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Buku Ekologi Lahan Basah

Buku Ekologi Lahan Basah

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LECTURE NOTE EKOLOGI LAHAN BASAH (WETLAND ECOLOGY

)
By Prabang Setyono
Ekologi merupakan ekspresi dari dinamika fisiologi makhluk hidup (interaksi dengan lingkungannya). Hidroekosfir meliputi Freshwater (inland water) dan Marine Water (oceanologi). Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya muncul istilah Brackish water. Inland water meliputi wetland (lahan basah) dipermukaan bumi yang meliputi Intermediate terrestrial dan open water. “ Wetland is an area covered with water and supporting aquatic plants and be located between open water and upland. Definisi wetland yaitu: 1. Adanya kehadiran air meskipun water tablenya dibawah tanah, 2. Mempunyai tanah yang unik yang berbeda dengan tanah didekatnya, 3. Mendukung vegetasi yang dapat beradaptasi terhadap kondisi basah (hidrophyt), 4. Berada di tepi daerah perairan yang dalam dan daerah Upland (dataran tinggi) sehingga dipengaruhi oleh dua tipe sehingga terdapat ciri aquatik dan cirri terrestrial, 5. Ukuran wetland sangat bervariasi dari Pathol (kubangan kecil) sampai seluas-luasnya, 6. Lokasinya bervariasi dari inland (darat) sampai coastal serta kondisinya dari region ke region. Wetland (Lahan basah) atau sering disebut sebagai KIDNEY OF LANDSCAPE karena fungsinya dalam siklus hidrologi dan kimia sebagai penerima material di hilir (down stream) dan umumnya tidak mempunyai batas yang jelas (arbitrer). Hal tersebut secara ekologi karena posisinya di daerah ECOTONE (AMPHIBIOUS) atau wilayah transisi dalam suatu lanscape atau bentang lahan. Berdasarkan peranannya maka lahan basah akan melakukan proses SINK, TRANSFORMER atau LALULINTAS SEMENTARA (SOURCE) material hara/logam berat yang dibawa oleh inflow lahan basah tersebut. Lahan basah juga disebut sebagai komponen yang unik dari bentang lahan dan dapat dibagi menjadi daerah COASTAL untuk mencegah intrusi air laut (pantai dengan salinitas min 35 o/oo) seperti Salt Marsh, mangrove wetland, intertidal wetland dan hutan bakau serta INLAND WETLAND / FRESH WATER (seperti tidal salt marsh (dibagi menjadi low intertidal zone misalnya: spartina (vegetasi) dan high tidal zone

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misalnya juncos (rumput), tidal freshwater marsh/rawa buritan, rawa pasangsurut/tidal sulfatquept wetland misal di Kalimantan serta riparian atau river dengan salinitas 0,5 o/oo). Wetland dipelajari dalam ilmu yang bernama Telmatologi (rawa) dan merupakan perkembangan dari Limnologi yang mempelajari Brackhis water, Salin Water dan Fresh Water. Wetland berada diantara 2 interface (darat dan perairan) dan mempunyai Water Log Soil (becek) serta Water table (tinggi muka air yang dinamis). Wetland didisain bagian dari landscape sebagai Ecotourism, wetland restoration (pengembalian fungsi) dan wetland creation (wetland yang memang dibuat). Fungsi wetland adalah: Pembersih air yang tercemar (kebalikannya dengan Wasteland) Pencegah banjir Mencegah intrusi air laut Recharge ground water aquifer Berperan besar dalam lanscape Menmyediakan habitat unik untuk flora dan fauna

Wetland berdasarkan keberadaannya merupakan ENDANGER ECOSYSTEM karena daerahnya selalu strategis sehingga rawan terhadap proses reklamasi (pengubahan ekosistem) dan bersifat UBIQUITOS (terdapat dimana-mana) dari ekosistem tropik sampai tundra. Contoh reklamasi wetland adalah proses pengeringan untuk lapangan terbang, pertanian dan urban. Di dunia komposisinya 71 % merupakan daerah perairan, 30 % daratan serta 6 % nya merupakan wetland. Berdasarkan regionnya maka wetland dibagi: Arid region (inland salt flats), Humid cool region (bogs dan fens/musiman jika ada hujan saja) serta Coast line region (pantai meliputi salt marsh / rawa garam dan mangrove swamp atau forested wetland dan not forested wetland). Kedalaman semakain besar maka salinitasnya juga semakin meningkat. Cirikhas daerah tropik transportasi silt sungai (pasir) terjadi proses flokulasi yang terdistribusi, sedangkan daerah temperate (California) maka flokulasinya akan diendapkan sehingga akan terjadi timbunan silt yang akan menjadi pulau di tengah estuarin. Ekologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari interaksi yang menentukan distribusi dan kemelimpahan makhluk hidup. Ekologi bentang lahan merupakan kajian yang mempelajari interaksi antar ekosistem mulai dari lautan sampai daerah pegunungan

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Hidrologi Wetland meliputi: a. vegetasi yang didukung oleh kondisi basah serta kadang dijumpai vegetasi yang Ruderal (musiman) sehingga vegetasi yang tidak toleran terhadap banjir tidak akan hadir. Konsep ekologi Modern dengan kajian komunitas dikemukakan oleh HUTCHINGSON sedangkan konsep biogeografi kepulauan dikemukakan oleh Mc. Spesies Indikator di Wetland akan mempunyai sifat: 3 . Konsep komunitas menurut CLEMENT ditinjau dari grafik dinamikanya merupakan konsep batas yang Arbitrer (batas yang jelas antara komunitas satu dengan lainnya). Hal ini diperkuat oleh WHITTAKER dengan konsepnya Lanskape Ekologi. Adanya hidrologi input (sumber utama hara ke Wetland) dan out putnya (dapat pindahkan materi biotik maupun abiotik ke tempat lain) wetland tersebut akan mempengaruhi pada komposisi biokimia tanah misalnya dalam bentuk sediment Mud (Lumpur) maupun Peat (gambut) sehingga akan menyeleksi biota wetland. Wetland disini dapat diilustrasikan sebagai daerah Intermedia antara Terestrial dan Open Water.berdasarkan struktur dan fungsi. tanah yang unik dengan dataran sekitar yang lebih tinggi. d. Berdasarkan konsep GLASSON (prominent ecology) bahwa batas antar komunitas bersifat Diffuse / Continuum (batasnya tidak jelas). Penelitian dibidang ekologi bentang lahan dibagi menjadi: Field Experiment: penelitian di lapangan Natural experiment: monitoring ( terdapat dua macam metode yaitu Trajectory merupakan penelitian longterm research dan Potret/Snapshot penelitian saat itu) Laboratory experiment: Mendisain percobaan Kekhasan wetland meliputi: air. c. Demikian juga komposisi biokimia pada Poured Water / Interstitiil Water (air disela-sela tanahnya). ARTHUR. b. Pola konservasinya pada habitat bukan spesiesnya. Presipitasi (adanya curah hujan dan salju) Surface Run off Ground water (aliran air bawah tanah) Tides (adanya pasang surut) Hal tersebut akan membawa konsekuensi adanya energi (hara) yang terbawa dari dan ke Wetland.

Kemampuan biotik vegetasi akan mengontrol kondisi air melalui: a. Wetland sangat sensitive terhadap perubahan pola normal Water Storagenya dan Movementnya sehingga disebut sebagai Fragile Ecosystem (ekosistem yang rapuh). Flood Duration merupakan lamanya waktu banjir atau jumlah lamanya waktu wetland dalam keadaan digenangi air. Kisaran adaptasi terhadap lingkungan yang sempit. Flood Frequency (perioda genangan) merupakan rata-rata waktu wetland digenangi air sehingga pada wetland muncul istilah Riparian wetland dan coastal salt wetland. Hidroperiod merupakan integrasi antara inflow dan outflow air yang dipengaruhi penampakanfisik topografinya (terrain). Perangkap sediment (sediment trapping) c. Aliran air (water shading) d. BUDGET HIDROLOGI WETLAND Hydroperiod merupakan pola musiman level air (water level ialah tinggi muka air) yang harus dijaga stabilitasnya. Organismenya mudah dilihat secara visual. Standing Water merupakan genangan air. Transpirasi Vegetasi Mangrove bertindak sebagai sediment Trapping karena sediment tersebut ada terlebih dahulu. Tiap rawa akan mempunyai cirikhas pola hidrioperiod (naik turunnya tinggi muka air dan permukaan bawah).mempunyai toleransi yang kecil terhadap stress lingkungan. MARSH dicirikan dengan ketinggiannya ± 15 cm didominasi herba emergent. Peat building (pembuat sediment gambut) b. Berdasarkan Hidroperiode wetland yang dipengaruhi oleh tidal (pasang surut) 4 . SWAMP dapat berupa shrub (semak) dan wooded (berkayu) sehingga terdapat di hutan. Pada bentuk BOG akan membentuk peta (gambut) pada daerah Surface Water kondisi anaerob (miskin oksigen) dan cenderung terjadi proses fermentasi menghasilkan asam organic dan gas sehingga sulit untuk mendegradasi seresah (litter) serta didominasi sphagnum (lumut) bersifat oligotropik. Bentuk FEN merupakan tipologi wetland secara musiman karena tergantung hidrologi dari air hujan serta akumulasi bahan organic dan didominasi Seddling-sedling.

Estuarin dibagi menjadi 4 pola: 1. 6. Irregulary flooded (permukaan digenangi secara tidak teratur) Hidroperiode yang non tidal wetland dapat dibagi menjadi: 1.1. dana akan digenangi dalam periode pendek dalam masa pertumbuhan. misalnya pada latar depannya hutan bakau Aviciena dan latar belakangnya berupa Palmae . Semi permanently flooded (digenangi pada musim pertumbuhan sepanjang tahun) 4. Dataran pesisir (Coastal plain estuarin) hal ini disebabkan adanya kenaikan air laut 5 . Saturated substrat (waterlog soil) akan mengalami kejenuhan air pada waktu lama pada musim pertumbuhan namun air tergenang jarang ada sehingga berupa Muddy (Lumpur) sehingga bersifat anaerob. Tidal Wetland (mangrove) dapat bersifat permanently flooded (karena digenangi air pasang) 2. Temporarily flooded (sawah) tergenang secara temporer. Regulary flooded (digenangi secara berselang-seling paling sedikit 1 kali sehari) 4. Water tablenya jika tidak digenangi akan berada jauh dibawah permukaan 7. permukaannya akan mempunyai air pada periode yang bervariasi yang sulit terdeteksi tanpa pola musiman Pada konsep Brackish water dikenal istilah ESTUARIN merupakan pertemuan antara air laut dan air tawar dan umumnya miskin spesies lain halnya dengan daerah EKOTON (daerah peralihan antara daratan dan perairan sehingga akan menampakkan zona/formasi yang dominan. digenangi lama pada musim pertumbuhan namun tidak ada air permukaan. Seasonaly flooded (digenangi secara musiman (remnant wetland)). Permanently flooded (digenangi air secara permanen sepanjang tahun) 2. Sedangkan pertemuan antara daratan dan lautan disebut sebagai daerah INTERTIDAL. 5. Intermittenly expose (digenangi sepanjang tahun kecuali pada tahun yang kemarau/kering) 3. Irregular exposed (terekspose secara tidak teratur) yaitu permukaan jarang digenangi 3. Intermittenly flooded.

Vegetasi yang dominan didaerah estuarin adalah MANGROVE yang bersifat tipikal (khas) pada suatu tempat. Hutan mangrove yang sehat ditandai dengan kondisi seresah daun pada lantai hutannya bersih dan tidak ada ranting-rantingnya. salinitas brakhis water 4 – 35 o/oo sedangkan salinitas air tawar 0 0.5 o/oo. sehingga oksigen sangat cepat berkurang selanjutnya sedimen estuarin dibawah kedalaman beberapa cm bersifat anoksik. Mangrove dapat hidup di air tawar karena dapat memfilter air salin. hutan bakau dan hutan payau. lahan basah pantai.2. karena Bakteri akan hasilkan bahan organik 20 gram/m2/hari. Habitat hutan mangrove dapat berupa Permanan (Native habitant) misalnya benthos serta Pengunjung (Temporary habitant) misalnya burung migran. Salinitas air laut 35 o/oo. Menurut ODUM bahwa produktivitas hutan mangrove sangat tinggi karena bernilai 70 X nilai maksimum samudera sehingga terdapat istilah No Mangrove No Shrimp/Crabs. Adanya stabilitas substratum (jika ada lahan baru yang menyebabkan terjadinya sedimentasi karena mulut sungai/Watershed terganggu maka substratum tidak stabil sehingga mangrove akan terancam). tropical swamp. seperti pembukaan lahan tambak udang. Teluk semi tertutup (Gobah) yang umumnya berupa air tawar 4. Menurut Blasco terdapat 3 faktor utama untuk keberadaan mangrove tersebut: 1. Hutan mangrove mendapatkan input materi dari Coastal 6 . Cirikhas tumbuhannya umumnya mempunyai akan nafas (pneumatofora). Nama lain dari vegetasi mangrove dapat berupa Coastal wetland. Sedimen estuarin yang berupa Lumpur (partikel halus) akan membatasi pertukaran antara air interstitial dengan kolom air diatasnya. Dinamika pasang surutnya dalam 1 hari akan terjadi 2 X pasang dan 2 X surut. Fjord berupa lembah yang digenangi air laut. Estuarin merupakan daerah pertemuan antara lautv dengan sungai (Brackhis estuarin) atau danau dengan sungai. Adanya periode pasang surut teratur 2. Estuarin Tektonik disebabkan oleh adanya gejala tektonik sehingga permukaan daratannya turun 3. Ada suplai air tawar secara teratur 3.

Marsh (wet grass land. dan klimatik arid) Hutan di Eropa secara umum sudah langka sehingga teori ekologi yang berkembang disana adalah tentang konsep Asosiasi. Forested Fen dan Reed Grass tidak mempunyai pohon) 2. Cover. Afrika Selatan) dan New World Mangrove (Amerika. tipe vegetasi. Adanya kecepatan arus (curah hujan di Daerah aliran sungai.dan offshore. Brasil. Braun-Blanket dan Releve.000 dolar. Umumnya hutan mangrove berdasarkan topografinya tidak melebar namun memanjang. Fringe Mangrove (terdapat dimuara-muara sungai) 3. pola landuse/tataguna lahan. Nilai ekonomi hutan mangrove tiap meter persegi senilai 70. Konsep eropa dan amerika ini disatukan oleh WHITTAKER. Swamp (adanya mineralisasi/rich reed (gelagah utk atap rumah) bed. Basin Mangrove (terdapat pada cekungan) 5. Nutrient inflow (rheotrophy). Macam-macam mangrove : 1. Hammock Forest (terdapat pada cekungan akibat tekanan alam) 6. Substrat tanah mineral tidak mempunyai akumulasi peat) 7 . Sediment load (geologi watershed. Hal ini didasarkan pada: kondisi air permukaan (surface water). Riverine Mangrove (terdapat masuk sungai secara memanjang) contoh di Kalimantan 4. Scrub or Dwarf Forest (terdapat sangat pendek) contoh di segara anakan Faktor utama yang mempengaruhi keberadaan mangrove: 1. Berdasarkan distribusinya maka Mangrove dibagi dua: Old World Mangrove (Indonesia. Konsep Lahan Basah di Eropa disebut sebagai MIRES yaitu ada empat macam. Overwish mangrove (terdapat di pulau) 2. Afrika Barat (Karibia)). Salinitas (lamanya penetrasi pasang air laut. amplitudo pasang surut dan topografi local) 2. sehingga memunculkan 4 macam: 1. penutupan hutan dan kondisi klimat local 3. pH dan karakter peat builder. Indonesia merupakan salah satu pusat mangrove dunia. sedangkan di Amerika secara umum masih banyak didapati hutan sehingga konsep yang berkembang adalah konsep Biomassa. 100 jenis ikan akan terdapat sekitar 70% nya tergantung dari detritus hutan bakau.

Moor (dapat berupa high moor dimana Bognya tinggi dan Low Moor dimana Bognya rendah/peat land di basin cekungan tidak ada elevasi (ketinggian)) 8. Marsh (sering digenangi. sehingga di Kalimantan sering terjadi Leaching. Tipe lahan basah di Amerika dapat dibedakan menjadi: 1. Di Indonesia tipe tersebut terdapat di daerah Kalimantan.5 m).3. Bog (Akumulasi peat wetland. Jika tergenang secara teratur maka akan tumbuh menyerupai hutan (Bottom land hard wood forest). Kalimantan tebal lapisannya 5 cm sedangkan di jawa bias mencapai 500 cm (0. Fen (Alluvial ven/proses adanya jatuhan air dari atas (air terjun)) 4. 8 . Mendukung proses Asidofilik mosses (lumut) seperti sphagnum karena terjadi akumulasi air. Bog/Moor (bersifat asam dengan pH < 7 ) Namun klasifikasi berdasarkan faktor fisik (geomorfologi) dan vegetasi (kumpulan bermacam-macam tumbuhan) akan sulit dikelompokkan karena beda region akan beda wilayahnya. Peat Wetland (Terjadi karena adanya akumulasi dari sisa tumbuhan sehingga disebut sebagai Gambut) 6. 3. Muskeg (Peat land atau Bog yang luas. Kondisi tanah di Kalimantan dan di Jawa terjadi perbedaan secara mencolok yaitu pada lapisan humusnya. Mires (Peat accumulating wetland) 7. tidak punya inflow dan outflow yang nyata. Umumnya terdapat didataran banjir Alluvial/Alluvial flat land. 5. Swamp (kaya akan pohon dan semak) 2. Bottomland (terdapat di low land sepanjang stream (sungai kecil) dan River (sungai besar). Akumulasi peat wetland yang menerima drainase dari sekeliling tanah mineral akan mendukung tumbuhnya vegetasi seperti Marsh. Jika didaerah jawa tipe Marsh yang herbaceous dijumpai di daerah Rawa Jombor Jawa Tengah. ada vegetasi emergent (padi) yang selalu beradaptasi terhadap tanah jenuh air (saturated oil). Bentuk Fluvial terbentuk di daerah gunung sedangkan Alluvial terbentuk di daerah sungai ). Fen (dibedakan berdasarkan bentuk morfologi. 4. terdapat di Kanada) 9. Lahan basah di daerah tropik/Indonesia tidak akan ditemui jenis Marsh Salt.

mempunyai waterlog soil. 14. Berdasarkan penelitian sedimen dasar danau akan mempunyai perilaku sama dengan sedimen pada Wetland. 12. Transformasi kimia di Wetland Kondisi air tergenang Bakteri obligat O2 (jika terjadi depletion O2 akan terjadi proses pemecahan bahan-bahan organic. kimia dan biologi serta pertukaran unsure kimia dengan lingkungan sekitarnya. Pada Ekosistem terjadi daur biogeokimia secara recycle sebagai suatu daur. water table dibawah permukaan tanah) 13. COD. Cirikhas lahan basah adalah mempunyai muatan Waterlog Soil (kondisi jenuh air/becek) selama ada proses penggenangan jika terjadi proses reduksi akan mempengaruhi transformasi biogeokimia. Oksigen tidak terdeplesi 9 . Pada daur intrasistem akan tergantung kondisi hidrologi yang membuat terjadinya transpor kimia. Pathole (menyerupai marsh dangkal seperti kolam) 15. Slough (system danau dangkal dengan alirannya yang lambat dibagian utara Amerika). Tipe tanah berupa Mineral (kandungan unsure organiknya 20-35 %) dan Organik (peat gambut/histosol). Proses meliputi interaksi antara faktor fisik. Kondisi tanah wetland bersifat hidric soil (tanah dalam kondisi tidak mengalami drainase/tidak dialiri) serta bersifat saturated (jenuh) terjadi selama masa pertumbuhan terbentuk kondisi Anaerob (hal ini disukai vegetasi hydrofit). Wetland yang ada dibagian danau terdapat di daerah territorial zone.10. Wetprairi (menyerupai Marsh sehingga banyak ditumbuhi grassland) 11. Wet Meadow (menyerupai grass land. namun asal usul geologinya berbeda). Depletion O2 ini tergantung pada suhu ambient. Mangrove Swamp dan Bottomland Forest) dan Close Wetland (Sawah tadah hujan). BIOGEOKIMIA LAHAN BASAH Biogeokimia meliputi sistem transport (pengangkutan) dan transformasi (perubahan bentuk kimia) unsur-unsur kimia yang terlibat dalam dinamika lahan basah. Playa (identik dengan Pathole. Lahan basah (Wetland) dapat dibagi menjadi Open Wetland (Tidal Salt Marsh. Reed Swamp (Marsh yang didominasi oleh jenis phragmites.

Laju degradasi di udara 10. Mn2+. 10 .secara total.+700 mV. Namun Mn direduksi lebih dulu dari Fe dan perilakunya sama. Pada unsur dan senyawa Fe3+. Elektron tidak akan terjadi selama uptake O2 yaitu Fe2+  Fe3+ + e namun akan terjadi sebaliknya bila terjadi proses H2 dipindahkan. NO3-. Pengukuran redok potensial menggunakan elektroda platinum (Eh mv). Pada kondisi O2 bebas maka Eh +400 . Manganat. SO42. Proses tersebut merupakan reduksi yaitu merupakan proses penghentian pemberian O2 dan meningkatnya H+ dan electron.terdapat pada kondisi Aerobik (ditandai jika terjadi Oksidasi dengan warna tanah coklat kemerahan). Fe   FeS  FeS2 (sink/abadi bersifat toksik jika teroksidasi) Fe Solution  gugus Fe insoluble  Bog Iron/Fe (penambangan besi dan baja) Fe tereduksi  Fe(OH)2  teroksidasi  warnanya tanahnya merah/coklat  Water log mineral soil (Gley)/proses warna sebagai gleying.000 X lebih lambat jika dibandingkan dengan di tanah. Transformasi Fe dan Mn Setelah reduksi Nitrat (NO3) pada skala redoks potensial maka ada juga reduksi Mn dan Fe. N-organik (Proses amonifikasi) NH4 (tetap ada kondisi aerob dan anaerob)  N Sedimen Water Interface pada Danau sama dengan Wetland juga dengan Sungai. Bila O2 ada maka Fe akan dioksidasi Fe2+ jadi bentuk Insoluble Ferric Form (Fe3+) dilakukan oleh bakteri khemosintetik/khemolitotrof. Unsur phosphat (PO4)bukan merupakan redoks elemen karena dia terikat dengan redoks elemen sehingga sifatnya sama seperti redoks elemen. Sulfida (S2-) terdapat pada kondisi Anaerob (tereduksi) maka warna tanah menjadi hitam. kebiru abuan. namun bila O2 sedimen menghilang maka Eh +400 sampai -400. NH3. Bila substrat organic mengalami oksidasi maka Eh akan berkurang. Pada Sedimen water interface terdapat batas kondisi aerob dan anaerob)  Fakultatif O2  Dorman  Bakteri anaerob. Redoks Potensial (oksidasi reduksi potensial) Tersedianya electron kimia dalam larutan tanah Wetland. Pada unsure dan senyawa Fe2+.

DHL (daya hantar listrik) merupakan banyaknya garam-garam yang terlarut atau terionisasi.. Pertumbuhan Fitoplankton yang optimal berdasarkan kadar nitratnya adalah 0. EKOLOGI PERAIRAN TAWAR Menurut Boyd (1990) di daerah tropis suhu yang paling sesuai untuk pertumbuhan ikan adalah 250 – 320 C. Menurut Prescod (1973) pH yang wajar bagi kehidupan Biota air adalah 6.Fe dan Mn pada Wetland soil jika tereduksi sifatnya sangat toksik. Menurut Handersen (1986) cirri khas danau Eutropik adalah: mempunyai kandungan klorofil 10 – 100 mg/m3 dan kecerahan 38. baik yang bersifat Biodegradable maupun yang Non Biodegradable.(sulfide) valensi 2-. Nilai kecerahan 30-60 cm masih dapat dikatakan baik untuk produksi perikanan. S (elemen S) valensi 0. Alkalinitas merupakan kapasitas penyangga perairan terhadap ion Ca dan Mg di perairan tawar.5 – 8. Reduksi sulfat dapat sebagai Assimilatory sulfat reduction. Mesotropik dan Eutropik. Fe akan mengalami difusi ke permukaan akar karena proses liking O2. S2O3 (Thiosulfat) valensi 2+ dan SO42. Nanoplankton mempunyai ukuran 5 – 60 µm dan Netplankton mempunyai ukuran > 60 µm.5 – 64 cm. BOD merupakan kandungan bahan organic perairan yang dapat didekomposisi secara biologis. sedangkan nilai kecerahan > 60 cm akan mendorong pertumbuhan tanaman air. Center dan Hill (1979) mengemukakan bahwa kandungan CO2 bebas diperairan untuk kehidupan ikan pada umumnya < 12 mg/L (ppm).37 mg/L (ppm).0 – 0.5 mg/L (ppm). Tipe danau dapat dibedakan menjadi Oligotropik. COD merupakan jumlah total O2 yang diperlukan untuk mengoksidasi semua bahan organic secara kimiawi.(sulfat) valensi 6+.5.9 – 3. Unsur S dialam dapat berupa S2. 11 . sedangkan Oligotropik mempunyai kandungan Nitrat 0. Senyawa NH3 akan menghambat daya serap Hb terhadap Oksigen. Jika terjadi proses oksidasi maka akan terjadi Immobilisasi PO4. Wetzel (1983) mengemukakan bahwa Nilai ammonia total meliputi NH3-N dan ion ammonium NH4. Nilai kecerahan < 30 cm akan mengurangi kandungan DO. Sulfat sebagai terminal electron akseptor pada respirasi anaerob.

Having different unique land. [The] mentioned in ecology [of] because its position [in] area ECOTONE ( AMPHIBIOUS) Or transition region in a[n lanscape or unfold the farm. In growth hereinafter emerge the term of Brackish water.ground of[is near by nya 3.ground with the land. Its location vary from inland ( darat) until coastal and also its condition from region to region. Reside in the edge of area [of] territorial water which is in and area Upland ( plateau) [is] so that influenced by two type so that there are characteristic of aquatik and cirri terrestrial 5. definition Wetland that is 1. Ecology represent the expression from dynamics of mortal physiology ( interaction environmentally [his/its]). Existence of attendance irrigate though subterranean water tablenya 2. size measure [of] Wetland highly varied from Pathol ( small wallow) until seluasluasnya 6. Pursuant to its role hence wet farm will [do/conduct] the process SINK. Supporting vegetasi which can adapt to wet condition ( hidrophyt 4. Inland Water cover the wetland ( wet farm) on the surface of earth covering Intermediate of terrestrial and open water " Wetland Is an of area of covered with water and supporting aquatic plants and be located between open water and upland. Wetland ( Wet Farm) or [is] often conceived of [by] KIDNEY OF LANDSCAPE [of] because its function in cycle hidrologi and chemical as material receiver [in] downstream ( down stream) and generally don't have the clear boundary ( arbitrer). TRANSFORMER Or LALULINTAS [of] WHEREAS 12 .LECTURE NOTE. WETLAND ECOLOGY By Prabang Setyono. Hidroekosfir cover the Freshwater ( inland water) and Marine Water ( oceanologi).

Preventing intrusi irrigate sea. CROSSING PARAGRAPH LIMITATION. Cirikhas of Area of tropik of transportation of silt river ( pasir) happened [by] the process flokulasi which distribution. . Wet farm [is] also conceived of [by] a unique component from unfolding farm and divisible become the area COASTAL to prevent the intrusi irrigate the sea ( coastal by salinitas [is] min 35 o / oo) like Salt HALTED.Share big in lanscape.( SOURCE) of Material hara / heavy metal brought by the wet farm inflow. Pursuant to regionnya hence wetland divided: Arid Region ( inland salt flats). . Ecology unfold the farm represent the study learning interaction 13 . .Recharge Ground water aquifer. . Humid Cool region ( bogs and fens / seasonal if there [is] just just rain) and also Coast of lino region ( coastal cover the salt marsh / bog of salt and mangrove swamp or forested wetland and note of forested wetland). 30 % continent and also 6 % its represent the wetland. Ecology represent the science learning interaction determining distribution and abundance mortal. while area temperate ( California) hence flokulasinya will be precipitated so that will be happened [by] the hoard silt to become the island in the middle of estuarin.unique Menmyediakan Habitat for the flora of fauna and Wetland [of] pursuant to its existence represent the ENDANGER ECOSYSTEM [of] because its area [is] strategic always so that gristle to process reklamasi ( distorting ekosistem) and have the character of the UBIQUITOS ( there are at all points) from ekosistem tropik until tundra. agriculture and urban. Follow the example of the reklamasi wetland [is] draining process for the airfield of. . big deepness Semakain hence salinitasnya also progressively mount the. [In] its composition world 71 % representing territorial water area.impure Water cleaner ( on the contrary by Wasteland floods.

Field Experiment: research [in] field.ground with the plain [of] about superordinate. This matter [is] strenghtened by WHITTAKER with its concept [is] Lanskape Ecology. .Natural Experiment: monitoring ( there are two kinds of method that is Trajectory represent the research of longterm research and Make a picture the / that moment research snapshot Laboratory Experiment: Designing attempt. ARTHUR. specification Wetland cover the: water. Modern Ecology Concept with the community study opened by HUTCHINGSON [of] while concept of biogeografi archipelago opened by Mc. Community concept [of] according to CLEMENT evaluated from its dynamics graph represent the boundary concept which Arbitrer ( clear boundary [among/between] community one otherly). research of ecology Area unfold the farm divided to become: .usher the ekosistem start from ocean until mountain area [of] pursuant to structure and function. Surface Run off. vegetasi supported by wet condition and also [is] sometime met [by] the vegetasi which Ruderal ( musiman) so that intolerant vegetasi to floods will not attend the. Presipitasi ( existence of rainfall and snow) b. Existence of hidrologi input ( especial source [of] hara to Wetland) and out putnya ( can remove the items of biotik and also abiotik to other. Pursuant to concept GLASSON ( prominent ecology) that boundary usher the community have the character of the Diffuse / Continuum ( its boundary [is] ill defined). Hidrologi Wetland cover: a.ground for example in the form of sediment Mud ( Lumpur) and also Peat 14 . c. its Conservation pattern [at] habitat [of] non its species. unique land.dissimilar place) the wetland will influence [at] biochemical composition [of] land. Ground Water ( underground current) d. Tides ( existence of ebb) [The] mentioned will bring the consequence of[is existence of energi ( hara) brought from and to Wetland.

Its organism [is] easy to seen visually. Vegetasi Mangrove act as the sediment Trapping [of] because the sediment there [is] beforehand. Transpirasi. Hydroperiod represent the seasonal pattern [of] level irrigate the ( water level [is] high [of] water face) which must be taken care of [by] its stability. [At] form BOG will form the map ( gambut) [of] [at] area of Surface Water of condition anaerob ( impecunious [of] oxygen) and tend to happened [by] the ferment process yield the acid of organic and gas so that difficult to mendegradasi as anxious as ( litter) [is] and also predominated [by] the sphagnum ( lumut) have the character of the oligotropik. BUDGET HIDROLOGI WETLAND.ground). Every bog will have the cirikhas of pattern hidrioperiod ( fluctuate [his/its] [is] high [of] face irrigate and surface [of] 15 . Adaptation gyration to narrow. Peat Building ( maker of sediment peat) b. MARSH distinguished with its height ± 15 cm predominated [by] the herba emergent. Form the FEN represent the tipologi wetland seasonally because depended [by] hidrologi from rainwater and also accumulate the substance organic and predominated [by] the SeddlingSedling. ability of Biotik vegetasi will control the condition irrigate [through/ passing]: a. Current ( water shading) d.( gambut) so that will select the biota wetland. And so do biochemical composition [at] Poured Water / Interstitiil Water ( irrigate in between [by] its land. Snare the sediment ( sediment trapping) c.tight environment. Wetland here can be illustrated [by] as area Intermedia [of] [among/between] Terestrial and Open Water. Indicator Species [in] Wetland will have the nature of: having small tolerance to environmental stress. SWAMP can be in the form of the shrub ( semak) and wooded ( berkayu) so that there are [in] forest. Wetland very sensitive to normal pattern change [of] Water Storagenya and Movementnya [is] so that conceived of [by] Fragile Ecosystem ( brittle ekosistem).

Saturated Substrat ( waterlog soil) will experience of the saturation irrigate when llama [of] [at] growth season but irrigate suffused seldom there [is] so that in the form of Muddy ( Lumpur) so that have the character of anaerob. Flood Duration represent the duration of floods time or sum up the duration of time wetland in a state of suffused [by] the water. Standing Water represent the pond irrigate the. 6. its surface will have the water [of] [at] difficult period which vary detected [by] without seasonal pattern [At] concept of Brackish water recognized [by] term ESTUARIN represent the meeting [of] [among/between] water go out to sea and freshwater and impecunious generally other. fund will be suffused in short period in a period of/to growth. Tidal Wetland ( mangrove) can have the character of the permanently flooded ( because suffused [by] the high water 2. Seasonaly Flooded ( suffused seasonally ( remnant wetland). Flourish the permanently flooded ( suffused [at] growth season during the year 4. suffused [by] the llama [of] [at] growth season but [there] no surface water. Regulary Flooded ( suffused [by] by at intervals [at] least 1 times one day 4. Pursuant to Hidroperiode wetland influenced by tidal ( ebb 1. Water Tablenya [is] otherwise suffused will reside in far below/under surface 7. Temporarily Flooded ( sawah) suffused transiently. Flood Frequency ( perioda pond) representing mean of time wetland suffused [by] the water so that [at] wetland emerge the term of Riparian wetland and coastal salt wetland. Hidroperiod represent the integration [of] [among/between] inflow and water outflow influenced [by] the its penampakanfisik topography ( terrain). Irregular Exposed ( terekspose disjointedly) that is surface seldom be suffused the 3. While 16 . 5. Intermittenly Flooded. Permanently Flooded ( suffused [by] the water permanently during the year 2. for example [at] its foreground [is] forest of mangrove Aviciena and its background in the form of Palmae . Intermittenly Expose ( suffused except to during the year year which drought / dry 3.dissimilar species the things of with the area EKOTON ( switchover area [of] [among/between] continent and territorial water so that will look the zona / dominant formation.under). Irregulary Flooded ( surface suffused disjointedly) Hidroperiode which is the non divisible tidal wetland become: 1.

3.meeting [of] [among/between] continent and ocean conceived of [by] area INTERTIDAL. salinitas brakhis water 4 . Existence of stability substratum ( if there [is] new farm causing the happening of sedimentation [of] because river mouth / Watershed annoyed hence unstable substratum 17 .35 o / oo [of] while salinitas freshwater 0 . Mangrove earn life [in] freshwater [of] because earning memfilter irrigate to copy the.0. so that oxygen very quickly decrease hereinafter sediment estuarin [of] below/under deepness [of] some cm have the character of anoksik. tropical swamp.5 o / oo. Name of[is differ from vegetasi mangrove can be in the form of the Coastal wetland. Existence of regular ebb period. its Ebb dynamics in 1 day will be happened [by] 2 X install and 2 X withdraw. Estuarin divided to become 4 pattern: 1. dominant Vegetasi [is] area estuarin [is] MANGROVE having the character of typical ( khas) at one particular place. According to Blasco [of] there are 3 primary factor for the existence of the mangrove: 1. sediment Estuarin which is in the form of Mud ( smooth particle) will limit the transfer [of] [among/between] water interstitial with the column irrigate for nya. 2. coastal area Plain ( Coastal Plain estuarin) this matter [is] caused [by] the existence of increase irrigate the sea 2. Salinitas irrigate the sea 35 o / oo. Estuarin Tektonik [of] because of existence of symptom tektonik so that its continent surface descend the 3. its Cirikhas Plant generally have of breath ( pneumatofora). forest of brackish forest and mangrove. There [is] freshwater supply regularly. coastal wet farm. closed Semi bay ( Gobah) which generally in the form of freshwater 4. Fjord in the form of dale suffused [by] the water go out to sea. Estuarin represent the meeting area [of] [among/between] lautv with the river ( Brackhis Estuarin) or lake with the river.

Basin Mangrove ( there are [at] hollow) 5. because Bacterium will yield the organic substance 20 gram/m2/hari. Riverine Mangrove ( there are entering river by length) follow the example of [in] Kalimantan 4. amplitude of ebb and topography local 2. forest Mangrove get the items input from Coastal and offshore.000 dollar. like farm opening dam out prawn. healthy forest Mangrove marked with the condition as anxious as leaf [of] [at] its forest floor [is] clean and [there] no its sticks. pattern landuse / tataguna farm. West African ( Karibia)). Brasil. Economic value [of] forest mangrove [of] every metre persegi for the price of 70. Braun-Blanket And 18 . closing of forest and condition of klimat local 3. Overwish Mangrove ( there are [in] island) 2. Indonesia represent one of center of mangrove world. Sediment Load ( geology watershed. South arch African) and New World Mangrove ( American. habitat of Forest mangrove can be in the form of the Permanan ( Native Habitant) for example benthos and also Visitor ( Temporary Habitant) for example bird migran. Kinds of mangrove : 1. Fringe Mangrove ( there are dimuara-muara river) 3. Salinitas ( penetrating duration install the water go out to sea. According to ODUM that productivity of forest mangrove very high because valuable 70 X assess maximum ocean so that there are term of No Mangrove No Shrimp / crabs. Cover the. Scrub Or Dwarf Forest ( there are very short) follow the example of [in] segara anakan [of] Primary factor influencing existence mangrove: 1. Generally forest mangrove [of] pursuant to its topography is not wide but length. 100 fish type will there are about 70% its depended from detritus of mangrove forest.so that mangrove will be threatened). and klimatik arid) Forest [in] Europe in general have scarce so that ecology theory expanding there [is] about Association concept. Hammock Forest ( there are [at] effect [of] hollow experienced pressure 6. Pursuant to its distribution hence Mangrove divided [by] two: Old World Mangrove ( Indonesia. Existence of current speed ( rainfall [in] Drainage basin.

Fen ( Alluvial Ven / process the existence of fallout irrigate the from the top (of) ( waterfall 4. Marsh ( wet grass land. Bog / moor ( having the character of acid by pH < 7 ) But klasifikasi [of] pursuant to physical factor ( geomorfologi) and vegetasi ( corps [of] all kinds of plant) will be difficult grouped [by] because difference of region of region difference will its. Wet Farm [in] area tropik / Indonesia will not be met [by] the type of Marsh Salt. 19 .Releve. Wet Farm Concept [in] Europe conceived of [by] MIRES that is there [is] four kinds of. wet Farm type [in] distinguishable America become: 1. Substrat of mineral Land. so that [in] Kalimantan [is] often happened [by] the Leaching. Forested Fen and Reed Grass don't have the tree 2. This matter [is] relied on: condition irrigate the surface ( surface water).Ground don't have the accumulation peat 3. there [is] vegetasi which always adapt to saturated the ( saturated oil). have no the real outflow and inflow.Ground condition [in] Kalimantan and [in] Java happened [by] the difference by striking that is [at] its humus coat. type vegetasi. If area of jawa herbaceous met [in] area of Bog of 3. Swamp ( rich [of] tree will and entangle) 2. Thick Kalimantan [of] its coat 5 cm [of] while [in] jawa diffraction reach 500 cm ( 0. In Indonesia the type there are [in] area Kalimantan. Swamp ( existence of mineralisasi / rich reed ( gelagah utk of house roof) bed.5 m). Supporting process of Asidofilik mosses ( lumut) [of] like sphagnum [of] because happened [by] the accumulation irrigate. so that peep out 4 kinds of: 1. Nutrient Inflow ( rheotrophy).ground irrigate of type Marsh which Jombor Central Java. this american and European Concept united by WHITTAKER. Bog ( Accumulate the peat wetland. often suffused. Land. pH and character of peat builder. while [in] America in general still a lot of discovered [by] the forest so that concept expanding [is] concept Biomassa. Marsh ( [is] emergent ( padi) land.

subsurface water table) 13. Biogeokimia cover the system transport ( pengangkutan) and transformasi ( chemical transformation) chemical elements in concerned in wet farm dynamics. Wetprairi ( looking like Marsh so that a lot of growed [by] the grassland) 11. 5. Reed Swamp ( Marsh predominated by type phragmites. 20 . Moor ( can be in the form of the high moor [of] where high Bognya and Low Moor [of] where low Bognya / peat land [in] basin hollow [of] [there] no elevasi ( ketinggian)) 8. Slough ( [shallow/ superficial] system lake with its stream [is] tardy [is] American upstate). Pathole like pool) ( looking like [shallow/ superficial] marsh 15. having waterlog soil. [At] Ekosistem happened to [by] cycle the biogeokimia by recycle as a(n) cycling. Peat Wetland ( Happen [by] caused by [his/its] accumulate from rest of plant [is] so that conceived of [by] Peat 6. WET BIOGEOKIMIA FARM. Form the Fluvial formed [in] mount area [of] while Alluvial formed [in] river area ). Muskeg ( wide Peat Land or Bog. Existing Wetland part of lake [of] there are [in] area of territorial zone. Playa ( identik by Pathole. biological and chemical and also chemical transfer unsure environmentally [is] vinicity. 12. there are [in] Canada 9. Wet Meadow ( looking like grass land. Bottomland ( there are [in] low land as long as stream ( rill) and River ( great river).4. Generally there are plain of floods Alluvial / flat alluvial [of] land. Accumulate the peat wetland accepting drainage from around mineral land. Mires ( Peat Accumulating wetland) 7. 14. Process to cover the interaction [of] [among/between] physical factor. 10. Fen ( differentiated [by] pursuant to morphology form. but its geology genesis differ).ground will support the growing of vegetasi [of] like Marsh. If suffused regularly hence will grow to look like the forest ( Bottom Land hard wood forest).

Wet farm ( Divisible Wetland) become the Open Wetland ( Tidal Salt Marsh.Ground wetland have the character of the hidric soil ( land. Pursuant to elementary sediment research [of] lake will have the behavior [of] [is] equal to sediment [of] [at] Wetland. [At] element and compound Fe3+. condition of Land. bacterium of Obligat O2 ( if happened [by] the depletion O2 will be happened [by] the process of resolving of substance organic. [At] cycling intrasistem will be depended [by] condition hidrologi making the happening of chemical transpor. Accelerate the degradasi on the air 10. Mn2+. NO3-. SO42. 21 .ground colour squeezing).Ground type in the form of Mineral ( obstetrical [of] its[his] organic unsure 20-35 %) and Organic ( peat peat / histosol).wet Cirikhas Farm [is] have the payload of Waterlog Soil ( saturated condition [of] water / muddy) during there [is] process the flooding [of] if happened [by] the discount process will influence the transformasi biogeokimia. this Depletion O2 depend on temperature ambient. Land. Chemical Transformasi [in] Wetland. COD. Oxygen [do] not terdeplesi totally.ground. element Phosphat ( PO4)BUKAN represent the redoks element [of] because he/she [is] trussed by redoks [is] element so that in character the [is] same as redoks element. Condition irrigate suffused.000 slower X in comparison with [in] land. [At] Sediment of water interface [of] there are boundary of condition of aerob and anaerob à Optional [of] O2 à Dorman à Bacterium Anaerob. Mangrove Swamp and Bottomland Forest) and Close Wetland ( Wet ricefield dependant to rain).ground in a condition [do] not experience of the drainage / [is] not emited a stream of) and also have the character of the saturated ( jenuh) happened [by] during a period of/to growth formed [by] condition Anaerob ( this matter [is] taken a fancy to [by] the vegetasi hydrofit).there are [at] condition Aerobik ( marked [by] if happened [by] the Oxidation with the brown land.

N-Organik ( Process the amonifikasi)à NH4 ( immanent [of] condition of aerob and anaerob à N of Sediment of Water Interface [of] [at] Lake [of] [is] equal to Wetland also with River.ground [is] red / brown à Water of Logarithm of mineral soil ( Gley) / process colour as gleying. 22 .ground colour become black. But Mn reduced in advance from Fe and its behavior [is] of equal. If/When substrat organic experience of the oxidation hence Eh will decrease. The process represent the discount that is represent the process of stop of gift O2 and the increasing of H+ and electron. Fe à Fes à Fes2 ( sink / endless have the character of toxic if oxidized the) Fe Solution à bunch of Fe insoluble à Bog Iron / fe ( iron mine and steel) Fe Tereduksi à Fe(Oh)2 à oxidized à its colour [is] its land. Fe And Mn [of] [at] Wetland soil [of] if tereduksi in character very toxic. Manganat. Fe will experience of the diffusion to surface grow on because process of liking O2.+ 700 mV. [At] free condition O2 hence Eh + 400 . Sulfide ( S2-) [of] there are [at] condition Anaerob ( tereduksi) hence land.[At] unsure and compound Fe2+. If/When O2 there [is] hence Fe will be oxidized [by] the Fe2+ become the form of Insoluble Ferric Form ( Fe3+) [done/conducted] by bacterium khemosintetik / khemolitotrof.ground Wetland. After Nitrate discount ( NO3) [of] [at] potential scale redoks hence there [is] also reduce the Mn and Fe. NH3. If happened [by] the process oxidize hence will be happened [by] the Immobilisasi PO4. potential measurement Redok use the platinum electrode ( Eh Mv).400. kebiru abuan. but if/when O2 sediment disappear hence Eh + 400 until . Potential Redoks ( oxidize the potential discount) The available of chemical electron in condensation of land. Electron will not be happened [by] during uptake O2 that is Fe2 à Fe3 + e but will be happened on the contrary if/when happened [by] the process H2 removed. Transformasi Fe and Mn.

Sulphate as terminal of electron acceptor [of] [at] respirasi anaerob.experienced Element S can be in the form of the S2( sulfide) valence 2-. Sulphate discount earn as Assimilatory of sulphate reduction. 23 . S2O3 ( Thiosulfat) Valence 2+ and SO42. S ( element S) valence 0.( sulfat) valence 6+.

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