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1.0 Introduction The transformer is an electro-magnetically coupled circuit, which transforms power from one level of voltage and current to another. It is a vital link in a power system, which has made possible the power generated at lower voltages (11KV) to be transmitted over long distances at higher voltages (330KV, 132KV, etc.) 2.0 Theory In its simplest form, a transformer consists of a laminated core about which are wound two sets of windings; one called the primary and the other the secondary.

When a voltage is applied to the primary, it produces a magnetic flux in the core and the relationship between flux and voltage is given by:




- n d dt


where e and  are the instantaneous values of voltage and flux and n the number of turns. This flux lags behind applied voltage by 90o Thus if e = = Em Sint

m Cost

Substituting in eqn. 1 we have: Em Sint = - n d (m Cost) dt n  m Sint 2f n m 2f n m rms value = 1 Em) 2 2 x 3.14 f n m 2 4.44 m n f volts 4.44 Bm A n f maximum flux density) (where  = 2f)

Em Sint Em 2 E (where E

= = = =



= = (where Bm A =

Thus if Ep is the voltage applied to the primary, np the number of the turns in


the primary winding, then: Ep = 4.44 Bm A np f 2

This flux produced by voltage Ep links with the secondary winding of ns turns and similarly produces a voltage, i.e. Es = 4.44 Bm A ns f 3

Dividing eqn. 2 by 3 we have: Ep Es Ep Es = 4.44 Bm A np f 4.44 Bm A ns f np ns 4


There is also a relationship between current and the flux, which is given by:

nI l

where n l

= =

number of turns the length of the magnetic circuit

Thus if the secondary winding delivers a current Is to the load, then a flux s is produced which is given by:


ns Is l


Thus flux s links with the primary winding and causes a primary current Ip to be drawn from the source such that:


Io where Io is the primary no load current 84 .p = np Ip l 6 Equating 6 and 5 we have: np Ip = l or np Ip = Ip Is or Is Ip = ns Is l ns Is ns np np ns 7 = Thus combining eqns. 4 and 7 we have: Ep Es = np ns = Is Ip This is the equation of an Ideal Transformer. But in practice if Ip' is the primary current then Ip = Ip' (primary load current) .

m.So that or Ip Np = Np Ns = Is Ns Is Ip Similarly the secondary load voltage Vs is given by: Vs where Es = = Es .(IsRs + IsXs) secondary induced e. The voltage Es is transformed by primary voltage Ep and Ep Es = Np Ns (IsRs + IsXs) = But the primary applied voltage Vp is given by: Vp = Ep + (IpRp + IpXp) voltage drop due to primary load current in primary windings Hence Vp Vs Vp Vs = Ep Es Np Ns where IpRp + IpXp = And = The above relationships are explained by the phasor and circuit diagrams shown below 85 .f voltage drop due to secondary load current in secondary windings.

86 .1   Advantages of 3 phase units They occupy less space No extra support equipment is required to form a 3-phase Delta or Star connection.   They are cheaper They can be transported from factory as a compact unit.3. 3. transformers may be built as 3-phase single units or as three single-phase units into delta and star combinations or groups.0 Three-phase unit versus single-phase units: Since the transmission system is 3-phase. erected and commissioned at site quickly  Compact on-load tap changing (OLTC) gear can be provided as a built in unit.

2  Disadvantages of 3 phase units Problem of transportation in case of large capacity units weighing more than 100 tons.  They can be transported to site as completely assembled units and commissioned quickly. Expenditure on civil engineering works is more 87 .3  Advantages of Single-Phase Units The cost of a spare transformer is the cost of a single-phase unit. 3.4    Disadvantages of Single-Phase Units They occupy more space They require additional support structure to form 3-phase connections. 3. If reconditioning is undertaken then the complete unit has to be taken out of service and this becomes a problem if no spare capacity is available. erecting and commissioning if parts are dismantled and sent to site. Change of connections from star to delta or vice-versa cannot be done.3.  It is possible to obtain different possible pairs of connections between the primary and secondary.    The cost of one spare 3-phase transformer is more.  Reconditioning can be undertaken on individual units with a minimum outage time. which is comparatively very much less than the cost of a complete spare 3-phase unit.  Takes time in assembling.

However. They may be of the step-up type installed at generating stations or of the step-down type installed at substations.5 Considering all the above. which means that they are arranged to work at a constant load equal to their rating. 88 . 4. generator step-up power transformers are provided with only off circuit taps. Such power transformers installed in substations are provided with OLTC gear to regulate the voltage to be within permissible limits during peak load and off peak load hours.1 Power Transformers These are transformers of high rating of generally not less than 5MVA and 33KV and the rating also increases with the voltage rating.0 Types of Transformers This is dealt with in reference to units normally installed in a power utility like NEPA. They have a high utilisation factor. Single-phase units are the only choice where 3-phase units cannot be transported because of their weight and dimensions and also if there are no facilities at site for the assembly. 3. there is little argument in favour of the adoption of single-phase units as compared to 3-phase units. 4. The problem of providing on-load tap changing gear and even if provided the cost of providing tap changing gear on each unit works out costlier by at least 50% when compared to a compact unit in a 3-phase transformer. Hence their maximum efficiency is designed to be at or near full load. preparation and commissioning of the 3-phase units.

2 Distribution Transformers These are transformers installed in H.4. 4. Typical connections of their use are shown below: 89 .3 Auto Transformers An Auto Transformer is a transformer with a common winding for both primary and secondary. They are used in place of two winding power transformers where the ratio of transformation does not exceed 2 as they are cheaper than two winding transformers such as in a 132KV/66KV system or 66KV/33KV system. These transformers are not provided with any OLTC gear but with only off circuit taps. which is usually considerably less than the full load rating. These are generally rated at 11KV and have a rating not exceeding 1000KVA.V. They are therefore designed to have their maximum efficiency at between half and three quarter of full load. These transformers are characterised by an intermittent variable load. distribution feeders to meet consumer voltage requirements. They are used in distribution systems for improvement of voltage by boosting or bucking of supply voltage by a small amount.

.4 Instrument Transformers This is dealt with exhaustively in a separate chapter.4. No phase displacement (0o) 2. their symbols and connections are shown in the next page 90 .30o phase displacement 4. These groups are: 1.0 Three Phase Transformer connections or Vector group Three phase transformers are divided into four groups depending upon the phase displacement between the primary and secondary terminals. 180o phase displacement 3. 5. + 30o phase displacement These vector groups.

91 .

e. 6. (d) Same polarity. it is desirable that: (f) The impedances of each transformer.0 6. referred to its own rating should be the same. 6. (b) All corresponding secondary line voltages must be in phase.1 Parallel Operation of Transformers The following conditions must be strictly observed in order that 3-phase transformers may operate in parallel. In addition.2 If conditions (a) to (e) are not complied with. each transformer should have the same percentage or per unit resistance and reactance. (a) The secondaries must have the same phase sequence or the same phase rotation. the secondaries will simply shortcircuit one another and no output will be possible. (e) The secondaries must give the same magnitude of line voltages. It is difficult to ensure that transformers in parallel have identical per unit impedance and this affects the load sharing. 92 . i.6. (c) The same inherent phase angle difference between primary and secondary terminals. the transformers will not share the total load in proportion to their ratings and one transformer will become over-loaded before the total output reaches the sum of the individual ratings.3 If condition (f) is not complied with.

then these can be operated in parallel by connecting the terminals A21.6. this is not possible with groups 1 and 2 or with groups 1 or 2 with 3 and 4. that if a pair of 3-phase transformers belong to the same group provided conditions (a) to (e) are fulfilled. 6. then they can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond both physically and alphabetically. The -30o phase shift can be corrected to +30o and vice-versa by interchanging the external primary connection of any one of the two transformers.6 Phase shift in Delta-Star/Star-Delta Transformations (Vector groups 3 and 4) 93 .0. This is only possible with groups 3 and 4 by interchanging the external connections.4 It follows from the vector group connections indicated in paragraph 5. Thus. B21 and C21 of the second transformer and similarly by connecting terminals a21. 3-phase transformers belonging to vector group 1 with vector symbols Yy 0 and Dd 0.5 Sometimes it may be required to operate a 3-phase transformer belonging to one group with another 3-phase transformer belonging to another group. b21 and c21 of the first transformer with the second. taking the case of two. 6. B21 and C21 of the of the first transformer with terminals A21. However.

2 and 3 we have: 94 .From triangle ANC. we have: VA Sin 1200 VA = Va___ Sin 300 Va Sin 1200 Sin 300 Va Cos 300 Sin 300 Va___ tan 30o 3 Va = Va 1 3 = = = VA = Also VA is displaced from Va by 30o as shown Similarly for the other three phases as follows: Combining the three phasor diagrams 1.

1 .Similarly it can be shown for DY 1 group as follows: The above phase shift can also be explained as follows with reference to DY 11 Delta voltage VA transformed to secondary star voltage Va is given by: VA Va = = VAB .VCA VAB .VAB (240o)] 3 1 [VAB .VCA 3 1 [VAB .VAB (.j 3)] 3 2 2 1 [VAB (1 + ½ + j 3) 3 2 = 3 Va = = = 95 .

6.= 1 VAB (1 + ½ + j 3) 3 2 1 VAB (3 + j 3) 3 2 2 3 VAB (3 + j 3) 3 2 2 1 VAB [33 + j 3] 3 2 2 VAB (3 + j ½) 2 VAB  30o = = = = = Similarly it can be shown for the other phases and vector group DY 1. 96 .7 Parallel Operation of DY 11 and DY 1 Transformers The parallel operation of these transformers is done by changing the primary connections to any one of the two transformers as shown.

3 Using Phasing Sticks (a) Phasing sticks are high voltage insulated sticks with built in condensers to reduce the voltage to an acceptable value as can be measured by normal indicating instruments. C2 are the three phase secondaries of two transformers 1 and 2 to be paralleled. 7.2 The following methods are employed for carrying out the above checks (a) By the use of phasing sticks. C1 and A2. B1. (b) Checking the phase sequence of each transformer individually. They are also used to indicate if a line is alive or not.7. 7. From the same supply both the transformers are energised keeping the CB or switch open 97 . (c) By the use of voltage transformers.1 Procedures in Parallel Operation While paralleling two transformers the following checks are to be conducted: (a) Measurement of terminal voltages of each transformer . (c) Phasing out the terminal voltage between each of the phases of the two transformers.0 7. (b) These sticks are available in ratings of 5 to 33KV.done individually. (b) By the use of an external low voltage supply. (c) In the diagram shown below A1. B2.

(2) and (3) if no colour or other distinguishing marks are available. 98 .(d) Three sticks are used to determine the phase sequence. These sticks are labelled (1). Two sticks are used to measure the voltages. Phasing Stick connection line Terminal at which end voltage is measured Stick 1 Stick 2 A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 B1 C1 A1 B2 C2 A2 A1 – B1 B1 – C1 C1 – A1 A2 – B2 B2 – C2 C2 – A2 Magnitude of voltage measured Say 110V 110V 110V 110V 110V 110V Adjust the voltage taps of any one of the two transformers if the voltages of transformer (1) are different from those of transformer (2). (e) The individual voltages are measured and recorded as follows by connecting a voltmeter to the low voltage end of the two phasing sticks (1) and (2).

The phase sequence should be the same in both cases and if not. A phase sequence meter is connected to the low voltage end of the three phasing sticks such that terminals R. Stick (1) is held to source A1 and stick (2) is held to source terminals A2. change any two of the primary connections of any one of the two transformers.(f) The next step is to determine the phase sequence. (2) and (3) to terminals A2. the phase rotation is observed by holding sticks (1). The line ends of sticks (1). Similarly. and C2 in succession and the voltages are recorded as follows: Phasing Stick connection line Terminal at which end voltage is measured Stick 1 Stick 2 A1 A2 B2 C2 B1 A2 B2 C2 C1 A2 B2 C2 A1 – A2 A1 – B1 A1 – C2 B1 – A2 B1 – B2 B1 – C2 C1 – A2 C1 – B2 C1 – C2 Magnitude of voltage measured 0 190 190 190 0 190 190 190 0 99 . B1. (2) and (3) are held to terminals A1. (2) and (3) respectively. B2 and C2. Y. B of phase sequence meter are connected to sticks (1). B2. and C1 and the phase rotation observed and recorded as positive if anticlockwise and negative if clockwise. Repeat the check and observe phase sequence to be the same. (g) The last step is to phase out the two supply voltages.

C2 and C1 . (c) Checks as mentioned in paragragh. the phases B2. B1 .3 (e).From the above it indicates that terminals A1. and C1 respectively by interchanging the secondary terminals.’s are essentially required for this method. 3-phase supply from which both the transformers are energised keeping the CB or paralleling switch open. 132KV and other substations for paralleling of transformers and for paralleling of two different sources of supply. if A1 .’s are not available. C2.B2 and C1 .C2 respectively then. (b) The supply used is generally 400 volts. and A2 must be paralleled with A1.5 By the use of Voltage Transformers (a) This is by far the method always employed in 330KV. B1 and C1 correspond to terminals A2.A2 show zero voltages as against A1 .B2. (b) Two sets of V.T.7.A2. during the above test. B1 . The checks are 100 . 7.T. C2 and the CB or switch can now be safely closed to parallel the two sources. B2. B1. (f) and (g) are conducted for paralleling.4 By the method of an external supply source (a) This method is employed where phasing sticks are not available and als o if V. explained with reference to the diagram appended below. 7. However.

This test is to ensure again that both the V.3 (e) and (f). connecting secondary voltages.3 (e) and (f). secondaries of VT1 and VT2 are also phased out as per paragraph 7. 52LT2 and 52HT2 open. 101 Breakers 52LT2.3 (g).T.’s have the same polarity.T. Next 52LT2 is closed to energise VT2. connections. The phase sequence and voltages at the secondary of VT1 are measured and recorded as stated in paragraph 7. This test is to ensure that both the V.’s have the same polarity. ratio and phase sequence. The V.(c) Transformer 1 is energised by closing breaker 52HT1 and keeping 52LT1. 52HT1 are now opened out. (d) The test as per paragraph (c) above is repeated for transformer (2) by closing 52HT2 and keeping 52LT2. ratio and phase sequence. 52LT1 and 52HT1 open. secondary voltages.T. 52LT1 and . The phase sequence and voltages at secondary of VT2 are measured and recorded as per paragraph 7.

1 Case studies on paralleling of Transformers Paralleling of Transformers of unequal ratings and same percentage impedances Data (KVA) 1 (KVA) 2 Z1 Z2 It I1 I2 Rating of Transformer No.2 102 . breakers 52LT1 and 52LT2 are kept open.T.0 8.’s have a difference in phase sequence.2 % impedance of Transformer No.. then these have to be suitably corrected and tests (c) and (d) repeated. then each bus is charged from the secondary of each transformer with the bus coupler breaker open for conducting the necessary checks before paralleling.2 Total load current Load current shared by Transformer No.1 % impedance of Transformer No. For this test. (g) If there is a duplicate bus system provided with bus V.T. (f) The last step is phasing out the two secondary voltages. 8. Both the transformers are energised through breakers 52HT1 and 52HT2 and the voltages phased out through the secondaries of the two VT’s as enumerated in paragraph 7.1 Rating of Transformer No.3 (g). polarity etc.’s for each bus.1 Load current shared by Transformer No.(e) If the V.

Here: And: V It = = I1 Z1 = I1 + I2 I2 Z2 1 From eqn. (2) on both sides by V the secondary load voltage 103 . (1) I1 = I2 Z2 Z1 I2 Z2 + I2 Z1 I2 (Z2 + Z1) Z1 It (Z1)____ (Z1 + Z2) It (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) 2 It = = Or I2 = Similarly I1 = 3 Multiply eqn.Basically the problem is one of two impedance connected in parallel as shown.

We now have VI2 = VIt (Z1) (Z1 + Z2) = VIt (Z1)___ 1000 (Z1 + Z2) (KVA) t (Z1)___ (Z1 + Z2) (KVA) t (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) Or VI2 1000 (KVA) 2 = Similarly (KVA) 1 = 8. of 132/33KV Transformers of rating 15 MVA and 25 MVA with % impedances of 10% and 6% respectively. The per unit impedances of the transformers is given by: Zpu (1) = 0.25MVA. 6% Impedance Ifl = 25 x 103 3 x 33 = 437.1 . 132/33KV. Total load current = 700 A Transformer No.2 Problem: To find the load shared by 2Nos.5 A Assume MVA base = 100.1 x 100 15 104 .15MVA.2 . 132/33KV. 10% impedance Ifl = 15 x 103 3 x 33 = 262.5 A Transformer No.

105 .= Zpu (2) = 0.24)____ 0.24 p.6A = = Load current shared by Transformer No.u 0.24 0.91 184.67) 0.06 x 100 25 0.67 + 0.24 700 x 0.u = Load current shared by Transformer No.1 I1 = It (Z2)___ (Z1 + Z2) = 700 (0. the load will not be shared in proportion to their ratings.67 p.2 is already overloaded while transformer No.2 I2 = It (Z1)__ (Z1 + Z2) = 700 (0. This shows that with unequal % impedances.91 515.1 is lightly loaded.4A = It can be observed that transformer No.

5 A = = Load current shared by Transformer No. (1) impedance of Transformer No.2 (Impedance 10. the loading should be such as not to exceed the full load current.1 (Impedance 10%) = 500 x (10.2) 500 x 10.8. Total load current = 500 A Load current shared by Transformer No.4 Paralleling of Transformers with unequal secondary voltages Let E1 E2 Z1 Z2 = = = = secondary phase voltage of Transformer No.2 247.5 A = This shows that the transformer with higher impedance shares less load than the transformer with lower impedance. (2) impedance of Transformer No.3 Paralleling of Transformers with unequal % Impedances Problem: To find the load shared by 2 Nos. of 132/33KV 15 MVA Transformer of equal rating but with unequal % impedances of 10% and 10.0 20. (1) secondary phase voltage of Transformer No.2%.2 252.2 20.2%) = 500 x 10.2)_____ (10 + 10. (2) 106 . 8. In such a case.

The magnitude of this current is given by the equation: Ic = E1 .E2) must also be small as otherwise a large circulating current will flow overloading the transformers. Since Z1. Problem . 33/11KV transformers of equal % impedance of 6% but with unequal secondary voltages of 11.The unequal secondary voltages will cause a circulating current Ic to flow. Z2 are small in magnitude.2KV and 11. Total load current = 500 A Secondary full load current of each transformer will be: = 5 x 106 __ 3 x 11 x 103 262.0KV.E2_ Z1 + Z2 (E1 > E2) The current in transformer (1) will be (I1 + Ic) and that in transformer (2) will be (I2 . of 5MVA.Ic). the difference (E1 .To find the load shared by 2 Nos.5 A Ifl = 107 .

45 39.Impedance Z of each transformer will be: = Vph x % Z Ifl x 100 11000 x 6 3________ 262. Hence it is not safe to operate the two transformers in parallel with unequal secondary voltages.E2 Z1 + Z2 (11.5 x 100 = Z1 = Z2 = 1.8 A I1 + Ic It (Z2) + Ic (Z1 + Z2) 500 (6) + 39.8 289.45 ohms Ic = E1 . But the transformers may be operated in parallel provided that the current in each transformer does not exceed the full load current.45 + 1.8 12 250 + 39.5 A.0) x 103 3__ 1.2 .8 A = = Current in transformer 1 = = = = = This is greater than the full load current of 262. 108 .11.

In some substations there may be even four or five high voltage systems. 9.1 Three Winding Power Transformers In a large EHV substation there will be at least three high voltage systems from the low-tension auxiliary supplies. 9.2 An example of an EHV substation having three different voltages is a 330KV substation with voltages at 330KV.9. such transformers are not extensively used. The two schemes are shown by single line diagrams as follows: 109 . 132KV and 11KV.3 A comparison is now made as whether to have two winding transformers of 330/132KV and 132/11KV or three winding transformers of 330/132/11KV in an EHV substation with three voltages. This load may be around 10 to 15MVA. because there is no advantage in having four different voltage systems in the same tank as the risk of a fault on any one voltage system involves all the voltage systems. The 11KV load in such a substation is to meet the local loads around the substation and also for the requirements of the station auxiliary supplies. Although transformers with four high voltage windings are being manufactured.0 9.

(c) The layout is simple and occupies less space because of the fewer equipment 110 .4 Comparing scheme (B) with scheme (A) we have the following merits and demerits Merits (a) The number of transformers.Scheme (A) Two winding transformers Scheme (B) Three winding transformers 9. (b) There is considerable saving in the cost of civil engineering and structural works because of the fewer equipment. circuit breakers. There is therefore a considerable saving in the cost of equipment required. isolators and control panels is reduced to a minimum. CT’s.

Hence 11KV switchgear of adequately higher rupturing capacity will have to be installed. The reason being that the cost of such a transformer is cheaper because the windings need be insulated for only 1/3 times of the line voltage instead of for the full line voltage of 3 times the star voltage with a delta winding. (d) There is saving in energy because of the reduced transformation losses. (b) Since the third winding is a closed delta. (e) Besides. This third winding in such transformers is also called a `Stabilizing Winding' or ‘Tertiary Winding’. an artificial neutral has to be necessarily 111 . The cost of such switchgear may be much more than that of such switchgear installed in the secondary of a 132/11KV transformer. without the necessity of having a separate transformer. This winding is connected in a closed delta to provide a circulating path for the third harmonic voltages and zero sequence currents or ground fault currents. it is inevitable to provide a third winding in a star-star connected power transformer. It is pertinent to note here that a star-star connection is almost always resorted to in the case of EHV transformers of 132KV and above such as in 330/132KV transformers. Such a closed delta winding can be made use of for the third voltage. Demerits (a) The main disadvantage is the increased fault level at 11KV because the voltage is directly transformed from 330 to 11KV.and operation is also simple.

10.S. augmentation of the 11KV capacity to meet this load becomes a problem unless another two winding 132/11KV transformer is added at the substation. then this arrangement would prove to be the best and the fear of the transformer being exposed to short circuit stresses is not there. The methods of cooling with oil immersed transformer is classified as follows: 112 . the method of cooling by mineral oil is only dealt with here. Such frequent faults.S. (d) The capacity of the third winding is generally limited to 1/3rd of the capacity of the main transformer. Hence if there is a rapid increase in the growth of the 11KV load.0 Cooling of transformers and Cost Comparison of the cooling methods 10. stress the windings and reduces the life of the transformer. These lines are carried on pin insulators and are therefore susceptible to frequent faults. Since almost all of the power transformers are mineral oil cooled.1 The B. This is a disadvantage as it adds to the initial cost.created by the use of earthing transformers. recognises three cooling methods for transformers namely Air. particularly if carried into rural areas are quite long and extensive. This creates problems in load sharing and parallel operation because the impedance of the third delta winding is very much low when compared to the impedance of a similar voltage in a two winding transformer. If the 11KV winding feeds an urban network through an underground cable system. (c) The other disadvantage is that the units are exposed directly to the short circuit stresses because of faults on 11KV lines. Mineral oil and Synthetic liquid. The 11KV overhead networks.

As such additional surface area is provided for the cooling fins.Type OFB It is a combination of type OB and type OFN. The advantage is the reduction in the size of the transformer for the same rating and consequently a saving in the cost.6 Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled . 10.7 Forced Oil Water Cooled .10.Type ON Cooling is by circulation of oil under natural thermal heat only.4 Oil Immersed Water Cooled .Type OFN It is similar to type ON except that a cooling pump is installed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil. 10. also called radiators.2 Oil Immersed Natural Cooled .3 Oil Immersed Air Blast . 113 . This requires a free and abundant supply of water.Type OW An internal cooling coil or tubing is mounted through which water is circulated. In large transformers the surface area is not sufficient for dissipation of heat by radiation.5 Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . 10.Type OFW It is similar to type OW except that a cooling pump is added in the oil circuit for forced oil circulation into a heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow.Type OB Cooling is similar to type ON except that air circulation is done by external fans mounted below the radiators. Cooling is by convection. 10. 10.

11 The ON cooling is the simplest method of cooling with no fans or pumps or auxiliary motors. An indication of the operation of the fans/pumps is given in the Transformer control panel. The saving in cost in power transformers of up to 15MVA in changing the cooling from ON to other types is negligible. fans/pumps are switched on automatically. 109 It is quite common to select large power transformers of 15MVA and above with two or more systems of cooling namely ON/OFB or ON/OB or ON/OB/OFB. 10. These determine the type of cooling and permissible loading and as soon as the loading exceeds a preset value. Type of cooling % Cost ON 100 OFN 95 ON/OB 90 ON/OFB 85 OFB 80 OFW 75 10.10.8 It must be noted here that transformers with type OFB and type OFW cooling will carry no load if air or water supply is cut off.12 The OFW cooling is only employed in transformers installed at hydroelectric power stations where an abundant supply of cooling water is assured. But at 114 . The rating of such a transformer with ON/OB cooling will be written as for example 45/60MVA. the fans will not be working. It is used in all distribution transformers and in power transformers up to 15MVA. 10. which means that up to 45 MVA load. The fans will be switched on automatically when the load exceeds 45MVA.10 The type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer. The approximate relationship on the cost with different methods of cooling is mentioned below.

3 There are various national and international standards on characteristics of oil. which may increase the cost of the transformer. The life of a transformer is dependent on the quality of the insulating oil and as such it is very necessary to use insulating oil of a high quality or standard.suspended particles settle at bottom of tank rapidly.. These are characterised by: (a) Sludge value (Max) . secs.better cooling rate (e) Low pour point (f) High flash point .other stations. special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of hot water.% (b) Acidity after oxidation .prevents vaporisation of oil (g) Chemical stability 11.0 Requirements and characteristics of insulating oil 11.Redwood 115 .. (d) Low viscosity .1oC (Max) centistakes or . 11. 11.mg KOH/g (c) Flash point (min) .oF or oC (d) Viscosity at 70 oF or 21.1 The mineral oil in transformers is used not only as an insulating medium but also as a heat-transferring medium to dissipate the heat produced in the windings and the core.2 The essential qualities required of the insulating oil are: (a) High dielectric strength (b) Permits good transfer of heat (c) Low specific gravity .

1 Routine tests (a) Measurement of winding resistance (b) Ratio.ohms/cm3 (l) Water content – ppm (m) Tan delta or loss angle 12.+ve or –ve (j) Specific Gravity (k) Volume resistivity .0 Tests on Transformers These are governed by various national and international standards.mg KOH/g Inorganic (h) Saponification value (max) . (e) Load losses (f) Insulation resistance (g) Separate source voltage withstand test 116 . 12. polarity and phase relationship (c) Impedance voltage (d) No load losses and no load current. Most of these standards recommend the following tests.(e) Pour point .oF or oC (f) Electric strength .mg KOH/g (i) Copper discoloration .KV rms for 1 minute (g) Acidity Neutralisation value   Total .

(a) Measurement of insulation resistance and Polarisation Index (b) Ratio test on all the tap positions (c) Open circuit test. However.12. no load current and no load losses (d) Short circuit test and load losses (e) Oil test (f) Operation of tap changer manually and electrically on local and remote (g) Operation of cooling fans/pumps and motors (h) Measurement of earth resistance of transformer grounds namely. every manufacturer lists out the maintenance procedures to be followed during the lifetime of a transformer in service. neutral and body (i) Operation of Bucholtz relay for alarm/tripping (j) Measurement of loss angle of EHV bushings 14. the commonly recommended measures in almost all power transformers are the following: 117 .0 Field tests and Commissioning These tests are conducted at the time of commissioning on a completely assembled transformer after necessary drying out of the winding core and filtering of oil.0 Maintenance of Power Transformers Normally.2 Type tests (a) Impulse voltage withstand test (b) Temperature rise test 13.

 Periodically: Changing the silica gel when the colour has changed from blue to pink. (i) Hourly: Recording readings of: Load current Load KW Temperature Voltage (ii) (iii) (iv)  Half Yearly/Yearly: (i) (ii) Insulation resistance Oil test for breakdown voltage. 118 . water content and acidity.

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