 'c = 949 psi Vn = v j A j = 949 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 30 = 854 kips φVn = 0.85 ⋅ 854 = 726 kips > 560.5 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 86

7 B 82.2 Design shear 46.5 79.4 29.5 29. Design Examples .9 112.9 49.87 53.2 Design for Concrete Structures 11 .7 29.Beam Shear Force A 79.1 108.6 29.5 108.2 53.2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 29.2 82.9 49.7 C Seismic shear 75.2 29.5 Factored gravity shear 112.1 105.9 53.5 112.4 A’ 82.

7 kips = 73%(112. Near midspan s = 7.0 in.5 in.88 . Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Beam Reinforcement: Transverse Vseismic > 50% Vu therefore take Vc = 0 82. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .2) Use 4 legged #3 stirrups Vs = A v fy d s At ends of beam s = 5.

– 24dh = 9. – 8db = 7.89 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .0 in.Beam Reinforcement: Transverse • Check maximum spacing of hoops within plastic hinge length (2d) – d/4 = 7. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.4 in.0 in.

90 .Column Design Moments A A' 7311 B Girder moments (Level 7) 6181 ∑ Mnc = 1.2(7311 + 6181) = 16190 in − k 8095 8095 Column moments (Level 7) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Column Design Moments if Pu > f 'c A g ∑ Mnc 10 > 1.2∑ Mnb Distribute relative to stiffness of columns above and below: Mnc = 8095 in-kips (above) Mnc = 8095 in-kips (below) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.91 .

Design Examples .92 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Design Strengths Design Aspect Beam rebar cutoffs Beam shear reinforcement Beam-column joint strength Column flexural strength Column shear strength Strength Used Design strength Maximum probable strength Maximum probable strength 1.2 times nominal strength Maximum probable strength Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .3⎜ sbc ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ fyt ⎟ ⎣⎝ A ch ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠⎢ Ag = gross area of column Ach = area confined within the hoops bc = transverse dimension of column core measured center to center of outer legs Second equation typically governs for larger columns Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Column Transverse Reinforcement A sh and A sh = 0.93 .09sbc f 'c fyt ⎛ ⎞ ⎡⎛ A g ⎞ ⎤ f ' c ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 0.

94 . not allowed to be greater the 14 in.Column Transverse Reinforcement Maximum spacing is smallest of: •One quarter of minimum member dimension •Six times the diameter of the longitudinal bars •so calculated as follows: 14 − h x so = 4 + 3 hx = maximum horizontal center to center spacing of cross-ties or hoop legs on all faces of the column. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

3⎜ sbc − = ⋅ ⋅ − 1⎟ 1 0 .60 in2 and A sh f 'c 4 = 0.5 ⋅ = 0.95 .09 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 26.64 in2 fyt 60 Use 4 legs of #4 bar – Ash = 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . A sh ⎞ ⎡⎛ A g ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ f ' 4 ⎞⎛ 900 ⎞ ⎛ c ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ = 0.80 in2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎢ A ch ⎜ f 60 ⎠⎝ 702 ⎠ ⎝ yt ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎝ A sh = 0.Column Transverse Reinforcement For max s = 4 in.09sbc = 0. 3 4 26 .

top Mpr.96 Mpr.Determine Seismic Shear Mpr.2 Vseismic ln Vseismic Mpr.1 Mpr.3 Mpr.bottom Design for Concrete Structures 11 .4 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples .

Column Transverse Reinforcement Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams Mpr. if Pmin < f 'c Ag 20 = 180 kips For 30 in.2 = 7460 in-k (2 #7 and 3 #8) Assume moments are distributed equally above and below joint Vseismic 8230 ⋅ 2 = = 139 kips (12. 1 = 9000 in-k (2 #9 and 3 #8) Mpr.97 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . square column Pmin = 266 kips OK Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 ⋅ 12) − 32 Note Vseismic~100%Vu Vc = 0.

5 kips φVs.5 kips φVs.5 = 72.85 4000 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 27.75 = 266. Design Examples .2 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 29.98 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.6 = 0.Column Transverse Reinforcement Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams φVc = φ2λ f 'c bd = 0.provided = φ A v fy d s 4 ⋅ 0.5 = 66.75 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 0.required = 139 − 66.4 kips 4 Hoops 4 legs #4 s = 4” Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Column Reinforcement A' 7 @ 4" 5" 8 @ 6" 5" 7 @ 4" #4 hoops: 12 #8 bars Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .99 .

Levels of Seismic Detailing for Frames Issue Hinge development and confinement Bar buckling Member shear Joint shear Strong column Rebar development Load reversal lesser minor lesser lesser minor Ordinary Intermediate minor lesser lesser minor Special full full full full full full full Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.100 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .101 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • • • • • • Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Performance Objectives • Resist axial forces.102 . flexure and shear • Boundary members – Where compression strains are large. maintain capacity • Development of rebar in panel • Discontinuous walls: supporting columns have full confinement Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .103 .Design Philosophy • Flexural yielding will occur in predetermined • flexural hinging regions Brittle failure mechanisms will be precluded – Diagonal tension – Sliding hinges – Local buckling Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .ACI 318-05. Acv = web thickness x length of wall Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.104 . Overview of Walls: General Requirements lw ρt = parallel to shear plane hw ρl = perpendicular to shear plane Shear plane.

Reinforcement contributing to Vn shall be continuous and distributed across the shear plane Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.ACI 318-05.3 Spacing not to exceed 18 in.105 .0025 unless Vu < A cv f 'c • • then as allowed in 14. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . Overview of Walls: General Requirements • ρl and ρt not less than 0.

Overview of Walls: General Requirements • Two curtains of reinforcing required if: Vu > 2A cv f 'c • Design shear force determined from lateral load analysis Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .ACI 318-05.106 .

5 αc = 2. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .0 for hw/lw≥2.0 Linear interpolation between ( ) • Walls must have reinforcement in two orthogonal directions Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.ACI 318-05. Overview of Walls: General Requirements • Shear strength: Vn = A cv α c f 'c + ρ t fy αc = 3.107 .0 for hw/lw≤1.

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: General Requirements

**• For axial load and flexure, design like a
**

column to determine axial load – moment interaction P

M

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 108

**ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements
**

For walls with a high compression demand at the edges – Boundary Elements are required

**Widened end with confinement Extra confinement and/or longitudinal bars at end
**

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 109

ACI 318-05, Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements

•

**Boundary elements are required if:
**

lw c≥ δu ⎞ ⎛ 600⎜ ⎟ h w⎠ ⎝

**δu = Design displacement c = Depth to neutral axis from strain compatibility analysis with loads causing δu
**

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 110

ACI 318-05. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . boundary elements must extend up the wall from the critical section a distance not less than the larger of: lw or Mu/4Vu Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Overview of Walls: Boundary Elements • Where required.111 .

112 .2 f’c • Boundary element can be discontinued where the compressive stress is less than 0.ACI 318-05: Overview of Walls Boundary Elements • Boundary elements are required where the maximum extreme fiber compressive stress calculated based on factored load effects.15f’c Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. linear elastic concrete behavior and gross section properties. exceeds 0. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

of the web Transverse reinforcement must extend into the foundation Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. boundary element must include all of the effective flange width and at least 12 in.1lw In flanged walls.ACI 318-05: Overview of Walls Boundary Elements • Boundary elements must extend horizontally • • not less than the larger of c/2 or c-0.113 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Wall Example A A’ B C C’ D Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.114 11 @ 12. Design Examples 15' 18' Design for Concrete Structures 11 .5' .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .115 .Wall Cross-Section 17’-6”=210” 30” 30” 12” 30” 30” Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Story Shears E-W Loading frame 1 frame 2 frame 3 1 2 3 includes shearwall 0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .116 .

600 in3 fc = 2.Boundary Element Check Required if: fc > 0.187 in-kip The wall has the following gross section properties: A = 4320 in2 S = 261.2 fc' based on gross concrete section Axial load and moment are determined based on factored forces. including earthquake effects At ground Pu = 5550 kip Mu from analysis is 268.3 ksi = 38% of f’c = 6 ksi ∴ Need boundary element Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .117 .

8Po = 0 .118 . 7 ) A g 0 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .06% Too large For fc’ = 6 ksi ⇒ ρ = 4.Boundary Element Design Determine preliminary reinforcing ratio in boundary elements by assuming only boundary elements take compression M = 268.18% Reasonable. 85 fc' (1 − ρ ) + ρ f y > 3892 kip [ ] For Ag = 30(30) = 900 in2 For fc’ = 4 ksi ⇒ ρ = 7. 24 #11 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 8 (0 .187 in-k M P B2 B1 P = 5550 k B1 = P M + = 3892 kip 2 240 P M B2 = − = 1658 kip 2 240 Need 0 .

119 .Boundary Element Confinement Transverse reinforcement in boundary elements is to be designed essentially like column transverse reinforcement A sh fc' 2 = 0 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . 08 in at s = 4 " fy 4 legs of #5 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 09 sb c = 1 .

0025 2 curtains if Acv Vu > 2 ' fc A cv Design for Concrete Structures 11 .120 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Shear Panel Reinforcement Vn = A cv ⎛ ⎜2λ ⎝ fc' + ρ t f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ ρl Panel ⊥ to Acv ρt Vu = 539 kips (below level 2) φ = 0.3.4(a)) ρt = 0.6 (per ACI 9. Design Examples .0036 for fy = 40 ksi Min ρl (and ρt) = 0.

121 .Shear Panel Reinforcement Select transverse and longitudinal reinforcement: longitudin al : 0 .0036 12 ⋅ 9 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .0037 > 0.2 ⋅ 2 # 4 @ 12" ⇒ = 0.0028 > 0.2 ⋅ 2 # 4 @ 9" ⇒ = 0.0025 12 ⋅ 12 transverse : 0 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . k-ft Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.122 . k 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 Moment.Check Wall Design 30000 Nominal 25000 Factored Combinations Axial Load.

F. 5 B 4 #4@12" E. #4@16" hor. #4 @ 4" #5 @ 4" 9 8 3 fc’ = 4 ksi Design for Concrete Structures 11 .F. #4@6" hor.W. E.F. fc’ = 6 ksi 11 6 12 #9 G 24 #11 10 #4@18" ver. E.Shear Wall Reinforcement B R C 8 B C 3 24 #10 B C 12 7 24 #9 2 #4@12" ver. E. E.123 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.F.F. E. Design Examples .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .124 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions Concrete Design • • • • • • • Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Members Not Part of SRS • In frame members not designated as part of the lateral-force-resisting system in regions of high seismic risk: – Must be able to support gravity loads while subjected to the design displacement – Transverse reinforcement increases depending on: Forces induced by drift Axial force in member Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.125 .

) • Chords (boundary members) . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . if req’d to transfer force from diaphragm to shear walls Load from analysis in accordance With design load combinations Check: • Shear strength and reinforcement (min.126 .Diaphragms Diaphragm Shear walls Collectors. slab reinf.Force = M/d Reinforced for tension (Usually don’t require boundary members) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 . so ductility is more difficult to achieve • Full length confinement Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Struts and Trusses performance objectives • All members have axial load (not flexure).127 .

Precast performance objectives Field connections at points of low stress Field connections must yield Strong connections • Configure system so that hinges occur in factory cast members away from field splices Ductile connections • Inelastic action at field splice Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.128 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

129 . intermediate moment frames and shear walls Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Quality Assurance Rebar Inspection • Continuous – Welding of rebar • Periodic – During and upon completion of placement for special moment frames. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

130 .Shear panel reinforcement cage Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.131 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.132 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Quality Assurance: Reinforcing Inspection .133 .Prestressed • Periodic – Placing of prestressing tendons (inspection required upon completion) • Continuous – Stressing of tendons – Grouting of tendons Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .134 .Quality Assurance: Concrete Placement Inspection • Continuous – Prestressed elements – Drilled piers – Caissons • Periodic – Frames – Shear walls Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Quality Assurance: Precast Concrete (plant cast) • Manufacturer may serve as special inspector • if plant’s quality control program is approved by regulatory agency If no approved quality control program. independent special inspector is required Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .135 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .136 .Quality Assurance: PCI Certification Program • Review of plant operations – Scheduled and surprise visits – Qualified independent inspectors – Observed work of in-plant quality control – Check results of quality control procedures – Periodic – specific approvals requiring renewal Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Quality Assurance: ACI Inspector Certification • Specialized training available for: – Laboratory and in situ testing – Inspection of welding – Handling and placement of concrete – Others Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .137 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .Quality Assurance: Reinforcement Testing • Rebar – Special and intermediate moment frames – Boundary elements • Prestressing steel • Tests include – Weldability – Elongation – Actual to specified yield strength – Actual to specified ultimate strength Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.138 .

Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .139 .Quality Assurance: Concrete Testing • Sample and test according to ACI 318-05 – Slump – Air content – 7 and 28 day strengths – Unit weight • Rate – Once per day per class Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

140 . Design Examples Design for Concrete Structures 11 .NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Concrete Design • • • • • • • • Context in the Provisions Concrete behavior Reference standards Requirements by Seismic Design Category Moment resisting frames Shear walls Other topics Summary Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SEISMIC DESIGN OF

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

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