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University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

[Last revision – June 06]

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T0-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 0:

Table of contents

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T0-2]

List of topics covered in notes

1. Introduction to tunnelling. Methods and equipment

2. Review of some fundamental equations of solid mechanics

3. Elastic solution of a circular tunnel

4. Introduction to numerical modelling

5. Strength and inelastic deformation of rock

6. Elasto-plastic solution of a circular tunnel

7. Review of some fundamental equations of mechanics of beams

8. Elastic solution of a closed annular support

9. Convergence-Conﬁnement Method of tunnel support design

10. Reinforcement in tunnels

11. Stability of shallow tunnels

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

[Last revision – June 06]

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 1:

Introduction to tunnelling. Methods and equipment

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-2]

Tunnelling Methods

Sketch from‘Underground rock excavation. Know-howand equipment’. Atlas Copco

Tunnelling and Mining AB, S-105 23 Stockholm, Sweden.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-3]

Drilling and Blasting Method

The drill and blast cycle:

1. Drilling and surveying

2. Charging with explosives

3. Blasting and ventilation

4. Loading and hauling

5. Scaling and cleaning

6. Rock bolting

(Sketch is adapted from Tamrock Corporation, www.tamrock.sandvik.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-4]

Blasting patterns

(From Hoek E., 2000, ‘Rock Engineering’, Chapter 16, www.rocscience.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-5]

Explosives

(www.austinpowder.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-6]

Drilling rods and drilling bits

(www.mmc.co.jp/english/business/rocktool.html)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-7]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Drilling Jumbos

(www.atlascopco.com and www.tamrock.sandvik.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-8]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Loaders and trucks

(www.toro.sandvik.com and www.casece.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-9]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Excavators

(www.casece.com and www.hitachiconstruction.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-10]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Bolting jumbos

(www.tamrock.sandvik.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-11]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Scalers or breakers

(www.rockbreaker.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-12]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Shotcrete Equipment

A- Manual spraying

B- Robotic spraying

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-13]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Robotic Sprayers

(Model shown is Sika PM500 PC – www.putzmeister.de)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

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[UE-T1-14]

Common equipment found in tunnelling sites

Lifters

Normet equipment (www.normetusa.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-15]

Other equipment found in tunnelling sites

Improvement of tunnel front

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-16]

Other equipment found in tunnelling sites

Mortar injection and backﬁlling equipment

(www.putzmeister.de)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-17]

Other equipment found in tunnelling sites

Pusher leg rock drills

(www.partshq.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-18]

Images of tunnel excavation by traditional method

1. Video showing general description of the Gotthard Tunnel project,

Switzerland (www.alptransit.com).

2. Video showing impressions of excavation at the Gotthard Tunnel,

Switzerland (www.alptransit.com).

3. Video showing blasting at Gotthard Tunnel, Switzerland

(www.alptransit.com).

4. Photographs at various tunnelling sites.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-19]

Tunnel excavation by mechanized means

Classiﬁcation based on the type of ground support

provided by the machine

1. No ground support → Roadheader

2. Periphery → Open face Tunnel Boring Machine

or TBM (used in hard ground)

3. Front → EPBM (Earth Pressure BalanceMachine)

→ Slurry shield (used in soft ground below

the phreatic surface)

(A complete classiﬁcation of mechanized methods of tunnel excavation can be found

inAFTES, 2000, ‘Recommendations for choosing mechanized tunnelling techniques’,

available at www.aftes.asso.fr)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-20]

Roadheaders

(www.vab.sandvik.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-21]

Advance by TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine)

Sketch from‘Underground rock excavation. Know-howand equipment’. Atlas Copco

Tunnelling and Mining AB, S-105 23 Stockholm, Sweden.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-22]

Advance by TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine)

(www.alptransit.ch)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-23]

EPBM - Earth Pressure Balance (1)

Sketches from booklet ‘Hitachi Shield Machines’, Hitachi Construction Machinery

Co., Ltd., www.hitachi-c-m.com

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-24]

EPBM - Earth Pressure Balance (2)

Sketches from booklet ‘Hitachi Shield Machines’, Hitachi Construction Machinery

Co., Ltd., www.hitachi-c-m.com

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-25]

Slurry shield (1)

Sketches from booklet ‘Hitachi Shield Machines’, Hitachi Construction Machinery

Co., Ltd., www.hitachi-c-m.com

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-26]

Slurry shield (2)

Sketches from booklet ‘Hitachi Shield Machines’, Hitachi Construction Machinery

Co., Ltd., www.hitachi-c-m.com

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-27]

Segmental lining used with EPBM and Slurry Shields

(adapted fromAFTES, 2000, ‘The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete

segments installedat the rear of aTunnel BoringMachine’, available at www.aftes.asso.fr)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-28]

Microtunnelling

(www.lovat.com)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T1-29]

Recommended references

• Hoek E., 2000, ‘Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek’.

Available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s Corner’, www.rocscience.com

• U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997, ‘Tunnels and shafts in rock’.

Available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil

• AFTES Recommendations available in English. A series of PDF doc-

uments on different topics related to tunnelling that can be downloaded

at www.aftes.asso.fr

• For a series of short, clearly presented notes with recommendations

about different aspects of tunnelling design with traditional methods

(e.g., face drilling, blasting, rock reinforcement, etc.), see

http://sg01.atlascopco.com/SGSite/default app.asp

•For informationabout GotthardTunnel (includingvideos, photographs,

etc.) see www.alptransit.ch

• For information about on-going tunnel projects around the world see

www.tunnelintelligence.com

• Visit the web sites indicated in the previous slides on particular topics

of interest

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

[Last revision – June 06]

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 2:

Review of some fundamental equations of

solid mechanics

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-2]

Equilibrium of forces – Cartesian coordinate system (2D)

∂σ

x

∂x

+

∂τ

xy

∂y

+ρβ

x

= 0 (1)

∂τ

xy

∂x

+

∂σ

y

∂y

+ρβ

y

= 0 (2)

Note that τ

xy

= τ

yx

(from equilibrium of moments)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-3]

Equilibrium of forces in cylindrical coordinate system (2D)

∂σ

r

∂r

+

1

r

∂τ

rθ

∂θ

+

σ

r

−σ

θ

r

+ρβ

r

= 0 (3)

∂τ

rθ

∂r

+

1

r

∂σ

θ

∂θ

+2

τ

rθ

r

+ρβ

θ

= 0 (4)

Note that σ

rθ

= σ

θr

(from equilibrium of moments)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-4]

Deﬁnition of Strains – Cartesian coordinate system (2D)

ε

x

= −

∂u

x

∂x

(5)

ε

y

= −

∂u

y

∂y

(6)

γ

xy

= −

∂u

x

∂y

+

∂u

y

∂x

(7)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-5]

Strains in cylindrical coordinate system (2D)

ε

r

= −

∂u

r

∂r

(8)

ε

θ

= −

u

r

r

+

1

r

∂u

θ

∂θ

(9)

γ

rθ

= −

∂u

θ

∂r

−

u

θ

r

+

1

r

∂u

r

∂θ

(10)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-6]

Elasticity equations – Isotropic material

General 3D case, for the normal component of the stresses,

σ

x

= (λ +2G)ε

x

+λε

y

+λε

z

(11)

σ

y

= λε

x

+(λ +2G)ε

y

+λε

z

(12)

σ

z

= λε

x

+λε

y

+(λ +2G)ε

z

(13)

In the equations above λ is the Lamé’s constant and G is the Shear

modulus of the material.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-7]

Elasticity equations – Isotropic material

For the shear component of stresses

τ

xy

= Gγ

xy

(14)

τ

yz

= Gγ

yz

(15)

τ

xz

= Gγ

xz

(16)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-8]

Elasticity equations – Isotropic material

Relationship between elastic constants

λ =

Eν

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(17)

G =

E

2(1 +ν)

(18)

In the equations above E is the Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s

ratio.

Note also the following relationships (to be used later when deriving

elastic solutions)

2 (λ +G) =

E

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

=

2G

1 −2ν

(19)

λ +2G =

(1 −ν)E

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(20)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-9]

Plane strain analysis

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T2-10]

Elasticity equations – plane strain

For plane strain conditions, we consider ε

z

= γ

xz

= γ

yz

= 0 in equa-

tions 11 through 16, and therefore these equations become

σ

x

= (λ +2G)ε

x

+λε

y

(21)

σ

y

= λε

x

+(λ +2G)ε

y

(22)

τ

xy

= Gγ

xy

(23)

Expressed in terms of E and ν, the equations are,

σ

x

=

E(1 −ν)

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

ε

x

+

ν

1 −ν

ε

y

(24)

σ

y

=

E(1 −ν)

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

ν

1 −ν

ε

x

+ε

y

(25)

τ

xy

=

E

2(1 +ν)

γ

xy

(26)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-11]

Elasticity equations – plane strain

The equations above can be inverted and expressed in terms of strains

too,

ε

x

=

1 +ν

E

(1 −ν)σ

x

−νσ

y

(27)

ε

y

=

1 +ν

E

(1 −ν)σ

y

−νσ

x

(28)

γ

xy

=

2(1 +ν)

E

τ

xy

(29)

For plane strain problems, it can be shown that

σ

z

= λ(ε

x

+ε

y

) = ν(σ

x

+σ

y

) (30)

The equations presented above are also valid for cylindrical coordinates,

in such case σ

r

∼ σ

x

, σ

θ

∼ σ

y

, σ

rθ

∼ σ

xy

, ε

r

∼ ε

x

, ε

θ

∼ ε

y

and

γ

rθ

∼ γ

xy

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-12]

Example of simple elastic analysis:

Loading of unconﬁned body in plane strain

σ

y

= p

y

ε

y

=

1 −ν

2

E

p

y

u

y

(y) = −

1 −ν

2

E

p

y

y

u

y

(H) = −

1 −ν

2

E

p

y

H

σ

x

= 0

ε

x

= −

(1 +ν)ν

E

p

y

u

x

(x) =

(1 +ν)ν

E

p

y

x

u

x

(B/2) =

(1 +ν)ν

E

p

y

B/2

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-13]

Example of simple elastic analysis:

Loading of conﬁned body in plane strain

σ

y

= p

y

ε

y

=

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

p

y

u

y

(y) = −

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

p

y

y

u

y

(H) = −

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

p

y

H

σ

x

=

ν

1 −ν

p

y

ε

x

= 0

u

x

(x) = 0

u

x

(B/2) = 0

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-14]

Example of simple elastic analysis:

Gravity loading of conﬁned body

σ

y

= ρg(H −y)

ε

y

=

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

ρg(H −y)

u

y

(y) = −

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

ρgy

H −

y

2

u

y

(H) = −

(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)

(1 −ν)E

ρg

H

2

2

σ

x

=

ν

1 −ν

ρg(H −y)

ε

x

= 0

u

x

(x) = 0

u

x

(B/2) = 0

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T2-15]

Recommended References

• Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers

• Jaeger J. C. and N. G.W. Cook, 1979, ‘Fundamentals of rock mechan-

ics’, John Wiley & Sons

• Timoshenko S. P. and J. N. Goodier, 1970, ‘Theory of Elasticity’, 3rd

Edition, Mc. Graw Hill, NewYork

• Chi P.C. and N. Pagano, 1967, ‘Elasticity, Tensor, Dyadic, and Engi-

neering Approaches’ (Originally published by Nostrand Company, Inc.,

Princeton), republished by Dover (1992)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

[Last revision – June 06]

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 3:

Elastic solution of a circular tunnel

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-2]

General form of Lamé’s solution

σ

r

=

σ

B

r

R

2

B

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

−R

2

A

−

σ

B

r

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

R

2

B

−R

2

A

(1)

σ

θ

=

σ

B

r

R

2

B

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

−R

2

A

+

σ

B

r

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

R

2

B

−R

2

A

(2)

u

r

= −

1 −2ν

2G

σ

B

r

R

2

B

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

−R

2

A

r −

σ

B

r

−σ

A

r

R

2

A

R

2

B

2G

R

2

B

−R

2

A

1

r

(3)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-3]

Particular case of Lamé’s solution

Elastic solution of a thin annular ring (1)

We consider R

A

→R (1 −t /R), R

B

→R and r →R in equations (1)

through (3). Also, we consider σ

B

r

→p

s

and σ

A

r

→0.

Then the solution for radial displacement results to be,

u

r

R

= −

2 −2ν −2t /R +(t /R)

2

2G(2 −t /R) t /R

p

s

(4)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-4]

Particular case of Lamé’s solution

Elastic solution of a thin annular ring (2)

Also, with the previous assumptions the solution for the radial and hoop

stresses (at r = R) are, respectively

σ

r

= p

s

(5)

σ

θ

=

2 −2t /R +(t /R)

2

(2 −t /R) t /R

p

s

(6)

Assuming the ratio t /R is small, the thrust T

s

can be computed from

equation (6) as σ

θ

×t , i.e.,

T

s

=

2 −2t /R +(t /R)

2

2 −t /R

R p

s

(7)

For thin annular rings, taking the limit lim

t /R→0

T

s

, we get

T

s

= Rp

s

(8)

Equation (8) is the same equation obtained by applying the theory of

thin curved arches, and is a fundamental relationship used in the design

of tunnel liners.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-5]

Particular case of Lamé’s solution

Elastic medium loaded at inﬁnity – no excavation

We consider R

A

→ 0, R

B

→ ∞, σ

A

r

→ 0 and σ

B

r

= σ

o

in equations

(1), (2) and (3).

Then Lamé’s solution results to be

σ

r

= σ

θ

= σ

o

(9)

u

r

= −

1 −2ν

2G

σ

o

r (10)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T3-6]

Particular case of Lamé’s solution

Elastic excavated medium — loaded at inﬁnity and inside the opening

We consider R

A

= R, R

B

→∞(or R

A

/R

B

→0),

σ

A

r

= p

i

and σ

B

r

= σ

o

in equations (1), (2) and (3).

The solution for stresses are,

σ

r

= σ

o

−(σ

o

−p

i

)

R

r

2

(11)

σ

θ

= σ

o

+(σ

o

−p

i

)

R

r

2

(12)

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[UE-T3-7]

Particular case of Lamé’s solution

Elastic excavated medium — loaded at inﬁnity and inside the opening

The solution for the radial displacement is

u

TOT

r

= u

INI

r

+u

IND

r

(13)

where

u

INI

r

= −

1 −2ν

2G

σ

o

r (14)

u

IND

r

= −

1

2G

(σ

o

−p

i

)

R

2

r

(15)

In the pre-stressed medium where excavation takes place the induced

component of displacement has engineering signiﬁcance only, thus u

r

=

u

IND

r

, or

u

r

= −

1

2G

(σ

o

−p

i

)

R

2

r

(16)

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[UE-T3-8]

Lamé’s solution for a circular tunnel — graphical representation

The solution for stresses is,

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[UE-T3-9]

Lamé’s solution for a circular tunnel — graphical representation

The stresses can be represented in a σ

θ

vs σ

r

diagram as follows (this is

useful for deriving the elasto-platic solution of a circular tunnel)

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[UE-T3-10]

Lamé’s solution for a circular tunnel — graphical representation

The solution for displacements is

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[UE-T3-11]

Example of elastic analysis of a tunnel (1)

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[UE-T3-12]

Example of elastic analysis of a tunnel (2)

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[UE-T3-13]

Example of elastic analysis of a tunnel (3)

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[UE-T3-14]

Elastic solutions for tunnel problems — Historical perspective (1)

From Fairhurst, C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002 (see Recommended References)

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[UE-T3-15]

Elastic solutions for tunnel problems — Historical perspective (2)

From Fairhurst, C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002 (see Recommended References)

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[UE-T3-16]

Elastic solutions for tunnel problems — Historical perspective (3)

From Fairhurst, C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002 (see Recommended References)

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[UE-T3-17]

Recommended References

• Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

• Jaeger J. C. and N. G.W. Cook, 1979, ‘Fundamentals of rock mechan-

ics’, John Wiley & Sons.

• Savin G. N. ‘Stress Concentration Around Holes’, Pergamon Press,

London, 1961.

• Fairhurst, C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002, ‘Closing the circle’. In J.

Labuz and J. Bentler (Eds.), Proceedings of the 50 th Annual Geotech-

nical Engineering Conference. St. Paul, Minnesota, February 22, 2002.

University of Minnesota.

ce.umn.edu

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[Last revision – June 06]

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[UE-T4-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 4:

Introduction to numerical modelling

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

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[UE-T4-2]

Classiﬁcation of methods of analysis in geomechanics

Adapted from Potts D. et al., 2002, ‘Guidelines for the use of advanced numerical

analysis in geotechnical engineering’, Thomas Telford Publishing, London.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T4-3]

Classiﬁcation of numerical methods used in rock mechanics

1. Finite Element Method (FEM)

2. Boundary Element Method (BEM)

3. Finite Difference Method (FDM)

4. Discrete Element Method (DEM)

See, for example, Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers

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[UE-T4-4]

Commercial and freeware software used in rock mechanics problems

1. Finite Element Method (FEM)

→ Phase2 (www.rocscience.com)

→ DEMON —available in reference (∗)

2. Boundary Element Method (BEM)

→ Examine2D (www.rocscience.com)

→ TWOFS/TWODD/TWOBI —available in reference (∗∗)

3. Finite Difference Method (FDM)

→ FLAC/FLAC3D (www.itascacg.com)

4. Discrete Element Method (DEM)

→ UDEC/3DEC/PFC/PFC3D (www.itascacg.com)

→ DDA —available at www.ce.berkeley.edu/geo/research/DDA

(∗) Beer G. and J. O. ‘Watson, Introduction to Finite and Boundary Element Methods

for Engineers’. John Wiley & Sons, 1992

(∗∗) Crouch S. L. and A. M. Starﬁeld. ‘Boundary Element Methods in Solid Mechan-

ics: With Application in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering’. George Allen

& Unwin, London, 1983

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[UE-T4-5]

Example of analysis using FEM. Stress redistribution around tunnel

From Zienkiewicz O.C. and R.L. Taylor, 2000, ‘The Finite Element Method’, Volume

I: The Basis. 5th Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann

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[UE-T4-6]

Example of analysis using FEM. Rock-support interaction

From Wittke W., 1990, ‘Rock Mechanics. Theory and Applications with Case Histo-

ries’. Springer-Verlag

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[UE-T4-7]

Example of analysis using BEM. Excavation near a fault

From Crouch S. L. and A. M. Starﬁeld. ‘Boundary Element Methods in Solid Me-

chanics: With Application in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering’. George

Allen & Unwin, London, 1983

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[UE-T4-8]

Example of analysis using DEM. Tunnel in jointed rock mass

From Pande G.N., Beer G. and J.R. Williams, 1990, ‘Numerical Methods in Rock

Mechanics’. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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[UE-T4-9]

Example of advanced numerical modelling

FLAC3D analysis of rockbolt loading behind a TBM

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres in collaboration with Geodata Spa (www.geodata.it),

Torino, Italy (2004). FLAC3D is developed and commercialized by Itasca

(www.itascacg.com)

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[UE-T4-10]

Example of advanced numerical modelling

FLAC3D analysis of subsidence due to EPBM excavation (1)

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres in collaboration with Geodata Spa (www.geodata.it),

Torino, Italy (2004) — FLAC3D is developed and commercialized by Itasca

(www.itascacg.com)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T4-11]

Example of advanced numerical modelling

FLAC3D analysis of subsidence due to EPBM excavation (2)

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres in collaboration with Geodata Spa (www.geodata.it),

Torino, Italy (2004) — FLAC3D is developed and commercialized by Itasca

(www.itascacg.com)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T4-12]

Example of advanced modelling

FLAC3D thermo-mechanical analysis of underground repository (1)

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres, B. Damjanac and T. Brandshug from Itasca Con-

sulting Group, Minneapolis (2002) — FLAC3D is developed and commercialized by

Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

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Department of Civil Engineering

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T4-13]

Example of advanced modelling

FLAC3D thermo-mechanical analysis of underground repository (2)

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres, B. Damjanac and T. Brandshug from Itasca Con-

sulting Group, Minneapolis (2002) — FLAC3D is developed and commercialized by

Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T4-14]

Example of advanced numerical modelling

UDEC analysis of stabilizing effect of rockbolts in granular material

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres in collaboration with Dr. E. Hoek (2003). Descrip-

tion of the physical model and animated version of the UDEC models available at

‘Hoek’s corner’, ‘Discussion Papers’, www.rocscience.com — UDEC is developed

and commercialized by Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T4-15]

Example of advanced modelling

Stability analysis of a large landslide — 3DEC analysis

Modelling by C. Carranza-Torres, in collaboration with Prof. M. Diederichs and Prof.

J. Hutchinson, Geological Engineering Group (www.geol.ca), Queen’s University, On-

tario (2006) —3DECis developed and commercialized by Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

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[UE-T4-16]

Example of advanced modelling

PFC2D/PFC3D modelling of forces generated by a block of rock

that breaks at impact with metal canister (1)

ModellingbyC. Carranza-Torres incollaborationwithProf. C. Fairhurst (see Fairhurst,

C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002, ‘Closing the circle’. In J. Labuz and J. Bentler (Eds.),

Proceedings of the 50 th Annual Geotechnical Engineering Conference. St. Paul,

Minnesota, February 22, 2002. University of Minnesota.) — PFC2D and PFC3D are

developed and commercialized by Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T4-17]

Example of advanced modelling

PFC2D/PFC3D modelling of forces generated by a block of rock

that breaks at impact with metal canister (2)

ModellingbyC. Carranza-Torres incollaborationwithProf. C. Fairhurst (see Fairhurst,

C. and C. Carranza-Torres, 2002, ‘Closing the circle’. In J. Labuz and J. Bentler (Eds.),

Proceedings of the 50 th Annual Geotechnical Engineering Conference. St. Paul,

Minnesota, February 22, 2002. University of Minnesota.) — PFC2D and PFC3D are

developed and commercialized by Itasca (www.itascacg.com)

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T4-18]

The Finite Element Method (FEM) – Basic steps

Note: Steps marked with ‘∗’ require user intervention

(Adapted from Desai and Christian, 1977, ‘Numerical Method in Geotechnical Engi-

neering’, Chapter 1, John Wiley)

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[UE-T4-19]

FEM Analysis

Step 1: Problem deﬁnition

F

1

= 15.81 kN

F

x1

= 5 kN

F

y1

= 15 kN

α

1

= 18.43

◦

F

2

= 22.36 kN

F

x2

= 10 kN

F

y2

= 20 kN

α

2

= 26.57

◦

ρ = 2500 kg/m

3

E = 10 GPa

ν = 0.25

σ

o

x

= 200 kPa

σ

o

y

= 100 kPa

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[UE-T4-20]

FEM Analysis

Step 2: Selection of shape functions and discretization (1)

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FEM Analysis

Step 2: Selection of shape functions and discretization (2)

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[UE-T4-22]

FEM Analysis

Step 2: Selection of shape functions and discretization (3)

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[UE-T4-23]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (1)

We will illustrate the analysis for the case of 3-Node triangular elements

The vector of nodal displacements {u

e

} and the vector of nodal forces

{q

e

} are

{u

e

} =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

u

xi

u

yi

u

xj

u

yj

u

xk

u

yk

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

{q

e

} =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

q

xi

q

yi

q

xj

q

yj

q

xk

q

yk

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

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[UE-T4-24]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (2)

The vector of (element) initial stresses {σ

e

o

} and the vector of (element)

body forces {b

e

} are

{σ

e

o

} =

_

_

_

σ

o

x

σ

o

y

τ

o

xy

_

_

_

{b

e

} =

_

b

x

b

y

_

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[UE-T4-25]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (3)

The objective of the Step 3 is to compute the relationship between the

vector of nodal displacements {u

e

} and the vector of nodal/element

forces {q

e

}, {σ

e

o

} and {b

e

}.

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[UE-T4-26]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (4)

For an elastic material, it can be shown that the following relationship

between the vectors {q

e

}, {u

e

} and {f

e

} holds,

_

q

e

_

=

_

K

e

_ _

u

e

_

+

_

f

e

_

(1)

where [K

e

] is the ‘stiffness’ matrix that depends on the shape function

and the elastic properties of the material in the element, while the {f

e

}

is the ‘initial-loading/body-force’ vector, that depends on the vector of

initial stresses

_

σ

e

o

_

and the vector of body forces {b

e

}.

(Any book on FEM in solid mechanics will include a demonstration the relation-

ship above —e.g., see Zienkiewicz O.C. and R.L. Taylor, 2000, ‘The Finite Element

Method’, Volume I: The Basis. 5th Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann; for a brief

demonstration, also see Brady and Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Underground

Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers)

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[UE-T4-27]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (5)

For example, for the element ‘a’ in the ﬁgure, equation (1), is written as

_

q

a

_

=

_

K

a

_ _

u

a

_

+

_

f

a

_

where the vectors and matrices in the equation above involve the nodes

connected to the element only.

For example, the vectors {q

a

}, {u

a

} and {f

a

} are, respectively

_

q

a

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

q

a

x1

q

a

y1

q

a

x2

q

a

y2

q

a

x4

q

a

y4

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

u

a

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

u

a

x1

u

a

y1

u

a

x2

u

a

y2

u

a

x4

u

a

y4

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

f

a

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

f

a

x1

f

a

y1

f

a

x2

f

a

y2

f

a

x4

f

a

y4

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

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[UE-T4-28]

FEM Analysis

Step 3: Derivation of element equations (6)

while the matrix [K

a

] is

_

K

a

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

K

a

x11

0 K

a

x12

0 K

a

x14

0

0 K

a

y11

0 K

a

y12

0 K

a

y14

K

a

x21

0 K

a

x22

0 K

a

x24

0

0 K

a

y21

0 K

a

y22

0 K

a

y24

K

a

x41

0 K

a

x42

0 K

a

x44

0

0 K

a

y41

0 K

a

y42

0 K

a

y44

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Note: at this stage (Step 3) only the matrix [K

a

] and the vector {f

a

}

can be computed for each element, based on the geometry, material

properties and loading (a ﬁnite element program will compute and store

the elements of these matrices and vectors for use in Step 4)

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[UE-T4-29]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (1)

The (matrix) equation representing ‘global’ equilibrium of the system

can be expressed as

_

r

G

_

=

_

K

G

_ _

u

G

_

+

_

f

G

_

(2)

The different vectors/matrices in equation (2) are described separately

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[UE-T4-30]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (2)

The vector of nodal reaction forces

_

r

G

_

in equation (2) is

_

r

G

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

r

G

x1

r

G

y1

r

G

x2

r

G

y2

r

G

x3

r

G

y3

.

.

.

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

where

_

r

G

x1

= F

x1

(k)

r

G

y1

= −F

y1

(k)

_

r

G

x2

= R

xA

(u)

r

G

y2

= R

yA

(u)

_

r

G

x3

= 0 (k)

r

G

y3

= 0 (k)

_

r

G

x4

= 0 (k)

r

G

y4

= 0 (k)

Note: ‘(k)’ means known quantity; ‘(u)’ means unknown quantity

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[UE-T4-31]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (3)

The vector of nodal displacements forces

_

u

G

_

in equation (2) is

{u

G

} =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

u

G

x1

u

G

y1

u

G

x2

u

G

y2

u

G

x3

u

G

y3

.

.

.

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

where

_

u

G

x1

= u

x1

(u)

u

G

y1

= u

y1

(u)

_

u

G

x2

= 0 (k)

u

G

y2

= 0 (k)

_

u

G

x3

= u

x3

(u)

u

G

y3

= u

y3

(u)

_

u

G

x4

= u

x4

(u)

u

G

y4

= u

y4

(u)

Note: ‘(k)’ means known quantity; ‘(u)’ means unknown quantity

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[UE-T4-32]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (4)

The vector of initial-stress/body-forces

_

f

G

_

in equation (2) is

{f

G

} =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

f

G

x1

f

G

y1

f

G

x2

f

G

y2

f

G

x3

f

G

y3

.

.

.

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

where

_

f

G

x1

= f

a

x1

+ f

e

x1

f

G

y1

= f

a

y1

+ f

e

y1

_

f

G

x2

= f

a

x2

+ f

b

x2

f

G

y2

= f

a

y2

+ f

b

y2

_

f

G

x3

= f

b

x3

+ f

c

x3

f

G

y3

= f

b

y3

+ f

c

y3

_

f

G

x4

= f

a

x4

+ f

b

x4

+ f

c

x4

+ f

d

x4

+ f

e

x4

f

G

y4

= f

a

y4

+ f

b

y4

+ f

c

y4

+ f

d

y4

+ f

e

y4

Note: All quantities in the vector

_

f

G

_

are known

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[UE-T4-33]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (5)

The ‘global’ stiffness matrix

_

K

G

_

in equation (2) is

[K

G

] =

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

K

G

x11

0 K

G

x12

0 K

G

x13

0 . . .

0 K

G

y11

0 K

G

y12

0 K

G

y13

. . .

K

G

x21

0 K

G

x22

0 K

G

x23

0 . . .

0 K

G

y21

0 K

G

y22

0 K

G

y23

. . .

K

G

x31

0 K

G

x32

0 K

G

x33

0 . . .

0 K

G

y31

0 K

G

y32

0 K

G

y33

. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

where

_

K

G

x11

= K

a

x11

+ K

e

x11

K

G

y11

= K

a

y11

+ K

e

y11

_

K

G

x12

= K

a

x12

K

G

y12

= K

a

y12

_

K

G

x13

= K

G

x14

= 0

K

G

y13

= K

G

y14

= 0

_

K

G

x21

= K

a

x21

K

G

y21

= K

a

y21

_

K

G

x22

= K

a

x22

+ K

b

x22

K

G

y22

= K

a

y22

+ K

b

y22

_

K

G

x23

= K

b

x23

K

G

y23

= K

b

y23

_

K

G

x24

= K

a

x24

+ K

b

x24

K

G

y24

= K

a

y24

+ K

b

y24

_

K

G

x31

= 0

K

G

y31

= 0

_

K

G

x32

= K

b

x32

K

G

y32

= K

b

y32

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[UE-T4-34]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (6)

_

K

G

x33

= K

b

x33

+ K

c

x33

K

G

y33

= K

b

y33

+ K

c

y33

_

K

G

x34

= K

b

x34

+ K

c

x34

K

G

y34

= K

b

y34

+ K

c

y34

_

K

G

x41

= K

a

x41

+ K

e

x41

K

G

y41

= K

a

y41

+ K

e

y41

_

K

G

x42

= K

a

x42

+ K

b

x42

K

G

y42

= K

a

y42

+ K

b

y42

_

K

G

x43

= K

b

x43

+ K

c

x43

K

G

y43

= K

b

y43

+ K

c

y43

_

K

G

x44

= K

a

x44

+ K

b

x44

+ K

c

x44

+ K

d

x44

K

G

y44

= K

a

y44

+ K

b

y44

+ K

c

y44

+ K

d

y44

Note: All quantities in the matrix

_

K

G

_

are known

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[UE-T4-35]

FEM Analysis

Step 4: Assembling the element properties to form global equations (7)

As seen in previous slides, the ‘global’ equation (2) represents a system

of 2 × N equations with 2 × N unknowns (where N is the number of

nodes in the mesh).

This system of equations can be solved using direct or iterative methods

of matrix algebra (the most commonly used method is perhaps the Gauss

Elimination Method).

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[UE-T4-36]

FEM Analysis

Step 5: Computation of primary and secondary quantities (1)

Solution of the global equilibrium equation (2) deﬁnes the nodal dis-

placement vector for all elements in the mesh.

Consider a point P of coordinates x and y inside an arbitrary element

for which the vector of nodal displacements is {u

e

} (see Step 3).

The displacement vector {u} for the point can be computed as follows

{u} = [N] {u

e

} (3)

where

{u} =

_

u

x

u

y

_

and [N] is a matrix that depends on the shape function chosen when the

mesh was created (Step 2).

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[UE-T4-37]

FEM Analysis

Step 5: Computation of primary and secondary quantities (2)

For example, for the case of 3-Node triangular element with a linear

shape function, the matrix [N] is

[N] =

_

N

i

0 N

j

0 N

k

0

0 N

i

0 N

j

0 N

k

_

where

N

i

=

_

(x

j

y

k

− x

k

y

j

) + x(y

j

− y

k

) + y(x

k

− x

j

)

_

/(2A)

N

j

= [(x

k

y

i

− x

i

y

k

) + x(y

k

− y

i

) + y(x

i

− x

k

)] /(2A)

N

k

=

_

(x

i

y

j

− x

j

y

i

) + x(y

i

− y

j

) + y(x

j

− x

i

)

_

/(2A)

and

A =

1

2

det

_

_

1 x

i

y

i

1 x

j

y

j

1 x

k

y

k

_

_

Note: the coefﬁcients in the expressions N

i

, N

j

and N

k

above are obtained from the

condition that the scalar function f (x, y) —see Step 2— inside the element is a linear

function of the coordinates x and y of the point, i.e.,

f (x, y) = α

1

+ α

2

x + α

3

y

and that the known values of the function are recovered at the nodes. This implies

that the coefﬁcients α

1

, α

2

and α

3

in the expression above, must satisfy the following

system of equations

f

i

= α

1

+ α

2

x

i

+ α

3

y

i

f

j

= α

1

+ α

2

x

j

+ α

3

y

j

f

k

= α

1

+ α

2

x

k

+ α

3

y

k

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[UE-T4-38]

FEM Analysis

Step 5: Computation of primary and secondary quantities (3)

The strain and stress vectors {ε} and {σ}, can be similarly computed at

any point P based on the displacement vector of the element containing

the point, i.e.,

{ε} = [L] {u} = [L] [N] {u

e

} (4)

and

{σ} = [D] {ε} + {σ

o

} (5)

where

{σ} =

_

_

_

σ

x

σ

y

τ

xy

_

_

_

{ε} =

_

_

_

ε

x

ε

y

γ

xy

_

_

_

According to basic equations of solid mechanics (see Topic 2 in these

series of notes) the matrix [L] in equation (4) is formed by the following

differential operators that ‘affect’ the shape function [N],

[L] =

_

_

∂/∂x 0

0 ∂/∂y

∂/∂y ∂/∂x

_

_

Also, for an elastic isotropic material in plane strain conditions, the

matrix [D] in equation (5) is

[D] =

E(1 − ν)

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)

_

_

1

ν

1−ν

0

ν

1−ν

1 0

0 0

1−2ν

2(1−ν)

_

_

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[UE-T4-39]

FEM Analysis

Step 6: Inspection of results

The ﬁgure above represents contours of total displacement u

r

and maximum princi-

pal stress σ

1

, respectively for the problem outlined in Step 1. The views have been

generated with the FEM code Phase2 (www.rocscience.com)

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[UE-T4-40]

The Finite Element software Phase2 – Pre-Processing

Phase2 is developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com)

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[UE-T4-41]

The Finite Element software Phase2 – Processing

Phase2 is developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com)

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[UE-T4-42]

The Finite Element software Phase2 – Post-Processing

Phase2 is developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com)

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[UE-T4-43]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (1)

1- Deﬁne the project settings (menuoptionAnalysis/Project Settings. . . ).

This controls basic aspects of the model to be created and solved —e.g.,

plane strain or axi-symmetry problem, number of stages (of loading or

excavation) in the problem, system of units, etc.

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[UE-T4-44]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (2)

2- Deﬁne the geometry of the problem (menu option Boundaries/. . . ).

This normally involves creating excavations (option . . . /Add Excava-

tion), external boundaries (option . . . /Add External) and material

boundaries (option . . . /Add Material Boundary)

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[UE-T4-45]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (3)

3- Deﬁne the mesh (menu option Mesh/. . . ). This step can be sub-

divided in three sub-steps:

3a - Choose the type of elements to use (e.g., 3 nodes, 6 nodes

triangular elements, etc.). This is achieved with the menu option

Mesh/Mesh Setup. . . .

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[UE-T4-46]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (4)

3b - Discretize the boundaries of the model (the excavation,

the external boundary, the material boundary, etc.). Note that

the discretization of the boundaries deﬁnes the position of the

nodes of the future mesh on these boundaries, and therefore, con-

trols the density of elements when the mesh is actually gener-

ated in the next sub-step. This is achieved with the menu option

Mesh/Discretize, Mesh/Custom Discretize, etc.

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[UE-T4-47]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (5)

3c - Mesh the model. This is achieved with the menu option

Mesh/Mesh. Note that the mesh can be improved/modiﬁed (e.g.,

density and shape of elements in the mesh) by using the options

Mesh/Increase Mesh Element Density and Mesh/Mapped Mesh-

ing —this last option is useful to get regular (or mapped) meshes.

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[UE-T4-48]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (6)

4- Deﬁne loading of the model (menu option Loading. . . ). Examples of

loading involve ﬁeld loading (initial in-situ stresses before excavation)

and distributedloading at the boundaries of the model (e.g., torepresent

external loading such as surcharges).

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[UE-T4-49]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (7)

5- Deﬁne the boundary restrains for the model (menu option Displace-

ments. . . ). Besides options to apply restrains in the x, y or both, x and

y directions, displacement boundary conditions (a ﬁne value displace-

ment) can be speciﬁed for the boundaries.

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[UE-T4-50]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (8)

6- Specify material properties to be used in the model (menu option

Properties/Deﬁne Materials. . . ).

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[UE-T4-51]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (9)

7- Assign material properties to different regions in the model (menu

option Properties/Assign Properties. . . ).

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[UE-T4-52]

Basic steps for setting-up and solving a model in Phase2 (10)

8- Solve the model (menu option Analysis/Compute).

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[UE-T4-53]

Extracting results from a model with the program Interpret (1)

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[UE-T4-54]

Extracting results from a model with the program Interpret (2)

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[UE-T4-55]

Extracting results from a model with the program Interpret (3)

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[UE-T4-56]

Recommended References

• All references and web sites mentioned in previous slides.

• If interested in the Finite Element Method, consider registering in the

course CE 8401, ‘Fundamentals of Finite Element Method’, offered by

Professor H. Stolarski at the Department of Civil Engineering.

• If interested in the Boundary Element Method, consider registering

in the courses CE 8336, ‘Boundary Element Method’ (Parts I and II),

offered by Professor S. Crouch and Professor S. Mogilevskaya at the

Department of Civil Engineering.

• To learn all features of Phase2, attempt completing all 18 tutorials

available from the menu option Help Topics/Contents/Tutorials. To re-

solve successfully the homework on this topic (Introduction to Numer-

ical Modelling) distributed in class, complete at least the ﬁrst tutorial

(‘01 Quick Start Tutorial’).

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[UE-T5-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 5:

Strength and inelastic deformation of rock

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

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[UE-T5-2]

Strength of intact rock samples from triaxial tests

From Hoek E. and E.T. Brown (1980).

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[UE-T5-3]

Strength of intact rock. Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb models

The Hoek-Brown failure criterion is

σ

1

= σ

3

+σ

ci

m

i

σ

3

σ

ci

+1 (1)

where σ

ci

is the unconﬁned compression strength of the rock and m

i

is a

ﬁtting parameter determined from triaxial test results (see, for example,

Hoek and Brown, 1980).

The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is

σ

1

= K

φ

σ

3

+σ

c

(2)

where σ

c

is the unconﬁned compression strength of the rock and K

φ

is

the passive reaction coefﬁcient (a function of the friction angle φ).

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[UE-T5-4]

Strength of rock in terms of σ

1

vs. σ

3

and τ

s

vs. σ

n

components (1)

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[UE-T5-5]

Strength of rock in terms of σ

1

vs. σ

3

and τ

s

vs. σ

n

components (2)

The following relationships, derived fromgeometrical considerations in

a Mohr circle (see previous slide), allow to relate the shear and normal

stresses with the principal stresses at the state of failure

σ

n

=

σ

1

+σ

3

2

−

σ

1

−σ

3

2

dσ

1

/dσ

3

−1

dσ

1

/dσ

3

+1

(3)

τ

s

= (σ

1

−σ

3

)

√

dσ

1

/dσ

3

dσ

1

/dσ

3

+1

(4)

Note: the equations above were presented in Balmer (1952), and are

referred to as Balmer’s equations in Rock Mechanics literature —see

Hoek and Brown (1980).

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[UE-T5-6]

Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion in σ

1

vs. σ

3

and τ

s

vs. σ

n

spaces

For a Mohr-Coulomb material, the failure criterion in terms of shear and

normal stresses is

τ

s

= σ

n

tan φ +c (5)

Balmer’s equations allow the following relationships between the pa-

rameters K

φ

and σ

c

(in equation 2) and φ and c (in equation 5) to be

obtained

K

φ

=

1 +sin φ

1 −sin φ

(6)

and

c =

1 −sin φ

2 cos φ

σ

c

=

σ

c

2

K

φ

(7)

Deformability of intact rock. The elastic perfectly plastic model (1)

Deformability of intact rock. The elastic perfectly plastic model (2)

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[UE-T5-9]

Plastic deformation. Flow rule (1)

According to plasticity theory —e.g., Hill (1950), Kachanov (1971)—

the plastic strain (rate) vector is deﬁned as the gradient of the potential

H(σ

1

, σ

3

), i.e.,

˙ ε

p

1

= λ

∂H

∂σ

1

(8)

˙ ε

p

3

= λ

∂H

∂σ

3

(9)

where λ is a positive scalar.

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[UE-T5-10]

Plastic deformation. Flow rule (2)

We can consider, for example, a linear ﬂow rule, for which the potential

H(σ

1

, σ

3

) is

H(σ

1

, σ

3

) = σ

1

−σ

3

K

ψ

= 0 (10)

where K

ψ

is a function of the dilation angle ψ

K

ψ

=

1 +sin ψ

1 −sin ψ

(11)

(Note the similarity of the coefﬁcient K

ψ

in equation (11) with the

coefﬁcient K

φ

in equation 6)

From equations (8), (9) and (10)

˙ ε

p

1

= λ (12)

˙ ε

p

3

= −λK

ψ

(13)

and therefore

˙ ε

p

3

/˙ ε

p

1

= −K

ψ

(14)

Thus, if the dilation angle is ψ = 0

◦

, then K

ψ

= 1 and ˙ ε

p

3

= −˙ ε

p

1

and

therefore there is no material volume change in the plastic state.

If, for example, the dilation angle is ψ = 30

◦

K

ψ

= 3 and ˙ ε

3

= −3˙ ε

1

,

then the material shows signiﬁcant volume expansion in the plastic state.

Note that a condition of mechanical stability requires that ψ ≤ φ.

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[UE-T5-11]

Plastic deformation. Flow rule (3)

For the triaxial test introduced in previous slides, the behavior of the

material in the plastic state is as follows:

Note: the slopes indicated in the diagrams above are obtained from the

analytical solution of the elasto-plastic problem of material loading in

triaxial conditions. The demonstration is simple but too lengthy to be

included in these notes.

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[UE-T5-12]

Application example

Triaxial compression test in Hoek-Brown material (1)

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Application example

Triaxial compression test in Hoek-Brown material (2)

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[UE-T5-14]

Application example

Triaxial compression test in Hoek-Brown material (3)

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[UE-T5-15]

Strength of rock masses. Generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion

For the implementation of the generalized form of the Hoek-Brown

failure criterion, see freeware software RocLab (www.rocscience.com)

[The Help menu in RocLab provides a link to the reference Hoek,

Carranza-Torres and Corkum (2002) where the equations above are de-

scribed.]

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[UE-T5-16]

Strength of rock masses. Charts for the determination of GSI (1)

General charts for determination of the Geological Strength Index (GSI)

have been introduced in Hoek, Kaiser and Bawden (1995) and Hoek and

Brown (1997). The chart above is from the freeware software RocLab,

available at www.rocscience.com.

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[UE-T5-17]

Strength of rock masses. Charts for the determination of GSI (2)

Marinos and Hoek (2001) and Hoek, Marinos and Marinos (2005) dis-

cuss in detail the estimation of GSI for heterogeneous, undisturbed,

sedimetary rock masses such as Flysch and Molasses. These common

type of sedimentaryrocks are foundinnorthernGreece, where more than

600 km of tunnels are being completed as part of one of world largest

on-going highway projects (www.egnatia.gr). The chart above is from

the freeware software RocLab, available at www.rocscience.com.

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[UE-T5-18]

Deformability of rock masses (1)

From analysis of in situ deformability measurements tests from under-

ground excavation projects in China and Taiwan, Hoek and Diederichs

(2005) propose the following equation for determining the rock mass

deformability modulus E

rm

E

rm

= E

i

0.02 +

1 −D/2

1 +exp

60+15D−GSI

11

(15)

In the equation above, E

i

is the deformability modulus of the intact rock,

GSI is the Geological Strength Index and D is the disturbance Factor.

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[UE-T5-19]

Deformability of rock masses (2)

The diagram below (from Hoek and Diederichs, 2005) shows how the

proposed expression plots together with the cases used to derive the

expression

The Hoek-Diederichs relationship is implemented in the freeware soft-

ware RocLab (www.rocscience.com), as an alternative expression to

another relationship proposed by Seraﬁm J.L. and Pereira (1983) —the

relationship by Seraﬁm and Pereira does not relate the deformability of

rock mass with the GSI, nor the factor D, but with another rating called

the Bieniawski rock mass rating, RMR (this will be discussed in Topic

12, ‘Classiﬁcation systems for tunnel design’).

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[UE-T5-20]

References mentioned in the slides (1)

• Hoek, E. & Brown, E. T. (1980), ‘Underground Excavations in Rock’.

London: The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

•Balmer, G. (1952), ‘Ageneral analytical solutionfor Mohr’s envelope’.

Am. Soc. Test. Mat. (52), 1260– 1271.

• Hill R. (1950), ‘The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity’. Oxford

Science Publications.

• Kachanov, L. M. (1971), ‘Foundations of the Theory of Plasticity’.

North Holland Publishing Company.

• Hoek E., C. Carranza-Torres, and B. Corkum (2002), ‘Hoek-Brown

failure criterion – 2002 edition’. In Hammah R. et al. (Eds.), Proceed-

ings of the 5th NorthAmerican Rock Mechanics Symposium: NARMS-

TAC 2002. Toronto – 10 July 2002, pages 267–273.

• Hoek E., P. K. Kaiser, and W. F. Bawden (1995), ‘Support of Under-

ground Excavations in Hard Rock’. Balkema, Rotterdam.

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[UE-T5-21]

References mentioned in the slides (2)

• Hoek, E. and E. T. Brown (1997), ‘Practical estimates of rock mass

strength’. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 34(8):1165–1186.

• Marinos, P.G. and Hoek, E. (2001), ‘Estimating the geotechnical prop-

erties of heterogeneous rock masses such as Flysch’. Bull. Engg. Geol.

Env. 60, 85-92.

• Hoek E., P.G. Marinos, V.P. Marinos (2005), ‘Characterization and en-

gineering properties of tectonically undisturbed but lithologically varied

sedimentary rock masses’. International Journal of Rock Mechanics &

Mining Sciences, 42, 277–285.

• Hoek E., M.S. Diederichs (2006), ‘Empirical estimation of rock mass

modulus’. International Journal of Rock Mechanics &Mining Sciences

43, 203–215.

• SeraﬁmJ.L. and Pereira J.P. (1983), ‘Consideration of the geomechan-

ical classiﬁcation of Bieniawski’. Proc. Int. Symp. on Engineering

Geology and Underground Construction, Lisbon. 1(II): 33-44.

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[UE-T5-22]

Other recommended references

• Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown (2004), ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

• Hudson J.A. and Harrison J.P. (1997), ‘Engineering Rock Mechanics.

An Introduction to the Principles’. Pergamon.

• Jaeger J. C. and N. G.W. Cook (1979), ‘Fundamentals of rock me-

chanics’, John Wiley & Sons.

• Hoek E. (2000), ‘Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek’.

Available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s Corner’, www.rocscience.com.

• Hoek, E., Marinos, P. and Benissi, M. (1998), ‘Applicability of the Ge-

ological Strength Index (GSI) classiﬁcation for very weak and sheared

rock masses. The case of the Athens Schist Formation’. Bull. Engg.

Geol. Env. 57(2), 151-160.

• Hoek, E. and Karzulovic, A. (2000), ‘Rock-Mass Properties for Sur-

face Mines’. In W. Hustrulid et al. (Eds.), Slope Stability in Surface

Mining, pp. 59–67. Littleton, CO: Society for Mining, Metallurgical

and Exploration (SME).

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[UE-T6-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 6:

Elasto-plastic solution of a circular tunnel

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

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[UE-T6-2]

Application examples of elasto-plastic solution of circular openings

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[UE-T6-3]

Elasto-plastic solution of a circular opening. Problem statement

If p

i

< p

cr

i

the problem is characterized by two regions:

1- Elastic region r ≥ R

p

2- Plastic region r ≤ R

p

If p

i

≥ p

cr

i

the problem is fully elastic (the solution is given by Lamé’s

solution).

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[UE-T6-4]

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

(1)

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

can be found as the intersection of

the failure envelope and Lamé’s representation of the stress state in the

reference system σ

θ

∼ σ

1

vs σ

r

∼ σ

3

.

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[UE-T6-5]

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

(2)

Lamé’s solution for stresses, with σ

θ

replaced by σ

1

and σ

r

replaced by

σ

3

, is

σ

1

= σ

o

+(σ

o

−p

i

)

_

R

r

_

2

(1)

σ

3

= σ

o

−(σ

o

−p

i

)

_

R

r

_

2

(2)

Equating the last part of the right-hand side of the equations above we

have

σ

1

= 2σ

o

−σ

3

(3)

The failure criterion of the material, deﬁnes the relationship between

the principal stresses σ

1

and σ

3

at failure, and can be written as follows

σ

1

= f (σ

3

) (4)

where f is a linear function (of the coefﬁcients K

φ

and σ

c

) in the case

of Mohr-Coulomb material, or a parabolic function (of the coefﬁcients

m

i

and σ

ci

) in the case of Hoek-Brown material.

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[UE-T6-6]

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

(3)

Equating the right-hand side of equations (3) and (4), making σ

3

= p

cr

i

—see diagram in previous slide— the critical internal pressure p

cr

i

is

found from the solution of the following equation

2σ

o

−p

cr

i

= f (p

cr

i

) (5)

The equation above, that can be solved in closed-form for commonly

used failure functions f , deﬁnes the critical internal pressure below

which the plastic zone develops around the tunnel —this critical internal

pressure is also equal to the radial stress at the elasto-plastic boundary

(see previous diagram).

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[UE-T6-7]

Solution for the elastic region (r ≥ R

p

)

The solution for stresses and displacements in the elastic region is known

from Lam´ e’s solution

σ

r

= σ

o

−

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

_

R

p

r

_

2

(6)

σ

θ

= σ

o

+

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

_

R

p

r

_

2

(7)

u

r

= −

1

2G

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_ R

2

p

r

(8)

Note that in the equations above, the radius of the opening is R

p

and the

internal pressure is p

cr

i

.

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[UE-T6-8]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Hoek-Brown material (1)

Aclosed-form(exact) solution is possible when the coefﬁcient a is equal

to 0.5 in the generalized Hoek-Brown criterion.

The failure criterion to be considered is

F = σ

1

−σ

3

−σ

ci

_

m

b

σ

3

σ

ci

+s = 0 (9)

With the failure criterion (9), the critical internal pressure p

cr

i

is obtained

from the solution of equation (5) and results

p

cr

i

=

σ

ci

m

b

16

_

_

_1 −

_

1 +16

_

σ

o

σ

ci

m

b

+

s

m

2

b

_

_

¸

_

2

−

s σ

ci

m

b

(10)

The extent of the failure zone is

R

p

= Rexp

_

2

__

p

cr

i

σ

ci

m

b

+

s

m

2

b

−

_

p

i

σ

ci

m

b

+

s

m

2

b

_ _

(11)

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[UE-T6-9]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Hoek-Brown material (2)

The solution for the radial stress is

σ

r

= m

b

σ

ci

_

_

__

p

cr

i

σ

ci

m

b

+

s

m

2

b

+

1

2

ln

_

r

R

p

_

_

2

−

s

m

2

b

_

_

(12)

The solution for the hoop stress is

σ

θ

= σ

r

+σ

ci

_

m

b

σ

r

σ

ci

+s (13)

The solution for the radial displacement is

u

r

=

1

1 −A

1

_

_

r

R

p

_

A1

−A

1

r

R

p

_

u

r

(1) (14)

+

1

1 −A

1

_

r

R

p

−

_

r

R

p

_

A1

_

u

r

(1)

−

R

p

2G

_

σ

ci

m

b

4

_

A

2

−A

3

1 −A

1

r

R

p

_

ln

_

r

R

p

__

2

−

R

p

2G

(σ

ci

m

b

)

_

A

2

−A

3

(1 −A

1

)

2

_

p

cr

i

σ

ci

m

b

+

s

m

2

b

−

1

2

A

2

−A

1

A

3

(1 −A

1

)

3

_

×

_

_

r

R

p

_

A1

−

r

R

p

+(1 −A

1

)

r

R

p

ln

_

r

R

p

_

_

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[UE-T6-10]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Hoek-Brown material (3)

where the coefﬁcients u

r

(1) and u

r

(1) are

u

r

(1) = −

R

p

2G

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

(15)

u

r

(1) =

R

p

2G

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

(16)

and for a linear ﬂow rule, the coefﬁcients A

1

, A

2

and A

3

are

A

1

= −K

ψ

(17)

A

2

= 1 −ν −νK

ψ

A

3

= ν −(1 −ν)K

ψ

with

K

ψ

=

1 +sin ψ

1 −sin ψ

(18)

where ψ is the dilation angle.

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[UE-T6-11]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Mohr-Coulomb material (1)

The Mohr-Coulomb yield condition is

F = σ

1

−K

φ

σ

3

−σ

c

= 0 (19)

In the equation above the coefﬁcient K

φ

is related to the friction angle

φ according to

K

φ

=

1 +sin φ

1 −sin φ

(20)

The unconﬁned compression strength σ

c

is related to the cohesion c and

the coefﬁcient K

φ

as follows

σ

c

= 2c

_

K

φ

(21)

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

below which the failure zone develops

is

p

cr

i

=

2

K

φ

+1

_

σ

o

+

σ

c

K

φ

−1

_

−

σ

c

K

φ

−1

(22)

The extent R

p

of the failure zone is

R

p

= R

_

p

cr

i

+σ

c

/

_

K

φ

−1

_

p

i

+σ

c

/

_

K

φ

−1

_

_

1/(K

φ

−1)

(23)

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[UE-T6-12]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Mohr-Coulomb material (2)

The solution for the radial stresses ﬁeld σ

r

is given by the following

expression

σ

r

=

_

p

cr

i

+

σ

c

K

φ

−1

__

r

R

p

_

K

φ

−1

−

σ

c

K

φ

−1

(24)

The solution for the hoop stresses ﬁeld σ

θ

is given by the following

expression

σ

θ

= K

φ

_

p

cr

i

+

σ

c

K

φ

−1

__

r

R

p

_

K

φ

−1

−

σ

c

K

φ

−1

(25)

The solution for the radial displacement ﬁeld u

r

is given by the following

expression

u

r

=

1

1 −A

1

_

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

−A

1

r

R

p

_

u

r

(1) (26)

−

1

1 −A

1

_

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

−

r

R

p

_

u

r

(1)

−

R

p

2G

A

2

−A

3

K

φ

(1 −A

1

)(K

φ

−A

1

)

_

p

cr

i

+

σ

c

K

φ

−1

_

×

_

(A

1

−K

φ

)

r

R

p

−(1 −K

φ

)

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

+(1 −A

1

)

_

r

R

p

_

K

φ

_

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[UE-T6-13]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Mohr-Coulomb material (3)

where the coefﬁcients u

r

(1) and u

r

(1) are

u

r

(1) = −

R

p

2G

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

(27)

u

r

(1) =

R

p

2G

_

σ

o

−p

cr

i

_

(28)

and for a linear ﬂow rule,

A

1

= −K

ψ

(29)

A

2

= 1 −ν −νK

ψ

A

3

= ν −(1 −ν)K

ψ

with

K

ψ

=

1 +sin ψ

1 −sin ψ

(30)

where ψ is the dilation angle.

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[UE-T6-14]

Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Tresca material (1)

A Tresca material is a particular case of Mohr-Coulomb material in

whichthe frictionangle φ is equal tozero. Insuchcase the coefﬁcient K

φ

becomes one (see equation 20), and singularities appear in the solution

for stresses and displacements listed earlier (equations 22 through 26).

The solution for Tresca material can be obtained by taking the limit of

the expressions for the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (equations 22

through 26) when K

ψ

→1, applying L’Hospital rule, as needed.

The resulting expressions for Tresca material are given in the following

slides.

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Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Tresca material (2)

The Tresca yield condition is

F = σ

1

−σ

3

−σ

c

= 0 (31)

where the unconﬁned compression strength σ

c

is related to the cohesion

c as follows

σ

c

= 2c (32)

The critical internal pressure p

cr

i

below which the failure zone develops

is

p

cr

i

= σ

o

−

σ

c

2

(33)

The extent R

p

of the failure zone is

R

p

= Rexp

_

p

cr

i

−p

i

σ

c

_

(34)

The solution for the radial stresses ﬁeld σ

r

is given by the following

expression

σ

r

= p

cr

i

+σ

c

ln

_

r

R

p

_

(35)

The solution for the hoop stresses ﬁeld σ

θ

is given by the following

expression

σ

θ

= p

cr

i

+σ

c

ln

_

r

R

p

_

+σ

c

(36)

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Solution for the plastic region (r ≤ R

p

). Tresca material (3)

The solution for displacements is

u

r

=

1

1 −A

1

_

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

−A

1

r

R

p

_

u

r

(1) (37)

−

1

1 −A

1

_

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

−

r

R

p

_

u

r

(1)

−

R

p

2G

A

2

−A

3

(1 −A

1

)

2

σ

c

_

_

r

R

p

_

A

1

−

r

R

p

+(1 −A

1

)

r

R

p

ln

_

r

R

p

_

_

In the equation above, the coefﬁcients u

r

(1), u

r

(1), A

1

, A

2

and A

3

are

the same coefﬁcients deﬁned by equations 27 through 30.

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[UE-T6-17]

Application examples of the exact elasto-plastic solutions and

comparison with numerical models

The closed-formsolutions presented earlier for Hoek-Brown and Mohr-

Coulomb materials will be compared with results given by the ﬁnite

difference numerical software FLAC (www.itascacg.com).

The mesh used in the numerical models, the description of two particu-

lar problems of tunnel excavation in Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb

materials and the corresponding results (analytical and numerical) are

described in the following slides.

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[UE-T6-18]

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[UE-T6-19]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Hoek-Brown material (1)

Problem deﬁnition

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[UE-T6-20]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Hoek-Brown material (2)

Solution for radial and hoop stresses

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[UE-T6-21]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Hoek-Brown material (3)

Solution for radial displacement

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[UE-T6-22]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Mohr-Coulomb material (1)

Problem deﬁnition

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[UE-T6-23]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Mohr-Coulomb material (2)

Solution for radial and hoop stresses

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[UE-T6-24]

Example of elasto-plastic analysis. Mohr-Coulomb material (3)

Solution for radial displacement

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[UE-T6-25]

Effect of far-ﬁeld loading on the shape of failure zone (1)

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[UE-T6-26]

Effect of far-ﬁeld loading on the shape of failure zone (2)

The chart is reproduced from Detournay and St. John (1988). As indi-

cated in the graph, P

o

is the mean far-ﬁeld stress, P

o

= (σ

o

v

+ σ

o

h

)/2,

and S

o

is the deviator far-ﬁeld far-stress, S

o

= (σ

o

v

−σ

o

h

)/2. The chart is

valid for a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with friction angle φ = 30

◦

and unconﬁned compression strength σ

c

.

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[UE-T6-27]

Effect of far-ﬁeld loading on the shape of failure zone (3)

(The solution above is presented in Detournay and Fairhurst, 1987).

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[UE-T6-28]

Effect of far-ﬁeld loading on the shape of failure zone (4)

Displacements at the springline and crown of the tunnel

(The solution above is presented in Detournay and Fairhurst, 1987).

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[UE-T6-29]

Recommended references (1)

Books/manuscripts discussing elasto-plastic solutions for tunnel prob-

lems:

• Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

• Hoek E., 2000, ‘Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek’.

Available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s Corner’, www.rocscience.com.

• Hudson J.A. and Harrison J.P. (1997), ‘Engineering Rock Mechanics.

An Introduction to the Principles’. Pergamon.

• Jaeger J. C. and N. G.W. Cook, 1979, ‘Fundamentals of rock mechan-

ics’, John Wiley & Sons.

• U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997, ‘Tunnels and shafts in rock’.

Available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil

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[UE-T6-30]

Recommended references (2)

For elasto-plastic solution of cavities in Hoek-Brown materials:

• Carranza-Torres, C. and C. Fairhurst (1999), ‘The elasto-plastic re-

sponse of underground excavations in rock masses that satisfy the Hoek-

Brown failure criterion’. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and

Mining Sciences 36(6), 777–809.

• Carranza-Torres, C. (2004), ‘Elasto-plastic solution of tunnel prob-

lems using the generalized form of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion’.

Proceedings of the ISRM SINOROCK 2004 Symposium China, May

2004. Edited by J.A. Hudson and F. Xia-Ting. International Journal of

Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 41(3), 480–481.

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[UE-T6-31]

Recommended references (3)

For elasto-plastic solutions of cavities in Mohr-Coulomb materials, in-

cluding cases of non-uniform far-ﬁeld stresses:

• Detournay E. and C. St. John (1988), ‘Design charts for a deep

circular tunnel under non-uniform loading’. Rock Mechanics and Rock

Engineering, 21:119–137.

• Detournay E. and C. Fairhurst (1987), ‘Two-dimensional elasto-plastic

analysis of a long, cylindrical cavity under non-hydrostatic loading’. Int.

J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 24(4):197–211.

• Detournay E. (1986), ‘Elastoplastic model of a deep tunnel for a

rock with variable dilatancy’. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering,

19:99–108.

• Carranza-Torres, C. (2003), ‘Dimensionless graphical representation

of the elasto-plastic solution of a circular tunnel in a Mohr-Coulomb

material’. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 36(3), 237–253.

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[UE-T6-32]

Recommended references (4)

Some classic papers/books on the topic of elasto-plastic solutions of

tunnel problems:

• Brown E.T., J. W. Bray, B. Ladanyi, and E. Hoek (1983), ‘Ground

response curves for rock tunnels’. ASCE J. Geotech. Eng. Div.,

109(1):15–39.

• Duncan-Fama (1993). ‘Numerical modelling of of yield zones in

weak rocks’. In J. A. Hudson, E. T. Brown, C. Fairhurst, and E. Hoek,

editors, Comprehensive Rock Engineering. Volume 2. Analysis and

Design Methods., pages 49–75. Pergamon Press.

• Salençon J. (1969) ‘Contraction quasi-statique d’une cavité a symétrie

sphérique ou cylindrique dans un milieu élastoplastique’. Annls Ponts

Chauss. 4:231–236.

• Panet M. (1995), ‘Calcul des Tunnels par la Méthode de Convergence-

Conﬁnement’. Press de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées.

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T7-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 7:

Review of some fundamental equations of

mechanics of beams

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T7-2]

Equilibrium of forces and bending moments in a beam

dQ

dx

+p

y

= 0 (1)

dN

dx

+p

x

= 0 (2)

dM

dx

+Q = 0 (3)

The equations above express equilibrium conditions for forces in the i)

vertical and ii) horizontal directions and iii) bending moments, respec-

tively.

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[UE-T7-3]

Relationships between bending moment and deﬂection

M = −K

d

2

u

y

dx

2

(4)

where K = EI/(1 −ν

2

) for plane strain and K = EI for plane stress

conditions (I is the moment of inertia of the beam section —per unit

length of beam in the out-of-plane direction, in the case of plane strain).

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[UE-T7-4]

Relationships between thrust and axial displacement

N = −D

du

y

dx

(5)

where D = Eh/(1 − ν

2

) or D = Eh for plane-strain or plane-stress

conditions, respectively (h is the height of the beam section).

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[UE-T7-5]

Solution of beam problems

For given values of p

x

and p

y

, we have ﬁve unknowns —the quantities

N, Q, M, u

x

and u

y

.

We have ﬁve equations —equations (1) through (5)— to solve for the

ﬁve unknown functions.

Particular solutions are obtainedbyapplicationof the appropriate bound-

ary conditions.

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[UE-T7-6]

Solution of beam problems. Application Example (1)

Since p

x

= 0 and N = 0 at x = 0 and x = L, from equation (2) we

have N = 0; also, from equation (5), u

x

= 0.

Therefore the unknown functions in the problem are u

y

, M and Q.

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[UE-T7-7]

Solution of beam problems. Application Example (2)

Combining equations (1), (3) and (4), the following differential equation

for vertical the displacement is obtained,

K

d

4

u

y

dx

4

+p

y

= 0 (6)

Four boundary conditions are needed to solve the 4th order differential

equation. These are

at x = 0 →u

y

= 0 (7)

x = L →u

y

= 0

x = 0 →M = 0 or d

2

u

y

/dx

2

= 0

x = L →M = 0 or d

2

u

y

/dx

2

= 0

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[UE-T7-8]

Solution of beam problems. Application Example (3)

Solution of the differential equation (6) with boundary conditions (7)

gives

u

y

= −

p

y

x

24K

_

L

3

+x

3

−2Lx

2

_

(8)

or expressed in dimensionless form,

u

y

L

K

p

y

L

3

= −

1

24

x

L

_

1 +

_

x

L

_

3

−2

_

x

L

_

2

_

(9)

For plane stress conditions, K = EI, where E is the Young’s modulus

and I is the the moment of inertia of the beam section. Note, for a

rectangular section of width b and height h the moment of inertia is

I = bh

3

/12.

With the solution for the vertical displacement (equation 8), using equa-

tions (4) and (3), the solution for bending moment and shear force are,

respectively

M

p

y

L

2

= −

1

2

x

L

_

1 −

x

L

_

(10)

Q

p

y

L

=

1

2

x

L

_

1 −2

x

L

_

(11)

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[UE-T7-9]

Solution of beam problems. Application Example (4)

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[UE-T7-10]

Equilibrium of forces and bending moments for a circular ring

dQ

dθ

−N +p

r

R = 0 (12)

dN

dθ

+Q+p

θ

R = 0 (13)

dM

dθ

+QR = 0 (14)

The equations above express equilibrium conditions for forces in the i)

radial and ii) tangential directions and iii) bending moments, respec-

tively.

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[UE-T7-11]

Relationships between bending moment and deﬂection (circular ring)

M = −

K

R

2

d

2

u

r

dθ

2

(15)

where K = EI/(1 −ν

2

) for plane-strain and K = EI for plane-stress

conditions (I is the moment of inertia of the beam section —per unit

length of beam in the out-of-plane direction, in the case of plane strain).

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T7-12]

Relationships between thrust and axial displacement (circular ring)

N = −D

_

u

r

+

du

θ

dθ

_

(16)

where D = Et /(1 − ν

2

) or D = Et for plane-strain or plane-stress

conditions, respectively (t is the thickness of the section).

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T7-13]

Recommended References

• Flügge, W. (1967), ‘Stresses in Shells’. Springer-Verlag NewYork

Inc.

• Den Hartog J.P. (1961), ‘Strength of Materials’. Dover Publications,

Inc. NewYork.

• Pﬂüger, A. (1961), ‘Elementary Statics of Shells’. Second Edition,

F.W. Dodge Corporation, NewYork.

• Timoshenko, S. (1955), ‘Strength of Materials’. Third Edition, Van

Nostrand. NewYork.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

[Last revision – June 06]

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T8-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 8:

Elastic solution of a closed annular support

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T8-2]

Problem Statement

The mean loading is

q =

q

x

+q

y

2

(1)

while the ratio of horizontal to vertical load is

k =

q

x

q

y

(2)

Note: Plane strain conditions assumed. Analysis considers a ‘slice’ of

annular ring of unit length in the z direction.

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[UE-T8-3]

Sign convention and nomenclature

Note: Sign convention for bending moment, shear force, thrust, radial

and tangential displacements is in agreement with the sign convention

discussed in notes ‘Review of some fundamental mechanics of beams’

(Topic 7).

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[UE-T8-4]

Solution of thrust, bending moment and shear force

The scaled thrust is

N

qR

= 1 −

k −1

k +1

cos 2θ (3)

The scaled bending moment is

M

qR

2

= −

1

2

k −1

k +1

cos 2θ (4)

The scaled shear force is

Q

qR

= −

k −1

k +1

sin 2θ (5)

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[UE-T8-5]

Solution of radial and tangential displacement

The scaled displacement in the radial direction is

u

r

qR

E

1 −ν

2

= −

12

12(t /R) +(t /R)

3

−

2

(t /R)

3

k −1

k +1

cos 2θ (6)

The scaled displacement in the tangential direction is

u

θ

qR

E

1 −ν

2

=

4 +(t /R)

2

4(t /R)

3

k −1

k +1

sin 2θ (7)

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[UE-T8-6]

Particular case of uniform loading

If q

x

= q

y

= q, then k = 1 and the solution for the thrust results

N = qR (8)

This is the same expression found as a particular case of Lamé’s solu-

tion (see equation 8, page T3-4, in notes ‘Elastic solution of a circular

tunnel’).

In the case of uniform loading, the bending moments and shear forces

are both zero, i.e.,

M = Q = 0 (9)

The tangential displacement is also zero (i.e., u

θ

= 0) and the radial

displacement takes the simple form

u

r

= −

1 −ν

2

E

12 qR

12(t /R) +(t /R)

3

(10)

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[UE-T8-7]

Thrust. Graphical representation

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[UE-T8-8]

Bending moment. Graphical representation

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[UE-T8-9]

Shear force. Graphical representation

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[UE-T8-10]

Radial displacement. Graphical representation

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[UE-T8-11]

Tangential displacement. Graphical representation

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[UE-T8-12]

Plane strain analysis of composite sections. Problem statement

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[UE-T8-13]

Plane strain analysis of composite sections. Homogenized section

The thickness and Young’s modulus of the equivalent (homogenized) section are,

respectively

h

eq

= 2

√

3C

A

C

I

C

A

(11)

E

eq

=

√

3

6

C

A

2

√

C

A

C

I

(12)

where

C

A

= n (A

1

E

1

+A

2

E

2

) (13)

C

I

= n (I

1

E

1

+I

2

E

2

) (14)

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[UE-T8-14]

Plane strain analysis of composite sections.

Distribution of thrust to original components

N

1

=

N

n

A

1

E

1

A

1

E

1

+A

2

E

2

(15)

N

2

=

N

n

A

2

E

2

A

1

E

1

+A

2

E

2

(16)

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[UE-T8-15]

Plane strain analysis of composite sections.

Distribution of bending moment to original components

M

1

=

M

n

I

1

E

1

I

1

E

1

+I

2

E

2

(17)

M

2

=

M

n

I

2

E

2

I

1

E

1

+I

2

E

2

(18)

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T8-16]

References

• Flügge, W. (1967), ‘Stresses in Shells’. Springer-Verlag New York

Inc., 1967.

• Den Hartog J.P. (1961), ‘Strength of Materials’. Dover Publications,

Inc. NewYork.

• Pﬂüger, A. (1961), ‘Elementary Statics of Shells’. Second Edition,

F.W. Dodge Corporation, NewYork.

• Timoshenko, S. (1955), ‘Strength of Materials’. Third Edition, Van

Nostrand. NewYork.

Note: the solutions presented in previous slides were derived by one

of the authors (Dr. Carranza-Torres). Equations presented here do

not appear explicitly in the references above —or other references the

authors may be aware of.

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-1]

Class notes on Underground Excavations in Rock

Topic 9:

Tunnel support systems. Technologies and design.

The Convergence-Conﬁnement Method

written by

Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and

Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have beenwrittenfor the course RockMechanics II,

CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres

in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University

of Minnesota, USA.

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-2]

Classiﬁcation of tunnel supports in terms of time of installation (1)

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[UE-T9-3]

Classiﬁcation of tunnel support in terms of time of installation (2)

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[UE-T9-4]

Common support systems used in tunnel construction

• Steel ribs (or steel sets) and lattice girders.

• Shotcrete or sprayed concrete.

• Cast-in-place concrete.

• Prefabricated segmental lining (used with mechanized excavation).

Note: Rockbolts do not fall into the category of support systems but into

the category of reinforcement systems —they will be treated separately

in these series of notes.

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[UE-T9-5]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (1)

Bracing bars, wood or steel plates are normally installed between steel

sets and lattice girders.

For squeezing ground, sliding joints and sliding arches are emplaced

between segments conforming the steel section.

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[UE-T9-6]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (2)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-7]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (3)

Description photographs in previous slide

The previous slide shows photographs of tunnel sections supported with steel sets.

Photograph (a) shows wood blocks used between the steel ribs and the rock (shotcrete

is seen ahead of the steel sets). Photograph (b) shows steel sets failing under extreme

ground loading. Photograph (c) shows heavy steel sets used while traversing a fault

zone (note the bracing bars between steel sets).

The photographs have been taken Dr. Evert Hoek, Rock Mechanics Consultant

(www.rocscience.com/hoek/Hoek.asp) at various underground sites. (a) Drainage

tunnel at Chuquicamata mine, Antofagasta, Chile. (b) Drifts at Sullivan mine, British

Columbia, Canada. (c) Headrace tunnel for at Victoria Hydroelectric Scheme, Sri

Lanka.

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[UE-T9-8]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (4)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-9]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (5)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs in the previous slide show the use of circular steel sets (with sliding

joints and shotcrete) as a mean of supporting a tunnel in highly squeezing ground at

the Yacambu-Quibor project, Lara State, Venezuela. The Yacambu-Quibor tunnel is

a ∼24 km hydraulic tunnel of mean diameter ∼4 m with maximum overburden of

1,200 m excavated in low strength phyllites and schists. The tunnel has been called

‘the most difﬁcult modern tunnel ever to excavate’ —excavation has been taking place

since the late 70s (by late 2004, ∼3.5 km of tunnel were still to be excavated).

The photographs in the previous slide have been taken by Drs. Mark Diederichs, Brent

Corkum and Carlos Carranza-Torres, during a visit to the project in 2004, together

with Dr. Evert Hoek and Dr. Rafael Guevara (members of the panel of experts in the

project).

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[UE-T9-10]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (6)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-11]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (7)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs in the previous slide show the sequence of construction of steel sets

and sliding joints used as primary support in the Yacambu-Quibor tunnel, Lara State,

Venezuela. Photograph (a) shows the steel section before being bent into a curved

segment (note the steel plates welded to the central ﬂange of the section, to avoid

bucking during the process of bending). Photograph (b) shows the steel section during

an early stage of bending in the press. Photograph (c) shows the curved segment after

further pressing (note that the oscillations of the upper and lower ﬂanges in photograph

(b) have been removed). Photograph (d) shows the different segments comprising the

steel section alienated for assembly. Photograph (e) shows the ﬁnal assembly of the

circular steel set. Note the sliding joints installed between different segments.

These photographs have been taken by Drs. Mark Diederichs, Brent Corkum and

Carlos Carranza-Torres, during a visit to the project in 2004, together with Dr. Evert

Hoek and Dr. Rafael Guevara (members of the panel of experts in the project).

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[UE-T9-12]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (8)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-13]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (9)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs in the previous slide show views steel sets used in the Driskos tunnel

of Egnatia project, Greece (www.egnatia.gr), a tunnel excavated in weak rock. Photo-

graph (a) shows shotcrete being applied in the vicinity of the (top heading) front. Note

the forepoling and ﬁberglass reinforcement used in the front, as a means of stabilizing

the front during excavation. Photograph (b) shows the complete section after the lower

bench has been excavated and supported.

The photographs described above have been taken by Prof. Paul Marinos (from the

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Tech-

nical University of Athens, http://users.ntua.gr/marinos/) who is a member of the Panel

of Experts in the Egnatia project.

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[UE-T9-14]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (10)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-15]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (11)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs inthe previous slide showviews of lattice girders usedintunnels of the

Egnatia project, Greece (www.egnatia.gr). During excavation, lattice girder sections

are delivered in ‘segments’ to the front of the tunnel, where they are assembled and

installed.

The photographs have been taken by Prof. Evert Hoek (and independent rock mechan-

ics consultant, www.rocscience.com/hoek/Hoek.asp) who is a member of the Panel of

Experts in the Egnatia project.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-16]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (12)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-17]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (13)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs in the previous slide show the use of steel sets in tunnels. In pho-

tograph (a) steel plates are emplaced between steel ribs. In photograph (b) bracing

bars are emplaced between steel ribs (in this case, a wire mesh has also been installed

before shotcreting the space between rock and steel sets).

The photographs were taken by Ing. Luca Perrone, Tunnel Design Engineer, Geodata

Spa., Torino, Italy (www.geodata.it). Photograph (a) is at the portal for the St. Martin

de la Porte tunnel (∼1,400 m), in France —this is an access tunnel for the future

Torino-Lyon railway system (to formally start construction this year). Photograph

(b) is at the front of Trafﬁc Release Tunnelling System (∼1,400 m), Western Kuala

Lumpur, Malaysia.

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[UE-T9-18]

Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (14)

To learn more about the system see:

Chapter 5, ‘Design of Steel Ribs and Lattice Girders’ in document

‘Tunnels and shafts in rock’, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997 (avail-

able for downloading at www.usace.army.mil).

‘Use of arches in the construction of underground works’, Document

No 27, 1978, Recommendations fromAFTES (available for download-

ing at www.aftes.asso.fr).

For use of sliding joints and sling arches, see Chapter 12, ‘Tunnels

in weak rock’, in document ‘Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert

Hoek’ (available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s Corner’,

www.rocscience.com).

To ﬁnd supliers of the system in the market see:

American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) — see

pages ‘Steel ribs’, ‘Liner Plates’ and ‘Lattice Girders’.

Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to ‘Suppliers’ and

choose ‘Support’.

InfoMine, MiningIntelligence andTechnology. (www.infomine.com).

Go to ‘Suppliers’ and search for ‘Steel Ribs’, ‘Lattice Girders’, etc. (as

keyword).

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-19]

Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (1)

Shotcrete is frequently applied on a wire mesh bolted to the rock face

(wire mesh acts as reinforcement).

Steel ﬁbers are sometimes added to the shotcrete mixture to increase

the strength of the shotcrete.

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[UE-T9-20]

Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (2)

See explanation in the next slide.

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[UE-T9-21]

Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (3)

Description photographs in previous slide

The photographs in the previous slide shows shotcrete used as support for an under-

ground excavation. Photograph (a) shows a drift supported by steel sets near the front.

A robotic sprayer is applying shotcrete on top of a wire mesh between steel sets. Pho-

tograph (b) and (c) show shotcrete with ﬁber reinforcement (the ﬁbers are the steel

wires embeded in the mortar).

The photographs have been taken by Prof. Mark Diederichs, from the Geological En-

gineering Group at Queen’s University (www.geol.ca), also an independent consultant,

at Kidd Creek Mine, near Timmins, Ontario.

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[UE-T9-22]

Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (4)

To learn more about the system see:

Document ‘Standard practice for shotcrete’, U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers, 1993 (available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil).

‘Sprayed Concrete — Technology and Practice’, Document No 1,

1974, Recommendations fromAFTES (available for downloading at

www.aftes.asso.fr).

‘Design of sprayed concrete for underground support’, Document No

164, 2001, Recommendations fromAFTES (available for downloading

at www.aftes.asso.fr).

Chapter 15, ‘Shotcrete support’, in document ‘Rock Engineering.

Course Notes by Evert Hoek’ (available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s

Corner’, www.rocscience.com).

To ﬁnd supliers of the system in the market see:

American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) — see

pages ‘Hany’ and ‘Aliva’.

Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to ‘Suppliers’ and

choose ‘Support’.

InfoMine, MiningIntelligence andTechnology. (www.infomine.com).

Go to ‘Suppliers’ and search for ‘Shotcrete’.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-23]

Cast-in-place concrete. Technological aspects (1)

Traditionally, the use of cast in place concrete as a tunnel support

method has followed standard technological practices in general civil

engineering works (e.g., standards regarding material component mix-

tures, additives, curing, etc.).

For the case of ﬁnal support, considering that the concrete structure

works mostly in compression, the use of plain concrete (i.e., massive

unreinforced concrete) is also a standard practice in tunnel construction

—see ‘The use of plain concrete in tunnels’, recommendation byAFTES

(full reference in the last slide on this topic).

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[UE-T9-24]

Cast-in-place concrete. Technological aspects (2)

The photographs above show views of cast-in-place concrete support used in Tunnel

Tazon (6700 m), Central Railway System, Caracas, Venezuela. The photographs have

taken by Ing. Luca Perrone, Tunnel Design Design Engineer, Geodata Spa., Torino,

Italy (www.geodata.it).

ce.umn.edu

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www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-25]

Cast-in-place concrete. Technological aspects (3)

To learn more about the system see:

Document ‘Standard practice for concrete for civil works structures’,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1994 (available for downloading at

www.usace.army.mil).

‘The use of plain concrete in tunnels’, Document No 149, 1998,

Recommendations fromAFTES (available for downloading at

www.aftes.asso.fr).

To ﬁnd supliers of the system in the market see:

Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to ‘Suppliers’ and

choose ‘Support’.

InfoMine, MiningIntelligence andTechnology. (www.infomine.com).

Go to ‘Suppliers’ and search for ‘concrete’.

ce.umn.edu

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available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-26]

Pre-fabricated concrete blocks. Technological aspects (1)

The photographs above show views of pre-cast concrete blocks used as support in

tunnels of the Light Rail System at the Minneapolis-St.Paul International airport.

The photographs have been reproduced from the article ‘Design and Construction

of Minneapolis-St.Paul International Airport Precast Concrete Tunnel System’, by

Johnson R.M. et al., published in Precast-Prestressed Concrete Institute Journal, Vol.

48, No 5, September/October 2003.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-27]

Pre-fabricated concrete blocks. Technological aspects (2)

To learn more about the system see:

Chapter 5, ‘Construction of Tunnels and Shafts’in document ‘Tunnels

and shafts in rock’, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997 (available for

downloading at www.usace.army.mil).

‘The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments

installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)’, Document No

147, 1998, Recommendations fromAFTES (available for downloading

at www.aftes.asso.fr).

To ﬁnd supliers of the system in the market see:

Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to ‘Suppliers’ and

choose ‘Support’.

American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) — see

page ‘Charcon Segment’.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-28]

Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (1)

• Analyses that focus on structural behavior —e.g., structural frames

with ‘dead’ load, representing the action of the ground on the structure.

- From the models above, thrust, bending moments and shear forces

are computed, and based on their magnitudes, the structural sections

designed (e.g., given appropriate dimensions).

- Main drawback of the approach: how to quantify realistically the val-

ues of q

x

and q

y

? —and in the second case, howto quantify realistically

the stiffness of springs representing the ground?

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-29]

Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (2)

• Analyses that focus on rock-support interaction —e.g., pre-stressed

elastic or elasto-plastic ground that ‘unloads’ onto the support.

- The main difference between approaches in this category lies on the

type of models considered for the ground and for the interface between

ground and support (e.g., elastic material, elastic-perfectly plastic ma-

terial, frictional or frictionless interface between ground and support,

etc.).

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[UE-T9-30]

Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (3)

• Rock-support interaction analyses (continuation):

- Few (mechanically sound) closed-form solutions are possible in this

category. When the geometry of the tunnel and support are circular,

and the materials are elastic, Einstein and Schawrtz (1979) present an

elegant solution of the rock support interaction problem (see, list of

references).

- A semi-rigorous graphical-analytical approach is the Convergence-

Conﬁnement Method of support design. The method is based on strong

restrictive assumptions (see next slides), but it provides a basis for reduc-

ing a complex 3D problem (increasing support loading with tunnel face

advance) into simpler 2D(plane-strain) problem—see list of references.

- The most powerful approach in this category is the use of numeri-

cal models (e.g., ﬁnite elements, ﬁnite difference methods). In these

numerical models, the support can be represented by linear ‘structural

elements’ (a type of element supported by commonly used codes, that

does not require discretization of the structure along its thickness) or by

normal material elements (e.g., elastic-isotropic solid elements).

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[UE-T9-31]

The Convergence-Conﬁnement Method. Generalities

• The Convergence-Conﬁnement Method is a 2D simplistic approach

for resolving the 3D rock-support interaction problem associated with

installation of support near a tunnel front.

• The methodology allows estimation of the load that the rock mass

transmits to the liner once the ‘supporting’ effect of the tunnel front on

the section analyzed has disappeared (the face has moved away from

the section).

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-32]

Basic assumptions of the Convergence-Conﬁnement Method

Tunnel is circular.

Far-ﬁeld stresses are uniform (or hydrostatic).

Material is isotropic and homogeneous —e.g., elastic or elasto-plastic.

Support is axi-symmetric —e.g., shotcrete layer forms a closed ring.

Effect of the tunnel front in the vicinity of the tunnel section regarded

as a ‘ﬁctitious’ support pressure.

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[UE-T9-33]

Basic ‘ingredients’ of the Convergence-Conﬁnement Method

• Ground Reaction Curve (GRC):

The Ground Reaction curve is the graphical representation of the rela-

tionship between radial convergence and internal pressure for a circular

tunnel excavated in a medium subject to uniform (hydrostatic) far-ﬁeld

stresses.

• Support Characteristic Curve (SCC):

The Support Characteristic curve is the graphical representation of the

relationship between support radial displacement and uniform pressure

applied to the extrados of a circular (closed) support.

• Longitudinal Deformation Proﬁle (LDP):

The Longitudinal Deformation Proﬁle is the relationship between radial

displacement and distance to the front for a circular tunnel excavated in

a medium subject to uniform (hydrostatic) far-ﬁeld stresses.

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[UE-T9-34]

Ground reaction curve (GRC)

[Note: Positive radial displacement means inward radial displacement in the

Convergence-Conﬁnement Method.]

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[UE-T9-35]

Construction of Ground reaction curves

- The elasto-plastic solutions described in the notes for Topic 6, ‘Elasto-

plastic solution of a circular tunnel’, can be used to construct Ground

Reaction Curves.

- Construction of GRCrequires computing the values of radial displace-

ment for various values of internal pressure to outline the curve in the

previous slide.

- For an elasto-plastic material, the radial displacement for the critical

internal pressure p

cr

i

(point C in the previous slide), and the radial dis-

placement for various values of internal pressure in the interval [p

cr

i

, 0]

(between points C and M in the previous slide) must be computed —

note that the upper most point of the GRC(point Cin the previous slide)

has the coordinates p

i

= σ

o

and u

w

r

= 0.

- In the case of complex material behavior, numerical models can also be

used. To construct the GRC with numerical models, radial convergence

of the tunnel wall is recorded for decreasing values of internal pressure,

in the interval [σ

o

, 0].

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-36]

Example of Ground Reaction Curve

The example above are discussed in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000).

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-37]

Support characteristic curve (SCC)

[Note: Positive radial displacement means inward radial displacement in the

Convergence-Conﬁnement Method.]

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[UE-T9-38]

Construction of SCC (1)

The elastic solution described in the notes for Topic 8, ‘Elastic solution

of a closed annular support’, for the particular case of uniform loading,

can be used to construct a Support Characteristic Curve. From those

notes we saw that the radial convergence of the closed annular ring

expressed as a function of the pressure applied on the extrados of the

ring was

u

s

r

=

1 −ν

2

s

E

s

12R p

s

12(t

s

/R) +(t

s

/R)

2

(1)

where E is the Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio (for an

explanation of the other variables see previous slide).

Therefore, the stiffness K

s

of the support, that represents the slope of

the elastic part of the Support Characteristic curve (see previous slide)

is

K

s

=

E

s

1 −ν

2

s

12(t

s

/R) +(t

s

/R)

2

12R

(2)

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[UE-T9-39]

Construction of SCC (2)

The relationship between the thrust T

s

and the pressure p

s

applied on

the extrados of the support is (see notes for Topic 8, ‘Elastic solution of

a closed annular support’)

T

s

= R p

s

(3)

If the ultimate compressive strength of the material is σ

max

s

, considering

that the normal stress on a radial section of the support is σ

s

= T

s

/t ,

then the maximumvalue of support pressure p

max

s

that makes the support

yield is (see ﬁgure in previous slide)

p

max

s

=

t

s

R

σ

max

s

(4)

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[UE-T9-40]

Support Characteristic Curves for various support systems (1)

The maximum support pressure is,

p

max

s

=

σ

cc

2

1 −

(R −t

c

)

2

R

2

**The elastic stiffness is,
**

K

s

=

E

c

(1 +ν

c

)R

R

2

−(R −t

c

)

2

(1 −2ν

c

)R

2

+(R −t

c

)

2

where

σ

cc

is the unconﬁned compressive strength of the shotcrete or concrete

[MPa]

E

c

is Young’s Modulus for the shotcrete or concrete [MPa]

ν

c

is Poisson’s ratio for the shotcrete or concrete [dimensionless]

t

c

is the thickness of the ring [m]

R is the external radius of the support [m] (taken to be the same as the

radius of the tunnel)

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), ‘Underground Excava-

tions in Rock’. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation

used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations

see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also

summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list of references.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-41]

Support Characteristic Curves for various support systems (2)

The maximum support pressure is,

p

max

s

=

3

2

σ

ys

SR θ

A

s

I

s

3I

s

+DA

s

[R −(t

B

+0.5D)] (1 −cos θ)

(5)

The elastic stiffness is,

1

K

s

=

SR

2

E

s

A

s

+

SR

4

E

s

I

s

θ(θ +sin θ cos θ)

2 sin

2

θ

−1

+

2Sθt

B

R

E

B

B

2

(6)

where

B is the ﬂange width of the steel set and the side length of the square

block [m]

D is the depth of the steel section [m]

A

s

is the cross-sectional area of the section [m

2

]

I

s

is the moment of inertia of the section [m

4

]

E

s

is Young’s modulus for the steel [MPa]

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-42]

Support Characteristic Curves for various support systems (3)

σ

ys

is the yield strength of the steel [MPa]

S is the steel set spacing along the tunnel axis [m]

θ is half the angle between blocking points [radians]

t

B

is the thickness of the block [m]

E

B

is Young’s modulus for the block material [MPa]

R is the tunnel radius [m]

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), ‘Underground Excava-

tions in Rock’. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation

used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations

see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also

summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list of references.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

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[UE-T9-43]

Support Characteristic Curves for various support systems (4)

The maximum support pressure is,

p

max

s

=

T

bf

s

c

s

l

The elastic stiffness is,

1

K

s

= s

c

s

l

4 l

πd

2

b

E

s

+Q

**ce.umn.edu
**

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[UE-T9-44]

Support Characteristic Curves for various support systems (5)

The parameters in the equations in the previous slide are

d

b

is the bolt or cable diameter [m]

l is the free length of the bolt or cable [m]

T

bf

is the ultimate load obtained from a pull-out test [MN]

Q is a deformation-load constant for the anchor and head [m/MN]

E

s

is Young’s Modulus for the bolt or cable [MPa]

s

c

is the circumferential bolt spacing [m]

s

l

is the longitudinal bolt spacing [m]

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), ‘Underground Excava-

tions in Rock’. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation

used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations

see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also

summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list of references.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

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available for downloading at

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[UE-T9-45]

Example of Support Characteristic Curves

The example above are discussed in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000).

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-46]

The advancing front

The objective of the Convergence-Conﬁnement method is to determine

ﬁnal load in the support sectionA-A

, installed at time t

0

, once the effect

of the tunnel face has disappeared, at time t

D

.

The ﬁgure above is fromCarranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list of references.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-47]

Longitudinal Deformation Proﬁle (LDP)

The ﬁgure above is fromCarranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list of references.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-48]

Equations for the deﬁnition of LDP

With reference to the diagram in the previous slide, the equation pro-

posed by Dr. M. Panet (see list of references) based on the analysis of

results from ﬁnite element axi-symmetric elastic models is

u

r

u

max

r

= 0.25 +0.75

1 −

0.75

0.75 +x/R

2

(7)

With reference to the diagram in the previous slide, the equation pro-

posed by Dr. E. Hoek based on the analysis of actual data and results

from numerical models is

u

r

u

max

r

=

1 +exp

−x/R

1.10

−1.7

(8)

The equations above are discussed in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) —see list

of references.

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[UE-T9-49]

Use of numerical models to construct the LDP (1)

Numerical models of a longitudinal section of circular tunnel (including

the front region) can be used to compute LDPs. The material constitutive

models used in these numerical models should be the same used to

construct the GRCs. The most efﬁcient way of setting up and running

these models is as 2D axi-symmetric numerical models (commercial

codes like Phase2 and FLAC do have an axi-symmetry option).

The ﬁgure inthe next slide shows: (a) anaxi-symmetric meshinthe ﬁnite

difference code FLAC (www.itascacg.com); (b) a 3D representation of

the actual problem that the axi-symmetric mesh represents; (c)the LDP

obtained from the model.

ce.umn.edu

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[UE-T9-50]

Use of numerical models to construct the LDP (2)

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www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-51]

Ground-support interaction analysis. Final support pressure

The ﬁnal support pressure p

ﬁnal

i

is obtained from the superposition of

the GRC and the SCC (see point P in the diagram below). The LDP

deﬁnes the ‘starting point’ of the SCC (point S, of horizontal coordinate

u

A-A

r

). This point is the horizontal projection of point A on the GRC.

The vertical coordinate of point A is p

A-A

i

and represents the ﬁctitious

support pressure provided by the tunnel front at the time of installation

of the support at section A-A

.

A proper support design according to the Convergence-Conﬁnement

method is one for which the ratio of the maximum support pressure

p

max

i

and the ﬁnal support pressure p

ﬁnal

i

is larger than a factor of safety,

F.S., chosen for the design (normally F.S.∼ 1.5 ).

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-52]

Example of Ground-support interaction analysis

The example above are discussed in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000).

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-53]

Illustration of Convergence-Conﬁnement analysis (1)

The purpose of this exercise is to verify that the characteristics of the shotcrete liner

(thickness, strength, distance to the front) for this tunnel are appropriate.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-54]

Illustration of Convergence-Conﬁnement analysis (2)

The Ground Reaction Curve (GRC) will be computed with Lamé’s solution (see equa-

tion 16, in notes on Topic 3, ‘Elastic solution of a circular tunnel’), i.e.,

u

r

(p

i

) =

1

2G

(σ

o

−p

i

) R (9)

The Support Characteristic Curve (SCC) will be computed with equations for elastic

loading of a closed annular ring (see equations 8 through 10 in notes on Topic 8,

‘Elastic solution of a closed annular support’, and equations 1 through 4 in notes on

Topic 9, ‘The Convergence Conﬁnement Method’). Thus the relationship between

radial displacement and support pressure is,

u

r

(p

i

) = u

I

r

+

1 −ν

2

c

E

c

12R p

i

12(t

c

/R) +(t

c

/R)

2

(10)

and the maximum pressure that makes the ring of shotcrete (of compressive strength

σ

cc

) yield plastically is

p

max

s

=

t

c

R

σ

cc

(11)

In equation (2), u

I

r

is the horizontal coordinate of the intersection of the SCC with

the horizontal axis, that will be computed in this example using the expression for

Longitudinal Deformation Proﬁle (LDP) for elastic materials proposed by Dr. Hoek

—see slides ‘Equations for deﬁnition of LDP’ in this note, i.e.,

u

I

r

= u

max

r

1 +exp

−x/R

1.10

−1.7

(12)

In the equation above, u

max

r

is the coordinate of the intersection of the GRC with the

horizontal axis, that for the case of elastic ground considered here is computed with

equation (1) above, considering p

i

= 0, i.e.,

u

max

r

=

σ

o

2G

R (13)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-55]

Illustration of Convergence-Conﬁnement analysis (3)

The following slides shows the LDP, GRC and SCC for the properties considered in

this example, constructed with the equations described earlier. The following values

are obtained from application of the mentioned equations and graphical construction

of LDP, GRC and SCC:

u

max

r

= 3.9 mm (from GRC)

u

I

r

= 0.679 ×u

max

r

= 2.65 mm (from LDP)

u

F

r

= 0.308 ×u

max

r

= 1.2 mm (from LDP)

p

F

s

= 0.32 MPa (from GRC, see Note below the diagram)

p

max

s

= 0.583 MPa (from SCC)

p

ﬁnal

s

= 0.131 MPa (from intersection of GRC and SCC)

u

ﬁnal

r

= 3.39 mm (from intersection of GRC and SCC)

From the values above, the factor of safety FS for the shotcrete liner is found to be

FS =

p

max

s

p

ﬁnal

s

=

0.583 MPa

0.131 MPa

= 4.45

Since FS 1.5, the proposed shotcrete liner is acceptable.

Note: The ﬁnal thrust in the liner can be computed as T

ﬁnal

s

= Rp

ﬁnal

s

and results to

be T

ﬁnal

s

= 0.39 MN/m.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-56]

Illustration of Convergence-Conﬁnement analysis (4)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-57]

Illustration of Convergence-Conﬁnement analysis (5)

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-58]

The program Rocsupport (1)

Rocsupport implements the Convergence-Conﬁnement Method (creation of GRC,

SCC and LPD) through a user-friendly graphical interface. The code allows to per-

form deterministic and probabilistic analyses of tunnel support design. Rocsupport is

developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com).

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-59]

The program Rocsupport (2)

Rocsupport implements the Convergence-Conﬁnement Method (creation of GRC,

SCC and LPD) through a user-friendly graphical interface. The code allows to per-

form deterministic and probabilistic analyses of tunnel support design. Rocsupport is

developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com).

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-60]

Recommended references (1)

For technological aspects of tunnel support systems, see all references

(including web sites) mentioned in the slides.

For a rigorous solution of the problem of rock-support intereaction in

the case of a circular tunnel lined by an elastic closed ring in an elastic

ground subject to non-hydrostatic far-ﬁeld stresses, see:

• Einstein, H. H. and C. W. Schwartz (1979), ‘Simpliﬁed analysis for

tunnel supports’. ASCE J. Geotech. Eng. Div., 105(4):449–518.

For tunnel support design and Convergence-Conﬁnement method:

• Hoek, E. & Brown, E. T. (1980), ‘Underground Excavations in Rock’.

London: The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

• Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, ‘Rock Mechanics for Under-

ground Mining’, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

• Hoek E., 2000, ‘Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek’.

Available for downloading at ‘Hoek’s Corner’, www.rocscience.com.

• U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997, ‘Tunnels and shafts in rock’.

Available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil.

ce.umn.edu

University of Minnesota

Department of Civil Engineering

These notes are

available for downloading at

www.cctrockengineering.com

[UE-T9-61]

Recommended references (2)

• ‘The Convergence-Conﬁnement Method’, Document No 170, 2002,

Recommendations fromAFTES (available for downloading at

www.aftes.asso.fr).

• Panet M. (1995), ‘Calcul des Tunnels par la Méthode de Convergence-

Conﬁnement’. Press de l’École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées.

• Carranza-Torres, C. and C. Fairhurst (2000), ‘Application of the con-

vergence conﬁnement method of tunnel design to rock-masses that sat-

isfy the Hoek-Brown failure criterion’. Underground Space, 15(2),

2000.

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