TEXT FLY WITHIN THE BOOK ONLY

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
FROM

BABAR TO AURANGZEB
BY
S.

M. JAFFAR,

AUTHOR OF:

B.A., M.R.A.S. "Education in Muslim India",

(LONDON)
"

Mediaeval India
1

and

"Some Cultural Aspects

of

Muslim

r.ule in India'

WITH AN INTRODUCTION
BY

Ihe Hon'ble

Sir

ABDUL QADIR,

Kt.

PUBLISHER
S.

MUHAMMAD

SADIQ KHAN

KISSA KHANI. PESHAWAR
1936
First Edit*',n

Price Rs, 5-net

Cvtivrixht Reserved I, the

Author

Published by
S.

MUHAMMAD
/Cissa

SADIQ KHAN,
F. P.)

Khani,

Peshawar City (N.-W.

Printed by Mirza
at the

Mullmfaad Sadiq

Ripon Printing Press, Bull Road, L "hore

DEDICATED
TO

MY FELLOW WORKERS
I

N

THE SAME FIELD

PREFACE
should not raise one's pen to write history is equipped with a thorough knowledge of the original sources and a clear conscience. In order to obtain correct information, it is absolutely essenunless one
tial

ONE

to approach

and

history with an unprejudiced mind The evidence without preconceived notions.

thus collected from the huge mass of historical literature that has come down to posterity from the pen of the contemporary chroniclers must be carefully sifted and pieced together in such a way as to present an accurate account of the past. History must not be

instrument of propaganda even in the best if used in a wrong cause, it may result in with human blood. Volumes written streets filling on the Muslim Period of Indian history have voluminously added to the volumes of communal hatred and bigotry. Whatever the aims of their authors, the text -books on Indian history, particularly on the
used as an
of causes
;

Muslim Period, teem with exaggerations, distortions and timid suppression of facts, so much so that they tend to set one community at the throat of the other. False history has done more than a mere wrong to the cause of national unity and inter-communal amity in
India.
affairs will

that

retrospective glance at the present state of not fail io ~eveal to the reader the fact the teaching of wrong history, more than anyelse, is responsible for

A

thing

the recurring riots

among

viii

PREPACK
different

the

communities

of

India.

The

sooner,

therefore, such books are dispensed with, the better Born and for the peace and prosperity of India.

brought up

in

communal atmosphere, we,
is

Indians,
therefore

see everything with communal glasses and The obvious result get a gloomy view.

that the

best of Muslim monarchs, statesmen and scholars have been painted in the darkest of colours and condemned
as bigots

and

intolerants, nay, as blood-thirsty tyrants.
at present,
is

As things stand
out
correct
realized.

communal harmony
dream which
Indian
history,

with-

history

a
of

cannot be
therefore,
'

The whole
to

requires

be re-written

in the right spirit,

not so

much from
capitals
of

the point of view of occurrences at the various states as in order to delineate the
culture a,nd to demonstrate the value of
its

spread

of

present composite form, so that our people may not be led away by the false notion that whatever para-

phernalia of civilization we posset does not go back to more than a century and a half '. Some time ago

the

mittee

Punjab Government appointed a Special Comto see into the subject. The Committee

investigated the matter
of the

and made some useful recom-

mendations. The same point regarding the re-writing whole of Indian history, particularly the Muslim

Period,
rical

was stressed
in

at

Poona

at the All-India HistoSir) Shafaat

Conference

1934 by Dr. (now

presided over its deliberations and the suggested appointment of a Mss. Commission for the purpose. How far the objects aimed at have been

Ahmad Khan who

achieved,

I

do not know.

Some

six years'ago, while

PREFAJE
I

IX

was a student, I too felt the same necessity after making an independent study of the Muslim Period and set myself to the task in right earnest. Remotely removed as I was from big educational centres, I was
consequently deprived of
all facilities for

research.

It

was my love for my subject (history) that drove me from place to place in search of books drawn upon for material and the result is The Mughal Empire which
I

now submit to the judgment of the The Mughals are no more.
;

public.

Posterity

may

pause and pronounce judgment o~i their actions and administrations but to be fair and free from fallacy,
necessary to bear five things in mind viz., (1) the background, (2) the spirit of the age (3) the condiit is
:

tions of the

and

(5)

country (4) the tendencies of the times, the time that has elapsed since the fall of the

Mughal Empire. The background in the case of Mughal Emperors was Islam on the one hand and
on the other. In the case of Shah and Jahan Aurangzeb, Islam had a great influence on their actions, whereas Persian traditions played a prominent part in determining the acts and adminisPersian traditions

Great Mughals. The spirit of the age, the conditions of the country and the tendencies of the times too had a great share in
trations of the rest of the

shaping their policies. While taking these four factors into consideration, allowance must also be made for
the
fifth

the time that
fall

has scanned the

interval

between the
has

of

the Mughal

Empire and the
time that
in

establishment of British Dominions in India

made marvellous improvements

and additions

X

PREFACE
of

to the existing knowledge

man and changed

his

conception of things. Since the book has been
students
in

intended chiefly for
as

schools
I

and colleges

well as for the

have constantly kept their needs in general reader, view and therefore avoided burdening it with numerous footnotes, though I have fully tapped the sources of my information, both original and secondary, catalogued at the end of the book, and referred to my authorities on controversial topics, such as the alleged apostasy of

Akbar and the so-called bigotry of Aurangzeb, topics on which I have differed from modern historians and
suggested a new line of thought. Last, but not the least, my unreserved thanks
are due to all

those

writers, mediaeval

and modern,

whose monumental works Lhave consulted for constructing this narrative to the Hon'ble Sir Abdul Qadir for writing the Introduction to my brother S. M. Raza,
;
;

B. A., for preparing the Index and^to my learned officer, the Judicial Commissioner, N.-W. F. P., for
permitting

me

to publish this book.

Peshawar City
1st

:

S.

M. JAFFAR.

October, 1936.

ORTHOGRAPHY
IN spelling Oriental names and words, I have followed the system of transliteration

adopted and recommended by the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, except that I have adhered to the popular and wellestablished spelling of certain well-known places like Lucknow and Cawnpore, and have not tried
to
distinguish between the letters of almost, if and ^ not exactly, the same sounds, such as

&

;

&, ^r and

^;

j, j,

^, and ^; ^ and

f

which,

though Arabic and
reader,

useful

for purposes of translation into

allied

bewildering not

to

languages, is, the student and

nevertheless, the general

acquainted

with

Arabic.

Each

letter in the

aoove categories has its own sound, different from that of any other of its own category but the difference cannot be perceived by the reader, unless he be an Arabic scholar. To him, if he is not acquainted with Arabic
;

;

the
alike.

letters

of

each

separate

category are

sound and he pronounces them all Again, I have not attempted to differentiate the letters (soft *), ^ (soft d) and J (hard r), which have no equivalents in English
identical in

O

but are represented by t, d and r with dots or commas on or under them. For the rest, r%* is

Ml

ORTHOGRAPHY
;

represented by bh
1*5-

rfc>

by ph

;

& by th
;

;

r

$ by th

;

^ by ch\ r&$bychh;f>bykh; rt^by and dh\ r$J by rh by sh\ by g& r g^by rS^ by gh. The system employs the vowels with
by /*;
;

^

M

;

the following uniform sounds:
(1)

Ordinarily
a, as in

Roman

;

e,
;

t;n
(2)

;

o,

as in bold

as in prey ; i, as in and u, as in full.

When
a,

lengthened
last
;

as in

i,

as

in fatigue

;

and

u,

as

in plwrai.

ABBREVIATIONS
Ain
B.
I.
...

Ain-i-Akbari by Allama Abul Fazl.

S.

...

Bibliotheca Indica Series.

H. U.
J.

L. S.
S. B.

...

Home University
Journal 'of
Bengal.
the

Library Series.

R. A.

...

Royal Asiatic

Society of

J. J.

R. A.

S.

...

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London).

R.

S.

A.
S. B.

...

Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (London).

M. R. A.

...

Memoirs of the Royal
Bengal.

Asiatic

Society of

M. U.

J.

...

Muslim University Journal

(Aligarh).

N. K. T.
P. R. A. S. B.

...

Newal Kishor Text.
Proceedings of the Royal Asiatic Society of
Bengal.

...

Trans.

...

Translation (English).

CORRIGENDA
Page
33, line

4 (from top), for

Humaun

read

Humayun.

souhgt read sought. Page line 2 206, (from bottom), for over read near. Page
37, last line, /c r

Page Page

384, line 19
399, line 2

(from top), insert a after for. (from bottom) for force read forces.

CONTENTS
Pages.

PREFACE

...

...

...

...

vii

x

ORTHOGRAPHY
ABBREVIATIONS
INTRODUCTION

...

...

...

...

xi-xii
xii

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...xxm-xxvi

CHAPTER

1

PRELIMINARY
Modern
India.

Sources of Information and the Forct,* that produced

Sources

of

Information

Their
of facts

wrong juxtaposition

authenticity Distortion and Modern India and the forces

that produced it Religious Revival Discovery of the Sea-route to IndiaAdvent of the Great Mughals Import... ... ance of the three forces ... pp. 1-8

CHAPTER

II

ZAHIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD BABAR

Introductory Why is the Mughal Dynasty so called ? Babar's early career Conquest of Kabul His early attempts to conquer India- -Political condition of India on the eve of his invasion First Battle of Panipat Babar's difficulties after the battle His war with the Rajputs Battle of KhSn wan Babar's address to his noble-men and soldiers Defeat of Rana Sangha and rout of Rajput ConfederacyImportance of the Battle of KhSnwah Battle of Chanderi Battle of the Gogra Extent of Babar's Indian Empire Story of his death His policy and administration His account of India His Memoirs Fine Arts Architecture

Poetry

Painting Music The art of illustrating booksGardening Literary Celebrities Babar's achievements His estimate ... ... ... ... pp. 9-32
III

CHAPTER

NASIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD HUMAYON
War
with

Introductory Division of the Empire Political condition of India and Humayun's position KSmrSn's occupation of the

Punjab

War

with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat

XIV

CONTENTS
Sher

Khan Afghan

Humay On

in

exile

In

Persia

He

conquers Kabul and Qandhaa from Kamran tion His accomplishments His ingenious

His Restora-

Works Ad-

ministrationDrum
Fixture Scholars
tion
for

of Justice

audience

Classification of the people Twelve sub-divisions Court-

Humayun's love of libraries Progress of Educa- Gardens Humayun's religious beliefs His character
... ...
... ...

and estimate

pp. 33-49.

CHAPTER

IVTHE AFGHAN

REVIVAL

Sher Shah and His Successors
Introductory

Sher Shah's early life His early activities Occupation of Bengal Recovery of Bengal by Humayun Battle of Chausa Bat'le of Kanauj Conquests of Sher Shah Punjab and Gakhar land Conquest of Maiwa.
:

Conquests in Rajputana Administration Division of the Empire The Land Revenue System Administration of Justice Organization of Police Force Secret ServiceTariff System Means of Communication Postal Service Military Reforms Currency Reform Works of Public Welfare Architecture Sher Shah's ideal of kingship His estimate Salim Shah: Reduction of Malwa and the Punjab Shaikh Alai Government. Muhammad Shaft
'Adil
...

...

...

j

...

pp. 50-70.
1

CHAPTER

V JALAL-UD-D1N MUHAMMAD AKBARReconquest and Reconstruction

His accession Political life early Introductory Akbar's condition of India in 1556 Second Battle gf Panipat Results of the Battle Submission of Sur claimants and end of the Sur Dynasty Bairam Khan His fall Petticoat Government Akbar's position in 1564 A. C. Rebellion of
1

'

Khan Zaman Of Adham Khan Of Abdullah KhanRevolts of Uzbeg Chiefs Monstrous act of Khwajah Mu'azzam Akbar and the Rajputs Matrimonial alliancesCareers opened to Rajputs and other Hindus Freedom of
worship and liberty of conscience Social reforms Effects of above measures Akbar and^thfe Portuguese First P. Mission Second P. Mission Third P. Mission Akbar's
*

object

...

...

...

.

jSp. 71-91.

CONTENDS
CHAPTER VI-JALAL-UD-DIN

XV
2

MUHAMMAD AKEAR

Territorial Annexations

Introductory

Early Conquests Gondwana Mewar GujaratBengal -The Qaqshal rebellion in Bengal Kabul- Akbar's North-West Frontier Policy The Roshanite MovementConquest of Kashmir Of Sind and Balochistan Of Qandhar The Deccan Campaign Ahmadnagar Khandesh Extent of the Mughal Empire under Akbar Last days of
..7"
... ... ...

Akbar

pp. 92-113
3

CHAPTER VII

JALAL-UD DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

The Din-i-Ilahi
Introductory

Reference to the history of t s.e Saracens To the Muslim Rule in India Akbar's orthodoxyhistory into liberalism Erection of .he Ibadat Khanah-Change The Document Its importance Its effects Preliminaries to the promulgation of the Divine Faith T ts promulgation Anti-Islamic ordiIts principles Its philosophic review
of

nancesTheir criticism Von Noer's appraisal of Badaoni, the author of the ordinances -Si; dah or prostration Fireworship and sun-worship Why were boars kept in the

Women in the I mperial Harem Hindu and practices -Why was slaughter of cows forbidden ? Why were Mullahs and Shaikhs exiled? Criticism of Smith's views on Akbar's religious thoughtsImperial Palace?

customs

Conclusion

...

...

...

...pp. 114-140

CHAPTER VIII

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
Provincial

4

Administration

Introductory

Central

Government

GovernmentSecret Service

District Administration

Imperial Service

Administration of law and justice

tionPostal

Service

Means

of

Promotion of educacommunication and

transportation Imperial Mints and their administration Police Force Land Revenue System Its broad basis Its importance Military Reforms -Infantry Artillery-

Cavalry Navy Eleohant Corps Mansabdarl SystemSystem of Payment System of branding horses and keeping dsscrip the rolls
.

...

...

pp. 141-61

xvi

CONTENTS
JALAL-UD DIN

CHAPIER IX

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

5

Literature ancfFine Arts

Introductory Literature: Akbarnamah Its historical importance Ain-i-Akbarl Tarikh-i-Alfi Other books Translated versions Hindu literature Illustrated versions Muslim Court-Scholars Abdul Fazl Abul Faiz-Shaikh Mubarak Abdur Rahim Abul Path Other Muslim Court-

ScholarsSome Hindu Court-Scholars Todar Mai
Bal

Blr

Other Hindu Scholars Tulsi Das Sur Das Painting Mughal School of Painting Progress of Painting Prominent Painters Art of Music Some musical instruments Hindu-Muslim intercourse through music Calligraphy ... pp. 162-79 Architecture (Jardenr Estimate of Akbar

CHAPTER

X NOR-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

1

Accession of Jahanglr Dastur-ul-Amal First Nauroz Khusrau's revolt Execution of Guru Arjan Loss of Qandhar

Subjugation of Mewar The Deccan Malik An.bar Subsequent Ahmadnagar career of Prince Khusrau His character Rebellion of Usman in Bengal Outbreak of the bubonic plague Nur JahSn Mehr-un-Nisa married to AH Quiz Istajlu or Suer Afgan Murder of Sher Afgan Mas the murder premeditated and whether Jahanglr had a hand in it ? Jahanglr marries Mehr-un-Nisa Nur Jahan's accomplishments Her valour Power behind the throne 'Her influence on

Conquest of Kangra

Campaign

4

Her character Rebellion of Shah Jahan Of Mahabat Khan Shah Jahan's subsequent % movements War of Succession Close of Nur Jahan's career, pp. 179-206
the State

CHAPTER XI

NOR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR-2

Introductory Jahangir's relations with the Portuguese With the English William Hawkins and William Bdwardes Sir Thomas Roe Foreign accounts of Jahangir's reign and their veracity Roe's description of Mughal Court and its customs His description of Jahangir's personal -character State of Fine Arts Hawkins's account Administration

under Jahanglr His love of letters Literary Jems of his Court Promotion of Education Fine Arts: Painting

CONTENTS

XV it

Painters under the Imperial patronage ArchitectureMusic -Gardens Chancter of Jahangir His love for Nur Jah5n and his affection for his relatives -His refined tastes His religious beliefs- His estimate ... pp. 207-22.

CHAPTER XII

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH

JAHAN-1
Accession of Shah Jahan His early acts - Rebellion of Bundelas under Johar Singh Revolt of Khan Jahan Lodhi -Celebration of Nauroz

Famine

of 1630-32

Shah Jahan and the

Portuguese The Portuguese War- Career of MumtSz Mahal- Her character Shah Jahan's Deccan Policy War against Ahmadnagar Further operations in the Deccan

War against

Bijapur Subjugation of Colconda and BijSpur Shah Jahan's Central Asian Policy and his attempts to acquire his ancestral possessions -Recovery of QandhSr Conquest of Balkh and BadakhshSn-Loss of Qandhar and failure to recover it Failure of Shah Jah&ii's Central Asian Policy and its results Early career of Aurangzeb His resignation and renunciation of the world His appointment to the governorships of different provinces His second viceroyalty of the Deccan and administrative achievements His forward policy against the Deccan War against Golconda War against Ahmadnagar.
pp. 222-53.

CHAPTER XIIl-SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH

JAHAN -2
Fratricidal

War and its genesis Sons of ShSh Jahan and their character-sketchesDivision of the Empire -Mughal tradition of kingship recognises no kinship 'Illness of the Emperor and nomination of Daraas his successor Absence of the law of succession Da ra's behaviour during the
'

illness

of his father Alliance Movements

Weakness
of

of

Shah Jahan- Triple
Princes*- Bat tie
of

the

three

BahSdurgarh- Battle of Dharmat- Battle of SSmGgarh Fate of Shah JahSn Fate of Murad Fate of Shuja' Dara's last stand and his tragic end Fate of Sulaiman Shikoh and of other Poyal Princes Motives which actuated Aurangzeb to enter the Fratricidal War Causes of his success in it Ali Mardan KhSn Asaf KhSn Allama

XV111

CONTENTS
Saadullah KhanShah Jahan's administration Progress of Fine Arts under his patronage -Architecture -Painting Music - Gardens - Shah Janan's philomathy - Literary Gems of his Court Promotion of learning -Character and estimate of Shah Jahan ... ... ...pp.25480.

CHAPTER XtV-MUHI-UD-DIN
haily Acts

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
Hindus
Rajputs

ALAMGIR-1
Afghans
Accession of Aurangzeb-His early acts -Appointments and of provincial governors -Career of Mir Jumla transfejs Expedition against Assam and his death Conquest of Chittagong Illness of Auraggzeb- North- West FrontierSuppression of*Yusafz;fiis-Afridi Rising Khattak Rising and arrest of Khush-hal Khan Khattak -Close of the Afghan War 'Alamgir and the HindQs -Re-imposition of the Jizia Dismissal of Hindu officials Destruction of temples Firman issued to the Governor of Benares for the protection of temples Two more similar Fir mans Which temples were destroyed and why? -Whether Hindu schools were destroyed ?- If so, which and why ? Toleration under 'Alamgir Some inferences drawn from the above discussion
'Alamgir justified -Jat rebellion -The Satnaims' Insurrection-War with the Rajputs -Invasion of Marwar and Mewar Rebellion of Prince Muhammad Akbar -Treaty of Udaipur- Results of the Rajput Revolt ...pp. 281-314.

CHAPTER

XV MUHI-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
'ALAMGIR-2
Rise of the Marhattas

Introductory -Description

of

Maharashtra

Character

and

qualities of Marhattas Their religion Their early training Rise of the Bhonsla Family Sljahj.1 Bhonsla-; Early life of Shivajt His robberies -Seizure and release of his father

Massacre at Javli -Renewal of hostilities Afzal Kha n s meeting with Shivajl Rout of Afzal Khan's army -Treachery of SJjivajl- Rapid Progress pf Marhatta arms-Shivaji attacked from three sides Shivajl as an independent ruler
Shivajl

'

and Shaista

Khan Sack

of

SQraU-Shivaji's

CONTENTS

xix

assumption of independent sovereignty His submission to the Emperor -Treaty of Purandhar-His visit to the Imperial Capital Was the honour conferred upon him by 'Alamglr below his dignity? His escape from captivity with the connivance of Rajah Ram Singh -Recall of Jai Singh and his death Shivajl styles himself Rajah -He exacts Chauth and Suredeskmukhi from Bijapur and Golconda Renewal of hostilities and sack of Sffrat for the second time Coronation of Shiva jl His further conquests Erttent of his Kingdom His Civil Administration Administrative Divisions of his
Justice

Kingdom Administration of The Land Revenue System -Military organization Shiv&ji's Fleet An estimate of his character and achieve... ... ...

ments

...

pp. 315-47.

CHAPTER XVI-MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
of

ALAMGIR-3
Conquest of Bijcipur and

GolcondaEnd

Marhatta Menace

Suppression of the Sikhs

Anglo-Mughal Administration under ^Alamgir

War

Introductory

zSq

Fall of Bijapur Fall of Golconda Abdur-Razof Impolicy of the Deccan Conquest - Renewal activities against the Marhattas- Rajah Ram as regent and as Rajah - Expedition against him Tara Bai as regent of
III -End of 'Alamglr- Mughal Empire aftei death-Rise of the Sikhs-Guru Nanak Dev-Guru Angad Dev GurQ Amar Das -GurG Ram Das-Guru Arjan Dev Guru Har Govind Guru Har RaiGuru Har Kishan Guru Tegh Bahadur -Guru Govind Singh His reforms Suppression of the Sikhs 'Alamglr and the English Early English settlements in India Anglo-Moghal War under Extent of 'Alamgir's Empire Administration Alamglr -Re-arrangement of the Subahs -Theocratic Character of the Government Suppression of Public Immorality -Bait-ul-Mal -Policy of Over-centralizationjustice Progress of Education -Architecture -Music and Painting Gardens -Character of 'Alamglr -Views of some Europears about his character and achievements ... pp. 347-78.

her son, Shivajl
his

*

XX

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

XVII-RETROSPECT
Law
of

Mughal Culture and. Civilization
Introductory -Political
its

Features:

Succession

Mughal

Functions of the Mughal GovernMonarchy and Administrative Divisions Administration mentMethods of Administration of Justice Taxation Police OrganizationSecret Service Postal Service Art and ArchitectureEducationWas Muslim Rule in India a Rule of Foreigners ? Are Muslims Foreigners ? Socia/ Features:
nature
Cultural Unity of India during the Muslim Rule -Muslim Society and the Sources of its Strength -Splendour of the Mughal Court Male Dress Female Dress Personal DecorationAmusements -Status of Women Slavery Religious Features
tion, its
:

causes

Extraordinary Increase in Muslim PopulaIslam vs. Hinduism Spirit of Freedom-

Worth of Muslim Faith, Examples of Muslim Economic Advantages Virility of Muslim Races 'No Compulsion in Religion' Forces that brought about a modus vivendi between Islam and Hinduism Rise of the Bhakti Movement Influence of Islam on Indian Religious Life and Thought Two Royal Houses of Islam in IndiaRevenue System Economic Features: Agriculture Land and its Working Was the land Avenue exorbitant? Farmer of Akbar's time and his brother of to-day comparedFamine Relief Textile Industries Foreign Trade Ship-building- Currency System Means of Communication and Transportation Condition of the People -Relations between Hindus and Muslims - Conclusion pp, 379-412.
Intrinsic

Saints

... BIBLIOGRAPHY Addendum on Babar's Death ... INDEX ...

...

...

pp. 413-18,
.,.

...

...

419-20.

...

...

PR- 421

ff.

INTRODUCTION
The period of the Moghal rule in India is the most interesting period in the history of our country and furnishes a highly fascinating subject of study.
Students of Indian history owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. S. M. Jaffar of Peshawar for his book, which
gives a very readable account of

opening with the reign 01* Aurangzeb. Mr. Jaffar has

The Moghal Empire and Babar coming down to
taken
great

*

1

,

pains

to

study the numerous books on the subject that are available in English, Persian and Urdu, and has
beautifully

summarised the material
list

contained
consulted

in

them.

The long

of books

used or

by

him, given at the end of his valuable work, will show the range of his wide study and research. The result

from and decidedly treatment and superior style to the existing textbooks on Indian history. The author, as an enlightened Muslim, is naturally in sympathy with the Great Moghal Rulers who professed the faith of Islam and
is

a book considerably different
in

Succeeded in

Empire
dynasty

in

a

vast and wonderful establishing a country to which the Founder of the

an invader from his Central* Asian home. Mr. Jaffar does not conceal his admiration for the Moghals, yet he is not forgetful of his duty as an historian and comes out with frank criticisms of the -policies and administrations of the
originally as

came

Emperors whose reigns

are described

by him.

XXli

INTRODUCTION
It is

refreshing to note that the author has not confined his attention to the events of the period

concerned, or to the dates of those These details may be important in themevents. selves, but they are, after all, rightly called the dry
is

with which he

bones of history. He has clothed the dry bones with flesh and blood and colour by dealing with the many
aspects of the social
in arts
life

and
vital

letters

and
I

of the people, their progress the effect of each reign on

these

things.

am

effort will

be very much think it is time *hat this line of study in history be developed to the fullest extent possible. I know that
the
materials
for

that this part of his appreciated by his readers. I

sure

have to be sifted
out of

are comparatively meagre and it and collected with great research

the heaps of rubbish, in which they are lying The work, however, is worth doing, and scattered. Mr. Jaffar is one of those who recognize its value and

have tried to accomplish it. He has already contributed very substanthlly to this neglected field of Indian history by writing two other well-documented
books, one another on
*

Muslim India and Some Cultural Aspects of Must im Rule in
on 'Education
in

9

India

9
.

While dealing with the Muslim point of view and trying to explain the actions of Moghal Emperors, which have been adversely criticised by sorrie modern
historians,

general Indian point of view, and he brings out the contribution made by Moghal Rulers of India to Indian
ignore
culture and to

Mr. Jaffar does

not

the

the fusion

of

Hindu and Muslim

INTRODUCTION
cultures into one

common
of his
:

heritage.

For instance, the

following remarks

about the Emperor Jahftngir

are very interesting

Like his father, he loved to hear Hindi songs and took delight in patronising Hindi poets. He loved fine arts and encouraged their cultivation. Born in India and of Indian parents, Jahangir loved things Indian and felt delighted in Indian environments."
another place, the author, while describing the progress made by education during the Moghal
In

"

makes the following observat ons It may be mentioned here that in the schools and colleges founded by the Moghal Emperors and others,
Period,
14
:
:

Hindu students studied side by side Muslim class-fellows and there was no
this or in

with

their

restriction in

any other respect." Another passage that may be cited to

illustrate the

importance attached by Mr. Jaffar to the efforts of the

Moghals to develop a common nationality in India, runs as follows " Aibak, the first King of the Sultanate of Delhi, and Bsbar, the first King of the Moghal Empire, came
:

from foreign lands, no doubt, but they settled down

made it their permanent home, country, identified themselves with the interests of the country, and ruled it rather as Indians than as foreigners.
ih

this

Their successors were born

in India, lived in India

and died
inch.

in

India.

Thus they were Indian every
like

They came
too

as foreigners indeed, but

the

Aryans, who

wre

foreigners,
soil,

themselves on the Indian

they engrafted sucked into their veins

XXIV

INTRODUCTION

of

the Indian sap, nurtured themselves under the warmth the Indian sun and conditioned their growth, multiplication and expansion under the Indian climate.
of
'

So with the march

time they became with each

succeeding generation, of the earth earthy Mr. Besides the special features of
excellent

V

Jaffar's

many

book, briefly other features, equally

referred to above, there
attractive,

are

which need

not be dilated upon here and will be better appreciated by the reader when perusing the book itself. I think it

can be safely s&A thaj the 'author has succeeded in giving to the students of Indian history an accurate as
well
as

India in

an instructive account of the Moghal rule in its palmy days. The book is a most useful

contribution to Indian historical literature and should
interest not only the general reader,

but also students

of Indian history in schools

and

colleges.

London,
20th December, 1935.

ABDUL QADIR.

CHAPTER
Sources of Information

I

PRELIMINARY
and the Forces that produced Modern India.
of our

The main

sources

information about the

Mughal Period
records,
official reports,

may
:

classed as follows

~^ contemporary
firmans,

conveniently

be

such

as imperial

despatches and diaries (whether military or diplomatic) sent to and received from the provincial
others by the Central Government governors and through the agency of news-writers and secret reporters
;

narratives reduced to writing by the participators in the acts arid events from memory after their termination,
(2)

or set

down by
;

others
imperial

who

learnt

about them from
Malfilznt-i-

their lips

(3)

autobiographies

Taimuri,

Tuzk-i-Bdbari

and

Tuzk-i-Jahanglri

written either by the Mughal Emperors themselves, or by their court-scholars under their own direction ;
(4) court

journals,

such

as

Akbarndmdh, Bddsliahwritten, respectively,

ndmdh and 'Alamglrndmah, Abul Hamld Fazl, Abdul

Lahori

and

by Munshi

Muhammad Kazim, the best writers of Persian prose, to whom the otherwise inaccessible archives of the
State were thrown open for inspection and information ; Von Noer, (5) accounts of foreign travellers, i. e. De Laet, Coryat, Niccolao Manucci, Bernier and
t

Taverniei,

who

visited

India

during

that

period

;

2
(6)

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
impressions of English ambassadors, viz., Roe, Terry
at the
;

and Hawkins, who represented England
Court
of
in

Mughal
accounts

the reign of

Emperor Jahanglr
i.e.,

(7)

Portuguese
others,

missionaries,

and
(8)

who

resided
of

at

Monserrat, the Mughal

Xavier

Court;

tazkirds and tdrilchs

later

Muslim

chroniclers,

such as

Qasim's Tdri}&-i-Ferishtii, Khafi Khan's MuntaKhib-iil-Lubab, Kamwar Khan's Tazkirat-

Muhammad

us-Saldtin-i-Chaghtdid and Sayyad Gbularn Hussain's
Siyar-ul-Mutd'akhMiirln. Documents of the
.

first

kind are by far the most
reliable

important and
for

raw materials

authenticity.

a comprehensive constructing of the Mughal Period. Unhistory

fortunately, however, very few of them have come down to us, most of them having perished during

the Mutiny of 1857. Of the surviving few, some are to be seen in the libraries of Europe, whither they
travelled after having escaped,

and ^ome
families,

in possession

of

Indian

States

and ancient
a

are not easily accessible to

modern
and he

that they historian who
of

so

concerns

himself

with the

elucidation
is,

any topic

relating to the

consequently, the exclusively upon Those of the second remaining sources of information. type also contain some rich stores of information, but
constrained
to

Mughal draw almost
Period,

they

must be subjected

to

the

correction

of

errors

and the elimination of the mere hearsay. Whereas the information we derive from the imperial autobiographies,
court journals and other works written by the proteges of the ruling princes may be regarded as one-sided,

PRELIMINARY
giving

3
picture;

only the

bright side

of the

that

we

receive from the accounts of foreign travellers, English

ambassadors and Portuguese missionaries paints mostly The tazkiras and t&rilchs were written the dark side.

by writers who did not keep regular diaries and had little access to official records and State papers.
Therefore, the accuracy of their contents must needs be
called in question should they

come

into

conflict with

the other sources of information, though they were often unbiased and free from flattery, distortion and timid
suppression of facts.

And,

it

is

not seldom

that the

accounts of contemporary chroniclers come into conflict. This is because, on the one hand, they were written by
flattering friends for the eyes

and

ears of their imperial
to affluence,

patrons who raised them above want, even and on the other hand, by hostile critics

whom
took

the
into

Court

did

not

actively

patronize,

nor

confidence.

Thus, though there
Distortion

is

ample material

for writing

and

wrong juxtaposition of facts.
facts

a comprehensive history of the period in question, it is the duty of the
historian
to
sift

evidence,

separate

from

fiction,

brush aside the cobwebs of history
industry,

with patience and together in such a
distorted
for

way

as to

and piece the material give an unsophisticated
history
if

recount, for history ceases
ulterior

to be

facts

are
in

aims

and

are

juxtaposed
;

such a way as to present a melancholy picture and an historian ceases to be historian if he writes history
for the sordid love of

distortion

money. A glaring instance of and wrong juxtaposition of facts is found

4
in the case of

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Akbar who has Jbeen branded
as apostate

Chapter VII (The Divine Faith) is devoted to a discussion on the subject and it will be evident that
the charge of apostasy is a mere calumny concocted to create an aversion against the greatest ruler of India. Another such instance is found in the case of Aurangzeb

from Islam.

who

is

alleged

to

have

alienated the

loyalty of

his

Hindu

subjects

imposing
repressive

the Jizid

by destroying their temples, by reand by introducing a number of
Chapter

measures.

XIV
that
it

will

the case was quite the contrary

show that was the Hindus
sovereign

who

alienated

tiie

sympathies of

their

by

destroying

mosques,

by

marrying

Muslim

women

by force and by defying the authority of the Emperor It was after the Hindus in league with his enemies.

had
of

destroyed

mosques,

outraged
created

the

modesty
in

Muslim

women

and

disturbances

the Empire that the Emperor ordered the destruction of those temples that had been built on the sites of

mosques, those that had been newly built and those that

had become centres
Modern India and the forces
that produced
it.

of sedition

and

political intrigue.

Before entering

upon

the
it

history

of

the

Great

Mughals
brief

seems necessary
of

to give

a

account of the forces that laid
f

the

oun dation

Modern

India, for

the interest of Indian history from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the dawn of the present day will be found in the development of these forces. Referring
to the fifteenth century in India, Professor Rushbrook-

Williams remarks that

'

beneath

all

the apparent chaos,

the elements from which,

in future,

modern

political

PRELIMINARY
society will
until the

5

be constructed,

are slowly

taking
rise

shape,
view,

when they dominant and incontrovertible/ The first
was
in

moment comes
Religious

in

of these forces

the

Revival

;

the

second

was

the

Discovery of the Sea-route to India

by Vasco da

Gama

1498 A. C. and the appearance of European nations on the stage of Indian history; and the third was the Advent of the Great Mughals and the foundation of
the

Mughal Empire in India. With the establishment of the Muslim Empire in India, Islam became supreme and it Religious launched upon a new career of conRevival
,

version.

As a

result,

Hinduism was

adversely affected.

Some

attracted by the teachings of the

Muslim Faith, others actuated by economic advantages, went over to the religion of their rulers. For full five
centuries
this state of affairs

continued

uninterrupted,
into

bvt

when conversions

were

accelerated

mass

movements, there arose in this country a host of
religious reformers
their lost sheep.

Hindu

who made The method

earnest efforts to recover

their
result

object was was the Bhakti

they adopted to achieve reconciliation with Islam and the

Movement,

which preached the

propagated the principles of liberty^ Thus, while the Reformation equality and fraternity.
unity of

God and

was revolutionizing the religious life of Europe, the Bhakti Movement analogous to the Reformation Movement was on foot in India. Maharashtra and the

Punjab were immensely influenced by
it

it

:

In the former
its
it

gave rise to the Marhatta Power, which reached climax under the leadership of Shivajl; in the latter

6

THE MRJGHAL EMPIRE
who
subsequently

established the sovereignty of the Sikhs

became supreme under the sTv&y The second, in the scheme
Discovery of the Sea-rouie to India.

of Ranjit Singh.
of chronology,

was the
India

Discovery of the
the Dutch,

Sea-route to

and the appearance of the Portuguese, and the the French

To the the stage of Indian history. diadems a where India seemed second Peru, Portuguese, of the Princes from the brows torn be nay might
English

on

another new world for conquest and conversion to the Dutch, she looked like a large market, which afforded
;

a

favourable

field

for

ambitious

enterprise;

to

the

French, she was a big theatre for lucrative intrigue, where they could reap a rich harvest of gains and fame ; to the English, she was an emporium, which offered
untold trade
facilities.

In the

scramble

that

followed

among

methods were
remaining

these four European rivals, the English, whose less showy but more sure and successful,
fittest

proved to be the
three.

and,

therefore,

survived

the

It is

the second force, therefore, that

changed the course of India's future history and made her what she is to-day -an integral part of the British
Empire.
.

To
Advent

the student of
.
.

Muslim
.
.
.

history,
.

however,

it is

neither the
of the

first
f

nor the second but the

Great Mughals.
at the historic

third that stnkes as the
force.

most important

Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi
1526 A. C. and
laid

plain of Panipat in

Mughal Empire in India. His Akbar the grandson, Great, nut only enlarged and
consolidated
his

the foundation

of the

heritage

but

constructed

that

PRELIMINARY
administrative

7

system which gave a definite form and cohesion to the Mughal Sovereignty. By peaceful methods and beneficial legislation, by reconciliation
fiscal

and

and universal
the

toleration,

he won over the discontented
to the

natives to his side

and reconciled them
His peaceful policy,
the corner-stone
to

ideas of

Mughal

Rule.

pursued by his
of
its

successors,

proved

the

Mughal

Empire and contributed incalculably
stability

strength and

The importance
.

of these forces cannot

be overstatattracted

-

ed.

Importance of
the three forces.

Though none
notice in

an y

...

of

them

the

beginning,

they

heralded the

dawn

of a

new

era

which

ushered in the

Mughals, the

Marhattas. the Sikhs and

the Europeans, who abandoned their respective vocations and entered upon a struggle for the throne of India. The Mughals were the first, in order of time, to establish
their

sway
his

in India.

and

successors the Marhattas
into

During the reign of Shah Jahan and the Sikhs were
races

transformed

warlike

and they

tried their

utmost

to extirpate

Islam

from India

root and branch.

They

ate into

the vitality of the
it

Mughal Empire, so

much

so

that

was

easily

supplanted by the English
eighteenth

towards

the

end

of

the

Marhattas became the masters former were farmers and the

The century. of Maharashtra and the The The

Sikhs established their supremacy in the Punjab. latter were deists.

teachings of their leaders, coupled with the conditions of the country and the circumstances of the age, turned

them

into

warrior:;

end drove them into the vortex of
result

politics.

The obvious

was that the

tables

were

8

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
:

turned

men

of

farms became

men

of arms,

monks and

mendicants
traders

became soldiers *&nd statesmen, and the became the rulers of India under the East India

Company.

CHAPTER

II

ZAHlR-UD-DIN
The most
Introductory.
solicitation

MUHAMMAD BABAR
C.)
in

(1526-1530 A.
brilliant period

the annals of Indian

history

begins

with the
,
,

advent
,.

of

^-,
of

Babar

who
the

,

.

invaded
uncle

Indii
of

on the
ruling

Ala-ud-DIn,

the

prince Ibrahim Lodhi, and Drulat Khan Lodhi, the Governor of the Punjab, and laid the foundation of the

which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, marked the beginning

Mughal Empire.
of a
for

The

first

battle of Panlpat, in

new
the

era in the history of India.

It

paved the way
settle

Great

Mughals
it

to

uome and
the

in

this

country
victory

and make
at

their

permanent abode.
establishment
a
line

The
of the

Panipat meant

Mughal

Dynasty,

which

furnished

of

those
the

illustrious

sovereigns under

whom

India

reached

pinnacle of her greatness and the apex of her fortunes. Rich in useful institutions and fruitful ideas, the for the Mughal Imperialism was extremely favourable efflorescence of fine arts and the development of
It will be seen that during the learning and literature. two centuries of the Mughal Rule the Imperial Court was a bee- hive of poets and painters, historians and

philosophers,
architects
rhilly

and dancers, engineers and died of nay a hot-house where nothing
musicians

indifference.

What

gave such

a ?pur

to their

successful cultivation

was the Imperial patronage, which

10

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

was no longer the monopoly of the favoured few, but extended to all and sundry wkhout stint.

We
Why
is

may now

return

to

Babar
the

whom we

left

the

victorious at

plain of

Panipat,

Mughal Dynasty
so called
?

where

Sultan

Ibrahim Lodhi
for
his throne.

had

fallen fighting

The

victor claimed descent from Taimur on his father's side and from Chingiz Khan on his mother's side. He

thus united in his veins the blood of two great warriors
of Central Asia

and combined

in

his person,

in

com-

mensurate propo'tion, the courage of a nomad Tartar and the urbanity of a cultured Persian. Babar was not
a Mughal.
of the

In his Memoirs he
calls

Mughals and seems strange that the dynasty he founded should have An explanation been known as the Mughal Dynasty. for this may be found in the fact that the people
of India used to call
all

speaks contemptuously himself a Turk. Therefore, it

Musalmfm

invaders, excepting

Afghans, Mugjhals, and hence the name of the dynasty. Babar surnamed Zahlr-ud-Din Muhammad, on born was 'the Brave', Friday, the BSbar's early 24th day of February> 1 483 A C
. .

career

'

His

father,

Umar Shaikh Mirza, was

the ruler of Farghana, a fragment of Taimur's Central Asian Empire. At the age of eleven his father passed

away and he was

called

upon

to succeed

him

to his

His succession was an eyesore to his small kingdom. uncles and cousins, one of whom attacked him soon
after

he was enthroned, and others continued -to
to the last

plot

against him

day

of tbeif
his

life.

Ahmad

Mirza,

who

contested

Fortunately, supcessioq in the

ZAHIR-UD-D1N MU7 T AMMAD BABAR
first

11

year of his reign, died a year afterwards, leaving anarchy and confusion to rule in Samarqand. Availing
himself of
this

opportune

moment, Babar advanced

from
seated

his native

himself

Farghana, occupied Samarqand and on the throne of his great ancestor,

Taimur,
ill

at the early age of fifteen.

He, however,

fell

in

his

new

possession.

absence and

illness, his

Taking advantage of his ambitious minister set up on the

throne of Farghana Babar's younger brother Jahangir, was dead. Post-haste he giving out that Babar marched from Samarqand on his recovery to take back

Farghana.

Soon

after his departure,

Samarqand was

In 1498 A. C. he was no occupied by his cousin, Ali. was His Khojend, a small town king. only possession He recovered between Farghana and Samarqand.

Farghana in 1499 A. C. and Samarqand the following But the Uzbegs would not allow him to rule in year.
peace.
in

Defeated
C.,

in a highly contested battle at
in

Archian

1501 A.

he succeeded

saving his
lost

life

with the

greatest difficulty.

Samarqand was

and Farghana

followed

its

suit soon after.

All prospects being thus extinguished,

Babar bid a

sad farewell to his beloved

Farghana

Conquest
of Kabul.

and
,

set
__.

out to try ^{3
.

.

the

Hindukush

m
.

uc k beyond icno A r 1502 A. C.
i

While he was on

he was given to understand that his uncle's kingdom was in an anarchical state and that a strong party of the nobles was
his

way

to Kabul,

of the willing to restore the throne to a prince
blood.

royal

appropriately be It was called the ami us mirablis of Babar's career:

The year 1504

A.

C.

may

12
in

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
this

year

that

he

overthrew
of

occupied Kabul.
to conquer

The conquest

the Afghans and Kabul enabled him

Qandhar, Herat and Badakhshan. All this emboldened him to make a bid for Samarqand, the In 1513 A. C. he capital of his ancestor, Taimur. made an alliance with the Shah of Persia and conquered

Bokhara and Samarqand. Notwithstanding all these The successes, his position was as precarious as ever.

Uzbegs would not allow him to rule in rest. His conformity to the Athna-i-AIiarya (SMa Faith) in his treaty with the Persian Monarch annoyed his Sunni subjects and alienated them from him. The
the feelings of the people and Within a successfully fished in the troubled waters. him from his dominions one short time they ousted

Uzbegs

fully exploited

drove him, from post to pillar and pillar to post, and reduced him to such straits that he decided at last to seek his fortune in the east rather than in th?
after the other,

west.

The
His early

battle

of

Panipat

was preceded

by some

preliminary attempts at the conquest
of India.

was made occupied Qbaznin and raided second attempt was made

attempts to conquer India.

The
in

first

of these attempts

150 5 A. C.

V hen
C.
It

Babar

as far as the Indus.
in

The
was,

1519 A.

The followhowever, confined to the borders of India. ing year our trans-border hero crossed the Indus and
marched
called
his

into the interior of India; but he

was soon

back to Kabul to
enemies,
the

old

meet a combined attack of Uzbegs. L These preliminary

attempts

convinced

him that he could not conquer

ZAHIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD BABAR

13

So India without strengthening his base at Qandhar. he seized Qandhar from the Arghuns and organised Next he established his of defence. it in a state
authority

over

the

territory

between

Ghaznin

and

Khurasan

in order to facilitate the

conquest of India.

The
Political

political condition of India on the eve of Babar's invasion was terribly deplorable,

condition of India on the eve
of his invasion.

Northern

India

was

seething with

discontent and dissensions.

Sikandar

Lodhi>

ft

capable

ru l er

,

had

died

in

1517 A. C. and

his stupid s^n,

mounted the throne

of Delhi.

Ibiahim Lodhi, had His misgovernment and

his own kith and kin. arrogant behaviour had estranged His ill-treatment had disgusted the Afgtpn nobles who

him. Bengal against other and provinces outlying Jaunpur, Malwa, Gujarat, had all become independent. The eastern districts of

formed

secret

conspiracies

Cudh and

up arms against him. Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of the Punjab and
Bihar

had
of

taken

Ala-ud-DIn,
ruling
tyrant.

uncle

Ibrahim,

revolted against

the

prince

and

invited

Babar

to relieve India of the

Rana Sanghram, or Rana Sangha, as he is known in history, also made overtures to the King of Kabul and asked him to intervene. No more opportune moment could be desired.
Babar's invasion
First Battle of

of India

was
,

well-

^M* Panipat: 1526.
.

,.

timed.

India was

weak and

divided.

prepared.
expedition.

In

Babar was strong, determined 1524 A. C. he set out on his

and
final

Lahore.

followed his previous route and reached Finding Daulat Khan in the train of Ibrahim

He

14

THE MLGHAL EMPIRE
in order to reinforce his

Lodhi, he returned to Kabul

army
of

there

and then

to attack India.

Towards the end

1525 A. C. he attacked Daulat Khan, over-ran the Punjab and thence advanced towards Delhi via Sarhind. Ibrahim Lodhi gathered together his forces

and came out of Agra
invader.
of Panipat in the

oppose the advance of the The two armies met each other on the plain
to

month

of April,

1526 A. C. Babar

army of 12,000 strong against the assaults of his enemy by surrounding it with wagons chained Ibrahim's together, and a hedge ard a ditch around it.
protected his
of the invader

army, consisting of 100,000 strong, far outnumbered that but the latter had the decided advantage
;

of possessing

a well-trained
on the

of artillery.
fell

set of troops and a good park In the battle that followed, Ibrahim Lodhi
field*

fighting

and

his

army was

routed.

Delhi and Agra fell into the hands of the invader, who was hailed as the 'Emperor of India' by the people of On Friday, Aprilt 22, 1526 A. C. the capital cities.
the public prayer was said in the capital mosque at Delhi in the name of the new emperor. The first

an end to the Afghan rule and Mughal rule instead. It clowned the career of Babar and gave India a series of capable
battle of Panipat put

introduced the

rulers.

The

victory at. Panlpat

made Babar

the King

of

Babar's difficulties
after the battle.

Delhi, not yet of Hindustan, much i, f T 1.1 e had less of Indla as a wh le
*

^

TT^J

surmount. His no were means by Afghan rivals, though defeated, subjugated ; though crippled they were 'not cofnpletely
several difficulties to

ZAHIR-UD-DIN
crushed.

MUHAMMAD BABAR
of the

15

of them still held out and defied the authority strongholds

Some

in their provincial

Emperor.

people were opposed to the change of the dynasty. They hated the Mughal Emperor and regarded him as a
usurper.

The

They

preferred

a

tyrant to

an outsider.

his

Babar's position was, therefore, critical, more so when own followers deserted him and retreated to their

original

homes.

The
upon

trying heat of
their health

the country had

considerably told

and they requested

Babfir had not, however, invaded India with the ideas of Taimu^: he had come to stay He made a soul-stirring speech and revived the there.
their leader to return.
spirits of

his soldiers.

He

toid

them

plainly

that

'a

kingdom which had cost so much wrested from him except by death'.
issued a proclamation, expressing

should

not

be

Accordingly, he
to

his determination

He granted leave to such of his soldiers stay in India. as preferred safety to glory, telling them that he would
keep in his service only those who would reflect honour upon themselves their Padsfaah and their country*.

The proclamation had

the desired effect

:

All

murmurs

ceased and his officers took oaths of allegiance to him. When the Afghans were assured of his intention to stay
in India, they also sided with

him and placed them-

selves at his service.

the Rajputs.

Babar's decision to stay in India was momentous in another way : it opened the eyes ~ His war with _, ^1^.1 of the Rji JP uts to the danger that lay
.
. ,
.

at;

their door.

His own

chiefs,

whom

with grants oijdgirs, reduced a large part of the country for him. They conquered Bianah,
satisfied

he had

16
Gwalior,

THE MdGHAL EMPIRE
and
Dholpur.

His

son,

Humayun,

took

possession of Jaunpur,

Gbzlpur and Kalpi and annexed

He himself remained at Agra, kingdom. thinking out ways and means of conquering the whole It was at that time that the mother of of India.
them
to his
life

Ibrahim Lodhi made an attempt to put an end to his by means of a poison. Had she succeeded in her

nefarious plan, India Rana. Sangha or
Battle of
,

would have had a

different history.

Rana Sanghram, who had
,
,

invited
to

Babar to attack India, was wrong

Khamvah
with as

1527

think that, like his ancestor, the

i-i

i

i

new

much

invader too would plunder and retire When he of booty as he could collect.

learnt of the intention of Babar,

he made preparations

to resist the invader

who was now encroaching upon and had some parts of it. The rediiced Rajputana Rana was indeed a worthy member of his famous house. As a prince of great wisdom, valour and virtue,

he occupied a high position among the Rajput princes of India. The Rajahs of Arnber and Marwar acknowledged
supremacy. The princes of Ajmer, Slkri, Raisin, Bundi, Chanderl, Gargaon and Rampura all paid him homage as his feudatories. His idea in inviting Babar
his

was
had

to clear his

own way

to the

throne of India.
resources
his

He
and was

sufficiently strengthened his military

was

at that time the

most powerful prince and
fights

the premier state.

Before his encounter with Babar, he

had already been the hero of a hundred
on
his person as

and had
lost

many

as eighty scars.

He had

On the llth of a hand, a leg and an eye in actions. Babar advanced out^of Agra February, 1527 A. C.

ZAHIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD BABAR

17

against the Ran& who nad encamped at Sikri, a village His first attack was repelled by the near Fathpur. The defeated detachments took to flight Rajputs.

and caused great consternation among the Mughal At this critical juncture Babar broke his wine armies. vessels and renounced the use of wine for ever. When
he called a council of war, he was advised to leave a " What strong garrison at Agra and retire to the Punjab.
will all the

a monarch

such a
officers

kings of the world say of the fear of death obliged to abandon " was the answer he gave to his kingdom ?

Muhammadan

whom

and advisors.
by him

His address to his
is

followers,
interest as

delivered
of

at that time,

as lull of

enthusiasm.
"

He

called

together his

companions

and said:

Noblemen and
in ^

soldiers

!

Every man that comes
is

Babar's address
to his

the world

subject to dissoluare passed

noblemen

tion.

When we
God
the

away and

and

soldiers.

gone>

only survives, unchangelife

able.
it

Whoever comes
over,

to the feast of

must, before

is

arrives at

take

his

He who cup the inn of mortality must one day inevitably the departure from that house of sorrow
drink from
of

death.

world.

How much
infamy
!

better

is it

to die with honour than

to live with

With fame, even

if I

die, I

am

contented

;

Let fame be mine, since my body is death's. The Most High God has been propitious to us, and
has

now placed us in such a crisis, field, we die the death of martyrs

that
;

if

if

we fall in the we survive, we
Let

rise victorious,

the avengers of the cause of God.

18
us, then,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
with one accord, swear on God's holy word,

that none of us will even think of turning his face from
this warfare,

nor desert from the battle and slaughter
his soul
is

that ensues,

till

separated from his body."

The melo-dramatic eloquence
Defeat of

Rana

in

the

above
in

Babar embodied a PP eal Was wholl y
of
it

Sangha and the
rout of Rajput

successful

that

intended
followers,

effect

on

produced the his soldiers and
the

who

now swore by
in

Holy Qur'an
woe. A. M.

to stand

by

their leader

weal

and

On

the 16th of March, 1527 A. C. at 9 or 9-30

the battle

began and

The powerful Rajput confederacy, under of the redoubtable Rana Sangha, and
of the Turkish soldiers,

raged hotly till evening. the leadership
the

remnants
of Babar,

under the

command

came face to face with each other at Khanwah. ~~~~ Towards the end of a well-fought day, the Rajputs gave way. The Rana had a narrow escape. His
Here accomplices were, however, captured and slain. that the looses of the Rajputs it should be remembered
in this battle

were almost unprecedented. Among the slain were Hasan Khan MewatI, Rawal Udai Singh Dungarpur and a host of lesser chieftains, who had

entered into the Rajput confederacy against Babar.

The

battle of

Khanwah
Its

is

indeed one of the decisive

Importance of the Battle of

battles that

have been fought in India, importance has been beautifully
Professor Rushbrook-

Khanwah.
Williams
first

summed up by
in

the

following

passage:

'.'In

the

place, the menace of Rajput supremacy which had loomed large before the eyes of Muhammadans in India

ZAHIR-UD-DIN
for the last

MUHAMMAD BABAR
for aU.

19

few years was removed once
r

The

largely for confederacy, its unity upon the strength and reputation of Mewar, was shattered by a single great defeat, and ceased

powerful

v hich depended so

henceforth to be a dominant factor

Hindustan. Secondly, the Mughal Babar had definitely seated soon firmly established. himself upon the throne of Sultan Ibrahim, and the sign

the politics of Empire of India was
in

and

seal of his

achievement had been the annihilation of

Sultan Ibrahim's most formidable antagonists. Hitherto, the occupation of Hindustan might have been looked

Babar's career of adventure; upon as a mere episode in but from henceforth it becomes the keynote of his activities for the remainder of his life. His days of wandering
in

search

of

a fortune

are

now
to

fortune
of
it.

is his,

and he has but
it

And
which

is

significant of

passed away: the show himself worthy the new stage in his

career

this

battle

does he have to stake his
issue of a stricken field.
in plenty, to

marks that never afterwards throne and life upon the Fighting there is, and fighting
it is

be done

:

but

fighting for the extension

of his power, for the reduction of rebels, for the ordering

of his kingdom. It
it is

is

never fighting for his throne.
his

And
is

also significant of Babar's grasp of vital issues that

shifted

from henceforth the centre of gravity of from Kabul to Hindustan."

power

The Rajput

opposition was

crippled

but

crushed.

The

remnants
together

not yet of the

Rajputs
for the sovereignty of

gathered

under

Ma dim Rao

of Chanderi

Hindustan.

At

first

and aspired Babar tried

20
peaceful
in lieu

THE MyGHAL EMPIRE
methods
:

He
;

offered a jdglr to

MedinI

Rao
to

of Chanderl
into the

but

wfcen

the latter

refused

enter
field

proposed treaty, the
in

former

took the

against him

person.

Just at this time

Babar

received intelligence that his

army was defeated by the

Afghans, who had

to fall back on Kanauj. Such a of have the balance a mere news would upset staggering mediocre, but Babar kept his head cool and pushed

had compelled the (Lucknow) and

taken advantage of his absence and Imperial army to evacuate Lakhnau

on the siege
so

of

much

so

that

Chanderl witn great care and courage, the garrison was reduced to the

hope accompanied by a heroic and These events took yet terrible practice of Jauhar. A. The defeat in C. of Medini Rao and 1528 place
traditional forlorn
'

the capture
the
last

of Chanderl

completed
little

the collapse of the

Rajput confederacy.

A

afterwards

hope of the Rajputs, died. and Babar enjoyed an interim Afghans of peace till the end of 1528 A. C.
were subdued

Rana Sangha, The rebellions

The Afghans were
Battle of the Gogra 1529

defeated,
.

but they
,,
,

were
'

still
'.

strong enough j j They considered

to resist the

,,
to

usurper

themselves superior
his

Babar
in

and

followers,

and

entertained

hopes
the

of

reviving

their

own supremacy.

They

created

disturbance

espousing

cause

of

Ibrahim
his

Bihar and Jaunpur by Lodhi's brother,
son, Askari,

Mahmud
later.

Lodhi.
his

Babar sent
'the

against
little

the eastern

provinces and himself joined him a

At

approach,

enemy

melted away',
his

and

as he

advanced through Allahabad to Buxar, on

ZAHIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD BABAR
submission
of

21
the

way he

received
chiefs.

the

unqualified

Nusrat Sh^h, the ruler of Bengal, had Afghan entered into a kind of convention with Babar to the
effect that

neither

would

attack the
set

territories

of the

other,

but he

not only

aside

the convention

by

seizing upon the province of Sasram but also by giving shelter to the fugitive Afghan prince, Mahmud Lodhi.

Bengal, the centre of attacked and occupied.

the

rebellious

Afghans,
India
.

was was

The
r

net

result of Babar's
,

victories in

hxtent of Babar's Indian Empire.

_

,

that the
.

Afghans

were crushed, the
"/as

Rajput supremacy

shattered, the

Babar was the
India.

Mughal Empire was founded, and master of almost the whole of Northern
over

He

ruled

Kabul,

the

Punjab,

Bengal,

Bihar, Oudh, Gwalior and a large part of Rajputana, His empire extended from the including Mewar.

Himalayas in the north to Gwalior in the south and from the Punjab ir the west to the frontiers of Bengal in the east. He would have increased the extent of
spared ; but as fate would have it, he died a year after the battle of the Gogra. When in the hot weather of the year 1530 A. C.
his

empire

if

, * Story of his death.
,
.

.

,

Humayun J

fell

seriously
^

ill,

his father,

illness that

he

Babar, was so much upset by his resolved to sacrifice his own life in order

to save that of his son. to take

His friends
as

such a

step

and proposed

requested him not that the precious

diamond, known
given
as

in history
;

away

instead

Koh-i-Noor, might be but the fond father regarded that
for

too

poor a price

the

life

of his

most beloved

22
son.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Walking three times round the bed
of his

son,

he prayed to God to transfef the disease of his son to him. So strong was his will-power that he is reported " I have borne it to have said I have borne it away
!

away
death
last

"

!

!

From

that time,

we have

historians,

Babar declined
his son,

in health

from the Muslim and succumbed to
it

and

Humayun, began
well.

to recover,

till

at

he was perfectly

As

.,

Padshah, or sovereign-ruler of Hindustan, Babar reigned for less than five
y
'

His policy and administration.

b

t

hjs

administration

during &

was characterised by the same energy, decision and promptness as he had always
this period

displayed

in his

military
laid

exploits.

He

restored

the
as a

Grand Trunk Road,

out his

capital at

Agra

beautiful garden-city with wells and water-courses

superb palaces, baths, tanks,
;

ordered

the

reparation

of

mosques and other buildings and established guardintervals and houses and post-stations at regular maintained an express letter-mail between Agra and
Following the traditions of a personal, distinguished from a bureaucratic administration,
Kabul.
as

he

toured throughout his Indian dominions td study their the to internal This state. appealed eventually
idiosyncrasies of his Indian

subjects

and consequently

reconciled

them
in

to the ideas of the

Mughal Rule.

The
was
'the

huhrat-i-'Am
entrusted,

(Public

Works
to

addition
a gazette

Department) other duties, with

publication of

and colleges

'.

In

and the building many respects Babar accepted the
he found
in

of schools

system of government as

vogue

in

those

ZAHIR-UD-DIN MUH/.MMAD BABAR
times,

23

and divided his kingdom into fiefs and assigned them to his officers. The country was still unsettled and the financial deficits were untold. So Professor
Rushbrook- Williams seems to be
that Babar
'

just

in

his

remark

monarchy which could be held together only by the continuance of war conditions, which in times of peace was weak, structureless and invertebrate'. But it must be remembered that Babar had no time to introduce new Jaws and
bequeathed to
his son a

institutions

in

the

newly-conquered
his short reign

country.
It

From
clear

what he did during that if he had lived
himself

is

amply

longer,

he would

an

excellent

administrator.

have proved His Wasiyyat

namd-i-majchfi (secret testament) to his son and successor, Humayun, embodies in it his administrative policy,

Humayun and and his Akbar logical by It successors. preaches peace and enjoins tolerance as the motto of Mughal Rule in India, and contains the As a essence of its author's administrative genius. a and document monument of enlightened statesmanship of unique historical interest and importance, it deserves
which was scrupulously adopted
to
its

by

carried

conclusion

to be reproduced here.

It reads

:

"GOD BE PRAISED
Secret

testament

of

Zahir-ud-Din
to

Muhammad
Nasir-ud-Dm
life!

Babar

Badshah

Gba-zi

Prince

Muhammad Humayun.
For the
stability

May God
of

prolong his
this
is

the

Empire

written.

O my
creeds.

son

!

The

realm of Hindustan

is full

of

diverse

Praise be to God, the Righteous,

the Glorious,

the

Highest,

that

He

hath granted unto thee the

24

THE MU3HAL EMPIRE
it.

Empire "of
cleansed

It is

but proper that
of

thou,

with

heart

of all religious bigotry, should dispense justice

according to the tenets
particular
lies

each

community.
of

And

in

refrain

from

the

sacrifice

cow,

for that

the conquest of the hearts of the people of way Hindustan; and the subjects of the realm will, through And the temples and royal favour, be devoted to thee.

abodes

of

sway, you that the sovereign

worship of every community under Imperial should not damage. Dispense justice so

may

be happy with the subjects and

likewise the subjects wi*h their sovereign. The progress of Islam is better by the sword of kindness, not by the

sword of oppression
Ignore the disputations of Shias and Sunnls ; for therein is the weakness of Islam. And bring together
the subjects with differenl beliefs in the manner of the Four Elements, so that the body-politic may be

immune from
the

the

various

ailments.

And remember

deeds of Hazrat Taimur Sdhib-qirdni (Lord of the conjuction) so that you may become mature in matters
of

Government

And on
First

us

is

but the duty to advise.

Jamadi-ul-Awwal 935

H

llth January,

1529." *

the

*The original document is in Persian and is treasured in Hamida Library at Bhopal as one of its heirlooms. Sometime ago it was first published in the Twentieth Century oi
'
'

Allahabad by Mr. N. C. Mehta, I. C. S. with its English translation with the courtesy of H. H. the Nawab Sahib of Bhopal. It may be pointed out here that Ba bar's message is only one of the numerous Imperial Firmans which were issued from time to time by the Mughal Emperors according to the requirements of the time. Some similar rescripts were issued by Emperor Alamgir, for which, vide Chapter XIV.
*

ZAHIR-UD-DIN
Babar
His account
of India.
briefly

MUHAMMAD BABAR

25

surveys the political condition of India on the eve of his invasion and
-

dwe
and
He,

,, s

^
r

and ^
its

also

refers

to

geographical

features.

people, as

however, poor opinion of the evident from the following passage " Hindustan is a country that has few pleasures
is
:

forms

a

to

recommend

it.

The

people are not handsome.
of
friendly

They

have no idea of the charms

society, of

frankly mixing together, or of familiar intercourse. They have no genius, no comprehension of mind, no politeness
of manner, no kindness or fellow-feeling no ingenuity or mechanical invention in planning or executing their

no skill or knowledge in design or have no horses, no good flesh, no they grapes or musk-melons, no good fruits, no ice or cold water, no good food or bread in their bazars, no baths or
handicraft

works,
;

architecture

no candles, no torches, not a candlestick Instead of a candle or torch, you have a gang of dirty fellows,
colleges,

whom
a
it

they call divatis, who hold in their left hand kind of small tripod, to the side of one leg of which,

being wooden, they stick a piece of iron like the top of the candlestick; they fasten a pliant wick, of the
size of the

middle
In

finger,

of
in

the

legs.

their

by an iron pin, to another right hand they hold a gourd,
hole
for

which they have made a

the

purpose

of

pouring out oil, in a small stream, and whenever the wick requires oil, they supply it from this gourd.

Their

great

men

kept a
to

hundred or two hundred
that
there

of

these divatis."

He

continues

add

were neither

26
aqueducts
nor

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
canals,

neither elegance nor regularity
proletariat

;

that the peasants

and the

moved about naked,

wearing only langoti to cover their private parts. He, however, speaks favourably of India's wealth in
silver

a

work
there

;

and gold and says that there was no dearth of that there was abundance of occupations that was flourishing trade ; and that the climate was
;

pleasant during the rainy season.

It

must be rememthe

bered

that

Babar's
to

stay

in India

was much too short
with
character

to allow of

him

acquaint

himself

Indians,
habits.

their

customs

and

traditions, their ideas

and

Therefore, his

in regard to her people, is

account of India, particularly bound to be superficial.
the autobiography of for him the
.

The Mei.wirs
His _, Memoirs.
TT
. .

referred to are

Babar, which has earned
title

df

'

prince of autobiographers
its

It contains

the best account that
style

in a

most lucid
the
It

we have of and manly expression.

author
ranks

It

among

most precious treasures 9f Indian

historical

has jusHy extorted universal admiration literature. for the simplicity of its language, the sublimity of its but the style, and the authenticity of its contents
;

greatest

charm of
personality.

this
It

work
and
its

is

the revelation of

its

author's

reveals

Babar
it

in

his

true

colours, with all his virtues

vices.

Fit to rank with

the best

biographies
will

of

the

world,

stands unique in

Asia and
fancy.
It

long retain

fascination to

presents

Babar,

his

capture our country-men and contastes, pursuits,

temporaries in

their dress, appearance,

manners, habits and hobbies as clearly as in a mirror. It gives an exact description of the countries hp visited,

ZAHIR-UD-DIN
their

MUHAFMAD BABAR

27

physical

features, productions,

works of krt and
breaking in upon reminiscences a

industry.

All this,

and above
its

all

the shrewd comments

and
the

lively

impressions of

author,
give

narrative at

intervals,

his

permanent and penetrating flavour of a rare order. of Babar a lover fine was great

arts.

Architecture, poetry, painting, music,

gardening and the art of illustrating books with beautiful pictures made considerable progress He himself cultivated these arts under his patronage.

and encouraged those given
strong were
his
aesthetic

to similar

pursuits.

So

tastes that

stormy career he could
arts

find

time

even during his to devote to these

and

to satiate his thirst for

them.
architecture.
7

He had
Architecture.

a keen

interest

in

He
,

did

not like the

edifices
,

at Delhi and Agra, though he was He formed impressed by the architecture at Gwalior. a poor opinion of native art and skill and therefore

^

he came across
,
,

,,

.

imported the talented
architect,

pupils of

Sinan, the celebrated
his buildings

from Constantinople to design

according to his

own

aesthetic tastes.

He

writes in his

Memoirs
"

:

In Agra alone, and of the stone-cutters belonging

to that place only, I every

day employed on
SikrI,

my

palaces

680 persons; and
Gwalior and
Koil,

Dholpur, there were every day employed on
buildings that have survived are the
at Panlpat
his

in

Agra,

Bianah,

my

works 1,491 stone-cutters." Unfortunately, almost all

beautiful

have perished.
great

The two
the

mosque

in

Kabul Bagh

and the

28

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Jdmi' Masjid at Sambhal. Babar was a born poet.

'

3

He

cultivated

the

art of

poetry from his early days and is the reputed author of a diwan (collection)
of

the poems, many of which figure in Tuzk-i-Babari. Abul Fazl informs us that a collection

Turki

of Persian
called

masnawis (romances)

of

his

composition,

Mubin, had a very large circulation in his days. Besides, Babar wrote a number of other works, which

include an interesting book on prosody, called Mufassil. The celebrated Smthor of the Tarilth-i-Rashidi records
to his credit
:

,

"

In the composition of Turki poetry he was second

only

to

Amir

All

Shir

verse, called

Mubdiydn, and useful treatise on Jurisprudence, which has been adopted He also wrote a tract on Turkish prosody, generally.

invented a style of was the author of a most

He

superior in elegance to any other, and put into veise the Risald-i-Wdlidiydh of his Holiness."

As a
convene

man

of

cheerful

disposition,

he used
in

to

Mushderds

(poetical

contests)

which

extempore Turkish were indulged
gathering of literary

versification

and
in.

recitation

in Persian

and
a,

The Memoirs
in

describe

men even

a boat wherein

Babar

and
their

his associates

weary hours.
his

Muse over
creations
scholars.

composed verses in order to beguile So supreme was the sway of the mind that even amidst the clash of
brief

arms he snatched a
of

interval

to

listen

to

the

poets and the conversations of erudite

two

to

At times he himself Cropped in a verse or add to the amusement of the assemblage.

ZAHIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD BABAR

29

Babar displayed a remarkable taste for painting. He is said to have brought to India Painting. with him all the choicest specimens of painting he could collect from the library of his Some of these were taken the Timurides. forefathers to Persia by Nadir Shah after his invasion of India
.

and the conquest
remained
in

of

Delhi;

but

as

long

as

they

India,

they

exerted
to

on and
India.

gave a

new impetus
music
.

great the art of painting in

a

influence

The
_,
.

sister art of

also receivjd the attention

of the

Music.
in
it is

Emperor who himself was a TT..i connoisseur. His skill and proficiency
t

borne out by a treatise of his own composition which he has written all about it. This book is of a very high order and is as interesting as it is
in

informative.

bears eloquent testimony to its author's love of music and his knowledge of its technicalities.
It

The

practice

of illustrating

books

with

beautiful

paintings
mistm'ting books,
in

and

pictures

and

thereby
interest-

making them more
ing was, for the

lucid

and

first

time, introduced

India

by Babar.
in

His
respect

Memoirs
also.
is

afford a crowning

evidence

this

Profusely

coloured

illustrations,

with which this book

embellished,

form

an essentially attractive feature of it, and the coloured animals of described therein are ^presentations
particularly charming.

Babar was a great gardener.
_ Gardening.
.

references
his

to

There are repeated flowers and gardens in

Memoirs.

Among

the

gardens

30
that h^ laid out,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Bagh-i-Wafa and Bagh-i-Kilan near an4 *Zohra Bagh at Agra may be the most fascinating. be regarded as It will idea here that the the interesting to remark underlying Great was of the the garden Iram, gardens Mughals

Kabul and

Ram Bagh

held out

to

the

Muslims
their

for

their entertainment

as

a

reward

for

good

deeds

in
*

this

world.

have been given Unfortunately, many of such gardens over to cultivation ', yet there remains enough to show
the artistic tastes of their founders.
bright
earthly
birds, gontle

Beautiful flowers,

beasts

1

and a vast
(fair

multitude

of

houries and ghilmans

boys)

constituted

the splendour that was Mughal.

Babar ioved

literacy

celebrities.

l

and used to associate himself with men whose memory we will had a court His cherish. ng eminent scholars. brilliant set of
were

Some

of
i

them

Gfaiyas-ud-Dm

Muhammad

and author Kbudamir, the celebrated Persian historian ^ of the Hablb-us-Siyar, the Khuldsat-ul-Akbar and

Maulana Shahab-ud-DIn, the famous enigmatist, poet and punster and Mir Ibrahim, a native of Herat and a skilled performer on Kanun.

many

other

works

;

;

Apart from these, those who came into close contact Shaikh with him were Shaikh Mazi, his own tutor Zain Khafi, translator of the Wdqiyat-i-Bdbari; and
;

Maulana
day.
It

BaqT,

may
in

one of the most learned men of ths also be mentioned that Babar was greatly
literary

assisted

by the erudite minister of the King of Herat/ who had 'collected a valuable library of the most esteejmed works of the
his

undertakings

ZAHIR-UD-DIlSi

MUHAMMAD BABAR
it
'.

31

time and placed him in charge of

S. Lane-Poole has beautifully

summed up
in

Babar's

achievements

the

words:
history

"

following
place
in

His permanent

rests

upon
for

his

Indian
;

an imperial line way but his place in biography and literature is determined rather by his daring adventures and persevering efforts

conquests, which

opened the

in his

days, and by the delightful Memoirs in which he related them. Soldier of fortune as he was,
earlier

Babar was not the
of
culture, the

less

a

man

of fine literary

taste

and

fastidious critical perception.

In

Persian, the language
as
it is

Latin of Central Asia,

of India,

accomplished poet, he was master of a pure and unaffected style alike in The Turkish princes of his time prose and verse.
prided themselves upon their literary polish, and to turn an elegant ghazal, or even to write a beautiful

he was an

and

in his

native Turki

manuscript, was their peculiar ambition, no less worthy or stimulating than to be master of sword or mace.

Wit and
on the

learning,

the

art of

spot,

quoting
or
in

the

improvising Persian classics,

a quatrain writing a

good hand,
appreciated
valour,

singing a

good

song,

were

highly

Babar's

world, as

much

and

infinitely

more than

virtue.

perhaps as Babar himself

will break off in the

middle of a story to quote a verse,
his difficulties

and he found
dangers
battles

leisure in the thick of

and
His

to

compose

an ode on
orgies

his misfortunes.

as well

as his

were

humanised by a

breath of poetry."

32

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Another long quotation
has

on the

heels of
,

one which
_.
_

space may appear to be a little too as it much, but, gives a correct estimate of Babar, it may appropriately be cited
:

His Estimate.

already '

occupied v

considerable

"

Upon

the

whole
Asia,

if

we review with
shall find

impartiality

history of are entitled to

the

we

rank

higher

than

few princes who Babar in genius

His grandson, Akbar, may accomplishments. be placed above him for profound and perhaps benevolent polify. The crooked artifice of Aurangzib not entitled to the same distinction. The merit is
of
in

and

Chingiz
their

I^han,

and

of

Tamerlane,

terminates
the
in

splendid conquests, achievements of Babar; but

which
in

far

excelled
of mind,

activity

gay equanimity and unbroken spirit with which he bore the extremes of good and bad fortune, and in the possession of the manly and social virtues, so seldom the portion of princes, in his love of letters and
the
his success in the cultivation of th<*m, we shall probably find no other Asiatfc prince who can justly be placed

beside him."

CHAPTER

III

NASIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD HUMAYfiN
his beloved son,

(1530- 39 and 1556)
Babar was succeeded by
Introductory.

Humayun,
amidst
title

who ascended
great
festivities

the

throne
the

under

of

day: before the end of the year 1530 A. C. The new king was not destined to enjoy a peaceful reign, partly because he himself created his own difficuHies and partly

NasIr-ud-Dln

Muhammad Humyaun two

because he was outmatched by his

rival,

Sher Shah, in

diplomacy and
Acting
Division of the empire.
r

statecraft.

in

_

.

.

accordance with the advice of his father, Humayun bestowed upon his brothers
.,

the

,

.

governorships
:

of

,

..

different pro-

Kabul and Qandhar were Alwar and Mewat were allotted to Mirzfi Hindal, Sambhal was, assigned to Mirza Askarl, and the government of Badakhshan was entrustvinces

given

to

Kamran,

ed
the

to his

cousin, Mirza

Sulaiman.

This division

of

empire \vas responsible for the ambitious intrigues

and treasonable designs of his brothers and the early overthrow of the Mughal Empire. Babar did not live long to consolidate what he had i conquered. Humayun was not so Political situation and of India and strong sagacious as to accomplish U Qn >S what his father could not What ?o he added to his own mure,
. .

.

.

,

.

sS

difficulties.

His

leniency

was

his mistake

and

his

34
inconsistency condition of

THE MTIfmAT EMPIRE
was
India
nis

blunder.

The
his

political

at

was miserable. in the east Sher and Bahadur Shah in the west the former in Bengal and Bihar and the latter in Gujarat were maturing His own plans for the overthrow of the Mughals. brothers were now sufficiently strong to support their

thgtime of Khan Afghan

accession

own

and there was nothing to The leading nobles and prevent them from doing that. military' leaders, whom he himself had granted large
claims
to the throne
estates in order to increase bis

popularity,

were

now

in

possession

of
in

the sinews

of war,

which they

freely

employed
Emperor.

mutual

warfare and even
intrigued

against their

They

ceaselessly

and

plotted

against him in order to push forward their own men. A conspiracy was formed by one Muhammad Zaman

Had it succeeded, the history of against Humayun. India would have been differently written. The secret
was out and Muhammad Zaman took refuge in Gujarat, where he made common cause wfth Bahadur Shah. Another aspirant to the throne was Ala-ud-Dln, brother
of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi,

who

sent an

army

of

40,000

men

against

Humayun

under the

command

of his son,

In the engagement that was Bianah, Tatar was defeated and slain.

Tatar

Khan.

fought at

Entrusting the government of Kabul and

Qandhar
se f

Kamran

,-

-

,

s

to

his brother,

Askari,
of

Kamran

occupation of the Punjab.

out at the
against

head

a

huge army
of the
to

HumayQn)

giving out that he

was going

to congratulate

royal insignia.

him on bis assumption Humayun was not so.simple^as

be

NASIR-UD-DIN
such a deceived by j
decided to add

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN
Forthwith he sent
brother
that he
in
\

35

trick.

advance

an envoy to inform his
Kabul.

had already

Lamghan and Peshawar to the fief of But Kamran was not content with this concesHe crossed the Indus and conquered the Punjab sion. and annexed it to his kingdom of Kabul and Qandhar.

Humayun

remained

passive;

rather,

he

quietly

acquiesced in the forcible occupation and avoided war with his brother. This was a grave mistake on his

Punjab in general and of Hissar Firoza in particular was a blunder of the first magnitude. The former not only deprived him of a most productive province but created a barrier between
part.

The

cession of the

him and the Mughal military base in the North- West, so rich in military resources. The latter gave Kamran command of the new military road running from Delhi
to

Qandhar and made

it

possible for military

him

to cut
'

down

the tap-root of

Humayun's

power
to of

by merely
deal

stopping where he was*.

Humayun was
War
with

soon called upon Bahadur ShaH, one
rftt

with

the

most
Gujaand

Bahadur Shah
of Gujarat.

formidable of his adversaries.

wag then Qne Q

the

^^

of towering ambition.

most powerful provinces of India. Its ruler was a man He had immense resources at

his command. Before trying conclusions with Humayun, he had already increased his army and He artillery. had conquered Malwa with the help of the Rana of Mewar; and the kings of Ahmadnagar, Khandegh and

Berar paid him homage.
ledged
his

The Portuguese

also

acknow-

supremacy.

He

had warred against the

36

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
of Chittor

Rana
made

'ruinous alike to

and forced aim to agree to terms He now his pride and his pocket'.

preparations for a

more ambitious venture

the

conquest of Hindustan as a whole.
service the Afghan
chiefs

He

enlisted in his

and the Mughal nobles, who had fled to his kingdom and taken refuge there, and planned the conquest of the country under the Mughal Emperor. Humayun at once marched against him to
chastise

him

for giving shelter to his enemies.

Bahadur
of
his

Shah
Babar

underestimated

the

military

capacity

opponent and

tried to imitate the tactics

employed by

at the battle of I'anipat.

He

entrenched himself

very strongly anu expected his adversary to repeat the blunder of Ibrahim Lodhi by hurling his troops against
his batteries.

But Humayun, who had seen enough
of

of

war

tactics as a lieutenant of his father, instead

him, sent strong trap prepared falling bodies of cavalry to scour the country in the rear of
into

the

for

Bahadur Shah's camp and cut

off

his supplies.

The

beleaguered Gujaratis were reduced to a state of famine and the Sultan, after blowing up his guns, escaped with a

few of his faithful followers. He was hunted by Humayun from place to place and compelled to take refuge with
the Portuguese at

meantime, reduced a great part of Gujarat and Malwa, but he and his officers were so elated by their successes that they did nothing to effect a permanent settlement of the
conquered
territory. They gave themselves up to feastand ing merry-making. Bahadur Sfya.h availed himself of their negligence and immediately despatched his trusty
officer,

Diu.

Humayun,

in the

Imad-ul-Mulk,

who

at once occupied

Ahmadabad

NASIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN

37

and gathered together a large army for his master, who was also promised aid by the Portuguese Governor. This
alarmed

Humayun and awoke him

to the gravity of the

situation.
inflicted

At once he advanced against Imad and a defeat on him. Feeling that his occupation

of Gujarat

was

secure,

he entrusted
himself

his brother, Askari,

with

its

government and
in Bihar.

proceeded

apace

against able revolt
totally

Sher Khan Afghan, who had headed
In his

a formid-

absence, Askari

proved

tactless

and incapable.

His own

officers dis-

him for his arrogance and unmannerliness. There was no love lost between the master and his servants. Bahadur Shah, who was waiting for an and at once attacked Ahmadabad opportunity,
liked

took possession of it. Gradually he recovered his lost kingdom, but he was not destined to enjoy the fruits
of his victories.

He

the sea.
left

Malwa was Mandu.

died in 1537 A. C. by falling into also lost as soon as Humayun
of the

At the approach

Imperial army near the borders of Bengal, the crafty Afghan w^hdrew towards Bihar. In his

absence, the Mughals occupied Gaur,

the

provincial

capital,

and

renamed

it

Jannatabad.

Again, when Sher Khan

upon the Mughal possessions in Bihar and Jaunpur and overran the territory as far as Kanauj, Humayun mobilized his forces against
seized

Crossing the Ganges at Munghlr, he marched towards Bihar at the head of his army. At Chausa he

him.

was defeated by his enemy, the rebellious Afghan, and At this critical juncture he souhgt the put to flight.

38

THE MJGHAL EMPIRE
i

aid of his brothers

whom

he

had so magnanimously

treated; but they not only 'offered a flat refusal but substantially contributed to the success of his enemy by

Sher Khan, who, after his victory at Chausa, had crowned himself king under the title of Sher Shah, crossed the Ganges and inflicted a

hampering

his preparations.

sharp defeat on

Humayun
and not an

at

Kanauj, whither he had
India.

retired after his defeat,

and expelled him from

A

novelist

Un e3e,

historian can better portray the picture of his flight from India and * he misfortunes that befell him
thereafter.

After

his

defeat

at the

battle of

Agra.
treasure

Kanauj, he crossed the Ganges and reached Thence he started towards Delhi with his

and family.

was lost, he left had so kindly treated, gave him no protection rather, they added to his difficulties and increased his anxiety.
;

Finding, however, that his cause for Sarhind. His brothers, whom he

Proceeding towards Sind, he besieged Bhakkar, but could not conquer it. It was at this time that he married Hamida Bano Bagum, daughter of Shaikh All Akbar Jaml. Driven to despair, he turned to Maldeva,
the Rajah of Jodhpur,
tingent
of

who had promised him

a con-

reached the Rajah's

twenty thousand Rajputs. But when he territory, he discovered that the
last

Rajah meant mischief. At Amarkot, and there he and
rousing reception by
assist

his

he sought shelter at party were given a
also agreed to
It

Rana Prasad, who

this

was at haven of refuge that the future empress of India
in attacking

him

Thatta and Bhakkar.

gave birth to

the greatest

emperor of Indi&.

After

NASIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN

39

performing the necessary ceremonies on the happy occasion of the birth of his son, Akbar, Humayiin
attacked Bhakkar with the aid of

Rana

Prasad.

Un-

fortunately, a picque having arisen between the Muslims and the Rajputs, the latter deserted the Imperial army ;

but fortunately, the Chief of Bhakkar got tired of war and sued for peace. According to the terms of the
treaty,

Humayiin

received

thirty boats,

ten thousand

Misbkdls, two thousand loads of grain and three hundred camels. Thus equipped, he advanced towards Qandhar,

but

it was too dangerous a place foi him to stay in. His brother, Kamran, was the sole master of the entire Afghan territory his brothers, Askari and Hindal, were
;

his vassals.

After a careful consideration

he decided
his little son,
old, at

to set out in search of support.

Leaving

Akbar,

who was

at that tim^ twelve

months

Qandhar, he proceeded towards Persia and informed the

Shah

of his proposed

visit.

Hearing of Fumayun's intention, Tahmasp, the
In Persia.

of Persia, issued instructions to
,
.

his

officers

^

royal
faith

welcome on his arrival. and it is said that he received the royal

him a right The Shah was a Shia by
to

^

accord

j

.

-

i

A

fugitive

so warmly simply because he intended to convert him In spite of his endeavours and imto his own creed.
portunities,
it is

stated,

he could not shake the

belief of

his guest in the

Sunni doctrine.

In accordance with the

advice of his well-wishers,

Humayun

agreed to accept
reluctance.

the religion of his host after a great

The
to

Shah

with promised to help him Bokhara. and conquer Kabul, Qandhar

a contingent

40

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
With an army of 14,000, Humayun attacked kingdom of Kamran. Having
q
rS

the
ac-

C

Klb uTa nd Qandhar from Kamran.
the mercy of

q uired
,
.

Qandhar, he advanced upon
brother.

Kabul and defeated his
.

Here
,

t

,

his son, Akbar,

whom
to

,

he had

,

,

,

left

at

the boy him after a long Kamran, though beaten, was still ready separation. to recover his lost possessions. Again he was defeated
to a fusillade of shots,

Kamran who had once exposed
was restored

and put to flight In an engagement at night, Mirza Hindal was slab. Kamran, the fugitive king of Kabul, found shelter at the Court of Sultan Salim Shah who,
however, treated him so badly that he took himself to the

Gakhar country in disgust and disappointment. Chief of the Gakhars too treated him ruthlessly. handed over to Humayun, who remembered the his father and so did not put an end to his life.
blinded and thus rendered
chief against his brother.
to

But the

He

was
of

words

He

was

incapable of creating mis-

At

his request,

he was sent

Mecca along with his wife, who served him faithfully Mirza Askari was also the last day of tiis life. caught and permitted to proceed to Mecca. Having
to

disposed of his rivals,

Humayun

turned his attention to

the reconquest of Hindustan.
In response to the requests of influential Indians,
eagerly watching the events ot India and was lon S in g

Humayun, who was
for

an opportunity, advanced towards India early in the year 1555 at the head of an efficient army, and occupied Lahore. Sulian Sikandar Sur, who had played ducks and drakes with the Imperial treasury,

NAS1R-UD-D N

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN
totally defeated
flight.

41
in

advanced against him, but was a battle at Sarhind and put to

Humayun

entered his old capital in a triumphant procession and ruled his Indian Empire for a brief span of about twelve

months.

He

died of a fatal

fall

from the terraced-roof

of his library

on

the 24th of January,
as

1556 A. C.

Endowed
Kmpfehments.

memory, had Humayun acquired proficiency in several arts and sciences in his early
years.

he was with a retentive

He was

very fond

of poetry

and had great skill in this art. He was an excellent poet, whose verses were elegant and full of meaning. In astronomy he was an adept and in geography a perfect
master.

He

indited

some

dissertations

on the nature

of the elements and ordered the construction of celestial

and

terrestrial globes as

soon as he

became Emperor

Ferishta says that he fitted up seven halls of of India. reception and dedicated them to seven planets in the Judges, ambassadors, poets and travelfollowing order
:

lers were received in the Hall of the

Moon commanders
;
;

and other military

officers in

the Hall of the Mars
;

qvil

officers in the Palace of the Mercury gens de lettres in the palaces of the Saturn and the Jupiter; musicians

and

bards

in

the

Hall

of

the

Venus.

In

short

Humayun was gifted with those accomplishments and graces which are highly prized in good and fashionable
'

societies.
'

I

have

seen,' says the

author of the

Taril$h,-

i-Rashidi,
talents

few

and
the

princes possessed of so much natural 'His noble nature,' excellence as he.'

writes

author of the
of

A in,
of

'was

combination

the

energy

marked by the Alexander and the

42

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Under him the Mughal Court splendour and magnificence.
curious contrihis
for

learning of Aristotle.'

became famous

for its

Humayun
US

has to his credit some
vances.

Under

his instructions

workT
the Jumna.

Najjdrs (carpenters) constructed

him four boats and

set

them

afloat

on

Each

of

these boats

had an

which two storeys were very high.

When

arch, of these boats

were put together in such a way that the four arches remained opposite to one another, an octagonal fountain

was formed witnin

which presented a picturesque view. The boats were provided with bazars and Often the Emperor sailed in them from Firozshops. Sbad Delhi to Agra with his courtiers. There was such
the~n,

a bazar afloat on the
ever one liked.'

Jumna

that 'one could have what-

moving-garden
of

for their Imperial patron

Likewise, the royal gardeners made a on the surface

But, the most marvellous of his ingenious works was the moving-palace which had three The various parts of this wooden structure storeys.
the

Jumna.

were so
joint,

skilfully joined that

it

looked

like

one having no
parts of

but
it

when

required,

it

could be

split into

upper that were so could be designed storey they dexterously a and unfolded. It was folded wonderful easily per-

which

was made.

The

stairs leading* to the

This sovereign also made a moving-bridge, which too was no less curious. For purposes of administration, Humayun divided his
formance.
Administration.
A
. .
.

.

four r government into & parts & - according ~ * to the four elements: Attsb (Fire),
.

Bad

(Air),

Ab

(Water), and

gh&k

(Land),

and placed

NASIR-UD-DIN MUHAMB'AD HUMAYUtt
each one of them
in

4?

affairs of the artillery, together

charge of a separate minister. Thewith the arrangement 06 armours and weapons and all those affairs which were

connected with Fire, were formed into a separate department, called Sarkdr-i-Atishi, the portfolio of which

was

held by

Khwajah Abdul

Karqirdq Kh>cun^ (godown), (kitchen), Shukar Kh,dnd (camel

Malik; the affairs o stable, Bdwarcfri Khdnd
stable), etc., constituted

what was known

as Sarkdr-i-Hawdi,

which was under

Khwajah

Khdnd
all

Lutf-Ullah; management of Sharbafc -('house for sweet drinks) and AlastuchA Khdnd
the

(store-hcwase) as well as the construction of canals

and
into-

other affairs -connected with

Water were grouped
,

a separate department, called Sarkdr-i-Abt which was placed inchatge of Khwajah Hassan; and agriculture,
buildings, the

management

of Crown-lands

and houseSarkarin Khwajfthi

hold affaks
i-Khdki, of

fell

to the fourth department, called

which the ministry was vested Jalal-ud-Dki Mirza Beg.

Humayun
Drum
of Justace.

displayed
.

a remarkable
of

interest in andi
T,
.

solicitude for the widespread

nation

...

justice.

He

intioducedi

the famous

Drum

of Justice, called

Tabl-i-Adl r whichi

the importunate suppliant used to beat once in. case ofc a charge of enmity, twice if the wrong done was not
righted,

tbuee

times
if

and four times

drum

might

a theft or a robbery took place,. murder was committed.. The: not have been frequently beaten, but
if

a

the Emperor's sense of justice and! his care and! concern for its impartial .and effective; administration
jully borne out by it

44

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

He made

an elaborate classification of the people
of
his empire, created gradations

of

giving

them

constructed palaces for their entertainment and fixed days for The first class, significantly audience.

ranks

the consisted blessed, styled as Ahl-i-S'adat, or the the and the learned of law-officers and the pious, the second class, known as Ahl-i-Daulat, wealthy, were the Emperor's kinsfolk, his ministers and nobles as well as military
scientists of the

kingdom

;

or the

class, called Ahl-i-Murdd, or the were musicians, singers and story-tellers as well as those who were favoured by nature with

officers;

the

tLird

people of hope,

beauty and refinement. As this class depended upon the charity of His Majesty for maintenance, it should

have been named Ahl-i-Tarab, or the party of amusement, inasmuch as they pleased the Emperor with their
songs, beauty

and music.
heads of thesg classes was
a

To
a

each of the
or arrow,

given

Khudamlr, contemporary chronicler, informs us that during the days he was employed, the Sahm-us-S'adat was in
a

Sahm,

a

mark

of distinction.

FarghaH, who was entrusted with the specific performance of the affairs He fixed the stipends and Ahl-i-S'adat. of the
charge of
scholarships
religious

Maulana

Muhammad

of

the

Sayyads,

Shaikhs,

scholars,

recluses,

professors,

teachers
their

and

research-

scholars,

and with him rested

appointment as
held by for the

The Sahm-ud-Dauldh was well as dismissal. Amir Hindu Beg, who was* responsible
management
of the
affairs of

the Akl-i-Daulat,

and

NASIR-UD-DIN
it

MUHAMMAD HCJMAYUN
fix

45
ol

was one

of

his

duties to

the

grades
of

pay

and ranks

of

soldiers

and

servants

the

State.

The Sahm-ul-Murad was
principal

assigned to

Amir Desai whose
the
the
affairs

duty

consisted in

controlling

of

the

supplying necessary requirements of splendour at the Mughal Court. The Padshah also divided the days of the week

Ahl-i-Murdd

and

and
audience.

fixed two days above-named classes

for

each of the
inhabitants

of

as follows
for

the

Ahl-i-S'adat,

Thursdays and Saturdays Sundays ~nd Tuesdays for the
:

Ahl-i~Daulat,

Mondays and Wednesdays for the Ahl-i-Murad; and Friday was reserved for Namdz-i9
,

Juma

or congregational prayers.
three
classes

The
Twelve Subdivisions.

enumerated

above

were

sub-divided into twelve smaller ones, i -,1 ,1 and arrows of gold, with varying
proportions of alloy mixed with them,

were
the

distributed
:

among them
first

in order of

importance
the

as follows

The

of

the
his

purest gold was given to
royal

Emperor,

indicating

prerogative

highest rank ; the second to the royal family, provincials and other high officials the third to the literati and
;

religious

men
the

;

the
to

fourth

to

the Maliks,

Amirs and

nobles;

fifth

the

courtiers

and His Majesty's

personal servants ; the sixth to the general employees ; tiie seventh to the harems and well-behaved femaleservants
of

the royal

household
of

young
ninth

maid-servants
to

the

the treasurers
to

and

eighth to the Imperial Harem\ the stewards of the State;
;

the

the tenth

the

fighting

class

the

officers

of

the

46
rank and
the
file
;

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
of the Imperial armies
;

the eleventh

to

mentals

and

the

twelfth

to

the palace-guards,

camel-drivers and the like.

The

Court-Scholars.

preceding account leaves an impression upon the mind that Humayun was a _ .. J
.

magnificent
terested in the well-being of
it

prince,

profoundly

in-

Apart from and he attached this, importance clearly the place he assigned to the learned and the pious,
his

subjects.

reveals the

the

musicians

and the

story-tellers.

well-known author of the
of
his
literary

Khudamlr, the Habib-us-Siyar, was one
Jauhar,
the
celebrated

associates

;

author of the

Private Memoirs
attendant,

Tazkirat-ul-Waqiydt-i-Humayun, or of Humayun, was his personal
as
1

chances of such, had ample a ! that in he embodied his book personally observing Abdul Latif, the learned author of the Lub-ut-TwariJch,

who,

;

was
the

also

invited

arrived

at

the

adorn his Court, but he Imperial Capital after the death of
to

by him

Emperor; Shahab-ud-Din KhafI, the unequalled enigmatist and chronogramatist of the time, enjoyed his patronage; and Shaikh Husain, the honoured
professor
of

a

gorgeous
of

madrasah
his

at

Delhi,
this

was
bears

another

recipient

favours.

All

eloquent testimony to the fact

that

Humayun

was a had
in

sympathetic patron of letters.

Humayun

was a great
the

bibliophile.

He
.Under

collected a large

number
Sher

of books

Imperial

Library.

his

special

firm^n^

Mandal,

the

pleasure-house

of

Sher Shah

Sun,

was turned

into

a

NASIR-UD-D1N
library

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN
reign.

47

during his

second

So

intense

was

his

books of the day that even in his military undertakings he used to take with him a
love for the best
select

library

for

his

own

use.

In

spite of the fact

that

he was constantly occupied in a fatal contest with a host of enemies, he managed to spare time to spend
in

studies.

time

of

his

Count Noer informs us that even at the flight from India he took with him his
faithful
librarian
,

favourite books along with his

Lala

Beg,

officially

known

as

Baz Bahadur.
sovereign

Such a

scholarly

cannot be
the

said

to

have neglected
subjects.
is

education of his
distant date there

At

this

at least

founded by him at Delhi.
professors
of
this

one instance of a college One of the most competent

institution

was Shaikh Husain.
of

It

also appears that the beautiful
of

the

finest

tomb Mughal monuments

Humayun
seen
in

one
the

still

neighbourhood of Delhi
influential

was, at one time, used as a place of instruction, for which eminent scholars and

men were

appointed as guardians.
beautiful gardens quite as
father.

Humayiin loved
ever,

much
howtime

as his

Unfortunately,

his

long
this

drawn-out

struggle

with

Sher

Shah Suri did not allow him
to
his

sufficient

*o turn his artistic fancy

peaceful

occupation.

Nevertheless,

reign

was marked by the plantation
the one attached
still

of at least one noble garden at Delhi

to his

tomb,

which

ij

a

thing of beauty and a

joy for ever.

48

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE'

Humayun was
religious beliefs.

deeply religious. observed the dogmas
tried

He
of

carefully
his

faith

an(*

always Muslim. All
but
his

to live like a true

thought that he

was

a staunch
for the

Sunni, Ahl-i-Bait

profound love and respect (Family of the Prophet) shows that
towards
of

he was favourably

inclined
in

the

Shia
is

Faith,

and

his

leaning

favour

that faith
his

borne out

by the *act that the entire machinery of was in the hands of the Stu&s.
In private
r

government

life,

a delightful friend. In the camp, he was a bon comrade
his

Hnmayfm was
soldiers

andestlmaS
son,

of

and

State

officers.

He was
an
affectionate

a faithful friend, an obedient

brother.

As a man

of letters, he

passed most of his leisure hours in social intercourse and literary discussions. According to Ferishta, he was a prince as remarkable for his wit and humour as
for

the

urbanity

of

his

manners.
virtues

In the opinion of
Christian,

Stanley Lane-Poole
his

'his

were

and
times

was that of a gentleman '. At life was capable of immense energy and often rose to controlled the height of important occasions and
whole
he
serious

some

the singleness of purpose ; but of his best qualities were marred by the excessive
situations

with

use of opium, to which he was badly addicted. The heroic fortitude with which he bore the misfortune*

which
exact

befell

him during

his fugitive

life,

the buoyancy

of his temper

and the cheerfulness of his disposition His universal sympathy and admiration.
his

unqualified indolence and generosity spoiled

career

NASIR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN

49

and often deprived him of the fruits of his victories. But for the fact that he vvas eclipsed by the extraordinary genius of Sher Shah, who was undoubtedly superior to him in military skill and administrative acumen, his talents would have found full scope and he would have ranked with the great, though not with the
greatest kings of India.
his
abilities,

While making an estimate of
take
into

we must

consideration
at

the
of

difficulties in

which he found himself

the

time

the treachery of his brothers, the the opposition Afghans who regarded the Mughals as foreigners, and the precarious condition of the
his

accession:
of

Mughal Empire, which his father had founded but had not consolidated. So, if Humayun failed to retain what he had received as patrimony, viz., the Mughal Empire, it was due more to the baffling political he had before him, than to his situation, which
personal faults and failures.

CHAPTER

IV

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
Sher Shah and his Successors

(15401556)

A
f
.

,

period of fifteen years elapsed between the overthrow and the re-establishment of the
.

Introductory.

of

Sur,

interval.

Mughal pmpire m India. The House founded by Sher Sh&h Suri, bridged over the The l fe of the founder of the new dynasty
.

:

affords

great

men

an excellent instance of how the early days of aVe often, if not always, crowded with misextent, they

fortunes, to which, to a certain

owe

their

future greatness.

Sher Shah's

original

name was

Farld.

He was

born in the year 1486 A. C. at Hi^sar Firozz, where tys grandfather held a
joglr.

His

father,
in

jdgirddr of Sasram and Khwaspur

Hasan, was a His early Bihar.

boyhood was neglected by
ill-

his

father
i

owing

to the

with Disgusted his step-mother and the step-motherly treatment of his father, who was devoted to the youngest of his four
treatment
of
his

step-mother,

wives and
left his

who treated her home and joined

sons with preference, Farld
the service of
his

father's

There he applied Jamal Khan, himself sedulously to the study of Arabic and Persian. His receptive mind imbibed and 'assimilated all that was
benefactor,
at Jaunpur.

imparted

to

him.

Impressed

by

his

industry

and

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
activity

51
of Bihar,
his

of

mind, Jamal

Khan, the governor
to
treat

sent a message to Hasan, asking
<

kindly.

him Farid returned home and his

son

father

entrusted

him with the management of his jagirs, Sasram and Khwaspur. He managed his father's estate admirably and introduced the principle of direct settlement with the cultivators, which may be described as the Raiyatwdrl System in modern terminology. After protecting the husbandmen from oppression and placing the revenue administration of the estate on a sound basis, he set
himself to the task of reducing the refractory Zamlndars to obedience. Between 1511 A. C. and 1518 A. C.,

when he was
considerable

in

charge of his father's jagirs, he gained
'

experience.
observes,

biographer
period of

During this time, as he was unconsciously serving

his his

apprenticeship for administering the empire of

Hindustan.'
qait
his

In 1519 A. C. he was again compelled to home owing to the hostile influence of his

went to Bihar and entered the service Bahar of Khan, son of Darya Khan Lohani. governor, It was under Bahar Khan that he acquired influence and
step-mother.
its

He

importance.

From 1522
activities,

A. C. to 1526 A. C.
service

Farid was in the
greatly

of

Bahar Khan, who
his

appreciated

services

in the civil

In one departments. of the hunting expeditions of his master he killed a tiger and received from him the title of Sher Khan in

and

revenue

appreciation of that heroic deed.
arisen

But differences having between him and his master, he resigned his In recognition of service and entered that of Babar.

52
his meritorious

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
services

Babar bestowed

upon him the

governorship of several
father.

On

parganas, including those of his the death of Bahar Khan his son, Jalal Khan,

became king under the regency of Sher Khan, who gained considerable power and influence during the When Jalal came of age, he refused minority of Jalal.
Smarting under the galling tutelage of an ambitious Afghan, he invited the assistance of the r"ler of Bengal, but the allies were defeated at
to play the second fiddle.

Surajgarh and Sher Khan became the ruler of Bihar. Sher Khan'b spirit -vas restless from the beginning. After the acquisition of Bihar, he

turned

his attention

towards Bengal,
state

whose
favourable
field

anarchical

offered

a
in

for his ambitious enterprise.

Early

the year 1536 A. C. he set out from Bihar and appeared Mahmud Shah, the ruler of before the walls of Gaur.

Bengal, instead of repelling the invader, bought him off with a heavy bribe. The following year he repeated his
expedition of Bengal. tracted siege and then

He

captured Gaur after a proattacked the stronghold of

Rohtas, which

soon capitulated.

Thus ended,

for

a

while, the independence of Bengal.

When Humayun
Recovery
of

heard of Sher Khan's successes in

the east, he lost no time in advancing towards Bengal with a large Mughal

Humtyun.
his

army.
Afghan'

At

approach, the 'wily retired to Bihar and evaded
his

enemy. The Mughals occupied Gaur and rechristened it Jannatabad. The Afghans, however, compensated
themselves
in

another quarter for their losses

:

They

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
seized

53

upon the imperial

territories in

Bihar and jaunpur

and overran the country as far as Kanauj. Again, when Humayun heard about Sher Khan's
activities
in

Bihar

and

Jaunpur,
a(
.

Battle of Chausa.

ordered

his

command.

march against him under his own He crossed the Ganges near Munghir, but

army

to

soon found himself

in

a serious

situation.

He

tried to

make peace with

the Afghan war-lord, but in v?in. At Chausa, an engagement was fought between the Afghans

and the Mughals, in which f he latter were defeated and their Emperor plunged into the river flowing by and would have drowned had not Nizam, a water-carrier,
saved his
life.

Nizam was allowed
all

to

rub

as king for

two days and
his wishes.

the

officers

were ordered to carry out

After his victory
Battle of Kanauj,

in

the

battle of
title

Chausa, Sher
f

aSSUmed the

The coins
name.

Sh fih were struck and the Khutba
eT
'

^

was read
least

in his

In short,

all

the

formalities

of

kingship were gone through and there remained not the

semblance of allegiance to the Mughal

Emperor.

Humayun was now assured of the superiority of Sher He now realised how shaky his position was. Shah. He tried to enlist the assistance of his brothers, but
failed.

The

latter

him

against

not only refused to co-operate with the Afghan danger, but hampered his

preparations

as

much

as

they

could

Sher

Shah

availed himself of the dissensions

among

the surviving

sons
his

of

army

crossed the Ganges at the head of and took his position near Kanauj. Humayun

Babar.

He

54

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
and encamped opposite to that ensued, Humayun was
the
.

advanced from his capital
Sher Shah.
In the battle
flight.

defeated and put to

Sher
r*

Shah

was
r

now
TT

Shah

* r 01. Conquests of Sher the Punjab
:

Bengal.

Bihar,
,

undisputed ruler of Jaunpur, Delhi and
.
.

Hitherto his energies were Agra. concentrated on the expulsion of the Mughals from India ; now that he
in

was successful
upon a career
first

achieving
his

his

object,

he launched

of

new

to

fall

into

The Punjab was the conquests. hands. It was willingly handed

over to him by Kamran. After occupying the Punjab, Sher Shah reduced the Gakhar territory between the

upper courses of the
to

Indus and the

Jhelum

in

order

guard against the danger from the North- West; for Kamran, the ruler of Kabul, and Mirza Haider, the
of

ruler

Kashmir, might combine together at any time and attack him. Constructing a strong fort (Rohtas) in Jhelum, he left 50,000 men under the command of
his trusted generals
its

and returned

to

Bengal to re-organise
disturbances

administration.

After

quelling

rebellions

and

and

of

Malwa

peace Bengal, Sher Shah turned his attention to Malwa. During the weak rule
establishing
II,

in the province of

of

Mahmud

Mallu Khan,
the

one of the local
state

chiefs,

taking advantage of
other districts,

disorganised

of

things,

took possession of Mandu, Ujjain,

Sarangpur and a few

and

under

his

own

up an independent kingdom Besides Mallu Khan, two control.
set

othej independent

chiefs

had established

tiieir

sway

75

80

85

90

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
over vast tracts

55

of thu country. MalwS and Delhi so being closely situated, Sher Shah's fears were wellfounded. Therefore, he set out to conquer that kingdom
lest

some ambitious and

successfully fish in

powerful neighbour should the troubled waters* He reduced

of

Gwalior, Sarangpur, Ujjain and completed the conquest Malwa by the end of the year 1542 A. C.

The conquest
Conquests in Rajputana.

of

Malwa was followed by a
in

series

of conquests
,

Rajputana.
.
.

Raisin

c was attacked and occupied in 1543 A. C. Sind was conquered and then Here Jodhpur, the capital of Marwar, was besieged.

the Rajputs offered such a

stout

resistance

that

Sher

Shah was compelled
letters,

to

have recourse to a ruse.
to be
:

He

caused

containing the
of

of

Maldeva

Marwar,

following request of the nobles forged and thrown near
to

the

camp
"
its

Rajah Let not the King permit any anxiety or doubt

of the

find

way

to his heart.

During the

battle

we

will seize

Maldeva and bring him

to you."

The trick succeeded, for when Maldeva came to know the text of the letters, he suspected treachery and decided to retreat without resistance. The Rajputs
gave

him

all

assurances of

fidelity,

but he would not

believe.

In

the

battle that

was fought, the Rajputs

displayed

extreme valour,

but victory sided with the

Afghans. Encouraged by this victory, Sher Shah occupied Mount Abu and then advanced to Chittor, which was

and entrusted to an Afghan officer. Having secured his hold en Rajputana, Sher Shah undertook an expedition against the Rajah of Kalanjar. The
taken

56

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
alour,
siege,

Rajputs again displayed their \ were successful. During the
himself

but

the

Afghans

when Sber Shah

was superintending the batteries, a bomb He was removed exploded and injured him fatally. to die This took there. to his tent, only place on May
22,

1545 A. C.

Thus ended the

eventful

career

of

Sher Shah, the founder of the Sur Dynasty and the retriever of the fallen fortunes of the Afghan Monarchy,

Born

in India,

Sher Shah had acquired an intimate knowledge of Indian life and character.

had had enough of experience in the worK of administration while he was
**e
in

charge of his lather's estate. As a king, he proved himself a very capable statesman and administrator.
In

many

respects he anticipated the

work

of

Akbar the

Great.

"The whole

of

his brief administration," says

His Mr. Keen "was based on the principle of union." with the of of methods dealing India, so peoples
different
in character

and

culture, religion

and language,
statesman-

affords a culminating proof of his sagacious
ship.

By
its

his administrative reforms
his

and humanitarian

measures he rendered
spite of
for his

reign

short duration.

He

very illustrious in laboured day and night
condition
of

so

reforming the social and
subjects

intellectual

and

advancing their material

interests.

The principal features of his administration are outlined in the account that follows.
For purposes of efficient administration, the whole Empire was partitioned into 47 DivifheEmpire.
sions, the

commands
among
the

of

which were
chieftains

distributed

of

tHE AFGHAN REVIVAL
>

57

hostile clans,

whose intern jcine feuds and mutual jealousies

were a

sufficient guarantee against their ambitions.
t

A

Division had several Sarkdrs each having a Shiqdar-ia Munsif-iShiqdaran, or Shiqdar-in-Chief, and

Munsifan, or Munsif-in-Chief

comprised a number of Parganas, each having a Shiqdar, an Amln, a Khazanchl, a Munsif, a Hindi writer and a Persian
.

A Sarkdr

clerk

to write

accounts.

A Pargana

embraced many

villages, each having a Muqaddam, a Chaudhrl and a Patwdrl, who served as intermediary officers between

the State and the subjects.

The Shiqdar was

a soldier,

whose

chief duty consisted

in enforcing the Imperial

firmans and furnishing military aid to the Amln whenThe Amln was a civil officer, who ever he required it.

was responsible
actions.

Government for his The Shiqdar-in-Chief and the Munsif-in-Chief
to

the Central

were

the

principal

civil officers

who

looked

after the

work

of the officers of the

Parganas under

their charge.

Their chief duty was to watch the conduct of the people and to administer justice. The Subahddr, now known
as provincial governor, was in charge and was responsible only to the Crown
civil as well as military.

of a

Division

for his actions,

The Crown

Sher Shah

was

the fountain-head of
of

God on
As an
d

earth,

He was the shadow authority. answerable to no human authority.
all

astute

Revenue System.
turists.

manager of the estate of his father, Sher Shah had realised at an early date that the stabilit y his em P ire de P end '
\

He

ed upon the happiness of the agriculhad ahc understood that the traditional
officers

methods of the hereditary revenue

deprived the

58
State

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

of a large amount of its dues. He, therefore, caused the whole land under the plough to be measured

and portioned into bighds. The holding of every tenant was measured at harvest time and ^th of the gross produce was fixed as the share of the State. The agriculturists

revenue
ence.

were allowed the option of paying the land in cash or in kind according to their conveniindustrious
ryots

The
after.

were

protected

from

obnoxious taxation
looked

and
injury

their interests

were carefully

No

to cultivation

was tolerated

:

Special guards were stationed to see that no damage was done to the growing crops. Agriculture was

encouraged, forests were cleared and opened for cultivation. Granaries were erected and corn stored for the
times
of need.

The

instructions

to

the collectors

of

land

revenue were couched in humanitarian terms and
lenity.

were worked with great
the
cultivators
efficient

Advances were made
distress in

to

to

relieve their

bad davs.

This

system of revenue settlement, based on the
of the land untier
cultivation,

actual

measurement

was

subsequently developed by Akbar the Great and
all its essential features,

has, in

survived in British India under

the

name

of

Even-handed

'Raiyatwari Settlement'. % was administered throughout justice
the length and breadth of the empire.

06*58 and Mir-i-Adls (judges) tried civil suits and criminal cases in the
Dar-ul-'Adalat, or Courts of Justice. They dealt out inflexible justice, so much so that no one could evade law

and escape punishment by reason of his high birth or rank. Punishments awarded were very severe, so severe as 'to

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
set

59

The Fanchdyat System also was in The Hindus had their disputes decided in the vogue. The jurisdiction of these courts of Panchdyats.
an
example'.
arbitration

was

restricted to civil

disputes relating

to

inheritance, succession

and the

like.

Sher Shah organised a most modern police force. He did not make any punitive police out f but converted the of gentlemen, PoUc^lSrce. the the and robbers rebels,

malcontents
peace.

and

the

miscreants
in his

into

custodians

of

He

repressed crimes

ducing the principle of local responsibility
it

kingdom by introand enforcing
of
theft

throughout his dominions.
for

The Muqaddams were
of

responsible

the

detection

cases

and

highway robbery. If they failed to find out the thieves and the robbers, they were forced to make good the losses. Likewise, if a murder occurred within their
jurisdiction

and they failed to produce the murderer, This system of were arrested and put to death. they
'

local
life

responsibility

resulted in the complete security of
travellers
in

and property.

The

without the least anxiety even

and wayfarers slept a desert, and the
for fear

Zamlnddrs themselves kept watch over them The Police Department was of the king*.
assisted

greatly

by a body

of censors of

public morals, called

crimes as adultery and drinking and enforced the observance of religious laws.

Muhtasibs, who

put down such

There

also existed a
service,

regular department of secret

because

espionage

was ab-

Secret Service.

so i ute ly indispensable in that despotic

age.

An

efficient

army

of diligent

spies

was employed

60
in order to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
keep the Emperor in touch with
all

that

occurred in his empire.

Shah abolished many oppressive taxes and took only & J those which he thought System. were legal and less burdensome. So he made a clean sweep of all internal customs and allowed the imposition of excise duties on the frontier

Sher

__ Tariff
_

and

at the places of sale

within the

of the system of taxation and removed burden the reduced commerce, The Jizid was discontent to a considerable extent.

construction

tariff

This reempire. revived trade and

also abolished.

Shah paid great attention to the development of the means of communication and His name is intitransportation. Communication.
Sher
tion
of

mately associated with the construcroads and highways on a large scale. The
of
his
to

longest

roads
the

was

the

one running
this,

from

Sunargaon

Indus.

Besides

there were

other important roads which were so dexterously planted that they linked almost all the strategic cities

many

Of them, three of the empire to the Imperial Capital. deserve specific mention at this place: (1) from Agra to Burhanpur, (2) from Agra via Bianah to the borders
of Marwar,

and

(3)

from Lahore to Multan.

On

both

sides of these

intervals

serais were
of

roads shady trees were planted and at constructed for the comfort and
travellers.

convenience

Each
in
r

of

a well,
after

a

mosque and a garden
officers,

by a set of

viz.,

*a,h

serais had waS looked Imam, a Mu'azzin

the
It

it.

and some watermen, appointed by the

State*

Inside

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
the
serais,

61

separate

Hindus and Muslims.
the

convenience of
the
latter.

accommodation was allotted to Brahmans were employed for the former and Muslims for the

service of

of these serais,

Dwelling upon the importance Mr. Qanungo remarks that they became
a

'the
life

veritable arteries of the empire, diffusing
its

new

hitherto benumbed limbs '. There sprang market towns them and a brisk trade busy up around was the natural consequence.

among

Sher Shah was equally interested in the maintenance
Postal Service.
, .

of a highly *

The

serais,

organised postal service. B r referred to, served as

dak chowkis, and through
remotest
parts of

them the news
were
dispatched

of

the

the empire
serai

to the

two horses were kept to and foot-runners and horsemen service; provide postal were posted along the highways and they carried the imperial firmans^ or dispatches, from place to place.
Emperor.
In every
If there

existed

an excellent

postal system under Sher
sufficiently

Shah,

it

was because he had
communication.

developed the

means

of

Sher Shah
Military Reforms.

introduced several reforms in the army. In the first place, he tried to put an

end

to

^

feudal

system

^
and

endeavoured
himself.

to

bring his soldiers in close contact with

Therefore, he combined in his person the functions of the Commander-in-Chief and the Pay-

Master

General.

He
told

himself

paid

the

soldiers

their officers
officers

and

them

to

obey

their

immediate

not

as their

personal chiefs

but as servants of
a
provincial

the

Emperor.

Previously,

whenever

62

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

gove-nor rebelled against the Sultan, his soldiery sided with him and not with the latter. Sher Shah at once abolished this system and ordered his soldiers to obey the imperial firmans first and those of their immediate
officers

Thus, with one stroke of wisdom the main cause of rebellions and revolts was removed. Secondafter.

ly,

Sher Shah checked fraudulent
Khilji's

Ala-ud-DIn
the service
of

system

of branding

musters by reviving the horses in
rolls

of the State,

and drew up descriptive
the

the

troopers.

The marks on
the hodies of

persons
at

of the

soldiers
in their

and

Oil

their horses

were entered
the time of

descriptive rolls

and compared

inspection.

Soldiers
their

were recruited

himself and
inspection.

salaries

by the Emperor were fixed after personal
in lieu of

The system

of assigning jaglrs

service

was abolished and cash salaries were paid to the rank and file from the State Treasury. Military

were not allowed to stay in one place for more years. During their f marches they were ordered to behave properly and were strictly warned
officers

than

two

against damaging the growing Shah established fortified posts

crops.
in

Finally,

Sher

many

parts of his

kingdom
invasion.

in order

to prevent
result,

As
from

a

the possibility of external India enjoyed complete

immunity
At

foreign

attacks,

and

the recalcitrant

population was kept
his

in check.

accession

Sher Shah
f
.

Currency Reform.

SyStem
control in

the

found the currency COuntr y under his

confusion.

He knew

that

the financial
its

credit

and

stability of a credit upon

its

government depended upon He, therefore, currency.

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
undertook
establishing

63
coinage,

the

task

of

reforming
stability

the
of his

and

the financial
silver

government.
in

He

issued gold,

and copper coins

abundance

and gave them a fixed standard of weight, fineness and execution. The twofold advantage of the reform in the current coins of the country was that prices
were low and trade was brisk.
Sher Shah was a remarkable
S
f

promoter

of

public

UC

welfare.

He encouraged

agriculture,

Welfa re

systematically constructed roads and bridges, laid out beautiful gardens

and terraced-walks, erected
caravan-serais,

aim-houses,

hospitals

and

patronised art

and

literature,

founded

maktabs and madrasahs,
monasteries,
teachers
of free

established

mosques

and

and

granted stipends and scholarships to the the taught, maintained a large number
in

kitchens

short,

he tried to

do

all

that he

could for the

betterment of his subjects. His guiding one should be of principle deprived of State benefactions and that no one his due share

was that no

should have a superfluity of the same.
Sher
A
. .

Shah was a good builder
a

also.

He made
Delhi

Architecture.

magnificent

city J

at
fort

and
while

erected
in the Punjab.

the famous

of Rohtas
built

The mausoleum, which he

he was living and in which he was buried after his \ieath, is one of the splendid monuments in India.

The

palace he constructed in the Fort of Agra has exacted the encomiums of Fergusson, the historian
of Indian Architecture?

who

writes

:

"

Ini

the citadel

of

Agra there stands

or

at least

64
stood

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
when
I

was there

by

Sher Shah, or his son Salim,

a fragment of a palace built which was as exquisite

a piece of decorative art as anything of its class in India. Being one of the first to occupy the ground, this palace was erected on the highest spot within the fort hence
;

the present Government, fancying this a favourable site for the erection of a barrack, pulled it down, and

by a more than usually hideous brick erecThis is now a warehouse, in whitetion of their own. washed ugliness, over the marble palaces of the Moghals
replaced
it

a

fit

standard

of

comparison

of the

tastes of

the

two

races.

accounts

"Judging from the fragment that remains, and the received on the spot, this palace must have
'

gone far to justify the eulogium more than once passed on the works of these Pathans that they built like for the stones seem giants and finished like goldsmiths to have been of enormous size, and the details of
'

:

most exquisite
like

finish.

many

another

has passed away, however, its noble class, building of
It

under
generally

our
spared,

rule.

Mosques we have

and sometimes tombs, because they were unsuited to our economic purposes, and it would
not

answer to

offend

the

religious

feelings

of

the

But when we deposed the kings and appropriated their revenues, there was no one to claim their now useless abodes of splendour. It was consequently found cheaper either to pull them down, or use them as residences or arsenals than to keep them up, so that
natives.

very few
*

now remain for

the adrrfiration of posterity."*
572-73.

Ferguson's Indian and Eastern Architecture, pp.

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL

65

Sher Shah's ideal of kingship was very high ^nd be
it

said
*.

to his credit that
t
*
*.

vShcr

Shah's ideal

of kingship.

s " ort

^

!t -

u He

he

fell little
i

use d to sa y

j

j.

:

T^ "

active."
his

He

behoves the great king to be always himself looked into the minutest details of

government and kept a vigilant watch on his civil and military officers. He spared no pains in advancing
the interests of his subjects.

In his

own words

:

"The
tecting

essence of royal
life

protection consists in proof the

the

and property
all

subjects.

They
and
try

(kings) should
in
all

use the principles of justice and equality
dealings with
classes
of people,
officials

their

should

instruct powerful

so that they

may

their best to refrain

from cruelty and oppression

in their

jurisdiction."

Suffice

it

to say that

secured

the

sincere

he lived up to this ideal and homage and acquiescent good-will

of his subjects,

TT

.

His estimate.

Hindus and Muslims alike. Sher Shah is a most interesting figure in the history oi Muslim India. Commencing career
.

gradually to the
fully for

a private soldier, he raised himself sovereignty of India and ruled successas
five years.

about
never

He was
handle

a

self-made man,
a

one who

hesitated to

the capacity of an emperor.
cessary bloodshed and
3,

He

spade even in never indulged in unne-

staunch

SunnI,

but

was all averse to cruelty. was not intolerant

He was
of

other

creeds.

a bigot without intolerance. He was his Hindu subjects. He exempttowards kindly disposed ed them from the JiziZ and other taxes imposed upon
the Zimtnls (non-Muslims).

He was

He

encouraged education

66

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
in his service

among them and took them
tion.

without

restric-

general, he occupies a high place in history. His military operations against Humayun were directed

As a

with

wonderful

skill

and

strategy.

In the

decade he overthrew the Mughal Empire
the

space of a and revived

Afghan Rule by founding the Sur Dynasty. His successful campaigns against Malwa, Bundelkhand and Rajputana speak much for his military genius and show that he was a great military commander. But
he
will

go deep down

tration

which
else.

vvas
If

anything

more for his adminisju^t, wise and vigorous, than for he knew how to conquer, he also
in history

knew how
able
trative

to consolidate his conquests

by

his indefatig-

industry and sleepless vigilance. By his administhe land revenue reforms, by system which he introduced, and by tho policy of religious toleration

which he always adhered to, he prepared the ground for the greatness of Akbar the Great. In view of his civil and military achievements, one is inclined to agree with one who says that 'if he had b'een spared he would
have established his dynasty, and the great Mughals would not have appeared on the stage of history'. Unfortunately, like Babar, he enjoyed a brief ^eign of about
five

years

;

but

all

that he

short

period,

entitles

accomplished during this him to rank with the greatest

sovereigns of India.

Sher Shah was succeeded by his young

son,

Jalal

Khan,

proclaimed king because of his arrival in the camp in
the

who

was

time on

death

of his

father.

Becoming

king, he

assumed

the title of Sallm'Shah, but

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL
soon he discovered the truth of the
the head that

67
:

maxim " Uneasy wears a crown". The turbulence of

lies

the

unruly Afghans compelled him to have recourse to drastic He issued several regulations and strove measures.

hard

to

strengthen

his

position.

He

arrested

the

against him, and imprisoned them, or put them to death, as he thought fit. Although he
fell far

Amirs, who were

short of his father's standard, he proved himself

Barring out a few disturbances, he a enjoyed peaceful reign of about eight years.
quite a capable king.

The

first

to feel the force of his arn*s

M^wa^and^
the Punjab.

was Shuja'at Malwa, who had Khan, accumulated enormous wealth and had
the governor of
effectively

established

hfc

authority
his
rule.

over

the

country

under

Receiving intelligence of the indentions of the Emperor, he sent submissive and reverential representations and
so secured
his

safety.
less

Azim Humayun, governor
prudent
sent a

of

the

When

Punjab, Salim Shah
personally

was

but

more

arrogant.

summoned him
but

to his court,

he did

not go

substitute to act as his
this

representative.

The King took
army and

as

an

insult

and

an

act

of

orders to

Punjab.
of

the

peremptory head against the Azim anticipated drastic action on the part Emperor and therefore broke into open
his
set out at its

insubordination.

He

issued

lebellion.
flight.

He was

defeated

at

Ambala and put

to

Again he gathered strength and fought an engagement and again he was defeated and put to flight. In Kashmir he was shot dead by certain tribesmen.

The Punjab was

occupied.

68

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Another important event of Salim Shah's reign was

r

~

the
*

rise

of

a

religious

movement.
Alai's

Under
eloquence
created
it

the influence of

Shaikh

pursuasive

roused the religious zeal of the
But,
its

masses and

disturbances in the Punjab.

when

it

assumed threatening

dimensions

and

adherents began to defy the State authorities in the open, the Sultan was compelled to order the immediate
arrest

and execution of the Shaikh.
out and Alai was put to death. the movement author died

were carried
death of
its

The orders With the when it
dwindl-

was quite

in its inception, its followers gradually

ing into insignificance.

Salim Shah adopted a policy of
Government
ot Sriliin

repression in order
*

to establish his authority in his

king.

Shah.

dom.

He

.

.

standing
enforced
his

maintained a well-organised army and through it he
curbed
all

,

..

.

authority.

He

Amirs and took away from them
of

the power 01 his the instruments

war they had in their possession. He deprived them of their elephants and put an end to the practice of

granting money for a certain quota of horses supplied He held the strings of tne State coffers to the State.
tight in his
it

was

own hand and effected economies wherever He maintained an efficient spying possible.

system and kept himself informed about all the events of his reign through it. A new code of regulations was formulated and justice was administered in accordance
with
the
it.

Neither the

Qazls

nor
to

the

Muftis,

only
these

Munsifs,

were

empowered

interpret

regulations. In order to enforce the

new code 'throughout

THE AFGHAN REVIVAL

69

the kingdom special troops were stationed and the King himself endeavoured to see that the machinery of his

government worked well. Salmi Shah died in 1553 A. C.
by
his son, Firoz

He was

followed

Khun,

to the throne.

Muhammad
Shah
:

'Achl

1553-5o.

The latter was, however, killed by hjs und ^ Mubariz who became

K^
'

king

and

assumed

the

title

of

Muhammad

Shah

'Adil.

The new king proved

himself himself

a profligate debauchee. the nickname of 'Adali,
after

He
'

soon earned
;

for

the fooMsh

Tor

immediately
the

his

enthronement,

he

began

to

dissipate

resources of the Imperial Treasury in senseless prodigality. Himself a chartered libertine, he allowed t^e administration

of

his

empire to be controlled by his clever and

capable minister, Hemu, who managed the affairs of But even the State with great vigour and wisdom. then it was impossible to bring under control the
jarring

elements
Shah.

that

had escaped
broke
of

at

the

death

of

Salim
the

Rebellions

out

everywhere

and

entire

machinery

administration

collapsed.

The
and

King's
Delhi,

own

cousin, Ibrahim Khun, seized upon Agra but he was soon beaten by his brother,

Sikandar Sur, whole of the

who succeeded
territory

in securing for himself

the

Ganges.

between the Indus and the was the Such chaotic condition of Hindustan
were
sent
to
to

when

messengers
inviting

the

ex- Emperor

Humayun,
ancestors.

him

occupy the

throne of

his

This brings us to tne main theme of our history. Humayur, our homeless hero, was not idling away his

70
time.

THE MTTGHAL EMPIRE
Though
their

defeated,

deposed and driven out
;

of

India, he
stars in

was not altogether deserted by fortune
courses

the

were

fighting

for

him.

With
India,

the

help

of the

Persian

King,

he

attacked

defeated
of
his

Sultan
lost

Sikandar Sur
After

and
brief

took
reign

possession
of

empire.
fell

a

twelve

months he

from the

stairs

of his library

and died

on January 24, 1556 A.C.

CHAPTER V

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
by
his illustrious son,

(1556-1605 A. C.) Reconquest and Reconstruction

Humayun was
j

succeeded

t

Akbar,

who

unrivalled

stands as a splendid and figure in the annals of
this

for

Indian history. about fifty

He

successfully ruled in

years,

and during

this period

country he made

mighty

human
almost

enduring contributions to the cause of His versatile activity, embracing happiness.

and

every sphere of human endeavour, and manysided achievements assign him a place second to none in the history of India. No other Mughal Emperor
is

extolled so

much by

historians as he for his sagacious

statesmanship, dexterous diplomacy and military skill. In this short space it is impossible to do justice to his reign, which most unmistakably comprises the brightest

epoch

of

Indian

therefore,

bound

The present account is, history. to be imperfect. It does not, however,

omit anything important. For the sake of clarity and convenience the subject is divided into five parts:
(1)

Reconquest
(3)

and

Reconstruction,
(4)

(2)

Territorial

Annexations,

Din-i-Ilahl,

Administration,

and

(3) Literature and Fine Arts.

Akbar was born
Akbar's early against
life.

Amarkot on the 23rd of November, 1542 A. C. His father, Humayun, was out on an expedition
at

Sind

with the Rajah of that place (Amarkot)

72

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
he
received

when
son.

the

news of the

birth

of

his

bags of his escort and found only a bag of musk which he distributed among his friends and prayed that the fame of his son might spread in the world like the smell of that substance. The boy was brought up in the camp by his mother,

He

searched

the saddle

At the tender age of twelve months his father left him in Qandhar at the mercy of his uncle, Kamran. There his education was sadly At the age of five years his vindictive uncle neglected.
exposed him
f

Hamida Bano Begum.

o

a

volley

of

shots fired by his father

when

the

latter

was besieging
a

Kabul.

however,
skill

he had

narrow

escape.

By

Fortunately, the time he

attained the age of twelve, he had acquired considerable in the control of camels, horses and elephants.

He had had enough
and had seen

of experience in the use of arms much of warfare as a companion of his

father in his fugitive life. At the age of thirteen he was called upon to occupy the throne of Hindustan on the

death of his father.

While Akbar was on his way back from the where he had gone with his Punjab, J u accession. His father's faithful friend, Bairam Khan,
.

.

end to the misgovernment of its governor, Abdul Mali, he received at Kalanaur the news of the
to

put an
of

death
rites of

his

father.

After performing the customary

mourning, the coronation ceremony was gone through in a garden on the 14th of February, 1556

A. C.
took

As the new king was only a boy of thirteen, 1 Bairam Khan began to act as regent and formally
charge of
the

Imperial

Government.* Akbar's

JALAL-UP-DIN
younger
in his

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

73

brother, Muhammad Hakim, was confirmed government of Kabul, which, though a dependency of Hindustan, was none the less an independent kingdom.

After his restoration,

Humfiyun
a
i

did not live long to

establish his authority in Hindustan.

The political
condition of India in 1556.

He
son,
to

died only
,

year
r

after,

and

his

,

Akbar,

therefore,

succeeded
In 1556

a troublous inheritance.

A. C. anarchy and confusion reigned supreme in India and famine and pestilence were rampant in the rank

and

file.

The
Delhi

fairest

provinces

of

Northern

India,

including

and Agra,
a
large

were

visited

by

plague,

which carried away
Politically,

the

throne of

number of f he people. Delhi had become a bone of

contention between the Afghans and the Mughals, and the country had been reduced to a mere geographical
expression,

or
of

a

congeries

of

small

states.

The

sovereignty

Sikandar Sur

North-West India was contested by on the one hand, and Muhammad Shah 'Adil on the other. The former had collected a large

arrny in the Punjab and was aspiring for the sovereignty of the whole of Hindustan the latter had retired to the
;

eastern provinces and

influence
chief,

there

;

uas increasing the area of his but his indomitable commander-infor

Hemu, who had earned
distinction

himself

a

unique
as

as

many by successfully fighting from was battles, advancing twenty-two pitched towards his of the master, Agra Chunar, capital with a large army, gathering strength on his march
military

from the enemies of the Mughal cause.

Before Bairam

74

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
to the rescue,

Khan came
Beg,
the

Governor
to

of

r

Agru had fallen and TardI defeated Delhi, had been
After

and

put
coins

flight

the

fall

of

Agra,

Hemu
struck

occupied Delhi,
in

ascended the Mughal Throne,

his

own name,
head

raised

the

Imperial

Canopy

over

his

and

Consumed as Vikramaditya. of conquests, he was equally aflamed with

assumed the title of he was with the ambition
the
idea of

The fact that Humayun acquiring the empire of India. was dead and that a boy of thirteen was on the throne
broadened the horizon of his ambitions.
v

Kabul,

under

Muhammad Hakim,
all

intents

was an independent kingdom to and purposes. Its existence as such was
by
of

threatened

Sulaiman

of

Badakhshan.
its

Bengal
Chiefs.

enjoyed

its

independence
Rajasthan

under

Afghan
they were

The Rajputs
shock

had recovered from the
;

inflicted

on them by Babar

now

in

Malwa ?nd unchallenged possession of their castles. Gujarat had renounced their allegiance to the Central
Government during the
reign of

Muhammad
own
local

Tughluq,
chieftains.

Gondwana

was

ruled

by

its

Orissa was independent. Kashmir, Sind and Balochistan were free from external control. The Deccan Sultanates
of

Ahmednagar,

Bijapur,

Berar were ruled by their daggers drawn with one another.
of

Khandesh and own Sultans, who were at
Golconda,

The Hindu Empire
supreme
in

Vijayanagar

then

towered

wealth,

The Portuguese were powerstrength and civilization. ful in the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf ; they
held the

sway of the western sea-coast and possessed some good sea-ports, including Goa and Diu.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
of

75

Such was the

situation

India
It

ascended the throne.

when Akbar was fortunate

ISt!lSk
porter

Mughal Dynasty that the young Emperor had a powerful supand an excellent general and statesman in Bairam
for
*

eof

he

till

Khan, who served his master and secured he attained the age of discretion.

his position

The

first

important thing that he was required to do as

regent
against

was
the
all

to fight against

Hemu, who was advancing
at the

Mughal Emperor
the officers of the

head of a huge army. Almost

Mughal armv advised the Emperor to retreat to Kabul, but Bairam Khan successfully resisted such a pusillanimous step as would have spoiled
Forthwith he prospects of the Mughal Dynasty. ordered the immediate arrest and execution of TardI
the

Beg on a charge of misconduct enemy, and himself marched out
outset.

in the face of

the

to

oppose Hemu.

Fo-tune favoured the resolute Mughal general from the An advance-guard had already handicapped

Hemu
mean

by capturing the whole park of
merit,

his artillery.

The

two armies, each

commanded by a military genius of no came to severe blows at the memorable

plain of Panipat.

Hemu made

a furious charge of his

wing of the Mughal elephants and soon threw the army into confusion, and there was considerable conleft

sternation

in

the

turned at once in
thick of fight,

Mughal Camp. The tide of favour of the Mughals when,
was
the
hit in his

victory
in

the

Hemu
decided

and rendered unconscious.
his

The
fate

fall

eye with an arrow of the leader from
the
battle.

elephant

of

The

Mughals won the day.

Hemfl, the hero and the hope

76
of

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the

Hindus,

was

taken

prisoner

and

brought

Emperor. Bairam was anxious to see the young emperor slaying a most formidable enemy, but the chivalrous Shahinsktih refused to do so, saying
before the
that
it

was unchivalrous

to slay a
his

fallen

foe.

Thereslew

upon Bairam Khzln took out

own sword and

Hemu. The

victory at Panlpat

the'eatul

removed the most powerful Hemu was opponent of Akbar. His army was defeated and slain.
routed.

ruthlessly

A

large
fell

booty,
into the

including a big treasure and 1,500 elephants,

Delhi and Agra and the hands of the victorious army. were The way was districts occupied. neighbouring
prepared
for

further

conquests.

The

Hindus

to establish theu

own

rule in

hopes of the India were dashed

Mughal arms was established and Akbar was hailed as the Emperor of The Afghan Rule came to an end and the Hindustan. Mughals began to rule in India. These were the net
to the ground.
prestige of the
results of the

The

Second Battle of PanTpat.
after the Battle of Panlpat,

A month

Bairam Khan
attention

and
Submission of Sur

Akbar
the
f

turned

their

towards
thr n6

^^

Sur claimants to the
Bef
re

^'^

CO "'
sent

elusions with

Hemu, Bairam had

against Sikandar Sur, who had retired to the Siwalik Hills and had taken shelter in the

an army

stronghold of Mankot, from where he could easily defy the authority of the Emperor. The fort was

beleaguered and Sikandar

was reduced

to su^.h straits

JALAL-UD-DIN
that he

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
He

77
consented

was compelled

to sue for peace.

to surrender himself if he was decently provided for. The stronghold was occupied and Sikandar was assigned an estate in the east, where he died in 1569 A, C. In

1557 A.
of

C Muhammad Shah

Adall met his death in a

conflict with the king of Bengal.

Thus, within a

brief

span

time, the three acknowledged
rid of,

adversaries

of

Akbar were got
Gwalior
Empire.

on the throne of

and he was now securely seated Delhi. Next year (1558) Ajmer,
were annexed to the

and Jaunpur

Mughal

After these conquests, Bairam Khan turned his serious attention to the internal administration of the
country.

But ere long he carne into conflict with his ambitious and impatient royal ward. The story of his rise and fall is an interesting episode in the early history
of the present reign.

A Turkman
Bairam Khan,
or

by birth and a Shia Muslim by faith, Bairam Khan was one of the most
devoted

Khan Bba.
all

and

faithful

followers

of
his

Humayun.
master

He

had suffered with
life

by him
his

in

and had stood the privations of a fugitive some of his most trying situations. But for

advice
able

and
to

assistance,

Humayun would
His

not have

been

reconquer

India.

Akbar was equally unmixed and

loyalty towards his services to the

was at his instance Mughal cause were invaluable. It chat the Second Battle of Panlpat was fought and a At his accession Akbar cannot be decisive victory won. It was said to have possessed any definite kingdom.
and the surrounding during his regency that Delhi, Agra were occupied, and Ajmer, Gwalior and districts

78

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

It was he, again, who Jaunpur were conquered. removed the rivals of his young master and securely seated him on the throne of India. His ability, age and

experience enabled him to acquire an inestimable influence in the Mughal Empire. He was a shrewd
rigid disciplinarian. his master's youthful friendships and

politician

and a

He was

would not

jealous of tolerate
his

any favours which the
Unfortunately
TT

latter

might bestow upon

servants without his consultation.

His

,

,,

fall.

enongh, Bairam Khan had made many enemies at the Court by J his
.

,

haughty
behaviour.

demeanour

and

arrogant
;

Hamlda Bano Bagum,
the

the Queen-mother
;

Maham
Delhi

foster-brother
all

Ankah, and
;

foster-mother

Adham
the

Shahab-ud-Dln,

Khan, Governor of
their

a

these disliked

him

for

reasons of

own.

They availed themselves of every occasion to foment the feelings of irritation between the Emperor and the At last a trifling incident brought about a Protector.
serious quarrel between

the

two.

Once,
control.

when Akbar
two
broke

was amusing himself with an
got out of

elephant-fight, the

contesting animals They the Bairam, Kuan's enclosure, stampeded camp through In spite of Akbar's close by, and put his life in danger.

strong

protestations

that

the

occurrence

was purely
immediately

accidental, the

Khan

lost his

temper

and

ordered

execution of an innocent personal servant At this Akbar's indignation knew no of His Majesty.
the

bounds.

For some time there was a

feeling of coldness

between the
reconciliation

Emperor and his Atallq (tutor), but a was effected when the former soothed the

JALAL-UD-DIN
ruffled

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
htter

79

feelings

of

the

of Salima Sultana, the niece of

by giving him the hand Humayun. But before

long Bairam executed another courtier, Pir Muhammad, for an alleged offence. By such actions as these he not

only strained his relations with the Emperor but also The earned for himself a host of enemies at the Court.

appointment of
(Shias) to

his

own

kith

and

kin

and

co-religionists

high

offices

in the State grossly offended the

Sunnl Orthodoxy. His punishment of the Emperor's servants and courtiers for the most trivial misconduct had already estranged him to the Emperor but when that his regent was harbouring learnt latter the
;

plans of placing Kamran's son, Abul yasim, on the The breakingthrone, the tension took a serious turn. Now a conspiracy was point had already reached.

organised

against

him and

at the instance of

Hamida

Ankah, Begum, Shahab-ud-DIn, the Emperor went to
pretext
of

Bano

Maham
in

Adham Khan and
Bianah, on the
the
matter.
to Delhi to see

hunting,

order

to discuss

There
his

was arranged that he should go mother, who was given out to be ill.
it

While he was

with

his

mother,
of

Maham Ankah
Khan.
of
his

intrigue
feelings

Bairam against the Emperor,
tutelage

employed all arts of She fomented the
already smarting
rather

who was

under the galling
regent.

domineering

Soon
to

after his return

from Delhi, Akbar issued
'

the

following

declaration

:

henceforth

govern our

being our intention people by our judgment, let
It
all

our well-wisher withdraw from

worldly

attachments
life in
1

and

retire to

Mecca
from

to pass the rest of his

prayer,

far-removed

the toils

of

public

life.

Bairam

80

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
what was passing behind the that he had gone too far, he sent Realising
discerned
-

Khan soon
screen.

two trusty officers to the Court with assurances of unabated and offered loyalty towards the throne and Akbar supplication humility.' imprisoned the
*

',

*

messengers and sent a certain Pir Muhammad Khan, once a subordinate of the Khan, at the instigation of the Court Party, in order to hasten his departure to Mecca.

Bairam Khan's pride was touched
the

to the quick,

and

in

outburst

of

his

wrath,
the

he

broke

into

open

rebellion.

He
him

was, however,
before
in

defeated,

taken prisoner

and

brought

Emperor,

who

graciously

pardoned

view of

his past services.

When

he

reached Lahore, where the Emperor was holding his Court, he was greatly impressed by the reception He threw himself at his sovereign's accorded to him.
feet

and burst into tears. The forgiving King at once raised him up and made him take his former place on the right hand side at the head of the grandees of the
Empire.

Then His Majesty
robe
:

invested

him

with

a

magnificent
alternatives

of
If

honour

and offered

him

three

(1)

would be
of the

treated with profound
;

he preferred to remain at Court, he honour as the benefactor

(2) If he chose to remain in Royal House be he would office, given the governorship of one of the Imperial provinces, and (3) If he wished to retire to a

he would be honourably provided for and comfortably escorted to on his pilgrimage to Mecca He replied that, having once lost his master's confidence,
religious
life,

he was

and

any more added that the clemency of the Padshah was
not
willing
to continue in his service

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

81

enough, and his forgiveness was more than a regard " for his former services. Let me, therefore, turn my " to another and be thoughts from this world," he said,
permitted
to

proceed

to

the

Holy

Shrine."

The

Padshah approved
suitable escort
his

of his decision, provided

him with a

maintenance.
'

and assigned him a liberal pension for But he was not destined to reach

the

Holy Shrine*.

He was murdered on
This

his

way by

a

private

enemy

at Patan.

took place in January

1561 A. C.

Bairam Khan's dismissal cleared the way for the Court Party, the most prominent 'Petticoat
Government':
1560-64 A. C.

member

whom
, '

which was Mahr.m Ankah, v u j historians have described as
of
u*
,

the

'prime confidante of the Ring in all the affairs of the State. While dwelling upon the dismissal of Bairam

Khan, Dr. Smith remarks that the Emperor shook off the tutelage of the Khan-i-Khanan only to bring himself under the monstrous regiment of unscrupulous women ',
'

and further observes that the most unscrupulous of them was Maham Ankah, who conferred high offices upon her
worthless favourites.
in

The Doctor
all

is

not at

all justified

his

remarks.

His views are contradicted by
at

facts.

Akbar was not

Had

that been the case,

dominated by Maham Ankah. the fate of Bairam Khan, after
terrible
;

his fall,

would have been
at

for

he had no greater

enemy

the

Court than that women.

contrary to her wishes that the
treated after his rebellion.

Khan
if

It was quite so was honourably

Again,

Akbar had
is

really

been undei the

thumb

of

Maham

Ankah, as he

alleged

82
to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
have been,
first

the

Adham Khan, her son, would have been man to receive a high title or a big jagir. But we know for certain that he was not entrusted with any
once

Doubtless, he was responsible post in the State. sent against Malwa at the head of an army, but

when

the spoils of war after success, marched against him in person and chastisEmperor ed him for his brazen insolence. Afterwards, when he murdsred Shams-ud-Dln Atka Khan, on whom the

he

misappropriated

the

Emperor wished
against

to
of

bestow the
his

office of

Vakil, quite

the

will

foster-mother, he was twice
fort,

thrown down
result that his

from

the ramparts of his
therefore, the

with the
his
life

brains were

knocked out and

came to an end. If, Emperor had been under the influence of Maham Ankah, the punishment awarded to Adham Khan must have been much milder.
That was, however, not
according to his advice of the Court

Akbar acted independently own judgment, though he sought the
so.

Party in certain affairs of the kingdom and held his foster-mother in high esteem.

By

the year 1564 A.C. Akbar had fully establishS

n

A. c!

ed his authority; he had taken the reins of administration in his own
hands, had overcome his rivals and had himself on the throne of Delhi. He had

firmly

seated
off

the tutelage of Bairam Khan and the influence of the Court Party and had entered upon his personal As a man of strong imperial instinct, government.

shaken

he aspired to become the spyereign-ruler of India. Before he entered upon a career of conquest, he was
called

upon

to suppress a series of rebellions

and

revolts.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
officers

83
xisen
in

One

of the

Uzbeg

of
of

Akbar had

to the position

Kban Zaman

KhanZamln.

~

appreciation of his valuable
at the Battle of Panlpat

services

U556

A. C.).

In 1560 A. C. the Afghans of Bengal, headed by Sher

attempt to recover Delhi.

'Adali, made an were They utterly defeated by Khan Zaman, who, however, refused to send to His

Shah

II,

son of

Muhammad

Shah

the elephants, included in the spoils of war. The Emperor took the field against him in person and advanced towards Jaunpur. When the Kh?n heard of the

Majesty

Emperor's advance, he marched out to pay homage to His Majesty, taking with him not only the elephants
but the rest of the booty as well as other propitiatory With his usual generosity, the Emperor offerings.
passed over his act of insubordination and confirmed

him

government of Jaunpur shortly afterwards. Adham Khan was employed by Akbar against Baz Bahadur of Malwa. He won a decisive
in the
f

AdhamKha n.

victory near Sarangpur over his enemy, but followed the example of Khan

Zaman by
quest.

rebelling
this

As

if

and retaining the spoils of the conwas not enough, he went a step further

:

Elated by his success, he

made

a lavish distribution of

the booty in order to increase his popularity, retaining, however, for himself the royal ensigns and a major part of the treasure, which ought to have been sent to the

Emperor as a matter of course. Akbar instantly marched into Malwa at the head of the Imperial army, took Adham Khan by surprise before he could break into open rebellion, captured the booty and removed him

84

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
After his misconduct

from the government of Malwa
in

at

the expedition against Malwa, Adham Khan was kept the Imperial Court, where he grew jealous of the promotion of Shams-ud-Dln to the position of Vakil, i.e.,
Minister.

Smarting under the loss of his government of Malwa, he entered, one night, in the Diwan-i-KJ}as with some of his retainers and stabbed

Prime

the
1

Vakil

to

death.

The

noise

that

followed

the

mi Her, aroused the Emperor from his sleep, brought him out of his private apartment and attracted him to
the scene of the occurrence.

Finding

his minister dead,
fell

the

Emperor

dealt such a blow to the traitor that he

senseless to the ground.

He was

twice thrown

down
fort

from the terraced-roof of the royal palace inside the and killed. This took place in 1562 A. C.

Adham Khan was
in

superseded by Pir Muhammad the government of Malwa. But

Abdullah Khan.
the

^

r

was more a man

f

letters

than

of war.

His barbarous treatment of
thus

people

of the province strengthened the cause of

Baz Bahadur,

who was
his

enabled

to

expel

the

dominions with the help of the Mughals Pir Muhammad .was drowned Sultan of Kbandesh.
out of
while his
defeated
troops

were

crossing

the

river

Narbada.

Akbar dispatched another army under the
of one Abdullah

command
defeat on

Khan who

inflicted

a severe

Baz Bahadur and recaptured Malwa. After some futile efforts to recover his kingdom, Baz Bahadur
took
service

under

the

Mughal

Emperor.

The

government Khan, who soon followed the example of

of the province

wa made

over to Abdullah
his predecessor

JALAL-UD-DIN
by an attempt
at

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

85

rebellion.

him and,

after

some

Akbar marched against fighting, compelled him to take
Gujarat,
,

refuge in Gujarat.

Hotly chased
Revolts of Uzbeg Chiefs- 1565-1567
.

into

the
,

rebellious

chief

(Abdullah)
,

ultimately

made
.

his
,
,

way
,

in *

Jaunpur, where he joined hands with the traitor, Khan Zaman, and

T

.

Asaf Khan, and made
the

common cause with them against Mughal Emperor. An insurrection of threatc:;In &
A. C.

dimensions broke out in Jaunpur in 1565
lasted
till

and

1567 A. C.

It

was somjthing

like a general

rising of the

Uzbeg
his

Chiefs, the hereditary enemies of the

family of Babar,
of

who

did not like the Persianised ways

Akbar and
in

sympathetic

attitude

towards

his

Persian officers, so
against him

much so that they now intrigued favour of Kamran's son, Abul Qasim. The

Imperial army sent against Khan Zaman was defeated in 156j A. C. Thereupon the Emperor himself advanced

towards the insurgent chiefs, who at once made a show of submission, but never submitted. A little afterwards
they were joined by the disaffected Afghans and the discontented Musalmans of the eastern provinces. Before Akbar could find time to suppress the rebellion
of the

he was called upon to protect the was which simultaneously invaded by Mirza Punjab, Muhammad Hakim of Kabul. At this critical juncture
Uzbegs,
he displayed marvellous courage, resourcefulness and He lost no time in marching to the presence of mind. the allies of his brother and putting Punjab, dispersing

them

to

flight.

The

Mirza

returned

to

Kabul

discomfited

After restoring internal tranquillity in the

86

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Punjab, the Emperor again turned his attention to the insubordinate Uzbegs. Post-haste he marched into the

and took them by surprise at Mankuwal (ten miles from Allahabad). Khan Zaman was killed in the battle which ended disastrously for the His Uzbegs.
east

accomplices were severely punished while Abul Qasim was executed in the fort of Gwalior. Thus, the back of
the

Uzbeg

rising
till

was broken, though

it

was not

finally

"nnressed

1573 A. C.
head-strong

Another instance of insubordinate and
of^cers,

who
.

tried to take

law

in their

Monstrous act
of

own hands and
for their

Khwajah

Mu'azzam.

escape punishment misconduct owing to their
.

,

.

Emperor, was that
of the
1

friendship with or influence over the of Khwajah Mu'azzam, a half-brother
'

dowager-queen, Hamida Bano Begum. This half insane monster took his wife to his country-seat

and stabbed her to death. This tragic accident took At the request of the deceased's place in 1564 A. C.
mother, Emperor Akbar hurried to the scene of the occurrence, seized the murderer, Mu'azzam, and his
accomplices, and threw Gwalior.

them

into the State Prison

of

Akbar did not take long
Akbar and
the Rajputs.
.

to

realize that

there

was

something grievously wrong with the P i TT soon He policy of his predecessors.
discovered
that
if

he

establish his empire he
*

must broad-base

his rule

wanted to on the

caste or ruled

acquiescent good- will of his subjects, irrespective of their creed. Of all the dynasties that had yet

m

India, that of

Tamerlane was the most insecure

JALAL-UD-DIN
in its foundation.
'

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
the Hindus

87

This sense of insecurity led him to
of
in

secure the

sympathies
of the

general and

the

Rajputs born

in particular.

military class

The latter constituted the Hindu community. They were
India

the

war-lords
to

of

and
of

their support

was

indispensable

the

cause

the

new

dynasty.

Accordingly, Akbarset himself to the task of reconciling

Rajputs to the ideas of the Mughal Rule. The following were the methods he adopted (1) With the true acumen and insight of a statesman
the
:

he entered into matrimonial alliances
Matrimonial
alliances.

Wlt " t" e Rajputs.

...

.,_

--

-a.

TU The

c.

*.

first

-o--

-.

Rajput

Rajah to give him his daughter in marriage was Bharmal Kachhwaha of Amber. This
marriage secured
'

support of a brave It symbolised, Rajput family. says Dr. Beni Prasad, the dawn of a new era in Indian politics, it gave the
the

powerful

'

'

country a line
of the

of remarkable

four generations of
greatest

Mughal

sovereigns ; it secured to emperor the services of some

f cap ains and diplomats that mediaeval India produced'. This marriage was solemnised in 1562 A. C. In 1570 the Emperor married princesses

from the Rajput States of Jaisalmir and Bikaner. In 1584 A. C, Prince Salim (Jahanglr) was married to the
daughter of Rajah Bhagwan Das. (2) Towering above the trammels of religion and the
petty
prejudices
of

the Age, Akbar

appreciated and rewarded the services

and other Hindus,

of his

Hindu

subjects, particularly the

Rajputs.
posts of power

He

granted

them

and

responsibility,

both

in the civil

high and

88
military

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
departments.

He

took them

into

his

confi-

dence and admitted

them to every Todar Mai, Rajah Bharmal, Rajah Bhagwan Rajah Das and Rajah Man Singh were some of those who
degree of power.

enjoyed high commands in the army. Nearly half of Akbar's soldiers and many of his generals were Hindus.
(3)

The

basic principle of Akbar's policy

was

toleration.

To
liberty of

all

his subjects

he granted

the

freedom of worship and the
conscience.
.

liberty of

He

conscience.

abolished the Jizia,
,

levied
lims),

upon the Ziwwts (non-Mus-

He

the taxes imposed upon Hindu pilgrims. treated his Hindu subjects as well as his Muslim

and

all

'

subjects

;

rather,

with

a

leaning

in

favour

of

the

former

'.

To
their

please

his

Hindu
practices,

subjects,

he often
freely with

adopted

customs

and

mixed

them, and seemingly shared their
(4)

beliefs.

Akbar took a

lively interest in the welfare of his

Hindu
Reforms.
cate the

subjects.

He

tried to eradi-

Hindu
policy
of

ev ^ s that had honeycombed While following the society.
reconciliation,

toleration

and

he

did

not

hesitate to

remove the abuses

of Hindu* society.

He

forbade child-marriage, discouraged Sati* and encourag-

ed widow-remarriage.
against

Besides, he

practically

preached
love
of
all his

caste-restrictions

and

inculcated

humanity.
*

He

encouraged fellow-feeling among

their

rite of burning widows alive with the dead bodies of husbands, in vogue among t he Hindus in ancient and madiaeval India.

The

:

JALAL-UD-DIN
subjects

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

89

and imparted education to all and sundry. During his reign the Hindus studied side by side with the Muslims without any restrictions of rank, race or
religion.

By such methods as enumerated above, Akbar won over the Rajput element to his
Effects of the

above methods.
tion

side

Three

benefits

accrued

from

the policy of toleration and reconcilia-

adopted by
;

him:
the
as

(1)

The Rajput danger was
reconciled,
their

over

(2)

when
was and

Rajputs were
a
officers

support

used

counterpoise
;

against

the
their

Uzbegs

insubordinate

and

(3)

loyalty served as a strong safeguard against the opposition of the Afghans who had been freshly dethroned.

For the
operation

Emperor
of

it

was wise to

enlist

the

active co-

universally

the Rajputs whoi.e martial qualities were For the Rajpilts, on the other admired.
to

hand,

it

was equally wise
their

appreciated

merits,

submit to a sovereign who rewarded their services, res-

pected their feelings and tolerated their faith.
After erecting the famous Ibadat-Khana at Fathpur Slkrl for the meetings of the intele

lectuals

of his

reign,

Akbar sent a
to

formal

letter of

invitation

the

Goa, requesting them to send to bis court some of their most learned and well-qualified Christian theologians to enlighten him on the philosoPortuguese authorities at
phical
basis

of Christianity.

The hopes

of the Portu-

guese ran high at the prospect of winning so desirable a convert as the Emperor of India.

90

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
In 1580 A. C.,

a year

after

the
.

invitation,

they

_. ... First Mission.
.

.

with the Imperial complied request r r ^ t and sent a mission under Father

Rudolf

whom

Acquaviva and were renowned

Father Monserrat,
for
their

both
to

of

devotion

the

Akbar accorded the missionaries a most He treated them with great respect hearty welcome. and permitted them to build a chapel at Agra. He
Christian faith.

evinced a keen

interest in the

sacred pictures of Christ
his son,

ana
their

Mary.
tuition

He
in

even
order

placed
tc
try

Sallm,

under
but

the

effect of

Christian
;

teachings on

the

unbiassed

mind

of the

young

nothing could shake his belief in his own faith. The Fathers were grievously disappointed in their expectations ; for indeed the Emperor was a hard nut to crack.
After a stay of

three

the

first

mission
its

years at the Mughal Court, returned in 1583 A. C., without
i.e.,

achieving

object,

without converting Akbar to

Christianity.

The second
***. Second Mission.
.

mission, sent from

Goa, arrived
1

at the

Court Mughal ~T
convert

in

590 A. C.
.

It

too did
;

not fare better
for
it

than
to

its

predecessor

failed

to

Akbar

Christianity.

The

failure of this mission

mind was most

convinced the Jesuits that Akbar's inscrutable, though he still remained

most favourably disposed towards them and loved to have some of them with him. It remained at the Mughal
Court for three years

(1590-1593
first.

A.C.)

and then

returned, as unsuccessful as the

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
at

91

The

third

mission arrived
Imperial

Third Mission.

Court

Lahore, where the then resided, and it

was extended a rousing reception. It fared better than the first two inasmuch as it was allowed to build its chapels in Lahore and Agra and to

make

converts

if

it

could.

Besides,

it

secured

many
less,

valuable trading

facilities

and

became,

more or

a

permanent

institution in the

Mughal Empire.
at first

To

the Portuguese
bitter

Akbar was

an encourage-

Akbar's object.

ment, then an enigma,

and

finally a

disappointment. Why ? because his object in inviting the Portuguese missionaries to his Court and showing profound veneration for the

Gospel was
to befriend

political

rather than

religious.

He wished
possessed
a
assistance

the Portuguese at
of artillery,

Goa,

who

large park against the stronghold of Aslrgarh as well as against his own son, Salim, who had rebelled against him. Akbar was more a politician and a statesman than a religious

and

to

secure

their

Behind all his acts there propagandist or a missionary. were always some ulterior political motives

CHAPTER

VI

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

(CONTINUED)
Territorial Annexations

(Conquests)

The
T

experience of

the
to

past
his

coming Akbar to the dangers and difficulties that he would have had to face if India had continued
J

and the events daily notice alike awoke
.

Introductory.

to be a congeries
pression.

of small states

or a geographical ex-

He
enjoy

felt

the

necessity for a
of

paramount power
provinces
if

at the centre

to control the outlying

India

was

to

the

blessings

eternal

peace.

The

unification of India, therefore, presupposed the conquest of all those
parts of India over

which the Mughals had

no

control.

After the Battle
Early conquests.

Panlpat occupied Delhi
the
V>

of

U556
and
/

A.C.)

Akbar
t

Protectorate of

Agra. During TT-I_ Bairam Khan he

^

Chunar and Gwalior, Jaunpur, conquered Ajmer, 1 564 A. he had C. the Mirtha firmly seated year By
himself on the throne of
instinct,

Delhi.
to

As a man
himself

he now

aspired

make

of imperial the ruler of

the

Accordingly, he buckled himself to the task of reducing the whole of India to his

whole of

Hindustan.

own

sway.

He embarked upon
in

a

career

which was crowned
Aslrgarh.

1601

A. C.

of conquest, the by capture of

JALAL-UD-D1N
(1)

MUHAMMAD AKBAK
army

93
against

In 1564 A. C. ht dispatched an

Oondwaiia.

the Rajput State of

^ Central Provinces

Gondwana in the under the command
Durga-

of Asaf K]]an, the governor of Kara-Manikpur.
vati,

who

acted

as regent for her

defended

her small

kingdom and
army.
futile,

young son, gallantly offered a stout resis-

tance to the

Imperial

further resistance

was

Finding, however, that she stabbed herself to death

on the
dued.

battle-field.

Gondwana was overrun and

sub-

The

royal treasure

was plundered and immense
Bir Narayan, the

booty was obtained by the invaders.

minor

Rajah, resumed

the fight

and perished on the

field of battle after

a desperate defence of the reputation
at stake.

of his house
(2)

which was

By

the end of the year 1566 A. C. Akbar had broken the back of almost all his

formidable foes.
self free to

He now

found him-

had been

campaign against Rajputana, which postponed owing to the Uzbeg Revolt and
renew
his

Akbar, who wanted to rule over a united and peaceful India, could not brook the existence of such strong forts on the
other rebellions.

An

ambitious

king

like

borders

of

frs

empire

as

Chittor and Ranthambhor.

Rana

Rajput chivalry was dead. His son, Udai Singh, was now the premier prince of Rajasthan. Udai utterly lacked the qualities that had
Sangha, the
flower of
his father.

characterised

unworthy scion
Colonel James
for

proved to be the most of the famous house of Bapa Rawal.
justly

He

Tod
the

remarks

' :

Well had

it

been

poniard fulfilled his intention ; and had the annals never recorded the name of Udai Singh

Mewar had

94
in the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
'

It was, therefore, high catalogue of her princes time for the Mughal Emperor to resume his campaign

against

Rajputana.

He

did

not,

perhaps,

forget that

Rana had given shelter and even pecuniary help to Baz Bahadur of Malwa after his defeat at the hands of the imperialists. The Ranas of Chittor were very proud of their noble ancestry. They had refused to enter into matrimonial alliances with the Emperor and had all
the

An attack on Chittor was, along defied his authority. In 1566 A. C. Akbar a conclusion. therefore, foregone
took the
field in

of an efficient army.
to the inaccessiole

person against Udai Singh at the head At his approach, the Rana retired

mountainous country
garrison of

in

order to save

his person,

leaving a
in

eight thousand brave

Rajput

soldiers

charge of the

command
five

of

Jayamal

stronghold under the and Patta. In October, 1567
invested with the help of
to

A. C. the famous fortress was

thousand craftsmen
the
walls

skilled in engineering operations

by which

were

be

undermined.

The

advantage Rajputs, defended themselves with great courage, but they could not check the progress of the siege which was conducted
in the

who had

the decided

of position,

most

scientific

manner then known.
were

Two
and
the

sabats,
it

or

covered

planned to
too soon

approaches, blow up the stronghold

made

was
aid of

with

gunpowder. During the operations the powder exploded and killed no less than five hundred of the
bastion.

and many more of the besieged, crowded on the The Emperor ordered the construction of new mines and continued the siege with renewed energy.
besiegers

By February, 1568

A. C. everything was ready and a

JALAL-UD-DIN
furious

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
/

95
night

attack

was

made- on the

Rajputs.

One

the

Emperor chanced to se^ Jayamal while the latter was directing the repair of one of the breaches made by
the besiegers and shot him through his head. As usual, the fall of the commander decided the fate of the
garrison.

As Akbar advanced
of

to the breaches,

he found
perform

them undefended.
the
rite

The Rajputs had
Wishing
to

retired to

Jauhar.*

spare

their lives,

Akbar summoned them to surrender. Committing their wives and children to the flames, they came out "ana fought and fell on the field of battle. Some of them cut their way through and others saved themselves and their families by binding their own women and
'

children as prisoners, and, seizing a favourable opportunity, marched quietly through the cordon of besiegers
as
if

they

were a detachment of Akbar's
their captives to

Rajput

allies

conducting

the rear

'.

It

appears that

the Rajputs resorted
the

to this ruse to

save their families

from death, availing themselves of the knowledge that

Emperor had abolished the
of

practice of enslaving the

prisoners

war,

otherwise
of

tolerated the

humiliation

would not have allowing their wives and
they*

daughters to fall into the

hands of the Mughals.

Akbar

returned to his capital, bringing with him this time as trophy a pair of wooden gates instead of a beautiful bride.
*

sacred their

When defeated and driven to despair, the Rajputs maswomen in order to prevent their falling into the

hands of their victors and plunged themselves in the field with swords in their hands, fought their foes without fear and fell fighting on the field and dhd to a man. Sometimes their women willingly perished in the flames kindled by their own hands. This

was known as Jauhar.

96

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
fall

famous

folio we J by the capture of the two Ranthambhor and Kalinjar. A little after the conquest of Chittor, Akbar sent an army under efficient generals for the reduction of Ranthambhor in

The

of Chittor

was

fortresses of

Rajasthan and himself appeared at the scene of action in February, 1569 A. Taking his position on the top of a hill close to the almost impregnable fortress, he

C

commenced bombardment and
Rajah, Surjana Hara, to
to sue for peace.

reduced

such

straits that

the Rajput he was forced

He

the

Emperor who
sent

conferred
to

sent his sons, Bhoja and Duda, to robes of honour on them
their

and

them back

father.

The Rajah
magnanimity

was so much
the

impressed

by

this act of

that he expressed his willingness to

Emperor Akbar. His wish At first he was made a Qildddr at Garhkantak, and a little later he was appointed governor of
Benares and Chunar.
Before advancing
detailed

serve His Majesty, was complied with.

against Ran-

thambhor, Akbar had

an

army under the

command

Majnun Khan Kakshak against Kalinjar. Rajah Ram Chandra had already received the news of the fall of the two famous fortresses of Rajasthan. He submitted in 1569 A. C. and surrendered his
of
resistance. He stronghold to the imperial army without was granted zjagir near Allahabad, and Kalinjar was

placed in

charge of

mander

of the

Majnun Khan, the valiant comMughal army. Ram Chandra's example
other

was followed by many
service.

Rajput

princes,

who

surrendered their states to the

Emperor and joined his But Udai Singh was ^ecure in his mountain fortresses, whither he had retired at the approach of

JALAL-UD-DIN
Akbar
at Chittor.
it

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
built a

97
city

There he had
after his

new

and

named
1572

A. C. and

Udaipur was

own name.
by
his

He
son,

died in

succeeded
destined

Rana
deter-

Pratap Singh,

who was

to be a

most

mined enemy of Islam and an avowed champion of Hinduism. He is said to have taken a vow to vindicate
and to expel the Musalmans from India. Although his resources, as compared to those of the Mughal Emperor, were absolutely insignifithe honour of his house

cant and

his

chances
*

of

success

were few and
principles
to

rar

between, yet he
those

was fighting
'.

for his

and

who

fight

for a principle

do not stop

measure

the chances of success or failure

This bravest of the

brave Rajputs plunged himself into a life-long struggle to retrieve the sinking fortunes of his famous house and continued an unbalanced war till he recovered a
considerable
part
of

the lost territory of Mewar.

No

excuse

for

a

war against him was needed.

Since he

refused to submit to Akbar, his destruction was, there-

determined upon. Rajah Man Singh, assisted by Asaf Khan II, undertook an expedition against the
fore,

Rana

at the

head of a large army.

He

attacked

the

Gogunda in the Iravallies, but Pratab Singh was guarding the pass of Haldlghat leading to Gogunda. At the approach of the imperial army, a fierce hand to hand fight began and ended in victory for Akbar. The
fortress of

Rana

received

a

serious

wound and

retired

to

the

For some time he was hardpressed by the and was compelled to live in the distant Mughals But in 1578 A. C. he was again in the hilly fortresses.
mountains.
field

though

only

to

lose

Gondwana and Udaipur.

98

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
almost
all

Afterwards he was able to recover
except, Chittor,
of the

of

Mewar,
absence

Ajmer and Mandalgarh, whose presence at Lahore was highly Emperor Rana necessary till the danger from Turan was over. of C. the whole in died 1597 A. after filling Pratap The danger from the India with his undying fame.
in the

North-West Frontier being over,
son, Salim, against
of

Emperor sent his Amar Singh, the son and successor
the

Rana

Pratap.

Realising the impossibility of success

in a

mountain warfare against an indomitable race, the Prince retreated to Fathpur and thence to Allahabad, leaving Amar Singh secure in his possessions to the end

of his father's reign.

campaign against Rana was humbled and the famous

The net result Mewar was that

of the

the

pride

protracted of the

fortresses of Chittor

and Ranthambhor were taken, Kalinjar and Ajmer were occupied and Rajputana was constituted into a separate
province of the

Rajputs on

his side,

Mughal Empire. With most of the Akbar could now freely indulge in

his ambitious projects in other regions,
(3)
.

It will

be Remembered that Gujarat was conquered and occupied by Emperor Humayun

though
therefore

wished

only to reclaim it

Akbar temporarily. as a lost province of

the

Mughal Empire. Even in his own reign it had become a place of retreat for insurgent officers and The Mirzas, the Uzbegs and the refractory chiefs.

had taken refuge there. It was there that a serious insurrection had occurred. Above all, the wealth and plenty of the place, its flourishing trade and maritime commerce had a lure that was thriving
royal cousins

JALAL-UD-DIN
irresistible.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

99

The time was highly favourable for the Mughal Emperor to recover what was once a province of

his father's empire.

For anarchy and confusion reigned supreme in Gujarat owing to the struggle between Muzaffar Shah II and the Mirzas who had established
in the reign of

themselves there

Humayun. The nominal

king, Muzaffar Shah, was a mere puppet in the hands of this faction or that. Moreover, Akbar received an invitation from Itimad Khan, the minister of Muzaffar Shah,

requesting
it

him

to relieve the fair province of the chaos

was

in.

Shah, who

Forthwith, he marched against Muzaffar concealed himself in a corn field when he
arrival

heard of the

of

the

Emperor
the
its

In

his

capital,

Ahmadabad.
chiefs

After

receiving

submission of
capital

the
his

of Gujarat

and putting

under

foster-brother,
laid

siege to

Kban-i-Azam Mirza Aziz Koka, Akbar Surat which surrendered soon afterwards.

The Emperor, who had never seen a sea, made an excursion to Cambay and enjoyed a short sail on the ocean. He also made acquaintance with the Portuguese
there. After introducing necessary administrative reforms,

Akbar returned

to

Fathpur

Slkrl.

As soon as he turned
Post-

his back, the Mirzas

broke into a serious revolt.

haste he marched again against Gujarat and, covering six hundred miles in nine days, he reached Ahmadabad
'a marvellous
feat of

physical endurance*.

Taking
so

the rebels by

surprise,

he

inflicted a

crushing defeat

upon them.
rebellions

The

Mirzas,

who had headed
were

many

against
C.).

(1573 A.

Emperor, finally crushed Order was soon restored and fortune

the

again began to smile over Gujarat.

Rajah

Todar Mai

100

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

played a conspicuous part in restoring peace and plenty
to this province

by

his indefatigable efforts

and industry.

The conquest

of

Gujarat
it

marks a new
After
to
its

history of Akbar's reign.

epoch in the annexation to the

Mughal Empire,
bounds.
a
vastly
It

began
to

prosper

by

leaps

and
at

brought

the

Imperial

Exchequer
estimated

increased

income,

roughly

Rs. 50,00,000 annually.
first

The Emperor

was

for

the

time brought into personal contact with the Portuguese, whose dealings with him had important political

effects

on the history of the period.

Finally, the con-

for further conquests. quest of Gujarat prepared the way It was used as a jumping-off point for the invasion of It opened the way into the the southern kingdoms.

Deccan and
(4)

also accelerated the conquest of Bengal.

Sulaiman Kara-am, who had founded an independent kingdom of Bengal in 1564 A.C.,
'

6nga

was wise

enough

to

Akbar as his suzerain. On his death in he was succeeded by his headstroiig son, Daud.
accession, the
decessor.

acknowledge 1572 A. C.,

At

his

new king
read the

reversed the policy of his pre-

He

Khutbd and struck coins

in his

own name and openly defied the authority of the Emperor. The conquest of Gujarat had extended the Empire of
Akbar
in

the west
that the

right

up

to

the

sea.

It

was but
desire to

natural

ambitious

Emperor would

Only a pretext acquire a similar frontier in the east. was enough to enable him to achieve his object. He
found one when Daud attacked and occupied the fort of Zamania. Akbar himsejr marched against him

and drove

him from Patna and

Hajipur.

He was

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

101

defeated at Tukarai in Orissa and was compelled to submit to the Emperor and pay him tribute. Bengal was annexed to the Mughal Empire and Munim Khan

was made
his

its

governor.

Munim
to

died in 1575 A. C.
his

and

death

enabled

Daud

recover

lost territory.

Akbar could not bear such an audacity. At once he ordered his army to march against him under the

command

and taken prisoner
u _i The Qaqshal
T*.

Again he was defeated Rajmahal (1576 A. C.) In connection with the conquest of Bengal a
of a capable general.
at

~

reference

must bt made
Q{
its

to the rebellion

Rebellion in Bengal.

which broke out
causes were

in tha* province after

governor>

Kh

Jahan.

Its

:

(1)

Muzaffar Khan Turbati,

who

was appointed

was 'harsh in He was disliked by the people, specially the Qaqshals, for the new methods of assessment and the new regulations regarding the confiscation

governor after Khan-i-Jahan, his measures and offensive in his speech*.

of

unauthorised hold-

His harsh policy and its rigid enforcement earned ings. him enmity from all quarters. (2) Owing to the bad
climate
of

Bengal,
of
his

the

Emperor had
serving
in

increased
that

the

allowances

When

Mansur,

allowances by To allow discontent to enter the army was a blunder of So rigorous was the inquest that the first magnitude. even the Sayurghal lands were not exempt from it. This
offended the Ulama, who preached and propagated against the Emperor. (3) Akbar's Sulh-i-Kul policy also precipitated the
crisis.

province. Imperial Diwan, reduced these half, the soldiers suffered and agitated.

soldiers

the

The

bigoted

Udlmd

declared

him

102

THF MUGHAL EMPIRE

an apostate from Islam and called upon the people to
carry

a

crescentade
to

'

against

the

impious emperor

'.

The

first

revolt

were

the Chughtai Qaqsfadls

who

refused to
capital

with

pay the ddgh tax and advanced upon the arms in their hands under their leader,

Baba Khan.
tents

They were soon

joined by other malcon-

who

aggravated the

trouble.

Rajah Todar Mai

was sent by the Emperor to suppress disorder in Bengal, uui the rebels had gained strength and the situation had taken a serious turn. Muzaffar was murdered and the whole of Bihar and Bengal lay at the feet of the
Qaqsbdls.
Al;bar then sent Aziz

Koka

to the

aid

of

Todar Mai, and the two generals combined to crush the Their efforts were crowned with success Qaqshdls.
;

but soon after the suppression of the Qaqsbdl rebellion, A there appeared another danger on the horizon.

Jdglrddr of Jaunpur, called
against the
established

Masum

Farankhudi, rebelled

government.

Shah Baz Khan
to
flee

defeated

him and
hills

compelled

him

into

the

Siwalik

to find

a word in his
to

refuge favour and the

there.

Aziz Koka
to

put in
the
his

Emperor was
live

reconciled

him.

But
a

he did
;

not

long

enjoy

Imperial
private
in

favours

his

career

was cut short by
fury
of

enemy
for

little later.

Though

fighting continued

Bengal

some

time,

the

the recalcitrant

movement had considerably abated and the danger was
practically over.
(5)

Many

of the orthodox

Musalmans,

particularly of

the eastern provinces, intrigued against the Emperor and wished to depose

him

iu favour of his

younger brother, Mirza

Muhammad

JALAL-UD-DiN
Hakim.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
>

103

Encouraged by this and emboldened by, the and revolts that followed one another in rapid succession, the Mirza sent an army under one of
rebellions
his officers to attack the
failed,

When this expedition Punjab. he launched another under his general, Shadman,
defeated

who was
head of

1581 A. C.

Hakim

fifteen

by Rajah Man Singh. In the Punjab at the thousand horse. In vain he tried to

and

slain

himself

invaded

induce the inhabitants of India to join him. Akbar not only repelled him, but pursued him to Kabul and compelled

him

to

surrender his
of

territory

anJ

to

submit to

the sovereign-ruler
teristic
till

Hindustan.

With

his charac-

his death.

clemency, he allowed his brother to retain Kabul Mirza Hakim died in 1585 A. C. and
into a
in

Kabul was converted
Empire.
It

province

of

the

Mughal
Singh,

was placed

charge of

Rajah Man

who was soon
Rajah BIr Bal,

called back because he could not keep

the unruly Afghans under control.

He was

relieved

by

who

was, however, killed in a campaign

The results of the conquest of against the Yusafzals. Kabul may be enumerated here In the first place,
:

it

dealt a death-blow to the orthodox rebels

who wanted

to

make Mirza Muhammad Hakim

the ruler of India,

inasmuch as he was regarded as a strict Sunm. Secondly, it cowed down the conspirators and the personal awe, inspired by Akbar's character, courage and capacity,

held the waverers

to duty.

Thirdly,
life
;

a free
indulge

hand
in

for

the rest
religious
it

of

his

gave him he could now
it

his

innovations

with absolute
barrier

impunity.

Fourthly,

removed the

which

104

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

had hitherto prevented the inhux of hardy soldiers from Afghanistan and immensely increased the military resources of the Emperor. Finally, it removed the
possibility

of

invasion

from
in

Frontier and
aggression.

kept

India

beyond the North-West immunity from external

The problem
Chat's Frontier West
Policy.

of the North- West Frontier has always

engaged the attention and influenced
Northt he

internal as

well

as

the

external

policy of

almost all Indian governments. During the early Muslim period

the Emperor-Sultans adopted effective measures against
the

Mongol

invasions.

They safeguarded
Frontier

their

kingdom

by constructing a series
points in the
officers

of military outposts at vulnerable

by stationing there. and Balban, garrisons strong experienced redoubtable made Gbazi Malik and Ala-ud-Din Khilji With Akbar as efforts to fortify the frontier outposts.
the emperor of India, it was but natural to firm hold on the North-West Frontier.
establish a

North- West

and

After

the

conquest of

Kabul,

he tried to

reduce the

tribal terri-

He shifted his court to Lahore, where it remaintory. ed from 1585 A. C. to 1598 A. C. During this period
he was busy
in

reducing

The Uzbegs, under
Mirza Sulaiman
their

their leader, Abdullah,

the Uzbegs and the Afghans. had ousted

Badakhshan and had now fixed Abdullah, an ambitious and experienced general as he was, was likely to receive support from the orthodox Afghans against the 'heretical Emperor '. Akbar's fears were not ill-founded and he was ful'y alive to the gravity of the situation.
out of
eyes on Kabul.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

105

But, before dealing \.ith his formidable enemy, he turned his attention to the suppresRoshanite , sion of disaffection caused by the Movement.
.

,

,

Roshnai Movement. The Roshanites*

were defeated and

their leader, Jalal,

who had

intended

at Gbaznln and his and sent to the Imperial captured accomplices Court. This occurred in 1600 A. C. After effectively suppressing the Roshanites, Akbar undertook to put an

an invasion

of India,

was

killed

were

end

to the agitation of the Yusafzai Pathans,

who

migni,

make common cause Zain Khan was sent
in

against him with Abdullah Uzbeg. He defeated them against them.

twenty-three fights and established fortified posts to But the Imperial troops were soon hold them in check.
the ceaseless
activity of

exhausted owing to
foe, so

the wily
to apply

much

so that Zain

Khan was compelled
realized

for reinforcements.

The Emperor

the seriousthe

ness of the situation and

soon sent an

army under

command
As soon

Rajah Bir Bal and Hakim Abdul Path, none of whom had any experience in the use of arms.
of

they joined Zain Khan, the three generals began to quarrel among themselves and thus gave their enemy the advantage of divided counsels. The result
as

campaign was that as many as 8,000 Imperial Bir Bal soldiers were slain with stones and arrows.
of the

was

also

killed

and Zain

In order to

retrieve the

escape. disasters of this campaign, the
his

Khan had a narrow

Emperor sent Rajah Todar Mai and

own

son,

* The Roshanites wre the followers of one Bayazid, who claimed to be a prophet himself and attached little importance

to the teachings of the

Holy Qur'an.

106

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
time

This Prince Murad, at the head of a large army. was the luck in for store better a imperialists.
completely crushed
'

They
Abul

the

rebels,

and according

to

Fazl, large number (of the enemy) were killed, and many were sold into Turan and Persia. The country of Sawad (Swat), Bajaur and Bunir, which has few

A

equals for climate, fruits cleansed of the evil doers/

and cheapness

of food,

was

The result of this campaign was that the Yusafzals were subdued and Abdullah was

convinced of the imperial resources, so that he gave up the idea of Indian conquest.
(6)

The conquest

Kashmir.
rulers of
cruelties

Kashmir was accomplished in 1586 A. C. without any serious / The Muslim opposition or difficulty.
of

Kashmir
on
their

were reported
subjects

to

have committed

who were mostly Hindus.
kingdom.

This afforded a favourable opportunity to interfere with
the

independence

of

that

The

excellent

climate of the valley and its natural scenery must have During equally attracted the attention of tHe Emperor.
his

stay at Lahore, Akbar availed himself of the anarchical state of Kashmir and made an attempt to
it

annex
Rajah

to his empire.

He

sent Mirza

SLah Rukh and

Bhagwan Das against Yusaf Shah, its ruler. A was peace patched up between the imperialists and the Sultan when the latter agreed to send his two sons to the Emperor as hostages. Akbar disapproved of this and dispatched another army under the command of
Qasim Khan
to

wrest

Kashmir from

its

ruler

who

had evaded the humiliation of paying personal homage to His Majesty. The imperialists pressed Yusa* so hard

JALAL-UD-DIN
that

MUHAMMAD AKBAK
But

,

107

he offered

his

submission.

his son, Yiaqub,
till

who had managed

to escape, continued to struggfe

he too was defeated and forced to submit.

Both Yusaf
and

and his son, Yaqub, were enlisted

as

tnansabddrs

Kashmir was constituted into a part In 1589 A. C. Akbar paid a Kabul.

of the province of
visit

to

Kashmir

and entrusted its administration to efficient officers of Henceforth Kashmir became ability and experience. the of the summer-seat Mughal Emperors. (7) Multan had been under the Mughal EmperoiS since 1574 A. C. Its governor, KhanSmd and _ T i-ivnanan Abdur Kahim, was entrusted Balochistan.
.

,,,

.

,

.

Balochistan which were

with the task of conquering Sind and still outside the ambit of the

Indian
of

Empire. Mirza Sind, was defeated

Jam
in

Beg,

the Tarkhan ruler

two

engagements

and

compelled to surrender both the stronghold of Sehwan and the small state of Thatta. This took place in 1592
A. C.

Through the good offices of the governor of Multan, Mirza Jam Beg was allowed to retain the principality of Thatta and was made a commander of
5,000.

He

gave a good

proof

of

his

loyalty

and

distinguished himself in the Deccan campaign. year 1595 A. C. saw the annexation of Balochistan.

The

In February the
fort

of

Sibi

whole of
(8)

Mughals attacked and occupied the Mir Masum. As a result, the Balochistan succumbed to the Mughal arms.
under
of Sind
.

The conquest

and Balochistan supplied
an excellent ^ point
d*

^ x QandhSr.
..

Akbar
appui

with

for the conquest

of Qandhar,

the scene of his ancestors' activities and exploits.

In fact

108
it

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
tu

was a necessary prelude

that premeditated idea.

Mirza

Muzaffar Husain, the

King of Qandhar,

was

harassed by the Turks and theUzbegs. A kbar benefited from this weakness of the Shah. He sent an expedition
to

Qandhar

at the

invitation

of

the

Shah,

who was

In May, 1595 entangled in a conflict with the Uzbegs. A. C. the imperialists took charge of the province without bloodshed. It was indeed a master-stroke of

diplomacy.

dian,

Without straining his relations with the Akbar annexed Qandhar to his empire. The

conquest of Qandhar completed the conquest of Northern It secured Akbar's position in the countries of India.
the North-West.
It

brought home to Abdullah Uzbeg

the military strength of

Emperor Akbar and henceforth

he

tried to

maintain friendly relations with him.

The

Uzbeg

invasion of India was

now

a thing of the past.

The

acquisition of Kabul, Kashmir, Sind, Balochis-

tan

and
off

Qandhar
of

conquest

completed the Northern and India

rounded

the

Mughal Empire which

was

The turn of steadily extended and consolidated. It was next. Akbar's the South came long-cherished
desire to bring the Shia Sultanates of the
his

Deccan under

own sway.
his

Now
in

that he was successful in establish-

ing

the North, he found himself at authority The leisure to turn his attention towards the Deccan.
distracted state of the Sultanates induced

him

to fish in of

the troubled

waters.

With

the

destruction

the

Hindu Empire
tion

of Vijayanagar, the motives of co-operaSultanates had died, giving place to the amongst disunion and disorder Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda,
:

JALAL-UD-DIN
Berar and
Bidar

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

109

one another.
tried

had renewed their hostilities against Akbar could not tolerate this. First he

diplomatic
Sultans,

methods and sent embassies
inducing

to the

Shia

them

suzerainty and to pay him the king of Khandesh agreed to the imperial proposals and the remaining four gave a flat refusal, war was

acknowledge his As only regular tributes.
to

declared against them.
(9)

Owing

to

Ahmadnagar.

geographical position, the state of Ahmadnagar was first to be attacked.
its
.

.

Moreover,
a bone of contention between

its

throne was at that time
rival claimants,

two

one

of

sought theassistance of the Mughal Emperor. Akbar sent a large force under the joint command of

whom had

Murad, and Khan-i-Khanan Abclur Rahim, who laid siege to the city early in the year 1595 A. C. But, owing to the heroic defence and stout resistance
his son, Prince

offered

by Chand

Sultana,
in

the

imperialists

failed

to

lady herself sword in her hand and a veil on her face, and

make when the

any serious breach

the ramparts except one appeared on the scene with a

had

the

breach

repaired.

In the end the

Mughal

generals,

who

did not co-operate with each other in perfect harmony, were obliged to abandon the siege. A treaty was made

with the Sultana

who
In

agreed
return

to

cede Berar to

the

Mughal Emperor.
the minor prince, for
regent,

for this,

Bahadur Shah,
as

whom Chand

Sultana acted

was acknowledged

as the king of

Ahmadnagar.
the

Owing

to the internal dissensions which resulted in

assassination of

the attempts of the the of terms treaty by recovering intriguers to violate the

Chard Sultana and

110
Berar from
against

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the

Mughals,

war

was

again

declared

Ahmadnagar. In February, 1597 A. C, an was fought, in which both the parties and warfare claimed victory. followed Desultory continued till Akbar sent his intimate friend and to restore discipline in the Fazl, counsellor, Abul Abul imperial army despatched against Ahmadnagar. Fazl reached the Mughal camp after Murad had died of In 1600 A. C. the Emperor himself drinking. advanced against Ahmadnagar and took the field in person. Burhanpur was easily occupied Prince Daniyal and Khan-i-'vhanan Abdur Rahim attacked Ahmadindecisive battle

nagar.

Chand Sultana, the

life

and soul

of

heroic

was no was stormed Ahmadnagar and about 1,500 of the garrison were slain during the siege. Ahmadnagar was then annexed to the Mughal
defence
of self-sacrifice,

and a singular instance

longer alhe.

The

fortress of

Empire.
(10)
Khanclesh.

The campaign
the

against the Deccan was brought to a termination -in 1601 A. C., when '

famous

fortress of Asirgarh (in

was stormed and the entire kingdom of Khandesh annexed to the Mughal Empire. Before the siege of Ahmadnagar, Khandesh was submissive and its ruler, Raja 'All, was a friend of the Mughal Emperor. But the new Sultan, Miran Bahadur (also known
Khandesh)
as
off

Bahadur Shah) was a headstrong youth, who threw the imperial yoke and refused to recognise Akbar as
which

his overlord, relying for his safety

Asirgarh,

was undoubtedly

on the strength of one of the most

impregnable

fortresses in

the South.

Akbar himself

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
t

111

undertook an expedition against Bahadur Shah and* laid siege to Aslrgarh early in the year 1561 A. C. .The
siege lasted for full seven

months and the beleaguered
they were bribed by the Asirgarh fell and with its fall
till

held

out

most heroically
to surrender.*

Emperor
fell

the whole kingdom

of Khandesh.

The southern

conquests were organised into three siibdhs, or provinces, and their and Berar viz., Ahtnadnagar, Khandesh
;

government was made over to Prince Daniyal. At his accession in 1556 A. C., Akbar inherited an India divided and ruled by different
Mughal,.Lmpire
under Akbar.

Mh

f

the
lers,

Hindus

as well

as Muslims.

On

his death,

he beqreathed a solid

and compact empire to his successor. A. 1605 C. he was the sole monarch of the By the year
There are three different accounts of the siege of Aslrgarh as given by 'Allama AbulFazl, Faizi Sarhmdl and the Jesuits. My account of the siege is based on a careful study of these three sources. Dr. Smith calls in question the evidence of the first
*

two and accepts
1

find

the accounts of the Jesuits as entirely correct. no reason why the accounts of the foreigners be preferred

to those of the natives, especially when there are other sources of evidence, too reliable to be refuted. FenshtS, than whom

there can be no more trustworthy historian of the Deccan, in important supports the accounts of Abul Fazl and Faizi When the Dr. charges Akbar of perfidy and says that details he had recourse to treachery in order to capture the stronghold, he
his condemnation is wholly Akbar bribed the garrison against Bahadur Shah and there is ample justification for this In the first place, the prestige of the empire demanded that Aslrgarh should be captured by any means.' Secondly, Prince Salim had revolted in Northern India and the Emperor's presence was
is

not at
It is

all

justified;

unfounded.

true that

'

Considerations such as these urged the urgently needed there. emperor to employ bribery to g;un his ends, and in apportioning

'

112

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
his

whole of Northern India and
in

sway extended
In

as far

the Deccan

as the

Godavari.

the

North the

Himalayan range formed the boundary of his empire. Within these limits the Mughal Empire extended from sea to sea. It had as many as 18 important provinces
:

(I)
(6)

Delhi, (2) Agra, (3)

Oudh,

(4)

Allahabad,

(5)

Ajmer,

Gujarat, (7) Bengal, (8) Bihar,
Sind,
(12)

(9) Orissa, (10)

Malwa,
Kabul,

(II)
(15)

Multan, (13)

Lahore,

(14)

Kashmir, (16) Kbandesh, (17) Ahmadnagar, and Akbar died soon after the capture of Aslrgarh. Berar. (18) Had he lived a little longer, he would have conquered the

remaining parts of InJia and annexed them to his empire. The closing years of Akbar's reign were embittered
Last
r

days

by J a
of

of Akbar.

ments.

sorrows and disappointvv His sons were a great source Murad and anxiety to him.
series of

Daniyal had already gone down graves in 1599 A. C. and 1604 A.

into the
C.,

drunkard's

respectively,
of

Salim

(Jahanglr),

the

surviving

son

and prayers and
in

pilgrimages, was no

less inveterate

and intemperate

the use of intoxicating liquors. He survived probably He became the because of his stronger constitution.
chief cause of

annoyance to
while
the

his father in his old age.

In
his

1600 A.

C., in

Emperor

was conducting

campaign up an independent kingdom at Allahabad. In 1602 A. C. he gave another terrible shock to the old Emperor

the Deccan, his son, Salim, revolted and set

by engaging a robber-chief, Bir Singh Bundela,

for the

blame, we ought to bear in mind the difficulties and anxieties of a statesman, whose reputation w.;s staked on the success or failure of a single siege.' Smith should be studied with caution.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAK
However, before

113
his cteath,

assassination of Abul Fazl.

Akbar was reconciled
lious son

to his over-ambitious

and

rsbel-

through the good olfices of

some
his

of his trusted
in

servants.

He

nominated him as

successor

a

formal manner with

due ceremonies.

But the Prince

was far from being popular with the people. A party of the Rajputs at the Imperial Court, headed by Rajah Man Singh, attempted to secure the succession for
Prince
failed

Khusrau (Sallm's son). Though the intrigue in the end, it had none the less disturbed the peace

of the
this

aged Emperor on the eve of his departure from world. In 1605 A. C., Akbar 'became ill with
*

to

severe diarrhoea or dysentery which the physicians failed He was buried at and he died of it. cure

Sikandara
during his

in the

tomb which he had begun to build lifetime and which was subsequently com-

In the reign of Emperor pleted by his son, Jahanglr. the 'Alamglr Jats plundered the tomb, dug out the bones of the deceased and burnt them to ashes.

CHAPTER

VII

JALAL-UD-DIN
Ab

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

(CONTINUED)
Din-i-llahi
life was an enigma his religious life, was more enigmatic ntroc uctory. which has ever since remained wrapIn in mystery. trying to reveal it, historians have ped Whereas some hit either above or below the mark h m as others have a branded him extolled have prophet,
; :
;

ovo usque ad mala Akbar's

The present is an attempt to clear the as an apostate. to a In order to understand the subclose. controversy
ject

and

to appreciate the spirit that lay behind

it,

it

is

on the one hand, and to the history of Hindustan on the other.
necessary to revert to the history of the Saracens

The Prophet
Reference to the
history of the

of

Islam, to begin with, united in his

person
Saracens.

the

headship of the Muslim
of the

Church and
Islam.

Commonwealth
.
.

of

TT was He

the lord spiritual as
of his subjects.

well as temporal
also

So

were the

four

Caliphs

who succeeded him ope
carried

after the other.
far

Under them the Crescent was

and wide. The motive force underlying their expansion was their religion. The Commonwealth was
ruled
in

accordance

with

the

commandments

of the

Qur'an, the precepts of the Prophet and the discretion The State, in brief, served the interests of of the ruler.
the

Church.

But with the

rise

of

the

Ommeyades

JALAL-UD-DIN
events

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

115

took a different turn.
to the State
;

Under them the Chvarch
its

was harnessed

interests

were subordi-

nated to those of worldly well-being. And, gradually as the globe was girdled by the followers of Muhammad, there sprang up a world-wide empire of Islam, which
attained
its

widest dimensions

under Walid

I.

After

him, when the Caliphate sank
governors of
allegiance
to

into insignificance, the

the
the

far-flung

provinces

renounced their

supreme

except in matters religious.

Thus was

authority at the Centre, the State separat-

ed from the Church for the first time. This separation was the inevitable outcome of the unwieluy growth of the Commonwealth and the collapse of the Caliphate. With the appearance of the Abbassides on the stage,
there

opens

history.

a new chapter in the annals of Islamic Under them the Church was once more

the State in the person of the ruler, who became the spiritual as well as the temporal head of the united

with

Faithful.
of

Baghdad became

the

Abbassides and

the Capital (Dar-us-Saldm) there the rules regulating the

Caliphate were systematised by the jurisconsults, and the conception of the Caliph-Imam (Pope-Emperor) took
its

birth

and developed into a doctrine. While the rest of the Muslim World was passing through such metamorphoses, Muslim
India was following
policy of
its

Reference to the history of Muslim Rule in India.

and
by the Muslim
to
it.

own, character from
but
the

an independent not different in aim
.

that

followed

World

in general,

Here,

as elsewhere,

almost parallel king based his powers

not on Islamic law but on Persian tradition.

Kingship

116

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
institution ever

had been a secular
Islam in India.
interfere

since the

advent of
to

The Skariyat was seldom allowed
the
Stat2.

with

When Akbar came
long
to
realise that

to the
it

throne,

he did

not

take

was

impossible for
the

him
of

to rule successfully

a country, signi-

ficantly called 'an ethnological

diversity

its

races

museum', on account of and religions, customs and

To cultures and conceptions of morality. the class the selfish the powerful, priestly cap this, and the self-centred Mullahs - would not allow him to
traditions,

rule as a liberal king.

Necessity
>bar's

has

been the mother

of inventions, and

A

the hour of need.
uniting in his

ingenuity did not fail him in Ere long he hit upon the idea of
1r

own
;

person the

and a Mnjtahid and in beyond the Muslim Kings outside
tions of the country,

double duty of a doing this he did not go
India.

King

much
condi-

The
the

moreover,

justified

r61e

he
the

played.

The Divine Faith was only

a

phase of

same movement. It crowned its author with success. ever a gordian knot. It aimed at Hindu-Muslim Unity

Through

it

Akbar endeavoured
all

to bring about a general

concordance among
succeeded
to a

considerable
all his

the existing creeds in India and extent. Here it may be

pointed out that in

undertakings and experiments

he was guided by bis confidential friend and advisor, Abul Fazl, who has left an ineffaceable impress on the
history of the Akbarian era. From the date of his accession (1556 A. C.) to the

Akbar's orthodoxy.

year 1578 A. C. Akbar lived the life of a staunch SunnI, strictly observing
of his faith

the

dogmas

and swerving not an inch from

JALAL-UD-DIN
the path of the

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
Law).

117
offered

Shariyat (Muslim

He

his prayers regularly in the mosque along with the He paid congregation and often acted as Mu'azzin. due respect to the time-honoured Ultima and did

the pious and the holy. So supreme was of the sages on his simple mind that he used to keep their company for hours together and never hesitated to do them the meanest service rather, he felt

homage to the sway

;

pride in carrying out their smallest wishes.

Every year
Sallm

he made a pilgrimage to the tomb of
Chishti
at

Shaikh

Ajmer,

and,

circumambulating the sacred

sepulchre several times, he sat there for a considerable
time.

He

believed in miracles

and had named

his son,

Sallm (Jahangir),
of Ajmer,

after the name of the celebrated Saint who had promised him three sons. 'Yd Hddi
!

and Yd Mu'in' (O Guide
at the tip of his tongue.

and

O

Helper

!)

They mind and fired his followers with immense enthusiasm. As soon as he uttered them, the whole of his army, Hindus as well as Musalmans, responded sonorously to his calls and fell fearlessly on the He believed in Pirs and Faqlrs and visited their foe.
influence

exercised

were always a mesmeric

on

his

shrines often bare-footed.

ed him with
the Hadith
;

His inquisitive nature inspirthe ambition of studying the Qur'dn and
marvellous
all

his

memory enabled him
imparted
to

to

imbibe and assimilate
his teachers.

that was

him by

He

ed Qdzis and Muftis
of Islam

did not stop short at this ; he appointin every part of his kingdom in
'

order to administer justice in accordance with the Code and went so far as to persecute 'the heretic in
Besides,

obedience to the dictates of the Uldtna.

Bairam

118
Khan,
the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
victor
tried

of

Panlpat

merit and

fidelity,

and a servant of proved Abdullah MaWidum-ul-Mulk

and Shaikh Abdun-NabI were his religious guides. The young king was so fond of the Shaikh that after the fall
of

Bairam Khan he appointed him Sadr-us-Sudur and himself used to call on him daily to learn lessons of the Hadith at his feet. By deeds such as these, he completely won over the SunnI orthodoxy to his side.

So

far so well.

Now
the

a change sets in to the shock

of

SunnI

sect.

The Emperor,
becomes
the

hSfsm

t0

hitherto an orthodox SunnI,

a liberal

Musalman.
so runs the

Once, on
story,

anniversary of his birthday, coloured his clothes, presumably under

Akbar

Hindu

influence,

with

saffron

Shaikh,

and appeared before his preceptor, the who was so highly exasperated at this

unexpected sight that he instantly raised his cane in such a way that it almost touched His Majesty. The youthful king could not brook this insult and the
fate of the Shaikh

would have been sealed had not the queen-mother appeased her son's anger by telling him that the incident would be the cause of his salvation.
Singularly enough, the prognostication proved only too true, as will be evident from the ensuing account.

The Ulamd were not
influence
in

only narrow-minded, but their

was wholly schismatic. The implicit obedience, which they exacted from the Boyunbounded them, and the Badshah, intoxicated from the orthodox sect reverence they received blinded them to the interests of the State. They
the

State

could not tolerate

the honest

difference of

opinion in

JALAL-UD-DIN
matters
religious.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
pride

119
alike

Pow^r,

and prejudice

governed their
a

passions.

Under the charge

of heresy

number

of

Musalmans

suffered death at their

hands,

many more escaped many with their lives and lived as exiles. Apropos of this may be cited an instance: Both Makhdum-ul-Mulk and
died in dungeons, and a good

Abdun-Nabi, demanded the summary execution of Shaikh Mubarak, the most erudite man of the day, on the ground that he subscribed to the Mahdi Movement. They even succeeded in securing a*.
his

colleague,

Imperial firman,

ordering

his

immediate

arrest

and

imprisonment.

But

for

the

which
his
in

Mubarak

received

from

information, timely a friendly quarter,

enemies would have spared him no insult bound chains they would have dragged him to the court

most formidable of his foes. However, having lived the life of an exile for some time, he returned to Agra only when Mirza Aziz Koka had put in a
of the

word in his favour. Though allowed to return, he was never in immunity from the hostility of the
Ulama, who frequently hurled charges of heresy and blasphemy against him and never allowed him
to rest
in

peace.
;

So much did the Ulama
their

dislike

a liberal

Muslim

hatred

no bounds.

(non-Muslims), particularly They could not
state of
for all
affairs

against the Zimrnis, against the Hindus, knew

accorded to them by the Emperor.
alive to this
persist.

any concession Akbar was fully and would not allow it to
tolerate

he decided to curb the power of one stroke he broke loose With priestly from MaWidum-ul-Mulk and Abdun-Nabi and felt
the
class.

Once

120
sorry for

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the acts of
(fatwds).
in the year

injustice

committed under

their

commands
Early

1575 A.

C.,

when

the

Emperor
undertak-

returned from his military
in g s after

over his
for

winning decisive victories enemies, he was full of love

God and

adoration for Islam.
to

He now
of

devoted his
subjects.

time

and attention

the
the

interests

of his

Accordingly, he
hall (Ibddat

ordered
at

erection

a debating

Khdnah)
a

Doctors of Islam to
to
arrive
at

Fathpur Sikri and invited the discuss the controversial points and
conclusion
of
in

definite

order

to

facilitate

the

unification

Islam.

None

but

the

Sayyads, the Shaikhs, the Doctors and the Ulamd of Since high rank was admitted to the Ibddat Kljandh.
all

promiscuously, disputes did not take long to arise as to the seats and the order His Majesty did not like this and was of precedence.

these classes were mangled

soon constrained to assign

a separate

quarter

to each

of the classes, himself gracing the four apartments, into which the House ,vas divided, on every Thursday

But the Ulamd, the most clamorous class, who had hitherto dominated the State and had so jealously guarded their supremacy, had, in fact, become too
night.
self-centred to

have a stomach for defeat

in

arguments.
replaced

Calumnies,

contumelies
reasons

and

vilifications

common-sense,
against the against
different

and arguments. Charges of and apostasy, heresy blasphemy were hurled by one
other.

Fatwds were
Thus,
into a

the

accused.

ceaselessly issued instead of fusing the

sects of Islam

common

brotherhood,

JALAL-UD-DIN
these

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
their

121

dogged discussions rekindled
It

animosities
that the

and divided them asunder.

may

be said

foundations of the Debating Hall were laid with a view to reform the Ulamd, but as they proved incorrigible,

was thought expedient to render them politically In 1578 A. C. the discussions took a more impotent.
it

with a tendency to defeat the purpose of the Emperor. Even in the presence of His Majesty the Ulamd lost their temper and called one another
serious turn

Unity had already disappeared, now even the ordinary rules of etiquette were cast to the winds. One Thursday night, when a polemical discussion was
Kafirs.

raging hot, in the bebel of several conflicting voices, the question was raised as to what was the final seat
of

authority in matters religious when, at a certain Shaikh Mubarak point, the Doctors were at variance.
such.

set the ball

Faizi,

Emperor as In conjunction with his sons, Abul Fazl and he drew up a document, in which Akbar was
rolling

by acknowledging

the

recognised as Imdm-i-'Adil and therefore higher in rank than a Mujtahid. The document reuds as follows: " Whereas Hindustan has now become the centre
^ The Document.
T

_.

of security J
.
.

of justice

number

of people, especially

and peace, and the land _ and beneficence, a large learned men and lawyers,
,

.

,

have immigrated and chosen this country for their home. Now we, the principal Ulamd, who are not only well-versed in the several departments of the Law and in
the principles of Jurisprudence, and well-acquainted with the edicts which rest on reason or testimony, but are
also

known

for our piety

and honest

intentions,

have

122

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
deep meaning,
'

duly considered the
of the

first,

of the

verse

Qoran (Sur. IV, 62) Obey God, and obey the Prophet, and those who have authority among you ', and secondly, of the genuine tradition, 'Surely, the man who is dearest to God on the day of judgment, is the Imdm-i-'Adil whosoever obeys the Amir, obeys Thee,
:

and whosoever rebels against him, rebels against Thee ', and thirdly, of several other proofs based on reasoning or testimony and we have agreed that the rank of
;

Sultdn-i-'Adil (a just ruler) is higher in the eyes of God than the rank of a Mujlahid. Further we declare that
the King of Islam, Amlroi the Faithful, Shadow of God in the world, Abul Fath Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Padshah-i-GbazI, whose kingdom God perpetuate, is a

most

just,

a most wise, and a most God-fearing king.

Should, therefore, in future a religious question come up, regarding which the opinions of the Mujtahids are
at variance,

and His Majesty, in his penetrating understanding and clear wisdom be inclined to adopt, for the benefit of the nation and as a political expedient any of the conflicting opinions which exist on that point, and should issue a decree to that effect, we do hereby agree that such a decree shall be binding on us and on the
whole nation.
"Further,
think
fit

we

declare that

should

His
the

Majesty
nation

to issue

a

new

order,

we and

shall likewise be bound by it, provided always that such order be not only in accordance with some verse of

the Qoran, but also of real benefit to the
further, that

nation

;

and

to

such

any opposition on the part of his subjects an order passed by His Majetsy shall

JALAL-UD-DIN
involve

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
the

123
loss of

damnation

in

world to come and

property and
11

religious privileges in this.

document has been written with honest intentions, for the glory of God, and the propagation of Islam, and is signed by us, the principal Ulamd and lawyers, in the month of Rajab of the year 987 of the
This

Hijrah."*

This document,
of

we

had

better

call

it

the Act
reign,

Importance of the
Infallible Decree.

Supremacy

of

Akbar's

stands unique in the history ot Islam. its astonished at Historians are

Here it is reproduced in full for worldly character. In the first place, it reveals most some special reasons
:

the statesmanship of Akbar, \vho caught the ferocious lions in their own dens. Prepared by the

unmistakably

Emperor, Ulamd.

it

It

was written and signed by the principal bore the signatures and seals of men like

Makhdum-ul-Mulk and Abdun-Nabi, and was presented Like King John's Magna to His Majesty for rpproval. Charta it was a petition to the king from the most
influential

Ulama, but unlike

it,

it

increased rather than

In the second the royal prerogative. of the Imam-i-'Adil it declared the authority place, to be higher than that of a Mujtahid and based it

diminished

on the

threefold sources

:

the Qur'an, the

Hadlth and

In addition to his being a temporal head, the Reason. he was recognised as the most supreme spiritual guide Ulama were It was thus that the of his subjects.

reduced to the state of a cipher
* Ta.'ihh-i-Badaom, vol.
ii,

in state-politics.

In the

p. 279.

124
third place,
all
it

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
authorised the

Emperor

to pass orders of

kinds as political expedients, provided always that they were beneficial to the whole nation and were

supported by a verse from the Qur'an.

The

signature of this

document was fraught with
consequences.
It

far-reaching

freed

the

Em P eror

from the bigoted Ulama

and enabled him to give currency to One Friday, 1580 A. C M he ascended the pulpit of a masjid and played the part of a Mullah. In keeping wi;h Arab and Persian traditions, he himself
his catholic ideas.

delivered

the

Khutba,
:

which
the

is

contained

in

the

following verse

"The Lord

to

me

Kingdom

gave,

He made me prudent, wise and brave, He guided me with right and ruth Filling my heart with love of truth No tongue of man can sum His state
;

Allaho Akbar.

God
of

is

great."*

This

sent a

thrill

horror

through
it

the whole

body
from

of Islam in India.

For the bigoted

was a

bolt

the blue. It stirred up a storm of opposition which soon assumed a threatening character. In 1589 A.C. afatwd was issued against the impious emperor* by Mullah Muhammad Yazdi and a conspiracy was
'

hatched up with a view to depose him in favour of his brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim, who posed to be an

orthodox Muslim.

At the same time a rebellion broke
Considering
this

out in Bengal and Bihar.
*

to

be an

This

is

Mr. Green's translation of Faizi's verse in Persian.

JALAL-UD-D1N
opportune moment, the
this critical juncture.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

125

Mirza in /aded the Punjab at Akoar had anticipated such a

storm

The

and was fully prepared to nip it in the bud. was repelled, the eastern disturbances were quelled, and normal conditions were restored. Now that he had established his supremacy, he could
invasion

take larger liberties with his subjects without courting opposition he could now defy all hostile criticism with All this was rendered possible by absolute impunity.
;

the success of the Kabul Expedition. Had that failed, the history of India would have taken a different course.
In this way, threading his
Preliminaries to the promulgation of the Divine Faith,
.,,
,

way through a series of commotions, the Emperor proceeded
a P ace Wlth the task of fusing hostile elements into a homogeneous whole.
,

i

r

r

i

,

!

Favourably impressed by the unmixed

Hindu subjects, while sitting on moods the solitary stone at Fathpur pensive
devotion of his

in

his

Sikri,

he had resolved to

utilize

their

services

by allowing

them co-equal
alone

status with

the

ruling

could

not

bring

about

But this Hindu-Muslim Unity.
race.

Something more than this was required to unite the two different peoples, possessing not only different but
also mutually antagonistic religions,

cultures

and confelt

ceptions

of

morality.

Before

long, Akbar

the

or founding necessity for finding mon to both the communities a

something

com-

common

platform,

where they could meet and greet each other in perfect harmony. But what was that common platform to be a Masjid or a Mandir ? Neither, but a new religion, which could command sincere devotion. Carefully

126

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

considering the pros znd cons of the experiment, Akbar

decided definitely to establish a religion, embodying the principal features of all the religions of India.

in

it

He

Hinduism was nothing more than a set of ceremonies, to which the Hindus clung so tenaciously; that other religions had little political importance; and that

knew

that

Islam alone, being superior to
his purpose.

all

others, could best serve

Having gradually gained the sympathies of the Rajputs and other important sects by seemingly sharing their beliefs and adopting their practices, by appreciating their merits and rewarding their services,
he proceeded to prepare the
of that

way
It will

for

the

introduction

common

religion.

be remembered that

formerly the Musalmans alone could have free access to the Ibadat Khanah ; now the learned professors of
all

other religions were

invited

and asked

to

make

a

case for their respective creeds. the whole experiment was indeed

The
to

idea

underlying

establish a
of
his

com?

mon

religion acceptable

to

everyone
it ?

subjects.

Now what
Would
evident.
to

was that common

religion to be ?

Islam

the

Zimmls

accept

The answer

is self:

There was, however, one way out of fuse the rituals of Hinduism and of other

this fix

religions

into Islam, or to unite the fundamentals of

Islam

and

other religions with Hinduism.

The ground having been
Its
tA
,
.

promulgation.

prepared, a coup de etat was required to carry the experiment to
its

.,..?.
to

logical conclusion.

,

.

A Armed

,

,

at all

points

and

feeling secure in his position,

the

Emperor
were

convened a
military

meeting,

which

all

religious experts,

commanders and masters

of

learning

JALAL-UD-DIN
invited

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
of

127
so

and the

evils

the

existence

religions were exposed

in their presence.

many The Emperor

of

ought to bring the different religions of India into one, but in such a fashion that they should
be one and

addressed them "

in these

wordo

:

We

what

with the greatest advantage of taking good in every creed and discarding the In this way, honour would be done to remainder.
all
:

is

God, peace and prosperity would be restored people and security to the empire."

to

the

The

resolution

was carried
-

almost
,

unopposed.

The
Its principles.
,

salient features of tha
,

new

faith
i

having been discussed,

,.

its

principles

and practices were read aloud. It bore the name of Din-i-Ilahi, or Divine Faith, also Tauhid-i-Ilahi, or Divine Monotheism. Its basis was the Unity of God, was eclectic, Its ritual the corner-stone of Islam. borrowed chiefly from Hinduism and Zoroastrianism.
to perfect disciple of the Divine Faith was bound believe in the Unity of God and to acknowledge Akbar

A

as His Caliph
of wealth, life,

He had

to

make

a four-fold dedication

He

honour and religion to His Majesty. was expected to abstain from eating meat of all
Prostration, or Sijdah,

kinds.
to the
for fire

Emperor.

was allowed to be done Reverence for the sun and veneration

became a prominent part of the ritual. Sunday day of performing the ceremony of conversion, when the convert received from His Majesty the Great Name and the symbolical motto Allaho

was

fixed as the

1

1

'

:

Akbar.'

Instead

of

the

usual

Muslim

salutation

As-Saldm-Alaikum and Wd-Alaikum-As-Salam, which

128

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the brethren in faith observed on seeing each other the members of the Divine ]?aith saluted one another

by saying 'Allaho Akbar* and J all-a-J alalohu\ From time to time disciplinary rules and regulations were
passed by the Emperor according to his need.
for the

'

members
of

of

his

creed

A

careful

consideration
practices
of

the

principles

and

the

Divine
will

summarised above,
reveal
to the

Faith, as not fail to

reader the
all

statesman-

ship of

the important cleverly manipulated as to Its soul was the cardinal attract the entire population. the Hindu and Zoroastrian its body principle of Islam,
its

author. It
T

embraced almost

religions of

ndia.

It

was so

ritual.

The

monotheistic
rites of all

principle

of

Islam

was

other religions were adopted retained and the in proportion to their importance in the political history

was Islam preHindu, whose prominent ceremonies were incorporated, it was nothing To a Zoroastrian, whose articles short of Hinduism.
of Hindustan.

To

a liberal Muslim,

it

sented

in

a

different form.

To

a

of

sun-worship and fire-worship were included, it was nothing but their religion. Sunday was fixed as the day

of initiation only to please the Christians.

Thus, almost every shade of Indian religious opinion was represented It was, in a sense, a universal in the Divine Faith.
religion of India,

having enough in
Historians,
of

it

to attract

to

its

originator.
history,

whose

anyone knowledge of
times,
is

Indian

particularly

pre-Islamic

superficial

and whose acquaintance with the history

of

the Saracens, particularly with that of the

Ommeyades

JALAL-UD-DIN
and the Abbassides,
of
its

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
ha,e
failed to

129
understand

is deficient,

the real meaning of the Divine Faith and the sole
author.

aim

Branding Akbar
his

as

an

apostate, they

have condemned
of Akbar's folly
calls

creed in the

bitterest of

words.

"The Divine Faith,"
"
it

says Dr. Smith, "was a monument and not of his wisdom." Elsewhere he
Similarly,
it.

a

silly

invention".

Blochmann and

others have

been deceived by

They have mistaken

and

Following Badaoni, a bigoted appearance for actuality. over-strict Muslim, with whom the omission of a

ceremony of Islam amounted to apostasy, and adopting the same line of argument as hs, they have As a proinevitably come to the same conclusion. found student of Indian as well as Islamic history,
single

Akbar made a
of his subjects
ter.

direct appeal to the innermost sentiments

by giving his Sdngha a religious characNeither the aim of the order nor the object of its

author can be duly appreciated unless it is regarded as an instrument with which the master-mind endeavoured
to consolidate the

Mughal Empire by
of

eradicating

from

the minds of the ruled their sense

subordination to

Muslim
India.

rulers.

The

chief

motive

mulgation of the Divine Faith To achieve this, it was

underlying the prowas the unification of
to necessary first sincere devotion from

conquer and then to
all

command

and sundry by granting them the freedom of worTherefore, he drew ship and the liberty of conscience.

up such a

religious

code

in

essence

a

political

docu-

mentas
was,

would commend
far-reaching

itself to

the whole population.

Momentous

as the proclamation

of
its

the

Divine Faith
It

equally

were

consequences.

130
completely
in India.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
changed the character
of

Muslim Rule
longer regarded

The Mughal Emperor was no
of

as a foreigner trampling

the

sons

the

soil

upon the lives and liberties of and depriving them of their
of

birth-rights.

The members

the Divine

Faith

had

bound themselves by an oath to stand by the Emperor in weal and woe, to sacrifice their religion, honour, wealth, The vow was faithfully life, liberty and all for him. His could and always rely upon them. Majesty kept

The

fact that

he was able to induce the proudest of the

Rajputs, who prided upon the nobility of their birth and the purity of their blood above everything else, to
give

him and

his

sons

their

speaks

volumes.

kept up the integrity of the Mughal Empire for a century and a half.

supremacy, the Divine

Dealing a Faith

daughters in marriage, coup de grace to Rajput

Thus, there can be no doubt that the Divine Faith
(Din-i-Ildhi)

was not a

religious

cult

or

creed,

but

not political code, prepared by a politician and a prophet, in accordance with the conditions of the country, the tendencies of the times and the sentiments
a
of his subjects.

As long

as

Akbar

lived,

he enjoyed

After his death, the unmixed loyalty of his subjects. his successors a he bequeathed to legacy of loyalty to
his

dynasty immeasurably richer than any other Muslim No one can king before him had left to his heirs.

appreciate the real importance of the Divine Faith and its exact place in Indian history except in connection with the history of the Saracens on the one hand, and

The Divine Religion the'history of India on the other. was the child of the Age ; its founder was the true son of

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
*

131

the Renaissance and the Reforn.ation.

There can be
a
of

no shutting ones eye to the fact that Akbar was statesman, splendid and unsurpassed in the annals
an empire-builder Indian history. a religious propagandist or a missionary. indeed the Apostle of Indian Unity, and his

He was

rather than

He was

Message
his
in reality

of Peace.

He

established

was the and consolidated
religion,

empire through the instrumentality of but in formality.

not

The promulgation
by a

of the Divine Faith

was followed
b Y Akbar

series of anti-Islamic ordinances

alle g ed to

have heen

iss ~ ed

with the sole aim of destroying Islam, Badaoni has recorded them in his book and repeated

them more than once.
serve our purpose:
to the
(1)

The

following

will

suffice

to

Emperor,
at

(2)

Sijdah was allowed to be done fire-worship and sun-worship were

enjoined, (3)

boars were kept in the Imperial Palace and

every morning was regarded as meritorious, (4) the use of beef, garlic and onion, and the wearing of beards were forbidden, (5) Mullahs and Sfaaifahs were exiled, (6) circumcision of children before
looking

them

the age of twelve and the marriage of girls before the age of puberty were prohibited, (7) the study of Arabic was discouraged, (8) public prayers and the Azdn were
abolished,
(9)

Muslim names, such

as

Muhammad,

Ahmad

and Mustafa, were changed to other names because they had become offensive to His Majesty, (10) pilgrimage to Mecca and fasting in the month of

Qur'an and the Hadith were tabooed, (12) mosques and prayer-rooms
discontinued,
(11) the

Ramzan were

132
were turned

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
into
s'

ore-houses
:<

and guard-rooms

;

so

much so, says BadaonI, that the straight wall of clear law and of firm religion was cast down, so that after
not a trace of Islam was left in him and (Akbar) everything was turned topsy turvy,' and " Akbar showed bitter hostility to the concludes that faith of his ancestors and his own youth and actually Blochmann and perpetrated a persecution of Islam." Smith follow Badaoni and maintain that by the year 1582 A. C., which saw the proclamation of the Divine
five or six years

According them, he died without the benefit of the prayers of any church or sect.
Faith,
to

Akbar had ceased

to be a Muslim.

Before examining these ordinances,
n 1 heir criticism.
their author.

it

is

essential

to enquire
.

into

their

necessitates a criticism

...

origin.
."

This
,.

Born

in

Badaoni, an age, when party-politics ruled

of

supreme even in Islam and when sectarianism swayed the hearts and the minds of even Muslims, Badaoni

was the product
of the

of his environment.

Educated

in

the

orthodox school under the influence of the most bigoted

Ulama, his views had been moulded accordingly. He was a Muslim with whom, in common with his He regarded class, ritual weighed more than religion.
the

omission

of

a

single

ceremony

as

amounting

Naturally, therefore, he did not like the Emperor on account of his liberal ways and As a necessary sequel, he was hated by catholic views. His Majesty, who always kept him at arm's length on

almost to apostasy.

account

of his inflexible orthodoxy. 'Allama Abul Fazl was, on the other hand, "a man capable of teaching

JALAL-UD-DJN
the Mullahs a lesson."

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
Aiid,

133
into

when he was taken

confidence by the Emperor, Badaom's anger knew no bounds. Thus exasperated, he began to pour out the venom of his wrath on the Emperor and his confidential
friend.

His diatribe

is

couched

in

a

language

that

teems with anathemas and exaggerations. the 'Allama responsible for the acts of the

He

holds

Emperor.
set

"The

'Allama was the man," world on flames."

he

said,

"who

the

All this creates doubts in the

mind

of the historian,

Von Noer's
appraisal of

anc^

^e

cannot
its
.

accept
.
.

Badaoni's

account at
,

face value.
_

A

Badaoni.

bigoted
,

and narrow-minded sectarian as he

was, he could not help misconstruing Akbar's catholicity. He saw everything with jaundiced eyes and so painted a melancholy picture. Von Noer's criticism of his " character is significant : Badaoni certainly takes every opportunity of raking up the notion of Akbar's apotheosis

renewing attacks upon the great He, however, was never in intimate relation emperor. to the Din-i-Ilahi, he repeats tlie misconceptions
purpose
of

for the

current

among

the populace, marred

popular modes of perception. contemplated the acts of his reign with legitimate pride, but many incidents of his life prove him to have been

and alloyed by Akbar might justly have

among the most modest of men. It was the people who made a God of the man who was the founder and
head of an order at once
religious.
all

political,

philosophic

and
for

One

of his creations will assure to

him

time a pre-eminent place

among

the benefactors of

humanity

greatness and universal tolerance in matters

134

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
If in

of religious belief.

very deed he had contemplated the deification of himself, a design certainly foreign to
his

character, these

words of Voltaire would serve as
le

his vindication

"
:

C4st

privilege
19

du vrai genie

et

du gbnie qui ouvre tine impundment de grandes fantes.
surtout
Sufficient has been said

carriere, de faire

about
;

the

origin

of

the
to
to

ordinances
prostration.

it

now behoves
character

us

examine
ascertain

their

and

their veracity.
at the

Sijdah, or

prostration,

i?

one of the positions

and no one except God is entitled to it. to be done to the Emperor, not as an article
but as an act of salutation.
concession to
of

Muslim prayer, It was allowed
of
it

faith

In the
:

first

place,

was a
kings
it

Hindu sentiment

With

the

Hindu

old

it

was a recognised
it

institution

inasmuch as
in

indicated the depth of devotion

shown

to the sovereign

by

Secondly, At the court of Persian traditions
:

his subjects.

was quite

keeping with Persian autocrats
of greeting.
:

prostration

had

been the

popular

mode

Thirdly, the Abbassides had also adopted this ritual They made their subjects kiss the ground before them.

Sometimes a concession was accorded

to high officials

who were

hand or foot or the edge of his robe. Finally, when Akbar was treated his friends as the representative of God on flattering by
required to kiss the Caliph's

earth,

he had to permit this practice, else the people at large would never have submitted ', Fire-worship and sun-worship were adopted only
Fire-worship and sun-worship.
to enlist the sympathies of those with

'

whom

these constituted the ; r creed>

JALAL-UD-DIN
In

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
'

135

where the v^ry word 'Muslim was an to the natives, Akbar thought it expedient eyesore
a
land,
to subscribe to the beliefs of his of their hollowness.

Hindu

subjects in spite

In this

respect,

he went even so

far that the professors of

various

religions

had good
cults.

reasons

to

claim
in
fact,

him

as

a

convert

to their
his

Whereas,
identity in

"

he always concealed byways and corners.
^he

religious

The Hindus who

believe in incarnations said that

Why were boars kept in the Imperial Palace ?
these

which
were

bar belonged to the ten God Almighty had
So a
in

forms once
-

assumed.
kept

certain

number

of

animals

the

Imperial Palace to

please the Rani-Queens, whose smallest wishes the Emperor took care to carry out to their entire
satisfaction.

the ignorant of Indian history the presence of a large number of women in the the Imperial Hprem. i mper ial Harem may appear as another one to but sacrilege ; acquainted with it, it is a monuin

To Women

ment

of his

wisdom.

daughters of Rajput

Among the number, there were Princes who owed allegiance to
this

the

the

Emperor.
alliances

To cement
were formed.

allegiance,

matrimonial

whom
in

every Rajput Prince, he reduced to obedience, Akbar took his daughter

From

him independence, subject to his Thus were the most formidable control. of reduced to vassalage. For once Islam antagonists
marriage and
granted
there

they entered into matrimonial alliances with the Emperor, was then no escape: They could not withdraw

their allegiance, for that

would have meant an attack on

136
their

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
daughters. Exactly in the

own

His Majesty himself used mark, called tttak, on his The use of garlic and forehead to please the Ranis. of were forbidden partly beards onion and the wearing
i

Hindu customs and practices.
to

same spirit Akbar introduced some Hindu customs and practices. For
nstance>

wear

the

Hindu

because they were inconvenient in kissing and partly because they were repugnant to his Hindu wives. Cow has prevented the possibility of Hindu-

Muslim unity more than anything /. TTT1 TT Whereas Hindus regard it as slaugter of forbidden? M&f& (mot her), and hold it thejr its flesh and regard it their eat sacred, Muslims kill it, favourite food. Akbar understood the philosophy of Gau Ralthshd and Gau-Bhakhsk<*> and knew that it was impossible to unite the cow-caring and the cow-killing

Why was

f

.

,

cows

else.

classes in

religious leaders.

view of the teachings of contemporary Hindu As he wanted to unite and rule, the

slaughter of cows was prohibited. Some of the Mullahs and Shaikhs were doubtless

Why

were Mullahs and Shaikhs exiled

banished from the

Mughal Empire

g ut
?

t h e ir

their

banishment was due not to but to the religious beliefs

enmity they cherished against the established regime, which was characterised by the freedom of worship and the liberty of conscience. They were exiled because
they had become a source of trouble to the State.

The remaining
and the Ranis

regulations were passed, as

is

also

admitted by Badaoni himself, to please the
inside the Palace.

infidels outside

They, however, were

JALAL-UD-DIN
never
strictly

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
is

137
ol his

en forced, as

indicated

by the trend

They were issued time and again under presrure from Hindu friends and wives. Some of them were such
narrative.

that they

were cancelled soon after they were passed. Others remained confined to the Palace and were never
outside.
for

ventilated

Most
is

of

hearsay,

there

no evidence to
of all that

them were based on show that he
he
recorded
in
its

had personal knowledge
his narrative or that

he ever attempted to ascertain

veracity.

He

took

their

supported only by the Jesuits, who cue either from BadaonI himself or from
is
i.e.,
'

others of his class,

the orthodox,

who nad

declared

war against Akbar,
circumstances

the impious empenr'.

Under the

it is not fair to attach any importance to the allegations made by BadaonI. Dr. Smith has exhausted his eloquence in trying to were prove that these regulations
. .

Criticism of Smith's views on

\

_

.

_
, .

<

many
the

acts of fierce intolerance

,

r

If

British Government attempted " such measures, "says he, it would not last a week." Does he mean to point out that the Mughal Emperor was successful in enforcing them because his

To

government was stronger than the British Government ? be sure if the British Government, with its incomresources,

parably vast

incalculable

weapons

in

its

its matchless organization, is unable to stem the tide of opposition once excited by religious intolerance, how could Akbar, who did not possess even a single standing army, succeed in systematically outraging

armoury and

the

sentiments

of his

n

ubjects, specially the
*

Muslims?

Elsewhere he remarks that

on occasions he performed

138

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

from motives of policy/ Now, if it is permissible that the Emperor after 1582 A.C. conformed to the faith of his forefathers from motives of policy,
acts of conformity

there

is

every reason

to

believe that

similar

motives

prompted him to discard its ceremonies sometimes. And, when he did this, theZiwwJs, specially the Hindus,
were quite satisfied. with the Muslims was
the

Underlying his disagreement his agreement to disagree with

without offending their susceptibilities. This enabled him to introduce his beneficial legislation

Hindus

which would have been impossible otherwise.

While declaring him as an apostate from Islam, ~ Dr. Smith says that Akbar died as he J Conclusion. had lived a man whose religion nobody could name and he passed away without the
'
.
.

benefit of the prayers of

any church or

sect

'.*

In

the

same breath he
whatever

strikes the following note: "Akbar, been have in his failings practice, was may a sincerely religious man, constitutionally devout. Jahangir declares that his father never for one moment
'

forgot

performed his prayers fourf times a spending a considerable time over them day Apart from formal religious exercises, his whole course of life testified to the extreme interest taken by him in
'.

God

He

the problem of

the
his

relations

between
his

God and man,
views

and many of

sayings

express

on

the

* Akbar the Great Mogul, by V. A. Smith, p. 323. fAs a rule, Muslim canonical prayers are offered five times a day, but in certain circumstances t vo afternoon prayers can be offered together and the number of times is thus reduced to four from five.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

139

subject."* Such a man cannot be said to have 'died Without the benefit of the prayers of any church or sect '. The Ain-i-Akbarl and the Akbarndmah, written under
his orders

by 'Allama Abul Fazl,

who

held the highest

place in the innermost circle of his intimate friends, and the Tttzk-i-Jahangiri, written by his son, Jahanglr, do

not

betray
of

the slightest
his

sign

of

his

renouncing the
a

religion

forefathers.

On
he

the other hand, they

fully confirm

the

fact

that

remained

Muslim

throughout his life. The assertion of some scholars that he made formal profession of his faith in Islam by repeating the Raima and declaring himself a Musalman

on

his

death-bed,
conviction

consistent

as

it

is

when corroborated temporaries and when viewed in the light
carries

with his career, by foreign conof the

above

discussion.

According

to

Father
f

Antony Botelho, a
'

he (Akbar) died contemporary Portuguese missionary, as he was born, a Muhammedan .f Sir Thomas Roe
supports the statement of Father Botelho
that
sect
'

when he

says

he (Akbar) died

in the

formal profession of his

'.{

Major

Price's translation of the

Tuzk-i-Jahdngirl
:

contains the following passages apropos of the topic "He (Akbar) had .... desired me (Jahanglr) to send for Mlran Sadr Jahan in order to repeat with him
the

Kalmd Shahadat
knees

Jahan on both
*Akbar
the

On his arrival, I placed Sadr by my father's side and he

1[The Jesuit Missions

Great Mogul, by V. A. Smith, pp. 349-50. to the Emperor Akbar, J, A. S. B, part
ed.

1,

Vol. Ixv, 1896, by E. D. Mac.agan. %The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe,
Society, 1899.

by Foster, Halkuyt

140

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
reciting the creed of the faithful

commenced

After expressing himself as above, he directed Sadr

Jahan once more to repeat the Kalmd, and he recited the solemn text himself with a voice equally loud and
distinct.

He

by Koran, together with the Adeildh prayer, in order that he might be enabled to render up his soul with as little struggle as possible. Accordingly, the Sadr Jahan had finished the Sara Neish and had last words of the
prayer on his
lips

his pillow the

then desired the Sadr to continue repeating Surd Neish, and another chapter of the

when with no

other

symptom than a

tear drop in the corner of his father resigned eye, his soul into the hands of his Creator."*

my

The

discussion then boils
:

was a Muslim

Muslim, died as Muslim. To say that he
benefit of the prayers of

down to this that Akbar Born as a Muslim, he lived as a a Muslim and was succeeded by a
'passed

away without the
or sect'
is

any

church

a gross

misrepresentation of facts.
*

Tuzk-i'Jahangiri, trans., Major David

Price, pp.

75-76.
;

Also see A. Yusuf

Ah

in

/. of

E.

I.

Assoc.,

July, 1915, p. 309

Darbar-i-Akbari, by M. Muhammad Hussain Azad, p. 36 ff.; and Tarikh-i-Hindustan, M. ZakSullah, vol. v. pp. 808 ff. I may appropriately point out at this place that recently some doubts have been cast on the genuineness of the Memoirs o/

Jahangir, which Major David Price translated in 1829 A. C. and from which I have reproduced the above extracts. They are regarded as spurious by some and as genuine by others. It is not easy to ascertain the truth. However, on the question

whether Akbar died as a Muhammadan or passed away without the benefit of the prayers < t any church or sect \ the evidence of the two contemporary Christians quoted above is conclusive, unless their accounts too are called in question.
*
' '

CHAPTER

VIII

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
to realize that the existing

(CONTINUED)

A dministration
Akbar did not take long
Introductory.

system of government,
strength
of

based on the
.

standing armies,

each
central

,

commanded by

a

general

who

occupied

a

position in his province

and cared uiore

foi his

personal

aggrandisement than for the interests of the empire as a It was woefully whole, was absolutely unfounded.

wanting
cared

in

the

principle

of

unity and cohesion.
prejudices

It

secured no attachment, conciliated no
little

and

for

the

faith

and

feelings,

customs and

traditions, ideals

and aspirations

of the sons of the soil
all

and,

therefore,

remained without root, exposed to

storms oi misfortune. Considering carefully the pros and jons of the old system, he evolved an entirely new system
quite in consistence with the spirit ot the age

and the

He built up an empire and sentiments of his subjects. a nation not oil the foundation of swords and military
terrorism
subjects.

but

acquiescent good- will of his In Indo-Islamic history he has always figured
of

on

the

as a
his

champion not
subjects and,

any

particular section but of all

as

such,

he

is

recognised

to

the

present day. cut off from active

There was not a

single person

who was
It will

sympathy

with him.

be

hard to find a

parallel, either in

ancient or in modern

142

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
and construc-

history, to the far-sighted statesmanship

tive administrative genius with which he fashioned and set in motion the wheels of his government The Emperor himself was at the helm of civil as well He was as military administration.
.

Government.

the fountain-head of
religious

authority,

both

and

secular.

His

powers

were unlimited and his

will

number
than

of ministers, but
pupil,

was irresistible. He had a he was their teacher rather

their

marvellous

suggested by Smith. organization, which he effected
as
is

The
in

his

government,

was mostly the

outcome

of

his

own

extraordinary genius.
'

He

but his autocracy fell He secured the greatest happiness of the cracy He was indeed the beau ideal of a greatest number.'
:

was, no doubt, an autocrat, little short of Banthamite demo-

statesman.

couched

in

methods of administration were humanity and fellow-feelings. He employed
His
his

the services of a set of brilliant officers in the various

departments of

administration.

The

Vakil was

the highest officer, next only to the Emperor. He was, so to say, the Vice-regent, Chancellor, or Prime Minister.
did not hold any definite portfolio but, like the Vazlr of the Abbassides, acted as the alter ego of His Majesty

He

in

important administrative
in

affairs.

His counsel was

sought

serious

situations.

Below

him

was
of

the

Diwdn,
the

the Chief

Revenue

Officer, or the Chancellor of

Exchequer,

who

controlled

the finances

the

Empire, superintended the state treasuries and audited He regulated the fiscal policy and decided all accounts.
revenue matters
in

concurrence

with

the

Emperor.

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

143

a separate office where all revenue papers, and dispatches were received from the various parts of the Mughal Empire and disposed of under his
returns

He had

personal supervision.

The
of

Paymaster-General
Secretary of
bills

the

BaJchshl was, so to say, the Imperial Army, and the
officers

War

rolled into one.

of all civil

and military
Besides his
:

As such, the salarywere examined and

passed by him.
of

own

duty, he performed a

odd jobs he assigned positions to military number commanders before the battle, laid the muster-roll before the Emperor and looked after the recruitment of

new

soldiers,

though

it

did

not

fall

to his duty

to

The Khdn-itake command himself in the battle-field. Sdmdn was, as the word implies, the Superintendent of He was in charge of the Imperial household Stores.
establishment and had the entire control of the Royal Mess and other supplies. He accompanied the Emperor
in all his

tents

and

out-door undertakings and managed his food, He was also the head of His stores.
stiff.

Majesty's personal

The Sadr-i-Sudur was

the

might be highest judicial officer in the Empire. called the Lord Chief Justice of India at the time of Akbar. The Mohtasib was the censor of public morals.

He

and foremost duty consisted in seeing that the Sfiariyat was properly observed and the Muslim Law
His
first

was obeyed in its entirety. He suppressed public immorality by punishing those who drank, those who gambled and those who paid court to dancing-girls. Besides these, there were some other officers who held different portfolios of the Mughal Government. Their
duties cannot be detailed here but their

names

will give

144

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
They were the Awdrajah Nawis, or
:

a sufficient idea of the naturp thereof.

Mustaufi, or Auditor-General
of

;

the

Superintendent daily expenditure at the Imperial Court; the Nazir-i-Buyvtat, or Superintendent of the
Imperial Workshop ; the Mushrif, or Revenue Secretary, or Admiral and Officer the Mir-i-Bahri, of the
the

Harbours the Mlr-i-Barr, or Superintendent of Forests Qur Begi, or Superintendent of the Royal Stud
;

;

;

the

Kiiawdn Salar, or Superintendent of the Royal Kitchen; the Wdqd Nawls, or the News- Writer, and
9

the Mtr-i-Arz, one

who
i.e.,

-presented

all

petitions to His

Majesty

brought

b'y

those

who

wished to lay them

before the Euiperor,

Secretary.

For purposes
Gowranfent.

and effective administraabolished the system of Akbar tion, and parcelled out the assigning jagirs
of efficient

Mughal Empire
Subahs, as they were then called.
replica of the

into

provinces

or

Each Subdh was

a

Empire was a sovereign on a small

in all respects,

scale. $

and each Subdhddr The Subdhddr was

officially

known

as Sipdhsdldr.

As a representative of tiie

Emperor, he exercised unlimited powers as long as he enjoyed that office. His jurisdiction embraced civil as
well as military department. He in-Chief of the provincial forces
judiciary.

was the Commanderand the head of the

own
war,

could appoint and dismiss officers at his sweet will. But he was not authorised to declare
or

He

make

treaty,

inflict capital

interfere

in religious matters.

punishment, or These were imperial

questions
sanction.

and were
Next

referred* to the

in order of

Emperor for his importance was the Diwan,

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

145

who

acted

responsible

independently of the Subahdar and was to the Central Government He was in
all

charge of the revenue and finance departments and

new appointments and
him.
bills of

dismissals

therein

rested with

'He possessed the power of the purse, and all payment were signed by him/ Besides, he
after

looked
officers

such

judicial

functions

as

the revenue

and
all

collectors

were entrusted with

and

tried

almost

revenue cases.

When

at a

certain point he

came

into conflict with the

Subahdar, the point was
for

referred to the Central

Government
his

decision.

The
Each

provincial BaJchshl had the same status ,and performed
similar

functions

as

Imperial

prototype.
thfe

province had a Sadr,

who was deputed by
Government

Sadr-i-

Sudur

of the

Central

to administer the

provincial Sayurghals.

He was

quite

independent of

Subahdar and the Diwdn and had a separate He looked after the welfare of the office of his own.
the
rent-free

Jdglrddrs and regulated public

charity.

He

commanded great influence and respect in the The Amil was the revenue collector. He was

province.

entrusted

with the task* of maintaining general law and order by
suppressing highway robbery and other similar crimes, ascertaining the extent of the area of land under the

plough, reclaiming waste lands, promoting cultivation, punishing illegal exactions in the collection of land
revenue, and submitting monthly reports
rates of

regarding the

market prices and the economic condition of the people to the Central Government,
tenements,

146
,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
control and systematise the machinery of govern-

To

ment more minutely, each Subah was
Administration.

sub-divided

into

several

Sarkdrs

of

to our

Pargands modern

or

Mahals.
District

and each Sarkar into a multitude The Sarkdr corresponded

and was

administered

by the

Faujddr.
as military.

The
As a

duties of the
civil officer,

Faufddr were civil as well he assisted the Sipdhsdldr
According to Professor

in maintaining

law and order.

the only commander of a military Sarkar, force stationed in the country to put down smaller

"he was

rebellions, disperse or arrest robber gangs, take cogniz-

ance of
force to

all

violent crimes,

and make demonstration of
the
censor."

overawe opposition to the revenue authorities
criminal

or the

judge

or

Though

his

appointment as well as dismissal rested with the Subdhdar, he was required to keep himself in direct

communication with the Central as much as with the Provincial Government. The Kotwdl was the custodian
of public peace.

His duties were multifarious.

As a
was
to

Policeman-in-chief, his

first and foremost duty and detect, punish prevent crime, to trace the abouts of all offenders and evil-doers, and to He kept the life and property of the people.

whereprotect

watch

over the movements of strangers, patrolled the city at
night to prevent theft and robbery, examined weights and measures, kept a register of houses and roads, and

took care of the property of the heirless
missing persons.
in certain cases.

deceased and

He
The

also exercised magisterial powers

Bitikch* held the expected to

same

status

as the

A mil.

He was

have a

thorough

JALAL-UD-DIN
knowledge of the customs Sarkdr in
good accountant and a
consisted
in

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
in

147

in force in the

vogue and the regulation? He must be a hi* charge.

facile writer.

His chief duties
of

supervising the

work

the

Qdnungos,

preparing revenue abstracts and submitting a report to the Court every year. The Khizdnddr, also known as

Potddr, was the treasury officer. He received payments from the cultivators, issued a receipt for every payment

made and
absolutely

kept a ledger in order
accurate.

to

He

could

keep his accounts not make payment

unless he received

a voucher

The

Waqa Nawis was
When

1

signed by the Dlwan. the recorder of events and

occurrences.

Waqa Nawis
down
to

the Sipdhsdldr held his court, the took his seat near him and penned

the proceedings on the spot and submitted them the Central Government. There was a regular

army of these officers and it was through them that the Emperor acquainted himself with the events that took
place
in

his

various

officers,

who loomed

Other important provinces. in the subordinate services, large

were the Karkuns, the Qdnungos, the Muqaddams and the Patwdrls. All these were revenue officers, but in addition to this, the Qdnungo was the head
of a

Pargand and the Muqaddam was the head

of

a village.

Akbar appreciated and rewarded merit from whatever sources it was evinced, irrespective Imperial
of caste or creed. The Imperial Service was not the monopoly of the ruling class. It was open to all men of merits, rulers or ruled. No ban was

put on the Hindus.

Those among them, who deserved,

148
were entrusted

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
with
the
highest
of civil as well

as

As appointment to every post rested military posts. with the Emperor, he used his judgment independently
in

By

the selection of the pick for the Imperial Service. opening careers to talents he secured the services

of the best brains of India

and outside.

If

the different

departments
efficiently
in

of

the

Mughal

the

time of

Government worked Akbar, it was because the
in

Imperial
efficiency.

Service

was maintained
conduct
officers

a high

state of

While
.

the

of

all

civil

and

military

was

Secret Service.

to the subject J

scrutiny
...

of

the
of

sovereign,
secret

there

was

still

a

separate

department

intelligence.

There

were several scouts
State
officials

actions.

who watched the movements of and kept the Emperor informed of their The Subahdars also employed spies in order

to

acquire information about the working of the administrative machinery and to prevent corruption. so well that almost
all

The system worked
officials

Government
the

tried

to be honest in their dealings with

people and the Emperor.

Akbar himself was the fountain of justice. His was the highest court of appeal, and Administration of
law and
justice.

everyone could have
tried all

free

access to
civil suits,

him.

The Sadr-i-Sudur
by a
set of

important

especially of religious character.
assisted

The Qazi-ul-Quzat,

Qazis and Muftis and Mir-i-Adls, disseminated justice in accordance with the Code of

and sifted the evidence, the Mufti expounded the law and the
Islam.
investigated

The Qazl

the

case

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

149

Mir-i-Adl delivered the judgment. The proceedings were usually verbal and there were no professional lawyers
as

we have
for

awarded

or whipping.

The usual punishment days. minor crimes was detention in prison Fines were not unknown, but were rare.
in

these

The
and

sentence of death was awarded for treason, rebellion
wilful

murder,

by

the

serious cases were referred to

All Emperor himself. him and he could annul

or reverse the decisions of the lower courts.

The

punishif

ments

inflicted

were

certainly severe,

very severe

judged by modern notions of criminal law and procedure, but they served as excellent deterrents.

Akbar was deeply
Promotion of
education.

interested in the

education.

promotion of Schools and colleges were
richly

founded and
educational

endowed.

Not

only were the

renowned

was

institutions provided with the entire system of education but professors, In the first place, the curriculum reformed.

was so modified
themselves
ambitions.

as to enable the

students to equip
their

intellectually

according to

aims and

was so improved that

Secondly, the modus operandi of teaching it took comparatively very little

time to acquire a fairly decent education. Stipends and scholarships were granted to deserving students and

arrangements were made for the free education of poor Provisions were also made for the education students.
of

Hindu students in Muslim schools and Persian was made a compulsory subject for all. Women's education was not neglected. The Emperor himself maintained a
school
in

girls'

his

own
was

palace
diffused

at

Fathpur

SikrI.

Technical education

by the system of

150
apprenticeship.
'

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

There existed a welUorganized
In
all

system of postal
.
.
.

service in India at the time of Akbar.
Postal Service.
.

the serais along the imperial routes horses were kept to provide a regular mail-service in order to acquaint the Emperor of the important events
that took place in the far-flung provinces of his empire The Waqa Nawis sent daily dispatches to the Central

Government through the horsemen or mail-servants Swifter, perhaps, employed especially for the purpose. On every than the horse-post was the foot-post.
imperial

highway there was,

at

an interval of

six miles,

a post-office, called Chowkl. Every runner, who brought the imperial dispatches, placed them on its floor and the

runner appointed to go to the next Chowkl picked them up and set off at full speed without delay. Thus were
the news transmitted.

At night time the runners were and protected by the avenues of trees planted on guided either side of the roads. Where there were no trees,

heaps of stones were set up at a distance of every five hundred paces and ,kept white- washed by the residents
of

the neighbouring

village.

Thus

it

was that the
;

runner was often swifter than the horseman
in the

for at night

dark the former ran on undeterred by darkness

or storm, but the latter was compelled to ride slowly.

This system
stability

worked

so

well

that

it

secured

the
in
It

of the

empire by
the

keeping

the

Emperor
him and

close

contact
as

with

provincial

governments.

served
subjects.

a

connecting link ^between

his

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
of

151
trans-

The
Means
of

principal

means

communication and

communication
transportation.

portation were roads and highways, Tfaey were , ooked after fay the p ubHc

Works Department.

Great

arterial

roads linked the remotest parts of the Mughal Empire over myriads of miles. Special care was taken to At secure the life and property of the travellers.

convenient
hostels,

roads along stages public important with fruit-gardens, water-tanks and provision-

shops, were built and separate arrangements were made for the lodging and messing of Hindus and Muslims.

Rivers were also availed of for popular traffic and trade purposes, but chiefly where the nature of the country
did not permit of proper road-making. Previously, the various mints had been under the
Imperial Mints

char e
.

of

minor

officials,

called

and

their

administration.

Chaudharis, who did not possess sufficient rank and personal weight to

secure satisfactory administration. Abolishing all local coinages, Akbar established five imperial mints in

Bengal, Lahore, Jaunpur, Gujarat and Ahmadabad and them to Todar Mai, Muzaffar Khan, entrusted

Khwajah Shah Mansur, Khwajah Imam-ud-Din Hussain A responsible Master of and Asaf Khan, respectively. of the Mint was appointed at the Capital to exercise
and the person
quently,

general administrative control over the provincial mints selected was Abd-us-Samad. Subseseveral

modifications were

introduced in the

mint regulations.

The

result

was an extremely varied
of

coinage, excellent as regards the purity fullness of weight and artistic execution.

metal, the

152

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
Police Department

was maintained

in

a most

...

F

satisfactory state.
officer

The

principal police

have been described at

was the Kotwdl whose duties some length. He was assisted

by a number
manifold

of subordinate officers in discharging his

authorised to employ spies in order to obtain information about the actual state of
duties.
affairs in

He was

the

cities.

The Kotwdls worked

so efficiently

that 'order
safe,

and security prevailed in cities, business was and foreign merchants were well protected '.
crowning
,

The
1 he
,

achievement

of

Akbar

as

an

T Land

administrator was the reorganization
of the land revenue system.
It

Revenue System.

was

indeed

the

greatest

boon

that he

But it presented no conferred on the people of India. new invention. Strictly speaking, neither Akbar nor his revenue ministers are exclusively entitled to the tribute
a they have exacted for having evolved so elaborate Sher Shah Suri must have his due share, for system. it was he who made a systematic survey of the land

under cultivation and

laid the

foundations

on which

Akbar raised the superstructure. As he died too soon, much of his excellent work was destroyed by the
anarchy that followed his death. At his restoration, Humayun found the empire divided into two parts,

and Jdglr land and the timewas in vogue. When honoured Akbar ascended the throne, he resumed the work of Sher Shah and accomplished what the latter had only His principal revenue officers were Itirnad attempted. Khan, Muzaffar Khan TurbatI and Rajah Todar Mai.

Crown

land, or Kb.dlsd

;

practice of crop division

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

153

The one
his

served under Sher Shah duwng and had acquired considerable short-lived regime
last
affairs.

named had

experience in revenue

In order to elaborate
Its

the
four
:

existing

land

revenue

broad

J L

.

basis.

system '
necessary

things

were
a

found
correct

(1) to

make
whole

paimdish

(measurement)
(3) to fix

of

the

land

under

cultivation, (2) to ascertain the average produce of each

bighd of land,

and

(4) to fix

the share of the State per bigha, the equivalent for the share of the State so

money. In order to survey correctly the entire area under cultivation, the instruments of mensuration were improved. The Jarlb, joined together
fixed in terms of

with iron rings,

was adopted as the standard landmeasure and the land survey was carefully done on its

basis.

To

ascertain the average produce per bigha, all

the cultivable land was divided into four classes, viz.,
(i)

Polaj, which

was constantly cultivated

and was

never allowed to remain fallow, (ii) Parautl, which was left fallow for some time after continuous cultivation,

(M) Chachar, which was allowed

to remain fallow for

about four years in order to recuperate, (iv) Banjar, which remained out of cultivation for more than five
years.

All these four classes were dealt with differently.
:

The

two were further divided into three grades The good, middling and bad, according to fertility. average of these three grades was to be the estimated
first

basis of produce per bigha and this was to serve as the the For example, suppose the assessment. yield from the good grade of land is 60 maunds of wheat per bigha, from the middling it is 45 maunds per bigha and

154

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

from the bad grade it is 30 maunds per bighd. Now the total produce from the three grades together is
135 maunds. The average produce per bigha, therefore, maunds of wheat. The remaining two classes is 45 were treated separately, inasmuch as they were not equal to the first two classes in point of fertility and the
produce
raised.

progressively.

Their revenue was to be increased only In the assessment of the land revenue,

other circumstances were also taken into consideration,
e.g.,

access to

water,

situation, etc.

Great care was

taken to apportion the different descriptions among the The all. peasantry in such a way as to give benefit to
average produce per bigha having been ascertained, the share of the State was fixed at one-third of the aggregate

produce for good. To revert for a while to the example cited above, the average produce per bigha, as worked One-third of this is 15 maunds, out, is 45 maunds.

which

is

the share of the State,

i.e.,
it

mahsiil.

Having
to

fixed the State

demand

in

kind,

was necessary
this,

commute

it

into cash

payment.

To do

statements

of prices current for ten years preceding the survey were

sent for from each

produce due to

town and every village, and the the Government as its legitimate share
for

was commuted

payment according to the At average of the rates shown in those statements. times the commutation was reconsidered at the request of the peasant and he was allowed to pay in the produce rate was fixed too high. if he thought that the cash The commutation business was done by Government
cash
officers

and

the

cash

rates

were

fixed

by

them.
rates

Different rates were fixed for different crops.

The

JALAL-UD-DIN
for barley

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
different

155

and wheat were
This

from those of indigo

and

was the first or tentative sugarcane. settlement made by Rajah Todar Mai and Muzaffar

It Gujarat during 1573-75 A. C. served as a model for the rest of the Mughal Empire

Khan Turbati
in

in

subsequent years. It was known as the Zabti system of assessment as against the Nasaq and Ghalldbhdsha.

The system
At
first,

of farming was abolished and the collectors were instructed to deal directly with the agriculturists.

the settlements were
recurring

regularly

annually. But since and measurements, valuations

made

assessments of individual holdings were found to be vexatious and cumbersome, the settlement was soon

made decennial on
of

average payments This preceding decade (1571-80 A. C.) alleviated another evil inherent of term the prolongation
the

the basis of the

in the existing

system
it

:

since

the
it

assessment varied

with the kind of crop cultivated,
tithe

had the

effect of

a

inasmuch as

indisposed the cultivator to obtain

a richer description of produce, which, though it might yield a greater benefit, would have a higher tax to pay
at

the

made
and

Arrangements were succeeding settlement. to record with great assiduity the measurements

classifications detailed above.

The

distribution of

land and increase or decrease in the land revenue were
entered
regularly
in

the

village

registers.

The

of paying the State share in cash or kind as they pleased, but the latter

husbandmen were allowed the option
of

method

payment was

preferred,

because

it

was

beneficial both to the payer

and the payee.

They were

encouraged to bring their rents personally to the State

156

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
low

at definite periods so that the malpractices of the

intermediaries

might

be

prevented.

If

they thought

that the

were
they

in

amount claimed by the State was too high or any way dissatisfied with the average fixed,
insist

could

and valuation

on the actual measurement, division of their crops. They were exempted
the

from a number of obnoxious taxes and ensured easy

means
rents

of access to

Emperor
them.

in

case

exorbitant
cases

were

collected
full

from

In

many
to

rebates

on the

demand were allowed
suffered

them,
floods,

especially

when the land

from droughts,

inundations or famines, or remained out of cultivation
for certain reasons.

Besides liberal allowances, Taqqavl

loans were

granted to
to

them from the State treasury

to

purchase seeds, cattle and agricultural implements, and were recovered in easy instalments. When famine was rampant, remissions were common in
enable

them

the case of the poor and public works were constructed Akbar stationed to afford relief to the famine-stricken. a

Dlwan

in

each Subah and entrusted him with the

task of collecting the State revenues and remitting them In to the Chief Dlwan of the Central Government.

each Sarkdr an Amil, in each Pargana a Qunungo and in each Dastur a Muqaddam, assisted by other revenue the officers, collected the State demand and remitted

These officers were Treasury. not instructed to deal kindly with the cultivators and

same

to the Imperial

'

to extend the

hand of demand out
in

of

season

'.

To
Crore

facilitate the collection of the State revenues, the empire

was parcelled out
(

parts,

each

yielding

a

= 10,000,000) of dams

(=Rs.

250,000 or

25,000) and

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

157

having a collector, called Qrori. Formerly, the revenue Henceforth they w~re accounts were kept in HindL
kept in Persian.

The importance
Importance of
the ^System.

system as organized Akbar merits by perfected a careful consideration. In the realm

of the revenue

and

of administration

it

Akbarian Age.

It

the most enduring glory of the was twice-blessed It benefited the
is
:

State as well as the peasantry.

The

share of the State

being fixed for ever, fluctuations in the land revenue and frauds on the part of the revenue officers were
prevented.

Consequently, the Imperial Treasury was enriched and the prosperity of the peasani. increased by

leaps

and bounds.

We have
and

seen

how Akbar commenced
'

career with-

Military Reforms.

definite territory. out any J

To
.

recover

his patrimony, to establish his autho-

rity

to restore

law and order the need
four

for a well-

organized

army can be
(ii)

better imagined than described.

The
(i)

Imperial Army had
Artillery,

important

divisions
(iv)

:

Infantry,

(Hi) Cavalry,

and

Navy.

The

infantry consisted of

Banduqchls Shamsherbaz or swordsmen, Darbdns, or porters, Khidmatyds or guards of
Imperial
Palace,

or riflemen,

the environs
wrestlers

of

the

Pehalwans,

or

and Kahdrs or doli-bearers. The Emperor himself acted as the Commander-in-Chief and had a number of commanders under him, called Sipdhsdlars. The artillery was in charge of the Mir-i-Atash or
Ddroghd-i-Topjckdnd (Superintendent of Ordnance Department), who was

158
assisted

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
by another
officer of

importance called

"The Mir-Atask laid before the Emperor all demands made on his department all orders to it passed through
;

him.
diaries

He

pay-bills and inspected the of the Arsenal before sending them on to the

checked
or

the

Khan-i^Saman
ings
of
losses

Lord Steward.
force

He saw

to the post-

the artillery
deficiencies.

and

and received reports as to The agent at the head of the

artillery

pay-office

criptive rolls

hands

;

all

by him. The desof artillery recruits passed through his new appointments and promotions were

was nominated

made on his initiative. The cavahy constituted
Cavalry
* t ^ie I

the
i

most important
'

part

m P er a

Army. The Mansabshort
description of

ddri System, a

will nothing presently follow, was excellent organization of the cavalry.

which

but

an

Akbar maintained a well-organized
of

fleet in

order to

defend the coasts against the

Maghs

Mundalgarh. charge of an

Arakan and the Portuguese from The Naval Department was placed in
officer called

Amir-ul-Bahr,
to

or Admiral,

whose

fourfold duty

was

provide vessels capable of

carrying elephants ; diagnosing the temper of the sea

to appoint expert
;

seamen

skilled

in

and

to superintend the remission of tolls and duties. large

guard the rivers, imposition, the realization and
to

The Emperor gave

a

number of Pargands to the Amir-ul-Bakr to meet the requirements of his department. The fleet was maintained at an annual cost of Rs. 8,40,000. The
ship-building industry received a

considerable attention

JALAL-UD-DJN
of the

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

159

Emperor. The important ^hip-building centres were Lahore, Allahabad, Kashmir, Bengal and That f a banks The vessels were the of the Indus) (on
their

variously classified according to
strength.

kind,

size

and

Naval

batteries

were installed and

sailors

were recruited from the sea-faring tribes. There was also an elephant corps.
. ,

It

was main.

Llephant corps.

i

tained

The

high state of efficiency. elephants were organized into
in
,
.

a

groups of ten, twenty or thirty, commonly called Halqds, Some of the Marsabddrs were asked to or circles.

maintain a
a fixed

certain
of

number
horses.

of elepnants in addition to

number

All

elephants

had

their

names.
Literally, the

word Mansab means
dignity, or office.

place,

rank,

Mansabdari
System.
cers,

The Mansabddrs,
offi-

(rank-holders) were administrative
in civil work,

normally engaged
to furnish the

but each of them

number of troopers of which he held The Mansabdari System, therefore, imthe Mansab. were bound to render military plies that civil officers
had
service

whenever they were called upon to do so. On paper there were as many as sixty-six grades of Mansabddrs,

but

in

actual

practice

only

half

the

number

(thirty-three).

Of

these, the first three grades, ranging

from 7,000 to 10,000, were reserved for the members of Sometimes exceptions were made to the Royal family.
this rule

and men

of extraordinary merits were admitted

to the rank of 7,000.

Rajah Todar Mai, Rajah

Man

Singh, Mirza Shah
held the

Rukh and Qulich Khan, for instance, Mansab of 7,000 each. The Mansabddrs were

160

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

paid regular salaries from the State treasury and were req^ired to pay the cost of their quota of horses, elephants,
beasts

of

burden

and

carts.

Their

appointments,

promotions, suspensions and dismissals rested with the

Emperor, who enforced

his regulations in respect of the

Mansabddrl System with great strictness. The Mansab was granted for personal ability and military merits. The sons of the Mansabddrs It was not hereditary. had to start anew, independent of their fathers' services In connection with the Mansabddrl System or status. two there are important terms, viz., Zdt and Sdwdr,
which have
baffled the ingenuity of scholars in distin'

guishing betwsen. Dr. Ishwari Prasad only approximates The Zdt was the personal rank the truth when he says, of Man*abddr, but to this was added a number of extra

which an officer was allowed to draw extra allowance, and this was called his Sawar rank.' Besides the Mansabddrs, there were some other soldiers, generThe ally foot, known as the Dalzhlis and Ahddis. of number soldiers in former formed a fixed charge of
horsemen
for

the Mansabddrs.
latter

They were
a
class

paid by the State.
himself

The
for

constituted

by themselves. by the

They were

gentlemen soldiers, enlisted
his personal service.

Emperor

The system
System of payment.

of assigning jdglrs to the officers of the

State

was abolished by Sher Shah __ , , Suri only to set in after his shortAkbar did not like a lived regime.
,
.

f

system which put so much power in the hands of the Jdglrddrs and diminished the revenues of the State. He

resumed the/d&tfs, which were, so

to say, states within

JALAL-UD-DIN
states,

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
the Khdlsa, or

161

and converted

their, into

Crown

lands, fixing cash

salaries for his officers.
:

There were,

Officers claiming kindred however, a few exceptions with the Emperor or enjoying his favours and such

charitable institutions as schools

and seminaries were

granted jagirs ment from them.
If

since no danger accrued to the Govern-

the

Mansabddri System worked well because the Emperor took
safeguard against Or pen to. False muster
.

it

was

care to
it

brandmgTo^es
and keeping
descriptive
rolls.

the

abuses

was
evil

was an

from which the Mughal army must check this he revived the system To have suffered. of branding the horses in the service of the State and of keeping descriptive rolls of the troopers and their horses,

by Ala-ud-DIn Khiljl, continued by Gbiyas-ud-Din and reintroduced by Sher Shah Sun. A was created and placed separate department of branding
first

introduced

under a separate Btf&hs&i and a Darogha. Descriptive rolls of officers were prepared and their names, parentage,
caste, residence

Likewise
prepared

and personal description were entered. Chirahs (descriptive rolls) of horses were

and the details of their descriptions were At the time of inspection the marks on the entered. body of every soldier and his horse were compared with It can be those detailed in the descriptive rolls.
gathered from the

Am

that elaborate rules were

made
like,

in respect of admission, inspection,

muster and the

of

horses.

The Emperc*
his
officers

himself inspected
to

the horses

and ordered

look after them

and

to

maintain their military efficiency.

CHAPTER

IX

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
of art

(CONCLUDED) Literature and Fine Arts
Akbar was a great patron
Introductory.

and

literature.

The contemporary
most renowned
artists

chroniclers

have
of

preserved for posterity the

names

some

of the

and scholars

whom

As one the Imperial Court took under its warm wings. one comes across a large reads through their accounts

number
of the

who sought and Court without fail. The
of those

artistic as

secured the patronage well as the

literary productions of that period are still

admired

for

their

excellence.

Here

it

is

intended to give a short

account of literature and

fine arts,

without which no
less

account of Akbar can be called complete. Great as was Akbar's love ol learning, no
Literature.
.

was

j ij which feeds on knowledge and feeds knowledge again, and becomes a valuable asset to the His reign was remarkable for its cause of civilization.
/
i

his fondness for fostering literature,

j/j

literary activities.

Numerous books on

various subjects

were written, compiled and translated under his auspices, and historical literature of a very high order was the
result.

'AlUmah Abul
Akbarnamah.
fascination

Fazl's

hook

of

Akbar,

called

Akbarnamah,

will

and charm as a minute

always retain its account of the

JALAL-UD-DIN
customs and
historical

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

163
>

traditions ol the people of India. Thp of this work has been importance excellently

set

forth
:

by one of

its

translators

in

the following

words
'

It crystallizes
Its historical

and records
statistica i

in brief for all

time the
besides

state of
itg

Hindu

learning, and,
utility>

importance.

serves

as

an

admirable treatise of reference on numerous branches of

Brahmanical science and on the manners, beliefs, traditions, and indigenous lore, which for the most part still
retain

and

mind.

long continue their hold or\ the popular Above all, as a register of the fiscal areas, the
will

revenue settlements, and changes introduced at various periods, the harvest returns, valuations and imports

throughout the provinces of the empire,
indisputable as
its

its

originality

is

More

surpassing historical importance/ valuable than the Akbarndmah is the Ain-iii

which

is

by

far the finest fruit

of the Emperor and partly a minute partly a history record of the revenue, royal household, treasury, military

regulations
of

teachings.

and other important matters, with a gazetteer India and -a collection of His Majesty's sayings and No other work gives a better and more
its

elaborate pen-picture of contemporary India

lore,

customs,

traditions,

etiquette,

cookery

recipes,

and

religious innovations

under the pompous style of Court

Apparently a fiscal manual Journal, than this book. of all the departments of the State and its industries, it
is

much more than

that
It

an encyclopaedia.

a history, a gazetteer, nay must form the foundation of every
;

it is

164

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
his reign.

book written about Akbar the Great and

The

Tdrilch-i-Alfi,

a

history of the

millennium

j j * u -iju Akbar, was ordered to be compiled by a company of distinguished scholars singled out by the Emperor, including the reluctant Badaoni. The important events of a thousand years of Islam were accordTankh-i-Alfi. ~"

from the dawn of Islam to the days of

from the Athnd-i-Ashariyah point of view and the chronology was reckoned from the date of the of his Prophet's demise and not from the date
ingly related

emigration, *&, Hijra. Apart from these books,
at this
,

- ,. , A by Abdul Qadir ; a commentary on the Ayat-ul-Kursl, by Abul Fazl and and his letters ; the T&bqdt-i-Akbari by Nizam-iid-Din Ahmad and the Mun&iat of Abul Path are some of the
Other books.
.

many more were written time. The Tdr%l$h-i-Baddom,
,
, .

secretly written

other

literary

monuments

produced

at

this

time.

Historically, they constitute a great asset to this reign.

Akbar extended every possible encouragement to those engaged in the work of translaTranslated
^j s dj rec tion several copious from other languages. Persian works were translated into Khan-i-KhanSn Abdur-Rahlm put into Persian the
t j on>

versions.

^t

Wdqiydt-i-Bdbari (Memoirs of Babar) from the original Turkish for the first time and presented the Persian version to his Imperial patron, who was not slow in
rewarding him handsomely for his labours. The Jamd-iRashidi was translated into Eersian from Arabic by

Abdul Qadir and the Mu'ajam-ul-Buldan, a geographical work of singular charm, by Mullah Ahmad Qasim

JALAL-UD-DIN
Beg,

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

165

Shaikh

scholars.

Munawwar, Abdul Oadir and many other The celebrated Shahndmah was turned into
into

prose

and the Hayat-ul-Haiwan was rendered
literature just as
<

Persian.

Akbar patronized Hindu
...... , Hindu Literature.
...

much
it
,

as

Muslim. In order to encourage
also to

and
r

religious

and

social

exchange of promote ideas and ideals between the Hindus
free

a

and the Musalmans, he ordered the translation of many an important Sanskrit and Hindi book. Here are a few instances Faiz! and a number of learned Brahmans
:

put their heads together

and turned

into

Persian

from

Sanskrit an episode of the Mahabhdratd, called Nail Damyanti, after the manner of Laild and Majnun.

and
In

1582 A. C. Akbar ordered the whole of the
translated into
Persian.

epir

to

be

Having

invited

some

erudite

Pandits, he gave them directions to indite an explanation of the copious epic and for several nights, says Dr. Law, he himself devoted his attention to explaining the meanMullah Sben, Abdul Qadir, ing to Naqib Khan.' Sultan Haji Thanes war! and Shaikh Faizi were constant*

ly

engaged

in

its

translation.

When

the arduous task

was accomplished, the Great Shaikh wrote its epilogue and the book was rechristened as Razmndntah, or the Book of War. When the Imperial Court was at Kanauj,
(then

known
to

as

BadSoni
Persian

translate

Akbar Shergarh), the Singdsan

commissioned
Battisl
into

with

Parshotam,

help of a Brahman scholar, called When the rendering was complete, it

the

received the appellation of Khirad-afza-ndtnah, or the Book of Increasing Intelligence. Above all, the Rdmdyana

166

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
in

was put into Persian by BadaonI

1589 A, C.

After

*our years' strenuous labour che Lilavatl (a treatise on arithmetic), the Bhagvatagita and the Atharvavedd

were rendered into the language of the Court by Faizi

;

the history of Kashmir, called Rnjtarangini, written by Kalhana, was translated by Maulana Shaikh Muhammad

Shahabadi;

the Panchatdntra, or Kaliladamnah, was also done at this time by N asm 11 ah Mustafa and Maulana Husain Waiz. The translation of the book last-named being difficult, an easier adaptaA tion was also made under the name of Ayarddnish. f Tables he Astronomical of of was Beg Ulugh portion the translation of
also translated into

Persian

Amir Fathullah
Josh!,

SbJrazI.

under the supervision of The Sanskrit works of Kishu

Gangadhar and Mahesh Mahananda were turned The into Persian under the guidance of Abul Fazl. of the Persian version was also for the latter responsible Holy Bible. The Haribansd was also put into Persian.
mentioned above being Illustrated complete, they were profusely embelversions. Hshed with charming illustrations and supplied with beautiful bindings. They were then placed
translation of the books
in

The

versions

The elaborately illustrated Imperial Library. of the Mahabh&ratd, now called Razmndmah, were given gratis to the nobles of the Court. Among
the
Persian works, the story of
etc.,

the

Amir Hamzah, Zafaralso

ndmah, Akbarndmah,
illustrations.

were

decked with

Imperial Court was a 'iterary focus because the Muslim CourtEmperor was a prominent patron of Scholars. letters. By means of his extensive

The

JALAL-UD-DIN
generosity he

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

167

had drawn around him a galaxy of famous The author scholars, historians, philosophers and poets. of the A In has given a list of as many as one hundred and forty learned men and about sixty poets whom the

Emperor
a brief
of

raised above want, even to affluence. Here is account of some of the most brilliant luminaries
:

His Majesty's Court

The

ablest

and the most renowned among the literary magnates was Akbar's intimate
friend

and confidential

Fazl, the celebrated author of

Abul the Ain-i-Akbari and the
adviser,

Akbarndmah.
of wide culture

He

ranks

among

the greatest Persian

scholars that India has ever produced.

He was

a

'

man

and pure spiritual ideals '. Dr. Smith compared him with his 'junior contemporary/ Francis Bacon, for combining in his person 'the parts of His and man of affairs '. scholar, author, courtier was a magnatic personality, permeated with an almost
has

mesmeric

force.

The judgment

of

posterity

on

his

penmanship is admirably summed up by the author of the Ma'sir-ul-Umara in the following words " The Sheikh (Abul Fazl) had an enchanting
:

literary style.

He was

free
;

from

secretarial

pomposity
his words,

and epistolary
the

tricks of style

and the force of

collagation

of the expressions, the application

of

single words, the beautiful

compounds and wonderful
would be hard
for

power of

diction,

were such as

another to imitate.
Persian words,
it

As he strove

to

has been said of

make special use of him that he put into
the
greatest

prose the qualities of Nizaml."

The

talented

Shaikh

was indeed

168

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
His unique
literary

writer of the day.

achievements

assign
India.

him a

The

place splendid in the literary history of reason why some of the Westerners have

failed to appreciate the linguistic

to be found in the fact that Persian
their captivating style,

beauty of his works books, with

is

all

enchanting metaphors and pure cannot stand the ordeal of translation, vigorous diction,

and

as

Prof.

Blochmann

justly

remarks,

'a

great

familiarity not only with the Persian language but with

Abul Fazl's style is required to make the reading of any of his works a pleasure Abul Faiz, known in history as FaizI, the elder
'.

~ A Abul Faiz.
.
.

,

brother of Abul Fazl, comes next in
order of merit.

the Imperial Librarian and the Persian Poet-Laureate of the India
of his time.

He was
arts

His inquiries into Hindu

and sciences

form a most conspicuous part
age.

of the literature of that

He

translated a

number

of Sanskrit

and

Hindi

books on mathematics and other sciences into Persian.
giant whose literary d He was great book-lover and, activity was prodigous. like all other bibliophiles, he took immense pleasure in

Truly,

he was

an

intellectual

the collection of useful books in a library of his own. On his death about forty-six thousand ^volumes were

obtained from his private collection and removed to the
Imperial Library.

Shaikh Mubarak, the learned father of Abul Faiz and Abul Fazl, was a man of no Shaikh
Mubarak.
versed
riddles.
in

He was wellordinary learning. Persian prosody ariJ the art of composing
was an adept.

In mystic philosophy he

He

JALAL-UD-DIN
was one
of the

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

169

enemy, Mubarak."

curious anecdotes. "

most delightful companions, being full of " I have known ", says Badaoni, his no man of more comprehensive learning tfcart

Khan-i-Khanan Abdur-Rahim, son of Bairam Khan, was an accomplished scholar in many A n r J Abdur Rahim.
,

,

.

languages.
versant
Brij

He was

with

Persian,

Arabic,

thoroughly conSanskrit, Turkish and
the

Bhasha.

The Kabits and
in vernacular

Dohas

of

his

composition

simply bewitching and a deal of originality of thought and display good style. He was an excellent writer of nrose and verse alike.
are

wrote under the pen-name of Rahiml. The best of works was the Persian translation of the Waqiydt-iBdbari. The Khan was an energetic promoter of
his

He

learning

and an

eminent

patron

of

letters.

The

'ninety-five literary personalities enjoyed his patronage in various ways, and

Maslr-i-Rahimi records that
to

many more came
Abul Path

him

to

become

his pupils.

Masih-ud-DIn Abul Path was another
Akbar's Court, about

litterateur of

whom both Abul

Fazl and Badaoni supply us with a favourable information. He was considered among the
best writers bf the day.

A

rare

copy of
the

his

Mun&iat
of

has been carefully
poet
of Shiraz,

treasured

in

library

the

Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Urfi, the

renowned

was

his

encomiast; Faizi

composed a

heart-rending elegy on his death ; and the himself offered a prayer at his tomb not
reasons.
It is

Emperor
without

a sufficient proof,

if

proof

is

required, of

his literary genius.

170

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Over and above those mentioned above, there were numerous other gens de lettres at Court-Scholars. Court the They were Ilpperial Abdul Qadir, Bairam Khan, Pir Muhammad, Amir Mir TaqI SharifI, Maulana Kher-ud-Dm Ruml, Shaikh Abun-Nabi Dehlawi, Mirza Muflis, Hafiz Tashqandl and Mullah Sadiq Halwi, all endowed with varied
Other Muslim

accomplishments.
Akbar,

who always appreciated and rewarded merit and made no distinction of creed or
colour in choosing his officers, cannot
,
.

Some Hindu
Court-Scholars.

,

.

,.

^

be
genius unremunerated
literature.

said to
for their

have
friends

left

Hindu men

of

achievements in arts and

He
'

selected his

and advisers from

among

both

Hindus and
a*

Musalmans, and as Smith
'.

justly remarks,

with a leaning in favour of the former
greater

His Court exhibited
scholars than

assemblage

of

Hindu

any other Muslim Monarch in India had Here is a list of some of ever been able to produce.
:

them

With the exception
1 odar Mai.
-,
.

of

Sufi
,
f

Brothers
.

(Abul Fazl

.,

,

Service.

He
the

and Abul Faiz) Rajah Todar Mai J was the ablest man in the Imperial was unquestionably* the most 'distinguished
,

among

Hindus,

wielding his

pen

as

well as his

sword with equal skill. He was a consummate scholar of Persian and is credited with the Persian translation of the Bhagvatapurdna. Hitherto, the Hindus had not
evinced

any

real

interest

in
*

learning

Persian,

the

exclusion

language of the Court. This meant their practical from the loaves and fishes of the State

JALAL-UD-DIN
Service.

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

171

By means
to

of an extensive
in

and persuasive pro-

paganda he succeeded
take seriously

inducing his co-religionists to
the Imperial language.
to shine in the

the

study of

The Hindus,
of literature

accordingly, began

domain
to

and not a few works have come down
is

us the authorship of which
Blr Bal
_ _ BirBal.
,

ascribed to them.

was another learned Hindu attached to the Imperial Court. His intellectual r
gifts,

uncommon
the

as they were, soon
circle of

won him
friends.

a place

in

innermost

Akbar's

He was a past-master of witty-sayings and in that capacity he is remembered to this day. He was a > musician, a poet, a conversationalist, a story-teller and
all

a clown,

rolled in one.

His Majesty had conferred

ate.

upon him the title of Kabrdi, i.e., Hindu Poet-laureHe was a man of extraordinary eloquence and rare
intelligence.

Other Hindus of
Other Hindu
Scholars and Tulsi Das.

literary repute, who were the recipients of Imperial favours in the form of jagirs, mansabs and posts,

were

R

j

"

Singh, Rajah author of the time," the says greatest " does not Hindu seem the Tulsi Dr. Smith, Das, poet,

Man

Bihar!

ah BKagwfin Das, Rajah Nath, etc. Mai, Han

But

to

have

been

known
epic,

to

Akbar personally."
an enduring
It
is

The
in

Ramcharltamanas, or
from the Sanskrit
field

the Hindi
is

Rdmayana, adapted
glory

the

of

Hindi

literature.

regarded

as

'the

great national work of the Hindi-speaking population of India '.

172

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Another distinguished poet of this time was Sur Das, the blind bard of Agra. The

simple and pathetic figure of this remarkable poet next continued the line of Hindu poets in Muslim India. Devotion to Krishna in its entirety
the keynote of his poetry. Be it said to the credit of the Emperor whose friendly attitude towards Hindu
is

learning

afforded

development of contemporary, Sur Das, passed their days undisturbed under the Mughal Rule, the former in the celestial
Benares, and the latter in Agra, plying their occupations
in peace.

for the opportunity Hindi literature. Tulsi Das and his

a favourable

Akbar was endowed with an
Painting.

exquisite aesthetic

n

.

.

genius, b
.

He had
from
f

developed a strong
,
.

.

,

,

artistic taste

his very early days.

His views on
41

the art of painting

are characteristically
:

expressed in his

own words by Abul Fazl as follows There are many that hate painting, but such
do not
like.

men
as
it

I

It

seems to

me

that a painter has,

of recognising God ; for he, that has life and in devising its in painting anything limbs, one after the other, is ultimately convinced that he cannot bestow individuality on his cieation and is

were, peculiar

means

thus forced to think of God, the giver of life." He gave the first definite spur to what came to be
.,
.

Mughal School
of Painting.

.

.

.

known
*

on as the Mughal *- School He founded and enPainting.
later
.

.

dowed a State Gallery under
personal care and control.

his

own

The
the

celebrated Persian fore-

runners and

inspirers of

new

art

soon coalesced

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAK
talent,

173
with the

under the influence of the Indian native
result that the Indian

Mughal School Proper was born, which has continued to our own days.
As the might and means
his visions
'

of the

Emperor

increased,

Painting

of Imperial palaces began tO take sha P e and ver y SOOn the need

was
architectural

felt

to

ornament them
splendour.
of

with

paintings and pictures of

unparalleled
of

The
Slkrl
ele-

monuments
decked

the

Town

were accordingly

with pictures

in

Fathpur which

gance was wedded to beauty. He encouraged the painters with bonuses and increase of their salaries in
proportion to their progress in their pursuit of painting. In the Painting Gallery which he constructed, painters

assembled from

far

their art so as to

and near to emulate one another in become more proficient in it The

Mughal magnificence is now a thing of the past, but the Town the remains of the mural decorations of
of

Victory, among many others, memorials of that glorious age.

stand as

splendid

Among
Prominent
painters.

the most prominent painters, patronized by the Emperor, may be mentioned Mir

Sayyad AH Tabrez, who illuminated the Dastan-i-Amir Hamzah Daswant, who could paint and Barwan, a rival of Daswant figures even on walls in his art. Khwajah Abdul Samad and Kesu were other
;

;

famous painters attached
victories achieved in the

to the Imperial Court.
field

The

of

this

art

have been
Ain-i-

strikingly
11

set forth in

an exacting passage
:

in the

Akbarl, which reads as follows

Most

excellent painters are

now

to be found

and

174
masterpieces the side of
painters

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
worthy of a Eihzad may be placed at the wonderful works of the European have attained world- wide fame More

who

than
the
or

hundred painters have become famous masters of
while the

art,

number

of those

who

reach perfection,

of

those

who

are mediocre,

is

very great.

This

is

particularly true of the Hindus, their pictures surpass our conception of things," The art of music reached the summit of its splen.

Art of music.

A

f

dour under the Imperial patronage. r r o
.

It

encouragement from the Emperor, who himself was highly accomplished in this art and had an adequate knowledge of its " " His Majesty," says Abul Fazl, technicalities. pays

received considerable

music and patronizes those who Hearing of his bounty, numerous practise musicians hailed from Persia, Turan, Kashmir and other
attention
this

much

to

art."

Mughal Court. They belonged to both the sexes. Some of them were Subhan Khan, Sarud Khan, Sri GiSn Khan, Mian Chand, Mian Lai, Daud Dhari, Muhammad Khan Dhgri, Mullah Is'haq Dhari, Nanak Jarju, Bites Khan, Tantarang Khan, Rang Sen, RahmatBut the all experts in this art. ullah and Pir Zadah most skilled and proficient of them all was Mian Tansen, the matchless musical gem of Akbar's Court and the
places to the

By the greatest musician that India has ever produced. said his voice he is (metaphoribewitching sweetness of
cally

speaking)

to

have

set

the

Jumna on

fire.

His

tomb

in Gwalior has become a place of pilgrimage for Besides Tansen, there the later-day musicians of India. flourished in his time two other famous singers, Ram

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR
bi:lbuls ot the

175

Das and Hari Das, the
Instrumentation of

Mughal Darbar. a very high kind and bewildermost
disting'

ing variety has been a

uishin g feature of Indian music
principal
6tn, flute,

The
:

musical

instruments were

ghlchakj karana, qabuz, sarmandal, surna,

tamburah, rabab, and qdnun. The best instrumental performers were: Shaikh Dawan Dhari, Shihab Khan. Purbin Khan, Ustad Dost of Meshed, Mir Sayyad AH of
Meshed, Bahram Quli of Gujarat, TSsh Beg of Kipchak, Bir Mandal Khan of Gwalior, Ustad Yusaf of Herat,
Sultan Hashim of Meshed, Ustad

Muhammad

Husain,

Ustad

Muhammad Amin,
Qasim.

Abdullah and

Ustad Shah Muhammad, Mir As to the use to which the

instruments were put, nothing can be definitely said, but their high and complex kind certainly points to a
It is just possible that some developed state of music. of them were invented in this very reign, e.g., Qasim is reputed to have invented an instrument intermediate

between rabdb and qabuz.
divers

The

vocal

music with

its

fashion and
for

rags and ragnls, some of which are now out of many of which have long been forgotten
of
cultivation,

were popular in those days ; music was equally indulged in. The Darbarl music, which became so popular afterwhereas instrumental
wards, was introduced at this time.

want

The

Indian

Hindu-Muslim
social intercourse

music, like other fine arts, proved a new channel of intercourse between
the

Hindus
process

and
-

the

Musalmans.
^.
,

through music.

The

,

intermutation

was not a new

co-operation and thing in the time of

of

I/O
Akbar.
It

IHfc,

MUUHAL,

had begun centuries before. In the domain of music it became distinctly perceptible how the two communities were borrowing from each other the precious stores they possessed in this art, and thereby
enriched each other.

Khiyal, for example,

which was

invented by Sultan Husain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur, has become an important limb of Hindu music. Dhrupad,

on the other hand,
music.

has engrafted

itself

on Muslim

Calligraphy as a separate branch of the fine arts had been cultivated by the Musalmans in Calligraphy. / India ever since their advent in this
.

,

.

.

country.
particularly

Akbar encouraged the
the
'
'

art

of fine

writing,

hand, the obvious reason nastallq invention of the printing that before the the fact being

press

and

its

introduction into India, clear,
necessity.

legible,

and

beautiful

hand was an absolute
it

It is idle to

linger long over this art as

has long ceased to be recogits

nised as a fine art.

It is
it

equally futile to enter into
to say that
it

various forms.

Suffice

received

its

due

share of encouragement from the Emperor.

Akbar loved buildings and,
Architecture.
A
.

like

a cultured prince,
.

A

he

possessed
;

a

architecture.

" Abul Fazl, plans splendid edifices of his mind and heart in the garment of stone and clay." Smith informs us that this imposing phrase
not merely a courtly complement that the historian is paying here. It is sober truth and is endorsed by Fergus' son, who describes Fathpur Slkri as a reflex of the great
is

for unique taste ,1 His Majesty, says and dresses the works

mind

of the

man who

built

it.'

Even

architecture speaks

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

177

for Akbar's statesmanship,

aiming at Hindu-Muslim Unity. His buildings were characterised by a happy blending cf Hindu-Muslim styles. They combined both Hindu

and Muslim
sometimes
architecture,

features, of

which sometimes the one and

the
if

other
there
his

predominated.
are

was any,

The style of was eclectic. The existing
fewer

monuments
be
expected,

of

execution

than

might
several

the

of his superb edifices
his

grandson, from those of his grandfather. The best that have survived are the tomb of Ilumayun, the most
differed
:

being were subsequently pulled down by Shah Jahan, whose canons of tastes

reason

the fact that

Persian in style and renowned for the simplicity and purity of its design ; the magnificent Masjid with
its

classic

Buland
"

Darwaza

or

the

Lofty

Portal,

appearance noble beyond that of any portal attached " to any mosque in India, perhaps in the whole world ; the Jahangm Mahal at the Agra Fort ; the Tomb
in

of Shaikh
at

Salim Chishtl
;

;

the

handsome mosque
;

erected

the Palace of Jodhabai ; the Central Hall of Akbar's original Palace the Liwdn, or Service-

Fathpur Sikri

portion of the Great Mosque at the Town of Victory the beautiful Masjid built at Mirths in RajputanS ; the
;

Tomb

of

Saint

Muhammad Gbaus

at

Gwalior

;

the

of Sati-burj, immortalizing the self-immolation of a wife Rajah Bihar! Mai ; the Hall of Forty Pillars at Allahabad ;

the

House

of Bir Bal

;

the four temples of Gobind Dev,

Madan Mohan, Gopi Nath and
honour to the
deified KrighnS
' ;

Jugal

Kishor,

doing

and above
are

all, his

own

tomb
India

at SikandarS, either

quite unlike
or

any other tomb
considered

built in

before

since/

as the

178
moist
period.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
admirable specimens
of

the architecture of that

Most of the monuments
_
Gardens.
Sikri
,

enumerated above
at the

had
_

beautiful gardens within their premises.

The gardens
and those
at

town

,

of

^

Fathpur

Kashmir may
earth,
it is

Sikandara and the Naslm Bagh at be mentioned among those fortunate places
'

on which the popular remark,
here,
flits
it is

if

there

is

a paradise on

here/ has repeatedly been passed.
reign,

Thus
Estimate
of Akbar.

the pageant of a

the

panorama

of Akbar, his achievements in the arts r n r j u* war as well as of peace and his

contributions to the cause of Indian
culture

and

civilization.

His

was a systematic and
literature,

deliberate policy of
painting,
fine
arts,

promoting

architecture,

music,

dancing, calligraphy, poetry and other which made considerable progress under

his patronage.

What

gave

a tremendous impetus to

these fine arts was his catholicity of mind which, soaring above the snares of sectarian psychology, appreciated

and encouraged true worth without making invidious
distinctions.

The widespread

diffusion of education, the

extensive
perfect

promotion of fine arts, the maintenance of religious freedom and liberty of conscience, the

abolition of the hated Jizia

and other obnoxious

taxes,

the

Sail and female infanticide, the prohibition encouragement of widow-remarriage, the extinction of
of

the

evil practice
trial

of

enslaving
ordeal,

the

prisoners

of

war
of an

and that of
restoration

by

the

introduction

elaborate system of land
of law

revenue,

and above

all,

the
of

and order and the establishment

JALAL-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AKBAR

179

peace and prosperity throuchout tlie length and breadth of the Mughal Empire by the introduction of such wise
innovations
as

issued not from a Parliament, a Cortes

or a States-General, but from the head of one man whose era was that of Queen Elizabeth, Philip II and Louis XIV, whose age was that of religious intolerance, rigid Inquisition and ruthless persecution, and whose evironments were those of malice, tyranny and oppression are

the

index

of

a genius

annals of the world.

From

unsurpassed in the whatever side we approach

him, whether as a man, a soldier and a statesman, or as a philosopher, a military commander and a political administrator ; or as a reformer, a legislator and a peace-

maker, the conviction is forced home on us that he was really one of those few inspired personalities of bupreme
have, as it were, In view of his revealed the future to their present age. contributions to the wisdom of the world and the
science of humanity, he has been called the 'guardian of mankind '. As a protector of Hindu learning, as a promoter of Hindu civilization, as a patron of Hindu

powers and singular endowments

who

genius and, above all, as a social reformer of Hinduism, the Hindus have recognised him a hero after their own
hearts.

CHAPTER X

NtJR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGlR
A.C.)
intrigues,
all

(16051628
Having put down
Accession of

political

Salim

ascended the throne of his father at

Agra;

1606.

Agra on the 24th day of October, 1605 A.C. under the proud title of World Grasper '. At Jahangir, or
'

that time he

was

thirty-six years old.

His addiction to

wine and indulgence in luxuries afforded little prospect but his natural abilities, combined of a happy reign with his liberal education and strong common-sense,
;

amply
the

qualified

him

to

Mughal Empire
In
order

to
to

carry on the administration of the entire satisfaction of his

subjects.

secure the
to

sympathies
protect the

of

his

co-religionists,

he

promised

Muslim
of his

religion

;

to

alleviate

the suspicions

and

fears

and trusty officers, he confirmsd them appointments and to gain the goodwill of his Hindu subjects, he extended his pardon to men
father's faithful friends
in their
;

like

Rajah Man Singh, who had espoused the cause of He abolished a number of obnoxious Prince Khusrau,

taxes,

granted a general amnesty and instituted a gold connected with a cluster of bells, in his chamber chain,

receive the petitions of aggrieved persons with a view to redress their grievances. The chain of not have been justice might frequently pulled by the
in order to

importunate suppliants, but the Emperor's interest

in

the

NUR-UD-DIN
dissemination of justice

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
is

181

sufficiently borne out

by

it.

These
.

acts were
.

accompanied by twelve ordinances,
,

-

,

Dastur-ul-Amal.

popularly J called the rules of conduct, ,/ , ^ ^ (dastur-ul-d mdl), which the Emperor
,
.

,

,

ordered to be strictly observed by his officers throughout his extensive empire. According to them (1) Jahangir forbade the levy of several customs and transit duties of vexatious nature and of the oppressive tolls and cesses
their
(2)

which the landlords of every province had imposed for own benefit and increased at their own sweet will.

ordered the Jdglrddrs to encourage in every possible way a residential population along solitary roads by erecting rest-houses, mosques rnd wells, and
for the purpose. (3) He of to the merchandise be bales strictly prohibited opened the consent of their transit the without owners. during

He

providing

other

facilities

whereby the property of the deceased was appropriated by the State and ordered that henceforth it should go to the rightful If anyone died without heir, his property was heirs.
(4)

He

abolished the

existing practice

madrasahs.

used for the repair and reconstruction of mosques and (5) He forbade the manufacture, sale and

consumption of such spirits and intoxicants as opium and wine throughout the kingdom. (6) He prevented

and Jdgirddrs from misappropriating the lands of the ryots and cultivating them on their own account.
his officers

ordered the construction of State hospitals in all the cities of the Mughal Empire a number of Govern(7)
;

He

ment

dispensaries

werp established

and provided with

paid physicians. (8) He prohibited billeting ; henceforth soldiers were not to be stationed in private houses.

182
(9)

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

abolished the barbarous punishments of mutilation by which the limbs of offenders were amputated and their eyes were put out. (10) For a certain number
of days in the

He

animals.

forbade the slaughter of certain (11) put a ban on inter-marriage by ordering that officers of the same pargana should not marry within their own pargana. (12) By a regular

year he

He

firman he forbade, on pain of capital punishment, the
horrid
practice
of

making

and

selling

eunuchs,

which was prevalent
servants
certain

at Sylhet in Bengal.
offices of his

Finally,

he

confirmed the jaglrs and

father's faithful
in

and increased them by 20 per cent and cases b*> 300 and 400 per cent.
his
.

Having secured
_.

succession
.

First Nauroz.

Ar

popularity in
of
f
,

and planted his the hearts and the minds

his

subjects,

Hindus as well as

Muslims, Jahangir celebrated the first Nauroz of his reign with great pomp and show amidst ecstatic rejoicings at

March, 1606 A.C. The festivities lasted for over a fortnight and were finally crowned with a lavish bestowal of gifts and presents on the grandees

Agra

in the

month

of

of the

Empire by tne Emperor.
be
recalled

*

It will
,

that in

1605 A.C. a party ot
.

_ Khusraus Revolt.

Ram Das, Rajah J ... T ., Murtaza Khan, Sayyad KjQan, Qulich Muhammad and Mirza Aziz Koka, and headed by Rajah Man Singh, had intrigued against the accession of Sallm in favour of his son, Khusrau, but had failed. Though
nobles, consisting * of

the father and the son were reconciled after the death of

Akbar, there was no love lost between them. The former thought that he was irreparably wronged by his son

NUR-UD-D1N

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

183

impetuous youth would not rest on He could not forget to his* him oars. allow that he had once contested the claims of his father.

the latter's fiery spirit and

manners and attractive carriage had made him extremely popular and the cynosure of
Moreover, his engaging
not
a

few

officers

of

Rajah Man
Koka,
as

Singh and
son
of

As a nephew of importance. the son-in-law of Mirza Aziz
'

a

the

delicice of the people,'

the amor et Emperor, and he was the centre of sedition and

the pivot of
or driven

political

intrigue.

by despair, or from Agra in 1606 A.C. and marched towards Lahore at the head of as many as three hundred and fifty

Actuated by ambition, goaded by both, he escaped

At Mathura horsemen, gathering strength on his way. he was joined by not less than three thousand horsemen
<

*k

under their leader, Husain Panlpat he was joined by the
ly,

Beg

Badakhshani.
of

At

Diwdn
his

Abdur Rahim, who was on

Lahore, nameway towards Agra.

At Taran Taran he received the good wishes of Guru Arjan, the editor of the Granth Sahib, and also some
pecuniary
opposition.
help.

At Lahore he encountered a serious
Dilawar
Khan,, the

When
to

juahore, refused

siege to the city

open the gates and burnt one of

governor of of the city, he laid

was reinforced by Said Khan
week.
After that,

its gates. Dilawar and the siege lasted for a

when
in

the Prince learnt of the arrival

of his father, he fled towards the
to stir

North-West
His

in order

up opposition

that

quarter.

flight

was a

serious matter for the

Emperor who feared the Uzbegs
Negotiations having failed, the came to grips at the battle of

and the Persians
father

there.

and the son

184

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

The rebels were routed and put to flight, Bahjowal. and the Prince had a narrow escape. His jewellery-box and other valuable things formed a considerable part of
the booty obtained.
ists

After a hot pursuit, the imperial-

succeeded

before the

The

eyes
in

and producing him capturing and hand-cuffed chained heavily. Emperor of the royal captive were sewn, and he was
in

thrown
treated.

prison.

His accomplices

were

ruthlessly

Guru

Arjan,

who had
distress,

was

Execution of

Guru Arjan.

^ Court
.

helped Khusrau in his dire called to the Imperial
i

,

to explain

uhis

conduct.

j

j.

His

TT-

property was
fined at the instigation
of

confiscated

and he was

Chandu Shah, whom he had
his

annoyed by refusing

to to
'

marry

The Guru
last

declined

pay a single

son to his daughter. cowrl and was at

It must suspicious proceedings '. be remembered that his execution was not the outcome

executed for his

of religious

bigtory but

was due
if

to

political

reasons.

Dr. Beni Prasad has justly stated that the

Guru would

have ended

his

days
rebel.

in

the cause of a
of the
first

he had not espoused peace, But the murder was a mistake
It stirred

up the Sikhs against the Mughal Empire and had no mean share in mouldmagnitude.
ing the subsequent history of the Punjab.

Qandhar was conquered by Akbar in 1595 A.C. Its loss was deeply resented by the Under their King, Shah Persians. Abbas, who was one of the greatest
Asiatic
rulers

of his

time,

they

made an attempt

to

NUR-UD-DIN
recover
it,

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
because
it

185

but

failed,

Shah Beg
resorted
to.

Khan,
In

When
order to

was ably defended by failed, diplomacy was gam his end, the ShSh made
force

overtures and exchanged sugar-coated compliments with the Mughal Emperor, who was thrown off his guard;

and as a necessary

sequel,

the

defences of

Qandhar

were neglected. In 1622 A. C. the Shah again attacked Qandhar and took possession of it without encountering
Jahangir ordered his son, Khurram, to accompany the expedition against that far off province. The Prince thought that hi? absence would ensure his
opposition.

exclusion from the throne

and

therefore refused to

obey

the

Imperial
Niir

orders.

His

refusal

was

fully availed of

her son-in-law,

Jahan who wished to secure the succession for Shahryar, the rival and opponent of the Prince. She poisoned the ears of her husband against

by

him and convinced him that

his son meditated treason.
effect that

The Emperor
the

at

once issued an order to the
in

Prince

should send

forces he

had with him

back to the Capital all the the Deccan. Khurram hesi-

tated

and again Niir Jahan found a chance to inflame iTiis time she sucher husband's mind against him.
in securing for

ceeded

Shahryar the

fief

of

Dholpur which
also persuaded

Khurram had long
of twelve thousand to put

desired to obtain.

She

her husband to promote her

son-in-law to

the

mansab

Zdt and eight thousand Sawdr, and head of the campaign against Qandhar. All these circumstances combined to horrify the Prince
him
at the

who now found safety in He tried to allay father.
making apologies

submitting to the will of his the anger of the Emperor by

for his past conduct, but the backstair

186
intrigues of
rebellion.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Nur Jahan drove him As a result, Qandhar was
to recover
it.

to break into
lost

open and no attempt

was made
^

The crowning
Conquest of Kangra.
as an

exploit of the reign of Jahangir

was

indeed the

of Kangra in the conquest ^ b Punjab, which commanded an excellent situation and enjoyed a wide

reputation

important
in

centre

of

Hindu worship.
was

Murtaza Khan, who was

charge of the Punjab,
;

entrusted with the reduction of Kangra but owing to the opposition of the Rajputs, he could not make headway
against the
liill-chie's

in possession of the strongholds

that surrounded the

famous fortress of Kangra. After took place a little later, Prince which Murtaza's death, Khurrani was appointed to the command of the Kangra

campaign. The hill-chiefs of the surrounding strongholds were defeated and the formidable fortress inside

was besieged.
were cut
off,

The supplies of the beleaguered garrison so much so that they were compelled to

feed themselves on boiled dry grass.

After a protracted for over a year, the inmates of the siege, which lasted to such straits that they found reduced were garrison
safety in

submission.

The conquest
Premier
u-

of

Kangra wab

accomplished in In Mewar, the
Subjugation
of
v

November, 1620 A. C.
State
A Amar

of Rajputana, the

heroic

Rana Pratab was succeeded

Mewar.

Rana

Singh, at Udaipur in the year 1597 A. C. The new he While his father. would not was as patriotic as

by

his son,

O-U^TTJ-

submit to the Muslim yoke, Jahangir could not tolerate the existence of an independent and rather hostile State

NUR-UD-DIN
on the border of

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

187

Reruming the ambitious an attack on the principality, putting his son, Prince Parvez, in command of the Mughal army and providing him with The Rajputs offered a stout ample war material.
policy of his predecessor, he ordered
resistance,

his empire.

and
,

after

an

indecisive

battle a truce

was
of

concluded

between

the

belligerents.

After

a

lull

about two years war was again declared against Mewar. This time the supreme command was entrusted to

Mahabat Khan who defeated the Rajputs but failed to accomplish anything substantial owing to the mountainous

Mewar
also.

The ill-success of the country. campaign was due, to a considerable extent, to the
nature of the

frequent changes in the command of the Imperial army In 1614 A.C. Prince Khurram received oHers to

an expedition against Mewar. He opened the campaign with renewed energy and fresh vigour. Aided
lead

by able military officers, he established strong military posts round Mewar and cut off the supplies of the Rana
in

order

to

starve

the

State

into

submission.

His

military tactics took the Rajputs by surprise

and reduced

the

Rana

to

put an end to the war

such a state that he expressed his desire to in which victories were as costly

as defeats. Negotiations were opened for peace. The Rana agreed to acknowledge the overlordship of the Mughal

Emperor and

sent his son, Prince Karan, to the

Mughal

upon the Emperor. He also agreed to contribute a contingent of one thousand horse to the
Capital to wait

Mughal army. In return for this, the fortress of Chittor was restored to the Rana and his son was enrolled as a commander of five thousand. He was not forced to

188
enter, into a

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
matrimonial
alliance

with

the

Emperor

;

rather, he was exempted from personal attendance at the Mughal Court on account of his old age. Not only

Emperor treated him in a most chivalrous In order to remove the humiliation of defeat and to do special honour to his vanquished foe, he caused two full-sized portraits of the Rana and his son to be carved in marble and set up in a garden at Agra
this,

the

manner.

below the Jarukhd (audience window). Jahangir's " is conduct in this affair," observes Dr. Ishwari Prasad,
wholly worthy of praise. Mewar had given the Mughals no small amount of trouble, but the emperor forgot the past and adopted a conciliatory policy in dealing with
the

"

R&na.

"

honoured

his

chivalry, Jahangir as as well himself. In appreantagonists

By such

acts

of

against Mewar, Prince Khurram was honoured with the appellation of h.ah Khurram and a mansab of thirty thousand. Quite in consistence
ciation of his success

with the condescension of his father, the Prince received the son of the Rana with all respect and treated him

bestowed upon him a of a honour, jewelled sword and dagger, superb dress and a horse with a gold saddle and a special elephant '.
with marked
generosity.
It will

He

*

be remembered

Deccan campaign.

Akbar had conquered and KhSndesh. Ahmadnagar, His ambition was to advance further
that

Berar

South, but immediately after the capture of Asirgarh, he was obliged to go back to the North, where his son, His absence from the Salim, had rebelled against him.

Deccan adversely

affected
failed to

The

imperialists

the Mughal position there. follow their successes with

NUR-UD-DIN
vigour.

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
t>"e

189

When

Jahanglr came to
of his
first

throne, he resumed

the forward policy

father

against the
;

Deccan.
in

Ahmadnagar was

to be

attacked

but

Malik

Ambar

the imperialists found a tough foe and a military leader of the first water, one whom it was not easy to

overcome.

A word might

be said here about the
.,-

abilities of

_

Malik Ambar.

,

,

A

Malik Ambar, the Abyssinian minister

and
Nizamshahl
matters of
activities

military
of

j commander

of

the

Kingdom
importance,

Ahmadnagar.
as

Age and exmilitary

perience had enabled him

to acquire a deep insight into

civil as well

His

tration.

embraced almost every department of adminisHe was a great financier. His multifarious

reforms have earned him fame that cannot be tarnished.

His most remarkable achievement was the re-organizaIt tion of the revenue system in his master's kingdom. was modelled after that of Akbar the Great. His
political

elicited

acumen and sagacious statesmanship have But he was admiration e TT en from his enemies.

no mere administrator.
rr

He was
rare

also

endowed with a

genius Marhattas in the
!itary

;

of

a

order.

He

enlisted

the

fighting force.
of fighting of the

army and organized them into a He trained them in the guerilla mode
entire military

and revolutionized the
introducing
if

State by

reforms

system where necessary.
in retrieving

No

wonder, therefore,

he succeeded

the

fallen fortunes of the

Nizamshahl

dynasty of
the
lost

Ahmadterritory

nagar.
of
his

He was
king

speedily recovering

when

JahangTr

ordered

an

expedition

against him.

190
-

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Khan-i-Khanan /bdur Rahim was entrusted with
the supreme
__

command

Ahmadnagar.

of the Imperial

army.
Malik

He was

totally

defeated by

Ambar owing

to the rebellion of

Prince Khusrau.

Jahangir replaced

him by Khan Jahan
in

assumed the offensive with fresh vigour A combined attack was to be delivered on AhmadPrince Parvez and Khan Jahan were to march nagar from Khandesh, and Abdullah, the governor of Gujarat, was to proceed from his own province. The plan matured a little too soon for the latter advanced before the fixed time and vvas defeated by Malik Ambar. The
:

Lodhi, who 1611 A. C.

;

imperialists were compelled to beat a disgraceful retreat.

Abdur Rahim, who had been recalled from the scene of operations, was reappointed to the command. The veteran Khan forgot the past and earnestly undertook
to
retrieve

the

prestige

of

the

Mughal arms
in a
;

in the

Deccan.
battle,

He

defeated the

enemy

hotly contested

but again he was ordered to withdraw for notwithstanding his brilliant success, he was accused by

his

enemy

of having accepted the Deccani gold in bribe. of Prince
after his

In
the

1617 A.C. Jahangir detailed

command

Shah Khurram
Assisted

another army under Khurram who had become success in the Mewar campaign.

by able imperial generals, he compelled All 'Adil Shah to accept the terms of peace dictated by
the

Emperor

The Shah waited
him presents

in

person upon the

Prince and offered

of the value of fifteen

lakhs

and promised to cede all the territory which Ambar had seized from the Mughal Empire, The Mughal Emperor bestowed upon him the title of
Malik

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

191

Farzand
the
title

(son)

services of Prince

and treated him with great love. The Khurram were duly appreciated and
conferred upon him.

of

Shah Jahdn was

To

do him

special honour, Jahangir

poured

over his

head a

small tray of jewels and a tray of gold (coins) from the The Empress held a special feast in his Jhartikha.

honour and showered upon him some valuable presents. Other officers were, likewise, rewarded without stint for
their

services.
to

'Behind
quote

rewards,'
fact, that
spirit

profuse gifts and Dr. Ishwari Prasad, lay the hard
all

these

'

the Deccan was not conquered, and that

the

of

Malik

Ambar was

as

unbroken as
to the

ever.'

The campaign terminated in 1629 A. C. of Jahangir and Ahmadnagar was lost
Empire.
After his revolt,
_
,

after the death

Mughal

Prince Khusrau had been thrown
prison.
.

into

Subsequent career of Prince Khusrau.

Not long afterwards he
.

succeeded

in

winning the hearts of his

f

his

father.

The
his

captors and organizing a plot against The Prince was plot miscarried.

blinded
tatter,

and

accomplices

were ^arrested.

Of the

only four were executed.
of his
rebellion

With
off

the lapse of time,

the

memory

wore

and the fatherly
eyesight of the

affection

having again
partially

revived,

the

Prince was
efficient

restored

through

the

skill

of

an

and he was permitted to pay his He was regarded as every day. the heir-apparent and the future sovereign of Hindustan. Shah Jahan resented this very bitterly. But he had neither
physician,
respects to his father

the power to dissuade his father from his intentions, nor

192

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the attractiveness to dislodge his brother from the place he had found in the hearts of the people. Nur Jahan, who

push the claims of her son-in-law, Shahryar, She hated Khusrau from the very nature of the case. succeeded in supplanting her husband's affection for his
wished to

pay he on the that showed no of signs pretext respects he was always mournful openness and happiness and and dejected in mind '. In 1616 A.C. he was made
'

own son with
his

hatred,

and Khusrau was forbidden

to

over to the custody of his most relentless enemy, Asaf Khan, and in 1620 A.C. he was transferred to his hostile
brother,

Shah Jahan, who had him murdered
Burhtinpur,
giving out,

in

1622

A.C. at
burial

died of colic pain (Qulanj).

He

had however, was accorded a second
that he
relented

when

his

father,

Jahanglr,

and

felt

compassion for him. His remains were removed to Allahabad and interred in a garden, since known as

Khusrau Bagh. Khusrau was indeed
.

one
to

of

the most captivating

His character.

,

figures of

tribute

the present reign. r his character
prince,

Terry's J
is

well-

deserved.

Says he
of a

'
:

For that

he

was

a

gentleman
Saetonius

very lovely so exceedingly beloved of the
the very love

presence and

fine carriage,

common
was amor

people that as
et delicice, etc.,

writes of Titus, he

and delight of them, aged then about He was a man who contented himthirty-five years. self with one wife who with all love and care accompanied him in all his straits, and therefore he would never take any wife but herself, though the liberty of
his religion did

admit of his

plurality.'

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANG1R
rebelled in

193
in

Usman, who had
Rebellion of

1599 A. C.

the

reign of Akbar in the remotely

removed
b^n
Singh,

P rovince

of

^g*
by
the
desire

1

but

had

suppressed

Rajah
of

Man

owed outward
but
secretly

allegiance

to

Mughal

Emperor,
the

cherished

the

reviving

Afghan

rule in India.

He

harboured

bitter hostilities

against the

Mughal Empire and aimed

to destroy

it

root

and branch.

He

rallied

round himself the rebellious

The rapid Afghans and Zamlndars of Bengal. of in that enabled him change governors province In 1612 A. C. to fortify his position without fear.
again

he

made an attempt
In
the

to overthrow the

Mughal
the

dynasty.

engagement
'

that

was

fought,

Mughals were victorious over the Afghans. Usman was so great was his composure that fatally wounded, but
even
in

this

condition
his

he
for

continued
six

to
',

direct

the

movements
defeated,

of

men

hours
their

On

being

the

enemy

retired

to

entrenchments

where

their
in

gallant leader died of exhaustion, leaving

them

a state of confusion.

This was the

last

Afghan

Jahangir was so much rising against the Mughal Rule. pleased with Islam Khan, the governor of Bengal, and
his officers

who had

suppressed

it

that he raised their
stint.

ranks and rewarded their services without
treated

He

the

Afghans with kindness and

conciliation.

without They were taken As a result of this policy, the Afghans restrictions. were completely won over and the security of the
in the service of the State

Mughal throne was ensured.

194

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The Memoirs of Jahang^r and
the

Iqbdlnamah
the bubonic
firgt

Outbreak

of the

concur

in recording that

bubonic plague.

p j ague broke Qut j n India for the

As usual, the epidemic first affected It began in the rats and mice and then the people. whole of over almost the soon the Punjab and spread
time in 1616 A. C.
*

Northern India.

Its

ravages were so great
'

contemporary

chronicler,

that

in

one

says a house ten or
',

twenty persons would die, and their surviving neighbours, annoyed by the stench, would be compelled to desert their houses full of habitations. Mortality was extremely

heavy

in

Lahore and Kashmir.

The

disease broke out

again in
people.

Agra and took away a

large

number

of

the

The most romantic event
was

of the reign of

his marriage

Jahanglr with Mehr-un-Nisa,

the most beautiful daughter of Mirza

Qbiyas Beg, a native of Tehran.
student
is

Almost every Indian
story
of

acquainted

with

the

her

birth,

Her father, Mirza Ghiyas, was marriage and character. reduced to such straits that he proposed to leave his
native-land
for

Accordingly,

good and to try his luck elsewhere. he set out towards India in search of

employment. was then in a

When

he reached Qandhar,

his wife,

who

state of expectancy,

was delivered of a

destined to be the empress of India. daughter, Qbiyas was so poor that he could not take care of the newly-born baby and her mother. Luckily, a certain

who was

kind-hearted

merchant,

named Malik Masaud, under
travelling

whose

protection he
for the

was

towards India,

felt

compassion

woe- begone family and offered

his

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANG1K

195

assistance, but for which Ghiyas, v horn fate had fouied so much, would have found his lot intolerable. The

merchant commanded some influence
Court.

at the

Mughal

He

introduced him to Akbar

who

at

once took

By sheer force of character and capacity, Gbiyas soon made his mark in the service of his master, who raised him to the rank of three hundred
in appreciation of his excellent

him

into his service.

work.

Little

Mehr-unto

Nisa

and

her

mother

were allowed access

the

Imperial they were shown great favours by the Royal household. When Mehr-un-Nisa attained the age of seventeen,
Mehr-un-Nisa married to Ali r a SherAf an

Harem where

she was married to All Quli

Istajlu,
*

surnamed
Thrower'.

j

<-t

Sher

A

t

Afgan,
a

or

*r*-

Tiger

~

Originally

Saj^rchl
II of

(table servant) of

Shah Ismail

Persia, Quli had distinguished himself in the service of Emperor Akbar. He was appointed to the staff of Prince Salim when the latter was ordered to march He acquitted himself so admirably that against Mewar.

AH

the Prince was pleased to reward

and cleverness,

him for his courage and bestowed upon him the title of Sfaer

Afgan

for slaying a tiger.

When

the Prince broke into

rebellion against his father,

he was deserted by many of and his followers, After Sher Afgan was one of them. his accession, however, Jahangir extended him his pardon and placed him in charge of the government of

Burdwan

in

Bengal.

When
Murder Afgan
*

reports

came from Bengal,
province,
'

the most troublous

of Sher

that

Sher

Afgan
to

was
be

insubordinate

and

disposed

196
rebellious/

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
summoned him
to his

Jahanglr his conduct. explain
firmans,

Court

to

On

refusal to

obey the Imperial

Qutb-ud-Din Koka, the governor of that commanded to send the refractory officer was province, to the Capital. Qutb-ud-DIn made a foolish attempt to
arrest

him.

Finding a large number of
'

men surrounding
'

In a fit of rage him, Sher Afgan portended treachery. what proceeding is this of thine ? he exclaimed As soon as addressing the governor and his retainers.

the governor approached him to convey the Imperial message, he attacked him with his sword and inflicted
serious injuries on his person.

enraged the retainers
;

who

fell

This unexpected incident upon Sher Afgan and cut

him to pieces. After the murder of her husband, Mehrun-N *a and her little daughter were sent to the
they were entrusted to the In custody of Sallma Sultana, the do wager- queen. 1611 A. C. May, Jahangir married her. Sher Afgan's death was purely incidental and
Imperial

Harem where

Jahangir had nothing to do
Sher Afgan's murder premeditated and whether d " n

with

it.

Was

The
<
.

report from Bengal that he was insubordinate and disposed to be
,
'

hand fn

if?

rebellious

;

moning him
conduct;
his refusal to

the Imperial firmans, sumto the Court to explain his

obey the Imperial commands;
'

the appointment of Qutb-ud-DIn Koka, the governor of Bengal, to bring the rebel to book if he showed any
'

futile,

seditious

ideas

;

the

foolish

attempt of the
;

governor to arrest him without ascertaining his offence

Sher Afgan's apprehension of treachery and his attack on the governor in self-defence all these are important

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
whrh
culminated

197
in the

links in the chain of the crsis

murder of 3her Afgan.
gave
after
rise to

They

cumulatively contribute

to the theory of Jahanglr's innocence.

What subsequently

the story that the murder was manipulated by Jahanglr, or that he had a hand in it, was that soon

the

occurrence

Imperial

orders

were issued to

remove Mehr-un-Nisa to the Royal Harem, where she was entrusted to the custody of Sallma Sultana and
then

married to

the

Emperor.

But

this
It

does

not

militate against the theory of innocence.

does not

show that the death
by Jahangir,
the
It

of Sher

Afgan was brought about
birth to a suspicion that

only
in

gives
love

Emperor was

with

the

kdy,

but

the

suspicion does not stand in the face of other facts

and

vanishes like a phantom. De Laet, the Dutch witer, that in love with her when had been says Jahanglr

she
Dr.

was

still

a

maiden.
4

'

If

this

were
for

'

Ishwari

Prasad,

the

motive

says the murder is

true

Granted that Mehr-un-Nisa's beauty had attracted the attention of Jahangir during his father's lifetime and
clear/

had been madly in love with her granted also that the murder was premeditated, now was it that after her betrothal to Sher Afgan when the latter was appointed to the staff of Salim (Jahangir) in the Me war campaign, the Prince treated him so kindly and
that he
;

conferred

upon

him

the
?

title

of

Sfaer
it

Afgan

in

appreciation of his courage

why was
him

that Jahanglr,

at his accession, did not punish

for his desertion

Prince Jahangir had rebelled against his but extended him his pardon and even placed father,
the

when

him

in

charge of

Burdwan

in

BeogSl

?

why was

it

that

198

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Jahangir, an impetuous lover as he was, waited for such a long time when the object of his desire was well To be sure, if Jahangir had wished within his reach ?
to

remove Sber Afgan from his way to Mehr-un-Nisa, he could have found one hundred and one pretexts and
his

achieved

object

long

before

and would not have

waited for such a long time.
is

no clue to
the

this story (that Sher

As apart from this, there Afgan was murdered

Jahangir) in the accounts of contemporary chroniclers, nor is there any corroborative evidence of European travellers who were too prone to
at

instigation

of

upon the scandals relating to the Royal family and raking th^m to the utmost. The so-called positive
seize
'

assertions

historians are based on a mere and be cannot relied upon. ephemeral suspicion Four years after the murder of Sher Afgan, Jahangir marries Jahangir saw Mehr-un-Nisa and fell

'

of

later

Mehr-un-Nisa.

jn

j

ove wjth her

He

married her

j

n

May, 1611 A. C. Faithful to her former husband, Nisa was equally faithful to her new husband, who loved her so much that sometimes he would call her Ntir Mahal, the Light of the Palace and sometimes
the
of
'
'

month

Nfir Jahdn,
Nisa,

'

the Light of the

World

'.

the

baby

circumstances, the lady

Sher Afgan, for wept in chaste seclusion for four years, emerged as the Empress Nur Jahan, the most beloved wife of Emperor
Jahangir.

who was born in who had lived with her husband, sixteen years, and the widow who had

Thus, Mehr-unthe most adverse

name

In token of his love for her, Jahangir put her on the coinage along with his own a unique

circumstance in the history of Muslim money.

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANG1R
all

199
noble
in

Nur Jahan was endowed with
Nurjahan's
accomplishments.

that

is

the

nobler sex.
;

She was a highly

cuUured ady> we ll. V ersed in Arabic and Persian literature. She was a good poetess. One of her charms with which she captivated Jahangir was
her facility in composing extempore verses. Under her edifying influence the Mughal Court became famous
for its

noon-day splendour.

'She

set the fashions

of

the

age, designed new varieties fabrics, and suggested new models
in

of

silk

and cotton
of

of jewellery, hitherto

unknown
roses for

Hindustan/
is

She invented the attar
to the present day.

which she

remembered

Her
Her

physical feats were on a par with her personal

charms and
valour.

intellectual

endowments.

She used

to

She was very tond ot outdoor Barnes. accompany her husband on his hunting

excursions and often shot

down
was
so

ferocious tigers.

On
her
of

one
feat

occasion
of

Jahangir
that
of

impressed
her
a

by
pair

valour

he

presented

precious

bracelets

diamonds and distributed

one

thousand asfarafis among the poor to mark the excess So remarkable was her presence of of his happiness.

mind

that she never wavered in dangers and difficulties.

She displayed ample courage and resourcefulness when was taken prisoner by husband her (Jahangir)

Mahabat
soldiers

Khan.

Experienced

generals

and veteran

were surprised to see her seated on the back of
firing a fusillade of

an elephant and
in

arrows

at the

enemy

the thick of fight.

200
If

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
she had become what Dr. Smith behind the throne/
calls,
it

a power was because

'

she was possessed of a quick understanding and a sharp intellect which
'

enabled

her

to understand the

most

intricate political

problems without any difficulty/ To quote Dr. Ishwari Prasad No political or diplomatic complication was beyond her comprehension, and the greatest statesmen
'
:

and ministers bowed

to her decisions/

She

carried

on

the administration of the country so carefully that even the minutest details could not escape her ever-vigilant
eye.

So supreme was her sway over the Sovereign and

the State that even the proudest peers of the realm paid her homage because they knew that a word from her

would make or mar

their careers.

But her influence on the State was not all for good. She used her power and influence in
e

ontte State

advancing

the

interests

of

her

own

She surrounded herself with family. her own kith and kin and appointed them to responsible In order to strengthen her position, posts in the State. she married her daughter by Sher Afgan to Shahryar
and
the
tried to

push him

to power.

Notwithstanding the
heir to

fact that Prince

Khurram was the acknowledged

Mughal throne after Jahanglr, she put forward the This claims of her own son-in-law in preference to his.
led to very serious consequences.

The Court and

the

Harem

alike

became

centres of political intrigue.

By

playing upon the feelings and fancies of her husband she ceaselessly intrigued to dislodge Khusrau from the place

he had found

in the hearts of the people.

She worked

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

201

hard to undermine the increasing power and influence of

Khurram, who had become Sfaah Khurram after the Mewar campaign and Shah Jahan after the Deccan. It
will

be seen that the

death of

Khusrau,

the

loss

of

Qandhar and the rebellions of Khurram and Mahabat Khan were owing to her machinations and mischievous
influence.

Although
Her character.

Nur Jahan
she

resorted

to

all

sorts

of

underhand means, plots and intrigues, was not devoid of genuine sym-

pathies, so often the share of the softer sex.

She was

a

whom

generous patron of the poor daughters uf Islam, for She was she found both husbands and dowries.

an asylum

She protected the for orphan and poor girls. weak and the oppressed and provided for the poor and Her charity and the powerless out of her private purse.

munificence enhanced her reputation and increased her Her She was a most faithful wife. popularity.

was unmixed. Under her Jahangir's paroxysms of rage and drunkenness diminished and the expenses of the Court were Her filial affection was no less considerably reduced.
devotion to
her

husband

influence

intense,

and she

enter tained the

warmest

feelings for her

brothers and other relatives.

Rebellion of

Shah Jahan could not disentangle his father from the web of romance which Nur Jahan was /T
.

Shah Jahan.

weaving
'

around
old

j

,

.

him.

When
'

the

infatuated

emperor
unfurled
A. C.

deprived
the
the
flag of

him,
revolt

at the

instigation
fiefs,

of his imperious consort, of all

his posts
in

and

the

Prince
In

self-defence.

1623

Prince

202

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

advanced upon Agra with as many troops as he happened to possess at that time. The armies of the fatjher and the son met each other at Balochpur and in the
battle that followed, the Imperialists inflicted a crushing

defeat

Imperial general, Mahabat Kban, drove him from place to place till he reached Asir

on

the Prince.

The

and occupied

pwn

Deserted by without opposition. Malik Ambar he turned to followers,
it

his

for

On receiving a curt refusal, he sought refuge support. in Golconda against the Imperialists who were pursuing
him under the Mahabat K^an.
to despair,

command The ruler
and seek

of
of

and that State ordered him
Prince

Parvez

to quit his country

shelter elsewhere.

Driven

he betook himself to Bengal where the local authorities espoused his cause and owed him allegiance.

Becoming master
there he
flight.

of

Bengal, he

reduced

Bihar

and
to

Orissa and advanced against

Oudh and
the

Allahabad, but

was defeated by the

Imperialists

and put

Resting for a while in

fortress of

Rohtas,

next proceeded to the Deccan where he was received by Malik Ambar, the old enemy of the

he

warmly Mughal

Having made common cause with him against In the the Mughal Emperor, he attacked Burhanpur. the meantime he was overtaken by Imperialists again. the Prince Ambar's Malik alliance, Notwithstanding found further opposition impossible. His generals and soldiers had deserted him and gone over to the side of the Imperialists. Although he was still in possession of the famous fortress of Rohtas in the North and the
Empire.
stronghold of Asir in the South, he could not stand against the vast military resources of the Empire.

NUR-UD-DIN
Considerations
to

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

203

of

write

to his

safety and prudence compelled father to forgive his faults.

him

The

Empress,
of
at

who viewed
to the

with fear the growing influence

Mahabat Khan and
once agreed

his alliance

with Prince Parvez,
of Prince

proposal

Khurram.

Accordingly, the Prince surrendered the strongholds of

Rohtas

and

Aslr,

sent

his

two

sons,

Dara

and

Aurangzeb, aged ten and eight respectively, to the Court as a guarantee of good faith, and offered gifts worth
After this he retired Rs. 100,000 to the Emperor. Nasik with his spouse and son, Murad.
to

The

splendid successes of Shan Jahan had silenced Nur Jahan for SOITIP time and the
question of succession was temporarily But the relegated to the corner.

Mahabat Khan.
death
of

Khusrau and the defeat of Shah Jahan revived the idea dorment in her mind, and in order to
secure the succession for her son-in-law, Shahryar, she

began to mobilize her forces of intrigue against Mahabat Khan, the most redoubtable general and diplomatist of
*

the empire/ whose only offence was his intimacy with Prince Parvez, the principal claiman to the throne and
4"

the most serious rival of Shahryar at that time. Orders were issued for Mahabat to resign the command of

the

Imperial

army

and

to

take

charge

of

the

government of Bengal. Prince Parvez protested in vain against an order to which both he and his associate ultimately bowed. As if this was not enough, Mahabat was accused of embezzlement and corruption. He was
ordered to account for the moneys he had acquired by
dismissing certain fief-holders.

He was

further indicted

204
for

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
having betrothed daughter to the son of a certain Naqhbandl without royal permission.
b''s

Khwajah Umar

His prospective son-in-law was treated with unsparing He was deprived of all his wealth and ordered insults.
to attend the Imperial

Court to explain
offended

his

conduct.

by this unmerited treatment. Suspecting treachery, he set out, suitably escorted by five thousand Rajput followers, and seized the person of the Emperor when he and his wife were
deeply

Mahabat

was

about

to cross the

Jhelum.

Nur Jahan

escaped, so also

her son-in-law.
in-Chief,

but

crossed the river on an elephant and tried to organize the Imperial forces but in a state of contusion the panic-stricken officers took to flight.
failed.
;

maae Nrr Jahan

Fidai Khan, the Imperial Commanderan heroic dash to rescue the Emperor,

Asaf

Khan,

with
fort

his

three

thousand

soldiers,

sought

Although Nur Jahan her characteristic displayed courage and coolness in this
shelter in the

of

Attock.

crisis,

her

Where

masculine qualities proved of little avail. force failed, the wiles of woman succeeded. She
captivity,

joined her husband in his

and by a

clever

stratagem she managed to throw Mahabat Khan off his She plundered his treasure and reduced him to guard.
sore
straits.

Thus,

after

a

short-lived

ascendancy,

Mahabat made his way to Mewar and thence to the Deccan, where he joined Shah Jahan and concluded an
alliance

with him.
revolted
-

When Mahabat Khan
Shah Jahan's
subsequent

Shah Jahan was

in

the Deccan
,,

towards the

movements.

Forthwith he proceeded North to try his luck

there once more.

Reaching Smd, he

..

.

,

,

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

205

made an attempt to capture the fort, but failed. Cowed down and crest-fallen, he retired to the Deccan again. There he met Mahabat and made an alliance with him,
as remarked before.

Prince Parvez died in 1626 A. C.
A. C.
of

and Jahangir
Kashmir.

in

1627

on

The
;

claims

way back from Shah Jahan were now
his
rival

strengthened who was a mere mediocre.

for his only serious

was Shahryar,
being Dilkusha

While the corpse

of
.

the
^T

Emperor was
in

Garden or Nur Jahan near Lahore, the At this fate of the Mughal Empire lay in the scrle. time there were two sons of Jahangir who had survived him Shah Jahan and Shahryar, each of whom had
:

War of Succession.

buried at Shahdara

the

~

his

own

was

Prince Shah Jahan supporters at the Court. the Deccan at the time of his father's away in

death.

The news

of the sad

him by

his father-in-law,

was conveyed to Asaf Khan, and he set out
event
his

towards the

North
in

to

secure

succession.

Prince

Shahryar was
finished

Lahore.

his mother-in-law,

Nur Jahan, who had by
funeral
rites

His cause was espoused by that time
of

with

the

her

husband.

Encouraged by the Empress and egged on by his wife, Shahryar seized the Imperial Treasure and proclaimed While Asaf Khan, who himself emperor at Lahore.
wished to see
his

own

son-in-law

on

the

throne,

set

up

at

Agra the son

of the ill-starred Khusrau, called

as a stop-gap emperor till the arrival of Nur Jahan wanted to see her Meanwhile Shah Jahan. brother, Asaf Kban, in order to gain him to her side but the latter thwarted her plans by evading her. At
;

Dawar Bakhsh,

206
the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
head
of a strong

army, Asaf advanced upon Lahore and inflicted a sharp defeat on Shahryar. The defeated prince was imprisoned and his eyes were put out.

Meanwhile Shah Jahan's arrival was anxiously awaited at the Capital. His coronation took place on February 6,
1628 A. C. immediately
to
f

after his arrival.
lost,

Finding that her cause was
private

Nur Jahan

retired

life.

Although she had

Shln's
the

carler.

been the arch-enemy of Shah Jahan and the main cause of his misfortunes,
the
past

latter

forgot

and treated her with
granted
her an

all

respect

and
of

kindnens.

He

annual

pension
wishes.

two lakhs and took care

to carry out her

luxuriance her last
the

she gave up all thoughts of luxury and and began to live a simple life. She passed days at Lahore in company with her daughter,

Now

widow

December,
the

She died on the 8th of Shahryar. 1645 A. C. and her body was interred in
of
of

mausoleum which she had raised over the grave her husband. Thus ended the days of Nur Jahan.

CHAPTER

XI

NUR-UD-DIN
During
Introductory.

MUHAMMAD JAHANGlR
(CONCLUDED)
was
visited

the

reign of Jahangir India

by
*u

a

number

of

foreigners,
*

representing
ri-

Portuguese, the

the nationalities, European Dutch and the English, all of whom
three
establish

endeavoured
them.

to

friendly

relations

with

the

Mughal Emperor, who was
short account
their

favourably disposed towards
it is

In the present chapter
of

intended

to

give

a

Jahangir's
of
this

relations

with
its

them and
condition

impressions under the Great Mughal.

country and

,
I

In order to please the Sunni orthodoxy and to secure his succession to the throne, ...

relations with the Portuguese.

Jahangir had severed his connections ... ~ ., ^ with the Portuguese. But as soon
,
,

as

he firmly seated himself on the throne, he renewed his relations with them and began to "how favours to
the
Jesuit

reign of his

Fathers as liberally as he had done in the He allowed them to run their father.

churches

in

Agra and Lahore without molestation, to

conduct their church processions with complete Catholic
ceremonials through the streets of the city of Agra, and He to make converts to their religion if they could.
himself loved to
see

the

pictures

of

Christian saints

around him.
adorned
his

Figures of
rosary

Christ
is

and he

and the Virgin Mary reported to have granted

208

THE MUGHAL RMPIRK

cash allowances to Christian missionaries for ecclesiastical purposes.

Christ

and reverence for and Mary that the Christians had come to claim
great

So

was

his love

him

as

a

convert

to

their

creed.

It

appears

that

JahSngir's policy towards the Portuguese was actuated by an ulterior political aim his object was to secure the
;

support

of

the

Portuguese

who

possessed

a strong

artillery imported from Europe. In 1613 A. C., however, they incurred the wrath of the Emperor by seizing

four

imperial

ships

and plundering
at

their cargoes.

In

retaliation, their settlement

Daman was
to

attacked,

their

churches
All

wen
this

closed and their ceremonies were

stopped.

was

due

their

own

high-

handedness.

The East Indian
.u u n iu \Vith the English.
AI-

of

was extremely lucrative. To Portuguese, who had a monopoly A it, it yielded enormous profits.
trade

...,,,

European nations were attracted to India to and the English were among them. The participate in it, East India Company was founded by them in 1600 A. C.,

number

of

but
to

it

was only

make

the reign of Jahanglr that they began earnest efforts to advance their trade interests in
in

India.

Between
sent

1600

A

C. and

1608 A,

C.

the
'

Mughal Court to Company establish friendly relations with the 'Great Mughal and The to conclude a commercial treaty with him.
three

missions to the

missions

failed

in

their

object

mainly

owing
looked

to the

hostile influence of

the

Portuguese who

the English as their rivals and therefore intrigued
plotted against them.

upon and

NUR-UD-DIN
It

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR

209

was

in

1608 A.

C
rr .

that

William Hawkins, an

William Hawkins and William Edwardes.

En g lish
from
to

sea-captain,
T

'Hector,' arrived at

^commanding Agra with a letter
T I

the
j

King

James

of

r

T^

i

England,

seeking

permission

trade with India and to build a

factory at Surat.

the

Hawkins was hospitably received by Emperor and granted a mansab of 400 with a salary

of thirty thousand.

The
to

trade

concessions,

which he
of
it

asked

for,

were readily granted, but were subsequently

withdrawn
Portuguese.

owing
After

the

inimical
of

influence

the

the

departure

Hawkins,
fallen

was
with

Englishman, Emperor Edwardes, arrived at the Imperial Court and secured trade facilities which were, however, withdrawn a little
later at the instigation of the

only the

when

the

that

Portuguese another

had

out

William

The
Sir

Portuguese. Hawkins and of missions informal
Roe.
.

Edwardes
,

^ Thomas

of

were followed by a formal embassy ' ,, ^ Sir Thomas Roe, the accredited

plenipotentiary of the King of England,

who
in

arrived

at

the

Mughal

Court

in

1615

A. C.

order

to

As a dexterous negotiate a trade treaty with Jahangir, diplomatist and a shrewd politician, eminently endowed
with

common-sense and business capacity, Roe was He best-fitted for the task he was entrusted with.
far superior to his predecessors in point of intellect, education and experience. By offering valuable presents to Nur Jahan, Asaf Khan and Prince Shah Jahan, he

was

gained them to his side and presented the terms he wanted to secure for his nation in the form of a treaty.

Though the

draft of the

treaty,

which he submitted,

210

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
toto, yet

was ^not accepted in the Emperor, which

he secured a firman from
considerable

otfered

concessions

:

The English were
to
hire

any

site

allowed to build a factory at Surat, they liked for the factory to erect on,

and to enjoy the The evils and abuses of the right of self-government. custom-houses were put an end to, and tolls were Above not to be levied on articles entering into a port.
to trade freely within the

country

all,

if

the British

merchants

were attacked

by the

Portuguese, they would be assisted by the local governor with boats and other necessary requisites. The grant

indeed an important landmark in the In short, it humbled history of Anglo-Indian relations. the pride of the Portuguese, enhanced the prestige of
of
this

firmun

is

the English and laid the
British

first

foundation-stone of the

A
Foreign

Empire large number
accounts

of India.

of

Europeans
left their
^
, ,

visited India

during
of

the reign of Jahangir.

Some

them
the
.

of Jahangir's reign and their veracity.

have

Court

~

of

impressions about -^ , the Emperor and

the

Roe's Journal deals almost condition of the country. exclusively with crart life and the political intrigues of
the
it

time.

As regards the condition
little,
it

reveals very

though we can

of the country, catch glimpses of

the

Terry's account contains a description of the country and the condition of the people; whereas Hawkins* account is mainly confined
at intervals.
to the description of the personal character

same from

of Jahangir
all

and

his daily routine.

But

it

must be noted that

these

They

accounts are not entirely free from exaggerations. are useful only so far as they corroborate certain

NUR-UD-DIN
facts

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
and contradict others.
with
the
conflict

211

of

Indian

history
in

But

where they come
testimony
of

cumulative

contemporary native historians, their authenticity must needs be called in question. Ignorant as the European travellers were of the life and thought of the people and their psychology, their accounts
cannot be expected to be unmixed, more so when sometimes their wishes were not complied with, From Sir Thomas Roe's accounts it can be
gathered
order
to

that

he

had to bribe
his

a

and

its

customs.

achieve

object.
at

He
sea-

speaks of some grave abuses
ports where the
arbitrary prices.
local

governors seized
of the

upon goods

at

Most
in

Subahdars were exacting
their subjects.

and tyrannical

their

dealings with

They

were,

foreigners.

however, generally sympathetic towards The Court was magnificent and even

luxurious.
festivities

length on the customs and He of the Court and the fashions in vogue.
dwells
at

Roe

says that the nobility was courteous and the courtiers, The highest as a class, were corrupt and unprincipled.
officials

were

extravagantly

paid

and

bribery

was

commonly practised. His narrative also shows that travelling was unsafe between the coast and the capital, and the port officers were grossly cruel. There was
no written constitution.
his

The King was

the State- aixl

word was

law.

The

provincial governors behaved

as d^SpoSfand their aUegiance to the Central Govern-

ment

was

Escheat,

According to the Law of the property of the deceased belonged to the
half-hearted.

212
State.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
cities

of

the

D';ccan

bore a

sad

and

neglected appearance. Speaking of the

personal

character of Jahangir,

Roe
personal
character.

remarks that the

an inveterate
he
_,

Emperor was drunkard, but by day
of temperance. .. , ,, witnessed the scenes
his nocturnal

was
,

a

picture
,

The ambassador

of drunkenness
visits.

and revelry only during
wine,
to

The

Emperor never allowed anyone, whose
enter
his daily

breath

smelt of

levees.

In

addiction to spite of his excessive

wine and occasional

was not paroxysms of rage, tue Emperor, remarks Roe,
wanting either in good sense or in good feelings. He describes His Majesty as an amiable, cheerful man, full When of passion, but free from pride and prejudice. Roe visited India, KJjusrau was alive. He found the

He describes Prince a general favourite of the people. him as a man of lovely presence and fine carriage. According to the ambassador, Prince Khurram was
cold, stiff

portrayed as one who was flattered by some, envied by many and loved by none. Roe The fine art? were in a flourishing state.

and

repellant.

He

is

was
State of Fine Arts.
his
.

amazed
,.

at

the
XT7
,

of Indian

T

... artists.

We

workmanship learn from
.

account that once he presented an English picture

Emperor, who immediately had it copied at ^ The the hands of his own artists. copies were so
to the
faithful

could

that even after a close scrutiny the ambassador not distinguish them from the original. A
detailed account of the fine arts will presently

somewhat
follow.

NUR-UD-DIN
As mentioned
Hawkins account.
is

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
Hawkins too has
.

213
left

befcxe,

an
.

the Emperor, his Court and the country ; but his description

account of

.

confined mainly to the character of Jahangir and the He describes the Emperor daily routine of his Court.
as very fond of drinking and giving feasts, the most notable of which was that of Nauroz. His account

shows that Jahangir was cruel and unpopular that he took delight in inflicting barbarous punishments that his administration was not good, that the Law of Escheat
; ;

was

in force
;

;

common

that

that bribery was rife and corruption was the local authorities were oppressive

and the pay of the nobles was extravagantly high. It must be remembered that Hawkins had left the

Mughal Court
be
expected
narrative.

in disgust,

and

for this reason

he cannot
writing his

to

have

been

unbiassed

in

The

essential elements of administration introduced

Administration
of Jahangir.

by Akbar the, Great were continued ,. ,. uuTUand kept in order by his son, Jahangir whose Dastur-ul-Amal is a decided
the administration
of

improvement on
predecessor.
reign was
'

his illustrious

Dr. V. A. Smith's
'

view

that

Jahanglr's
facts,

inglorious

is

not

borne
the

out by

A

king,

who

retained

intact

vast possessions of his

House, with the solitary exception of Qandhar, must have been a successful administrator. The fact that
his reign constituted a period of

except

only when

the

peace and prosperity, question of succession excited
for

rival interests, speaks

much

administration.

The view may

the efficiency of his hold good in respect

214
of certain traits of

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
his oersona*.

character,

but

not

in

respect of his administration.
of truth in the

view that his

There may be a measure administration was marked

by a
the

certain

amount

of deterioration as

compared with
'

high standard maintained by his talented father, but the view that his reign was inglorious is not at all
'

justified,

Jahangir was not deficient in natural
His love of

abilities,

but
great

unfortunately
letters.
r
,,

some

of

his

faculties

j u u were marred by his excessive

use of wine and opium.

Ha

himself
in

informs

us

that

he

was

highly

proficient

Turkish

and

Persian.

William Hawkins, who knew Turkish well, found him well-versed in that tongue. This knowledge of the
Turkish language enabled him to read the Wdqiydt-iBdbari in the original. The copy which he possessed

was not finished. and wrote a few
a profound

supplied the four wanting sections lines in Turkish to indicate that the

He

complementary portion was added
student of history.
In

by him.

He was
with other

common

Mughal Emperors, he had an innate desire to leave behind him a record of all the important events of his With this aim in view, he wrote his autobioreign. called the Tuzk-i-Jahangiri after his own name, graphy, with the help of two consummate historians, Muhammad Hadi and Mu'tamid Khan, When the work was done, the mutasaddls (amanuenses) were ordered to make other copies of the original in order to distribute them among the high officials of the Imperial Service and
the
influential

men
first

of

the

different

parts

of

his

dominions.

The

copy

was presented

to Prince

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
i

215

Khurram (Shah Jahan) s a mark of honour to him. Under Jahangir the Imperial Court was the cradle
of the sage and the scholar, the poet and the painter, as much as of

It

accomplished savants of both the sexes. can be gathered from the Tuzk-i-Jahangir% that the
to

men, of Some the on and recluses divines, Friday evenings. best scholars attached to his Court were: Ni'mat-Ullah, the historiographer who crytallised into a book the
material accumulated by Haibat

Emperor used

associate himself with learned

Khan

of

Samana about

the history of the Afghans; Mirza Gbiya^ Beg, the able arithmetician, who also stood splendid and unsurpassed
elegance of composition ; Abdul Haq Dehlawi, one of the most erudite men of the day, who came to wait upon the Emperor and presented him with a work
in

the

written by

him on the

lives of the

Shaikhs of Hindustan;

number

Naqib Khan, the most honoured historian, who wrote a and Mu'tamid Khan, who of books on history
;

assisted Jahangir in preparing his autobiography, since styled as the Tuzk-i-Jahangiri, or the Memoirs of

Jahangir.
of the

Besides these literati, the celebrated author Iqbalndmah (an account of Jahangir's reign) has

given, at the

end of

his

book,

a

list

of

some more
was

scholars and prominent poets of the present reign. Great as was Jahangir's love of learning, no less
f

his zeal for the extension of education

USSSiin?
his

in his kin g dom -

"
"

is

recorded in the

Tarilch-i-Jdn

Jahan

that

soon after

accession

to the

throne, he

repaired

and reconfor

structed even

those

madrasahs which had been,

216

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
dwelling-pKces of birds and professors and students."
beasts

three decades, the

and
the

filled

them with

One

of

twelve clauses of the Rules of Conduct ordained

that the property left by the heirless deceased should be used for the repair and reconstruction of moribund

madrasahs.
Sir

Thomas Roe

gives

us

to

understand

that

me

r s*

manual arts were in a and were not confined

flourishing state
to those peculiar

to the country. The plenipotentiary of England presented the Great Mughal with a handsome coach. Within a " short time several others were very manufactured, very

superior in materials,

and

fully equal in

workmanship".

JahSnglr was
Painting.

X""

He is lover of painting. " Prince of Artists". rightly called the
an ardent
,

Himself a painter of no
impetus to
art

f

t

mean

*

merit,
father's

he gave a fresh
creation,

the school

of his

and

his appreciation painter's

and encouragement raised
1

the

Indian

attained under the " there were found Catrou,

the highest pitch ever " In this time/ says Timurides.
to
in the Indies native painters

copied the finest of our European pictures fidelity that might vie with the originals."

who

with a

One

of Roe's presents to the

Padshah was a
copies,

picture
after

of extraordinary elegance.

The envoy was soon
of
its

original, and they were so very similar that by candlelight one could not be distinguished from the other." It was only after a close scrutiny that he could make

presented with "

a

number

including the

out the original picture.

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANG1R
as

217
in

From mural
.

decoration,

already

remarked
9

Portrait Painting.

^

.

.

connection
.

with

Akbar's reign, b

the

Mughal Painter passed on

to exquisite

which reached the zenith of its glory under Jahanglr, than whom no keener or more discerning, more critical or more aesthetic, more lively or more
portraiture,

munificent
history consisted
of

Hindustan.
of painting

patron has ever been found in the whole The bulk of his commissions
of portraits

of

the

Amirs and

at the Mughal Court and of Court scenes. Under Jahanglr Persian and Hindu artistic tradieach impioving and tions were happily blended, each the other, striking the chord and stirring enriching

Maliks

the sensibilities of the seer, each demanding
ness of
attention
to
its

a minute-

the creations of that

details, which, on account of time, have been a marvel for the
all

succeeding generations and a despair to
imitators of this art.
If art

the would-be

found

its

highest expression
it

in

Jahangir's

Painters under the Imperial

reign,

was mainly through the

Patronage.
painter,

took
the

Imperial patronage, which, no longer the monopo j y of the poet or the every kind of artist under its wings.
of Jahangir's Court
:

Among

best painters

may

be

mentioned the names of the following
that prince of painters

Ustad Mansur,
officially styled

whom

Jahanglr

Nadir-ul-Asr* (the
his art*

Wonder

of the Age),

was unique

in

He

and

his

was a past-master in animal portraiture pictures of birds and beasts are still the living
"
:

* Martin says
a painter,

Mansur,

who

Jahanglr was a great lover of birds, and had portrayed his favourites (birds) in a way

aften

worthy

of Diirer."

218
creatures of his

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
immortal b ush.

He

found a fervent

devotee to his art in the person of the Emperor. Abul Hasan was another eminent painter attached to the

He was an adept in producing Jahanglr. and human Once he brought to landscapes portraits. the Emperor a delightful picture of his Court, which was used as a frontispiece to the Jahdngirnamah. He
Court
of

was

held, in

common

Jahanglr.

Bishan

with Mansur, in Das was another

high esteem

by

portrait painter.

About him Mr. K. T. Shah

writes in his Splendour that

was *Ind
"

:

Every granaee of the Court has been immortalized by his undying brush and every noteworthy incident at Court or in the Camp, where the Emperor was present, or in which he was interested, has been recorded and preserved by the labours of these immortals."
;

Jahanglr
.

had a

keen
.

sense

of fine

architecture.

Architecture.

_. A

A

The

magnificent monuments

of his

to those of in comparison reign, and son, are very few and insignificant, unless we ascribe the Jahangiri Mahal at Agra and the tomb of Akbar ?t Sikandara to him. The mausoleum
his

father

Mirza Gbiyas Beg (Itimad-ud-Daulah), a stately structure in which elegance is wedded to beauty,
of

was

built

at

Agra by
cultured
raised

his

beautiful

daughter,
in

Nur
snowy

Jahan,

the

wife

of

Jahangir,

marble, on a

platform, in
angle,

two

storeys,

with an

octagonal tower

on each

with a

central
It

open
is

pavilion enclosed by a square walled garden.

the

most

striking specimen of the architectural achievements

of Jahangir's reign.

NUR-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
records the

219

This aesthetic Empero. had also an ear for mus'c.
Music.

The Iqbalnamah
the following
:

names

of
in

singers

who were

attendance

on him Jahanglr Dad, Chatar Khan, Parvez Dad, Khurram Dad, Makhu, and Hamzah all noted for the captivating sweetness of their voice.
This Imperial Artist surpassed even
aesthetic
tastes.

his father

in

He
.

Gardens.

number
win
the

of gardens in his

planted a large ? \.
.

kingdom

in

order

to

heart of the reluctant
;

Nur Jahan.
Nishat Bagh,

Dilkusha Garden (Shah Dara) at Lahore
Achibal

Shalamar Bagh, Bagh and Verinag Bagh at Kashmir the Royal Garden at Udaipur the Garden Tomb of Itimad-ud-Daulah at Agra and Wah Bagh at
; ;

Hasan Abdal were
Salim,
'

all laid

out by him.

the

promise, was ptayer and extravagantly loved and spoiled in his He g reW U P to be a earl y y uth

son

of

'

most
wilful

violent,

indulgent,

indolent,

and if it not thwarted was was, his sympathetic if Almost all authorities outbursts of wrath were terrible. He was and vigorous. agree that he was just, wise endowed with an intellect which enabled him to

and

easy-going
his will

man.

He was
;

kind

comprehend the most

intricate problems of the State a confirmed drunkard, he Himself without difficulty. forbade the manufacture and sale of wine and prevented " As he advanced in age, his subjects from using it.

the old impetuosity of his temper was sobered down, and his outlook was modified by the appreciation of the
1

responsibilities of his exalted office.'

When

sober,

he

220
tr'ed to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
work wisely and carjfully for the betterment of kingdom. He administered even-handed justice and

his

Law and order suppressed tyranny with a heavy hand. were maintained throughout the length and breadth of the Mughal Empire and even the remotest parts were
not neglected in this respect.

Jahanglr was extremely

benign and generous. His Memoirs teem with instances of his munificence and good-will. There was no man of merit who was not rewarded by him. A slight
'

claim

a great thing with He felt great pleasure in patronising the poor and us.' supplying tneir material requirements.
is

of service,' he used to say,

*

The me
TI
.

t

remarkable
.,

trait of his

character was his

XT His love , for Nur

.

_

appreciation of beauty and everything

Jo

Jah:.n

and

his

'own

Sh
*

d km.

passionately attached to Mehr-un-Nisa, whom he used to call Nur Mahal, or the Light

beautiful.

He

was

of the Palace, and
*

Nur Jahdn,

or the

Light

of

the

No misunderstanding or mistrust,' says Dr. world. ever marred the happiness of their Ishwari Prasad, While the Empress loved him conjugal relations '.
with
all

her

heart

and guided him through

all

the

problems of the State, the Emperor shared with her the sovereignty of his Kingdom and cherished her above all
in the world.

As a

son, he proved to be

most untoward

during the lifetime of his father ; but on becoming king, he repented of his acts of disobedience and became a
In his Memoirs he speaks reverently of his father and praises him for his noble qualities. Many a
dutiful son.

time he walked to his sepulchre at Sikandara to pay him homage. As a father, he was forgiving and forgetful.

NUR-UD-DIN
If

MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR
it

221
to the

the fate of Khusrau was tragic,
of

was owing

enmity kinsmen with great kindness, but he never forgave them
for political offences.

Nur Jahan and Shah Jahan.

He

treated his

As a man

of learning,
lettres.
,

u refined His
~
,

.

.

tastes.

he was very fond of belles His favourite subjects were J
%

history,

biography

He was

a good poet

and a penman.

geography. According to Dr.

and

Ishwari Prasad 'his intimate knowledge of the flora and fauna of Kashmir and other parts of Hindustan will cause surprise to a naturalist in these Like days '.
his father,

he loved

to

hear

Hind* songs and took

delight in patronising Hindi poets.

He
Born

loved fine arts
in India

and encouraged

their cultivation.

and of
felt

Indian parents, Jahangir loved things delighted in Indian environments.

Indian

and

Just like his father, Jahangir too has suffered on

account of his
HlS rellglOUS
beliefs

ans have
opinion

,

r-ij^r failed to form
his

liberal views.

Historidefinite

a

J/-- A

about

religion.

The
by

opinion
their

of

his

contemporaries
beliefs.

was

coloured

own

religious

atheist, to others

an

eclectic.

To some he was an Some looked upon him
others
to
state

as

a sincere
It

Christian.

Muslim, is not

whereas
difficult

called
his

him a
positive

religious beliefs.

Although he took a

lively interest in

the teachings of other religions, specially of Sufism and Veddnt, and never persecuted anyone on account of his
'

religious

beliefs,

he

retained
like

intact his faith in

and

said

his

prayers

a

Muslim

'.

God, Those who

denounce him as an

atheist or as

an apostate from Islam,

222
probably forget

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the
enviro iments in

which he was brought up and the influences that surrounded him in his early days. Nurtuied as he was amidst the most
liberal influences,
it

was natural

for

him

to

remain above

the trammels of religion. He was Akbar's son and his was the same Sulh-i-Kul policy. To sum up, Jahanglr was a great ruler, capable of
His estimate.
If he had not immense energy. J e allowed himself to be dominated by the

Nur Jahan

clique,

he would have

proved himself an

excellent administrator,
of his father.
It

worthy

to be placed

by the side
out
that

must, however, be
the

pointed
that

the

real

glory of his reign has been greatly eclipsed
of

the splendour

two

reigns

followed

by and

preceded his, and he himself has suffered much on account of coming between two illustrious sovereigns Akbar the Great and Shah Jahan the Magnificent.

CHAPTER

XII

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
When Shah
Accession of Shah Jahan.

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
returned
,

(1628-1658 A. C.)

Jahan
6 a P>

from
the

the

Deocan,
stop-

Dawar Bakhsh,

, ,, ^ was allowed to escape to Persia but the rest of his collaterals were murdered and their supporters were ruthlessmercilessly So startling were the scenes of the ly chastised.
,

emperor

;

Royal Harem were taken aback, so much so that some of them went even so far as to end their lives by committing suicides. Thus
tragedies that the ladies of the

wading his way to the throne through bloodshed, Shah Jahan crowned himself at Agra on the 6th day of February, 1628 A. C. in a formal manner and assumed the title of Abul Mazaffar Shahab-ud-D!n

Muhammad
Gbazl.

Sahib Qiran-i-SanI Shah Jahan

Badshah

The Khutba was recited and the coins were The coins struck in the name of the new emperor. that bore the name of Nur Jahan were at once withdrawn, and
she

was asked to
with

retire

to private

life.

becoming dignity and was allowed to pass her days in peace on a handsome Amidst odes and pension of two lakhs a year. encomiums, prepared by the prominent poets that had ceme from far and wide, the coronation ceremony was gone through and the beat of drums implied,

She

was

treated

perhaps, that a

new

era

had been ushered

in the history

224
of India.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
But, for the
at

man
of

/hose

thickness

of

blood

prospect India, fate had reserved a
surprise

melted

the

was

felt

Emperor of fitting retribution, and no when the inhuman acts of Shah Jahan
as
will

becoming the

were imitated by his son, Aurangzeb, towards the close
of
his

own

reign,

be

seen

in

a subsequent a

chapter.

The new emperor inaugurated
number
His early acts.
ations
of

his

reign

by

important

acts.

He

of

the

began by strengthening laws of Islam, which, if Abdul
in

the

found _

Hamid
The
and

Lahorl be believed, were
Sharlyat was
introduced
strictly

a

state

of

decline.
y

enforced.
as

Sijdah
of

which was

by

Akbar

an

act

salutation

continued by Jahanglr as such, was regarded as bid' at and was at once replaced by Zaminbos, or kissing the ground, from which the Sayyads and the Shaikhs, the
learned and the pious

were exempted.

A

little

later,

however, Zamlnbos too was looked upon

as similar to

Sijdah and was therefore soon superseded by a much milder mode of salutation, called Chahartasllm. Quite The solar in the same spirit was the calendar reformed.
system was stopped because
it

was tantamount

to bid'at

and its place was taken by lunar computation. In recording official events the lunar system was adopted and A number of administhe Hijra era was adhered to. trative changes were also introduced and the city of

Agra was named anew as Akbarabad, after the name of Akbar, for whom Shah J^han had the greatest The officials of the Empire, who had espoused regard.
the cause of
the

new

king,

were

rewarded for their

SHAHAB-UD-D1N MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
services

225

without stint
as

according they on honours his great
helped him of his sister,

deserved.

mansabs were raised 2hah Jahan conferred father-in-law, Asaf Khan, who had
,

nd

their

to the throne after

checkmating the plans
called of

Nur Jahan.
Shah Jahan was
with
clan

Meanwhile,
r, c AU Rebellion of the Bundelas under jo ar mg
.
.

upon
the

to cope

the

rebellion

Bundela
chief,

under their

ambitious

.

gj f
Prince

gj n gj^ fae Imperial protege

who
the

had

murdered
of

Allama

Abul

instigation

Sallm.

The

Fazl at Bundelas

had,

blackmailing their neighbours, become Towards the close of a power to be reckoned with. of the Central control the Jahangir's reign, when

by means

of

Government had slackened, they had acquired considerIn 1628 A. C. Bir Cingh able power and influence.
died.

His son, Johar Singh, incurred the wrath of the new Emperor by quitting the Capital without taking
permission.

his

Lest he

should

be called to

the

Court to explain his conduct, as Qazwini suggests, he hostilities against the Empire. began to harbour
Miscalculating the strength of the
Imperial

army and

over-estimating his own limited resources, he concluded that he could easily defy the authorities from his

mountainous country, which, he knew
'

well,

was well

Reaching his stronghold, Undcha nigh inaccessible. (or Orcha), he set about raising his forces, strengthening
munitions of war and closing the roads.' Shah Jahan could not brook this insult. Forthwith he ordered his generals to conduct a campaign
the
forts,

providing

against the rebellious clan.

Islam Khan, Firoz Jang and

226

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
associated with the

Mahabat Khan,
highest
order,

Mansabdars

of the

advanced from three directions

and

appeared before the walls of the fort of the Bundela Chief.
but bloody battle, in which two or three were destroyed, Undcha was stormed with Asaf Khan's artillery and Johar was taken aback by the
After

a short
lives

thousand
attacks

of

the

Imperialists.

Reduced

to

sore

straits,.

the Chief surrendered himself without further opposition. He was made to pay fifteen lakhs of rupees as

indemnity and one thousand gold mohars as a present to His Majesty. Besides, he surrendered forty elephants

and agreed to contribute a contingent of 2,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry in the impending campaign against In return for all this, he was allowed as the Deccan.

would have enabled him to enjoy the mansab of 4,uuO Zat and 4,000 Sawar. The rebellion of the Bundela clan was followed by the revolt of Khan Jahan LodhI,

much

as

otherwise

known
of
his

as Salabat

Khan on
talents.

account

military

Counting upon
hostility
for

the

uncertainty of

succession

to the

throne after the death of Jahanglr,

Shah Jahan.

When

he had displayed Shah Jahan ascended

the throne in a formal manner, he implored forgiveness.

His offence was pardoned and an Imperial firman was
issued
to

confirm

him

in
it

Deccan.
still

After sometime,

the governorship of the was discovered that he

for the Emperor. He was, to back the where he lived for therefore, Court, seven or eight months, but all the time gloomy and The court life had no attraction for his dejected.

cherished

hatred

called

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
restless
spirit.

227

His

lifv

became the more miserable
certain
officer

when he
the

received intelligence from a

of

State

that

he and

his

sons

would be shortly

imprisoned.

The

and

his

Minister, Asaf
faith.

repeated assurances of the Khan, were not a

Emperor
sufficient

guarantee of good

prudence
disgust.

alike compelled

Considerations of safety and him to quit the Court in

The

overtook him

Imperial army, sent for his arrest, near Dholpur. Crossing the Chambal,

passing through the Bundela country and skirting along Gondwana, the rebel reached the Deccan, where

and support. The and defeated him in Imperialists some skirmishes. Crossing the Narbada on his retreat, he reached the neighbourhood of Ujjain, where he Chased into Bundelkhand plundered its inhabitants. and defeated in a contested engagement, he was put to
Nizam-ul-Mulk

him pursued him
lent

shelter

thither

flight

and was ultimately brought to bay near Kalanjar, was totally defeated and killed at Tal Sehonda, His
followers were slain in large numbers.

The commanders
Abdullah

of

the

Imperial

iorces,

particularly

and

Muzaffar,

were

fitly

honoured and rewarded
six

for their

successes in the arduous campaigns. of the former general was raised to

While the mansab
thousand Zat

and
the

six
title

thousand Sawar and he was honoured with of Firoz Jang, the latter was promoted to the
of five
title

mansab
and the

thousand Sawar, of Khan Jahan was conferred upon him.
five
first

thousand Zat and

Shah Jahan celebrated the
4

Nauroz
of

of

his

Celebration of first Nauroz.

reign in the

month
great

March,
In

1628
the

A C

w tfa
j

edat

228

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the courtyard of the Daulat Kh ma a splendid canopy was set up and the found was covered with carpets
of divers colours.

The Mnghal Emperor, surrounded
wife
in

by
sat

his

sons,

daughters,

and

other

relatives,

on the throne placed
a

the centre.

The scene
feast

presented

picturesque
of

view.

A

grand

was

held, and the grandees
participate.

The
and

the Empire were invited to members of the Royal family were

granted

gifts

titles.

Mumtaz Mahal,

the

Imperial
:

consort, was the recipient of the richest reward She was granted fifty lakhs from the public treasury. Jahan Ara received twenty lakhs and her sister Raushan Ara,
five

lakhs.

To
the

each

of the four princes,

Dara, Shuja',
equal
moities.
fitly

Aurangzeb and Murad, twenty lakhs
Asaf

in

Khan, honoiaed for

Imperial

father-in-law,

was
His

his

was

raised

to

loyalty and nine thousand

devotion.

rank

Zat and nine thousand
his

Sawar.

It is said that

from the day of

coronation

to the feast of

Nauroz, Shah Jahan expended altogether one crore and sixty lakhs from the public treasury in granting rewards and pensions.

17

Famine

During 1630-32 A. C. Gujarat, Khandesh and the Deccan were visited by a terriole J IA*
:

1630-32.

proportion

of

famine, which the population.

,

,

.

,

.

,

carried

away a

large

According to

Mirza

Amin
of

Qazwini,

who was an
this

the

heart-rending

eye-witness to the scenes sufferings of the poor and the
dire
file,

famine-stricken,

distress

was

rampant
the

everywhere

in the

rank and

and

in

the bazar
flour

shop-keepers

sold

powdered bones

and

mixed

together and dog's flesh which was mistaken for meat

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
by the
heels
suffering
classes.

229
the

Pestilence

followed
toll.

on

of

famine and exacted a heavy

People fled
city

from their houses
desolate.

and

many

a

fair

became

Peter Mundi,

The testimony of Abdul Hamid Lahorl, who visited the Deccan in 1630-31 A. C.,
writers points
to

and other European

the
to

veracity

of

Amin

Qazwini's

account.

In

order

mitigate the

and the pestilence that followed it, Shah Jahan remitted l/3rd of the land revenue on the Crown lands. The remission altogether amounted to seventy lakhs. Sarkarl langars (State kitchens) were opened and food was distributed gratis to the poor and the indigent. Every week Rs. 5,000 was given away in charity to the famished, and in twenty weeks one lakh In Ahmadabad of rupees was spent in this way.
horrors of the famine
'

(Gujarat),

Emperor was followed

where the famine raged most furiously, the His example sanctioned Rs. 50,000 in excess.
by
his

Mansabdars

and

provincial

governors, who evinced great interest in and solicitude for the sound administration of famine relief; they

made

similar

remissions

of
in

land
those

revenue
times
it

in

their

respective

provinces.

But,

was not

possible to

combat srch a calamity so successfully as in these days. Sbah Jahan was, nevertheless, fully alive to the sufferings of his subjects, and the relief he afforded
to the
sufferers deserves

our respect and admiration.

Dr. Vincent Smith relies on the imperfect translation the Padsfaahnamah by Elliot and Dowson and discounts the efforts of Shah Jahan in removing the
of
distress

of

the
the

famine-stricken.
difference

While seeking

to

bring

out

between the conditions of

230
native
life

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

under the Mughal Rule and the British Raj, he forgets to allow for the time that has elapsed since then time that has been noted for the marked

improvement
transportation.

in

the

means

of

communications

and

the Portuguese.

Both Akbar and Jahangir had shown great favours to the Portuguese, who had established themselves at Hugli and developed
their resources
all

by building a number and provided with of important factories, Shah Jahan had seen enough of fighting material. He was the acts of aggression committed by them. them to in for their a own coin. looking pay pretext The year 1632 A. C. saw their destruction. The
fortified

causes were:

(1)

By

both

sides

of the

taking the lease of the villages on river Hugli, the settlers tyrannised
(2)

ever the
the

poor people.
of

They shamelessly abused
granted
so
to

concessions

trade

them by the
they

previous

emperors,

so

customs duties on
the
(3)

their

much own

that

imposed
result,
deficits.

account.

As a

revenues of the

State

suffered

serious

accompanied by much

was and torture/ Often cruelty of both Hindus and Muslims the orphans they kidnapped to them (4) Their and transported foreign countries. a most fanatical manner. They priests behaved in

They

carried

on lucrative

slave-trade 'which

tried

by force and not infrequently (5) They had offended the succeeded in their object. Empress Mumtaz Mahal by detaining two slave girls whom she claimed as hers. These acts of brazen insolence were bound to bring down upon them the
to

win

converts

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN 231
wrath of the
chastise

them and
1631
16

Emperor, who thought it expedient to to check theik influence.
A.
appointed Qasim governor of Bengal and entrusted him with the destruction of the
C.

In

Shah Jahan
as

Khan

?Sf uglfese!
settlers
fort

on

either side of the river

Portuguese Settlement at Hugli. The were attacked and their
siege lasted for over three

was besieged. The

months.
a lakh

Cunningly
of rupees,

enough, together with a

the

Portuguese offered
tribute, to

the Emperor, but

secretly they prepared themselves for a vigorous defence.

Putting their forces in order, the} organi/ed a force of seven thousand gunners to cannonade the Mughals.
In the deadly fight
to the ground
souls,

that followed, the Portuguese were

completely routed, their forts and factories were levelled and the garrison, altogether ten thousand

were either

killed or

drowned

in

the river.

Those

Islam were spared. On the side of Shah Jahan as many as one thousand soldiers lost their As a result of the war, the Portuguese tyranny lives.

who embraced

was over and ten tnousand inhabitants of the country, who had been confined in prisons, were liberated.

Arjumand Banu Begum,
Mahal,
the
of

also

known
of the

as

Mumtaz
was a and was the

Lady

Taj,

MumtLM?hT
daughter the Mughal
the
title

woman

dazzlin s

beaut y

She powerful intellect. of Asaf Kj^an, the most influential noble of
abilities

Empire, whose Like of Aristotle.
beauty.

had earned him
she was
the

her aunt,

jgoddess of

Her name was a household word

232

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
of

and her charms were a subject

comment

in

the
,

Born in 1594 family circles of the Mdghal aristocracy. A, C., she was married to Prince Khurram in 1612 A.C.

when

the latter was

twenty-two years of age.

Shah

Jahan loved

her quite as

much

for

her physical attrac-

His passionate was her with added intensity. love reciprocated by While he was a homeless wanderer during the closing years of his father's reign, she was his best friend and
tions as for her intellectual attainments.

guide.

With him
life.

of a

fugitive

she cheerfully braved the privations At his accession, she was honoured

with the titL of

and jagirs was sought in all important matters of the Government and valued so much that the Emperor took no initiative without taking her opinion. She was entrusted
with the custody of the Royal Seal, and
instance that
afterwards.
it

M>.Mha-i-Zaman, and her allowances were boundlessly increased. Her advice

it

was

at

her

was given

to her to

father

some time

Since

her betrothal

had remained
earth

faithful to

Shah Jahan, shehim and there was nothing on

mar the happiness of their conjugal relations. She bore her husband fourteen children and remained a constant source of strength to him till she Her death, was due quietly passed away in 1630 A.C.
that could to

a fatal delivery. The tragic event took place at when her husband was conducting his camBurhanpur

Her remains were paign against Kban Jahan Lodhl. removed to Akbarabad after six months. There she was given a provisional burial for later her remains were transferred to Agra and interred in the mausoleum
;

known

as the Taj.

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
was

233'

Mumtaz

Mahal

endowed

with

all

those
to

accomplishments

which add

the

MuS?MahaL
of her

di g nit y of

womanhood.
as a

She

is

justly

regarded
time.

most virtuous woman'

Her

secured
criminals

pardon

She generosity was par excellence. from the Emperor for a number of
lost all

Her charity was boundless. There was none whose prayer was not She could be approached for granted at her door.
hopes of
life.

who had

assistance

without any

difficulty.

To women

of

low

ances

and limited means, she granted daily allowand cash money according to th^ir material Her gentle heart was moved at the sight requirements.
fortunes
of poor

orphans and widows

in

difficulties.

a

poor

and

helpless

girl,

she

For many found husbands

and provided them with dowries. By the nobility of her character and the serenity of her temper she enthroned herself in the heart of her husband and
suitable

gained the good-will of her subjects. In the Haramsarai she was assuredly 'a warmth-diffusing bliss'. Few

polygamous households can claim
happiness
as

to

have enjoyed such
Jahan.

the

household

of

Shah

Her

memory has been safely preserved by her husband in the Taj, a 'monument of conjugal love and fidelity', and a thing of beauty and a joy for ever. The existence of the Shia Sultanates of the Deccan
was
Shah Jahan's Deccan Policy.
in his

an

tmperors. A. C. and

^

eye-sore
,

to
.

the
,

^ Between

Mughal
.,

1605

the year loOO A. C. Akbar was

r Ark

1

Deccan campaign. He was able to annex occupied to his Empire the whole of the kingdom of Khandesk'

.234

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
large

and a

part
to

of

His ambition was
India,

including Berar. extend his sway over the whole of

Ahmadnagar,

but his death

and

materialise.

prevented his plans to mature His son, Jahanglr, resumed his
;

father's policy

with added enthusiasm

but he found a

tough foe
the

in

Malik Ambar.
all

'Was accomplished and

Hence, nothing substantial efforts to annex the Deccan to
in

Mughal
left

Empire ended

smoke.

To Shah Jahan

the policy of reducing the Shia Sultanates as a It must, however, be remembered that family legacy. vwhereas Akbar and Jahanglr were actuated by purely
political

was

motives in their

aggressive policy

against the

Shah Jahan's wars against the Shia Sultans were the outcome of his religious zeal mixed with political prejudice. In his object he was

Deccan Sultanates,

more
first

successful than
place,

his predecessors,

because in the

he himself was acquainted with the ins and outs of the Deccan secondly, a devastating famine had
;

-wrought havoc
;

in that quarter

and thus

facilitated the

lastly, Malik Ambar, .conquest vigorous defence, was no more alive.

and

the very soul

of

The

successful suppression of the rebellion of

Khan

Jahan

Lodhi afforded a favourable

opportunity to Shah Jahan to declare

war against Ahmadnagar. which the rebellious Lodhi had received

The
if

help

from the
pretext

Nizam Shahi King, was to wage *was needed,
which was torn by

a sufficient pretext,

war

against

Ahmadnagar
In 1630 A. C.

internal dissensions.

the Imperial forces besieged the fortress of Parenda, but *soon the siege was raised in the teeth of vigorous

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
opposition.
into

235

Path
his

Khan, Malik
father's shoes,

stepped Sultan Murtaza
his

Ambar's son, who had was imprisoned by

Nizam

for his military inefficiency.

On

release
of the

he applied

his

newly gained

liberty to the

ruin

Sultanate of

communicated with
instructions

Ahmadnagar. At once he Shah Jahan and, on receiving

Emperor, seized the person of Sbltan Murtaza Nizam and threw him in prison, where he was treacherously done to death. Then he raised a
prince,

from the

young
himself

named Hussain Shah,
his

to the throne

and

became
the

regent.

In

all this

he had the

support of
fortress

Mughal Government. he proved perfidious to Shah Jahan.
of

Equally quickly He defended the

Daulatabad against the Imperialists under A strong pressure of the command of Mahabat Khan.

the Imperial forces, coupled with a tempting offer, was Path's fall decided the sufficient for him to surrender.
fate of

Ahmadnagar tor good. The young Sultan Hussain Shah Nizam was taken prisoner and sent to the State Prison
where he sighed out his life in dark despair. traitor, Path Khan, was amply rewarded for his

of Gwalior,

The

He was granted a liberal salary and treated with respect. The Nizam Shahl dynasty was thus brought to a sad close and the Mughal flag was planted on the ruined ramparts of Daulatabad. An attempt was made by Shahjl, father of Shivaji, to
treacherous conduct.
retrieve

the fallen fortunes

of the

Kingdom

of

Ahmad-

the

He set up a young boy of the Royal family on nagar. throne in order tc achieve his object, but the
him
to absolute submission.

Imperialists reduced

Thus

Ahmadnagar

as an independent

kingdom was

definitely

236

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
/

removed from
A. C.
'Adil

the political
territories

map

of

India

in

1636*

when
Shah

its

were divided

between All
It

of Bijapur

and Shah Jahan.

may be

of

pointed out that the conquest of this kingdom, as alsoothers in the Deccan, was the real cause of the
conflict
in

which

Aurangzeb was involved with the
It

Hindus
the
these

of the

South.

gave

rise

to a third

power

Marhattas

who had

served

under the

rulers of

kingdoms, but had been cashiered by the Mughal

Government.

Of

the five offshoot? of

the

Bhamni Kingdom, two
:

Further operations in

were added to the Mughal Empire The Imad Shahi kingdom of Berar

was annexed by Akbar the Great and Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmadnagar by Shah Jahan. As for the Band Shah! Kingdom of Bidar, it was automatically reduced to a small principality and
the
it

ceased

to

remaining

an independent kingdom. The two, namely, the 'Adil Shah! Kingdom of
exist as

Bijapur and the Qutb Shahi Kingdom of Golconda, were sufficiently strong to hold their own. Of these the former was more powerful, independent and two,

wealthy therefore its turn came annexation of Ahmadnagar.
;

immediately

after the

When

Shah Jahan attacked Ahmadnagar, Sultan Muhammad 'Adil Shah of Bijapur had ma de common cause with his
neighbour, Sultan Murtaza Niz5m, lest

his

own kingdom

should meet a similar
to the

fate.

However,
on 'Adil

when Ahmadnagar was annexed
the

Mughal Empire,
fell

whole brunt of the Imperial forces

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
Shah who had openly
Jahan
defied

237

the authority

of

in league with his neighbour, Murtaza Nizam. Asaf Khan was deputed by Shah Jahan to conduct the

campaign against Bijapur.

He

laid siege

to the city,

but the Bijapuris put up a heroic defence with the aid of Marhatta light cavalry which cut off the food
supplies of the Imperial army and thereby compelled the Mughal general to raise the siege without success.

the independence of Bijapur was saved for the time being, though a large part of it was laid waste by

Thus

Further operations against the Bijapuris the Mughals. were postponed owing to the death of the 2 ueen f r
;

the Emperor was then occupied with the construction of the Taj in order to immortalise the memory of

Mumtaz Mahal.
Hostilities

were renewed against Bijapur
A.
C.

in

when

written

firmans

1636 were
to

of Golconda.

issued to the Sultans of both Bijapur

and
the

Golconda,
of

ordering

them

Shah Jahan, to pay suzerainty acknowledge tributes to the Central Government regularly, to abstain from helping Shahji Bhonsla and from interfering in
the
affairs

of

quences

of

Ahmadnagar. Considering the consedefiance and disobedience, the ruler of
as the better part of valour.

Golconda regarded discretion

He complied with the demands and agreed to the terms of the treaty proposed by the Mughal Emperor. But the proposals of Shah Jahan fell flat on the

^f Of

_

.

ears

of

the

ruler

of

Bijapur.

Bijapur, J r

who
Three

offered

a

curt

refusal.

War was

therefore declared against

him without

delay.

238
armies

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
were
:

him from three sides sent to attack from was aiiack to Khan Jahan Sholapur, Khan-i-Zaman was to proceed from Indapur, and Khan-i-Dauran was
to

advance from

the direction

of Bidar

in the north-

east.
all

The

territory of Ali 'Adil

Shah was encircled on

sides but

capital.

the Imperial generals failed to take the They, however, devastated the surrounding

country, so much so that the Sultan was compelled to sue for peace. Negotiations were opened and a treaty

was concluded with the following clauses: (1) Ali 'Adil Shah agreed to owe allegiance to Shah Jahan as his
vassal.
(C)

He

offered a

pe&kasli

(present) of

twenty

lakhs to the Emperor. (3) He made a solemn promise the frontiers of Ahmadnagar. would he that respect

Nizam Shahi territories were to be divided between the two parties and according to the proposed partition,
(4)

Bijiipur received fifty

parganas, yielding twenty lakhs

of

huns

respect

or eighty lakhs of rupees. (5) He promised to the integrity of the Qutb Shahi Kingdom of

Golconda, the ruler of which had accepted the Imperial he agreed to abstain from (6) vassalage. Finally,

God and the help to Shahji Bhonsla. Prophet were made witnesses to the solemn text of this treaty and both the parties agreed to abide by its
giving further
clauses

on a solemn oath.

At the request of
his

the

Sultan, Shah Jahan sent

him

portrait

studded with

The ruler of Golconda sent a tribute precious metals. in gold to his overlord, lest he should remain behind his
'

elder brother

'

in pleasing his suzerain.

The Deccan was
about

pacified

and the settlement then
years.

effected lasted for

twenty

On

his

return

to

Agra,

Shah Jahan

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

239'

entrusted the charge of his conquests of the Deccan to his third son, Aurangzeb, who wsj at that time hardly

eighteen years

old.

The

events

of the viceroyalty of

Aurangzeb
career.

will

be told in

connection

with his

early

Next
11

after the

Shah Jahan's

recovery of Central Asian possessions occupied the serious

Deccan,

the

Pohcy and
attempts to
acquire his ancestral
possessions.

"his

attention of
.

Shah Jahan. He followe d the example of his predecessors an d made abortive
j
,
,

.

,

.

efforts

to acquire

Bz\\&
with
the

an(j Badakhshan,
of
to
in

the regions
,

associated
successors.
lands.

glories

Taimur
win
his

and
in

his

His
of

object

was

fame

distant

He was
He

encouraged
his

undertaking
flattery

by
his

the

prosperity

reign and

the

of

friends.

began with Qandhar, because its possession was invaluable to the Emperor of India both on account
its

of

strategical position

station

lying

and as a principal commercial on the trade-route between Persia and
its

India. military

.Moreover,

situation afforded a strong base for

operations

against

Balkh

and Badakhshan,

which Shah Jahan longed to acquire. Said Khan, the Governor of Kabul, was commissioned by Shah Jahan to reconnoitre
:1638.

Qandhar and

to

make an

estimate of

its military strength. All Mardan Kban, the Persian Governor of that province, was not satisfied

with the treatment meted out to him by his

sovereign.

He

was, therefore,

lukewarm

The under his charge. advanced upon Qandhar and

defending the province result was that the Imperialists
in

easily

took possession of

40
it.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
Persian forces were defeated under their general was encamped ~ix miles off Qandhar. A large
his

who
All

booty passed into the hands of Said Khan and

army.

Mardan Khan was received with great kindness by Shah Jahan. He was paid one lakh of rupees and
enrolled as a grandee of the

Mughal Empire.

After the conquest
his

Qandhar, Shah Jahan turned towards Balkh and thoughts
of

Conquest of Balkn and
Baclakhshan.

Badaklishan, the famous dependencies r of the Kingdom of Bokhara. In

Jahan

Shah conquering these provinces, with the same motive that of war actuated
His
were
invasion
in

conquest.
,

was

well-timed, for

both the

provinces
natural

a state

of hopeless defence.

As a

result

of

dynastic

dissensions,

confusion

ruled supreme

there.

anarchy and The ruler of Bokhara
his rebellious

was involved
had created
content.

in the difficulties

which

son

for

him.

Balkh was
the Royal

seething

with dis-

A

dispute in

family there

made
Shah

confusion worse confounded.

All this encouraged

Jahan 1646 A. C. he sent a
of his son,
generals,

to interfere

in

the affairs of

Bokhara.

In June

Murad, with
including

huge army under the command whom were associated renowned

All
of

Mardan Khan, who
the
Persian
of
city

had an

intimate

knowledge

country.

The

following

month

the

Balkh

was
the

occupied

without opposition,

Nazr Muhammad,

King of

Bokhara, who had fled to Persia, leaving his vast wealth to fall into the hand? of the Mugiials, came

back without securing any support from the Persian In the scramble that followed his flight, the Emperor,

'SHAHAB-UD-DIN
Mughals were able
booty,
viz.,

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

241

to acquire

12,00,000

only a part of the large rupees, 2,500 horses and 300

camels

in all.

Caused by the temporary weakness of

the Uzbegs, the conquest of Balkh was short-lived. Prince Murad, who pined for the pleasures of the
plains, lacked

strong determination and
his father to

therefore could

not follow up his success with vigour.

More than once

he requested

Despite repeated refusals, taken by one Sa'adullah K]]an, ment of the whole country

call him back to Hindustan. he returned and his place was

who
in

effected the settle-

about three

weeks.

When

he went back to Kabul,
to

Shah Jahan ordered
the Imperial

Aurangzeb and Shuju'
the proposed

command
direct

army

in

proceeded

to

campaign Kabul to

against Bokhara, and himself

operations

against

the

enemy. The expedition was very liberally financed, but Aurangzeb and his brother, Shuja', encountered a
serious

they found that their forces were of the Uzbegs. those outnumbered by Moreover, the Mughal officers in the newly-conquered country were

handicap;

not

willing

to of

stay there.

On
life

the other

hand, the
lure

attractions

Indian

social

had a

which

they could not resist. Above all, the methods followed by the Uzbegs added to the difficulties of the
of warfare

Mughal
4

generals,
tactics
',

who
which

were,
their

indeed,

far

inferior

in

Cossack

enemy followed

to their

But Aurangzeb was a man of greatest advantage. iron-will and there was nothing that could shake his He inflicted a crushing defeat on the determination.

Uzbegs and entered $alkh in triumph. Investing the supreme command of that place in Madhu Singh Had a,

242
a

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Rajput Chief, he set out on his onward march towards Aqcha with a view to destroy the Uzbeg hosts,

who were now
Desultory

round the Imperial forces. fighting continued for some time and the
hovering

News arrived Mughals sustained severe hardships. from Balkh that a huge army was advancing from Bokhara to oppose the onward march of the Mughal army, and Aurangzeb retreated without losing time. In
the fight that
followed, the
furious attack on the Bokharan

Mughal musketeers made a army and won the day.

Aurangzeb displayed wonderful coolness and courage in the thick of the fight and his was the moving spirit
everywhere.
spread
his

Even amidst
carpet

the clash of arms
his prayers

he

would
fear.

and say

without

Bokhara was surprised at his presence of The King He was convinced that mind and determined resolve.
of

to defy a
truction.

man of

such mettle was to court despair and desProposals for peace were made and Aurangzeb
safely.

entered

Balkh quite

Negotiations continued for

over three

months but no permanent peace was patched Shah Jahan wished to restore the kingdom of up. Bokhara to its ex-King Nazr Muhammad, but at the same time he insisted on the condition that Nazr must acknowledge him as his suzerain. Between the devil
and the deep
to
sea, the

Mughal Emperor
the terms

to wait

ex-King sent his grandsons to the on him and evaded to agree

of the treaty proposed by Shah Jahan. attendance was excused on the plea of His personal his illness. Placing the charge of the city and of the in the hands of Nazr's grandsons, the Balkh fort of

Prince

left for

Hindustan.

On

his

homeward march he

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

243

With great difficulty he was attacked by the Hazaras. This retreat of the reached Kabul with his entourage.
Imperial

army

is

correctly

the British from Kabul in

compared with the 1842 A. C.
to

retreat of

Shah Jahan was able
Loss of Qandhar

occupy
the aid

Qandhar
of All

in

1638

A. C. with

Mardan

and three highly
expensive but

Khan, the
'

governor of that province, b *

who was

not on good terms with the But the Persians, Kin S of Bokhara. who cherished that province, recoverking,

ed

it

under their new
in

Shah Abbas

ascended the throne

1642 A. C.

who had Aurat gzeb, who
II,

had been appointed to the government of Multan after his departure from Balkli, was recalled and ordered to conduct an expedition against Qandhar, where the

had capitulated after a desperate fight which had lasted for nearly two months (1659 A. C.).

Mughal

garrison

The
sixty

Imperial army, numbering

ten thousand foot

and

thousand horse, advanced upon Qandhar under the joint command of the Prince and his associate, Sa'adullah Khan, and delivered a furious attack on it.

The

Persians,

who had
fire

strongly secured
their

their position,

replied

by opening
siege,

that after a

result was enemy. which lasted for about four months,

on

The

The Prince was called back by the Mughals retreated. his father and again appointed to the supreme command
of the Imperial army.

This time the Prince was better

equipped
crores

with the instruments of war.

A sum
a
far
off

of

two

of rupees

was put
of

at his

disposal in
in

order to
land.
in the

defray the expenses

the

war

He

was

assisted

by Rustam Khan who had shone

244
previous
general,
fight,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Sa'adullah
K]?an, the

famous Mughal
C. and

and
in

his

two

sons.

He

laid siege to the fort of

Qandhar
allotted

the beginning of

May, 1652 A.
blow
off the

the Imperial generals their proper places.

He

ordered

the

Mughal

gunners to

ramparts,

but the Qandharls frustrated their attempts to storm the fortress so that they failed to make any breach in The Persians, the walls which were so ably defended.
possessed a strong park of artillery, ceaselessly poured fire on the besiegers, so that a large number of

who

them were wounded and transported to the next world. The siege was raised after about two months. Annoyed
at the military
inefficiency

of Aurangzeb,

ordered him

u> take over the governorship of the

Shah Jahan Deccan
his eldest
his

and entrusted the governorship of Kabul to son, Dura, who had poisoned the ears of
against his rival brother

father

and incessantly plotted against him. He took permission of his father to renew the siege of Qandhar and boasted that he would effect the conquest of that place within a week. At the head of a
huge army, consisting
five

of

seventy

thousand

horse,

thousand
six

gunners,

thousand Ahadis, ten thousand thousand sappers and five hundred stonefoot, three

cutters, the

braggart,

Rustam Khan Bahadur, Najabat Khan and Qasim Khan as its The siege commenced in the third week of vanguard.
three

Qandhar. thousand horse

This

upon was huge Imperial army preceded by
under the

who had

boasted, advanced

command

of

November,
months.

1652 A. C. and continued

for

full

seven

In spite of their repeated attacks, the Mughals could not effect a single breach in the walls of the fort.

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
starvation

245

On
and

the other hand, they
material.

sustained severe losses in nien
stared

When

them

in

the

they regarded discretion as the better part of valour and abandoned the third and the last siege of
face,

Qandhar.

Thus

it is

evident that Shah Jahan's Central Asian Policy was a colossal failure. In fact,

Asian

Policy

and

its results.

was so doomed from the very It was not easy to cross the outset.
jt

and

Hmdukush in order to conquer Balkn " To mobilise an Indian army Badakhshan.
in sufficient

through the Hindukush

numbers

for the

says Dr. Ibhwari Prasad, conquest of Central Asia was " a foolhardy enterprise without any chance of success." In the fatuous war in Balkh, four crores of rupees
'
f

"

was spent in two years and not an inch of its territory was annexed to the Mughal Empire. The net gain was about twenty-two and a half lakhs of rupees

which the conquered country yielded. The three sieges of Qandhar cost Sh'lh Jahan some twelve crores of The military prestige of Persia was definitely rupees. established and the repeated repulses of the Mughal army and the final retreat of Prince Dara pronounced to
the world the weakness of the

Mughal arms.

Buoyed

up with success against the mighty Mughal Emperor, the Persians now entertained ambitious ideas, and
henceforth the ghost of a Persian invasion of India would haunt the minds of the rulers of Delhi " Such is the throughout the seventeenth century. terrible price ", says Professor Jadunath Sarkar, "which
aggressive imperialism

makes India pay

for

wars across

246

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the North-Western Frontier."

Aurangzeb, the third son of Shah Jahan, was born on October 24, 1618 A. C. His
Early career of
f
,

,

Aurangzeb.

father

was
of

at that time serving as the

,

,,

,

,

.

.

,,

viceroy

the

Deccan.

Breaking

Shah Jahan, was ultimately compelled to surrender in 1625 A. C. One of the conditions of his submission was that he should send his two sons, Dara and Aurangzeb,
into open rebellion against Jahangir,
his father,

to his father as hostages.

The
till

Princes remained

under

1628 A. C. when Shah Jahan ascended the throne and his sons were restored to him. Next we hear of Aurangzeb when he tamed
the custody of

Nur Jahan

Fort and for which his
heroic
action,

and controlled an infuriated elephant before the Agra father, who was watching his
rewarded

him handsomely.

Towards
the
the

the close of the year 1634 A. C., he was granted rank of ten thousand horse. In September of
following
year

he

was

ordered

to

accompany the

Imperial expedition against the Bundelas of Orchha. In July of the succeeding year he was appointed to the viceroyalty of the Deccan, where he remained for about

His charge comprised (1) Daulatabad, eight years. with Ahmadnagar and other districts, having its capital at

Daulatabad subsequently ; (3) Kbandesh, (2) Telingana, with its capital at Nandar with its capital at Burhanpur and (4) Berar, with its

Ahmadnagar

at first

and

at

;

;

capital
fairly

at

Ellichpur.

These provinces constituted a
containing

large

country,

about

sixty-four

and yielding a yearly income of about five crores of rupees. During his first viceroyalty of the
fortresses

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

247

Deccan, Aurangzeb made some important annexations. He reduced the principality of Balgana, with its thirtyfour

parganas and two famous

fortresses,

Salir

and and
left

Mallr,

The

ruler of Bharji offered his submission

agreed to enter the

Imperial unmolested in hispargana of Sultanpur.

Service

if

he was

Shah Jahan

acceded to his request and enrolled him as a Mansabdar of three thousand Zat and two and a half thousand

Sawar, and was
fief

also confirmed in his possession of the

The Imperial generals, who had Sultanpur. already been sent by Shah Jahan to the Deccan, the overthrow of the Kingdom of completed
of

Ahmadnagar, which was

finally

incorporated

in

the

Mughal Empire. They also compelled Shahjl to submit, and under their pressure the alleged heir to the Nizam
Shahl Kingdom was handed over to the Great Mughal

and thrown
In the

in prison.

month

His resignation

and renunciation

May, 1644 A. C. took place the most r mantic episode of Aurangzeb's early career, This was his renunciation
of
of

the

world.

To

all

intents

and

purposes,

it

his eldest brother, Dara,
his viceroyalty of the

was brought about by the machinations of who was interested in making

under the undue interference of
condonation
of

Deccan an easy failure. Smarting Dara and Shah Jahan's
interference,

that

he

tendered

his

Thereupon, his father resignation in bitter resentment. This deprived him of all his ranks and allowances.

was early estrangement between the father and the son bridged through the good offices of Jahan Ara Begum,
the eldest sister of Aurangzeb.

248

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Living as a recluse in
seclusion
for

some time,

Aurangzeb
public in
.

governorships
of different provinces.

appeared in the February, 1645 A. C. and simultaneously he was made the
again
r

viceroy or dujarat, which he governed
to the entire satisfaction of his father.

~

.

_,

,

.

,

,

,

From
to

there he

was sent
the

to Balkli in

1647 A. C.

in

order
that

consolidate

position
if

of

the

Mughals

in

distant province,
substantial,
it

and

he failed to accomplish anything
:

was no

fault of his

No amount

of effort

and endurance could ensure success
part.

in that inhospitable

The

failure against the sturdy
a

North-Westerners
rulers

has become

tradition

which the Anglo-Indian

have maintained by repeatedly risking their men and money against them. His attempts to reduce and retain Balkh having proved abortive, he retired to Kabul
in October,

1647 A. C.

From

there he went to take

over the government of Multan and Sind, but was soon called back to undertake an expedition for the relief of

Qandhar,
little

which

the

Persians

had
to

at

that

time

beleaguered.

Unfortunately,

he

reached

Qandhar a
recover
that

too

late.

Twice he attempted
the
year

province, but failed,

Early
His second

in

1653 A. C. Aurangzeb was
to
-

thC

re-appointed the DeCCan
,
.

the governorship When he reached
.

of

administrative achievements.

and assumed the reins of his office. . , , he found that large tracts of lands had become desolate and the Deccan as a whole had
,

.

become a source
country

of trouble rather than of income.

The

could not

pay

its

own way and

there were

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

249

Other provinces, such as Malwa recurring deficits. and Gujarat, bore the brunt of the cost of administration. The new viceroy was confronted with a serious
situation.

The

land was,

so to

say,

sucked dry, the

peasantry was in a state of decay and the recurring deficits continued to affect the Imperial Treasury every
In order to meet the year in ever-increasing amount. needs of administration without rackrenting the cultivating classes, Aurangzeb began to draw on the cash
reserves deposited in the strongholds of DaulatSbad

and

spent about forty thousand in about two years. The low cash balances still continued till at last, at his
suggestion,

which were
officers,

Shah Jahan granted him productive jagirs These in the hands of inefficient officers.

smarting under the loss of their jaglrs, misrepresented the whole situation. They told the Emperor
ambitious and the Emperor,

that the Prince was too

who was

never unmindful of his

his father, at

rebellion against ordered his son to once believed them and

own

take half a lakh worth of

parganas of amount so that
normal.
falsity

productive land in the Asir and to diminish his cash by the same
less

his

actual

income might be made

The
of
in

the
a

Prince exonerated himself by proving the* Handling the financial allegations.
proper

situation

way, he devoted his time and' energy to ameliorating the economic condition of the peasantry of his province, despite the discouragement he
received from his suspecting father at the instigation of vile intriguers. He secured the services of Murshid

Quli Khan, an exceptionally skilled revenue officer, and' with his assistance he extended the approved system of

250

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

survey and revenue assessment over the whole of the

For revenue purposes, the province was Deccan. divided into two main parts (1) the Balaghat, or Highlands, and (2) the Palnghat, or Low-lands. The former
:

included one- half of Berfir and the whole of Khandesh

;

whereas the latter embraced the
entire land

rest of the country.

The
Alto-

was measured and the share of the State was
the

fixed at

one-fourth of

aggregate produce.

gether, there were
in the

now

three revenue systems in vogue

Deccan,

viz., (I)

In certain backward areas the

previous practice of apportioning the State demand per was adhered to, but due allowance was plough

made

for the difference in the fertility of the soil
(2)

and the
in

yield thereof.

The Batal system was followed

many

places.

According

to this system,, the share of the

State was one-half where crops depended absolutely on rainfall ; it was one-third where wells irrigated the

land

;

and

it

was

raised high or reduced low, according

conditions suggested, where irrigation was -done by canals, tanks and river-chinnels. <3) According to the Jarlb system, the whole land was measured
as the local

vrithjartb and the share of the Government was fixed
according
to

the

kind

of

the

crop sown.

Revenue

officers, similar to

those in

and the
after.

interests of the peasants

the North, were appointed were properly looked

The

arable lands, which

had long been neglected

and continuous period of misgovernowing ment, were restored to cultivation and loans were
to a long

advanced to the cultivators in order to enable them to purchase seeds, cattle and agricultural impleliberally

ments.

In other respects he improved the administration

SHAHAB-UD-D1N

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

251

of the province under his charge by appointing his

own

men
The

to responsible positions.

his military officers
results of all

He increased the pay of and thus ensured their co-operation. these reforms were wholly beneficial.

Agriculture improved, the peasantry prospered and, as " Dr. Ishwari Prasad remarks, the Deccan provinces
attained a high level of prosperity."

As mentioned
"

before,

operations

against Bijapur
. ,

t

His forward
policy against the Decoan.

r

.

and Golconda were stopped, because both of them had accepted the

to pay Imperial vassalage and agreed But when Aurangzeb regular tributes to the Emperor. to the was re-appointed governorship cf the Deccan,

were as independent as ever. Their destruction was determined as soon as the new viceroy took over.
they

The

causes were

:

(1)

martial appetite ; (2)
their wealth
;

the cupidity of the Prince and his the independence of the Sultanates and

(3)

their allegiance to the
;

Shah

of Persia

and. not to the Emperor of Hindustan (5) their intimacy with Dara (Shia)
;

(4) their religion
(6)

;

the delay in

remitting tributes which had fallen in arrears. To the Prince, who was waiting only

for

an

of Golconda opportunity, the kingdom II S hap " offered the first chance
'

pened that Mir Jumla, the Persian Prime Minister of Sultan Abdullah Qutb Shah, who had then fallen out with his sovereign on account of his
ambitious designs, invoked the assistance of Aurangzeb, who accorded him a warm welcome and recommended

him

to his father.

command

of

five

The Emperor appointed him to the thousand horse and made him a

252

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
of his son's suite.

member

No

better pretext could be

found than

to seek redress for the alleged grievances of

Mir Jumla. Early in 1656 A. C. Aurangzeb and Mir Jumla advanced to demand justice from Sultan
Abdullah Qutb Shah and entered the
serious opposition.
city

without any

Once there, they attacked Hyderabad and surprised its king who fled to Golconda, which too was soon attacked. So relentlessly did the Prince
pursue his

schemes of conquest that the King of Golconda was compelled to pray for peace. According to the treaty that was concluded, Abdullah promised to pay a crore of rupees and all arrears of tribute to the Emperor, to acknowledge Shah Jahan and not the Shah

of Persia as his suzerain, to cease coining

money

in his

own name, and
of Aurangzeb.

to

marry

his

daughter to the eldest son
the
,,

Golconda humiliated,

turn of

Bijapur
.

came

War

next.

Imperial permission was ob,

against Bijapur.

tamed

,

.

r

for

the

conquest of Bijapur

t

r>--

through the persuasive eloquence of Mir Jumlu, and preparations were made for the final
conquest of that Kingdom. made matters easy for the
Sultan
Internal

dissensions

iiad

Muhammad

'Adil

The death of Shah now made confusion
invaders.

worse confounded.

The

fort of

Bidar was besieged in

February, 1657 A. C. and after twenty-seven days* investment the city was taken and a large booty obtained. Next an attack was made on KalyanI which
capitulated.

about two months the whole country was being overrun by the Mughal soldiers and the conquest of Bijapur itself was in sight
After a
siege

of

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
received

253

when

again orders

were

from the Emperor
additional troops

for the cessation of

hostilities.

The

supplied to the Prince

were withheld.
the
lip.

were recalled and further supplies Thus came a slip between the cup and
of

The terms

the

treaty

made

with

the

Sultan were as humiliating as those concluded with Golconda. An indemnity of one crore of rupees was
taken

from the Sultan and

he had to cede Bidar,

Kalyani and Parenda to the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb had not yet completed the terms of the treaty when the illness of his father invited his attention to the North

and

attracted

him

there to

make

a bid for

f

he throne.

CHAPTER

XIII

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
The
Fratricidal

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

(CONCLUDED)
closing

war

and

years of the glorious reign of Shah Jahan were darkened by a war of

its

gem-Ms.

he did not appear

succession attending his illness. Since in the Jharukha (audience window)
that

rumours ran

afloat

he

was dead.

He

tried to

allay the disquietude by appearing in the Jharukh'i after a week, but the rumours had spread like wild-fire

and there was nothing that could pacify the people and
the Princes.

Before describing the events of the
it is

War

of

Succession,
(1)

necessary to trace

its

genesis.

Shah Jahan

had

four

sons:

Dara,
of
*

Shuja',

Sons of Shah Jahan and their
charaeteisketches.

Aurangzeb and Murad, each
possessed

ITdistinct
^

whom

r

traits

of character,
in

which had no mean share

deciding rt

him.

the scramble in his favour or against All of them had their own claims to the throne.

Dara was endowed with commendable qualities of head and heart. Though he was the heir-designate, his chances for succession were few and far between. By and nature irascible his frivolous habits, vacillating
temper he had made many enemies at the Court. was bitterly hated on account of his liberal views.
friendship

He
His

with

Christians

and

the intimacy his inclination towards the Shia faith
the

Hindus,

his

with

went against

his political interests.

Shuja' was a

man

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
of intelligence

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
tastes.
less a slave of his

25S

and refined

Capable of immense

energy, he was none the

own

passions,

'and his intellect was impaired much by his addiction to wine. He too is said to have subscribed to the Stua>
faith

and thereby annoyed the Sunni orthodoxy. Murad BakLsh was brave and resolute, but otherwise a
brainless

despised

He was frank to an extent and He stood little or no chance of diplomacy.
booby.

succession.
further

The

real

danger

was,
the

Aurangzeb, Jahan, was the ablest of his brothers
character
soldier

South.

third

however, brewing son of Shah

and capacity.

He was
'

courage^ the bean-ideal of a

in point of

do.
art

cool to conceive, brave to dare and strong to Skilled in diplomacy and a perfect master of the
dissimilation
in
',

of

he
of

had

acquired

considerable
Besides,,

experience

the

art

administration.

he had the greatest advantage of

being

an

orthodox

Sunni
of

the

Musalman. Sunni sect

He had
with
It is

the ungrudged support which to counteract the

opposition of Dara.
serious rivals were

evident that the two

most

had the support

Aurangzeb and Dara. The former Musalmans, excluding the Shlas, whereas the latter was supported by the Shias, the Hindus and other Zimmls. The remaining two
of almost all

brothers, Shuja'
(2)

and Murad, had

their

own

adherents.

When

Shah Jahnn
in

fell

ill,

the four Princes were
of different provinces,
at
their

Division of the Empire.

possession

haying

su ffi cient re5O urces

disposal

Dara was the viceroy of the Punjab and the on the North-West provinces Shuja' was the governor of Bengal and Orissa; Aurangzeb held the command of
: ;

256
'the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Deccan
;

in charge of the province each Prince had sufficient cash and a of Gujarat. Thus, .pretty large force at his command, with which he could

and Murad was

contend against the
division

claims

of

his

brothers.

The

of

the

Empire

had, in fact,

put considerable

power

in the

hands of the Princes and enabled them to
efforts.

pursue their plans with unremitting
(3)

The

rule adopted
'
, i

Mughal tradition of 'kingship
recognises no
11
'

by the Mughal Emperors was and kingship recognises no kinship c j the struggle for succession had to be
'
,

i

i

,

*

fought
takltfa,

out
'

to

the

end of taMit or
coffin
'.

crown or

Babar,

and Shah Jahan had all Humayun, iound themselves compelled to contend against the and a disputed nearest relatives, of their rivalry
Akbar,
Jahangir
succession had

become a

tradition in the

Mughal

family.

claimant would callously The rivals and all their collaterals to the ,put his surviving the It sword made disputed succession inevitable.
fact that the

successful

goaded the princes

to

fight

even

more

desperately

because they knew only too well that in the event of Motives of selfdefeat their ends would be tragic.
preservation
also

they

were

no

pointed to the same path, though less actuated by a sense of personal

aggrandisement,
(4)

On
l

the 6th of September,

1658 A. C. Shah

Jahan
S
f

was
there

taken

Empe ror a ncl 'nomination of
Daraashis
:Successor
.

**

was
,
.

no

seriously hope of

ill

his

recovery.

At this time, his eldest son, ... , ^ ~ ... was with him at Delhi and was Dara,

~

faithfully nursing

his

father

at

the

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
Emperor
improved
confidential

257
in

When the Imperial Court. health a little, he called his
in

courtiers

together and nominated his eldest son as his successor

Such a state of affairs involved the question of life and death for the remaining three Princes, who were carefully nursing in their bosoms the
their presence.

ambitions of securing the succession

for themselves.

They made
there

was

preparations for the impending war and nothing that could prevent them from

carrying out their respective plans. Muslim India, there was no definite law (5) In

Absence of the law of succession.

determining

the

succession
principle

to

the

Muslim

throne.
fittest

The
'.

adopted
first-

was

'

the survival of the

Though

the

born was often allowed to have the strongest claim, yet his brother, if any, or a provincial governor, or an
influential chief,
if

was ever ready to contest his claim, time favoured and means were not lacking. Thus, in the absence of a well-defined law, regulating the
succession to the throne, the illness of Shah Jahan was a signal for the outbreak of a fratricidal war.

following measures adopted by Dara during the illness of his father also contri ' Dara's behaviour buted to the War of Succession to a during the illness
(6)
of his father.
.

The

,

,

considerable

,

,

extent

x

:

(*)

were guarantees from the Vakils of his brothers, at the Imperial Court, to the effect that they would not submit any news to the Princes about the Emperor and
his Court,
(ii)

He who

took

f

He

closed the roads to Bengal, Gujarat

and the Deccan,
carry any

so

that
to

the

travellers

might not
(Hi)

information

those

provinces.

He

258

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

confiscated the house of 'Alamgir's Vakil stationed at

the officers of the Imperial Court, (iv) He recalled 'Alamgir when the latter was engaged in the conquest of Bijapur and had almost accomplished the task entrusted

Before the Princes in the distant provinces had stirred, he ordered his forces to march against
to him.
(v)

them

in

order

to

remove them from

his

way

to the

throne.
(7)

The war could be
if

prevented, or at least postponed,

Shah

Jahan

had re-asserted
after

his

authority immediately He ought to covery from his illness. for his sons from a scramble have stopped making He ought to have succession while he was alive.

his re-

contradicted the rumours of his death and

averted

the

course

which events had taken. It is quite possible that Dsra kept him uninformed of the consternation caused by the rumour of his alleged death; but even
after

the

defeat

of

the

Imperial

forces in the Battle

of

Dharmat, he did not stir out to oppose Aurangzeb who was advancing towards Agra. Granted that he

was too weak

as a result of

his illness,

but

he could

have convened a council of war to deal with the seriousThere were many whose loyalty ness of the situation. for him was yet unshaken, and he ought to have rallied

them

But, unfortunately, he behaved in a most impolitic way. Misjudging the trend of events and miscalculating the strength of the Princes, he shook
to his side.

the faith of his other sons

in his

own

sense of justice by
in

continuously favouring Dara, the eldest son, and out of season.

season

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
(8)

259

'Alamglr,

1

nple Alliance.

who had kept himself in touch with the events occurring at the Imperial ~ ., ,, L rCapital through his sister, Rau^han
,

,

i

Ara Begum,
brothers,

had

also

formed an
in

alliance

with

his

Shuja* and

Murad,

November 1552 A.

C.

to tabulate the terms

In the presence of conflicting accounts, it is impossible of the triple alliance with any
preciseness.

One thing is, however, clear the three brothers agreed to take concerted action in the event of danger, and that if anyone of them was attacked by
Dara, the other two

would rush
looked
concern.

to

his

Hip.
to

Both

Dara

and

Shah Jahan
grave

upon

their

growing
frustrate

intimacy

with

In order
plans,

Shah Jahan sent secret letters to them through the Khwaja Saras (eunuchs), promising his help to 2ach of them against This act of setting one brother against the the other.
their efforts
their

and to checkmate

other by issuing the crisis.*

'

'

inflammatory

letters

also

precipitated

*The correspondence
:

his sons is very important.

that passed between Shah JahSn and In one of his letters to Shah Jah5n,

" Though I have repeatedly made a request Aurangzeb writes that the despatch of inflammatory Jetters should be stopped, no notice has been taken," (Adab-i- Alamgli-i, 366-a). In another "I have repeatedly leiter he wrote to his father as follows asked Your Majesty, that you should stop sending inflammatory letters. Though Your Majesty is all wisdom, yet as you have written to me that I should not expect such a thing from clearly
:

you*

Khawaja Saras away I am forced to call the mischievous from you". (A dab-i-' Alamglr", 367-a). In a letter to Mahabat " My DarS Shikoh will be approachKhan, Shah Jahan wrote is no dearth of treasure at Lahore and men There Lahore. ing It is proper that the brave and horses are abundant at Kabul. an army, and, siding with with to Lahore general should hasten
:
.
.

260

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Both Shuja* and Murad crowned themselves
respective
in their

provinces

the

former in
;

Bengal and the
coined

latter in

Gujarat

they

money

in

their

own names

and assumed the Imperial titles. As for Aurangzeb, he was too calm and clever to do anything of the kind. He seized all the ferries on the Narbada and waited for
an opportune moment.
mobilize
his
forces.

Prince Shuja' was the
set out

first

to

Bengal on his own behalf, ravaged the districts of Bihar on his way and reached Benares on ihe 24th of January, 1658 A. C.

He

from

41 of Battle

.

Dara was not idling away his time either. He had made ample for the preparations r r r
,
:

Bahadurgarh

struggle
, .

for

succession
,

which
ir

was
,

February, 1658.

.,

as certain as

TT

surety

itself.

He

sent

a

army undei the command of his eldest son, Sulaiman Shikoh, assisted by Mirza Rajah Jai Singh Kachwahah in order to oppose the advance of Shuja*. The two armies met at Bahadurgarh in February, 1658 In a serious battle which was fought, Shuja A. C. was defeated and driven back to his base in Bengal. In the meantime, Murad ascended the throne under
large
1

Battle of

*ke
:

Oharmat

title of Murawwaj-ud-DIn. The Khutba was read and the coins were
. .

April 1558.

struck in his name.

Having
six

collected

a

huge army, he sent a contingent of

thousand horse

Dara Shikoh Baba, range himself against the two wretched sons, punisFPthem for their misdeeds and release me ...... And I have written to my eldest son, that giving himself up entirely to him (Mahabat Khan), he should think that his welfare lies in obedience to that eminent general." (Muntakhib-ul-Lubab, vol. II, pp. 3537). For some other similar letters, see Aurangzeb and
His Times,
p.

49

ff.

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
for plundering the port of

261

Surat, the appanage of Jahan

Ara.

Aurangzeb, who was
sack
of

playing a waiting game,

now

wrote congratulatory
in

letters

the

Surat,

Murad on He offered him
to

his success his services

and requested him to join the troops on the other side of the Narbada in order to advance against the Imperial
Capital.

joined

Murad was won over and the two brothers against the third. Dara was not indifferent to

the progress of events. He had already dispatched an the under command of Qasim Khan and Rajah army

Jaswant Singh to oppose the advancing A Aurangzeb and his brother, Murac
1

troops
battle

of

.

was

fought at
in

Dharmat near Ujjain on
to
flight

April 15,

1658 A.C.,

which the Imperialists were defeated and the Rajah
along with his Rajput followers. victory increased the prestige of Aurangzeb and

was put

The

The victorious Princes augmented his resources. pressed on and were able to secure the passage of the
Chambal and
plain of
to

take their position in the memorable
of

Samugarh.
at the military inefficiency

Annoyed
Samugarh, May, 1058.

the

Hindu

Rajah and his Musalman colleague, Dara decided to take the field in He was so impatient that he person.

await the arrival of the flower of Mughal who had taken the pick of chivalry, Sulaiman Shikoh, and had defeated Shuja* at him with force the Mughal
could
not

Having collected a large army, whose sympathies were more with Aurangzeb than with him, he marched out from Agra to deal with
the Battle of Bahadurgarh.

the combined forces of Aurangzeb and Murad, without

262

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

listening to the advice of his father.

He

reached

the

plain

of

Samugarh

towards the close of

May

with as

many as fifty thousand strong and engaged himself in a brothers. On one side, the death-grapple with his
Rajputs fought
race
;

most

gallantly,

doing honour to their

on the other
in

side,

both

Aurangzeb and

Murad

the forefront, risking their lives without any fought fear of death. Both the parties displayed extraordinary valour and charged each other with unparalleled
impetuosity, of a defeat.
for they

knew

full

well

the consequences

Hitherto, the Imperialists seemed to have the upper hand, but the tables were at once turned against them when, in the thick of fight, Dara's elephant

received
horse.
battle.

a

serious

wound and he took
decided the

his seat
fate

on a
the

This trifling incident

of

For those around him, finding the howdah empty, thought that their leader was lost and therefore took to their heels. Aurangzeb achieved a decisive victory. He now congratulated his brother, Murad, and
attributed the cause of success to him.

Dumbfounded by

the defeat, Dara and his son, Sipehr Shikoh, returned to Agra and reached there late in the night.
After
Fate of Shah
]ahan.

obtaining

war, Aurangzeb marched upon Agra and entered it
spoils
..
,
.

the

of

.

..

without encountering opposition.

TT

He

encamped himself
and from there he wrote an
father, seeking his forgiveness for the

in

the Bagh-i-Nur
(petition) to his

arzdasht

war which conditions

and circumstances had forced upon him.*
*"

He

tried

hard

As long as power was vested in your venerable hands ", " wrote Aurangzeb to his father, Shah Jahan, obedience was my

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
to conciliate his father,

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
and
his
in
all

263

probability he

would
found

have preferred to rule
it

in his

name had he
son.

not

impossible to

gain

confidence or to shake his

intimate attachment to his eldest
caution,

With

studied

he sent his

son,

Muhammad

Sultan, to take

The Emperor was walled up and palace kept a close prisoner for full eight He was treated with great respect and indulyears. gence by Aurangzeb, but was never allowed to come
possession of the citadel.
in

his

out even for a moment, for the clever Prince knew well the consequences of such an impolitic action.

too

To

the best of a bad bargain. ShSh Jahan sent a sword, called 'Alamgir, to his son as a present. Bent in age and broken in health, the mos*. magnificent

make

monarch

of the

Mughal Dynasty passed away

in

1666

A. C. as a captive of his son.
passion,

and

I

never went beyond

my

limit, for

Knowing God

is

my

witness.

But owing to the

illness of

which the AllYour

Majesty, the prince, usurping all authority and bent upon propagating the religion of the Hindus and the idolaters and upon suppressing the faith of the Prophet, had brought about chaos and anarchy throughout the Empire, and no one had the courage to sp*ak the truth to Your Majesty. Believing himself to be the rightful ruler, he (D5ra) deposed Your August Majesty, as has been mentioned in my previous letters. Consequently, I started from Burhanpur, lest I should be held responsible in the next world for not providing a remedy for the disorders that were At that time, excepting cropping up throughout the country. that enemy of the true faith (Dara), siding with whom is a real As victory is never gained sin, there was no one between us. without God's help, which is the result of true obedience, please notice how Divine assistance came to my help. God forbid, that with Your Majesty's connivance, the theories of the apostate (Dara)

become

translated into practice,

and the world

get

264

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
In a written compact signed

between Murad

and

f i* *^ Fate of Murad.

tr '.

Aurangzeb, taken to be true to the other as long
either against
sincerity

each brother had under-

as nothing

was done by

and

of purpose. But after the victory at Samuthe former garb, grew jealous of the growing power of the latter. He not only cast the contract to the winds
singleness

by
by

secretly submitting his apologies to

Shah Jahan and
by

trying to secure the throne for himself, but also

He received a entering into a plot against Aurangzeb. secret letter* from his father, who, while conferring the
darkened with
infidelity
!

Under the present circumstances, thanks are due to the All that Master of Fate ror whatever has been brought about I owe to you for my upbringing is far beyond any adequate expression of gratitude on the part of my poor self, and I cannot on any account forget your kindness and my responsibilities, and
!

life, to create any rancour your heart. Whatever happened was due to the will of God, and for the good of the country and the nation." (Addb-i-'Alam-

allow myself, for the sake of this short
in

tftrt, 363-6).

In

another
:

letter

to

Shah Jahan, he thus explains

his

1 have repeatedly made it clear that, in marching to Agra, had no intention of ousting the King of Islam, and God is my witness that such a sinful and unholy thought never entered my I

position "

mind.

who had no distinguishing
reins of the
infidelity,
I

In the beginning of your illness, features of a

when

the eldest prince,

Government and raised took upon myself the religious duty of ousting him. As Your Majesty, on account of prejudice and unmindful of political conditions, wanted the eldest prince to propagate heresy,
I

Musalman, took up the the standard of heresy and

determined to

make a

Jihad against him."

(Adnb-i-Alamgiri,

367-a.)

*The
I

text of the letter, as reproduced
:

by

Muhammad Ma'sum

in his Tarikh-i-Shah Shujai, is as follows "

have confened the sovereignty of the whole of India on

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

265

sovereignty of the whole of Hindustan on him, assured him of his help and directed him to invite his brother, Aurangzeb, and his son to his camp on the pretext of a

banquet and 'see the
of absent-mindedness,

last

of

them'.

The
it

letter

was

conveyed through a confidential servant, but

in

a state

Murad

placed

in a

book, and,
it

when
irony

accidentally discovered by
to

one of

his servants,

was handed over
of
fate,

Aurangzeb.

Thus,

by a curious

Murad was caught
his

in the trap in

Aurangzeb and
the
feast

son were to be caught

which at him by
invited to a

suggestion of

Shah Jahan.

He was

ed

his brother, Aurangzeb, in the manner suggesthim by Shah Jahan. When he drank himself disgracefully in the feast, he was seized and spoken to by his brother upon his impiety and intemperance and He was declared unfit to occupy the Muslim throne.

by

to

soon bound in chains and sent to the

state

prison

of

Gwalior, where, on a charge of murder, he was executed
in

1661 A.C.
Entrusting the task of capturing
his trusted officers,
'

Dara Shikoh
,
,

to

FateofShuja'.
after his defeat in

,.

his

Aurangzeb turned ._ c Shuja who, the Battle of Bahadurgarh, had taken
.

attention

towards

to flight, but
for

was again

in the field to

make another

bid

the

throne.

After

his

coronation,
to be

Aurangzeb

my

I enjoin you illustrious son (Murad). patient in this matter and not to divulge this secret to anyone, however intimate. After a few days, invite your brother (Aurangzeb) and his son to your camp on the plea of a banquet and see

most careful and

the last of
free will.

them and then have the Khutba recited in your name, and assume the Imperial title, which I bestow on you of my own
;

You

greatest caution." (Tarihh-i-Shah Shiijai by

should perform this important task with the Muhammad Ma'sum.)

266

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

marched against him and inflicted a sharp defeat on him at Khgjwah on January 5, 1659 A. C. The defeated Prince was hotly chased by Mir Jumla. Driven
to different places, he ultimately took
rest

in

ArakSn,
in

where he was

1660 A.C. Maghs Meanwhile, Aurangzeb's officers were busy
killed

by the

in

Date's last

a
tJag?c
fate.

iS

They were hunting the unfortunate Prince from place to Chased into Kathlawar, he place.
pursuing Dara*.

was brought to bay near Ajmer, where he took his position and tried to defend himself as strongly as he
uch a vigorous defence that for four days Aurangzeb could not dislodge him from his On the fifth day, however, he was defeated position.
could.

He

put up

through the treachery of Daler Khan, who had promised to leave Aurangzeb and to join him. Deserted by all of
Firoz Mewati, Dara took the road towards Ahmadabad. He was accompanied by a
his

nobles,

except

one

few

faithful followers, including his son, Sipehr Shikoh,

and some other women. On his way, he enlisted a few fugitives but the inhabitants of the country harassed him by pillaging his baggages, for he still had some jewels and money with him. When he
his daughter,
;

reached the city of Ahmadabad, the governor in charge With the of the castle closed the gates against him.
help of a notorious reached Cutch. The

named KanjI Koli, he Zamlndar of that place, who had promised to marry his daughter to his son, now refused him all help. In dire distress, D^ra proceeded towards
robber,

Sind to seek shelter there.

Skirting along Sind, he

was

deserted by his friend and follower, Firoz Mewati.

To

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

267

add to his sorrow, the only source of solace and strength him was snatched away from him his most favourite " Mountain wife, Nadir a Begum, who died of dysentery. of after mountain trouble thus pressed upon the heart " of Dara," says KhafI Khan, grief was added to grief and
for

sorrow to sorrow, so that his mind no longer retained At last he took refuge with Malik Jiwan equilibrium."

Khan who
ists

betrayed him into the hands of the ImperialHe was taken sent by Aurangzeb to pursue him.

prisoner and sent to

Lahore and then

to Delhi.

There

he was sentenced to death on the charge

of apostasy.

Sulaiman Shikoh, the eldest son of Dara, fought
Fate of Sulaiman
faithfully
for

fu S itive
in

life >

during his but he could not J oin him
his

father

his

near

Ajmer.

He was
its

stand against Aurangzeb pursued by Shaista Khan, uncle
last

of Aurangzeb, and driven into Garhwal, where he

took

refuge with

Rajah,

who made him
then conveyed

over to the
to

Imperial seated on

officers.

He was

Delhi,
city

an

elephant,

paraded through
Next,

the

and then thrown
he died
in

in the state prison of

Gwalior, where
his

1662 A.C.

Aurangzeb turned

attention towards the surviving sons of his brothers.

On

one pretext or the other he put them to the sword or threw them into prison. Only two Princes, viz., Sipehr
Shikoh and Azad Bakhsh, were spared and married to
the third and

daughters of Aurangzeb, respectively. Aurangzeb imprisoned even his own son who had married a daughter of Shah Shuja* and foi whom he
fifth

showed some

affection.

268

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
motives which
actuated Aurangzeb to enter

Motives which actuated Aurang-

m

.

upon *he Fratricidal
variously described.

War

have been

Only the more

here:** be P (1) Shuja' and Murad had already War of the and their declared independence As usual, it was Succession had become inevitable. would successful the that slaughter his prince expected
rival brothers

In the interest of his
but enter the war.

without feeling remorse or compassion. own safety, Aurangzeb could not
(2)

There was no love

lost

between

rangze*x The former was bent upon the latter in the eyes of the people and the stigmatising Emperor. It will be remembered that while Aurangzeb

Dara and

An

charge of the Deccan, Dara was trying to ruin his reputation. With a hostile brother on the throne, Aurangzeb's position can be better imagined than
in

was

described.
his
affairs

All this and Dara's undue interference in must have actuated Aurangzeb to decide

Under the circumstances, when Shah Jahan nominated Dara as his successor, Aurangzeb's anger must have known no The fact that Dara concealed the news about bounds. his father and prevented them from reaching his brothers
upon
that course
of
action.
(3)

easy for the Princes to leave the Emperor out of account and to take his death for granted. (4) Aurangzeb was an orthodox

further

annoyed Aurangzeb.

It

made

it

Muslim.

Dara's

latitudinarianism

must

also

have

influenced Aurangzeb in choosing his course. Muhammad Kazim, the author of the 'Alamgirnamah, voiced the

views of

Aurangzeb and

his

partisans

about Dara's

SHAIIAB-UD-DIN
unfitness to occupy the

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

269
:

Muslim throne when he wrt>te Dara Shikoh obtained throne and established his power, the foundation of the faith would be in danger and precepts of Islam would be changed for the rant of ambition and (5) Personal Judaism/' infidelity
"
If

also played
his

a prominent part in the chalking

out of

programme.
All that has been said,
if

participation in the Fratricidal

excuses Aurangzeb's War, does not excuse his
it

deliberate diplomacy therein.

But

it

must be pointed

out that without resorting to such diplomatic actions as he did, his fate, and with it the fate of Islam in
India,

would have been

different.

Contemporary chroniclers, such as Muhammad Kazim and others, ascribe AurangCauses of his
success in the
Fratricidal

zeb's success in the
,

War of
,

Succession

War.
not

to his iqbal, or
satisfied

,.

.

7

.,

,

luck.

j The modern
*i

mind
In the

is

with
of

this

answer.

It

tries

to find other
first

explanations
place,

his

success than this.

Shah Jahan's own weakness and
to

incapacity

Aurangzeb Immediately after his recovery, the old Emperor should have exerted his authority and stopped his sons from snatching away power from his hands. He ought to have contradicted

contributed

the

success

of

more

than

anything

else.

the news of his death and averted the course of events
in his

own

favour.

If

he

had acted with prudence,

he could have helped his favourite son, Dara, to the throne. He was still popular and he would have elicited
support from
all

sides.

He

should have resumed the
after his recovery,

reins of his office in his

own hands

270

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
;

curbed the ambitions

of his other sons and then enthroned Dara, if he so desired. But, unfortunately, he entirely misunderstood the situation and remained

passive.
after
full

While Aurangzeb,

Murad and

Shuja* were,

preparations, marching against the

Imperial

was dissuading Dara from fighting, telling that no harm could accrue from their coming to the
Capital, he

Thus, if the Emperor was deprived of his throne after the defeat of Dara and if Dara could not succeed him, Shah Jahan must share the onus of
Capital.

Dara army was of rc.w levies. composed Besides, there was an utter lack of co-operation between the Rajputs and the
responsibility
in

no small measure.
general
himself.

Secondly,

was

not

a

great

His

Muslims, who constituted the huge bulk of his army. The former were not wanting in valour, but their
heroic attempts were cruelly frustrated by their peculiar notions of precedence and prestige. The latter were

corrupt

and unfaithful. Their were sympathies more with Aurangzeb, a staunch Sunni, than with Dara. Dara's arrogance of temper and hasty disposition
also
difficulties

produced many SulaimSn Shikoh, was
Imperial army.
to

for

him.

His

son,

in

He

did not wait for

Bengal with the pick of the it but advanced

meet Aurangzeb in spite of the advice of his father. This was a blunder of the first magnitude. The error committed by him in dismounting from the elephant

and

riding

a

horse instead, comoleted

the

disaster.*

*Authors of the 'Alamgirnamah, Zafarnamah and Tdrikh~iShahjahani assert that this fatal exchange of horse for elephant was occasioned by the fact that the elephant had

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

271

Thirdly, it was not easy to meet a man of Aurangzeb's type, a dexterous diplomat and an excellent general who outdistanced his rivals in the war on account of his
superior military
tactics.

His forces were thoroughly
strictly disciplined.

organized,

efficiently

equipped and
his in

reserve and put part army kept it in the field when Dara's troops lay exhausted. As a Sunni of the he Orthodoxy, Champion ceaselessly played

He

a

of

upon the alleged apostasy of his rival brother, and conHe stantly drew men from his ranks to his own side.
openly boasted of having his friends in the ranks of his He fully availed himself of his artillery opponent.

when his foolish brother, Dara, advanced beyond own artillery and thus rendered it useless.
"

his

Thus, it is evident that Aurangzeb's victory in the war of succession was the victory of action over
supineness, of intrepidity over
tion
inertia,

and of organiza-

and

discipline over confusion

and incoherence."

AH Mardan Khan was
<*i m* j- r^u 'Ali Mardan Khan.

~

a Persian governor of Qandbecause he was not Partly
,

.

satisfied

with

.,

the

treatment of the

Shah partly on account of the pressure which 3h&h Jahan brought to bear upon him, coupled
of

Persia

and

with the temptation of gold, he surrendered the fort of Qandhar to the Mughal officers. He was granted one lakh of rupees and enrolled as a grandee of the Mughal

Empire.
become a

Later, his

mansab was

raised to six

thousand

target for the attacks of the enemy.

Bernier and

Niccolao Munucci, on the other hand, assert that the change was caused by the treacherous advice of Khalil-uliah Khan, given to Dara when Aurangzeb's defeat was almost in sight.

272

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
six

Zat and
carried

thousand Sawar, and at different times he was appointed governor of Kabul and Kashmir. He

on the administration of these provinces so well that His Majesty was pleased to raise his rank to seven

thousand Zat and seven thousand Sawar, and conferred

upon him the governorship of the Punjab in addition. In 1644 A. C. he was sent at the head of an expedition to Balkh where he achieved a partial success. He was
an experienced general and a skilled engineer. The canal which he brought from the Ravi to the city of

Lahore and the Shalamar Gardens are an imperishable
index to his engineering skill. Asaf Khan's original name was Abdul Hasan.

He
and

was the son
brother of

of Itlmad-ud-Daulah

Malika Nur Jahan. He entered the Imperial Service under Akbar and rose to a high position during the reign of Jahangir, but he
reaped a rich harvest

honours and distinctions at the accession of Shah Jahan to whom he had married his We have seen how he sucdaughter, Mumtaz Mahal.
of

checkmated the plans and intrigues of his In appresister and helped Shah Jahan to the throne. ciation of his services, he was honoured with the title of
cessfully

Yamin-ud-Daulah or Right-hand of the State', and a jaglr was granted to him. The Jaglr brought him His rank was raised to nine about fifty lakhs a year.
thousand Zat and nine thousand Sawar, and a he became the Prime Minister of the Empire.
as the principal agent of the
little later

'

He

acted

Emperor in his diplomatic was sought in all the serious negotiations and his advice He remained attached to matters of the Government

SHAHAB-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN

273

Shah Jahan throughout his life and never betrayed the confidence reposed in him by his Sovereign. The stress
and
strain of official duties

having considerably told upon
his official career

his health,

he

retired

from
in

and quietly

passed

away
the

at

Lahore

1641

A. C.

his will,

vast
official

riches,

which
were

According to he had accumulated
confiscated
to

during his
S*tate.

career,

the

Sa'ad-ullah
1"

Khan was

a

man
had

of

humble

origin.

He

came

of very poor parents.

His vast

reading

givon him .an unusual

amount of general knowledge. In the Imperial Service and was entered he 1640 A. Soon a ntansab was granted to paid a monthly salary.
C.

him and during the course
officer,

of

a

year he became an

enjoying a

mansab
For

of

one thousand Zat and two
he

thousand

Sawar.

some time

worked

as

Darogha (Superintendent) of the Imperial Gbusalfehana (Bath) and was subsequently promoted to the post of Khan-i-Satnan, or Lord High Steward. The Emperor appreciated his ability by making him his Prime Minister
and
raising
his

rank to seven thousand Zat and seven

thousand Sawar.

served the State most faithfully and is justly regarded as the most upright and straightHe was often forward minister known to India.

He

employed as a
officer.

military
to

commander and
rise in

settlement-

He

continued

Royal

favour

and

acquired

immense power and
of
his

influence.

He had
it

a very

hjgh conception
credit that

duties

and be
it.

said to his

he

fell little

short of

274

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
administrative

Shah Jahan was almost exactly the same as that of his more rather it was predecessors,
system of
efficient

and exhibited a marked im-

provement on the previous system. In fact, what Akbar had aimed was achieved by Shah Jahan in the realm of
administration.
interrupted, the

Peace within

the

country

was unthe

revenue of the State was ever on
of

increase

and every department
active.

the State was un-

remittingly
perous.

The

people

were happy and prosadministered

Justice

was

carefully

and

pro-

vincial governors were warned to be honest in their All this dealings witli the people under their sway.

bears eloquent testimony to a just, wise and vigorous administration. Foreign travellers, such as Bernier,

Tavernier,

Niccolao Manucci and Peter Mundi, speak of the gracious rule of Shah Jahan as that of a father
over his children
the Muslim historian Khafi Khan, him with Akbar and points out that whereas compares the latter was pre-eminent as a conqueror and law-giver, the former was pre-eminent as an administrator and a Hindu contemporary outshines even the Muslim chronicler and the Christian travellers in extolling the efficiency Here again Banthamite demoof his administration. cracy was in its full swing, for every attempt was
;

;

made

to

secure

'

the greatest

happiness of the greatest

number.'

Shah Jahan was
ne g rrTs und\rh?s
patronage,

not
;

made
he

for the glories

of con-

quest

re S arded

war

as

inhuman
himself,

and was not a great general

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
though
early

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
splendid the reign
victories
in

275
his

he
career

had
was

won

during

of

his

father.
in

His

reign

essentially

a

period

of

peace

which
strides,

literature

flourished,

education

made mighty
and music

and

architecture,

painting, poetry

bounds. What gave a fillip to progressed by leaps and was Shah Jahan's catholicity of mind, these fine arts

which soured above the snares of sectarian psychology, and appreciated and encouraged true worth from whatever sources
it

was evinced.
his

Court and the glory of

splendour of his with all their dazzle re^gn,

The

and

oriental colour,

are

a

by-word to everyone who

has even a nodding acquaintance with Indian history. Though much has been irreparably destroyed, yet there

remains enough of the Mughal art under Shah Jahan to of that glorious period and the standard give us an idea Is there a soul that will not be civilization. of

Mughal

and grandeur depths at the ethereal beauty and of the Taj or does not recognise the literary elegance a ever historical importance of the Bcid&ahnamah,
stirred to its
;

historian ; treasure-house of research for the ambitious into ecstacies over the miniature and or does not

go

of that period; or does not have an ear portrait paintings Das and Mahapattar, the for the melodious voice of

Ram

Philomels

of

the

Mughal

Court?

"The

Prof. K. T. Shah, "was patronage", says but every kind of of the poet or the painter

Imperial no longer the
in

monopoly and encouraged; giving artist was recognised

;

us,

wonderful creations, which, like the consequence, those Palace and the several mosques, must Taj and Delhi the name of *he Imperial patron." for ever immortalize

276

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
reign
of

Shah Jahan
history J
for

is

rendered memorable
excellence
of its

Architecture

A

.

.

.

in

the

architecture.
it is

to

impossible to enter into attempt a description of

In this hurried survey the canons of this art or
public
buildings
erected

under the Imperial patronage.
a

The Taj

alone

demands

volume

to itself.

platform

of

virgin

Standing majestically marble with a beautiful screen of
with
a
fine

on a square

trellis-work,

crowned
of

dome above and
in

consecrated by

a pair of tombs below,
tv/o storeys

domed apartment

surrounded by a each corner and

connected with one another by a number of halls and passages, \uth its main mansion lighted by a double screen of trellis-worked marble, one on the inner and

one on the outer side of the wall, guarded at

its

corners

by four lofty tnlnars of milky marble, rearing its stately head above its jewelled walls and lace-carved windows also of creamy marble, this superb structure,
an
ethereal

beauty
a

the
in

Taj

nay

the

Queen

of

marble, designed by Titans and finished by jewellers, placed in a beautiful garden with two masjids on either side, on the brink of the
Architecture,

dream

Jumna presents a most picturesque view and refreshes the awe-struck eyes of the native as well as foreign
'

sight-seers.

Those

critics

who have

objected to the

architecture (Taj) unconsciously pay the highest tribute to the genius of the builders. The Taj was meant to be feminine. The whole conception,
it express the intention of the designers. It is Mumtaz Mahal herself, radiant in her youthful beauty, who still lingers on the banks of

effiminacy of the

and every

line

and

detail of

SHAHAB-UD-DIN
the

MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
at

277

shining

Jumna,
in

early
silver

morn,

in

the

glowing
rather,
;

midday
it

sun, or

the
it

moonlight.
the
of

Or
of

we should say
is

that

conveys a
tribute

more abstract thought
grace the East/

India's

noble
the

to

Indian

womanhood
marble

Venus de Milo
(Pearl
'

The

Moti
in

Masjid

Fort), described as

the purest
',

Mosque within the Agra and loveliest house of
its

prayer
the

the
aisles

world

with

vast

dimensions,
;

shadowed

and sanctuary, all dressed in marble Diwan-i-Khas (Court of Private Audience) over-

looking the

Jumna,

itself
;

a

elegance and poetic design Public Audience), with

masterpiece of delicacy, the Diw^.n-i-'Ar" (Court of
exquisitely

its

ornamented

ceiling supported by a row of richly jewelled columns, a magnificent niche at the centre and a marble platform, lavishly inlaid with precious stones and once the seat

of

the

Peacock Throne, with
fact

ite,

tail

blazing in

the
testi-

shifting colours

of rubies, saphires

fying

to the

that

a lord of

and emeralds, artists sat on
its

that

throne; the gorgeous

Rang Mahal with

garden-court,

containing His Imperial Majesty's recreation chambers; the most wonderful baths, fed by a canal worked out

from the Jumna; and the Jama Masjid at Delhi, constructed on a rocky platform and finished in full six
years,

are the finest

Mughal monuments

of that glorious

age of Indian history.

Shah Jahan was an ardent lover of painting. Under him, miniature and portrait r Painting. painting underwent a good deal of It was considered incomplete unless a elaboration.
most beautiful border
of

birds

and

butterflies,

flowers

278

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
foliage

and

The

was dexterously woven into the main theme. painter at the Court- of Shah Jahan was Muhammad Nadir Sarnarqandl. It may be remarked
best
all

here that, like

other

Mughal Emperors, Shah Jahan

was

also

a painter himself and a past-master in the art

of illuminating manuscripts. learn it from the

Mirat-ul-Alam that Shah Jahan was also a good singer, and Music Dr. N. N. Law says that he was a The two most prominent great patron of music '. singers attached to his Court were Rum Das and Mahapatt?-, whc^e mention has already been made in
'

We

a

previous

chapter.

services without cavil in the

Sarkar says that portion of his time in listening to songs by women '. This shows that there were also female singers at the Imperial Court.
*

They were rewarded Mughal Darbars. the Emperor also spent some

for

their

Professor

Shah Jahan had a

fine taste for gardens.

Almost

all

G

,

j

buildings gardens, or

his

contained
'

beautiful
'

terrestrial

paradises

as

they

have
so

been
in

styled.

extolled

much

The Shalamar Garden Moor's Lala Roolth at Lahore;
;

the gardens in the Delhi Fort the Shalamar
at
at Delhi

the Taj Mahal Gardens

;

and Dara Shikoh's Garden Bagh Kashmir were the most voluptuous of their class in

Mughal Empire. Even Bernier does not hesitate to admire them. Some of them have survived to our own
the

times'andjthey do not fail to attract our attention. We can hardly over-estimate Shah Jahan's literary
Shah'lahan's philomathy.
interest.

He

always

tried to

widen

his

mental horizon

by studying the

SHAHAB-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD SHAH JAHAN
best

279

authors

of Persian literature.

He was
of

of history
travel,

and used
of

to hear the recitation

very fond * books on

lives

prophets
of

autobiographies Among these books,

and holy men, memoirs and famous in history. sovereigns
the

Life

of Taimur and

the

Memoirs of Babar were
he
retired

his special favourites.
learn,

When
Imperial

a

good which separated them from bed-chamber, and read him to sleep.
curtain

to

bed,

we

readers sat behind

the

Himself a cultured

king

and a
was

refined

scholar,

Shah

Jahan

a

distinguished

patron of
stipends

letters.

He

used to

grant

and scholarships
Sialkoti

to literary

plodders and awarded honoraria to the superannuated.

One day Abdul Hakim in silver. The \\eight
was written by

was

rewarded
under

his

celebrated

Bad^iahnamah
his

Muhammad Am T n-i-QazwInI
Some
of

own

direction.

scholars of his reign were

the most famous poets and Maulana Muhib All Sayyadl,

Mir Abdul Qasim

Irani,

Mirza

Zia-ud-Din,

Sayyad

Bukhari Gujrati, Shaikh Bahlol Qadirl, Shaikh Mir Lahorl, Shaikh Nazlrl, KJbwajah Khwand Mahmud and Mullah Muhammad Fazil Badakhshl.

During

the

reign

of

this
all

Monarch
onearnmg.
courtiers
tions

Magnificent Mughal the educational instituvast

with

their

endowments
kings,
in

created

by

the

previous

and

private

individuals,

continued

undiminished prosperity. Besides, we know for certain that His Majesty himself added to the existing number
of

schools

and colleges

in his

Empire.

He

repaired

280 and

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
reconstructed
a

Dar-ul-Baqa,

or

the

Abode

of

Eternity
entirely

ruined.

magnificent madrasah which had been In Ib50 A, C. he founded the famous
historic

Imperial College at Delhi in the vicinity of the

Jama

Masjid.

Shah

Jahan,

who succeeded
be the
his

Jahanglr,

rose

to

Character and
estimate of Shah
*

c

an

most <nificent member of most magnificent house, 'excelling
contemporaries
in

'

all his

refinement/

With
*

all

his magnificence

culture and and splendour,

he

never arrogant. According to Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, no other Mughal Emperor was ever so beloved as Shah Jahan'. He was kind and sympathetic

was

and

his benevolence

had endeared him to
Sunni,
deeply

his

subjects.

He was
trait of his

a

staunch

devoted

to

his

religious as well as secular duties.

The most remarkable

Mumtaz
married.

character was, however, his love for his wife, Mahal, the lady in whose memory he never

As a son, he was a great source of trouble and anxiety to his father as a father, he was woefully
;

His partiality for his eldest son wanting was greatly responsible for his troublous old age. But his patience was marvellous. For eight years he remained
in discipline.

a captive of his son and calmly bore the privations of that life. He was a great administrator, whose good

government has exacted universal praise and admiration.

CHAPTER XIV

MUHl-UD-DlN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
ALAMGlR
1707 A. C.)

(1658 A. C.

Early Acts, Afghans, Hindus and Rajptus
After removing his rivals from his way, Aurangzeb had ascended the throne of his father Accession Of ri/ioi/:eoA^ j i r on J ul y 22, 1658 A. C. and deferred Aurangzeb. the formal coronation to a future
i

date.

On the 5th of June, 1659 A. C. he enthroned The Khuiba was read himself with due ceremonials.
and the coins were struck
in his

the

pompous

title

of

name, and he assumed Abul-Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Dln

Bahadur 'Alamgir Badshah-iThe bestowal of high honours on the members Gbazi. of the Royal family and the grant of promotions and re wards to the rank and file inaugurated, as usual, the new reign in the right oriental manner. Of the Royal Princesses, Badshah Begum received Rs. 5,00,000 Zeb-un-Nisa, Rs. 4,00,000; Badr-un-Nisa, Rs. 1,60,000; and ZubdatAurangzeb
;

Muhammad

un-Nisa, Rs. 1,50,000.
'Azarn was

Among
Rs.

the Princes,

Muhammad

granted

2,00,000 and a mansab of

Muhammad Sultan, Rs. 3,00,000, with jewels and elephants Muhammad Mu'azzam, Rs. 2,00,000, and Muhammad Akbar, Rs. 1,00,000. Among the
10,000;
;

high officials, Amlr-ul-Umara Fazil Khansaman, SaadUllah Khan and Rajah Ragnath were the recipients
of

robes

of

honour and

rich rewards.

In short, the

282
coronation was

THE

MUGHAL EMPIRE
occasion
of

made an

great
full

happiness.

Feasts

and

festivities

continued for
'

two months
occasion
a

and nothing was spared
source of happiness to
all

to

make

the

sections of the populace in the

Ambassadors came from other Muslim empire*. countries and congratulated Aurangzeb for his success
in

securing the throne of India for himself.

They were

received

with great respect and presented with rich robes and rupees eight thousand each. Besides them, the Dutch and the French Governments also sent their
representatives to the

Mughal Court, and they too were
treated with

given

a

warm welcome by Aurangzeb and

due deference.
his son, of India
all

Thus, by the time Shah Jahan died, Aurangzeb had been recognised as the Emperor

by

potentates.
of Succession
of the

The War
lf His early acts.

had thrown the machinery
of
,

Mughal administration out ~
,

gear.

Consequently, the people were

i

distressed
several
alleviate

and
their

discontented.
legal

They were
illegal.

taxes,

as

well as

In

subject order
as

to
to

sufferings,

Aurangzeb abolished

many
(toll)

as eighty oppressive taxes, including the rahdari and pandarl (a kind of ground or house-tax).
also remitted

He

duty on corn so that the price of down. should go Among the eighty taxes which he abolished were those collected at the fairs celebrated in honour of Muslim saints and Hindu
the

food

pilgrims near their temples,

and those

levied

on alcohol,

In order to bring the gaming-houses and brothels. law into !ine with the tenets of Islam, the new Emperor

dispensed

with

the

solar

system

altogether

and

MUHI-UD-DIN
introduced the
of the

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAM^IR
lunar
instead
;

283
use

he

disallowed

the

Kalima on

the

coins

with a view to prevent

their defilement, put

an end to the Nauroz

which was

a

custom, repaired and even reconstructed the mosques and monasteries which were in a state of decay
Persian

and appointed paid Imams and Mu'azzins to serve The Mohtasibs (censors of public morals) were therein. warned to be very strict in the enforcement of the

Holy Law. In short, Aurangzeb tried his best advance the interests of Islam and his solicitude Sunnisrn won for him the title of the champion of
faith,

to
for

hi*

and he

is

recognised as such even to the present
acts of

day.

Among
A
.

the

early

Aurangzeb
he changes &
..

may

be

Appointments and
transfers
oi

mentioned
in
,,

the

effected

pro-

the
.

vmcial governors.
there.

provincial
c

governments
,

and
4

the transfers of the viceroys stationed Conscious of the consequences of the treatment

r

,.

he had

meted out

to

his

father

and

brothers

and

apprehensive
as he*thought

of the possibility of a combination against
for their reconciliation or removal,

him, he began to work
fit,

immediately
those

after

his accession to

the throne.

To

all

who had
The pay
set of

helped him in the

achievement of

his

object, he tendered his thanks and

made^valuable presents.

was increased^and a new
each of them.

number^of nobles robes was bestowed on
of a
^

Many
''and

of the old governors

and viceroys
at their

were cashiered
places.

new ones were appointed

Rajah Jai Singh was entrusted with the government of Sambhar in addition to that of Lahore, which he was already governing. Shaista Kban was invested with

284

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Deccan.

the governorship of the

superseded by Shaikh over the government of

Mir

Mahabat Khan was Kabul and sent to take Danishmand Khan Gujarat.
in

was

made

the

governor

of

Delhi.

Khalllullah

of

Mir Baba of Allahabad, Lashkar Kban of Patna, Dianat Khan of Kashmir, and Allahwardi Khan's son who had betrayed Shah Shuja' at Khajwah, was
Lahore,
All this was done to appointed governor of Sind. the of a dangerous combination and prevent possibility

the arrangement was quite efficacious.

Mir Jumla, we
Career of Mir Jumla.

learn, <was a Persian adventurer,
c^int

by

of his

who, character and ability, had
the Chie f Minister of the

made himsel f
of Golconda.

Kingdom
position

and

Taking advantage of his high he had carved out for himself in influence,

the Karnatic, an independent kingdom or and imperium in the imperio. No wonder if the Sultan of Golconda

regarded this as an encroachment on

his authority

and

therefore intrigued to deprive him of all his power and influence. The Minister saved himself by joining hands

with Aurangzeb and taking service under Shah Jahan. He rendered very valuable services to Aurangzeb in his

Deccan campaigns and in the War of Succession. In view of his indispensable assistance, he was appointed It was probably because he was governor of Bengal.
too

ambitious a

man

to be kept at the Capital that he

was sent

to that distant governorship.
their

Under

His expedition against Assan. and his death.

Rajah, the Ahoms of Kuch-Bihar and Ass * m attacked the Mughal territory

and occupied

it.

An

expedition was

Rgjah

MUHI-UD-D1N

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB

ALAMG'lR 285

Jumla at its head. The Mir overran Kuch-Bihar, and Assam and penetrated far into the interior of the
country, presumably with the intention of attacking the

But his supplies were cut off when torrential rains and heavy floods set in and prevented his grandiose schemes of conquests to be carried to
Chinese
territory.

their

logical

conclusion.
his

When

pestilential

disorder

broke

out

in

camp,

he altogether renounced his

magnificent projects notwithstanding the reinforcements he received from the Emperor, and contented himself with
obtaining

such contributions

and cessions from

the Rajah as might serve a proof against the disgrace of a defeat. Exhausted by toil at a very advanced

age and ruined
Khizrpur
in

in

health,

he returned
31,

and died
1663

at

Kuch-Bihar on March

A. C.

His son, Muhammad Amin, before reaching Decca. was immediately raised to a high rank and all honours

and

which the deceased had held, were conferred upon him by Aurangzeb. Mir Jumla succeeded to the Shaista KJran of Bengal and resumed governorship
positions,

the forward
sor.

P

lic y

of

his

Predeces-

The new governor began by

punishing the pirates of Chittagong and their patron, He inflicted sharp defeats on the Rajah of Arakan.

enemy and captured the Magh outposts by the end of the year 1665 A. C. Chittagong was occupied about the end of January, 1666 A. C. and it was renamed Islamabad. Henceforth it became the seat The island of Sondip in the of a Mughal Faujdar.
his

Bay

of

Bengal was also captured and Bengal was saved

286

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Sbaista Khan pirates. and strengthened the organized Mughal Bengal fleet by constructing a large number of ships for the protection of the Dacca Sub-Division. Aurangzeb was taken seriously ill in 1664 A. C. soon

from the recurring raids of the
the
-flotilla

after

the

fifth

ran afloat

that

new Rumours regime to its foundations. Khan Mahabat Rajah Jaswant Singh,
accession.

anniversary of This shook the

his

and many others were redoubling their efforts for releasThe partisans of the ing Shah Jahan from his captivity. ex-King renewed their intrigues at the Capital in order to work out his restoration but unfortunately, they were soon divided into two main parties those who wanted to enthrone Mu'azzam, Aurangzeb's second son, and
1

;

those

who wished

to secure the succession for his

third

son, Akbar.

On
raised

the

fifth

day

of his

illness,

however,

Aurangzeb

of his principal officers.

himself up and received the homage He sent a firman to his sister,

Raushan Ara Begum, to return the great-seal, which had been commended to her care, and put it near
himself so that no use might be made of it except with his special order. He averted the dangers with his
rare presence of

mind and singular
he

force

of

will.

On

these

occasions

behaved with studied caution and

the respect and admiration which his conduct inspired As then went a long way in pacifying the people. soon as he recovered a little, he set out for Kashmir to

recoup

his

health.

He was adcompanied by

the

French philosopher, Bernier, who has left us a beautiful account of the charming valley and of the Imperial march.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIK
disliked

287

The Emperor, however,

place and never While he was thus seeking repose in the North, a scene was opening in the North- West Frontier, which soon invited his serious

the

expressed his desire to revisit

it.

attention.

The North-West

Frontier has all along been a vulnerable point in the Indian Empire and the tribes that have ^habited
it

have

always

been

a

source

of

trouble

to

all

Indian

Governments.

The

Emperors made many attempts

to introduce law

Mughal and

order in that quarter but failed to accomplish anything Their success was shortsubstantial or permanent.
lived
;

for the turbulent tribes availed

themselves of the
of

weakness

of the Central

Government during the War
their

Succession
in

and carried

raids

into

the

Mughal

In 1667 the neighbourhood of Peshawar. districts A. C. the Yusafzals, under the leadership of one Bhagu,
crossed the Indus and attacked the district of Hazara.

There

they established their authority and exacted heavy contributions from the poor peasants. They also attacked the Mughal outposts and planned to advance even into the interior of the Mughal territory.

Aurangzeb would not allow them
Suppression of the Ylisafzais
1667 A. C.
r

to continue their

raids into his

own

country.

He

took

:

up the gauntlet thrown down by them in response to the requests of
;

the wardens of the Imperial outposts on the frontier, he issued orders to the Faujdar of Attock and the

Governor

of

Kabul
sent

for

reducing

the

Yusafzais

to

submission and

Muhammad Amin

Kfcan, son of

288

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Mir Jumla, to take over the supreme command. Amin Kban reached the Kabul Valley in August 1667 A. C.

The

three

Mughal

generals acted in perfect

harmony

and drove the enemy into the river. Kamil Kban and Shamsher Khan engaged the Yusafzals in several battles and inflicted sharp defeats on them. Rajah
Jaswant Singh was posted
at

Jamrud

to see that the

Afghans kept

quiet.

The

This time peace restored was again broken. the Afridls raised their heads and
stirred

up strife. In 1671 A. C. they declared war upon the Mughals under

Acmal Khan, who had now assumed the Muhammad Amin Khan marched of King. title against them, but sustained serious losses in men and
their leader,

money

at

All Masjid.

seized and

of the Imperialists were sent to Central Asia for sale. Amin himself

Many

had a narrow escape.
released after a heavy

His family too was captured and

ransom was paid. The prestige rose of the Afridi Chief high after his victory over the
mighty
rallied

Mughals and many an enthusiastic Afghan round his banner in order to obtain money as
serious
revolt,

well as to achieve military distinction.

A more
Khattak Rising and arrest of _ an
,

with

which the Imperial

_.

.

Government next concerned themselves, was the one headed by Khushh51

SHafFak^-

^* n

Stattak.
to

Chief

was invited

The Khattak a Darbar at

Peshawar and arrested by the orders of the Imperial Government. He was detained in prison at Delhi and
then
transferred
to

the

prison of

Ranthambhor.

In

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
to
fight against the Yusafzals,

289

1666 A. C. he was brought out of prison and sent with
the Imperial

army

who
him,,

were his hereditary enemies.

His son was with
his

At the
to

sight

of his

native-land,

adventurous and

freedom-loving spirit revived,

and he

offered his services

Acmal Khan, the leader of the confederacy which was organized for the overthrow of the Mughals in the Afghan territory. When the Imperial generals, employed against the Afghans, failed, Aurangzeb took the in field Accompanied by his distinguished person. generals, he reached Hasan Abdal and encamped there His presence in the proximity of in 1674 A. C.
Peshawar proved very efficacious. He himself organized his forces and directed vigorous military operations

against
effective

the

frontier

tribes.

an instrument,
of

Diplomacy proved quite and the Emperor received the
through
offers of jagtrs,

obedience

many

a

clan

Thus diminishing the force concessions. pensions and of opposition, Aurangzeb recalled Mahabat Khan from
Kabul and sent his own son, Akbar, to take over. Aghar Khan was ordered to lead an army through the

Khyber Pass in order to overbear the opposition of the Afghans who numbered not less than forty thousand at After both the sides had suffered heavy losses, that time.

The newly-appointed way. gave reached Jalalabad and captured governor of Kabul At Gandamak of a number Afghan outposts. their positions from Khan ousted the Afghans
the

Afghans

Aghar

and, had

Aktar proceeded towards Jalalabad when he was pushing westwards, the Afghans could encircled and attacked from all sides. have been
Prince
easily

290

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
failed

But the Prince
allowed the

to

follow

the

easy A. C. the Afghans inflicted a crushing defeat on Fidai Khan, an Imperial general, at Jagdalak on his way to Peshawar. His fate would have been sealed if Aghar

opportunity an

plan and thus In 1675 escape.

Khan had not rescued him by a prompt action from Gandamak. The expedition of Mukarram Khan against Bajaut was a greater failure. The Emperor
employed his best generals, but it was extremely difficult to deal with
the hardy mountaineers who were thoroughly familiar with the ins and outs of their passes and defiles. In

1675 A.

C.,

towards

the end,

and the Emperor came back
sent Prince

the situation improved to Delhi. Next year he

Mu'azzam
still

against the
large.

Afghans, some of
the

whom

were

at

With

Prince

were

associated

Amir Khan and other distinguished generals. Amir Khan successfully coped with the enemy and
his

were recognised by the bestowal of the He governed Afghangovernorship of Kabul on him. He granted istan with considerable tact and ability.
services

large subsidies to the border tribes and won to his side by lucrative concessions.

influence of

Amir Khan's diplomatic
the
frontier.

policy,

them over Under the peace was
cost

maintained on

The Afghan War

Aurangzeb a great deal. While his hands were full with Afghan affairs, the Hindus created disturbance
in

the

Empire and defied

the

authorities
his

in

the

open.

'Alamgir therefore turned

attention towards

them.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

291

The

policy of the previous

Mughal Emperors was
It

extremely conducive to the growth of

Hinda
ruled.

nation.

made no

discrU

ruination

between the rulers and the
positions, next only to

Hindus held the highest

the Emperor's, in the civil as well as military depart* ments of the Mughal Government. They enjoyed the

freedom of worship and the

liberty of conscience,

and

preached and propagated their faith without restrictions.

During the reign of Shah Jahan they mosques and made niandirs on their sites

pulled
;

down

they became

so bold that they forcibly carried a'vay Muslim women and kept them in their houses.* Towards the close of
his reign,

when Dara Shikoh managed
Government,
they
took
freely
atrocities

the affairs of the
liberties
fear.

Central

larger

and

began committing those with whom
household word
learn
it

without
has

To
a

'Alamgir's
will

bigotry

become

come

as a stunning surprise to

even at the height of their power the Musalmans could not offer their Friday prayers in the Cathedral Mosque of one of the biggest cities of the
that
for full

Mughal Empire
result, their

one year.f

This state of

affairs

continued to the twelfth year of 'Alamglr's reign.

power and influence increased
li,

As a by leaps and
t

* See Badshahnamah, Vol.
366-b
;

p.

58; Adab-i-Alamgtri

folio

Tdrikh-i-Ferishta, Vol.
"

ii,

p. 27;

and Aurangzeb and His
*

Times,?. 116ff.
f

is

year

there so runs a firman of Alamgir, fora the near situated city gate a Cathedral Mosque the Kulis have not allowed the Musalmans to offer their
In
",

Ahmadabad

"

prayers.

See that
t

no one disturbs the Musalmans,

1 '

(Vide

Mirat*i-Ahamdi

p. 275).

292
bounds, and
to
their

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
now
they

endeavoured
In

to

put
of

them
the

best

a Hindu Empire. Marhattas they and worked for the overthrow They rallied round Shivaji Their risings in the North, of the Mughal Empire.
particularly
in the

advantage. saw the visions of

the

rise

suburbs

of

Delhi

and Agra, and

their depredations in the South, especially in the
territories,

Mughal
to

roused the Mughal

Emperor

to

the danger

that

was developing so speedily and compelled him
In
order to

reconsider his policy.

make a
it is

correct estimate of

'Alamglr

and

his achievements,

necessary

first

to

remove the

thrown upon him by his hostile critics and then to present an accurate account of his reign with the insight and impartiality of an historian.
that has

mud

been

Let us begin with the re-imposition of the Jizia by and see if it was the 'Alamgir

5*the

jS

outcome
by

of

his bigotry, as

is

alleged

his critics.*

The

Jizia,

it

must

be pointed out at the outset, was not an obnoxious tax and was not meant to be a burden on the Zimmls. It
was,
for

on the other hand, a blessing for them under Muslim rule, and was collected from them as the price
their enemies.
lieu
if

the protection of their person and property against It was levied on able-bodied males in
of

military service ; but they were exempt from it served in the Muslim army. That it was not they * a tax on the free exercise of religion ', is conclusively proved by the fact that the priests and religious heads
* For a clear

and

correct
,

account
ft

of

the

Jizia,

see

Aurangzeb and His Times, pp 140

MUHI-UD-DIN
of the

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
were,
as

293
In

Zimmls

a
'

rule,

exempt from

it.

order, perhaps, to

which it and it,

inferiority complex', with came to be associated later on, Akbar abolished
it

remove the

was not levied

till

1679 A.

C.,

i.e.,

some

seventeen years after the accession of 'Alamglr. The fact that it was not imposed for so many years during 'Alamgir's reign shows that the much-maligned

monarch appreciated the current state of affairs and was He would have continued the not inclined to revive it.

same
the

policy were it not for political as well as financial.

some
It

serious considerations,
also be noted that

must

idea

of

'Alamgir, as

is

re-imposing the Jizia originated not with alleged, but with the Muslwn theologians.

Ighwar Das, who was intimately known to the Chief " The learned theologians, looking to QSzi, informs us His Majesty's piety, pointed out the propriety of levying the Jizia, which was necessary according to Islamic
:

Law.

His Majesty, therefore, thinking

its

imposition

binding upon him, appointed Enayatullah Khan for its Ishwar Das is supported by the author of regulation."* the Mlrat and there is every reason to rely upon his
statement.

One who

ascended the throne as

'

a saviour

and on'e who was hailed as a 'champion could not dare drop down the proposal of the of Islam/ learned Ulama. Apart from this, there were other
of his religion/

considerations

:

The

abolition

of as

many
in

as

eighty

taxes meant an enormous decrease

the

Imperial

income.

This as well as the heavy expenditure entailed in quelling disturbances and waging wars must have
by
Ishwar
*

* Fat&hat-i-AlamgZrt Mirat-i-Ahmadi, 190-a.

Das,

pp.

73-74;

and

294
driven
the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Emperor
to the

same conclusion.

To him

the re-imposition of the Jixia meant the adjustment of the Imperial finances and the discharge of a sacred duty.
say or to suppose that it was intended to effect forced conversion of the Zimmls in the Mughal Empire is a

To

grave misrepresentation of facts. The Zimmls in the It was not Service of the State were exempt from it.
exorbitant,

being

levied
of

and above the cost
it

maintenance.

on the surplus of income over Apart from this,

was not

regularly collected

and was frequently remitted

in the case of the poor.*

The charge
f

that with one stroke of pen he dismissed
all

the Hindus from
in

Government
is

ser-

Hilffic?a ls.

vice

a

fit

of fanaticism

false

on

the face of it, for there were numerous Hindus who held highly responsible posts in the civil and military departments of the State during his reign.

them were appointed governors of different provinces and entrusted with the supreme military commands in various campaigns. The fact that he

Many

of

Singh for repeatedly pardoned Rajah Jaswant and treasonable designs, took treacherous conduct
into confidence
in

his

him

and acknowledged spite his posthumous son, Ajit Singh, when he grew up in age, as the Rajah of Marwar, shows that 'Alamgir was
of all that,

not at

all

inclined to
;

with their services
to
please

annoy the Rajputs or on the other hand, he

to

dispense

tried his best

every possible way, so that they might not join hands with the Marhattas against him.
in

them

* Fatuhtot-isAlamglri,

Ahmadl,

p. 321

;

by Ishwar D*s, 111-b; Mirat-iand Aurang ,-eb and His Times, pp. 153 if.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R
reply
to

295

While making a
dismissal of the
retorted
*

a petition, praying for the

and

in

certain posts, 'Alamgir no with secular business has concern Religion matters of this kind bigotry should find no place/
:

Zimmls from

a verse from the Holy Qur'dn To you your religion and to me my religion,' he declared that * the petitioner's request were to be acceded to, we if

Then quoting

'

have to destroy all the Rajas and their subjects.' * The mere mole, therefore, of which a huge mountain has been made by his enemies is that in 1082 A. H. a
shall

firman was issued to the effect that Hindu clerks, the dlwans and the collectors of land revenue, who were
corrupt, be dismissed

and Musalmans appointed instead, though this firman was soon modified by another in this way that of the officials in the civil and military departments of the State one should be Hindu and
one Muslim, so that one should serve as a check on the
Obviously, therefore,
false
is

underlying the firmans was to prevent corruption and nothing more, t
other.

the idea

Another

equally

charge
that

levelled

'Alamgir

he tormented

against the

Hindas and destroyed their temples, and that in accordance with the
tenets
of
his
religion.

To

be

sure,

Islam enjoins

Preaching of Islam, by Sir Thomas Arnold, p. 214; and of Aurangzeb, by Sir Jadunath Sarkar, pp. 97100 Aurangzeb and His Times, p, 202.
Anecdotes
;

*

in

Mughal
ff.

t Muntakhib-ul-Lubab, Vol. ii, pp. 249 and 252 ; Studies India, pp. 162-63; and Aurangzeb and His Times,
It

pp. 190

may

be pointed out here that even Ihe PathSns

and Persians were not
reasons.

freely employed by 'Alamgir for political (See Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 191 and 266).

296

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
and
its

universal toleration
rare fidelity.

votaries

have practised

it

with

The

lot of the subjugated has never been

happier than under the ruling races of Islam.

Some time

ago

the Asiatic Society of Bengal published a firman addressed by Emperor Alamgir to Abul Hasan, the
'

his officials.

Governor of Benares, enjoining tolerance on him and This firman, the genuineness of which
be called
in

cannot

question, gives a

lie

direct to the

charge of intolerance laid at the door of the last of our Great Mughals, and reveals his care and concern for the
It reads : well-being of his Hindu subjects. " Let Abul Hasajj, worthy of favour and countenance,

Firman issued
to the governor of Benares.

trust to

our
.

r

y al
,
.

b unty,

and

let

him know
.

that, since in accordance ,. , 4 f with our innate kindness of disposi.

tion

and natural
all

energy and
of

benevolence, the whole of our untiring our upright intentions are engaged in

promoting the public welfare and bettering the condition all classes, high and low, therefore, in accordance with our holy law, we have decided that ancient temples
shall not be overthrown, but that
built.

new ones

shall not be

days of our justice, information has reached our noble and most holy Court that certain persons, actuated by rancour and spite, have harassed
the Hindus resident in the town of Benares and
other places
in

In

these

a

few

that

neighbourhood, and also certain

Brahman
ancient

keepers of the temples, in

whose charge these

temples

remove these

are, and that they further desire to Brahmans from theif ancient office (and

this intention of theirs causes distress to that

community),

therefore, our

Royal

Command

is

that, after the arrival

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR 297
you should
direct that
in

of our lustrous order,

future,

no person
places,

shall in unlawful way Brahmans and the other Hindus

interfere or disturb the

resident

in

these*

that they may, and continue with peace occupation

so

as

before, remain of

in their

mind

to offer

up

prayers for the that is destined to last for

continuance of our God-given
all

time.

Empire, Consider this as
II,

an urgent matter. Dated the 15th of Jumada * 1069 (A. D. 1659)."

A. H.

Alamgir to his* instructions, have come to officers, containing light and they are reproduced verbatim because they are
similar

Two

more firmans issued by

'

highly significant

:

"At

this
1.

Firman No.

auspicious time an august firman was issued that whereas Maharajdhiraj

Rftm gingh faas represente d to the most holy, and exalted Court that a mansion was built by his father in Mohalla Madho Rai, on the bank of the
&

R_

.

Ganges at Benares for the residence of Bhagwant Goshain who is also his religious preceptor, and as
certain persons harass the Goshain, therefore, our

Royal

Cojnmand
the
future,

is

that, after the arrival of

our lustrous order,

present and

future

officers

should direct that in

no person shall in any way interfere or disturb the Goshain, so that he may continue with peace of mind

tp offer

up prayers

for the continuance of
last for all

Empire, that is destined to this as an urgent matter.
A. H."

our God-given time. Consider
II,

Dated

17th Rabi

1091

* /.A. S.B. (1911), p. 689: and Waqai-'Alamglrt, pp. 104 Also see Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 106 ff.

ff,

.298

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
"
_

At

this
2.

auspicious time
.
_

^. XT FzrwawNo.

issued that as
rtrt

_

an august firman was two plots of land mea..

sunng 588J- aira, situated on the bank of the Ganges at the Beni Mad ho Ghat, in BenSres (one plot is in front of the house of Goshain Ramjivan and on the bank of the Central Mosque, and the other is higher up) are lying vacant without any building and
belong to Bait-ul-Mal,
that
after

_

.

we

same to Goshain Ramjivan and
building

have, therefore, granted the his sons as Inatn, so

the pious dwelling-houses for the on above-mentioned holy faqlrs plots, he should remain engaged in the contemplation of God and continue to offer up prayers for the con-

Brahmans and

tinuance of our
last for
all

God-given
It is,

time.

Empire that is destined to therefore, incumbent on our

ministers, noble Umaras, highand officials, daroghas, present and future Kotwals, to exert themselves for the continual and permanent observance of this hallowed ordinance, and to permit the
illustrious sons, exalted

remain in the possession of the above-mentioned person and of his descendants from

above-mentioned

plots

to

generation

to generation,

from

all

dues and taxes,
year.

and to consider him exempt and not to demand from him a
*

new sanad every

(1098 Hijra.)"

* This and the preceding firmans have been published by Mr. Za^ir-ud-Dm Faruqi in his valuable work Aurangzeb and His Times with the help of K B. Maqbul Hussain Sahib, Commissioner of Benares Division (See pp. 131-132). For other firmans issued by 'Alamgir to the same effect, vide Mirat-i-Ahmadi, p. 253; and Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 136 ff. Also see Ch. NabI Ahmad Sandelvi's Waqai 'Alamgir, which contains a number of Aurrangzeb's letters and firirZns with copious notes.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

299

The

dates of

the above two firmans are highly^important in that they relate to the
period of 'Alamgir's reign
alleged to have exceeded
in bigotry
lf
,

Which temples
and why ?
were destroyed

when he
,.

is
...

^

.

,

,

every limit
infor-

and fanaticism. The

mation embodied
intolerance

in

them

militates against the theory of

and iconoclasm enunciated against him by modern writers who have little acquaintance with the It is certain teachings of Islam and Islamic history.
that Islam enjoins toleration and
tried to
its

votaries have always

excel

in

this virtue.

No
in

nation has granted

greater liberty to the

subject races than that granted

by

the Muslim

Spain, or elseIt is equally true that 'Alamgir had a profound where. He always tried to respect for the teachings of Islam. be tolerant towards the Zimmls and was true to the " " Let there be no violence in religion Quranic text " and the sayings of the Prophet Whoever torments the Zimmls torments me " and " Whoever wrongs a Zimml
Rulers,
India,
:

whether

and

lays a

burden

upon him

beyond
then
is

his strength,

I

shall be his

accuser ".

What

responsible for

the popular belief that he was intolerant and the current notions that he persecuted the Hindus and destroyed

temples? The real facts, when boiled down, When the Hindus desresolve themselves into this
their
:

troyed mosques and constructed mandirs on their sites, the Muslim Emperor reclaimed them and issued an order to demolish only those temples which had become
centres of sedition and political intrigue, and those that had been newly erected without permission.* The
* Muntdkhib-ul-Lubab. Vol.
ii.

p. 472.

300
later

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Muslim
temples.
jurists

disallowed
in

the

construction
to

of
this

new

Accordingly,

obedience

injunction, Shah Jahan pulled down a number of new But, curiously enough, no Hindu has so temples.* far dubbed him as intolerant. Why then such a tornado of vindictiveness against 'Alamgir ? The reason
is

Akbar, the Hindus had found in Dara a hero after their own hearts. They wanted him to be
that,

after

their king, but

when

he was defeated and
the

killed,

they
a

turned

against

'Alamgir,

new

king,

who was

staunch Sunni.
high degree,

'Alamglr was tolerant, and to a fairly but not so tolerant as Akbar and Dara,
achieve
their
ulterior
political aims,

who,

in

order to

concealed their

religious identities

and even subscribed

to the religion of the ruled.

The
Au Whether

isolated
'

instrnce

recorded in the Ma'asir-i
*
.

xiru

TT

J HmdQ

schools

were

in the Province of Alamgiri that , , ThattS and MultSn and particularly in

^,

,

f

.

Benares the Brahmans were engaged their in teaching unholy books in
-

schools,
their

where the
all

H in d us and Musal mans flocked to learn
*

wicked sciences
the

and that

'

orders were,

therefore,

issued to

governors of Provinces

ordering the

destruction of temples and schools and totally prohibiting the teaching and infidel practices of the unbelievers',f is not supported by any other contemporary Persian

chronicle

;

the cumulative evidence
* Badshahnamah, Vol.

on the other hand, it is contradicted by adduced above. We cannot,
p. 452.

i,

t Ma'asir-i-'lLlamgirt, p, 81.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
it.

301

therefore, but disbelieve

It

must be pointed out here

contemporary chroniclers were unusually fond of unduly exaggerating things which added to their religious vanity, and that it would be wholly
unsafe
if

that

some

of the

their effusions are

taken

too

seriously.

Like

those Muslims,
idolatory at

who
cost

any

and with

took delight in the extirpation of whom the destruction of

temples was a theme of

which they were never

tired of

weaving,

Musts'id Khan,

the author of the Ma'asir-i-

'Alamglrl, seems to
purely political

have given a religious colour to a firman. It is certain that no firman, as

described by Musta'id Khan, was ever sent to the governors for the destruction of temples and schools ; but even if we take the dispatch of such a firman for granted,

underlying it could be no other than to restrain Muslim students from attending Hindu schools
the

motive

and learning
astray

though in that case 'Alamglr should have checked the Muslims from going
sciences,'

'

wicked
of

instead

ordering

the destruction

of

Hindu

In consequence, some of the temples. schools (attached to temples) might have been closed with
schools

and

a view to prevent the Hindus from admitting Muslim students in their schools, but the wholesale destruction

and temples throughout the Mughal Empire more so when viewed in the light is highly incredible, of the Imperial firmans issued for their protection.
of schools

The

policy

of

religious

toleration

adhered

to

Toleration under 'Alamgir.
fact
is

testified

b Y the Mughal Emperors was not abandoned by Aurangzeb. This to by Alexander Hamilton who
in

happened to be present

India

during

the

later

302

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Speaking about the Parsis, he

part of 'Alamglr's reign.

says that they enjoyed the freedom of worship and the The Christians, he continues, liberty of conscience.

were

free to build

churches and to preach their religion,

adding,

however, that those
did

who became
enviable

converts

to

Christianity

not

have

morals.

"

The

Gentows", religion, and
times,

he concludes, have

full toleration

for their

hands

keep their fasts and feasts as in formei when the sovereignty was in pagan princes' There are above an hundred different
;

but they never have hot dis(Surat) their or way of worship. about doctrine Every putes one is free f* serve and worship God in his own way.
sects in this city

must be admitted, 'Alamglr was not so tolerant towards the Hindus as Data who shared their beliefs and supported their
all

And persecutions for among them ".* With

religion's
this,

sake
it

are

not

known

religion

and the abduction
death of

nay even overlooked the occupation of mosques of Muslim women by them. The

)ara dealt a coup d'etat to Hindu domination. Smarting under the loss of a most powerful patron,

they rose

in rebellion,

and defied the

disturbed the peace of the country Must the authority of the Emperor.
quiet
?

Emperor have kept

and allowed the
be drawn
:

existing state

of affairs a free scope
Inferences drawn from the foregoing discussion.

No government
(1)

can tolerate that

Five inferences can

from the preceding

discussion

places of worship is neither enjoined nor countenanced by the Islamic Law. (2) The Hindus

...

The

destruction
.
.

of

M
Vol.
i,

New

Account of the East Indies, by Alexander Hamilton,

pp. 159, 162

and

163.

MUHI-UD-DIN
were the
the
first

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R
to destroy the

303

mosques

of the Muslims.

The

latter retaliated

by repaying the former in their own coin, but Government issued firmans for the protection of all

sacred places, masjids as well as mandirs, without discrimination. (3) Owing, perhaps, to the narrow interpre^
tation of the Islamic

Law,

so also to the prejudice

which

the Musalmans had against idolatry, the later Muslim jurists allowed the preservation of ancient temples and prohibited the construction of new ones with a view to

The occupation of mosquesdiscourage idol-worship. the it Hindus be remembered, responsible, must by was,
and
to a great

extent, for the rigid

enforcement of the
of

injunction prohibiting
(4)

temples. resented by the ruled, no amount of toleration is of any avail and the places of worship are apt to become centres of political agitation and

the construction

new

Where

the ruler

is

asylums for the malcontents and miscreants. This must have been so in the case of 'Alamglr, and as a political expedient some of the temples might have been destroyed
during the suppression of a rebellion or a revolt in order to effect the early submission of the rebels. (5) It is also
possible that

some

of the temples were destroyed with a

view to teach a lesson to the Hindus

who had

destroyed

mosques and made mandirs on

their sites.

4

,.

had not changed if the Hindus had not become aggressive, defiant and even treacherous, ambitious to overthrow the Muslim Empire^ and to
;

'Alamglr justified.

In short, 'Alamgir would have continued the policy of his predecessors if the conditions ..
.

.

.

,

,

,

.,

,

.

,

,

establish a

Hindu Empire

instead.

He

rightly

gauged

the strength of the forces that were gathering round

him

304

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
his policy according as the

and changed
gested.
if

changes sug-

Any

of his predecessors

would have done the same
by so many forces of which beset 'Alamglr.

he had found

himself besieged

and must be remembered that it was only after he had was impossible to reconcile the ^discovered that it that rule he refused to rely on them and his to Rajputs rallied round him his own co-religionists, with whose
intrigue

insubordination

It

help he succeeded
ing his authority

in crushing his

enemies and enforc-

as well

as

restoring

law and order.

When he unsheathed his sword for the protection of mosques and' Muslim women, he became the Defender
of the Faith, but

when he

carried

the Crescent far and
title

a wide, he became the Champion of Islam which he is remembered to the present day.

with

The

Jats of

Jat Rebellion.

Mathura had received great concessions from Emperor Akbar and his spn, While Akbar himself had j ah ^ ng!r
.

constructed the palacial temples of
Kighor,

Gopi Nath etc., in Jahanglr had permitted Rajah Narsingh Dev Bundela, the murderer of Allama Abul Fazl, to build a beautiful
temple in Mathura with Rs. 32,00,000 which he had During the reign of acquired after killing the Allama.

Gobind Dev, Jugal Bindraban and Mattiura,

Shah Jahan the Jats resumed
in

their

mischievous activities

Mathura*

Khan

Distinguished officers, such as 'Azam and Mirza Isa Khan, who were sent to restore law
in that district, failed to bring

and order

them

to

book

on account of Dara Shikoh, who managed the affairs of the Mughal Government. This state of affairs continu-

ed

to

the time

of

'Alamgir with,

of course,

added

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R

305

energy, because Dara, their patron,
killed.

was defeated and
'

They were touched to t the quick when Sayyad Abdun-NabI, the new Faujdar appointed by Alamglr,
built

a

Jama Mas/id and
city.

of the

Hindu

In 1669 A.

not a temple in the heart C. they insulted the

mosque,
Imperial

broke

into

open
of

rebellion

under the leadership

of Gokle, a

zamlndar

Tilpat,
All,

and assassinated the
the

Faujdar.

Hassan

new Faujdar,

the struggle with the Jats and inflicted a The rebellion crushing defeat on them in 1676 A. C. was suppressed and severe repressive measures secured

resumed

peace for about a decade. again in 1681 A. C. when,

The

trouble was renewed

taking

advantage of the
in the

absence of Alamglr

who was away

Jats again ran into rebellion under time the centre of sedition was

Rajah
the
the

Deccan, the Ram. This
of of

SansanI,

some

sixteen

miles

to

stronghold north-west

Bharatpur. The leader was killed and the place was taken, but the lawless Jats continued to give trouble to
the

Emperor
again

to the close of his career.

In 1691 A. C.

they

raised

the

standard of revolt and offered a

most acrimonious they committed a

effrontery to the Imperial House, nay,

mosjt heinous offence against

humanity

when

tomb of plundered Emperor Akbar at Sikandara and burnt his bones.* A more serious rebellion was that of the SatnSmls.
they
desecrated

and

the

According

to

Ishwar

Das,
the
,

a con-

The Satnaims'
Insurrection.

temporary J chronicler, r a filthy people were
'

Satnamis

who were

mostly agriculturists and traders. Their headquarters * Waqai-'Alamgiri, pp 4995 and Smith's Akbar, p. 328,
;

306

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

They were an armed and organized them arose from an ordinary with trouble The body. One day a foot-soldier, who was keeping incident.
were at Narnaul.

watch over a harvest, had
cultivator.

a

dispute

with

a

Satnami

dispute developed into a deadlock and As a result, retaliations the former was beaten to death.

The

followed, lives were lost
religious complexion.

and disorder spread, taking a
officer,

The Mughal

who

tried to,

capture the culprits, was overpowered and the Satnamis In some engagements they gathered in large numbers.
defeated the detachments detailed against

them by the
the
Imperial

Emperor.

R spelling,

the

advance

of

forces, they came within sixteen kos of Delhi, enlisting support on their way. They plundered Narnaul, demolished mosques and routed the Imperial Faujdar of the
district.

Taking advantage

of the chaos created

Satnamis, some
to
situation

of the Rajputs also rebelled

by the and refused

pay the revenue due from them.

compelled the In the short but bloody battle that was fought, the Satnamis were badly defeated, and thereafter they ceased to be a source of trouble to the Mughal
serious action.

and

This aggravated the Emperor to take a

Emperor. Radandaz Khan, and reduced them to sore
the
title

wha
straits,

defeated the rebels

was honoured with
and
.

of

Shuja'at

Khan*
rich in resources

The
War

Rajputs,

who had grown
strong in the
.

sinews
.

of

with

war,
-

never

the Rajputs.

missed

,

an

opportunity
arid

of

creating

disturbance
Muntafaib-ul-Lubab, His Times, p, 210.
*

disorder.

Their
and

pp.

254-55:

and

Aurangzeb

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
activities

307

anti-government
in the

are a case in point, proving that they

during the Satnami Rebellion wanted to stab the

Mughals
This
is

back while they were engaged elsewhere. the whole reign of not the only instance
;

'Alamgir
in

is

full of

such instances.

Troubles continued

Rajputana intermittantly, but the situation became serious in 1679 A. C., when Rajah Jaswant Singh

whom

'Alamgir had posted at Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, died at that place, leaving no son

behind to

succeed

him

;

widowed Rams gave birth died and the other survived to secure the Gaddl of MSrwar and to stir up the sentiments of his co-religionThe family of the late ists against the Muslim Monarch.

more so when at Lahore the to two sons, ^ne of whom

Jamrud without the permission of the Emperor and killed an officer at Attock when asked to a sufficient ground for produce a passport.* This was
Rajah had
left

incorporating Marwar in the Mughal Empire, or reducing it to a state of dependency under a capable ruler.

But
first

there

were more serious considerations
it

:

In the

place, tolerate the existence of

was impossible

any an independent and

for

emperor of India to
inimical

state

on the flanks

of the trade-route

through Rajputana

other flourishing cities on the " No the western coasts from Imperial Capital. the in secure himself feel monarch could sovereignty of " until he had obtained Upper India," says Smith, the two possession of Chittor and Ranthambhor, fortresses in the domains of the free Rajput
to Surat,

Ahmadabad and

principal

* Muntakhib-ul-Lubab, p, 259

;

and Aurangzeb and His Times,

-~

911

and

212.

308
chiefs."

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Secondly, the late Rajah Jaswant Singh had himself a traitor not only once or twice but
his
career.
It

proved

throughout

was

he

who

plundered

'Alamgir's camp and formed a junction with Dara. It was he who deserted 'Alamgir on the eve of the battle
of

Khajwah and retired to his home with his Rajput made overtures to Shivaji It was he who contingent.
'

himself an implacable foe of the Moghuls), against whom he was sent to act ' and secretly helped him in
(like

his daring attack

on Shaista Khan. It was he who made an attempt to remove the Imperial lieutenants,
'

one by assassination the other by open force/ It was he who incited Mu azzam 'whose inexperience he was said
1

to

guide,

to

revolt
tried to

against his father.

Again

it

was

Jaswant who

tamper with the loyalty of his brocolleague

ther-in-law, viz.,
in the Imperial

Rao Bbao Singh, who was his

army.*

striking instances of his treachery

These are some among the many and disloyalty. Accordsecret understanding

ing to Bernier, there

was a

between

him and
Surat.f

Shivajl, and he was supposed to have been accessory to the attempt on Shaista Khan and the attack of
all Rajput Rajahs were smaitunder the Muslim Rule and aimed at the overthrow ing

Thirdly, almost

of the established government.

It

was but natural that
the
question
of

'Alamgir

should

seriously

consider

succession of the posthumous sons

open to grave doubts, t

whose legitimacy was He wanted to confer the Rajship
;

25 Annals and Antiquities of *Tarikh-i-Dilku$ha, p. Rajasthan, (1894) Vol. ii, pp. 51 ff. and Aurangzeb and His Times, \Bernier's Travels, (2nd edition), p. 188.

JSee Aurangzeb and His Times,

p.

214

ff.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMOIR
loyal

309

on one who would be more
than the
deceased
resistance,
late

and

less

treacherous

Rajah. Lest the surviving sons of the Rajah should become a centre of Hindu

'Alamgir at once ordered the administration of Marwar to be brought under Muslim officers. A. in 1679 C. he went personally to Ajmer to see Early
operations in Jodhpur and to overawe Khan Jahan occupied the opposition in that quarter. After the city and carried all that came in his way.

through

the

occupation of Jodhpur, 'Alamgir returned to his Capital on April 2, 1679 A. C. On May 26, 1679 A. C. he

made Indar Singh, a grand-nephew of the late Rajah, the Rajah of Marwar. The following month the family of Rajah Jaswant Singh reached Delhi and pleaded the
Ajlt Singh before the Emperor, who proposed the infant to be brought up in the Imperial palace and promised to restore the kingdom to him when he would

right

of

attain

the

age

of

discretion.

Erroneously

that the intention of the

Emperor was

to bring

supposing up the

boy as a Muslim, the Ranis left Delhi in disguise with him. When the Emperor was informed of the flight, it was a little too late. Nevertheless, he sent a force to
seize the

Ranis and the infant.

A

headed by

Durga Das, one

of

Rathors, the immortals in the

body

of

annals of Rajputana, fought against the Imperial force and succeeded in safely escorting the Ranis and the

boy to Marwar. Once in their own country, they were free from all external molestation. The Rajputs rallied round their voung chieftain and took up his
little

cause.

The Emperor, however,

refused to acknowledge

him

as the real prince

and declared the boy,

whom

the

310
Ranis had
Singh.
It
left at
left at

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Delhi to be the genuine son of Jaswant cannot be definitely asserted whether the
fictitious

boy
the

Delhi was the

or the

real

son

of

late

Rajah, but

when
of

the

Rana

of Chittor gave the

hand of a princess of became the real son
not.

his family to the

boy, the
if

latter

Jaswant Singh even
episode
bitterly

he was

This

interesting

disappointed

Aurangzeb. His wrath fell on those of his officers who had been duped by the Rams. Tahir Khan, the Faujdar dismissed and Indar Singh was of Jodhpur, was Whatever the delusion of for dethroned inefficiency.
the

Emperor

in

regard

to

might have been, there was no delusion as
of the situation 'hat required a

the identity of A jit Singh to the gravity

prompt action. Marwar must be incorporated and Rathor opposition must be
suppressed.

The
Invasion of

invasion

Marwar was ordered and the Emperor himself moved down to
of

Marwar and
from

Ajmer
from

in order to direct the operations

there.

Prince Akbar was called

Multan
of

and

to

command
associated

the Imperial

him was entrusted the supreme army, and with him was
the

Faujdar of Ajmer. The Rathors were defeated and Marwar was occupied. It was parcelled out into districts, each of which was

Tahawar Khan,

The Rathors placed in charge of a Mughal Faujdar. now invoked the assistance of the Sisodians and their
request met with a ready response. Fearing a similar the House of made Mewar common cause with the fate,

House

of

Mnrwar

against the

Mughal Emperor.

The

ever-loyal

Rajah of Jaipur continued to side with the

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

311

The war broke out with great fury in Mughals. November 1679 A. C. and lasted till 1681 A. C.
During
this

conquered. array of the Mughal arms, the Rajputs retired to their inaccessible retreats in the mountains and resorted to
guerilla warfare, for which the natural features of their

time Udaipur was overrun and Chittor was Unable to stand against the tremendous

were so favourable. They inflicted heavy on the Imperial troops and caused consternation among them, Kumar Bhim Singh, son of the Rana of
country
losses

Udaipur,

invaded

Gujarat

in

order

to

divert

the

Mughal Emperor from Rajputana. He seized Idar, plundered some towns and destroyed as many as three hundred mosques.* x)Ial Shah, the
attention of the

Rajput Finance Minister, made an inroad into Malwa, plundered the mosques, burned the Qur'an and insulted For once,' says Tod, they (Rajputs) the mullahs'
1

*

'

avenged themselves,

in imitation of
:

the religion of their enemies and shaved, and the Korans were thrown into wells. 't

the tyrant, even on the kazees were bound

Akbar could make no headway against them. Therefore, he was called back and his place was taken by his who was summoned from Bengal. brother, 'Azam,

Mu'azzam came from the Deccan, and the governor

of

Gujarat was ordered to cut off communications between the Rajputs and the Marhattas, and to deliver an attack
and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. i, 294; Mirat-i-Ahmadi, Fatuhat-i-'Alamgiri, 80a p. 299. His and Times, p. Aurangzeb
"\Annals
* Annals
p.
;

302

;

and
302

and

Antiquities
;

of

Rdjasthan,

Vol.

i,

p.

;

Fatuhat'i-Alamgirit 80a

and Aurangzeb and His Times,

p. 229.

312

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

on Rajputana from the South. The Rajputs were surrounded from different directions and the new princes converged on the hills, which sheltered Rajah
Raj Singh of Udaipur. When success was in sight, the news of the rebellion of Prince Muhammad Akbar arrived and Mewar was easily relieved of the pressure at
a most psychological

moment.
underhand

Driven
Rebellion of

to despair, the Rajputs resorted to

means.

They

secretly

p rince Mu azzam>
him on the
throne.

approached holding out high

hopes to him and promising to put
Sternly advised declined the the Prince mother, Bal, by offer.* The Rajputs then turned towards Prince Akbar and won him over to their side.f In January, 1681 he
his

Nawab

broke into rebellion
throne
for

with

the hope of acquiring

the

by the Rajputs, he crowned himself emperor and marched towards Ajmer to wrest the Imperial Crown for himself. But he was
himself.

Supported

no match

for the craft of his father.

The

situation

was

extremely grave and required a master-mind to control it. Aurangzeb put Ajmer in a state of defence first and
then directed his energies towards the dissolution of the Tahawar Khan, the principal supporter of confederacy.
the Prince, was called to the Imperial Camp. Other officers of the army of the Prince were also detached,

and he was not so clever as to control the campaign The defection of against his father unaided and alone.
his faithful followers scented treachery to the Rajputs,

*Aurangzeb and His Times,
.,

p. 229.

pp. 229

and

230.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGU*
flight

313
their

who

took

to

at

night
his

after

collecting

belongings and looting
deserted by his
allies,

camp. Finding he mounted his horse and

himself
fled

to

the

Deccan, where he took refuge with Sambhajl. From the Deccan he went to Persia and remained
there to die in 1704 A. C.

'Alamglr's success was due to a superior stroke of With Akbar as their trump-card, the statesmanship.

Rajputs would have succeeded in their nefarious plans, but the desertion of the Prince by his followers, manipulated by 'Alamglr, turned the trend of events in his
favour.*

The war
rTTJ
.

against
till

Treaty of Udaipur.

Mewar and Marwar continued March, 1681 A. C. when both the
'

parties peace the Rajputs, because they had become tired of war, and the Emperor, because matters had taken a serious turn in the

desired

South and

his

presence was

Pourparlers the Treaty of Udaipur, according to which: (1) Jai Singh was acknowledged as the Rana and a mansab of five

for

peace commenced and

urgently required there. the result was

thousand was conferred
to

upon him.

(2)

The Rana
return

stipulated to cede certain tracts (three pargatias) of his
territory
*

the

Mughal Empire and
of

in

the

The detachment

two

or three officers from the Prince

was

not sufficient to occasion the flight of his Muslim followers and Rajput allies from the field. The story that 'Alamglr wrote a letter to the Prince, showering praises on him for his pretended revolt' and directing hirr to attack the Rajputs in the rear, and caused it to fall into their hands furnishes a better explanation, but it is not supported by Khafl Khan. (Vide Muntakhib-ul'

Lubab, Vol.

n,

p

269.)

314

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
for the

demand
ceded

Jizia was dropped, but the territory returned three years later. (3) The Rana also agreed to pay an indemnity of Rs. 3,00,000 within

was

two

years.

(4)

The Rajput
(5)

contingent of one thousand

horsemen was retained.
not to be repaired.
(6)

The fortress of Chittor was The rebellious Rathors would

not be sheltered by the Rana.*

For a period
Results of the Rajput Revolt.

about three decades Rajputana remained in a state of open revolt
of

elements of
fitfully into

" The against the Mughal Emperor. lawlessness that set moving overflowed

Malwa and endangered the vitally important The Mughal road through Malwa to the Deccan."
completely estranged themselves and become the bitterest enemies of the Mughal Empire, were suppressed only for the time being ; they were not
Rajputs,

who had

completely crushed. Since the affairs in Rajputatia occupied the attention of the Emperor for a fairly long time, his position was considerably weakened in the

South, where the Marhattas
of
their

had

made a monarchy

Evidently he could not completely reduce the Rajputs, though he had won decisive victories
against them.

own.

As

his

hands
into

we're too

full of affairs,

he

advisedly

entered

a

treaty

with

them and

turned his attention to the suppression of the Marhatta menace and the subversion of the Shia Sultanates in
the South.

* For a detailed discussion on this treaty and Prince 'AzanVs secret alliance with the Rajputs regarding this treaty, see Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 231 ff.

CHAPTER XV

MUHl-UD-DlN
'

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
(CONTINUED)
1

ALAMGlR

Rise of the Marhattas
In the neighbourhood of
of
Introductory.
politics

634 A. C. a Marhatta

soldier

fortune,

named Shahjl Bhonsla,
.

began of Southern India.
of

to play a prominent part in the

independence

the

served and fought for the kingdoms of Ahmadnagar and

He

Bijapur against the Mughals and left a fairly large band of followers and a modest military fief to his son,
Shivaji, the

arch-enemy of Aurangzeb.

Before taking up

the story of this mighty Marhatta, it is necessary to give a brief account of the Marhatta country, its people, and
the qualities
that

mark them
;

off

from the remaining

important factors bearing upon Shivaji's career which cannot be treated as an isolated phenomenon.
population

of India

for these

are

Maharashtra, the
Description of

habitat of
in the
,
.

the Marhattas,
,
,

is

com,

Maharashtra.

country lying between prised ,. ^, *" e mountain range which stretches
,

along the south of the river Narbada,
parallel to the

Vindhya and Satpura ranges.

The

out-

standing physical feature of the country is the Sahyadri range or the Western Ghat which runs like a long wall

along the
parts,

western part ?nd

divides
its

the tracts into
peculiarities*.

two

each remarkable for

own

Thus

situated, the triangular table-land of the

Deccan enjoyed

316

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

considerable immunity from the invasions to which the North had become a constant prey. The forts on top It of the ranges ensured the security of the country.
is

and

from these important positions that various princes chiefs have, at different times, profited and sucauthority
of

cessfully defied the

the mighty kings of
of their country, the

the North.

Owing
qualities of

to the peculiar nature

Character and
the Marhattas.

have developed certain moral qualities which and physical dist n g u s h them from the rest of
Marhattas
i i

their

countrymen.
the
fortified

rocks,

winding roads up the entrances with a succession of
erected
forts
in order to guard the which studded the surface of

The

gate-ways,

the

towers

approaches

to the

all these gave the inhabitants of that rugged country the country a decided advantage over their opponents.

Their guerilla mode of warfare greatly exasperated their enemy and exhausted their resources in men and money.

Even the Mighty Mughals found
them, for
they would
never

it

difficult to defeat

fight their

enemy

in the

open

field.

The

niggardliness

of

nature

and

the

bracing

climate

of their

country made them

simple,

strong, sturdy, daring, enterprising

and persevering. They

were peasant proprietors

and hardest
ing

toil.

never shirked the roughest Mounted on small ponies and carrymillet,

who

marches

some raw and

or

parched

they

undertook long

inflicted

could be easily

on their enemy. They dispersed and easily called together
losses

of to the season the according Except year. at the time of seeding and harvesting, they were

MUHI-UD-PIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIK
They
and
of

317

always at leisure to wage war.
of

joined the armies

Bijapur

and
training

Golconda
in the

soon

acquired

the

necessary

Gradually they became first-class fighters, with ample chances of success against the men of the North, dissipated by luxury, indolence and ease. In the Rajput, the Mughals
fighting.
in the Marhad found a most worthy antagonist for the latter would not hatta, a most formidable foe shrink from taking recourse to treachery when it served
;
;

art

his ends.

We
. .

have already given a

brief

account of the Bhaktl
appeared
in the

Movement
North

which

Their religion.

in the fifteenth

and sixteenth

centuries

and gave a new stamp
protestant

to the religion of the

Hindus.

Spreading throughout the length and breadth

of India, this

made

way into and united them into a common brotherhood wherein there were no distinctions of caste and colour. The
its

movement, the Reformation, the humble ranks of the Marhattas

religious

leaders

of

the

Marhattas

sprang from the

lower
all

stratum.

persons

They, therefore, preached equality of and ruled out the differences of birth and
declared a crusade against
all

blood.

They

those grave

abuses with which Hinduism

was honeycombed, and propagated the monotheistic principle which the Musalmans had introduced in India. They condemned forms and ceremonies and succeeded in stamping out superstition

from

the

ranks

of

Marhatta

society.

They
and the

taught their followers tne philosophy of
science
stirred

action

of

discipline.

By songs and
of

up the sentiments

speeches, they the people and inculcated

318

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

According to Dr. Ishwari patriotism among them. of the centre new ideas was Pandharpur, a these Prasad,
seat of pilgrimage in

the Deccan,

and the Pandharpur

movement was

a powerful factor in unifying the Marhatta country. The principal preachers of the new ideas were Tuka Ram, Ram Das, Vaman Pandit

and Eknath. Under the Shia Sultans of the kingdoms
Their early
training.

of Bijapur

anc^

Golconda,

the

Marhattas had

acquired considerable training both in the civil and military administration of the country.
in

They were employed

the

revenue department and

entrusted with important posts in the armies. Some of the unmixed confidence of their rulers them enjoyed

and held even
give specific

ministerial

portfolios in the State.

To

Mudar Rao, Madan Pandit and several other prominent members of the Raj Rai family served as ministers and diwans in the State of Golinstances,

conda
chiefs

;

Narsu and Yasu Pandit were other Marhatta

who
of

of Bijapur.

Hindus

Kingdom The Bahmani Kings had employed the the South in the State and entrusted them
distinguished

themselves in the

with the most responsible positions. Their policy was followed and kept up by their successors, the rulers
of the offshoots,
i.e.,

the

five

small states into which
split up.

the Bahmani Kingdom had been
military

While

in the

department

the

Marhattas served as Siledars

and

Bargirs,

Brahman ambassadors
missions.

were sent
it

on

Thus, important diplomatic obvious that Bijapur and Golconda were
dependent on Marhatta soldiers and statesmen

is

quite-

virtually

who had

MUHI-UD-DIN
gradually
affairs of

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
power and influence
in

319
tfte

acquired great these States.

At the commencement
I he rise of the Bhonsla family Shahji Bhonsla.

of the seventeenth century,

when the Kingdom of Ahmadnagar was
:

blotted out of existence

and those

of

Bi japur and Golconda were threatened
fate

with

by the Mughals, the Marhatta found ample scope for the ministers and They took a leaddisplay of their wisdom and valour.
a
similar

warriors

ing part in the wars and revolutions that came in quick succession and advanced their own national interests.

One

of

such persons
the
of the

was
of

a jagitdar,

called

Bhonsla,
service
risen to

father of Shivaji,

who had
in

Shahji joined the

Sultan

Bi japur

1632 A. C. and

a high position help of Murari JagLater deva, a friend of the Vazir, Khawas Khan. much a he obtained in includon, larger jaglr, Mysore

with the

ing Sira and Bangalore, when he returned after conducting a successful campaign in the South.
Shivaji Bhonsla, son of Shahji Bhonsla by his wife

a
of shivkfi.

Jijabai,

was born
on
the

in the stronghold of

Sivaner
A. C,

On

10th of April 1627 the male side he claimed

descent from the Rajput Rajahs of Udaipur and on the female side he was a descendant of the Yadava rulers
of Deogari.
ed,

Both
might

his parents being so highly connectjustly be

Shivaji

proud of

his noble ancestry.

His mother has been described as a pious and devout Hindu lady, who used to relate to her son the thrilling
'tales

of the
of

stock

famous Hindu heroes of the past from her memory and stirred up his spirit by narrating

320
to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
stories of the

him the

Rawayana,
there
is

the

Mahabharata

and the Puranas.

Thus,

ample reason to

If ever great men owed their greatJustice Ranade : ness to the inspiration of their mothers, the influence

endorse the view that Jljabai had an important share in moulding the character of her son. To say with "

of

and the chief source of his after little time to look As had Shahjl strength." the education of his son, he placed him under the
Dadaji Kondadev. This aged Brahnan of immense experience was an able
tuition of his

Jljabai was a factor making of Shivaji's career

of

prime importance

in the

agent,

called

administrator of

the

estates of Shahji.

young
that

Marhatta

imbibed

and

assimilated

From him the much

The

proved him so useful in his subsequent career. education he received comprised in horsemanship,

hunting

and military

exercises.

It

was
life

sufficiently

supplemented

by

lessons

from the

experience of Dadaji himself. the mind of the young lad by
scholars

and personal The influence exerted on
Marhatta saints and
necessity of doing
'

brought
for the

home

to

him the
his

something

cause of
'

country.

Unite

all

who

are Marathas,' his moral preceptor, Guru Ram Das, used to advise him, and propagate the Dharma of Maharashtra. The Guru convinced him that he had
1

been sent to

world on the sacred mission of protect* ing the Brahmans and the cow. Mother and motherland/ he used to tell him, are dearer than heaven itself,
this
'

why

live

when
is

religion

has

perished

;

when

faith is
fall'

dead, death

better than life/
soil.

The

seed did

not

on a barren

Shivaji's

outlook

brightened,

bts

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGxR
now
aspired
to

321

mental horizon widened and he

become

an independent polygar. The natural scenery oi his native-land, the environments of his early life, the influence of his mother, teacher and other saints fired

him with the ambition

of

carving out an

indepedent

kingdom for himself. Born and brought up
_

in

T His robberies.

._

made

himself

Maharashtra, Shivajl had familiar with every J
of that country with

the help of his career at the age of nineteen.
of

nook and corner Mawali associates.
and
his

He

began

his public

In 1646 A. C. the Sultan
illness

Bijapur

fell

ill

anarchy

and

confusion.

Taking

was followed by advantage of this

opportunity,

Shivajl seized upon the stronghold of Torna and carried a successful raid into the fort of He rebuilt Raigarh, which was easily occupied.

Raigarh and wrested Supa from his uncle, ShambhujT. Fort after fort yielded to the young adventurer. The
stronghold of Chakan and the outposts of Indapur

and

Baramati passed into

his possession in rapid succession.

The

forts of

captured next

Kondana, Purandhar and Singhgarh were and the southern frontier of Shivaji's

The Sultan of Bijapur, who family estate was secured. the aback taken was aggressive activities of Shivaji, by
would have reduced the young Marhatta
to submission
;

but the friendly intervention of the ministers convinced the Darbar that the strongholds were captured in the
general interest of
his

family

estate.

The ambitious

Marhatta Sardar would not, however, rest on his oars. Soon he sent a body of Marhatta horsemen under the command of Abaji Sonder against the Konkan, and the

322
result

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the capture of Kalyan. was Next, Shivajl marched southwards in the district of Kolaba and the

enlisted

sympathies

of

the

local

chiefs

in the

common cause of overthrowing The conquest of Kalyan in
and his
Seizure
e

the Muslim yoke. the Konkan by Shivajl

activities in that

country roused
against

and
f

the

authorities
-

of

Bijapur

h^s flther

him
of

About this time Shahji was arrested and imprisoned by the Sultan,
his

either

because

insubordination to Mustafa, the

Commander-in- Chief of Bijapur, or because of his son's encroachments on the teiritory of Bijapur, or both. of his father's Shivajl was greatly upset at the news
imprisonment and the confiscation of his jaglrs. For some time he gave up his depredatory pursuits and
planned
this

to
in

effect

the release

of
to

his

father.

With

aim

view, he

appealed
his

His

Majesty the

Mughal Emperor through

son,

Murad

Bakhsh,

who happened
offered
his

to

be in the Deccan at that time.

He

services

with

the prayer that his father be

released through his intercession.
to
his

Shah Jahan acceded

thousand.
ruler

request and enrolled him as a mansabdar of five Under the fear of Imperial intervention, tne
Shahji,

of Bijapur released

though

he did not
is,

to quit Bijapur for four years. There another view as to the release of however, Shahji
:

allow

him

It

is

said

that

it

was almost

entirely

due

to the friendly

intervention and good offices of Sharza

Khan and Ran-

daula Khan, the two influential officers of Bijapur, But it must be noted that the release was conditional for
;

Shivajl remained quiet for about six years (1649

55 A. C.),

MUHI-UD-DIN
so
far

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
interests

323

as

the

of

Bijapur

were

concerned.

During
ing
his

this

period he kept himself busy in consolidatterritory and organizing its newly-acquired

administration.

No

Massacre at

sooner was Shahjl released and restored to his T jSgir in the Karnatic than his son J
Javli.

resumed

.

his

relentless

raids

in in

the
the

South.

In order to acquire the

tract of

land

southern Konkan, Shivaji

made

overtures to

Chandra
that
join

Rao,
tract

the
in

Rajah
the

of

Javli,

who
King
State.
of

administered
Bijapur,
to

name
the

of

the

him against

Muslim

achieve his object in this
Javli,

Having way, he sent two agents
his

failed

to

to

outwardly for
its

contracting

alliance with

the

Rajah, but in fact for assassinating him. The Rajah received the agents with great respect, but treacherously enough, the guests put their host to death

daughter of

'

at

a private interview

',

fled

from the

fort

and joined

Shivaji

who

had, meanwhile, detailed his troops to the

Ghats and had himself arrived there to conduct the The citadel was stormed and operations in person. The sons of the Rajah '. sudden was the surprise up a vigorous defence, but were eventually taken
'

put
to
of

prisoners

and done away with in 1655 A. C. at NimgazS For several days the ladies the south of Poona.
the
late

Rajah were

kept

in

confinement

at

Purandhar and then released.*
*See Bisat-ul-Qhanaim
t

p. 40

;

Shiva-ChhatrapatZ-Chen Sapta
; ,

prakaram-atmak
Bakhar, paras. 28 the above crime

Charitra,

Chitnis,

and
is

29.

Sir

and Kalmi pp, 81-82 Jadunath Sarkar's condonation o
In his

curious.

own

words,

'his (Shivaji's

324
Hostilities
e

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
were renewed when, towards the close of 1656 A. C., 'Ali 'Adil Shah of
Bijapur died and Aurangzeb advanc-

^O s

^

l

of

t

f es

ed
opportune moment.

against
Shivaji,

his

dominion
longed

at for

that

who

such

opportunities, was only too glad to seize this one.

He

negotiated with Aurangzeb and became his ally, but He attacked the Mughal failed to maintain friendship.
cities of

Ahmadnagar and Junnar.

But

for the illness

of

Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb would not have left the Deccan without punishing the Marhatta brigand. The absence of th? MugLal troops from the Deccan left
During the Shivaji free to fish in the troubled waters. war of succession among the sons of Shah Jahan he
consolidated his power
his several

and established

his

strongholds.

He

enlisted in his

sway over army the

disbanded soldiery of Bijapur and renewed

his attacks

on that kingdom.

The

Sultan

of

Bijapur could

not

tolerate

the

Afzal Khan's

meetinTwith

He ordered depredations of Shivaji. his father, Shahji, to stop him from
state.

making encroachments on the terShahji excused himself on the ritory was not son his The subject to his control. plea that Sultan then sent his able and experienced general,
of

that

power was then in its infancy, and he could not afford to be scrupulous in the choice of the means of strengthening himself (Shivaji and His Times, p. 53). If the soundness of this new rule of ethics be admitted, then, mutatis mutandis, the alleged misdeeds of 'Alamgir should not be condemned. Sarkar has scrupulously adhered to the above rule in the case of his hero, Shivaji, but has totally deprived 'Alamgir of its benefit.
1

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR^25

Afzal Khan, with a large force against the Marhattas. Shivajl regarded discretion as *he better part of valour.

wished to achieve his object by feigning friendship with the foe. With honeyed words and rich presents, he
succeeded
in

He

throwing Afzal Khan

off his

guard.

With
were

the help of

Brahman
it

intermediaries, negotiations

opened between the two
meeting place and
unescorted.
Shivaji

spot was fixed as a parties. was agreed that they would meet

A

took

ample

precautions for the

put on a coat of chain and a steel cap and kept them concealed under his embroidered cloak and turban. On the lingers of his left hand, he fixed a Baghnakha, or the tiger-claw, and
protection of his person.
carried
'

He

another

native

weapon,

called

Bichhwa, or

Besides, scorpion', concealed within his right sleeve. he posted his soldiers behind the trees along the route
of Afzal

Khan.

place (Javli),

Afzal advanced towards the appointed attended by a single servant. Shivaji

descended from his stronghold slowly and came to the He was meeting-place with a timid and hesitating air.

accompanied by a single attendant and was unarmed He approached to meet the Kban to all appearances. with all humility and Afzal advanced to embrace the As soon as the Khan stooped to raise Marhatta.

and embrace him, the short-sized Marhatta dispatched him with the deadly weapons he carried
Shivajl

with him.

The death
Rout
of Afzal
r

of

Afzal

Kban was
,

at

once

signalled

AT

,

an d the Marhatta warriors,

Khan's Army.

sprang up and slaughtered their enemies who were
lying
in

...

who were

ambush,

326
reposing

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
in their camp. was complete.

The

rout

of the
fell

army
into

of

Bijapur

A

large booty

the

hands of the Marhattas.

Even

the greatest of

men have

not,

at times,

re-

frained from employing
f

mean methods
Yet,

r

Saining

their ends.

while

recording

their

glorious

deeds

and
also

paying

a

tribute

to

their talents,

history

must

however damaging, and pronounce its verdict, however painful, on their misdeeds. Whereas Muslim as well as European writers have uniformly condemned the murder of Afzal Khan by Shivaji as a most heinous crime, Marhatta authorities, with the
register its findings,

solitary exception of

Kalml Bhaka^ have

laid the entire

blame
trying
killed.

at the door of Afzal

Khan, alleging that while

to

strangle the Marhatta, the

Khan

got himself

Relying exclusively

on the Marhatta sources

of

which are materially discrepant and and contradictory, discarding totally the testimony of contemporary Muslim as well as European historians, Ranade, Sarkar and Kincaid have made vigorous efforts to whitewash the treachery of their national hero in
information,

various ways.

They have

fully exploited their

forensic

eloquence in trying to defend the action of Shivaji on the ground that Afzal Khan had formed a plot against

him and
his

that the

Khan himself was caught
prepared for the

in

the

cage which he had

confinement of
'plot',

opponent (Shivaji). alleged a mere presumption, invented either by
votaries,
is

The

based on
or
his
it is

Shivaji

not
to

unravelled
believe
it.

before
It
is

us.

As such,
that

impossible

stated

when

MUHI-UD-DIN
Krishnaji,
parties,

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
acted as an intermediary

327

who
he
"

between the

was

invited

and

appealed

to

by Shivaji

in

so far as to hint that the Khan some seemed to harbour plan of mischief," and. further that having learnt so much, he (Shivaji) sent the envoy (Krishnaji) back with his own agent, Gopinath Pant,
secrecy,

yielded

by a lavish use of bribes that AfzaPs he had so arranged were convinced that officers at the interview, arrested be would that matters Shivaji
learnt
'

11

who

he was too cunning to be caught by open fight.' There is not a tinge of truth in the above statements. v They are not warranted by Afzal K]]an conduct and
as

"

Even behaviour either before or during the interview. would not venture to the most unimaginative plotter
launch his plot against his enemy before chalking out a programme, weighing the chances of his success and

marking out a
as

line of retreat.

Afzal was not so foolish
mission
of entrapping

to

set

out on

his

alleged

and making preparaShivaji without taking precautions He was selected and sent tions necessary for a plot. Government the because he Bijapur against Shivaji by

was regarded as a great military commander. The fact If he is that he was honesi in his dealings with Shivaji. have he must taken someone a into had formed plot ',
*

confidence

and issued necessary instructions to his That he did nothing to this effect and appeared officers. at the interview unarmed and un-escorted leaves room
for

the only presumption that he boasted of his superior disdained to take any force with him physical strength, and desired to achieve his object single-handed. But it
is

generally

admitted that

he

had

started

on

this

328
expedition
left

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
with 10,000 soldiers, who, however, were behind when objected to by ShivajI's envoy. Like-

the wise, presence of Sayyad Banda, a famous swordsman who accompanied the Khan, was objected to and he too was left behind. All this and the fact that after his murder his army was taken by surprise and routed conclusively prove that Afzal had made no
preparations which might even remotely suggest that he
'

intended

treachery
of

'.

The
'

rout of the
Afzal's
'

army

that was

attacked unawares shows that
the

officers

had no

and had received no alleged knowledge plot instructions fiDm their commander. Consequently, one is at a loss to understand how Gopinath was able to
learn
is

from

his officers that

he had formed a

'

plot

'.

It

also stated that Afzal
alive

had publicly boasted

of bringing

Shivaji

faqlr,

who

the Bijapur Darbar, and that before a belonged to the Marhatta Secret Service.
to

The

story of Afzal's boasting before a Marhatta spy Professor puts too much strain on our credulity.

Sarkar says that at the interview Afzal held Shiva's neck in his left arm within iron-grip, while with his
right

c

hand he drew

his long straight-bladed
'.*

struck at the side of Shiva

dagger and Whereas Kincaid avers

* According to Prof. Sarkar, Afzal used a long straight-bladed dagger, whereas Kincaid avers that he tried to stab Shivaji at We learn from the Shiva Bharat his side with a sword. (Ch. XXI) that before Afzal embraced Shivaji, he had discarded

Muslim and European authorities inform us that to meet Shivaji. When the display of force and the presence of Sayyad Banda were
his sword.

Afzal

was unarmed when he went
'

'

objected to, there is every reason to believe that either Afzal did not carry any weapon with him, or if he had carried one, it must have been objected to and discarded.

MUHI-UD-DIN
that there

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
at first

329

was

an exchange of hot words between
'

the

the Marhatta and then the former caught hold of the latter by his neck. If the Khan, enraged
at

Khan and

the

taunt,

seized

with the

left

arm

Shivaji

by the

neck, forcing his head under his arm pit/ as is averred by Kincaid, then where is the element of the treachery
alleged alleged
tion
*

?

As apart from
to
killing

this, can Afzal Khan, who is have attended the interview with the inten-

of

him by
in
'

treachery,

be
'?

said

to

have

addressed

Shivaji

insulting

tones
is

And,

when
did
*

Shivaji

was

to be
*

arrested alive/ as
'

alleged,
at

why

Afzal try to sUangle while he was in his
attendants
desired
Afzal.
?

him him

or

'stao

him

his side

embrace and did not order
or

his

to

arrest

dispatch

him,

if

he so

Obviously,
If

nothing pre-arranged by he had taken precautions and made neces-

was

sary

preparations beforehand,
to
his

he would have issued

instructions

soldiers

the

alert,

and both he and

his

and warned them to be on army would not have
marauders.

fallen so easy a prey to the

Marhatta

The
that

fact that they were taken unawares and

killed conclusively

proves the bona-fides
there

of Afzal
;

Kban and shows

was no

'

plot

whatsoever.

All this exonerates

On the other the Khan and establishes his innocence. hand, it was Shivaji who invited his adversary (Afzal)
to

posted his soldiers

by himself, on the route of Afzal Khan's army, issued necessary instructions to his officers, armed himself with the native weapons, Wagnakha and Bichhwa, donned a steel cap, put on an iron coat,
*

an

interview

at a suitable spot selected

proceeded to the selected spot

fully

equipped/ objected

330
to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the
'

display

of force

*

and

'

the presence of Sayyad
in
all

Banda',

appeared stabbed him while

before the
in his

Khan

humility,

embrace

at the interview,

made

a signal to his soldiers who lay in ambush, and routed the Muslim army facts which form important links in
the chain
of

the plot contrived and cleverly conducted

by Shivajl and not by Afzal Khan. The murder of Afzal Khan and the rout of the emboldened Shivajl who Bijapurls of next carried his arms into the nei & h . .

bouring

territories.

He

seized

the

stronghold cf Panhcila and a number of other forts and He attacked Rajhpur even threatened Bijapur itself.

and

Dabhal and extended his dominions further South In all these campaigns along the banks of the Krishna. he obtained immense booty, which he put to its best
advantage.

'AH

'Adil Shah, the Sultan of Bijapur,
at

was alarmed
In

Shivaji's

acts

of

aggression.

1660 A. C. he put
their
last

his generals to

trumps
Shivajl

to

cut short

the
in

Marhatta

menace.

While
three

was

occupied

strengthening
attacked

the stronghold of Panhala, the Bijapurls

him

from
Sidi

directions.

Panhala

was

invested by Johar and the siege lasted for four months. Shivajl was reduced to sore straits and he would have been forced to surrender if he had not

escaped to the stronghold of Vishalgarh in a dark night after he had amused the besiegers with the prospect of

His escape was ascribed in a capitulation. Darbar to the treachery of Sidi Johar, the

the

Bijapur

commander-

MUHI-UD-D1N

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
'Adil
of a

331

in-chief of the forces of BijSpur.

Shah now took
huge army, he
the
forts

the

field

in

person.
his

At the bead

advanced against
victorious

enemy and captured Panhala, Pavangarh and some other

of

places.

His

campaign continued till the rainy season, and he would have compelled Shivajl to ask for forgiveness
the
rains

if

had not

set in

and

if

the Sultan had not

been called to the Karnatic to deal with the rebellion of
Sidi Johar.
Hostilities
oup
.

ceased,

and Shahji was
the

appointed to

negotiate the

terms of treaty with his
Sultan.

Independent

son on behalf of
result

As a

of

these

negotiations, Shivaji

independent ruler of the territory lying between Kalyan in the north and Ponda in the south and Indapur in the east and Dabhal in the
as

was acknowledged

the

west
miles

an area more than 150 miles
in

in

length

and

100

breadth.

As

for Shivaji,

he promised to be at

At peace with Bijapur during the lifetime of his father. the instance of his father, he made Rairi his capital and

renamed
of

it

as Raigarh.

There he maintained an army

7,000 horse and 60,000 foot.
Shivaji

now

felt

himself strong enough to extend his ravages to the dominions of the

Great Mughal. In order to put an end to his aggressions, the Emperor had appointed Sbaista KJban as Viceroy of the Deccan. The Mughal Viceroy drove the Marhattas out of the

and captured the fort of Chakan. Next, he occupied Poona without opposition and took up his abode in the very house in which Shivaji had passed his early
field

332
days.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The Marhatta was thoroughly
city

familiar with every

nook and corner of the

and

all

the ins and

outs

of

the house. Availing himself of local knowledge, he entered the city along with a marriage party of four hundred men, each of whom was a trained warrior.

The Khan, who had cantoned

his

troops

around him

and had taken necessary precautions for his personal safety, was reposing in his harem when all of a sudden Shivaji entered his former residence and raided the room
in

which the Khan

was

fast

asleep.

In the general

melee that followed, Shaista Khan's son, Abul Path, lost his life, ~nd he himself received a blow which cut off

two of
ed
to

his

own

fingers.

With

great difficulty, he escap-

Sack

Aurangabad, whence he was called back by the Emperor and transferred to the governorship of Bengal. The city of Surat was at that time the most opulent and beautiful of its class on the
of Surat.
.

Early in the year 1664 A. C. Shivaji deceived his enemies by a number
coast.
of

western

feigned

movements and swooped down on
with
as

the rich

and

defenceless city

many

as

four

thousand
safely

horse

and

carried

away immense booty which he

The lodged in the stronghold of Rairi, or Raigarh. sack of Surat was an exploit far more profitable than
the
of

Poona escapade. It amply added Shivaji and considerably increased
About
this

to

the

resources

his prestige in the

Marhatta country.
time Shahji died in
{n

the

Doab

of

the

Tungabhadra where he was engaged
Shivaji's assump. tion of mdepend-

ent

sovereignty,

suppressing the re bellion of the t nobles of that place. On the death
^

MUHI-UD-DIN
of
his
father,

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIK
Shivaji

333

assumed

the

title

of

Rajah,
his

which the Sultan of

Ahmadnagar had conferred on
in

father in return for his meritorious services.

He now
mark
his

began to coin money

his

own name

to

independent authority and undertook plundering expeditions along the coast, which greatly harassed the
pilgrims going to

Mecca and the merchants engaged trade between India and other countries.
In order to put an end to
the high-handedness

in

of

^h

Ub
e

Shivaji,

Emperor.

efficient

Aurangzeb dispatched army under the command
Mu'azzarr,
with

an
of

Prince
associated

whom

were

Sardar Jaswant Singh experienced generals. was appointed as second-in-command. He made a few
Chief to book,

useless attempts to bring the

Marhatta but nothing substantial was achieved.

Both the Prince

and

his lieutenant were called back and Rajah Jai Singh and Daler Khan were appointed in their place, and with them were associated some experienced generals. The

laid siege to Singhgarh and Purandhar, Both the places held out heroically, but respectively. Shivaji seemed to have lost every hope of success and

new commanders

Receiving assurances not only of safety but of a special favour also, he quietly withdrew from his ranks and came to the camp of Rajah

so

opened negotiations.

Jai Singh.

The
Purandhar.

result

of the interview between Shivaji and
Jai

Singh was the Treaty of Purandhar, which embodied the following
:

terms

(1)

Shi vSJI agreed to surrender

twenty-three of his forts and retain only twelve

as

bis

334
jagir. (2)

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

He

stipulated that he

would pay

to 'Alamgir
if

forty lakhs of Huns in thirteen instalments yielding an annual revenue of four lakhs of

lands
in

Huns

the Konkan and

five

lakhs

in

the Balaghat-Bijapur

were granted to him. (3) The eldest son of Shivaji was promised a rank of five thousand. (4) He himself
agreed to assist Aurangzeb in his military expeditions After the conclusion of the treaty, against his enemies.
its

terms were communicated to the Emperor who duly It took three months to reduce confirmed them.
to

Shivaji

submission and to
Shivaji,

enlist his

Mughal Emoeror.
services to the

on

his part,

support for the rendered good

Mughals in their wars against Bijapur. the six months that followed the Treaty During
turned
Attention

of
his

Purandhar, Jai Singh towards the Kingdom of Bijapur. Shivaji took a conspicuous

part in this expedition

and contributed

much

to

the

success of the Mughal arms in the Deccan. Joining thousand horse and seven the Mughals with two thousand infantry, he reduced Phaltan and Thatwada

and

directed

an attack
sent

on

Panhala

in

the

Konkan.

camhim a jewelled-sword and a paign, the Emperor robe of honour. The siege of Panhala was not a in success, but Shivaji's support was indispensable
Pleased

with his success

in the early part of the

seizing

some

strongholds.

It

he

received

an

invitation

was about this time that from the Emperor to the

Mughal Court. Receiving assurances of safety, the Marhatta Sardar accepted the invitation. Putting the
administration
of his
territory

into

the hands

of his

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
of three

ALAMGIPv 335
officers,

mother and a council

competent

he

set

out towards Agra about the third week of March 1066 A. C. with his son, Sambhuji At the Imperial Capital,

he was
Singh,

received

by two Imperial

officers,

viz.,

Ram

son of Jai Singh, and Amir Mukhlis Khan. he reached the Imperial Court, the Emperor was celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of his birthday.

When

Ram

Singh

ushered

him

into

the

Darbar, and he

presented 1,500 gold pieces as a nazat to the Emperor, and a pesbkasb of rupees 6,000. After the formal reception, he was enrolled as a mansabdar of 5,000
horse.*
fell far

The

treatment meted out to him,

it is

alleged,

short of the expectations he had formed and the His pride was promises held out to him by Jai Singh. touched to the quick when he found himself seated

among
His

his balance

In a fit of anger he lost the third grade nobles. ' and used bold words of reproach for Alamgir. conduct at the Court was insulting and insolent,
result,

and as a

The
in

he was not granted any robes of honour. following day he found himself a political prisoner
Petitions

his house.

sent to

the

Emperor

for

his

release

In vain he protested his loyalty rejected. He offered his services in conto the Mughal throne.

were

quering the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda, but In the Emperor would not listen to his remonstrances.
spite of his

repeated

requests,

he was

not granted

a

private interview.
* The mansab of 5,000 was not an inferior one. Those who held a mansab of 1,000 were called Umara-i-Kibar or great nobles. For a long list of the dignitaries enjoying a mansab of 5,000 each, see Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 360 ff.

336
Critics,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
who
say that 'Alamgir could have gained the good-will of Shivaji and ended the .. .. Marhatta menace by meting out r.
i

Was

the honour conferred upon
his
?

i

him below
dignity

Karan

of

more generous treatment to him, are, that Rajah Rai perhaps, unaware Udaipur, than whom there was no more res-

was granted a mansab of 5,000 by Jahanglr when he became subordinate to the Central Government and that Rana Raj Singh too was enlisted as a mansabdar of 5,000 by 'Alamgir when he acknowledged him as his suzerain. Shivajl, it will be admitted, was not a greater personality than the Ranas of Udaipur. Apart from this, when ShivajI's father
pectable

Rajah,

entered

the

service

mansab of 5,000. members of the Imperial family was granted a greater mansab than this in th^ beginning. It must be remembered that Shivajl came to the Mughal Court in the
capacity of a conquered and that his conqueror, Mirza Rajah Jai Singh, also held the same mansab, i. e.,
5,000, which was afterwards raised to 7,000 in recognition of his meritorious services against the Marhattas.
is

he was given a As a matter of fact, none except the
of

Shah Jahan,

It

true that the

treatment,

Rajah gave him assurances of becoming but nowhere does he appear to have

promised to secure for him a greater mansab than that he himself enjoyed, and even if he did hold out too high hopes to him on his own account in order to
succeed
'Alamgir.
in

his
It

mission, the

fault

does not

lie

with

Fazil

must as well be pointed out here that Prime Minister, was at that time no more than a mansabdar of 5,000* Do the critics
Khan, the

MUHI-UD-D1N
mean

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R
would have acted wisely
if

33/

that 'Alamglr

he had

granted Sh.ivajl

a greater

mansab than

that held by the

mansabdars mentioned above t Obviously enough, a him not greater mansab than grant 'Alamgir could that of the Ranas of Udaipur, the Prime Minister and
Rajah Jai Singh.
are a sufficient

The

career and character of Shivajl

guarantee of the fact that a mansab of 7,000, or even more, would not have satisfied him. A word might well be said about 'Alamglr's attitude

towards the sons and relatives of Shivajl. In spite of their hostilities, they were treated with great kindness

and his sonby the Emperor: ShivajI's son, SambhujT, in-law, NathujT, were granted a mansab of 5,000 each at the recommendation of Mirza Rajah Jai Singh, who

had reduced the Marhattas to sore straits. SahujI was honoured with the title of Rajah and a mansab of This is how 'Alamgir 7,000 was conferred upon him. and how they repaid treated the relatives of Shivaji
;

this

kind

treatment,

will

be seen in

the

subsequent

account.
After his In the middle of August Shivaji fell ill. rich sent he presents to the recovery, from His escape In two of baskets. Brahmans in
big
captivity.

these

baskets,
their

he

Sambhuji,
six miles

and his found his way

made good escapes. from Agra some horses were waiting for him son. Disguising himself as an ascetic, he soon
to Mathura.

and his son, At a distance of

Avoiding the vigilant eye of the Imperial Police, he hastened to his home in the Deccan, passing through eastern Bengal, Orissa and

Gondwana.

He

reached his

capital in

the

month

of

338

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
after

December
it

an absence of nine months.
here,

Sambhuji,

Mathura and was on. later back was Aurangzeb brought greatly annoyed at the escape of Shivaji which was arranged with the

may

be said

was

left

at

connivance of

Ram

Singh who was therefore deprived
of the

of his pay and rank.*

The conquest
Recall of Jai

Kingdom of Bijapur was by no means an eas y affair J ai Sin g h
-

Singh and death
*

his

had succeeded in detaching from that kingdom and the treaty of

master-stroke of diplomacy. Free from further troubles from the Marhattas, he organized

Purandhar

was a

a punitive expedition against 'All

'Adil Shah.

He had
joined

40,000 troopers at Shivaji, along with
over,

his
his

disposal.

He was

he was assisted

experienced by Daler Khan,

officers.

by More-

Daud Khan,

Rajah Rai Singh Sesodia, Netoji Palkar and other disBut the Imperialists did not meet tinguished generals.
with any great
success
;

for the

capital of Bijapur

was

well protected by

the

Bijapurls,

who were
his

assisted

by

Finding army Singh decided upon a retreat on the 5th of January 1666 A.C. The retreat was disasface with starvation,
Jai
trous.

an army

from

Golconda.

face to

The

Bijapurls

now

attacked the

Mughal

forces

and

in men and heavy At once the Rajah was called back and the viceroyalty of the Deccan was entrusted to Prince Mu'azzam and Rajah Jaswant Singh was appointed as

inflicted

losses

on them

material.

his adjutant.

Jai Singh died soon after his recall.
ii,

* SeeStoriado Mogor, Vol.

p.

139; FatuKdt-i-'Alamgiri

;

and 'Alamgirnamah,

p. 917.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
of officers

ALAMCilR 339

The change
ShivSji styles himself Rajah.

was not

at all for the better.

Rajah Jaswant Singh was no loyal se rvant of the Emperor. He was favourably disposed towards Shiva j! and was interested Daler Khan was not liked in the rise of the Marhattas.
by the Prince and was, therefore, sent away to Bidar. The Prince could do nothing alone. Moreover, a Persian invasion threatened the Punjab and an army was dispatched there to ward off the Persians. About
this time, the Yusafzals also revolted in

Peshawar and

All these facts harassed the Mughals for full one year. combined to contribute to the chances of success of the
f

Marhatta Chief who found an open

field

for

himself.

But knowing too well the consequences *of provoking the Mughal authorities, ShivajT remained quiet between 1668 and 1669 A. C. and utilized his time in the

Through the interorganization of his administrption cession of Rajah Jaswant Singh, who was very friendly
'Alarngir agreed to negotiate a disposed towards him, treaty with ShivajT, whereby the latter was acknowledged

as the independent ruler of Maharashtra and the title of Rajah was conferred upon him. A jagir was also

granted to him in Berar and his son, SambhujI, was confirmed in his mansab. With the exception of Puran-

dhar and

Singhgarh,

the

all forts to Shivajl.

The

Emperor promised to restore treaty concluded in March 1668
of

A. C. lasted

till

1670 A. C.
conclusion

Soon

after the

He

exacts Chauth

Sh iv

^

and Surdeshmukhi from Bnapur and
Golconda.

treaty

The

with the Sultan promised to cede the an d a territory

'fjng&r

treaty with agreed to a peaceSutlan of Bijapur.

the

340

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

yielding 1,80,000 pagodas as revenue. Shivajl pressed his claims for the exaction of Chauth and Surdeshmukht

from Bijapur and Golconda.
not
fully

Though

the claims were

recognized,
tribute
;

some annual
the king
tribute

of

kings agreed to pay the king of Bijapur, 3 J lakhs and Golconda, 5 lakhs. This extraordinary
to Shivaji in order to maintain peace

the two

was paid

with the Marhattas.
Hostilities

_

Renewal

,

of

,

between Shivajl and the Great Mughal were renewed in 1670 A. C. when the
former launched
Q{ conquests>

hostilitiesjind

upon a

fresh career

sack of Surat. of his forts from

He

recO nquered

many

the

Mughals and

his soldiers carried

with great caution the capture of Singhgarh, Purandhar, Mahuli, Karnalla and Lohgarh. Lack of discipline in the

Mughal Camp and
enabled
countries.

quarrels

among

the Imperial

officers

neighbouring exacted promises of collecting Chauth and Surdesfamukhi, for the first time, from the

Shivajl to carry his raids into the

His

officers

immediately under the Mughal Government. For a second time he sacked the city of Surat and He was now at the acquired an enormous booty.
districts

height of his power and was regarded as the restorer of their freedom.

by the Hindus
over
Dis-

By

the

year

1674 A. C.
Maharashtra
of

Shivaji's mastery

Coronation of
ghivaji:l674.

was

complete.

victory patches sides, continued success in all quarters and prosperity within his

from

all

kingdom persuaded him
Raigarh.

to

This he did with

crown himself at his capital, full Vedic rights and cere-

monies,

and henceforth he was acknowledged as the

1

1

I

I

I

Shivajl's

Kingdom

In 1680

A.C

To

fact tap

34 1

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

341

independent ruler of the Marhatta country. Following the example of the Hindu Kings of old, he established

a new

era

which commenced from the date of

his

enthronement.
Finding that 'Alamgir was entangled in with the Afghan tribes
his
hostilities

on

the

North-West Frontier, Shivaji extended
1676 A. C.
to

1680

From conquests further South. A. C. he conducted a successful

campaign

in the

South.

He

annexed

Jinji,

Vellore

and

other important places to his Kingdom. He conquered a considerable portion of the Vijayanagar

many

Empire and was making preparations
gle with

for the final strug-

'Alamgir

;

but

before

he

launched
in

his

new

scheme, he was carried away by death the age of fifty-three.

1680 A. C. at

The Kingdom
Extent of his

of Shivaji comprised

a long narrow

strip of land, consisting of the

Western

Kingdom.

and Goa.
east to west

Ghatg and the Konkan between Kalyan The extreme breadth of this Kingdom from

was about 100 miles. In the south the which had been conquered towards the close of provinces, Shivaji's career, comprised the western Karnatic and the
territories

extending from

Belgaum
Kingdom.

to the

bank of the

river

Tungabhadra,

Later on,

Jinji

and Vellore were

also added to the Marhatta
Shivaji

His civil administration.

was a good administrator and a great Both in the civil and organizer.

mi iit a r y
tact

departments

considerable

and

ability.

he displayed Practically illiterate, he

342
devised

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

an excellent system of administration for his Kingdom, It was based on the ancient Hindu system and was conducted in accordance with the principles
laid

down

in

the codes

of

Sukracharya and

There was a

Council

of State,

known

as

Kautilya. the Asfata

Pradhan, or Mukhya Pradhan. It consisted of eight members, each in charge of a separate department. The Prime Minister was known as Pesfawa, the Commander-in-Chief was called Sarainaiibat, or Senapati, and the Finance Minister was named Mojmu'adar, or Amatya. Home and foreign affairs were controlled and
conducted by Sharutii+vis, or Sachiv. The Minister of War bore the name of Dabir, or Sumant. Justice was and the Minister of administered by Nayayadish

was given the name of Danadhyaksha. This was the Central Government of Shivaji. There were
Religion
as

many

as

under him

eighteen departments of public service and the portfolio of each department was
of effective
tion

held by a separate minister.

For purposes
Administrative
divisions of his

and
1

efficient

administra-

S^J

divided the whole of his
three
.

Kingdom.

The
was
staff

provinces an<* r stationed a viceroy each of them. administrative system followed in these provinces a replica of the Central Government. Each

Kingdom

into

m

province was sub-divided into
of
officials.

districts,

having a distinct

model of officer had eight subordinate

Each district was organized on the the Central Government and every district
officials to

deal with the

work

of correspondence, accounts,

treasury

and

other'

important matters.

MUHI-UD-D1N
As
is

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
justice

343

mentioned before,

was

dealt out

by the

Administration
of
justice.

Nayayadisfa, guided in his laid down in the work by principles r J the r
codes of

who was

Sukracharya and Kautilya.
appointed especially for dealing with

There was also a Hindu

Sfaastri,

the purpose of religious, criminal and astronomical matters.

expounding Hindu law and
institution of

The

time-

honoured and immemorial
in

Panchayat was

It was an important instrument of dealing vogue. out justice. Almost all civil disputes were decided

by

it.

Shivajl

also

re-organized the entire system of the land revenue and based it on that of
hi *

Svenufsystcm.
measured

<*rly

tutor, in

Dadajl
every

The

land

Kandadev. province was

and an estimate was made of the expected produce of each blgha. Three parts of this produce were left to the peasant and two parts were appropriated by
the State as
its

own

share.

The revenue settlements

were made annually. The revenue officials were appointed directly by the Central Government. They were mostly

Brahmans.

and remit

it

Their duty was to collect the land revenue to the State Treasury along with the accounts.
out
land

The

existing practice of farming

revenue to

hereditary henceforth

landlords

(mirasdars)

was abandoned and
to

the

dues
the

of the State were to be collected
State.

by the officers of
cultivation,
liberal

In order

encourage
to

advances

were

made

the

cultivators

from the State Treasury to enable them to purchase seeds, bullocks, ploughs and otheri agricultural,
implements,
etc.

344
ShivSJI

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
was a great military genius, endowed with

uncommon
in a

He organizing capacity. united the Marhatta chiefs and tribes
common cause,
the cause of their

own

country. a nation, thus giving

He

wielded the scattered Marhattas into

rise to a third party in the Deccan. His army consisted of both infantry and cavalry, having

a sensible gradation of officers. In the infantry there was a Naik over every nine privates, a Havildar over
every five Naiks and forty-five privates, ajamaldar over every three Havildars and one hundred and thirtyfive

privates,

and

G\rer

ten

Hazan, having as many
and
fifty

as

was a one thousand, three hundred

Jamaldars

there

privates under

his

command.

It

may be

noted at this place that the Sarainaubat, or Commanderin-Chief, in the infantry was quite a different man from
the officer of his rank in the cavalry.
unit was formed
five troopers

In the

latter,

the

by twenty-five troopers. Over twentywas a Havildar, over five Havildars or one hundred and twenty-five troopers was a Jamaldar and over ten Jamaldars there was a Hazart, having as many as one thousand, two hundred and twenty-five
cavaliers

under

were those of

command. Still higher ranks the Supreme Commander or Sarainaubat,
his

and the Panj-hazarls or those having command over five thousand soldiers. Every squadron of twenty-five troopers was provided with a water-carrier and a ferrier.
called

whose horses were supplied by the State were Bargls and those who supplied their own horses were called liledars. The troops in the main consisted of spearsmen, mounted on light but strong and hardy
Soldiers

MUHI-UD-DIN
ponies.

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

345

They were the peasant

proprietors of Southern

India, who could be easily called together and dispersed. Except at seed-time and harvest, they were always

available for war.

Their equippage was of the simplest kind and no elaborate commissariat arrangements were An ordinary blanket and a bag of grams were required.

sufficient to

meet

their wants.
in

Shivajl

maintained his

military

department
soldiers

paid

his

by

a

a high state of efficiency. He of himself the part plunder,

He introduced the system receiving the lion's share. of horses and branding keeping descriptive rolls.
Under him the
post of a military officer 'vas not herefree from the curse of female ditary. followers. He ordered that " no man was to take with him his wife, mistress or prostitute to the battle-field "

His army was

Since forts played a conspicuous part in Maharashtra, they were properly provided with arms and ammunitions

and placed
officers.

in

charge of responsible

and trustworthy

Shivaji
Shivaji

added to

his military strength

by building

-,,.., n 's fleet.

a considerable
stationed

number

of ships. r

He

his fleet

at Kolaba.

Two

advantages accrued to him from this: (1) it checked the growing power and influence of the Abyssinian pirates of Janjlra, and (2) it plundered the rich cargoes of
the

Mughal

ships sailing for

Mecca.

The

fleet

was a

constant source of trouble to the Hajls sailing for Mecca.
Shivaji's place in history rests
_.
.

.

Shivaji s estimate.

,

.

mainly on his personal achievements, both military and admi_ _ nistrative. To rise from the position of
'
.

.

.

,

.

.

a petty Jagirdar

to that of the

Maharajah of Maharashtra

345

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

and to carve out an independent kingdom for himself was no mean achievement, though it must be acknowledged that Shivajl had grown fat at ill-gotten gains. To

and prowess in battle he added caution and cleverness in commensurate proportions. His success was due as much to bravery as to cunning and fraud. He never refrained from taking recourse to
his

reckless courage

treachery if

served his purpose. The murder of Chandra Rao of Javli and of Afzal Khan of Bijapur was each an act of treachery treachery that does not disappear in the multitude of his good He was indeed the
it
*

qualities'.

Machiavali o f India, with whom the ends justified the means. He has been called the father of fraud,' not None of his enemies surpassed or even unreasonably.
'

equalled

him in guile and deceit. In private life he was simple, straightforward and even Although pious. an orthodox Hindu, he never persecuted the Musalmans
their
faith,

for

that

in

an age when his co-religionists

never missed an opportunity of destroying mosques and defiling the Qur'an. Khafi Khan, a contemporary informs us that chronicler, whenever his soldiers went

on plundering expeditions, they were ordered not to do harm to the mosques,* the Book ox God or the woman of anyone. With him women's honour was safe. He
never
of war.

allowed

his

followers

to

enslave

the prisoners

and resourceful, and no other Hindu displayed such courage and capacity as he in
bold, active

He was

one instance of demolishing mosques and that by Afzal Khan in his message to Shivajl, I have not come across any evidence to show that Shivajl ever destroyed'
for

*But

referred to

mosques.

mosques by

For the passage relating to the destruction Shivajl, vide Shiva Bharat, Chapter XVIII.

of

MUHI-UD-DIN
Muslim
Pratap,
India,

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
with
the
solitary

347

exception

of

Rana

who was doubtless his superior in personal character
of

and

nobility

purpose.

Though
less

regarded
all fired

as their

saviour by the Hindus, he was not at
flarne

with
desire

the
of

of

patriotism,
his

much

with

the

liberating
rule.

co-religionists

from

the yoke of Muslim
alike
for his

He

fought

Hindus and Muslims

personal
it is

aggrandisement.
to

Whatever
his

his shortcomings,

He was greatness. impossible challenge indeed the last constructive genius that Hindu India has produced.

CHAPTER XVI

MUHl-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB
'ALAMGIR

(CONCLUDED) Conquest of Bijapur and Golconda End of Marhatta Menace Suppression of the Sikhs Anglo-Mughal

War

Administration under 'Alamgir.
tried

Aurangzeb had
in

almost

all his

trusted officers
;

the conquest of the Deccan J
all

but

Introductory.

they convinced that the only course open to him was to conduct the campaign against the Deccan in person.
failed,

when

he

was

After

making peace with the Rajputs, he gathered together his grand army at Ahmadnagar and continuad the annexation of the as emperor that forward policy so had he which Deccan brilliantly commenced as his Of the five off-shoots of the father's lieutenant.
Bidar,

Bahmani Kingdom,
fallen

Ahmadnagar and Berar had
in

to

his

arms as a prince

command

of the

Shahjahani forces during the reign of his father.

The

remaining two, i.e., Bijapur and Golconda, struggled and but the Emperor survived longer, as we have noticed
;

was bent upon destroying them root and branch. The main cause of their conquest was evidently the ambition
of the

Mughal Emperor

;

may

be summarised as follows

were Shia
arrears.

m
(3)

faith.

(2)

them These Sultanates (1) Their tributes had fallen in
:

the faults found with

They

incurred the wrath of the

Emperor

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
to the Marhattas in the

349

by supplying resources
black-mail.
of
(5)

form bf

Persia

They sought protection with the Shah rather than with the Emperor of India.*
(4)

They were not only independent
;

in spirit

but were

also rich in resources
in

they might profitably be included
(6)

the

Mughal

Empire.

Finally,

their

internal

dissensions also stimulated 'Alamglr in no less degree to

carry out his designs.

Dividing
Fall of Bijapur.

his

grand
,

army

into

two main

parts,

^

1f

f

n

'Alamgir ordered Prince Mu'azzam to march against the Marhattas at the

head of one division and Prince 'Azam against Bijapur at the head of another. The former penetrated far into
the interior of the Konkan, but was
driven
in

back with

heavy

capturing Sholapur, but he too was forced to beat a retreat when he attacked Bijapur itself. In 1684 A. C. Prince

losses.

The

latter

succeeded

Mu'azzam was next entrusted with

the conquest of but his he father Bijapar, annoyed by making peace with the Sultan. in 1685 A.C. 'Alamgir sent a Early
'Adil Shah), asking

firman to the Sultan (Sikandar
to

Wazir, Sayyad Makhdum), who was an
Sharza

dismiss

his

Khan

(also

him known as
and
;

excellent soldier

statesman

;

to supply provisions to the

Mughal army
;

to send a contingent of 5 or 6 thousand cavalry to fight
for the

Mughals against

their

enemies

to

allow free
;

passage to the Imperial armies

through

his country

to

*They were justified in looking to the Shah of Persia for protection because the Mughal Emperors had definitei / decided to destroy their independence and to incorporate them in the
Mughal Empire.

,350

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

boycott the Marhattas and to help the Mughal Emperor The Sultan not only declined in the time of need.
to obey the Imperial firman, but
.of

demanded the

return

either

the tribute and the territory already taken from him by the Mughals or by the Marhattas, and pressed

for stopping the Thanabandi (formation of outposts or block-houses by the Mughals) within his dominions.

Then he made an

alliance with the Sultan of

Golconda
feeling

and invited the Marhattas

to his aid.

When,

strong and secure, he attacked the Mughal outposts, the Emperor himself marched against him at the head of a In April, 1686 A.C. he laid siege to huge army.
Bijapur.
falling

After short of

a short but stout resistance, the
provisions,

city,

capitulated in

September,
safety
in

1686 A.C.
surrender,

Sikandar 'Adil Shah,

who saw

was

enlisted

as

a

Mansabdar and

his

kingdom was annexed
~

Mughal Empire. Bijapur annexed, the turn of Golconda came
r
,

to the

next.
_

Fall of Golconda.

^

3

In addition to the faults
t

the

furnished
ministers,

three

more
of

:

found with _ Kingdom of Bijapur, Golconda (1) It had a number of Hindu
,

,

.

.

two

whom,
helm

viz.,

Madanna and Akanna,
the

who were
(2)

at the

of administrative affairs in

State, were extremely cruel to the
Its

Muslim population.*
against
its

king
(3)

had
It

'Alamgir.

given help Sambhuji had sided with Bijapur in

to

war

*

For the

cruelties

vide Aura,igzeb and His Times, pp. 305 two Hindus, Orme says, their 'rule

committed by Madanna and Akann'a,. ff. Speaking about these was insolent, mean and
p. 147.)

avaricious

'.

(Fragments,

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
who had
Golconda was besieged. hitherto led an
his pleasures

351

against the Mughals.* Sultan (Abul Hasan),

The
easy

and luxurious life, gave up and defended his capital
'Alamgir found
his
it

and pastimes,
courage that In defending
Sultan

with

such
it.

difficult to

conquer
at

reputation,

which was

stake, the

was

nobly served by his general, Abdur Razzaq, firm and faithful to his master to the last
his
life.

who stood moment of
officers

When
by

'Alamgir found

it

impossible to achieve

his object

force, the treachery of

one of the

of the garrison enabled
fortress.

Abul

him to gain admittance into the Hasan was taken prisoiter and his

kingdom was incorporated in the Mughal Empire. Historians have rightly spun a halo of heroism
Abdur Razzaq.
r

Und

Abdur

RaZZ ^>

the

Valiant

hero of the State, whose noble presence was highly prized in the hla army. No amount of money could induce him to surrender to the

Mughal

anus.
at
last

He

fought bravely in a hand to hand fight till he fell down, covered with seventy wounds.

His

sterling qualities of

head and heart exacted praises
alike.

from friends and foes
impressed by

his character that

'Alamgir was so much he put him under the
with the King of high-handedness,
of evil
life,

*"When Aurangzeb tried conclusions Golkonda, the crimes he alleged were these
oppression, permitting public dnnking-shops,

:

women

and gambling houses, appointing Hindu Governors, maintaining temples and not allowing to Muhammadans that free liberty which they were entitled to. Therefore, God had made him
(Aurangzeb) King for the suppression of all thv se disorders allowed by Abul Hasan." (See Storia do Mogor by V. Manucci,
4

Vol.

III.

pp. 131-32.)

352
treatment "
of

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
own private physician and got him Had Abul Hasan had but two such servants, "
his

healed.
said

"
'Alamgir,

his

fortress
is

could never

have been
!

taken."

What

a virtue

chivalry even in a foe

The
Impolicy

greatest
of

political

blunder recorded
Indian
history
is

in

the

the

annals
to

of

alleged

Deccan Conquest.

have been the conquest of the

Southern

Sultanates

advanced

may

The reasons by 'Alamglr. be enumerated as follows (1) Conse:

quent upon the conquest of Bijapur and Gloconda, the armies of thes^ States were disbanded and the
discharged soldiery took service under the Marhattas and swelled their ranks. (2) The Sultanates exercised a

healthy check on the growing power influence of the Marhattas in Indian
destruction

and increasing
politics.

Their

removed

this

check
all

for

Marhatta marauders from
offered

fear of local rivalry

good and freed the and

the Mughal Emperor. and (3) The protracted expensive war against the Deccan exhausted the Mughal resources in men and material.
free field against

them a

As a result, the Mughal soldiers murmured for and were allowed to quit the Imperial Army
so desired.

arrears
if

they

Marhattas.

Again, the unemployed soldiers joined the continued absence of 'Alamgir (4) The
in the

from the North resulted
part
(5)

administration

of that

of

the

Finally,

country growing slack and corrupt. the annexation of the Deccan Kingdoms

immensely increased the extent of the Mughal Empire and madeAt " too big to be ruled by one man from the
centre."
It is

argued by the

critics of

'Alamglr that he

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R

353

would have acted wisely if he had left the Sultanates of the Deccan alone until he had completely crushed that he should have buried the old the Marhattas enmity between the Shias and the Sunnis and united the arms of Islam against the Hindu confederacy which had assumed most threatening dimensions or that he should have allowed the Marhattas and the Shias to
; ;

use up their strength in mutual warfare because there existed a fierce rivalry between them ; and that time,

men and money
profitably

that he wasted there could

have been

impolicy

of

employed elsewhere. While admitting the the Deccan conquest, the apologists of
that

the conquering Sultanates of the South originated not with 'Alamgir but with Akbar the Great who first launched a campaign
'Alamgir
against
to
his

assert

the

idea

of

them and

left their

conquest as a family legacy

successors; that

what

Akbar and continued by his completed by 'Alamgir and that, therefore, if the conquest of the Deccan was a blunder, 'Alamgir alone
;

commenced by successors was finally

was

should

not

be held

responsible

for

it

;

the

onus of
his

responsibility, they aver,

must be shared by
critics of

pre-

'Alamgir, not satisfied this with answer, retort that times had changed since

decessors as well.

The

Akbar and conditions had become different in the reign of 'Alamgir that Akbar had the support of the Sikhs and the Rajputs, and with their help he could
;

easily

conquer

had not yet made
Indian
history
;

the Marhattas on the stage of appearance that 'Alamgir had to figtt against

the

Deccan,

for

their

the Hindus, the Rajputs, the

Marhattas and the Sikhs

354

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
;

unaided and alone

and

that,

therefore,

he ought

to

have made common cause with the Sultans of Bijapur and Golconda and defeated his enemies. But it must " " forward policy be remembered that the of the previous
the Sultans the

Mughal Emperors against the Deccan had made avowed enemies of the Mughal Empire
is

and

it

doubted

if

'Alamgir

could

enlist

their

sympathy

Moreover, when he could do without their help and achieve his object without their support, he thought, there was no need to resort to
or support.

that step.
defeats

Had

he

failed to

conquer the Deccan and
Sultanates
resulted
in

had the conquest
elsewhere,
justifiably

of

its

his

the

Deccan
as

be dubbed
the

impolitic

Conquest may then but we know for
;

certain that

Sikhs
to

were

subverted,

were

reduced

submission,

the

the Rajputs Marhattas were
It

defeated and the

Deccan was conquered.

rnay

as

well be pointed out that if 'Alamgir had allowed the Marhattas and the Sultanates to continue their fight,

the latter would have, in
the arms of the
their resources.

all

probability,

succumbed

to

and added immeasurably to There was, however, one thing which
former

he could
Marhattas

do

:

He

until

could help the Sultans against the they had completely crushed them.

This he would not do.

At any
the
it

Deccan did not
survive long

in

any way
If

the conquest of the contribute to the fall of the
rate,

Mughal Empire.
after

him,

Mughal Empire did not was mostly because his sons
and
corrupt.

and
India

servants
bar.

were

treacherous

Had
have

but one more

'Alamgir,

she would

had a

different history.

MUHI-UD-DIN
'Alamgir's

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
expeditions

dispatched
in

against

Renewal
,

.

of

Maharashtra

1682-83
seen,

A
in

C.

had

activities against the Marhattas.

ended, as 'we have

smoke

and

nothing substantial

was achieved.
diverted
his

After

the

attention

conquest of Golconda, towards the Marhattas.

he

Sambhuji,
all

who
in

succeeded his father, Shivajl, lacked
his talented father.

the qualities of

While Aurangzeb was occupied

the Deccan campaign, Sambhuji should have mobilized
against the Mughals and thereby saved But he remained himself as well as the Sultanates.
his

forces

inactive during

all this

time and failed

opportunity. his time and treasure in

As an indolent

tct embrace the he wasted away sensualist, drunkenness and debauchery.

His favourite minister, Kavi Kulesh (famous as Kalusha), to whom he had entrusted all the affairs of his
government,
Marhattas.
capacity

was

He

the unpopular with extremely was totally devoid of that organizing
characterised
his
father.

'

which had

As a

natural consequence, his soldiers reverted to their usual

habit of plunder.
Scattered.

They

lost their unity

and became

availed of himself this Aurangzeb the dis-united soon and conquered country. opportunity In 1689 A. C. Sambhuji was taken prisoner by a Mughal general, Taqarrab Khan, in hte pleasure-house at Sangameshwara, whither he had retired with his

and make merry. The loose assembly was overpowered and their leader was executed. This happened in March, 1689 A. C. Sambhuji's son, Sahu, was nicely treated by 'Alamgir and \tas given the

women

to bathe, drink

title

of honest.

356

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
These repeated
disasters

weakened the Marhattas.
of

Rajah
recent

Ram
and

as as

Aurangzeb near Poona, surrounded by a halo of grandeur combined with his personal

The

P^sence

reputation,

struck

terror

into

their

hearts.

Their
sent

weakness became the more conspicuous

when he

an army to besiege Raigarh, their capital. It was there that, after the death of Sambhuji, the leading Marhatta nobles gathered together and acknowledged bis son,
Shivaji II, a

boy of about
as
his

five,

as

Rajah and appointed

Rajah

Ram

regent.

The Mughals captured

Raigarh and took possession of the forts of Mirlch and Panhala. They also made Shivaji prisoner. Rajah
escaped to JinjT and there he assumed the title of Rajah, because his nephew, the minor Rajah, was in
captivity.

Ram

Aurangzeb sent
Expedition against Rajah

his general, Zulfiqar

Khan, against
He,

R *J ah
applied

Rtlm
for

but the Mughal general
Jinji.

failed to take

therefore,

reinforcements
to

which
for

Emperor was not in a the grand army was split up
the

position into small

supply,
portions

and

detailed to different parts of the

the

provinces

and
the

forts

of

the
of

Empire newly
those

to take over

conquered

kingdoms from

officers

places.

The

Mughal

general could

make no headway and
for
full

therefore

prolonged
Marhattas,

the
in

siege

seven

years.

The
and

the
their

meantime,

recuperated

strengthened position. They fully availed themselves cf the opportunity presented to them by the lack of harmony among the Mughal generals. Prince

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R

357

Bakhsh was suspected of traitorous correspondence with the Marhattas and was, therefore, sent to the

Kam

Emperor
(1694
A.

as a prisoner.

Zulfiqar

Khan was

also recalled

C.). During 1694-97 A. C. several other were tried, but no better luck was in store for generals them, for the victories they won were short-lived. The Emperor himself encamped at Brahamapuri on the

Bhima and from
the
Marhattas.

there directed the operations against

The

rivalry

between

the

Marhatta

generals enabled the

Mughals

to inflict defeats

on the

Marhattas

in

some engagements.

When

Rajah Ram,

who had made
fall

of Jinji,

Satara his seat of government after the heard of Aurangzeb's intention of attacking

that place, he escaped to Khelana along with his family. The Mughals occupied a series of outposts and linked

them

in

such a way as to form a blockade.

The next

item on the war programme was to lay siege to the stronghold of Satara, which stood at the summit of a
hill.

The

besiegers
rolled

suffered

heavy
stones

losses

when
the

the
top.

garrison

down

huge

from

Notwithstanding the great disaster which befell Mughal forces, the Marhattas could not hold their
for a long time.

the

own

Prince 'Azam
transactions.

ran short of their provisions and would not now connive at their underhand

They

Rajah

Ram,

exhausted

by

a

long

expedition, retired to Singhgarh only to expire there the 2nd of March, 1700 A. C.

on

Rajah

Ram

was succeeded by

his

young son,
dowager-

s'

_ T5ra Bai as regent of her son
1

_

Kama, who
'

after a died of small-pox r
.

few days.

TarS

Bfti,

th^

HI-

queen> raised her son| skivaji HI, to

358
the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
throne

and

herself

became

his

regent.

This

remarkable

lady rose to the height of the occasion

and

continued a vigorous defence against the Mughals wha had, by this time, sufficiently extended their sway in
Maharashtra.
received a

Under
lease of

her
life

influence,

the

Marhattas

new

and enthusiasm.
result

They now
that

fought with greater vigour, with the

the

Mughal-Marhatta War dragged on till the grand Imperial army was completely disorganized and its resources
were exhausted.
Troubles, in the meantime, thickened on
,
.

all

sides

and the valiant old man of eighty* End of 'Alamgir. f Ine seven raced them heroically. their over the had established Sikhs sway Punjab and had become a power to be reckoned with. The Jats of
\

Burhanpur were in open rebellion against the Empire and never obeyed the Mughal Emperor. Amidst thebe
disappointments the hero of the field, Aurangzeb, passed away in 1707 A. C. leaving the Peacock Throne as a

bone of contention among the Mughals, the Marhattas the Sikhs and the Rajputs. As long as Emperor 'Alamgir was alive, all went
Mugnal
Emperor
.,
. .

_ Empire
'Alamgir.

well

;

but

his

death

spoiled r
his

his

after the death of

schemes and

defeated

purpose.

The Marhattas now

rose everywhere,

plundered the Mughal convoys and recovered almost all what they had lost. The Hindus had already alienated themselves and the Sikhs were endeavouring to carve

out an

independent

kingdom

for

themselves.

The

English had established their factories in many places and had started siding with the native powers in their

MUHI-UD-DIN
wars.

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGiR
state of
affairs

359

Such was the
It will

when 'Alamglr
later

expired.

now be

easy, perhaps, to appeciate the

gravity

of

the

situation

which the

Mughals
of Indian

found themselves face to

face.

The appearance

of the Sikhs

on the stage

history

may

be said to have dated
fifteenth

from the close of the
tury
of

cen *

when Baba Nanak,

the

founder

Sikhism.was busy in preaching the unity of God, the As a purity of thought and the nobility of action. religious reformer, he condemned caste and colour, and
inculcated

the

equality

of

all

men

in the eyes of the

His followers came to be known as Sikhs. Almighty. The word Sikh means a disciple and he was the disciple of the Guru who was the head of the new
Church.
In
all,

there were ten Gurus, including Nanak,
given.

whose short account has already been
sketch of the remaining nine follows.
Little
is

A summary

recorded of the ministry of the next Guru, who succeeded the first Guru as
1

iS^-fssz^^C

An S ad Dev ^cept that he committed to writing much of what the Great
his

Guru had performed and preached and some devotional
observances of
corporated in the

own, which were subsequently inGranth Sahib> the Bible of the Sikhs*

was true to the principles of his great teacher and, finding that none of his sons was worthy of apostolic
succession,

He

he

nominated

disciple of his, as his successor*

Amar Das, an assiduous The crowning achieveGurmukhl

ment

of

Guru Angad was

the invention of t\e

alphabet.

360

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Amar
r

Das, the third Guru, was a zealous preacher.

He was
1552^574
:!

successful in winning several

conv erts, many of whom were drawn from the Jats. He divided his spiri-

tual jurisdiction into a

number

of dioceses, over each of

of the

which he placed a pious Sikh. This extended the authority Guru and increased the popularity of the new
rite of

religion over the country.

he denounced the black
the
true

In a pious and humane spirit, Satl and pronounced that

was she whom grief and not flame and advised that the afflicted should seek consumed, He died in 1574 A. C. and was consolation with God.
Sati

succeeded by his son-in-law,

Ram

Das.
is

The name of Guru Ram Das
a

intimately associated

?57?l-5^A
in
1

c!

with the foundation of Amritsar, the From Emperor centre of Sikhism.

Akbar he received a piece
it

of land

and

he dug a reservoir, since known as Amritsar, or the Pool of immortality '. He is reckoned among the most revered of the Sikh Gurus, though no precepts of wide
'

application,

or
'.

rules

of

great practical value are attri'

buted to him
slow in his
in

Moreover,

the progress of Sikhism was
years/

ministration

of seven

He

passed

away his Gaddl as Arjan Dev. Guru Arjan was a
ci P les

1581 A.

C., leaving his son to succeed

him

to

great

organizer.

He made
dis-

Amritsar the proper seat of his
to

carr y

on
best

their

religious

they could. The result was that the obscure village, with its small pool, gradually grew up to be a populous city and the

propaganda

as

as

MUHI-UD-DIN
greatest

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

361

He edjted place of pilgrimage of the Sikhs. the Granth Sahib and converted the customary offerings of his adherents into a regular tax.
trade

He encouraged
he
incurred

among
of

the

Sikhs

and

tried

to ameliorate their

'economic

condition.

Unfortunately,

the

wrath

who was
fined

Jahangir by offering help to Prince Khusrau He was then in rebellion against his father
in prison

and thrown

where he died owing to the

severity of confinement in 1606.*

Guru
D ?606

Arjan's successor

was
a

his son,

Har Govind,

under

whom
'

the Sikhs formed themorganization. united in his person saint andf a sportsman.

^645

a

G

n

:

A c

selves

in to

wiHtary

The new Guru
the
qualities of

a

soldier,

a

He went

out for hunting and ate meat. During his Sikhs the made marvellous ministry progress and in large numbers. The author of the multiplied

Dabistan informs us that he was employed by Jahangir, -but; was imprisoned at Gwalior for a period of twelve
years

when he
and

soldiers

appropriated refused to pay

to himself the

the

fine

pay of imposed on

his his

father.f

Jahan,

he took service under Shah Subsequently, but soon separated himself by raising a petty
p. 234.

*Vide Dabistan-ul-Mazahib,
the

According to Malcolm,

Guru was imprisoned by the Governor of Lahore at the instigation of his enemy, Danlchand, whose writings he had refused to incorporate in the Adi Granth. (See Malcolm's History of the Sikhs). A Muslim writer, on the other hand, informs us that the cause of the Guru's imprisonment was his refusal to marry his son to the daughter of Danlchand (T'J^lkh-i-Punjab
.p. 87).

t Ibid.

362
revolt.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

When
next

refuge in the hills.

defeated and driven to despair, he took He died at Kartarpur in 1645 A. C.*

The

?65-mi

R
A. C.

Guru was Har Rai, the grandson of the late Guru Har Govind. He remained
i

n

P eace at Kartarpur

till

the war of

succession broke out
of Shah Jahan and the

among

the sons

Guru became a partisan of Dara. When Dara was defeated, the Guru surrendered his elder son to the Emperor as a hostage. The youth
was
treated

with

due deference and

his

father

was

excused.
leaving
son,

Har Rai
the

died at Kartarpur in 1661 A. C., pontifical office to be filled by his second
for

Har Kishan. Guru Har Kishan remained
three years.
lutel y

in

office

about
abso-

His ministry was

brother,

Ram

uneventf ul except that he had to contend against the rivalry of bis The latter was born of a Rai.
'

hand-maiden' and 'not of a wife of equal degree'; the former, therefore, had a stronger claim to the Gaddl. When the struggle for succession reached a high
pitch, the case

was

referred to 'Alamgir,

Sikhs

to

elect

their

own
but

Guru.

who allowed the Har Kishan was,
live

accordingly,

elected, f

he was not destined to

* The learned author of the Tarlkh-i-Punjab informs us that Damchand, the persecutor of Guru Arjan Dev, was handed over by Shah Jahan to Har Govind who put the tormentor of
'

his father to death.' (Tarikh-i-Punjab). t According to the District Gazetteers of Dehradun, the election of Har Kishan was disputed by Har Rai and the matter

was referred

to 'Alamgir

who confirmed the election.

(Aurangzeb

and His Times, pp.

248-49.)

MUHI-UD-DIN
long.
in

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R

363

:

Attacked by small-pox, he passed away at Delhi
Before his death,

1664 A. C.

Har Kishan had nominated Har
Tegh Bahadur as Tegh Bahadur had
in

Guru Teeh

Govind's son,
successor.

his
at

BahadurT
1664-1675 A. C.

formidable

foe
till

Ram

Rai,

who
was Not

continued

to assert his claims

at last the former

acknowledged
long
*

as the spiritual leader of the Sikhs.

after,

however,

both his

life

and leadership were

endangered by the

machinations of
proceedings'.
'

Ram

Rai as well as
to
in

by

his

suspicious

Summoned
'

the

Imperial
A. C.*

Court,

he

was executed

as a rebel

1675

Guru Tegh Bahadur was succeeded by his son, Govind Singh, at the age of fifteen. ^_ GuruGovmd j j The execution of his father had made Singh
.

.

.,,.,,
on
a
full

i

:

1675 -1708 A.C.

& d(?ep

impression

the

m nd
i

of

the young the death

Guru and he now made
of
his
father.

vow

to

avenge
years

For

twenty

A.C.) he made preparations for the struggle the supremacy of Islam in India. He waged against wars against the Rajahs of Jammu, Garhwal and

(167595

other

places

in

order

to

carve out for
or
at
least

himself
sieze

an
of

independent
fortresses in

principality,

to

a few

the

hills,
l

which might serve as a

base

*See Siyar-ul-Muta akhkhirin (Brigg's ed.) pp. 74-5; Later Mughals, Vol. I, p. 79 and Aurangzeb and His Times, pp. 253 ff. It has been alleged that the Guru (Tegh Bahadur) was executed
;

for refusing to accept Islam. This is incorrect. The fact is that when sentenced to death 'for his crimes againsti the State,' he

was asked to save his life by accepting Islam. offer and was executed for the offence charged

He* declined the

with.

:

364

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

jniHtary operations against the Mughal Emperor and to which he might retire in the event of danger. Having

matured

his plans,
fulfil

vow

to

he emerged out of the hills with a his mission and an oath to avenge the

death of his father.

Guru Govind
His Reforms.
_

was
^,
,

a

great

religious
_
_

and
f

social

reformer.
,

He

enjoined the worship
f

of Shaktt, the goddess

of force,

and

,

compulsory for the Sikhs to wear steel on their He denominated his person in one form or the other. them disciples the Khalsa (elect of God) and taught

made

it

He gave them conquer. outward signs of their religion in the five Kakkas, or K's Kara (iron bangle), Kachha (short drawers), Kanga
that

they

were

born

to

(comb), Kes (uncut hair) and Kirpan (dagger).

He

also

introduced a

new form

of salutation,

'wah guru fi ka
prohibited the
intoxicants.

Khalsa

srl

wah guru

use of tobacco,

jl kl fateh.' liquor and other

He

He
a^nd

emphasised the equality of all men of caste preached monotheism. He made a clean sweep distinctions and declared that the lowest in Sikh society
before

God

In all this the influence were equal with the highest. of Islam is obvious. According to him, salvation could be attained only by the Khalsa. He emphasised the importance of military training and diverted the
attention of the Sikhs, each of
'

whom
'

from the plough to the sword, of those called saints destroyed he said, 'and the graves

he called Singh, The Turks must be

must be neglected.' Suchwise, the ways of the Hindus must be deserted and the Brahmans' thread must be He ruled out superstition and social ceremonies. broken.

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
has been said,
it

365*

From what
e

will

be evident that fhe

religious aspect of the
of the |f

movement was

gradually transformed into a military

and
definite

political

aims and

ideals.

The Gurus

with organization of the later times

were not the prototypes of the first four Gurus, In were exclusively devoted to their religion.
there cannot be
greater

who
fact,

contrast

than

that

between

the unostentatious, inoffensive and peace-making Nanak and his subsequent successors who entirely changed
their

and began to live like princes royal amidst regal pomp and splendour,- organizing armies, building forts and fighting for the achievement of
of
life

mode

supremacy. career extended over
political

Guru Govind
fifteen

years,

Singh's military during which period
hill

he successfully fought

against

the

chieftains

and

His conqfuests roused the Mughal provincial governors. Government to another danger which might become
a menace
if

allowed
to

to persist.

When
aid

the distressed

Rajahs

applied

'Alamgir

for

oppression, he dispatched an army The Guru was defeated order to bring him to book. From this it is amply and two of his sons were slain.
clear that 'Alamglr

their against against the Guru in

launched his campaign against the
suffered great
at the

Sikh Gurus

in

response to the repeated requests of the
injuries

HindQ Rajahs who had

hands of the Sikhs, and yet by a curious irony of fate the Mughal Emperor is blamed for unjustly provoking
the Sikhs.
of the
straits

The Imperialists then laid siege to the fort Guru at Anandapur and reduced hipi to such that he was compelled to make his Way to the

366

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Hotly pursued by he betook himself to a place which

deserts of the district of Firozpur.

the Imperialists,

subsequently became famous as Damdatna, where he compiled the Granth of the tenth Guru. After a stormy

Anandapur, where, in response to his request, he received an invitation from the He proceeded to the Mughal Court Mughal Emperor. in compliance, but before he reached it, 'Alamgir had
career,

he

settled

at

passed away (1707 A.C.).
of

The Guru espoused

the cause

Bahadur Shah and accompanied him to the Deccan at Nander he was killed by a Pathan whose father he had slain.
where

Ever since the
'Alamgir and the English Early English settlements India
: ,

arrival

of Sir

Thomas Rao
_

at the

,.

Court of Jahanglr and the

grant of

m

the Imperial firman to the English, allowing them some trade facilities in the

Empire, the English had endeavoured to maintain friendly
i
.

Mug h a

relations

with

the

Mughal

furtherance of

their trade interests.

been

mentioned,
in

the

Government for the As has already in English had succeeded
permission from the
factory at

1616 A. C,

receiving

Mughal

Emperor

for

building a

1639 A.C. they had Rajah of Chanderi on
factory with

obtained a piece of land
lease

In MasulTpatam. from the
at

and

built

Madras a

a

fort to

defend

themselves against the

The fort was Dutch who had been hostile to them. afterwards named as Fort St. George. Shah Jahan, who was more favourably disposed towards the English than his predecessors, apart from allowing them fresh trade concessions, permitted them to build factories at

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
in

367

Hugli and Kasimbazar
afterwards,

1650-51 A. C.

Eight years
In

all their factories

were put under Surat.

'Alamgir rewarded them for their heroic resistance in the sack of Surat by Shivaji by reducing Their position on the the import duty on their goods.

1666 A.C.

improved in 1668 A. C. when for an 10 Charles II made over the annual quit rent of islands of Bombay and Salsette, which he had received
western
coast
as part of the
to

dowry
India

of his wife, Catherine of Braganza,

the

East

Company.

Now

harbour of their own, they little and the Dutch, The hostilities between the Dutch and
the Marhattas further
fortified

they had a feared the Marhattas
as

they

their

their ambition and on the western coast in possessions

stimulated

self defence.

new

charter,

Not long afterwards, Charles II granted a which conferred some privileges on the
it

East India Company, making
the land.

an important power

in

Shaista Khan, the Governor of Bengal, imposed

some

duties on English trade in 1685 A.C.

Anglo-Mughal

The
the

factors fefused to
local authorities

pay them to and defied the

Mughal power.

TMs

led

to a sort

of semi-official

war

The English between the English and the Mugjials. were assisted by King James II of England with ten or
twelve ships for the capture of Chittagong. When they attacked the Mughal ships under Sir John Child, 'Alamgir ordered their arrest and the annihilation of
their factories at Surat,
factories

Masullpatam and Hugli. The " audacious were seized and trade with the

foreigners" was forbidden.

But the Emperor was not

368

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
;

keen to prolong the war
instructed
treat

he forgave the English and
of Bengal,

Ibrahim arranged terms with them and invited Job Charnock to return to his former settlement at Hugli early in the month of
station below the Hugll,

Ibrahim, them with leniency.

the

new governor

to

October, 1690 A. C. and allowed him to plant a small which took its name 'Calcutta'

from an adjoining village, called Kalikata. This small an important city and station soon developed into

became the

seat of British

Government

in

India.

Sir

John Child, the President of Surat, who had declared war against the Mu^hals with a view to establish a strong and well-founded English dominion in India,
compelled to sue for peace. The Emperor extended his pardon to the English without grudge and allowed them to trade as before on payment of Rs. 1,50,000.

was

at last

to

Henceforth, the English East India Company returned its former methods of peaceful trade till the middle

of the 18th

century
fall

when

the

political

chaos, which

followed

the

of the

Mughal

Empire,

and

the

upon in fish and to th$ policy, they began troubled waters. From this time onwards their progress was less showy but more sure and steady.

activities of the

French

in India eventually forced

them a new

By

the year 1690-91

A.
of

C.
his

height
hlS

'Alamglr was at the power. Nearly the

whole of India was under

He had

succeeded in

swa yachieving what
his

he had been^ struggling for. The SbJa Sultanates of the Deccan were conquered and annexed to the Mughal
Empire.

Most of the Marhatta

forts

were captured

Alamgir's Empire in 1700

A.C

Aurangated*

5

Reference*:
I

The
Tbe

thick line

(

-)

rodicttet the

extent of Afangir't Empire
2.

undertint* art

lowfi

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

369

and Sahu, the principal claimant to the Marhatta A glance throne, was a captive in the Imperial Camp. at the map will show tha't 'Alamgir was the Lord
Paramount of the whole of India, extending from Kashmir in the north to Cape Comorin in the south and from Kabul in the west to Chittagong in the east.

The main framework
Administration under 'Alamgir.
in
4
,

of the machinery

of govern-

ment under 'Alamgir was the same , ,. T1tT as under his predecessors. We may,
however, note the following changes
existing system
*
:

and improvements on the
suit his

made by

Alamgir to

convenience

The
T

extent of the
en

Mughal Empire had increased
territorial

and the

boundaries of the

^nh eS^bahs
fifteen to

W
The

provinces were re-arranged.
of

The
six in

number
eighteen in the

Svbahs was raised from
of

North and from three to

the South.

provinces

Kabul were too big to be
single governor each.
fore, essential.

Bengal, Multan and efficiently administered by a

\ new arrangement was, thereOrissa and a part of Gondwana were taken from the jurisdiction of the viceroy of Bengal and

Likewise, the whole placed under a separate governor. of Southern Sind was detached from tjie province of

Multan and formed
with a governor of

into a
its

distinct province of

Thatta,

own.

So

also were

Kashmir and

a part of Hazara extracted from the province of Kabul and made into a separate province and placed under a
separate governor. The reconstitution of the different provinces of the Mughal Empire was quite satisfactory from the Imperial point of view.

370
Although

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
'Alamgir tried demarcation
to

draw
he

a

line

of

between

religion

and
on

politics,* yet in practice

carried

the
strictly
in

administration

of his

kingdom

accordance

with

the

rules

laid

down
of

in

the

Qur'an.

The

theocratic

character

the

Government implied
should be restored.
of

that

the

Muslim lunar calendar
Likewise,
taxation

This was done and the llahl era

Akbar was discontinued.

was

brought down to the limits

Law.

The Emperor

prescribed by the Muslim abolished all those taxes for which

sanction could not be

obtained from

the Qur'an.
with.

As
was
the

many

as eighty taxes were done

away
but

Taxes on
Jizla

Hindu
revived,

pilgrims

were
it

removed,
is

the

though

was not
State

strictly collected.

The

Islamic

also

concerned with

manners and

morals of the Muslim

was
to

to

Emperor, therefore, appointed censors whose duty it look after the conduct of the people and

community.

The

enforce

the laws

of Islam.

Drinking was
other

strictly

forbidden
prohibited.
stitutes

and

the

use

of

intoxicants

was

Prostitution
to

were ordered

discouraged and proleave the cities and to remove

was

however, allowed to take up their residence outside and were ordered to wear red clothes so that they might be distinguished from the
their brothels.

They

were,

rest of the
*
'

women-folk, and hence the

name

'

lal

bibl

'.

connections have earthly affairs with religion ? right have administrative works to meddle with bigotry ? 'For you your religion and for me is mine. Religion has n(fr concern with secular business/ etc. (See Anecdotes, p. 99.)
'

What

What

'

MUHI-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMG1R
Darsfaan,
introduced

371

The

practice of
his

followed by

successors,

Is^am and was, therefore, The King was the custodian of public money. effected economies everywhere.
Bait-ui-MaL

by Akbar and was regarded as agzrinst pwt an end to.

He
The

expenses or the

L

,

~ , , Court were reduced to

maintained a well-organized department, called the Bait-ul-Mal, or God's Treasury, where the property of the heirless deceased was kept in
a considerable extent.
safe custody. Moreover, the property escheated

He

from the

noblemen was also deposited there. 'Alamgir always endeavoured to increase the property of the Bait-ul-Mal and the money accumulated there was spent for the promotion of Islamic culture and civilization.

The

policy of centralization, introduced

by Akbar
successors,

Pohcy of overcentralization.
result

and

continued
.

by

his

culminated

was that the

The Aurangzeb. could not find provincial governors
with

scope for the development of their natural abilities, so much so that when the Emperor died the machinery of

Mughal administration
there

collapsed all of a sudden and was no one who could administer such a centralized

government.

was rigorously administered and the Emperor himself sat at the Dlwan-i-Khas , ... Justice. J from 8 A.M. till noon on every Wednesday and dispensed even-handed justice to In his work he was assisted all and sundry.
Justice
J

by

a

set

of

law

officers

of

great

renown.

Under
th.e

his patronage a

syndicate of

theologians compiled
at the

famous Fatawa-i-'Alamgiri

cost o*

two

lakhti

372

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

under the supervision of one Shaikh Nizam. Referring to

He is the main Ocean him from all small rivulets of and of justice and equity, wealth flow, and to him they all pay tribute, and
'

'Alamgir's justice, Ovington says

:

generally determines with exact for there is no pleading of peeridge justice and equity , the before or privilege Emperor, but the meanest man is Omrah. soon heard by Aurangzebe as the chief

return

again.

He

Which makes

the

Omrahs

very circumspect
;

of

their

because all actions, and punctual in their payments are them readily adjusted, and they complaints against
never want jealous rivals at Court who are willing to bring them into disgrace with their King for any fault.'*

'Alamgir
f

was an eminent
widespread

educationist.

For the
all

diffusion of education he

TduSion

established universities in almost

Empire and erected schools
his reign,

the important in smaller

cities of his

far-flung

towns.

During
Thatta
'

we

learn, Delhi,

Jaunpur, Sialkot and
centres of
'is

(in Sind) were important

education.
for

The

Thatta/ says Hamilton, learning and and have politicks, above they theology, philology, 400 colleges for training up youth in those parts of His interest in education, it may be pointed learning.'t this out at place, took after his general policy which
city of

famous

aimed
Islam.

at bringing the
his

law into

line

with the tenets of

mighty
dantly

strides

reign During and Islamic
his

Muslim education made
literature flourished

abuna

under

patronage.

He

enunciated

new

theory of what the education of the * A Voyage to Surat in 1689, p. 120.
|A

Royal Princes should
i,

New Account

of the

East Indies, Vol.

p. 78,

MUHI-UD-DIN
be.

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR

373

This theory of imperial education emphasised^ in brief, the importance of general knowledge, such as a familiarity with the languages of the surrounding
nations
tures of
;

an acquaintance with the distinguishing
every
;

fea-

nation of the earth

:

its

resources and
religion,

strength

its

mode

of

warfare

;

its its
;

manners,

form of government, and wherein
consist
;

interests principally

with the origin of states their progress and the or decline, events, accidents, errors, owing to which such great changes and mighty revolutions have been

with the reciprocal duties between the sovehis subjects, the art fcf war, of besieging a reign town or drawing up an army.*
effected
;

and

'Alamgir's political
Architecture.
A

pre-occupations
^T
,

left

him

but

..

little

leisure to indulge in

his

artistic

fancy.

Nevertheless, he made some

important additions to the existing architecture.

Among

the most remarkable buildings erected by him may be mentioned the Marble Mosque in the Fort of Delhi

and the Badshahi Masjid
latest

at Lahore.

The

latter is

the

specimen of the Mughal style of architecture. Quite unlike his ancestors, 'Alamglr did
d
'

not

PaiSing

actively patronize music and painting, Himself well-versed in the science of

music,'
practical performance.

he

was deadly against
his

its

Likewise, in painting, though he

delighted

in

the

pictorial records of

own grandartists of

doings, he sought to discriminate between the
his
*

own

creed and

those of

others

and therefore did
iti

For a detailed discussion on the Muslim India, pp. 175 ff.

subject, vide Education

374
nothing
to

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
popularize
it.

A

number

of

pictures,

illustrating his battles
us,

and sieges, have come down to which show that he did not discourage this art

wholesale. All the same, the fine arts did not die at once

the death the
frivolities as

Emperor

is

said to

have desired to such

music and

the painter still respective vocations

dancing. The musician and flourished and continued to ply their

notwithstanding the

not positively hostile,

lukewarm, if attitude of the Emperor towards
simple and unostenwas not without its

them.

The
_
Gardens.

glorious

reign
tatious

of

this

king

beautiful gardens.
attractive of their class

Among

the most

may

be mentioned the Badshahi

Masjid and Garden at Lahore, the Garden of Raushan Ara Begam at Delhi, the ChauburjT Bagh, the Nawan Kal Bagh at Lahore and the Pinjor Garden.
It
is

impossible

to

under-rate the character and
of

achievements
glr
the
last

Aurangzeb
puritan

'Alam-

of our Great
'

Mughals,
in

described
fjurple
'.

as

the

the

Magnificent
in

in his

and

unassuming peformance of his

his

public appearance, simple private life, exact in the

religious observances,

prompt

in the

dispatch of his daily business, an eminent educationist,

a remarkable religious enthusiast, a patron of the poor and the learned, a great literary genius, an elegant letter'

writer,

a

fountain
of

of

justice

master of pen as

sword'

triumph of character.

He

honour/ and a 'Alamgir was indeed a left no faculty of his active
as of

MUHI-UD-DIN
mind
even
to rust
in the

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB

ALAMG*IR 375

and allowed no spring of his frame to relax His ideal of kingahip evening of his life.
'

was very high
for others

: *

I

dence,' he said,
;

to
it

was sent into the world by Provilive and labour, not for myself, but
is

that

my
so

duty
far

not to think of
as
it

my

own

happiness,

connected with

except the happiness of

my

inseparably It is the people.

is

repose and prosperity of my subjects that it behoves me to consult nor are those to be sacrificed to anything besides the demands of justice, the maintenance of the
;

royal authority, and the security of the State.' indeed to his credit that he lived up to this lofty

It is

ideal.

With him governing was a duty, seriously undertaken and honestly performed. He felt disgusted at the idea
of

making

religion

(Islam)

a

plaything

of

mental

gymnastics and a sport of royal whims and moods. deplored the debasement of the noble ideals
traditions

He
and

tions of
religious

and was exasperated at the aberrathose who lacked courage and concealed their
of

Islam

identities

for political reasons.

He

could not

tolerate religion being overriden

by
its

politics
'

and therefore

raised

his

voice

against

the

'

danger

that lay ahead.

He

tried to

restore

Islam to

pristine

purity

and and
it

perfection.
it was

Thus did he play the
his

role of a reformer

in this capacity that

he commanded the confidence
lifetime

of his co-religionists during
is in this

and again
of

capacity that he enjoys the reverence He ruled India as a co-religionists even now.

his

Muslim

King and was therefore hated by the Hindus then as much as now. But the fact cannot escape recognition that Alamgir was a little too rigid in his methods and
'

376
betrayed
a

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
narrowness of vision
in

displaying

his

reforming

zeal.

As a man

of imperial instinct
yield

and a

man

of

iron-will,

he disdained to

to

popular

agitation and never changed his attitude even when exegencies of the hour demanded lenity and liberal

treatment,

did yield to the demands of the Ulama. Justified from the standpoint of the Emperor, some of his acts were undoubtedly calculated to create

though

he

difficulties

for

him.

Tba

allegation

that

he

was

distrusful

The

and suspicious by nature is not justified. treachery of his sons and officers, who secretly joined his enemies against him, put him on his alert and constrained him to take necessary safeguards against
them.
If,

therefore, their acts were vigilantly
it

watched
proved

by

the

Emperor,

was because they had

To sum up, 'Alamgir was treacherous time and again. indeed a great king, doubly so from the standpoint of his co-religionists. No other emperor has been subjected
to

such

severe

scrutiny

as he,

and yet he has exacted
the
j
first

the admiration of friends and foes alike.
Bernier,

who was

present in India during

Bermer's view.

of 'Alamglr's reign, quarter ^

was by no

means

favourably
*

the

Great
'

Mughal.

Even

* A disposed towards he had no hesitation to

admit that
a
versatile

this Prince (viz.,

Alamgir)

is

and rare genius, that he Statesman, and a great King'.*
Hamilton,
Hamilton
s

is

a

endowed with consummate

who
the

visited India

towards the close of

seventeenth
.

view.

following
* Bernier' s Travels in the

the century, pays r ; well-deserved tribute to the
p. 199.

Mogul Empire,

MUHI-UD-DIN
much-maligned
Prince in every

MUHAMMAD AURANGZEB ALAMGIR
monarch
*
:

377

He

(Aurangzeb)
he.

was a
ever

way

qualified for governing.

None

understood
distributive

politics

better

than

The

balance of

justice

he

held in exact equilibrium.

He

was brave and cunning in and merciful war, and magnanimous in peace, temperate in his diet and recreations, and modest and grave in his apparel,
courteous
in

his

in his discourse.

He

behaviour to his subjects and affable encouraged the laws of humanity
as well as those of religion/*

and observed them

Writing
.,

Manucci

.,

.

s

view

about the reign 1701 A,C.,
.

of*Emperor 'Alamgir in Niccolaa ^ Manucci, the

Italian

traveller

who was

in

India-

during the second half of the seventeenth century, " The great age of the Emperor and the says: ambition to gain the throne continuously displayed by his sons and grandsons, give rise to the apprehension
of
at

some catastrophe
the close
ablest
of

quite as tragic as that supervening
reign.

Shahjahan's
as

In
that

spite of this,
all

the

politicians

assert

will

be

peaceful so

long

the

world.

In

conduct

and

saying the

this,

aged monarch is still in this they rely on the admirable

good
from
his

government

of

this

Princeinfir-

(Aurangzeb),
mities

who

in spite of his great
it,

age and the

inseparable

knows how

to get himself

always obeyed
every

with

former vigour,

and to

hold

man

to his allegiance".!
Account
o/ the

*A New
Vol.
II,

East Indies, by Alexander Hamilton,
!

p. 103.

t Storia

Do Mogor by Niccolao Manucci,

Vol.

hi,

pp. 249=50,

378
"

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
s

abilities of
1

Shah Jahan's son and
"

successor,
.

Keen

view,

Keen, AlamgTr," says J
the most

rendered him
of
his

famous

member

famous house.

Intrepid

war, his political sagacity

and enterprising as he was in and statecraft were equally

unparalleled in Eastern annals.

He

abolished

capital

and encouraged agriculture, punishment, founded numberless schools and colleges, systematically
understood
constructed roads and bridges house of Tirnur attained its zenith.
of

In

his

reign the

The

wild Pathans

Kabul were temporarily tamed, the Shah of Persia sought his friendship, the ancient Muslim powers of Bijapur and Golconda were subverted and their territories

rendered subordinate to the sway of the empire

;

the

hitherto indomitable Rajputs were subdued and made subject to taxation and if the strength of
;

the
it

Marhattas

lay

gathered

was not possible to marauders would long
Mughal/'*

upon the Western Ghats, of such anticipate that a band
resist

the

might of the great

Orme, the famous

historian,

only
4

^ Orme s
,

achievements
view.
__ f

of

sums up the Alamgir when ho
of the
r
.

...

says

:

'The condition

,,

,

Moghul

Empire, began to lose its vigour immediately after the death of Aurangzeb, the ablest monarch that ever
reigned over Indostan. ^
* The Fall of the
9

Mughal Empire, by H. G. Keen.
Nation

in

History of the Military Transactions of the British t Jndostanfro.n the year 1715, by Orme.

A

CHAPTER XVII

RETROSPECT
presentation of history can be adequate which the & neglects & growths of the religious * ... Introductory. conspicuousness, of literature, of the
.

"

Mughal Culture and

Civilization

No

,

moral and physical science, of
social life."

An

ot scholarship, of art, into these inquiry aspects of life during

the

Mughal Period of Indian History forms the subjectmatter of the present chapter. Though these aspects

have been treated at some length in tfie preceding account at their proper places, it is proposed to sum up For the sake of the subject in the RETROSPECT.
convenience,
it

is

best

to

classify

them

as

Political,

Social, Religious

and Economic.
Political Features

The
01

hardest

sJccSn
unlimited

any sovereignty is that of succession. This must have been ver y much so in Isl * m if it had
not cut
the

nut

to

crack

in

latitude to

the

law

gordian knot by giving of succession which it

based on the

earliest traditions of its rule.

A

reference

to a typical one of such traditions appears apropos of the
subject. a divine

The Prophet

of Islam

governed his people as

commissioner.

After his death, the Caliphate

(succession) became a cause of contention between the several claimants and the solution of the tangle involved

three

principles

:

first,

the ruler's
;

heir

his son, or a

relative in the absence of a son

secondly, the
;

person

appointed

by him or

his

nominee

and

thirdly, the

380
person on
agreed.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

whom
Thus,

the majority of
it

is

Musalmans were apparent that there was no wellthe

defined law regulating the succession to the throne. Sometimes the law of primogeniture applied, in which
case the claims of the first-born were recognised often nominee succeeded ; and not infrequently the the
;

chief officers of the State,

succession was effected by a plebiscite conducted by the and the sovereign-elect was

not necessarily a direct descendant of the late king. Owing to the absence of a fixed law of succession ta
the throne, rival interests often
resulted in bloodshed.
:

came into conflict and But underlying this absence was an advantage in the civil war that followed the death of a king, only the fittest survived and ruled with great
efficiency.

In

Mughal
the

India, neither the of

law of primonor even of
the

geniture,

nor

principle
to.

plebiscite,
in

nomination was adhered

Except

case of

enthroned himself unopposed at the death Akbar, of his father, the sword decided the struggle for succession

who

and

the

successful prince cut short the
at

life

of his

rival collaterals lest

re-assert their

they should, claims to the throne and create

some

future

date,
distu*--

bance

in

the kingdom,
Mediaeval

Our

Mughal Monarchy was

a secular

institution.

Mughal Monarchy and its nature.
his

se , dom

was Sharlyat, a ,j owed tQ interfere with the
derived

The

State.

The Mughal Emperor
the

power

not

from

Muslim

Law

but from
his

Persian traditions.
will

He was

virtually the State and

was absolute. From the very nature of the case, the Mughal Government was an absolute monarchy, which

RETROSPECT
knew nothing
assemblies,
of

381
rights

constitutional
it

and

elective

but
it

element

in

that

-acquiescence of
policy

had much of democratic was based not on force but on the the people and its general administrative
so
it

was

at

once

in

accord with the
of
its

spirit

of

the age

and the sentiments

subjects.

The Mughal

Emperor took care to carry out the wishes of his people and tried his best to secure the greatest happiness of Perfect religious freedomand the greatest number '.
'

unconditional liberty of conscience are the sine qua non of the stability and success of every State. The Mughal

Emperors understood

this

and Jherefor^ shaped

their

They adopted a Sulh-i-Kul policy policy accordingly. and carried it to its logical conclusion. Reconciliation
and universal
testimony
of

toleration were their

watch-words.

The

contemporary

chroniclers

and European
to

travellers eloquently testifies to this fact.

The Mughal Government undertook
Functions of
the Mughal

guard the
maintain

country against external invasions, to
regulate foreign

or./

policy,

to

Government.

law and order, to suppress crime and
encourage public morality, to provide and property, to disseminate
private contracts.

for the protection of life
justice

and

to

enforce

Apart from

these

constituent

functions, the

Mughal

Government

duties, such as the fixing of coinage, regulation of trade and industry, maintenance

performed some ministrant

of roads and highways, establishment of hospitals, resthouses and other works of public welfare, administration
of famine
relief,

promotion of education and encourage*
literature.

ment

of arts

and

382

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The methods
of

administration

of

the

early

Methods

of

administration.

Sultans of Delhi were rough and rude .but the later sovereigns of indeed; *
t

Mughal Emperors, were great statesmen and they have left many fruitful ideas and useful institutions behind them. The Mughal
Empire manifested a higher degree
tion

Islam, especially the

of polical organizain

than

had previously

existed

India.

Babar,

Humayun,
were
all

Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan,

sovereigns of

uncommon

political

and 'Alamgir acumen and

marked administrative talents. The last three retained intact the vast and wonderful Empire which the conshad brought into being, tructive genius of Akbar

Where they
not acquired.

received their talent for administration
it

is

not hard to say

was

intuitive, inborn, self-taught

For purposes of efficient administration the Empire was divided into a number of pro* Administrative v inces, at each of which was stationed
divisions

or Subedar, viceroy who was Each assisted by a revenue officer, called Diwan. or into sub-divided Sarkars, each districts, province was of which was placed in charge of a local governor, or into Faujdar. Each Sarkar was further sub-divided a

Parganas
officer in

The into villages. and each Pargana was called Qanungo and charge of a Pargana
Muqaddam.
of

that of a village

In
of justice,

the
*

modern sense

the word, there was
of
justice.

no

Administration

hierarchy of courts

The
and
justice

King was the fountain
court
of
appeal.

of justice

his

was the highest

The

RETROSPECT
dealt
of

383

out was rough
courts
it

the

were
that
it

that

and ready and the procedure was simple and summary. Its morits was quick and cheap. Its danger was
to

was

apt

miscarry.

The Qazis

settled the

cases

the Musalmans according to their whereas civil disputes among the Hindus religious code, were decided by Hindu judges and those between

between

Hindus and Musalmans by Muslim Judges
set of

assisted

by a

Brahman

scholars competent to

expound

Hindu

customs and Shastras.

The Emperors and

the Provin-

cial Governors also heard appeals and often revised and even modified the decisions of the lower courts. Punishments were, of course, severe, l?ut they had

deterring effects.*

f

In theory, taxes were levied in accordance with the
Taxation.
limits prescribed

...
but
in

by the Muslim Law; practice, they were imposed,

by the Emperors as well as by the Provincial Governors. Taxes on Crown-lands, the land revenue, customs duties, tributes from depenrelaxed
arbitrarily

and remitted

dencies, escheats
of income.

The

principal sources or abolished Jizia, poll-tax, by Akbar,
it

and presents were the

was re-imposed by 'Alamglr, though
collected.

was not

strictly

On the authority of European travellers who visited India during the Mughal Period, some modern writers have frequently referred to the vanity of the Qazls and the corruption of other Government officials. 1 do not for a moment deny the charge altogether, but I cannot help pointing out that the picture
*

painted by them is rather exaggerated. Corruption there was, but it was not condoned or connived at by the Government. On
the other hand,
it

was

strongly suppressed

and severely dealt

384

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
For the maintenance of law and
order

and the
justice,

even-handed distribution of
Organization.

a

highly organized police
essential.

is

absolutely

The
state

Mughal
of

Emperors

maintained one

in

a

high

efficiency.

The

was Kotwal, the custodian of principal police officer duties have been public peace and security, whose He was detailed at some length in a previous chapter.
assisted

by a

set of subordinate officers in the discharge
It is

of his multifarious duties.

'Government
'

that

owing
and

to

a tribute to the Mughal efficient an police
cities,

organization business was safe,
.protected.'

order and security prevailed in the
foreign

merchants

were well

Secret service.
.civilized

Espionage has indeed a bad odour about it and yet it has been found indispensable
even
,

by the

,

,

,

most

advanced

j

j and

governments.

In a despotic

government the

need
In
-or

sound spying system can be well imagined. Mughal India, there were the Waqai Navis,
for

Recorders

of

Events,

and

the

Khufia

Navis,

with. No government, however advanced, can claim to be free from corrupt officials, and the Mughal Government was no Notwithstanding the efficient systems of exception to the rule. administration evolved by different nations and the deterrants

.devised by them, there
in

is

corruption,

and corruption

in plenty,

every country and in almost every department, at least among the ministerial staff. In Mughal India, we gather from the original sources of information, every effort was made to remove it and, in consequence, there was in those days a good
^balance of justice and fair-dealing, certainly better than any other country could claim.

.

RETROSPECT
or Writers
provincial of

385
stationed
at

Secret

Intelligence,

each
of

capital

and

entrusted
of* all

with

the

task
in

informing

the

Emperor
of

that

occurred

the

his Empire. There was a close the Secret Service and the Postal between connection Service so that no secret should leak out.
different -parts

There was a regular postal system
Postal Service.
,

in

vogue

in

,

Mughal Along every *J Imperial * road there was, at a distance of six

India.

Chowki, where the runner (Harkara) brought the Imperial dispatches and whence the runner, appointed to go to the next Chowki, set off At night the runners were at full speed with the mail. trees of standing- on either side guided by the avenues
miles, a post office, called

of the road.

Where

there were no trees, heaps of stones

were

set

up

at a distance of every five

hundred paces

and

kept

white-washed

neighbouring villages.
mail-service.

residents of the by Horses were also kept in all the

the

serais along the Imperial

highways to provide a regular But the runner was sometimes swifter

than the horseman, because at night in the dark the former ran undeterred by darkness or storm, whilst the
latter

was compelled to ride slowly. On the whole, the system worked so well that it secured the stability of the

Empire by keeping the Emperor

in

touch

with what

occurred in the provincial governments.

The

beneficent

character

of

the
to

Mughal
its

Government comes out
archftecture.

best

advantage

in

architecture.
skill

and There was none whose
relation

to

arts

and ingenuity were not appreciated and rewarded.

386

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

The

Imperial patronage raised the fine arts to a high water-mark, and as a result, we have those master-

which, like the Taj, will always elicit our " " After all says an English spontaneous admiration. " of the the scholar, splendour Mughal dynasty is unsurpassed in the annals of the world, and that
pieces,

splendour has always found
architecture.

its

supreme expression

in

The

Mughal

craftsmen
beautiful

made

lovely

buildings because they had
technical skill to "

ideas,

and the

embody

these ideas in stone."

In

those

days no Government

had a regular
instruction."

Education.

department

of

public v

The
to

J

Mughal

Emperors,
their

however,

opened schools and colleges in the various parts of their

Empire and sought
by

supplement

achievements

During the education was diffused the threefold by Mughal period, means of (1) schools and colleges, (2) mosques and monasteries and (3) private houses, typifying three forms
of education, viz., university,

extensive patronage of literary worth.

primary
art

and

domestic.

The

curriculum embraced
algebra,

the

of

administration,
agriculture,

arithmetic,

geometry,

accounts,

economics, history, ethics, astronomy, medicine, physics, law and ritual. It may be mentioned here philosophy,
that in the schools and colleges founded by the Mughal Emperors and others, Hindu students studied side by side with their Muslim class-fellows and there was no
restriction in this or
in

instruction
t

of girls there

any other respect. For the were separate tnaktabs and

madrasahs but
their

own

usually they received their education in houses or in the houses of their chosen Ustads

RETROSPECT
(teachers) living in the neighbourhood.*

387

The

impression
Rule

seems

to

be

current

in in

some
India
.
f

Was Muslim

Q uarters that the

Muslim Rule
It is
.

in India a rule of foreigners?

wa? that
.

of foreigners.
,

necessary
/

to strike at once at the root of this

.,

^

erroneous notion.

To

be sure, the Muslim Kings from

the establishment of the Slave Dynasty down to the decline of the Mughal Empire were foreigners only in the sense in which the sovereigns of England have been
foreigners to the

Mother Country since the time of

William the Conqueror. It cannot be disputed that William was a foreigner, but because he mkde England his home, he is as much English as all his successors

down
of the

to the present king

have been.

foreigners only

in the sense in

which
the

all

Again, they were the Presidents

United States of America have been owing to
Aibak,
first

their foreign extraction.

king

of

the

Sultanate of Delhi, and Babar, the first king of the Mughal Empire, came from foreign lands, no doubt, but

they

settled

down

in

this

country,

made

it

their

permanent home, identified themselves with the interests ci the country and ruled it rather as Indians than as Their successors were born in India, lived foreigners.
in

India and died in India.

Thus, they

were Indian

every inch. the Aryans,

They came

as foreigners indeed, but like

who

too were foreigners,
soil,

themselves on the Indian

they engrafted sucked into their veins

the Indian sap, nurtured themselves under the

warmth
and Muslim

*For the contributions made by
India.

the Muslim Kings

others to the sacred cause of education, vide Education in

388
of

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the

Indian

sun

and

conditioned

their

growth,

multiplication and expansion under the Indian climates.

the march of time they became, with each The succeeding generation, 'of the earth earthy'.
So,

with

metamorphosis, which was proceeding apace, was rendered complete by the intermingling of the children
they retained a distinctive stamp, it was largely of religion, but that too was evanescent, because the converts to the faith from the natives were
of the
soil.

If

indistinguishably absorbed into their ranks.

Many

of

those

who

still

retained

their

old

faith

completely

identified themselves with the patriotic spirit so natural

to the sons of Islam

and were

called to

occupy from the

lowest position to the highest, next only to the king's. Again, it was the Muslims who first put a barrage Pass and other Eastern Passes and against the Khyber

thus kept India in immunity from foreign invasions. Finally, all the material resources of the State were
spent in the country
to
foreign
rule
itself

and nothing was drained away
ruling class did not interfere

lands.

Another important feature of the
of

Muslim

was that the
institutions

with the old

the

natives.

The

time-

honoured
district

system of corporate village

government and

was not disturbed in the least taken to establish law and order was and within the country and to maintain a peaceful policy
administration

every care

outside.

Some have gone even
Are Muslims
foreigners
?

so far

as

to

declare

all

Musalmans

as foreigners.

With

the

exception of a few Semitic races, such as the Sayyp.ds, the Qureshls and others, the forefathers

RETROSPECT

389

of a vast majority (9/1 Oth) of Muslims were Hindus and hence Indian. They embraced Islam and left behind
generations of Muslims

who

multiplied in

numbers as

the time rolled on.
of nationality

Change

of religion does not imply

and an Indian Hindu who becomes change Muslim does not become an Arab, an Afghan a to-day or a Persian, but continues to be Indian as long as he
does not change his nationality.

As regards the Sayyads
outside,
it

and others who came from
country and

settled

in

this

made

it

their

home,

is

never too

much

to say that they were Indian quite as much as the Aryans who preceded them. Just as the Aryans came

from outside, took up their permanent abode in India and became Indian in course of time, similarly they (i.e. Sayyads and others) came as foreigners no doubt but,
;

like their predecessors (Aryans

1

,

they made
it.

India their

home and became
The

naturalised jn

Social Features
cultural unity of India was another enduring achievement of the Muslim Rule.

Cultural unity of India during the Muslim Rule.

Hindu-Muslim social intercourse Hindus and Muslims studying side bv side in the same schools without
;
;

any restrictions compulsory education in Persian mutual exchange of words, thoughts, and ideas both in arts and literature adoption and incorporation
;

;

these forces combined and cumulatively contributed to the cultural unity of India during the Muslim Rule,
all

particularly during the

Mughal Period under the

tolerant

There were *nany Muslim scholars who studied Hindu arts and sciences, wrote
rule of the Great Mughals.

390
poetry

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
and
prose and encouraged their cultivation, there were several Hindus who cultivated

Lil'ewise,

Muslim
the

arts

and sciences and made
Either
of the other,
its

their

mark

in

Persian literature.
literature

community contributed
enriching
life
its

to

vocabulary

and ennobling
devised
a

outlook on

and

letters.

They

common medium

of

expression,

Urdu, and

All these forces, developed it into a literary language. while acting and reacting on each other, brought the two communities nearer to each other, merging them
into

a

homogeneous whole.
the
evolution
of

All

this

had

its

natural

result in

a

common

culture

which

them and bridged the them on account of religious
united
It is

gulf

which existed between

differences.

a

commonplace

of history that the

Musalmans
nationalists,

Muslim Soc.ety and the sources
of
its

have alw ays been great
because
r

nationalism
.

is

at

the

very

strength.
is

core ot their religion.
a
nationalist,
his faith
:

A Musalman,
speaking,

who

not

is

not, strictly

a true follower of

inasmuch as
"

he

is

not

Let there be in you a obeying the Divine Order nation summoning unto the good." In India, as elsewhere in the Muslim World, the Musalmans
formed one
solid nation, ready to

immolate themselves
love.

at the shrine of religion,

honour and

Their

life

of

action moderated their fear of death and they achieved

uncommon
to them.
first

triumphs in almost every sphere of human endeavour. Their religion was a great source of strength

The wars
by

of the Crescent were won,

in

the
in

place by science, in the second
discipline.

by patience, and

the third

The

five daily prayers

portended

RETROSPECT
active
life,

391
of

fasting in

the

month

Ramzan

implied

a test of endurance, the niggardliness of nature and*the
rigours of climate, in which (hey lived, meant an excellent of becoming discipline for them ; while the vision

a foremost nation of the world fired their

spirit.

The

proverbial pomp and magnificence of the Mughal Court will always remain a byword of those who have even a

nodding
history.

The

foreign travellers

acquaintance with Indian were surprised at the

splendour that surrounded the Sovereign and his Court.
Fridays, after public prayer, piusicians, story-tellers, athletes and wrestlers assembled at the Royal Court and

On

amused

the

King

and

his

courtters

with

their

performances.

The Court

presented a scene

of most

joyous activities and there was nothing wanting to the show a splendid success.

make

Dress
Male Dress

in

Mughal India
delights

is

another instance of the

vanished glory upon which the mind
to

dwell.

Hailing

from

different climates, the warlords of Islam

naturally paid great attention to the requirements of their dress. Wool

was preferred
trousers

to cotton

and

silk

like stuffs in fashion

with the

worn by the people Islamic period made room for the Pajama more which and came to be known close-fitting, stylish
as

flimsy gauzenative aristocracy. The of India during the pre-

to

the

halwar, or Izar, tied by a string with tussles at the
;

waist
less.

the high-heeled slippers gave place to the heel-

The
:

so-called

Jamah became
it

dress.

Knee-long

in the beginning,

usual, court reached up to the
thfe

392
ankles in

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the later Mughal days. The Nadrl wear, invented by Jahangir, was a robe of honour reserved for the favoured few of his courtiers. One of the
noblest contributions

made by Musalmans

to

Indian

dress

is

the

popular

head-wear called Pagrl,

which

.became universal after the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India. The dress of the Emperor was often

made

of thin material, interwoven with gold thread

and
and

decorated
foliage.

with

embroidered

patterns

of

flowers

His

head-wear was embellished

with pearls,

jems and
It is

jewels.

^

Female Dre^s.

extremely difficult to determine at this distant date the minutice of female dress

among

because of the observance of privacy the ladies of the Harems. The paintings of
court
ladies

eminent

are

non-existent,

or

are

too

apocryphal to be described
of

in detail.

A

reputed portrait

in closeEmpress Nurjahan distinctly and bodice trousers down to the end coming fitting of the Shalwar and a slight Sari to serve for setting

shows her

rather than for clothing.

The

female-dancers dressed

themselves in
light

full skirts of

the flimsiest material with a

sleeves.

jaugy Sari and a tight-fitting bodice with long This was, perhaps, necessitated by the very nature of their profession.
Profuse
jewellery

was
or

used

for

extra-personal

ornamentation.
decoration.

The

use of

Kamarwas
sexes.

band,

the

waist-band,

universal

among

both

the

mentioned that almost every which some ornament or other part of the body, on

For the

rest,

it

may

be

RETROSPECT
<x>uld possibly be fixed or

393

hung,
armlets

was not without*
rivalled

it.

Anklets,
collars

bracelets

and
the

necklaces,

and

girdles

former

adding

ornamental

splendour to feminine grace and the latter adding form to masculine vigour. The nose-ring is a Muslim
contribution to Indian

woman's face ornaments. The Musalmans made ear-rings much lighter but more brilliant and valuable than before. Of personal
betel, or

ornaments, the use of
well as
to

pdn,
of

to

colour
to

lips as

sweeten breath,

and

henna

colour

palms, nails and finger-tips of hands and nails and soles of feet of females as well as gra^ bearcft, moustaches and heads was in vogue in those times as it is now.
In

amusement
t

and

recreation

the

Musalmans

Am

se

maintained throughout their ascendancy
those illustrious traditions of boundless

magnificence which have com'e
still

down

to posterity

and
or

astound the foreigners. Of outdoor games, Chaitsar

(chess)

and

Chaupar

(a

game played with

dice

cowries on a piece of cloth gr board) seem to have been favourite with the commonalty as well as aristocracy.

Akbar

is

credited with the repute of having invented a

number of new games on the principle of Chaupar and playing-cards. Gentler arts, such as music and were painting, among other indoor amusements.
Hunting,
chariot-racing,
pigeon-flying,
gladiatorial

combats, elephant-fights, swimming and Chaugan (polo) may also be mentioned among the popular outdoor
sports.

women joined Shah, abandon."

"

"In many

of these sports" says Professor
their men-folk in a

K. T.

most perfect

394

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
lot

of

women,
P

as

ordained

by

the

Holy

Status of

women.

Qur'an, the real place they occupy in
the frame-work of

Muslim

society, is

absolutely

misunderstood

by an

alien

much

as

by a native visionary.
ludicrously untenable

The

missionary as widespread, not to

say the

notion, that

women

in

Islam have no souls, that they are too much the servants of their husbands' passions or the toys of their
idle hours,
is

now

has by this time been fully exploded, and it certain that it was nothing more than what a

jaundiced eye could see.* The honour of women has always been jealously safeguarded by the followers of
Islam.

The

sacred and

very word Harem signifies something shows that women were held in honour

verging

on veneration.
native

This

is

borne
well

out
as

by the
foreign

testimony of
travellers.

historians

as

by

c,.

Slavery

Slavery was a recognised institution in Mughal India as it was everywhere else in the J
world.
It
little

must, however, be rememdegradation
is

bered here that in Islam
the
condition
of

attached to

slaves.

their sons could rise to the
in the State
is

The fact that slaves and most distinguished positions

a glowing tribute to the attitude of Islam
Besides,

towards

slaves.")

we know

for certain that the

State always encouraged the

practice of

manumission.
of

Akbar

is

credited

with

the
of

introduction

a

reform^

whereby
enslaved.

the

prisoners

war were forbidden to be

*See Spirit
.,

of Islam, pp. 222-57. pp. 258-67.

RETROSPECT
Religious Features

395
.

Unlike their predecessors
Extraordinary 01 "

the Indo-Bactrians,

the the

Sakas,
the very

the

Hunas and
were
not

others

Muslim
population,
causes.

Musalmans
Hinduism.

absorbed

by

elastic

On
in
in

ever-expanding the other hand, they
this

and

made
followers

large

conversions

of
rule

Muslim

Islam multiplied and we are not

The country. India during the in the least surprised at
deep
forces

growth when we penetrate problem and discover some inevitable * towards this end.
their rapid

into

the

working
prone to
:

*
is

In matters of faith,

the

human mind

work in certain paradoxical ways While the Darned seek for their satisfaction the remote and the abstruse,
the crude, on the other hand, are always in quest of the simplest and the most direct to which they cling tenaciously.

Customs, ceremonies,

pictures

and

idols are

various ways of impressing an idea on the rude mind. The transcendant philosophy of Hinduism was the

monopoly
its

of the favoured

few who so jealously guarded
self-aggrandisement
it

treasures partly frbm motives of
partly because they thought
pearls

and
cast

would not answer ta

they thought it was sufficient if the curiosity of the vulgar was dazzled by an array of picturesque ceremonials and the splendour
before

swine that

of

images

and

idols

preserved

in

shrines

raised

at

inestimable costs.

The

ignorant
the

ceptibly at the time, a great gulf
preceptors.

felt, howpver imperbetween them and t*heir

They saw

in

advent of Islam

the

396

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
from
intellectual

visions of liberation

thraldom.

The

Muslim missionaries had an untold advantage of a clear-cut cosmogony and a definite set of dogmas about heaven and hell, how to attain the former and avoid the latter, in contrast with the vague and poetical version of The popular superstitions presented by Hinduism. doctrinal simplicity of Islam, which was like an open book to all, from the highest to the meanest, heralded the dawn of the day of the down-trodden. For the
slaves of

numerous gods and
simple

rituals,

the brotherhood of
idea
of

Islam,

the

monotheistic
of equality

God,

the

democratic principle
doctrines, like fasting
irresistible.
-results.

and

the

rationalistic

and

prayers,

had a

lure that

was

Voluntary conversions were the

inevitable

The
Spirit of

spirit of

freedom

freedom has always had a fascination for all races under all climes and
, .

conditions.
to say that this spirit
is

It is

inherent
of

in

no mere platitude mankind. It has
Self-realisation
is

1-1

moulded the

destinies

nations.

It has been the nothing but a discovery of this spirit. corner-stone of the greatest of our empires. It is in the
.fitness of

things that the classes
in

to

which a degrading
society, leading to

position had been assigned

Hindu

invidious distinctions between the natural rights of

man

and man, should shake off their lethargy, and thus, giving a rude shock to the Pharisaism of the Brahmans, raise up such a tornado of vindictiveness against the
helpless visionaries that

the only course open to was to seek shelter in the fold of Islam. To the

them
low-

.caste Hindi", the

new

faith

meant a

perfect

democracy

RETROSPECT
wherein
the
stains

397
occupation
'

of

blood
'

and

were

1 exorcised by the pronouncement of the open sesame of the simple Islamic creed There is no God but
:

Allah, and
the

human
its

back of

Thus, it was Muslim faith which was at the propagation and proselytising capabilities.
is

Muhammad

His Prophet/

aspect of the

Too much cannot be
religion
intrinsic
all

said

about
spiritual

the

Muslim
Its

as

a

force.

worth has been a magnet for
truth.
It

seekers after

was

this

that occasioned conversions during that period and it is this that is winning converts even*iow, George Bernard

Shaw

does not over-estimate
'

the value of

Islam

when

nd the rest of he says that England in particular Western Europe in general are sure to embrace Islam
within a century/

This

is

a fact,

otherwise
as

how can
are,

Musalmans,
converts
of

poor
the

and

powerless
of

they

win

calibre

Lord

Headley,

Kbalid

Sheldrake, David Upson, K. L. Gauba, etc.,- not from the ignorant classes of the lowest strata, but from the

most cultured
feels that

classes of the

the laws

of

Islam

highest order. are the laws

of

Everyone Nature

which must ultimately prevail. The spirit of Islam dominates the world and the tendency of Islamisation is
patent to the naked eye. The noble examples set by the votaries of Islam their chaste lives, their sincere devo'ion, their

unselfish
their
in

motives for the

spread of
contributed to
the

religion

must
as

have

same end
of

no small measurer

The

career

and character

such

men

Kb

398

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Muin-ud-Din Chishti, Sayyad Ali Hajveri (also called Data Sahib), Bandanawaz Sayyad Muhammad Gesudaraz

and Shaikh Sallm Chishti

are cases in point.
lies

The

desire for

material prosperity

embedded

in

advantages
estimated.

The the very conception of freedom. forces that should underly such a
desire

can

by

no

means be overfactor that accele-

Social uplift

was a

vital

rated conversions into mass movements.

The

following

ends can be easily comprehended to have been in view side by side with spiritual cravings a lucrative post, or position in the State, escape from the payment of the
:

Jizia and other cesses levied on the Zimmis, daily contact with the ruling class which centred in itself all
the graces of good breeding and culture, the personal favours of the Emperor, which in itself meant so much
in those times.

Recent census reports towards
Muslim
in
races.

have directed our attention
another
for
possibility

which

accounts

preponderance of Muslim numbers over those of others
the

some parts of this country. This is the virility oi Muslim races which, on account of the heritages of food and mode of living, has immense capacity for the propagation of species. All this furnishes an explanation for the rapid spread of Islam so often viewed with amazement.
In the light of the circumstances presented above, the slanderous Islam No compulsion theory that

11

in religion."

of

wag propagate(j j n i n(ji a a t the point the sword does not hold, especially in view of the
' :

Quranic teaching

Let there be no compulsion in

RETROSPECT
religion.'

399

Forcible

conversions,

war-times,

may

at

the

if any during the most be acknowledged to* be

only a temporary phase, for the permanent acquiescence in the faith thus imposed upon is highly incredible. Had Islam been propagated under compulsion, verily
there

would have been no Zimmls in India and where, where Islam was once so supreme.
In passing,
Forces that brought about
it

else-

will

not be without

interest to

note

that there were

many

political, social

forces operating an(j religious " secretly b *
.

a modus

vivendi

and

silently fora

moans Vivendi,

if

\ not

an7A"nd\usm.
political forces

for a

Islam

complete ^conciliation, between arid Hinduism. Among the

may

be

mentioned

thse
as

that led the
in the

Hindus
of a
castes,

to

join

hands with the Mu^almans
danger.
suffered
of

event
of all
in

common

Men

as

well
felt

women

who had

much,

drawn together

a

common bond

sympathy. The policy of opening careers to talents contributed much to mutual love. Socially, the presence of Hindu women in Muslim Harems

went

enough towards* welding the two elements The schools, where Hindus and Muslims together. received their education together, too had a great unifyThe policy of religious toleration and the ing influence. influence of the Muslim Sufi, who came to deride the
far
ritualistic side of his faith

and believed that salvation was

a concern for all, that all were equal in the eyes of God, and that there was no difference between the high-born and the low, between a Hindu and a Musalman, were among the religious force which had no mean share in bringing about a reconciliation between Islam and Hinduism.

400

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
The
forces

that

working for the vivendi were also responsible
the

were

modus
for

the

Bhaktl

Mo'vemeS

rise of

Bhakn Movement

analo-

gous and contemporary to the Reformwhich recognized ation Movement of Mediaeval Europe and Ram between no difference Rahim, Ka'ba and
Kailash,

Qur'an
is

and

Puran,

and

inculcated
of
this

that

Karma

Dharma.
Kabir,

The

preachers

creed

Ramananda,

Dadu, Ramdas, Surdas, Nanak and
in

flourished Chaitanya and preached the principle

who

different parts

of

India

immensely influenced by phase of the same movement.

God, were Unity Islam. Sikhism is only a
of
of

The

influence

of

Islam
.

on Indian
,

religious
.
.

life

Tnflurnrp of Islam on Indian
religious hfe

own

and thought has continued to our ... ,. ., t' mes an " W1 *I continue into the
future which
is still
.

before us.

and thought.

The
.

systems of belief in vogue among the Indians at the advent of the Musalmans in India had
drifted

very

largely

away

from

the

fundamental

1

principles

texts

and practices embodied in their earliest religious and numerous forms of idolatry had beep

1 substituted for divine worship. Things have changed so much since the advent of Islam that though the

orthodox

still

have
is

idols in their

temples, their
it

attitude

towards them

not the same as

used

to be before

Islam appeared
that they
are

in India.

The
not
as

intelligentsia

among them
gods,

assert that the idols are

worshipped
aids

as

but
of

employed

to

concentration
to

thought and that those
are,

who

appear
to

in fact,

worshipping

Him

Whom

worship them alone worship is

RETROSPECT
due.
this

401
traced in

The

influence of Islam
attitude of

can be clearly
so

in the Hindus, changed movements which have sprung up within the fold of Hinduism itself for combating idol-worship and reviving the ancient Vedic faith. Though the Sikhs and the

the

also

ArySsamajists sometimes Islam in order, against
influence, they

adopt

a

militant to

attitude
its

perhaps,

counteract

owe a

lasting debt of gratitude to Islam,

to which they owe the

origin

and existence of

their

religions which, under the influence of Islam, denounce the unity of God, condemn idol-worship, preach

priest-hood, deprecate caste restrictions, adfait others into

the fold of their faiths

This

is

and recommend widow-marriage. what Islam has contributed to Indian religious
spiritual ideals.

thought and

In India, Islam was represented by its two famous *^ e *^ as anc* 4 ^ e Sunnis. sects f he two Royal of Islam Houses Geographically, the former were Perin Mughal India. VT tl sian. Numerically the latter were
:
.
.

, ,

.

stronger.

The Sunnis

in

the North and the

Shias in

the South formed the two
India.
*

Royal Houses of Islam in As almost everywhere in the Muslim World, these
of

two

at daggers drawn with each other and a fierce rivalry existed between them.
sects

IsUm were

Economic Features

The early Emperors of India were occupied too much with the work of conquest and consolidation.
Consequently, in a relatively unsettled state of affairs economic development could not take place quite so
effectively as in the

as

more peaceful times. But gradually the Mughal power struck its root deep into the Indian

402
soi 1 ,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
the

Mughal Emperors began

to

devote

their

attention to the material well-being of their subjects.
Agriculture, the

gn U

most important industry of India, was properly understood and encour-

'

introduced

aged by the Mughal Kings. They multifarious reforms: waste lands were

reclaimed, canals were opened, tanks

were constructed

and wells were
of Indian
i

dug

for

irrigation

interests of the peasants,

who

The purposes.* constituted the back-bone
looked after
pursuits.

social structure,

were properly

and every impetus was given

to agricultural

The

beneficeni. results

were

that agriculture

improved,

agriculturists

flourished,

peasants

prospered

and
the

the

land revenue increased abundantly. Closely connected with agriculture

is

land

Land Revenue System and its wor ing.

revenue system which next demands a word of comment. To Sher Shah

introducing an elaborate system of revenue settlement based on the actual measurement of land, which was

by Akbar the Great. The justly regarded as one of the crowning achievesystem ments of Mughal Rule in India. It is in fact an
subsequently
is

improved

enduring contribution to Indian agriculture. It has survived in India under the British Rule with all its
essential features

under the Raiyatwarl Settlement.

The

appropriately pointed out here that it was the for the first time, introduced the Persian- wheel and dug canals in India for purposes of irrigation. This viras decidedly a great improvement on the means of irrigation then known ID India.

share of the State was sometimes one-third and often * It may be

Muslims who,

RETROSPECT

403

one-fourth of the aggregate produce, which was paid in cash or kind according to the convenience of the cultivator.

At present the land revenue represents about one-

Was the land revenue exorbitant?
ruler

fifth

the aggregate produce of the whole land under cultivation. There
of
.
.
.

-

who

no instance of any Hindu or Muslim could be satisfied with such a low rate of
is

.,.

,_

.,

..

land revenue.

How

is

then such

an enormous rate of

land revenue to be
far to seek
:

accounted for?

The

reason

is

not

In the past, the land revenue constituted the main source of State income ; whereas the sources
1

of revenue, such as the income-tax
in these

and customs
*

duties,

the land days are so important that revenue/ has ceased to be a source of Imperial
Professor Brij Narain,

revenue

while

comparing a farmer
his

brother of to-day cojnpare
.

&

of Akbar's
f

time with
to

brother of
of

e

kbar

'

s

nd ht

^y.

refers

tbe

status

a

^

Lyallpur farmer, the most opulent of
c j ags ^ an(j

comes
that

to an interesting

conclusion.

He

points

out

Akbar's
of

was more prosperous than the best

peasant these days.

The

instructions to the
in

collectors of

the land revenue

were couched

extremely

humanitarian terms and

were worked with great lenity unless we postulate that Rebates and remissions they were not strictly enforced.

were never grudged. According to Mr. Moreland, the land was cultivated in small holdings in the seventeenth century, but we are left in the dark as to the average size of a holding. That it was larger than the average
,

holding of to-day
population
is

is

true because a

larger

proportion of
in

now

supported

by land thaa

those

404
days.
Finally,

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

the average yield per acre in those been greater than at present because of have times must the depreciation in the quality of land caused by more
intensive cultivation
in order

to
if

keep pace

with
for

the

increase in population.

Even
fertility

we suppose

argu-

ment's

sake that the

of the land then under

cultivation has not

hundred years,

we

diminished during the past three cannot but admit that extensive

cultivation, necessitated

by growing population, embracresult in the decrease of average

ing inferior lands,

must

To avoid further controversy, suffice it to produce. statistics are now available to prove reliable say that that an average workman in those days was better off
than at present.*
It is

estimated that the rupee in terms

of important food-grains, such as wheat, gram, barley, jowar and ghee t was, three centuries ago, worth thirteen

times as

average an workman was 2'7d. If ordinary daily wage Coryat, an English traveller, could maintain himself
to-day.
of
1
'

much

as

the rupee

of

The

very competently

in his

'

travels,

with meate, drinke
safely

and
a

clothes' for 2d. a day,

we can

assume that

country could maintain himself as competently, if not more, with the same. Smith says that a man could live on Id. to
'

common

labourer and a

native of the

2d. a day.'

The

inference

is

obvious.

We

cannot presuppose a

F -mime Relief
deaths.

country depending on without agriculture facing failures of
resulting
if

crops,

in

starvation
is

and

Famine-relief,

rendered properly,

a tribute

te the stability of a State

and
by

its

economic well-being.
Narain.

*Sce Indian Economic

Life,

Brij

RETROSPECT
So
it is

405

a part of our review to state how famines were dealt with in those days. During the Mughal Rule

whenever a famine broke out, State assistance was given to the famine-stricken and grain was supplied
State hospitals and from the Imperial granaries. aim-houses were established in important quarters for
free

the sick and the poor.
establishments,
further
relief,

Large Khanqahs, or charitable
the State in the helped and the testimony of foreign

administration of
travellers

shows that
fed
gratis.

at these

Khanqahs hundreds
the solicitude

of

men were

With

all

of the

State, the horrors of

famine were great and alarming because of the imperfect means of communication and The fact, however, remains that the transportation.

Mughal Government was

alive to

its

duty of combating

this calamity, or at least mitigating its horrors.

The
_
.

State encouraged other industries also.
.

Among
.
_
.

Textile Industries.

f

local manufactures, '
.
_
.

foreign travellers
fabrics

have counted

six fine cotton

silk handkerchiefs and caps embroidered with gold, painted ware, basins, cups, steel guns, knives and scissors were all manufactured at

and have recorded that

different places in this country.

It is also said that

a

kind of white paper was also manufactured from bark of a tree which was very smooth and glossy. Trade was carried on with foreign countries.
Foreign Trade.

the

The

-

.

most important item
trade
of
;

in

the foreign
srfid

India
all

may
sorts.

be

to have

been

textile

manufactures of

Borbose and

Varthema, two European
supplied
'all

writers, inform us that India

Persia, Tartary,

Turkey,

Syria,

Barbary,

406

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
.

Arabia, Ethiopia,

.

.with silk and cotton

stuffs.'

Other

articles of export were the beautiful shawls of Kashmir, made of pure wool and silk mixture, the carpets of

Lahore and Agra, and the cotton cloth of Dacca, called the Dacca muslin, fittingly styled 'Ab-i-Rawan,' or the moving water, famous in the world for its fine texture.
In the middle of the seventeenth century India supplied

Europe with diamonds,
of spices,

pearls, chintzes, large quantities

drugs, such as horax, opium, etc., tobacco and saltpetre. Even the steel used in the manufacture
of the

famous Damascus blades was exported from the Kingdom of Golconda. Opium and indigo, with dye stuffs, were practically Indian monopolies and formed
the bulk of India's international trade. Skins and hides were also exported. Among the articles of import may be mentioned woollen fabrics, scarlet cloth, metal works,

raw

silk,

porcelain, glass-ware,

paper and such other

Animals, specially horses, were imported from Of other animals, such as Arabia, Persia and Turkey.
things.

apes, peacocks, parrots and other pretty birds, figuring either as exports or as imports, there is no specific

evidence
therefore,

recorded.
if

The

trade

in

these

animals,

ot

.

Ship-building.

must have been very insignificant. Ship-building was also an important industry of India in those days. ..... Certainly, Jf wood
any,

/

products, occurring so

commonly

in

Indian trade, must have been Indian ships constructed to serve as ocean-carriers. Mr. Moreland informs us " that apart from the Portuguese trade to Europe, the great bulk of the commerce in the Indian seas was
carried in ships built in India,

and that most

of these

RETROSPECT
and
or
certainly all the large ones,

407

were constructed on the

west coast, not at any one centre, but at various pojnts It is inlets within easy reach of the forests. also built all the small practically certain that India

boats required for the coasting trade from BengSl as far as Sind, and the aggregate volume of shipping was therefore very great when measured by contemporary

standards/

1

We know
A
of

that both the English

and the

Dutch had some of their ships constructed in India. This could not be so unless those ships were cheap and
durable.

President and Council to the

anticipated ship-building in Bombay states: "...these carpenters are grown so expert and masters of their art that there are many Indian vessels that in shape exceed those

1668 A. C. by the English Company in reply to some objections with regard to the starting of
letter

that

come either out of England or Holland." The industrial condition *of India during the Mughal

Period and before has been admirably summed up by the industrial Commission in the following passage : " At a time when the west of Europe, the birthplace of modern industrial system, was inhabited by uncivilized tribes, India was famous for the wealth of

her

rulers

and

for

the

high

artistic

skill

of

her
the
first

craftsmen.

And

even at a

much

later period,

when
their

merchant adventurers from the west
in India, the industrial

made

development of the appearance country was, at any rate, not inferior to that of more

advanced European nations.

1

'*

* This view is shared and supported by n&ny an eminent " The skill of the Indians jn authority on the subject e. g.
;
t

408

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Turning next to the mineral wealth of the country, we find that gold was found in
,

Mineral Wealth.

,

,

.

Kamaon and
in

TT

,
,

.

and

rivers
;

;

silver

Agra
;

;

Punjab mountains copper in Narnaul and
in the
;

Kamaon
saltpetre

iron in Bengal
;

saltpetre in Thatta, Gujarat
;

and Kheora

tin in

Jammu

sweet-lime in Kheora
;

and

abundance at Agra and PatnS, whereas diamonds were extracted from the mines of Harpal (in was
in

Bengal) and Golconda. Coming next to the currency of the country during
the Muslim rule,
Currency System.
circulation
in

we

notice that coins

Q{

various

denominations
the

were

in

India.

In

main,

the

currency

consisted of gold

mohars, silver tankas and copper dams. There were also fractional parts of these three used standards. Villagers and citizens of small towns
shells (cowries) in the ordinary bargains of their daily
life.

between gold and silver coins varied from time to time, though both were coined freely by It was 8 1 in the early the Mughal Emperors.

The

ratio

:

Muslim period and had fallen to 7 1 after the conquest of the Deccan by Ala-ud-DIn Khilji, had now become
:

the production of delicate woven fabrics, in the mixing of colours, the working of metals and precious stones and in all manners of technical arts has from very early times enjoyed

world-wide celebrity." Professor Weber. Industry not only supplied all local wants but also enabled India to export its " It was this finished products to foreign countries," Ranade.
trade and prosperity that attracted the European traders to India. Thei- rivalry to secure a footing in India at that time the

ct

was occasioned not by the raw materials of the country but by value and variety of her manufactures and crafts." Professors Jathar and Beri. (Also see Education in Muslim India,
PD. 200
ff.)

RETROSPECT
9'4
:

409

1.

Gold was

the chief currency of the country

for all big

Ordinary calculations were made in rupees and gold w#s used for making presents and paying tributes. The silver tankas, first coined by Altmash, became the legal tender of Northern India
transactions.
for all subsequent years

and acquired its present weight (180 grains) and the name of rupee in the reign of Sher Shah Sun (1542 A. C.) The fact that the currency of
India underwent considerable improvement in purity, weight and artistic execution during the Mughal period can never be called in question. Akbar deserves very

high credit for the excellence of his extremely varied coinage, both as regards the purity *of metal, the
fulness
of

weight,
his

and

artistic

execution.
yielded

Neither
to

Akbar,

nor

successors,

ever

the

temptation of debasing coinage either in weight or in
purity, so that

Smith

is

fully justified in

pronouncing

the

Mughal

coinage as far superior to that of

Queen

Elizabeth or other contemporary sovereigns of Europe. Many a magnificent Muslim monarch, like Balban,

*

Communication and
.

transportation.

Firoz Shah Tughluq, Sikandar Lodhi, Sher Shah Sun, and all the Great Mughals almost paid '
'Ala-ud-Dln,
.

,

specific attention to the construction

of roads

and highways

in their

kingdom.

Several roads

were laid so expeditiously that they linked together all the strategic frontier cities of the Empire. Sher Shah Sun's name is intimately associated with the 'opening of
the Grand
Calcutta.

Trunk Road, running from Peshawar
Riding
horses,

to

bullock-carts,

elephants,

camels, and palanquins were

the

principal

means

of

410

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

conveyance and baggage transportation. Great care was taken to secure the person and property of the travellers. Many caravanserais were built along the chief routes with fruit-gardens and separate arrangements for the
comfort of Hindus and Muslims
of
alike.

The splendour

Imperial Musalmans, as displayed in their extensive paraphernalia of travel and encampment, reached its climax during the Mughal Period of Indian
history.

the

of

Muhammadan times, there is hardly a prince any importance who is not in some ways connected
In

"

So says Professor K. T. Shah

:

with road-making. Great arterial highways, planted with an arcade of trees all along their length, linked the principal centres of the Empire over hundreds and hundreds of
miles.

The comfort and convenience
hostels

of the travellers

was

duly secured by the public

walled enclosures,

with ample lodging and stabling, water tanks, and provision-shops, to supply all the needs of the travellers at convenient stages ; while the distance travelled was
indicated by mile-stones easily noticeable even at night. Where the nature of the country would not permit of

proper road making, or where transport by water was more convenient, the rivers were utilized for popular as well as Imperial voyages, attended by all pomp and

ceremony

of

a most luxurious court."
in

The
the people.

people

general,
,

we gather
chronicles,
,
,

from
were,

the

Condition of

contemporary
.,
.

on

t" 6 whole, happy and prosperous. Their houses were kachcha as well
'

as

pakka, though those of the former kind (kachcha) were more numerous. They were airy, and pleasant,

RETROSPECT

411

most of them having courts and gardens, being commodious inside and containing good furniture. Every modest house was well-furnished, and had a called room, garden, a reservoir and an audience DlwanWiana, the floor of which was covered with costly carpets. Every important city had schools and colleges, libraries and literary societies, hostels and hospitals, and baths and wells for the convenience of the public
1

;

the streets, learn, were daily cleaned by sweepers. Barring out a few instances of intolerance and
Relations between

we

some

outbursts of

fanaticism,

the

Hindus and
Muslims.
characterised
toleration.

relations \M r

between
"

Muslims

were

by good- will
equality
of

and
all
',

Hindus and j j cordial and were mrtual love and
the
i

Matrimonial
of

alliances

of

the
of

Imperial

House,
'

social

uniformity

law and

usagp

people, indiscriminate distribu-

classes

tion of posts and powers among all classes of people,* regardless of their rank, race or religion, and social
* Even 'Alamgir, who was so much harassed by the Hindus, did not refuse to employ them, in his service. " In an interesting collection of Aurangzeb's orders and despatches as yet

down what may be

" we find him laying says Sir Thomas Arnold, .termed the supreme law of toleration for the ruler of people of another faith. .....Government posts ought

unpublished

",

to be bestowed according to ability and from no other consideration." That 'Alamgir was true to (Preaching of Islam, p. 214).

this

*

supreme law of toleration
:

',

is testified

to

by Hamilton
is

who

says

"The

religion of

Bengal by law established

Mahometan,

yet for one Mahometan there are above an hundred pagans, and the publick offices and posts of trust are filled with men of both persuations." (A New Account of the East Indies, Vol., ii,
P. 14.)

412
intercourse were

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
some of the dominant factors which communal harmony and national solidarity.
interesting study

contributed to

As
,
.

this

comes
,
; ,

to a close,

it

is
is

_ Conclusion.

that the preceding account hoped r

sufficient to enable the reader to gauge

the prosperity of those times.

The Mughals have come

and gone, but they have left a lasting impress not only on the history of their times but also on the hearts of
of Hindus as well as Hindustan, Their civilizing influence, as seen in their Sulh-i-kul policy, enjoining the freedom of worship and the liberty of conscience, in the protection of the poor,

the

inhabitants

Musalmans.

in the

arts

works of public welfare, in the encouragement of and sciences, poetry and philosophy, in the promotion

of education

and
in

literature

and commerce,

in the abundance of industry the rich efflorescence of fine arts, can be
;

traced not only in the huge mass of historical literature that has come down to us, but also in the beneficial
institutions

which have survived

to

our

own

times.

The revenue and

the judicial departments of the present Indian administration teem with terminologies of their
invention and in almost every part of

Modern India the
of

entire

language

of

administration,

technique
creation

in many an art and craft and bears the stamp of Mughal Rule. Mountains were not yet tunnelled and space was not yet conquered science, in short, had not yet achieved
;

navigation, of is of Muslim

The wonder, therefore, is not that the maintained Mughals peace and established law and order througnout the length and breadth of their
its

victories.

far-flung Empire, but that they did

it

so admirably.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
English

Akbar the Great Moghul, Vincent A. Smith (Oxford Akbar Colonel Malleson.
t

edition).

Ancient Indian Education, Rev. F. E. Keay. Anecdotes of Aurangzeb and Historical Essays, Jadunath Sarkar. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Lieut.-Col. James Tod. Arabic History of Gujarat, edited by E. D. Ross. Archaeological Survey of Eastern India, Burgess.
Archceological Survey of India, Fuhrer. A rchceology of Delhi, Carr Stephen. Architecture at Bijapur, J. Furgusson.

Architecture at Fathpur Sikri, Vincent A. Smith.

Aurangzeb, Stanley-Lane-Poole (R. I. S.). Aurangzeb, M. Elphinstone, edited by Sri Ram Sharma. Babar, Stanley-Lane- Poole (R. I. S.). Brief History of the Indian Peoples, A. W. W. Hunter. Bermer's Travels, translated by Archibald Constable.
Bernier's Travels, translated

by Ouldinburgh. Arnold. Caliphate, William Muir. Cambridge History of India (Volumes 3 arid 4).
Caliphate, The, T.

W.

Chronicles of the

Pathan Kings

of Delhi, The,

Edward Thomas.

Commentary

of Monserrat, Fr.

Monserrat.

Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages, Beanies. Delhi, Past and Present, Fanshawe. East India Trade in the 17th Century, Shafaat Ahmad Khan. Economic History of India (2 Volumes), R. C. Dutt. Education in Muslim India, S. M. Jaffar. Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mogul,

Hakluyt Society). Emperor Akbar, Von Noer. translated by A. S. Beveridge. Empire of the Great Mogul, The, De Laet, translated by Hoyland and Banerji.
Encyclopaedia Britannica (12th edition), Essays on Indian Economics Ranadet
,

1615-19 (edited for the

414
Fall of the Fall of the

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Mughal Empire, The, Jadunath Sarkar. Mughal Empire, The, Keen. Fragment of the Mogul Empire, A, Robert Orme. From Akbar to Aurangzeb, W. H. Moreland. Gardens of the Great Mughals C. M. V. Stuart. Hand-Book to Agra and the Taj, E. B. Havell.
t

Hindustan in Miniature, Shoberl. Historical Fragments, Robert Orme. History of Aryan Rule in India, The, E. B. Havell. History of Aurangzeb, (five volumes), Jadunath Sark
Bengal, Stewart. History of the Deccan, Jonathan Scott. History of India, A,E. W. Thomson. History of India, Meadows Taylor.
History
o1

ar.

History of India, The, M. Elphinstone. History of India, Prothero. History of India, H. G. Keen.

History of India as told by
Elliot

its

own Historians
J.

(eight volumes),

and Dowson.
Fergusson.

History of India and Eastern Architecture, History of Jahangir, Beni Prasad.

History of the Great Mughals, E. Kennedy. History of the Punjab, Latif
.

History of the

Maratha

People,

A Kincaid and
,

Parasnis.

History of theMarathas, Grand Duff. History of Mediaeval India, Ishwari Prasad.
History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan from the year 1745, A, Robert Orme. History of the Rise of the Muhammadan Power in India, J. Bnggs.

by H. L. O. Garratt). Saksena. History of Imperial Gazetteer of India, The, W. W. Hunter. India, Impressions and Suggestions, J. H. Hardie. India and Her People, Swami Abhedananda. India at the Death of Akbar, W. H. Moreiand.
History of the Sikhs,

Cunnigham

(edited

Shah Jahan

of Delhi, B. P,

Indian Antiquary. Indian Architecture, E. B. Havell. Indian Economic Life, Brij Narain. Indian Economics, Jathar and Beri. Indian Painting under the Mughals, Brown.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Indian Year Book, edited by Sir S Keed. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London). Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. Land of the Five Rivers and Sindh, David Ross. Later Mughals, Irvine.
Letters of Aurangzeb, Bilimona.

415

Life and Exploits of Shivaji,
J.

K. A. Sabhasad, translated by

Mankar.

India, The, Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Mediaeval India, S. M. Jaffar. Mediaeval India under Muhammadan Rule, Stanley-Lane-Poole. Memoirs of Babar (translation), Erskine.

Making of

Miniature Painting and Painters of Persia, India and Turkey,
Martin.

Jadunath Sarkar. Mughal Kingship and Nobility, Ram Prasad Khosla. Mughal Rule in India, Edwards and Garratt. Muhammadanism. D. S. Margoliouth (H. U. L. S.). Muslim University Journal, Aligarh. New Account of the East Indies, A, Alexandar Hamilton.
Aluffhal Administration,

New Account
.

of East India and Persia, A, Fryer, Oriental Biographical Dictionary, An, T. W. Beaie, edited by

H. G. Keen.

Oxford History of India, Vincent A. Smith. Peoples and Problems of India. J. W. Holderness (H. U. L. S.). Preachings of Islam, Thomas Arnold. Promotion of Learning in India during Mohammadan Rule, N. N. Law. Report of Industrial Commission (1918). Revenue Resources of the Mughal Empire in India (1593-1707), The,

Edward Thomas.
Rise of the Maratha Power, Ranade. Seven Cities of Delhi, Hearn.
Shivaji and His Times, Jadunath Sarkar. Short History of India, A, E. B. Ha veil.

Short History of the Saracens, A, Amir Ali. Sikh Religion, its Gurus, Sacred Writings and M. A. Macauliffe. Sketch of the Sikhs, Malcolm.

Authors,

The,

416

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Some Cultural Aspects of Muslim Rule in India, S. M. Jaffar. Spirit of Islam, The, Amir Ali. Splendour that was 7nd, The, K. T. Shah. Storia Do Mogor, Niccolao Manucci, translated by W. Irvine. Studies in Mughal India, Jadunath Sarkar. Travels in the Mogul Empire (1656-68), Bernier's, translated by Constable. Ouldinburgh
;
,

Travels in India, Tavernier.

Voyage Voyage

to

to

East India. Edward Terry. Sural in 16S9. A, Ovington.

Persian
Adab-i-'Alamgin, (a collection of 'Alamgir's letters) written by his secretary Qabil Khan and collected by Muhammad Sadiq of Ambala. Ahkdm-i-'Alamgiri (letters of 'Alamgir) Hamid-ud-Dm Khan Nimchah, translated by Jadunath Sarkar as Anecdotes of

Aurangzeb.
Ain-i-Akbari, Abul Fazl, translated
first

by Gladwin and then by

Blochmann and

Jarret.

Akbarnamah, Abul Fazl (N. K. 7'.), translated by H. Bevendge. 'Alamgirnamah, Maulvi Munshi Muhammad Kazini Shirazi
(B.J.S.).

Amal-i-Saleh or Shjih Jahan Namah,
(B.
/. S.).

Muhammad
(B.
I. S.).

Saleh

Kamboh

Badshandmah, Abdul Hamld Lahorl Badshahnamah, Muhammad Wans.

Bisat-ul-Ghanaim (Haqiqathai Hindustan), Dabistan-ul-Mazdhib, Mohsin Fani. Dabistan-ul-Mazahib, QSzl Ibrahim. Fatuhdt-i-'Alamgin, Ishwar Das.

Lachmi Naram

Shafiq,

Humayun-Ndmah,
Beveridge. Farhat-ul-NZzirin,

Gulbadan

Banu
Aslam.
/. S.).

Begum,

translated

by

Muhammad
Khan
(B.

Iqbalndmah, Mo'tamid

Khulasat-ul-Taivarikh, Sujan Rai (Subhan Rai).

Jama-vt'Tawarikh, Faqir
I
t

Muhammad.
Khan
Saqi.

.ub-ut-Tawdrikh-i'Hind Brindaban.

Maasir-i-'Alan'gifi, Mustaid

BIBLIOGRAPHY

417

Maasir-i-Rahimi, Mullah Abdul Baqi (B. I, S.). Maasir-ul-Umara, Shah Nawaz Khan (B. I. S.). Malfuzat-i-Taimurl, translated by Stewart. Mirat-i-Ahmadi, All Muhammad Khan. Muntakhib-ul-Lubdb, Muhammad Hashim Khafi Khan (B. I. S.). Muntakhib-ut-Taivankh, Abdul Qadir Badaoni, translated by

Ranking

;

,

Rowe.

Odnun-i-lsldm, Jaafar Shard. Styar-ul-Muta'dkhkhtrin, Sayyad
Col. Briggs.
7 abaqdt-i-Akbari,

Ghulam

Husain, translated by

Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad.

Takmil-i-Akbarnamah, Inayatullah.
Tdrikh-i'Ferishta,
Briggs.

Muhammad Qasim

Fenshta,

translated by

Tarikh-i-Dakan, Khafi Khan (B. I. S.). Tarikh-i-Rashidi, Mirza Muhammad Waldar l^ughlat, translated

by Ross and

Elias.

Tankh-i-Salatin-t'Afaghana, Ahmad Yadgam Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi, Abbas Khan Sherwanl.
Tarikh-i'Shdh Shujai,

Muhammad
t

Ma'sum.
All.

Tazkara-i-Ulama-i-Hind Maulvi
Tuzkarat-ul'Saldtin-i'Chaghtaia,

Rahman

Tazkarat-ul-Ulama, translated by Sanaullah Khan.

Kamwar

Khan.

Tazkarat-ul-Ulama, Kewal Ram.
Tuzk-i-Babari, Zahir-ud-Dm
t

Tuzk-i~Jahanglri Nur-ud-Din

Muhammad Babar. Muhammad Jahangir.
1

Waqiyat'i-'Alamgin (Zafarrftmah-i- Alamgin), Aqil Khan Razi. Waqiyat-i-Jahnngiri, translated by Major David Price.

Wiqdyd or Hdldt-i-Asad Beg, Asad Beg.
Zubdat-ut-Tawdrikh ShaiKii Nur-ul-Haq.
t

Urdu

Muhammad Husain Azad. Alamgir Maulvi Abdul Rahman. Asdr-us-Sanadid, Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan. Aurangzeb 'Alamgir, Maulana Shibll No'mani. Darbdr-i-Akban Maulana Muhammad Husain Azad.
Ab-i-Haydt Maulana
t

l

t

t

Jamia (Journal

of

Jamia

Millla, Delhi).

Madans

u>a Ddr-ul-Ulum,

Mauiana

Shibll

No'mam.

418

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Maarif, (Journal of Dar-ul-Musannifm, Azamgarh.) Makctib-i-'Alamgiri, Sayyad Najib Ashraf Nadvi. Salatin-i-Bahmani, Maulana Shibll No'manl.
Shir-ul-Ajam. Maulana Shibll No'mani Torikh-i- Hindustan (ten volumes), Maulvi Zakaullah Khan. Tazkara-i-Uldma, Maulana Muhammad Husam Azad. Umara-i-Hunud, Said Ahmad Marahrl. Waqai-'Alamgiri, Chaudhri Nabl Ahmad Sandelvl. Wdqiyvt-i-Dar-ul-Hukumat Dehli, Maulvi Bashir-ud-Din Ahmad.

Waqiyat-i-Mumlihat-i-BijapuY, Maulvi Bashir-ud-Din
Periodicals

Ahmad.

Calcutta Review, The, Calcutta. Hindustan Review, The, Patna.

Indian Antiquary The, Bombay. Hyderabad (Deccan). Journal of Indian History, Allahabad. Jamia (Urdu monthly), Delhi. Journal of the Punjab Historical Society, Lahore. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London. Journal of the Royal Historical Society, London. Journal of the Royal Society of A rts London. Ma'arif (Urdu monthly), Azamgarh. Modern Review, The, Calcutta.
Islamic Culture,
t

Muslim University Journal,

Aligarh.

Twentieth Century, The, Allahabad.

ADDENDUM
ON

BABAR'3 DEATH
The accuracy
of the story of Babar's
'

miraculous death as

'

told by Allama Abul Fazl and reproduced on pages 21-22 of this book has been called in question by some modern research-

authenticity was Professor left the question undecided Dr. Bannerji, the latest biographer o f Humayun. has repeated the story, making a few halting suggestions here and there. Professor Sri Ram Sharma has written an interesting article on the subject and tried to close the controversy for good.* Here I cannot do more than to summarise the results of what I have been able to gather on the subject from various sources. When Humayun fell ill and his illness took a ~enous turn some time in the month of April, 1530, A.C., so much so that the Court physicians failed to cure him, Babar expressed his desire to have recourse to methods other than medicinal. Mir Abul Baqa, the leading living saint of the day attached to the Imperial Court, suggested that the Emperor, in order to save the life of his son, should give away in sacrifice something that was very dear to
scholars.
first

The

to challenge

its

Rushbrook-Wilhams, who, however,

hi.n.

Babar decided to

sacrifice his

own

beloved son.
step

Some

of his associates

life to save that of his dissuaded him from this
'

and suggested that the precious Koh-i-Noor, worth
',

half the

daily expenses of the world
'

might be given away in sacrifice. But quite in keeping with his romantic nature, Babar argued that 'a life for a life was a better means of persuading fates to change their course of action. Thinking that death might spare Humayun if he resorted to that step, he walked round the bed of his son and prayed that his son's illness might be transferred to O God,' he said, if a life can be exchanged for another him.
'
'

life, I f

Babar, give away my life and remaining years to Humayun. His incessant prayers proved too much for him and it may well be said that the fates took him at his word, for he fell ill while his son began to recover till at last he was perfectly well. So far
1

the story of sacrifice, popularized by Abul Fazl, is correct and there is nothing in it that can be questioned. But the miracle

*For
Review,

Professor Sri

Ram

Sharma's

article,

see Calcutta

September, 1936.

420

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

did not proceed further, for after some time Babar too recovered from his illness and became so well that there was absolutely no cause for anxiety, so much so that Humayun was sent away to

Sambhal because his presence was no longer considered necessaAfter some time Babar was taken ill again and Humayun ry. was called back from Sambhal. On his arrival, Humayun was
horrified to see his father

exclaimed

ill again. He is reported to have him well. Wtmt has happened all at once ? Later, Babar seems to have recovered somewhat, for he is said to have ordered the betrothal of two royal princesses. But again there was a relapse and again his condition became precarious. In order to relieve him of his increasing distress, Humayun held a meeting of the Imperial physicians, who, after due consideration and consultation, unar'rnously came to the conclusion that BS bar's disease was due to the poison administered to him by the mother of Ib rahim Lodhi. They admitted their inability and declared that the disease was incurable. Babar then nominated Humayun as his successor and after three days he expired on Monday, the 25th December, 1530. The foregoing facts, pure and simple, clearly show that there was no connection whatsoever between Babar's death a^id his son's illness. The Imperial physicians would have been, from
* :

I

left

'

the very nature of the case, quite as willing to connect Babar's last illness and death with the miracle (act of God) performed by him at the illness of his sen as Babar himself but the tact
;

that they declared that Babar's last illness was due to the eftects of a poison leaves no room for the miracle to continue and shows that Humayun's illness had nothing to do with his death.

The contemporaries too did not see any connection between the two and the silence of such writers as Mirza Muhammad
Haidar Dughlat, Abdul Qadir Badaom, Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad and Ferishta on the subject seems to suggest that Babar did not die as a result of the sacrifice he performed for the life
of his son.

The

last part of the
sacrifice)

'

saving miraculous story (that Babar's
'

death was due to the

is,

therefore, incorrect.*

* The above piece of information, throwing some fresh light on the subject, ought to have been inserted at its proper place in Chapter II, but it escaped my notice when that part of the book was being printed and hence it finds its place here.

INDEX
[Abbreviations.

d/o=daughter of f/ofather of ; Kh=Khawajah ;
;

M.Maulana; m/o=mother
;

of ; P.
;

Prince ;R.

ruler;

S.^Sayyad Sh.=-Shaikh

and s/o* son

of.]

A
Abajl Sonder, 321-22 Abbas, Shah of Persia, 185
Abba^ides,
115, 134

Abul Path,
332

s/o Shaista

Khan,

Abul Path, Hakim, 105 Abul Path, Masih-ud-Din,
169

164,

Abdul Hakim Slalkoti, 279 Abdul Hamid Lahori, 1,224,229 Abdul Haq Dehlawi, 215 Abdullah, Governor of Gujarat,
189

Abul

Fazl, Allama,

1,106,

110,

113,116,121,132-33,139,162-64.

166-68,225

Abul Hasan, Sultan of Bijapur,
351-52

Abdullah Khan Uzbeg.84-5,104,
106, 108

Adul Hasan, Governor of Benares,

296-97

Abdullah

Makhdum-ul-Mulk,

118, 119, 123

Abul Hasan, Painter, 218 Abul Qasim, s/o Kamran, 85
Achibal Bagh at Kashmir, 219

Abdullah, Mir, 175

HumSyun's Court^bdul scholar, 46 AJxlul Mali, Governor of the
Latif,

Acmal Khan,
Adah,
'Adil.

288-89

Acquaviva, Father Rudolf, 90
see

Muhammad Shah
Akbar's fosterrebellion,

Punjab, 72

Abdul Malik, Kh 42 Abdul Qadir Badaoni,
,

Adham Khan,
129,131-

33,136-37,164-66,170

brother, 83-4
'Adil

82; His

Abdul Qasim

Irani, Mir, 279

Shah,

All, 190-91, 236, 238,

Abdun-Nabi.Sh., 118-19,123,170 Abdun-Nabi, Sayyad, 305

324, 330-31, 338

'Adil

Abdur Rahlm, Diwan of Lahore,
183

Shah, Sikandar, 349-50 Administration under Babar, 22-24 Humayun, 42 ft.;
; ,

,

Abdur Rahim, Khan-i-Khanan.
107,109-10,164.169,189-90

Salim Sher Shah, 56 ff.; Shah, 68-9;-, Akbar, 14161
'

Abdur Razzaq, 351-52 Abdus Samad, 151 Abdus Samad, Kh., 173
Abui Faiz
(Faizi). 121,165,168

;

,

Jahangir,

213-14

;

,

Shah Jahan, 274;, Shivaj
341-42;-, 'Alamgir, 369-72; the Great Mughals, 379 ff.
,

422
Afghans, 289-90 AfrHIs, 160 Afzal Kh5n, 324-25
der, 326

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Careers opened to Rajputs and other Hindus, 87Freedom of worship 8; and liberty of conscience
87
;

;

His mur-

Aghar Khan,

289-90

Agriculture, 402

Social reenjoined, 88; 88-9 forms, Rajputs recon;

A had is,

160

ciled 89;

Akbar and the
89
ff;

Ahl-i-Bait, 48

Portuguese,

First

Ahl-i-Daulat, 44-5

Portuguese

Mission,

90;
91
;

Ahl-i-Murad, 44-5
Ahl-i-Sa'adat. 44-5 AM-i'Tardb, 44-5

Second
Akbar's

,90;

Third,
;

Early object, 91 of Akbar, 92; conquests

'Ain-i-Akbari. 139, 163 Ahmad Mirza, 10 Ahmad Mullah, 164

Conquest
93
;
,

of

Gondwana,
;
,

A jit

Singh, s/o jaswant Singh,

294309-10 Akanna, 350
Akhar, s/o Aurangzeb, see Muhammad Akbar. Akhar the Great, 6 His birth, 39; His early life, 71-2; His
;

93-8 Mew5r, Gujarat, 98-100;, Bengal, 100-101 Qaqshal rebellion, 101-102; Conquest of Kabul, 102-4: North- West Frontier, 104 Roshanite Movement, 105-106: Conquest of Kashmir, 106-108:, Sind and
; ;

Balochistan, 107;
107-108;

,Qandhar,

Political accession, 72-3 ; condition of India in 1556 A.

The Deccan Cam109-110
; ;

paign, 108-109; Conquest of

C,

73-4

;

Second Battle of
Results of

Ahmadnagar,

-,

Panipat, 75-6; the Battle, 76;
of Sur claimants

Submission and end of
;

Khandesh, 110-11 Extent of Akbar's Empire, 111-12; His
last days, 112-13
;

Baithe Sur Dynasty, 76-7 ram Khan, 77-8; His fall, Petticoat Govern78-81; ment', 81-2; Akbar's posi*

114 ff;

Reference

Dm-i-Ilahi, to th<>

history of the Saracens, 11415 To the history of Muslim rule in India, 115-16;
; ,

tion in 1564 A. C., 82
bellion of
,

:

Re83
;

Akbar's orthodoxy, 116-18;

Khan Zaman,
4
;

Change
29
;

into liberalism, 118-

Adham Khan, 83

,

Ab-

dullah Knan, 84-5,
85-6;

,Uzbegs,

The

Ibadat Khanah, 120-21 ; Document or infallible

Monstrous act of Mu'azzam, 86 Khwajah Akbar and the Rajputs, 86 Matrimonial alliances, ff.;
;

Decree, 121-23; Its importance, 123-24; Its effect, 12425 Preliminaries to the
;

promulgation of the Divine

INDEX
Faith, 125-26; Its promulga126-27; Its principles,

423
Branding of horses keeping descriptive
161
;

and
rolls,

tion,

Its philosophic 127-128; review, 127-31 ; Anti-Islamic Their 131-32 ordinances, 132-33 ; Noer's criticism,
;

Literature
162
;

arts,

ff;

and fine Akbarnamah,
; ;

appraisal of Badaoni, 13334 Sijdah, 134; Fire-worship
;

162-63 Aln-i-Akbarl, 163-64 164 Other Tarikh-t-AJ/i, books, 164 ; Translated Versions, 164-65 ; Hindu literature, 165-66 Illustrated Ver;

sun-worship, 134-35 Why were boars kept in the 135 Palace ? Imperial Women in the Imperial
;

and

sions,

166

;

;

Scholars,

167-70

Muslim CourtHindu
;

Harem,

135-36

;

Why was

the slaughter of cows forbidden ? 136; Why were Mullahs and Shaikhs exiled ? 136 Criticism of Smith's
;

Music, 174-76; Calligraphy, 176; Architecture, 176-78; GarEstimate of dens, 178; Akbar's achievements, 178 79

Court-Scholars, 172-74; Painting,

170-72

;

views on Akbar's religious
thoughts, 137-38
;

Akbarnamah.

1,

139, 162-3

;

166

Was Akbar
Pro;

an

apostate?

ministration,

138-40; Ad141 ff ; Central
;

Alai.Sh. ,58 'Alamgir, see Aurangzeb

Government, 142-44 vincial Government,
47
;

Ala-ud-Dm Khilji, 62,104,161 Ala-ud-Dm Lodhi, 9, 13. 34
All,

144-45

Cousin of Babar,

11

District administration, 146-

Imperial Service, 147-48; Secret Service, 148; Adand ministration of law justice, 148-49 Promotion of education, 149-50;, Postal
;

All All

Akbar Jam!, Sh., 38 Mardan Khan, 239-40,

243,

271-72
Ali Quli Istajlu

(Sher Afgan),

Means of communication and transportaService, 150
;

Marriage with Mehr-un-Nisa, 195 His murder, 195-97 Amar Das, Sikh Guiu, 359-60
;

Amar

Singh, s/o RanS. PratSp,

tion,

151

;

Imperial Mints, Police Force, 152 Land
;
;

151

98, 186-88

Amatya, 342
'Amil, his duties, 145

Revenue

153-57; Military reforms, 157-61 ; In-

System,

Amin-i-Qazwini, Mirza, 228-29

fantry, 157;

Artillery,
;

157-

58 9
;

Cavalry, 158 Navy, 1581 59 ; Elephant- Corps, Mansabdari System, 159 60 System* of payment, 161;
;

Amir Fath-ullah ShirazJ, 166 Amir Hamzah, Story of, 166 Amir Khan, 2GO
Amir-ul-Bahr, 158 Amritsar, Foundation
of,

;

360

424
Amusements, 394

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
359
ff.

Angad Dev, Sikh Guru,
Antony Botelho,
Archian, Battle
139

career, 246-47 ; His resignation and renunciation of the

Anti-Islamic ordinances, 131
of, 11

world, 247; His appointment to the governorships of different provinces, 248 : His
;

Architecture, under Babar, 27
,

second

viceroyalty

of the

Sher Shah, 63-4; -, Akbar,

Deccan and administrative
His achievements, 248-51 forward policy against the Daccan, 251; War against
;

176-78

;-, Jahangir, 218;-,
Jahan,
;

Sh5h

276-77;-,
,

'Alamgir, 373

the

Great Mughals, 395-6 Arghuns, 13 Arjan Singh, Sikh Guru,
360-61

183-4,

Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) 228 Her career, 231-32 Her character, 233
;
;
;

276-7
Arts,

under Babar,
42.

27-30;
;
,

,

HumSyun,
,

47

Sher
78;

Golconda, 251-2 Bijapur, 252-53 His charactersketch, 255; His alliance with MuradandShuja', 259 His policy during the War of Succession, 260-67 Motives that actuated him to enter it, 268-69; Causes of his success, 269-71; His accession, 28182 His early acts, 282-83
:
,

;

;

;

;

;

Shah, 63-64 ;-, Akbar 172
;

Appointments and
84
;

transfers

Shah

Jahangir 212, 216-19;-, 27478; Jahan, 'Alamgir, 373; -, The Great
,

of Provincial Governors, 283-

Expedition

against

Assam, 284-5; Conquest of
Chittagongr, 285-86; Illness of the Emperor, 286-87 Suppression of the Yusafzais, 287-88; Afridi Rising and
;

Mughals

in general, 385-6

Asaf Khan, Governor of Kara-

Manikpur 93 Asaf Khan, Uzbeg rebel, 85 Asaf Khan, f/o Mumtaz Mahal,
151, 192, 204, 206, 225-28. 231,

Imperial losses, 288 Khattak Close of the Rising, 288-90
;

;

237, 272-3

Asaf Khan, Akbar's general, 97 Astha Pradhan, 342
Askari, Mirza, 20, 33-34,37,39,40 Astronomical Astronomy, 41
;

Afghan War, 290; Alamgir and the Hindus, 291 ff Re;

'

imposition of the Jizia, 29294 Dismissal of Hindu offiDestruction of cials, 294-5
; ;

Tables of Ulugh Beg, 166

temples, 295-6
similar

;

The Benares
;

Atka

Khan,

Shams-ud-Din,

Vakil of Akbar, 82

Aurangzeb
228, 239,

'Alamgir, 203, 224,
241-4
;

Firman, 296-97; Two more 297-98 Firmans, Which temples were destroyed and why.'
299-300;

His early

INDEX
destroyed

425
tion under him, 369-71 Re-arrangement of Subahs, 369; Theocratic character, 370 Suppression of immora;
;

Whether Hindu schools were ? If so, which and
300-301
;

why ?
under

Toleration

'Alamgir, 301-302;* 'Alamgir justified, 303-4; Jat Rebellion, 304-5; Satnamis' Insurrection, 305 6; War with the Rajputs, 306-10; Invasion
of

lity,

371

;

Bait-ul-Mal, Policy of over-centra;

370-71

lization, 371; Justice, 371-72;

Progress
372-73
;

of

education,

Marwar and Mewar,
Rebellion
of

310-

12;

Prince

Akbar, 312-13; Treaty of Udaipur, 313-14 Results of the Rajput 314 Revolt, 'Alamgir and the Marhattas. 324;
; ;

Muhammad

Architecture, 373 ; Music and Painting, 373-74 Gardens, 374 ; Character of
;

Alamgir, 374-76; Views of

some
370-78.

Europeans

on

his

character and achievements,

Shaista

Khan
;

sent against

Atharvaveda, 166
Ayarddnish, 166
Ayat-ul-Kursi,
164

Shivaji, 331-32 of Shivaji, 333;

Submission

Treaty of Purandhar, 333-4; Reception
Imperial

Commentary on,

of Shivaji at the

Capital. 335; His imprison-

Aivarajah'Nawis, 144 Azad Bakhsh, s/o Dara Shikoh,
267

escape, 336-38 ; Recall of Jai Singh and his Renewal of death, 338; the between hostilities the and Marhattas, Mughals 340 Conquest of Bijapur
;

ment and

'Azam,

s/o

Aurangzeb,

See

Muhammad 'Azam
'Azam, Khan, 304 Azan, 131

Azim Humayun, Governor
the Punjab, 67 Aziz Koka, Khan-i-'Azam,
102, 119, 182-83

of

and Golconda,
Razzaq, 351-2
;

349-51;

Abdur

Impolicy of

99,

the Deccan Conquest, 352-54; Suppression of the Marhattas, 355 ; Expedition against

B
Babar,

Zahir-ud-Din
6,

Muhamcareer,

Rajah Ram, 357-58; End of Mughal Em'Alamgir, 358
;

mad,
10-11;

9

ff;

Early
of

Conquest
1

Kabul

pire after his death, 358-59 Suppression of the Sikhs, 365-66 ; 'Alamgir and the
;

11-12; Political condition of India on the eve of his

invasion 12-13

;

First Battle
;

English, 366-68; Extent of the Mughal Empire under Alamgir7368-69; Administra4

of Panlpat t 13-14

War

with

the Rajputs, 15-16; Battle of Khanwah, 16-17 ; Babar's

426

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Bakhshi, His duties, 143, 145 Balban, Sultan of Delhi, 104

address to his noble-men and soldiers, 17-18; Defeat of

Rana Sangha and

rout

of
;

Bapa Rawal
Bargis, 344

of

Me war,

93

18 Rajput Confederacy, Importance of the Battle of

Barwan, painter, 173
Battle

Khanwah, 18-19; Battle of Chanderi, 19-20; Battle of the Gogra, 20-21 ; Extent of Babar's Indian Empire, 21
;

Story of his death, 21-22; His policy and administra-

Batai System, 230 (s) of Bahadurgarh, 260 Chan,Bairowal, 183-4; deri, 19-20 .Chausa, 37, 53 Dharmat, 260-1;-. the
;
,

;

;

,

Gogra,
97
;
,

20-21 ;-Haldig:hat,

His Wasiyat to His account his son, 23-24 of India, 25 His Memoirs, Fine Arts, 27-30; 26-27;
tion, 22-24
;
;

Kanauj,
A. C.),
6-9,

38,

53

;

,

Khanwah,
(1526

18-19 ;-, Panipat

;

13-14;-,

Architecture, 77 ; Poetr, 28 ; Music, 29; Painting, 29 The art of illustn ting books,
,

PSnipat (1556 A. C ), 75-6;, Samugarh, 261-2;-, Sarhind,
41
;
,

;

Surajgarh, 52

Baz Bahadur of Malwa, 83-84, 94
Bernier, 286, 376

29 Gardens, 29-30
;

;

achievements,
estimate, 32

31-32;

Babar's His
of

Bhagu, 287
Bhagvatagita, 166 Bhagvatapurana, 170 Bhagwant Goshain, 297 Bhagwan Das, Rajah, 87,88,106 Bhakti Movement, 5, 317

Baba

Khan, leader Qaqshais 102.

the

Badr-un-Nisa, 281

Badshah Begum, 281 Badshahnamah, 275-79 Badshahi Masjid, at Lahore, 373

Bhao
87

Singh, Rao, 308

Bnarmal Kachchwaha, Rajah,

Bahadur Shah, R.
34-37

of Gujarat,

Bhim
minor R. of
109

Bahadur Shah, Ahmadnagar, Bahar Khan, 51

Singh, Kumar, 311 Bhoja, s/o Rajah Surjana Q6

Ham,

Bihari Lai, Rajah, 171

Bahlol Qadiri, Sh., 279 Bahrain Quli of Gujarat, Instrumental performer, 175

Bihzad, 174
Bilas

Khan, musician, 174
105, 171;

Bariam Khan (Khan Baba), 72
ff
;

Bir Bal, Rajah, 103, His house, 177

His

services

to

the

Bir

Mandal Khan,

of Gwalior,

Mughal
fall,

cause, 77-78; 78-81; 117, 170

His
Bir

175

Bir Narayan, s/o Durgavati, 93

BMt-ul-Mal, 371

Singh

Bundela,

112-13;

INDEX
His rebellion, 225-26 Bishan Das, painter, 218 Bitikcht, His duties, 146-47

427
under Sher
Shah,

Currency
62-63

;, Akbar,

151 ;-, the

Great Mughals, 408-9

Buland Darwaza, 177
Bundelas, Their rebellion, 225-26
Dabir, 342

Daler Khan, 266. 333, 338
Caliphate, 114-15

39,

Calligraphy, under Akbar, 176 Chahar-taslim, 224 of Chand Bibi (Sultana)

Ahmadnagar,
Chanderi, Battle

of,

109-10 19-20

Danadhyaksha. 342 Danishmancl Khan, 284 Daniyal, P., s/o Akbar, 110-112 Dara Shikoh, P., s/o Shah Jahan, 203, 228 His character-sketch, 254; His beha;

Chandra Rao
323-346

of Javli, Rajah,

his father. ,257-58

viour during the illness of His defeat
;

Chandu Shah,

184

at

Charnock, Job, 368 Chatar Khan, musician, 219 Chaubuni Bagh at Lahore, 374 Chaudhan, 150 Chaugan ,polo), 393 Chansa, Battle of, 37, 53
'

Dharmat, 261-62;-, at Samug^rh, 261-62 His last stand and tragic end, 266-67
;

;

268-69

;

300, 302, 304

Dar~ul-Baqa (college), 280 Darya Khan, Lohani, 51 Dastan i-Awir Hamzah, 166, 173
Dastur-ul-Amal, 181-82, 213

Chausar, 393 Chauth, 339-40
Child, Sir John, 367-68 Chingiz Khan, 10, 32

Daswant, painter, 173 D5ud, s/o Sulaiman Kararani
of Bengal, 100-101

Chira, 161

Circumcision, 131
Colleges, see

Daud Dhari, Daud Khan,
338

musician, 174
'Alamgir's general,

Madrasahs
of Islam, 114-15

Commonwealth

Daulat

Khan

Communication and transporMeans of, under tation,
Sher Shah, 60-61 -, Akbar, under the Great 151
;
;
,

Dawan

Lodhi, 9, 13-14 Dhari, Sh., 175
P., s/o

Da war Bakhsh,
Khusrau,

Prince

205, 223

De

Laet, 197
of, 260-61

Mughals, 409-10 Coryat, 404
Crori, 156-57

Desai, Amir, 45 Dharmat, Battle
civilization,

Culture

and
ff.

Mughal, 379

Dhrupad, 176 Dial Shah, 311 Dlanat Khan, 284

428
Diiawar

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Khan, Governor
of
of

Lahore, 183 Garden Dilkusha
Jahan, 205, 219
Din-i-7/a/it,
ries

English in India, 208-13, 367-68 Escheat, Law of, 213

Nur

Espionage, under Sher Shah, 59.60 -, Akbar, 148 other
; ; ,

114-40;
its

Prelimina-

Mughal Emperors.

384-5

to
;

125-26
126-27
Its

Its

promulgation, promulgation,
;

F
Abul Faiz Farid, see Sher Shah Famine, of 1630-3*2 A.C., 228-30;
Faizi. see
,

;

Its principles, 127-28

philosophic review, 128-

31
District

relief,~404-5

administration, under Akbar. 146-47 under other
;

Fath, Khan s/o Malik Ambar, 235

Mughal Emperors, 382
Divine
Faith,
see

Din-i-Uahi

Fatawa-i-'Alawgiri, 371 Fatwa*, 120-21

Diwan. His duties, 142-43,144-45
niw<r.ni-'Am. 277
i Khas, 277, 371 Dost, of Mashed, Us'vd, 175 Dross in Mughal India, 391-2

Diwan

Faujdvr, His duties, 146 Fazil Khan, Prime Minister of 'Alamgir, 336
Fazil

Dnda,

s/o

Surjana

Ham,

%

Khan i Saman, Amir-ulVmara, 281 Fidai Khan, cfficer under

Durga

Das, of

Mowar, 309

Durgavati, Rani, 93

E

Jahanglr, 204 Fidai Khan, 'Alamgir's general, 290

Economic condition of India Firoz Khan, s/o Salim Shah. 69 Firoz MewatI, 266 during the Mughal Rule,
401
ff.

G
Gangadhar, Hindu author. 266
Gardens, of Babar, 2930;, Akbar, 174-76;, Jahangir, 216-18 ;-, Shah Jahan, 278
; ,
.

Education, Progress of, under Babar, 22 ; Humayun, 47 :-, Sher Shah, 63;-, Akbar, 149-50;-, Jahanglr,215.16;-,

Shah

Jahan,
372-3

Technical Ghallabakhsha, System, 155 System of, 386; Ghazi Malik, 104 Ghias Beg, Mirza, f/o Nur Theory of Royal-, 372-3 Edwardes, William, 209 Jahan, 194-95 215,218 Ghias-ud Din Muhammad Eknath, 318 30 Elephant, Corps under Akbar, Khudamir, 159 Ghias-ud- Din Tughluq, 161 Ghulam Hussain, S., 2 Knayat ullah Khan, 293
149
;
,

'Alamgir, education,
149-50
;

'Alamgir, 374 27980;-, Female Gentows, 302

;

INDEX
Gogra, Battle of the, 20-21 Gokle, Jat, 305
(1556),

429
and execution Bairam Khan, 75-76
39,

by

Gopinath Pant, 327-28
Gopinath, His temple, 177 Government, Mughal, 380
Its functions, 381
;

Hijra, 224 Hmdal, Mirza, 33,

40

Govind Singh, Sikh GUI u, 36364

Hindu Beg, Amir, 44 Nasir-ud-Din H u rn a y u n Muhammad, Mughal Emper,

or,

16,

22-23,

34

ff

Grand Trunk Road,
Granth Sahib,

22,

409

marriage
of the

with
38
;

His Harnida
;

183, 359, 361, 366

Banu Begum,

Division
his

Gurmukhi alphabet, 359

Empire among

H
Habib-us-Siyar, 30, 46

brothers, 33 ; Political condition of India and his posi-

Haibat Khan of Samna, 215 Haidar Mirza, of Kashmir, 54
Haldighat, Battle of, 97 Hafiz Tashqandi, 170

tion at his accession, 33-34; Kamran'f occupation of the

Punjab acquiesced in by him, H-35; His war with

Hamfda BSnu Begum, Akbar's
mother,
38, 72

Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, 35-37; His war with Sher

Hamilton, Alexander, 301-302

Khan Afghan,
days

Hamzah, musician, 219
Haribansa, 166 Han Das, musician, 175 Haii Nath, 171 Har Govind, Sikh Guru, 361 HarKishan. Sikh Guru, 362-163 Har Rai, Sikh Guru, 361

m exile,

37-38; 38-39
;

His
,

in

39-49 ; Persia, Conquest of Kabul and Qandhar from

Kamran, 40;
tion,

40-41

;

His restoraHis accomp-

lishments,

41-42;

genious works, 42
ministration,

Hasan AH, Faujdar,
Hasan,
f/o

305

His inHis adHis 42-44;
;

Sher Shah, 50 Hasan Khan Mewati, 18 Hasan, Kh., 43
Havildar, 344

Drum of Justice, 43 ; Classification of the people, 43 ;
43

Fixture for giving audience, ^Twelve sub-divisions, ;
Court-Scholars, 46;

Hawkins,
209
;

Captain William, His account of Jahan14

43-44;

gir's reign, 213

Hayat-ul-Haiwan, 165 Hazari, 344 Pan; -, 344 Hemu, 69 His assumption of independence, 74 ; His defeat
;

His love of libraries, 46-47; Progress of education under His gardens, 47 him, 47 His religious beliefs, 48 His
; ;
;

character and estimate, 4849

at the Battle

of

Panipat

Hussain Beg BadakhshanJ, 183

430

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
education

Hussain, Sh., professor, 46

under Christian

Hussdin Shah, R. of Ahmadnagar, 235

missionaries, 91 ; His views about Akbar, 138 ; His ac181-82;

Hussam Shah
Jaunpur, 176

Sharqi,

R. of

cession, 180; Dastur-ul-Amal Celebration of first

Hussain Waiz, M., 166
I

Ibadat Khanah, 89, 120-21 Ibrahim Khan Sur, 69

Ibrahim

Lodhi,

Sultan,

6,

10,

Khusrau's Execution of Guru Arjan, 184; Loss of Qandhar, 184-86 Conof 186 Subquest Kangra,

Nauroz, 182

;

P.

revolt,

182-84

:

;

;

13-14, 16. 19

jugation of Mewar,

186-88

;

Ibrahim, Mir. 30 Ibrahim, Governor of Bengal, 368

Deccan Campaign, 188-91 Malik Ambar, 189 Almiad; ;

Imad-ud-Din, Hussain, Kh. 151 Imad-ul-Mulk, 36-37 Indar Singh, 309-10
Industries, Textile, 405
Infallible

nagar, 1 K)-01 ; Subsequent career of P. Khusrau, 190 His character, 192; 92;
193

(

Decree,

importance,
effects, 124-25

121-23; 123-24
;

Its

Usman's rebellion in Bengal Bubonic plague, 194 Murder of Sher Afgan, 195;
;
;

Its

Iqbalnamah,
Isa

194, 215,

218

Khan, 304

Ishaq Dhari, Mullah, 174 Islam Khan, Governor of Bengal. 193

marriage Mehr-un-Nisa, 198 Nur Jahan's accomplishtier valour, ments, 199 Tower behind the, 199;
Jahanjjlr's

98

with

;

;

throne'. 200

Islam Khan, Shah Jahan's general, 225 Itimad Khan, Minister of Muzaffar Shah IJ of Gujarat, 99 Itimad Khan, Akbar's minister,
152

Her influence, Her character, of Shah 201 Rebellion of Maha201-203, Jahan, bat Khan, 203-205; Shah Jahan's subsequent move;

200 201
;

;

;

War of ments, 204-205; The Succession, 205-206
;

Itimad-ud-Daulah,

see

Ghias

Beg
J Jahan Ara Begum, d/o
Jahan, 228, 247

Portuguese, 207-208 English, 208 William
; ;

The Haw-

kins

and William Edwardes,

Shah
I

Jahangir, Nu

209; Sir Thomas Roe, 20910 Foreign accounts of
;

r-ud-D

n

Jahangir's
veracity,

reign
210-11

and
;
t

their

Muhammad, Mughal Emperor; His marriage, 87, 98, His

Roe's

description of

Mughal Court

INDEX
and
its customs, 212-13 His description of Jahangir's
;

431

Jaswant Singh, Rajah, 'Alamgir's

general, 261, 286, 288,

personal

character,
;

212

;

294
10
Jats,
;

;

His treachery, 308 309
;

Hawkins* account, 213 Administration under Jahangir,
213-14
letters.
;

333

;

338-39

Their rebellion 304-5

Jananglr's
214-15
;

love of

Jauhar,

Humayun's
rite

gems

Literary of his Court 215 Pro;

Jauhar,
20-95

among

servant, 46 the RajpQts,

motion
216-17

of education, 215
;

;

Fine Arts, 216-19
;

Painters.
;

Painting, 217 ; Ar-

Jesuit Missions to Akbar, 89-91; To Jahangir, 207-208
,

Jijabai,

m/o

chitecture, 218

Music, 219;
Jahangir's His love
re-

Jizia, 4, 65, as

Shivaji, 319-20 292-94 ; 314, 383

Gardens,
for

219

;

Jiwan Khan, Malik, 267
Jodhabai, Her palace, 177

character, 219 20
220-21
;

;

Nurjahan and other
;

latives,

tastes, 221
beliefs,

His refined His religious

Johar f Smgh Bundcla, 275-26 Jugal Kishor, rtis temple 177 Justice. Administration of,

221;

His estimate,

under Hmnajun. 43

;

Sher

222

Shah
Ba bar's younger bro-

Suri, 58-59.
;

;

Akbar,

Jahangir,
ther, 11

Jahangir Dad, musician, 219 Mahal, 177, 218
,

148-49 Jahangir. 180 81,; Shah Jahan, 274, ShivaiJ, 343,. 'Alamgir, 371-2 under the Mughal Emperors in
;
;

218
283, 333-

general,

382-3;
;

Cham

of

Jai Mai, 94-5
Jai Singh, Rajah, 260,

justice, 180

Drum

of-, 43

K
Kablr, religious leader, 400

38
Jai Singh.
105

Rana of Udaipur,

313

Kalilddamnah, 166

jalal, leader of the

Roshanites,

Kalmi Bhakar, 326

Kam

Bakhsh, s/o 'Alamgir, 357
33-35,

Khan, s/o Bahar Khn, 52 Jalal Khan, s/o Sher Shah, see Salim Shah Sun
Jalal

Kamil Khan. 288 Kamran, M'rza,
53,72

39-40,

Jalal-ud-DIn Mirza Beg, Kh., 43 Jamaldar. 344

Kamwar KhSn,

2

Jamal Khan, 50-51
Masjid, 277 Jama-i-Rashidi, 164
Beg, Mirza of Thatta, 107 Janb, 153 ;-; System, 250
.

Kanauj, Battle of, 38, 53 Karan, Rai, s/o Rajah
.

Amar

Jama

Singh, 187
s/o

Kama,

Rajah Ram, 357

Jam

Karkuns, 147
Kautilya, 342-43

432

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Kavi Kulesh (Ka 10 shah), 355 Khali Khan, historian, 274 Khair-ud-Dm Rumi, M 170
,

Lala Beg (Baz Bahadur),
rian, 47

libra-

Khali ullah
I

Khan

284

Khan Jahan,
309

'Alamgir's general,
Loclhi,
;

La il a- Ma] nun, lf>8 Land Revenue System, under
Sher Shah, 57-58 -, Akbar, 152-57;, Shivaji, 343;-, the Great Mughals, 402 3 Lashkar Khan, 284
;

Khan Jahan
general, 189

Akbar's
Jahan's

His revolt, 226

Khan

Jahan,
143

Shah

general, 238

Khansaman,
85-86

Libraries, 46, 166, 168 Litvan, 177
rebellion, 83,

Khan Zaman, His

Lub-ut-Tawankh, 46
Lutf-ullah, Kh., 42

Khan Zamari, Shah Jahan's
general, 238 Khanwah, Battle of, 16
ft
;

M
Madan Mohan, His
temple, 177

Its

importance. Khattaks, Their rising, 288-90

Madanna, Minister ot Qutb Shah of Golconda, 350

Khawan Saldr, 144 Khawas Khan, 316
Khirdafzdndmah, 165
Khtyal, 176

Madan Pandit, 318 Madhu Singh Hada,
Madrasahs,
of

241-42

Babar, 22 ;-, Humayun, 46-47;, Akbar, 149 ;, Jahangir, 215-16;-,

Khizvnddr, His duties, 147

Shah
46

Khudamir, Muhammad,
Khulasat-ul-Akbar, 30
"

44,

Jahan, Alamgir, 372-3
187,

279-80

;

-,

Mahabat Khan, Mughal general,

Khush-hal Khan Khattak, 28890

199,

20fl03
;

;

His

rebellion, 203-4
286, 289

205,226,284,

Khusrau, P. s/o Jahangir, 113; His His rebellion, 182-84
;

Mahabharata, 165-66

subsequent career, 191-92 His character, 192, 200-201 Roe on his His death, 202
; ;

Maham

Ankah, 81-82

;

Mahapattar, musician, 275, 278 Maharashtra, 5, 7, 315-16

character, 212, 221; Bagh, 192

Khusrau

Maheshmahananda, 166

Khwand Mahmud,
Kishu Joshi, 166
Koh-i-Noor
t

Kh., 279

Mahmud II, R. of Bengal, 54 Mahmud Lodhi, 20-21 Mahmud Shah of Bengal, 52
Majnun Khan Kakshak, 96 Makhu, musician, 219 Maldeva of Mewar, 38, 55
Malfuzat-i-Taimu?i
t

21,

219-20
146, 152

Kotwal, His duties, Krishna j I, 327

1.

INDEX
Malik Anibar, 189-91,202 Mahka-i-Zaman, see Arjumand

433

aj;aiiiht Assam, 281-85 Mir Masum, Mughal general,

Banu Begum
Malik Jiwan Khan, 207 Malik Masaud, 194-95 Mallu Khan of Bengal, 54
Mansabdars, 158-80 Man Singh, Rajah, 88,97;

.

107

MJrTaqiShaiili, Amir, 170, Mohtasibs (censors of public morals), 59; Their duties,
143, 283
103,

Mojmii'adar, 342

113,159,171, 180,182-83, 193 Mansiir, Imperial Du&an, 101 Mansur, Us tad, 217-18

Monserrat,

Fr.. 2.

90

Mosques, destroyed by Hindus,
291,293, 306, 311

Manucci, Niccolao. 274 Memoirs of Babar, 26 27 Memoirs of Jahangir, 194 Marhattas, 5, 7, 236 Their cha;

Moll Masjid, 277
Ma'ajjam-ul-Hulddn, 104 Mu*azzam, Kh., 86
Mu'fl^zam,
see

racter

and

qualities,

316-

Pt s/o Aurangzeb, Muhammad Mu'azzam
fc

17; Their religion, 317-18; Their early training, 318-19 Their rise and growth under
;

Mubarak,

119-21, 168-69
see

Mubanz Khan,
Shah 'Adil MudSr Rao, 318

Muhammad

Shivaji, 319

ff.

Masum
102

Farankliudi of Jaunpur,

Muflis, Mir/a, 170 Muflis, 148-9

Ulawahs, 321 Mazi, Sh. 30
f

Mughal Court,

Its

splendour, 391

Muhammad

'Adil Shah,

R. of
P. s/o

Medni Rao of Chanderi, 19-20 Mehr un-Nias, see Nur Jahan Mian Chand. musician, 174 Mian Lai musician, 174
flints, Imperial, 150 Miran Bahadur, R. of

Bijapur, 236-37, 252-53

Muhammad A

k b a

r

,

'Alamgir, 311; His rebellion, 312-13

281, 286, 289, 310,

Muhammad Amin,
Khandesh,
la, 285,

s/o

Mir Jum-

287-88

110

Mir Lahon, Sh., 279 Miran Sadr Jahan, 139-40
Mir-i-Adl, 149

Muhammad Amin, Ustad. 175 Muhammad Amin Oazwini, 276 Muhammad 'A/cam, P. s/o
4

Alamgir, 281 ,31 1,349, 357

Mir-i-Arz, 144
Mir-i-Atash, 157
Aftr-t-Bofcri, 144

Muhammad Fargha.ll, M., 44 Muhammad Fazil BadafcLshanl,

Mullah, 279
73>

Mir-i-Barr, 144 Mir Jumla, 251-52,
career, 284
;

266;

His

Muhammad Hadi, 214 Muhammad Hakim, Mirza,
74,85,102-103,124-25

His expedition

434

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Uslad,

Muhammad Hussam,
l/j

Murtaxa Nizam, R.
nagar, 235-37 Mushaeras, 28

of

Ahmad-

Muhammad Khan Dhan, musician, 174

Mushnf, 144
Mu'axzam,
P., s/o

Muhammad

Alamgir, 281, 286, 308, 31112, 333, 338, 349

Musir. under Babar, 29; Akbar, - Jahangir, 219 ;~, 174-76
;

Shah Jahan.178; -'Alamgir,
373-4

Muhammad Nadir Samarqandi,
painter, 278

Mustafa.
*

Commander

in-Chief

Muhammad Shahabadi.Sh., 160 Muhammad Shah Adil, 09, 70,
73, 77

of Bijapur, 322

Musta'id K^an, 301
Muslaufi, 144

Muhammad

Sultan,

P.,

s/o

Mu'tamid
214-15

Khan,

historian,

Alamglr, 203, 281 Muhammad Yazdi, Mullah, 124

Mu/affar Hussam, King of Oandhar, 108

Muhammad Xaman,
Muhib

34

Ali Sayyadi, M., 279

Mukhlis Khan, Amii, 335 Mukhya Pradhan, 342 Mullahs, 116; exiled by Akbar, insulted by Rajputs, 131
;

Muzaffar Khan, Mint Odirer,150 Muzaffar KhanTurbati, 101, 152,
155

Muzaffai Shah 99
Xaik, 344

11,

U. of Gujarat

:

311

N
Najabat Khau, 2A Nail and Damyanli, 165 Nanak, Baba, Sikh Guru, 359
I

Mumtaz Mahal, see Arjumand Banu Begum Munawwar, Sh., 105 Munim Khan, Governor ol
Bengal, 101

Nanak

Jaru, musician, 174

Munshiat

of

Abul Path, 104
100, 109-

Muqaddams, 147 Murad, P., s/o Akbar,
10,

Naqib Khan, 165, 215 Narsingh Dev Bundela, 304
Narsu, 318

112
P. s/o

Nasim Bagh,
Shah Jahan,
His
203,
;

178

Murad,
228,

241

character-

sketch, 255-56 ; His coronation, 260 : His part in the War of Succession, 261-62 ;

Nasq, system, 155 Nasrullah Mustafa, 106 Nathuji, 337

His execution, 264-65, 322

Nauroz, celebrated by Jahangir, 182;-, Shah Jahan, 227-28; discontinued by 'Alamgir,
,

Muran Jogdeva,

319

283

Murshid Quli Khan, 249-50 Murtaza Khan, 182, 186

Navy, under Akbar, 158-59
'

;

,

Shivajl, 345

INDEX
Nawan Kal Bagh
Nazirl, Sh., 279
at Lahore, 374
10, 13-14;

435
Second-,
75-76

NayayMish, 342-43
Nazir-i Buyutat, 144

Panchanlantra, 166
Panj-hazaris, 165

Parshotam, 165
of Bo-

Nazr Muhammad, King
khara, 240-42 Notoji Polkar, 338

Parvez,
203
;

P.,

s/o Jahanglr,

187,

His death, 205

Patwari, 147
Patta, Chittor's hero, 94 Peacock Throne, 277

Ni'mat-ullah, 215 Nishat Bagh, at Kashmir, 210

Ni/am, water

carrier, 53

Peshwa, 342

Peter Mundi, 229, 274 Nizam Sh., 372 Nizam ud-Din Ahmad, 164 Pinjor Garden, 374 Nur Jahan, Empress, 185-86, 192; Pir Muhammad, 84, 170 Her birth, 194 Her access Pirzada, musician, 174 to the Imperial Palace, 195 Pbgue, 73. 194 Her marriage with Sher Police under Sher Shah,
;

;

Murder of her Afgan, 195 husband, 195 97 Her marriage with Jahangfr, 198 Her
;

Akbar. 152
Political

;

,

59; other Mughal
,

;

Emperors, 384
condition of
India,

;

accomplishments, 199; Her valour, 199; 'Power behind
the throne,' 200; Her influence on the State, 200-201 ;

379-89

Their relations Portuguese with Akbar, 89-91 with with Jahangir, 207-208
; ;
,

;

,

Her character,
sourcefulness, 204

201

;

Her
re-

Shah Jahan, 230

31

presence of mind
;

and

Postal Service, under

Close of

her career, 206, 218, 220-21, 223

Babar 22;-, Sher Shah, 61 ;-, other Mughal Akbar. 150 Emperors, 385
;

,

Nusrat Shah, R. of Bengal, 21

Potdar, see Khizandar

O
Ommayads,
Ornaments,
Painting,
114-15, 128

Pratap Singh, Rana, s/o Udai
Singh, 97-98
;

186, 346
of,

392-93

Purandhrfr, Treaty

333-34

P
under Babar,
,

Purbm Khan,

175

29;,

Q
Qanungos, 147 Oaqshals, a Chaghtai tribe Their rebellion, 101-102
;

Akbar, 172-74;-, Jahanglr, Shah Jahan, 278216-18;
'Alamgir, 373-74 Panchdyat system, 59, 343

79;,

Pandari, a tax, 282
Piinipat, First Battle of-,
fi,

Qasim Beg, 164 Qasim Khan <>f Bengal,
0,

?3l,

436

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Ram
Singh, Rajah, 207, 338
invitation

Ofisim Khan, Akbar's general,
!'*>

Oasim, instrumental performer,
175

Rana Prasad, 38 39 Rana Sangha His
;

Qans, 58, 148;, bound and shaved by KajpDls, 311
Oart ul Quzat, 148

to Babar, 13; His defeat, Hid; HIS death, 20, 03 Rand a ula Khan, 322

Ranilt Singh, Rajah, u
182
>vells

OuHrh Khan, 150 Qulich Muhammad,
RajpOts, 311

Rang Mahal, 277 Rang Sen, musician,
by

171

Onr'an, thrown into

Raushan /Vra Begum. 228, 286; Her garden at Delhi, 374
Itayyaiiwm system,
51, 58

Our Bcgi, 1 \4 Outh nd Din Koka,

100

Kazmndmah.

l()5-uo

R
Rndandax Khan,
Knhdan. a
206

Religious features, 305-401

Ragnath. Raiah. *81
lax, 282

Rahmat

ullnh, rnusii ian, \1\

Rai Karan, Rana, 336 Rai Singh, Raidh, 338 Raia Ah, R. of Khandesh, 110 Rajah Rain s/o Shiva ji, 35f>-57

Roe, Sir Thomas, 2; His view* on Akbar's religion. 130; He concessions secures trade from Jahangir, 200-10; His description of Mughal Court and its customs, 211-12 His
;

description

of

Jahanglr's

Raiah Ram, leader
305

ol the

Jats

character, 202; His account of fine arts in Mughal India,
212-16.
f

Rajputs, defeated by Babar, 15 Rudolf Acquaviva. Fr. 00 ff. reconciled by Akbar 86-80; Rustarn Khan, 243-44
;

135-36; reduced to submission by Alamgir, 306-14
'

S
Sa'adullah Khan,
Minister ol

UajtaKingvni, 160

Shah Jahan,

241-44,273, 281
170

Kamachant ananas, 171 Sarhivo, 342 Sadiq Halwl, Mullah, Kamayana< 165-171 Ram Chandra, Rainh of Kalm- Sadr, 145
]ar,

%

Ram
Ram

Das,

Rajah,
Shiva ji's

Akbar's

Sartr-i-Sudur. His duties, 143, Sahm-ud-Daulah, 44

H8

general, 182

Sdhm-ul-\furad 45
t

Das,

spiritual

Sahm-us-Sa'adat, 44
Sahuji, s/o Sambhuji, 337

teacher, 318. 320

Das, musician, 174-75, 278 Kdmjiwan, Goshain, 208 Ram Rai, Sikh Guru, 362 63

Ram Ram

Das, Sikh Guru, 360

Said Khan, Jahanglr's general,
183

Said KhanjGovernor'of Kabul,
230-40

INDEX
Salabat Khan, 226 Salim P., s/o

437

Akbar,

see

Jahangir SalimS Sultana, 196-97 Salim Chishti, Sh., of Ajmer,
117

Shah Ismail II of Persia, 195 Shah Jahan, Shahab-ud-DinMuhammad, Mughal Emperor, 7,

185-88, 190-9~i, 200-201

;

His

rebellion,

201-3;

His

Salim Shah Sun, 40. 44, 66 ff Reducti on of Malwa and the Punjab, 67 Execution
;
;

of Sh. Alai, 68 Sambhaji, 313

subsequent movements, 2046; His coronation, 206; His character as described by Roe, 212, 215; His accession, 223; His early acts, 225;
Rebellion
225-26;
of Johar Singh, Revolt of Khan

SambhQjl,

335, 337-39, 355-56
of, 261-62

Samugrah, Battle
Sanapati, 342

Jahan Lodhi,
bration of

226-27; Cele-

Nauroz.

227-28

;

Saracens, Sarhind, Battle of, 41 Sarainaubat, 342-44
Sati

114-15, 128, 130

Bamine, 228-30;
;

The Por-

SarOd Khan, musician, 174
rite among the Rajputs, prohibited by Akbar, 88
t

War with tuguese 230-31 them, 231 Career of Mumtaz Mahal, 231-32; Her charac;

ter,

233;

Shah

Jahan's

Deccan

Satlburj, 177

Satnamis' rebellion, 305-06

with Further

policy, 233-34; War Ahmadnagar, 234-36
;

Sawar, 160
Sayurgkals, 145

Deccan,

operations in the War with 236;
;

Bijapur, 236-37

Subjugation
; ,

Sayyad
175

Ali of

Mashed,

Mir,

of Golconda, 237

Bijapur,

Sayyad All Tabrez, 173 Sayyad Banda, 328, 330 Sayyad Bukhara of Gujarat, 279 Sayyad Khan, 182
Secret Service, see Serais, 60, 61, 150

Shah Jahan's Central Asian Policy and his attempts
237-39;
to

acquire

his

Central
;

Asian

possessions, 239-46 Recovery of Qandhar, 239-

Espionage
of

40; Conquest of Balkh

and
to

Badakh*shan, 240-43

;

Loss of
Failure

ShSdman,

general

Mirza
103

Qandhar
recover
it,

and

failure

Muhammad Hakim,

243-45;

ShahSb-ud-Din Khafi, 46 Shahab-ud-Din, M., 30 Shahbaz Khan, Akbar's gener~~~
"~al, 102

of Central Asiun Policy and Fratriciits results, 245-46
;

dal War 255 59;

Shah Beg Khan, Shah Lara, 219

185

genesis Jahan's behaviour during the War,

and

its

Shah

258 59

;

His captivity, 262-63

;

438

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
;

H i s administration, 274 Progress of fine arts under his patronage, 174-78; His philomathy, 278 79 Literary
;

Sher Afgan,

see All Qull Istajlu Sheri, Mullah, 165 Sher Shah Sun, 33 34, 38, 46, 49,

50

jems of his Court, 279; Promotion of learning, 279His character and 80;
estimate, 280

His early life, 50-51 ff. His early activities, 51-52; Occupation of Bengal, 52; of Bengal Recovery by
;

;

Humayun,
f/o Shivaji, 235,

52
;

;

Battle

of

Sh5hji Bhonsla,

Chausa, 53
auj,
53,

Battle of

Kanthe

237-38; 247, 31924, 331-32

Conquest of

Shah Muhammad, Ustad, Shah Mansur, Kh., 150
Shdhndmah, 165

176

Punjab and Gakhar land, 54;-, MSlwa, 5455;-. in
Rajputana, 55 56
;

Adminisof

Shah Rukh, Mirza,

106, 159

tration, 56
165,

ff.

;

Division

Shahryar, P. s/o Tahangir,
192, 200, 203, 205-6

the

Shaikhs, exiled by Akbar, 131,
136

Empire, 56-57; Land 57-58 ; Revenue System, Administration of justice,
;

58-59
'

Organization
Force,

of

Shaikh Mir, 284
Shaista Khan, Alamgir's uncle, His conquest of 267, 283; Chittagong, 285-6; His expedition
331-32;

Police

59;

Secret

Service, 59-60; Tariff System, 60; Means of communication
61
:

and transportation,
Postal

60; :

against

Shivaji,

His
;

dealings
367

with

Military

61 Service, 61-62 reforms,

the English

Currency

Shakti (goddess), 364

Works

Shambhuji, Shivaji's uncle, 321 Shalamar Bagh, at Delhi, 278 ; at Kashmir, 219;, at
Lahore, 272, 278 Shamsher Khan, 288

; reforms, of public welfare, 63 ; 63-64 ; Sher Architecture,

62-63

65

Shah's ideal of kingship, His estimate, 65-66, 152,
;

161, 169

Sher Shah

II,

s/o

Muhammad
instrumental

Shams-ud-Dm Muhauimad Atka Khan, Akbar's Minister, 82; Stabbed to death by

Shah
Shihab

Adali, 83

Khan,

performer, 175
Ship-building, industry, under the Mughals, 406-7 Shivaji Marhatta, 5
life,

Adham Kban,
Shariyat

84

(Muslim

Personal

Law),

116-17, 224, 370, 380

Sharunavis, 342

319-21;

His early His robberies,
;
'

Sharza Khan,
Shastri, 343

322, 349

321-22; Seizure and release of 322-24 ; his father,

INDEX
alliance

439
345-47

Massacre at Javli, 323 His with Alamgir
;

*

Shivaji

II,

356
l

against Bijapur and perfidy* 323-24; His meeting with Afzal Khan, 324-25 ; Murder
of Afzal
his

Shivaji III, 357-58 Shuhrat-i(Public

Am

Works

Department), 22
;

rout of Shuja', P., s/o Shah Jahan, 228, 241 His character- sketch, Treachery of His 354-55, 260 His fate, 265-66 326-30; Shivaji, conquests, 330; Sultan of Shuja'at Khan, Governor of Malwa, 67 Bijapur's attack on him, His declaration of Shuja'at 330-31 Khan, Alamglr's His atindependence, 331 general, see Radandaz Khan tack on Shaista Khan at Sidl Johar, 330-31

Khan and
;

army, 325-26

;

'

;

;

night, 331-32; Sack of Surat, 332 Assumption of indeHis subpendence, 332-33
;
;

mission

to

'

Alamgir, 333

;

Sijdah, 127, 131, 134, 224 Sikaildar Lodfci, SultSn, 13 Sikandar Sur, 40, 41, 69-70, 76-77
;

73,

Sikhs, 6, 7 Their Gurus, 359-64 ; Treaty of Purandhar, 333-34 Their religion, 359-64 Their His visit to the Imperial His recepsuppression Capital, 334-35; by Alamgir, 365-66 tion, 336 His misbehaviour, 335 His imprisonment and Siledars. 344 escape, 335-38 His assump- Sinan, architect, 27 tion of the title of Rajah, Sipahsalar, 144 339 Exaction of Chauth and Sipahr Shikoh, P., s/o Dara Surdeshmukhi from Bijaptir Shikoh, 266-67 andGolconda, 339-40; Re- Slavery, 394
; ; ' ; ;
; ;

newal

of

hostilities

and

Social

condition

of

India,

389-94 sack of Surat for the second time, 340; Coronation of Sri Gian Khan, 174 His further Subahs, 144 Subahdars, 144 Shivaji, 340-41 Extent of Subhan Khan, musician, 174 conquests, 341 his Kingdom, 341 ; His civil Succession, Law of, 379-80
;
;
;

Adadministration, 341-42 ministrative divisions of his Kingdom, 342 Administra;

Sukracharya, 342-43

Sulaiman KararSiti of Bengal,
100

;

tion of justice, 343; Revenue System, 343 ;

Land Sulaiman,
Mill-

Mirza, Humayun's cousin, 33, 74, 104
P., s/o

tary Organization, 344-45 ; His fleet, 345 ; His estimate,

Sulaiman Shikoh,

Data
tragic

Shikoh, 260-61; His

440
fr*e,267

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
yun, 46

Sultan Haji, Thaneswari, 165 Sultan Hashim of Mashed, 175

Sumant, 342
Surajgarh, Battle of, 52 Surat, Sack of, 332, 340 Sur Das, blind bard, 171

Tegh Bahadur, Sikh Guru, 363 of Gobind Dev, Vemple(s) Gopi Nath, Jugal Kishor and Madan Mohan, 177, 304
; ; ,

Surjana Hara, Rajah, Svrdeshmukhi, 339-40

%

(?),

destroyed by 'Alamgir 295 ;-> by Shah Jahan,

300

Terry, 192

T
of Justice), 43 Tabqat-i-Akbari, 164 Tahawar Khan, 310, 312

Todar Mai, Rajah,
102, 105,

88,

99 100,
159,

Tabl'i-Adl

(Drum

151-53,

155,

170-71

Toleration

under

the Great

Tahir Khan, Faujdar of Jodhpur, 310

TaimQr,

10-12, 24, 239

Tahmasp, Shah
Taj Mahal,
Takht-i-Taus
t

of Persia, 39

232-33, 237, 275-77

Mughals, 381, 411 , Tomb(s), of Sher Shah, 63 Humayun, 177;, Akbar, 177 desecrated by Jats, 218 ;-, Sh. Sallm 203.
;

;

,

see

Peacock
Court-

Chishtl, 177;-,

Muhammad
Mirza Ghias,

Throne

Ghaus, 177
218

;,

Tan

Sen, Akbar's musician, 174

Trade, Foreign, 405-61
Akbar's

Tantarang

Khan.

Tuka Ram,

318

Court musician, 174 Taqarrab Khan, 355
Taqqavi loans, 156

Tulsi Das, Hindu poet, 171 Tuzk i-Jahangiri, 139, 214 15

U
357-

TSra Bai, w/o Rajah Ram,
58

Udaipur, Treaty

of, 313-14

Tardi Beg, 75
Tarikh-i-Badaoni, 164
Tankh-i-Alfi, 164
Tarikh-i-Ferishta, 2 Tariff system, under Sher Shah,

Udai Singh, Rawal, 18 Udai Singh, s/o Rana Sangha,
93, 96-97

Ulugh Beg, 166

;

His Astronomi-

cal Tables, 166

Umar Shaikh,
10

Mirza, f/o Babar,

60

Tash Beg of Xipchak, 175 Tatar Khan, 34
Tauhid-i Ilahi, soe Din-i-llahi Taxation, 383
Tavernier; 274

Umar Naqshbandi,
Usman,
193

Kh., 204

Uzbegs, 11-12,85.86,104

V
Vakil, His duties, 142. Vaman Pandit, 318

Tazkirat'UW-Waqiyat'i

-

Huma-

INDEX
Verinag Bagh at Kashmir, 210 Von Noer, on Akbar and Baclaom, 133 34
mir, 107

441

YasD Pandit, 318
Yusaf of Herat, llstad, 175 Yusaf Shah, R. of Kashmir, 106

W
Wah Baghat Hasan
Wahdl,
115

Abdal, 210

Yusaf/ais, 103, 105

7,

2S7 88, 330

Z

}Va<ia-Navis,

W,

147

ZabtZ system, 155

Waqlyat i Rohan. 1()4, 160, 214 Wasiyyal Hawaii Makhfi, Bfibar's, 23-24

Zafarnamah. 166

Xam Xam

Khafi, 30

Khan, Akbnr's

general,

War
,

of Succession

;

,

among
34-35
;

106

tho sons of Bahar,

Zannnbos, 224
^a/, 160
Zrl) un-Nisa,

Akbar, 182-3;-, Jahangir, 205-6;-, Shah Jahan, 254
if.

d/o

Aurangzeb,

2W
status of,
30-1

Woman,

Zia-ud

Dm,

t Mir/a, 270
ff

X
Xavier, Fr Jerome, 2

Ximmis, 29^
Zulliqar

Xubdcit-un-Nisa, 281

Y
Yaqfib s/o Yusaf Shah of Kash-

Khan,

Aurang/eb's

general, 356 57

BY THE SAME AUTHOR

EDUCATION IN MUSLIM INDIA
Being an Inquiry into the State of Education During the Muslim Period of Indian History 10001800 A C.)

WITH A FOREWORD BY
PROF.

HAROON
),

K.

SHERWANI

M.A. (Oxon

K.R.Hist.8., F.R.S.A., etc.

Head

of the Department of History

Osmania University
Hyderabad, Dn.
(Cloth bound.

Pp. 280. Price 5/8 net)

Available only from S. Muhammad Sadiq Khan, Kis^a Kham, Peshawar City

FOREWORD
was Fronde who once said something to the one should not raise one's pen to write unless one can add to human knowledge, and there is no doubt that Mr. S M. Jaffar has done a great service to the cause of education in general and Indian Culture in particular by writing this book on Education in Muslim India arid thus made a distinctive contribution to the field of Indian
I

RELIEVE

it

effect that

historical literature.

Time was when a student of Indian history had to be content with knowing something about warring dynastic^ court intrigues, internecine feuds and other matters which went to make the history of this country a subject of useless, if not actually harmful, study. Happily we have now come to feel the necessity of the whole of Indian history being re-written not so much from the point of view of occurrences at the capitals of various states as in order to delineate the spread of culture and to demonstrate the value of its present composite form, so that our people may not be Jed away by the false notion that whatever paraphernalia of civilization we possess does not go back to more than a century and a half. Indian civilization, wi f h its real and inherent unity in the midst of its out ward diversity, is age-long and not a mere graft, and this is one of the great and abiding results of the events which go to
'

'

form the history of India.