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“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & RESARCH METHODOLOGY

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“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

1.1General Introduction Value stream mapping is a lean manufacturing technique used to analyze and design the flow of materials and information required to bring a product or service to a consumer. At Toyota, where the technique originated, it is known as "material and information flow mapping” It can be applied to nearly any value chain Value stream mapping has supporting methods that are often used in Lean environments to analyze and design flows at the system level (across multiple processes) Although value stream mapping is often associated with manufacturing, it is also used in logistics, supply chain, service related industries, healthcare, software development, product development, and administrative and office processes In a build-to-the-standard form Shigeo Shingo suggests that the value-adding steps be drawn across the centre of the map and the non-value-adding steps be represented in vertical lines at right angles to the value stream. Thus the activities become easily separated into the value stream which is the focus of one type of attention and the 'waste' steps another type. He calls the value stream the process and the non-value streams the operations. The thinking here is that the non-value-adding steps are often preparatory or tidying up to the value-adding step and are closely associated with the person or machine/workstation that executes that value-adding step. Therefore each vertical line is the 'story' of a person or workstation whilst the horizontal line represents the 'story' of the product being created. A value stream map (VSM) is a pictorial representation of how things flow through the system from beginning to end It is used to highlight any inefficiencies in the current system A VSM provides a great framework for opportunity identification and solution development

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“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

Benefits of Mapping
• • • • • • Helps visualize the production process at the plant level not just the single Helps you see more than waste it helps you see the sources of waste in your Shows the linkage between the information flow and the material flow Makes decisions about the flow apparent, so you can discuss them Forms the basis of an implementation plan Ties together lean concepts and techniques to enable improvements that show

process level. value stream.

up in your organization's bottom line 1.2 OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: • Visualizing the waste caused due to layout & material movement using VSM. Secondary objective: • Review the inventory allocation system.

Comparative study of tote boxes and Blue containers.

• Optimum utilization of available space in FOD. 1.3 SCOPE: • Inventory allocation system, layout study are scoped to Face & OD Grinding Department.

Components for channels T6 are under the scope of the project (Customers: Mahindra & Mahindra, Tata Motors, Tafe, Spicer).

• Project work is limited to shared operations area as far as VSM is concerned
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“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 4 .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 5 .

4 Significance of study 6 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 1.

preventable defects.Reduce manufacturing lead times and production cycle times by reducing waiting times between processing stages.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Lean is centered on preserving value with less work. More specifically. some of the major goals are: • Defects and wastage .Minimize inventory levels at all stages of production. (2) increased output and (3) shorter production lead times. "Lean" is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful. as well as process preparation times and product/model conversion times • Inventory levels . Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service. "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. particularly works-in-progress between production stages. including excess use of raw material (inputs). and unnecessary product characteristics which are not required by customers • Cycle Times .Reduce defects and unnecessary physical wastage. The main benefits are (1) lower production costs. and thus a target for elimination. costs associated with reprocessing defective items. Lower inventories also imply lower working capital requirements 7 . Objectives and Key Principles of Lean Manufacturing: Lean Manufacturing reflects a set of tools and methodologies that aims at the continuous elimination of all waste in the production process.

and lower defects lead to lower cost of goods sold 8 . To illustrate.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • Labor productivity . more effective use of labor results in lower labor costs per unit produced. companies can generally increase the output from their existing facilities Most of these benefits discussed above lead to lower unit production costs.Have the ability to produce a more flexible range of products with minimum changeover costs and changeover time • Output – In regards to reduced cycle times.Improve labor productivity. they are using their effort as productively as possible • Utilization of equipment and space . more effective use of equipment and space leads to lower depreciation costs per unit produced. both by reducing the idle time of workers and ensuring that when workers are working.Use equipment and manufacturing space more efficiently by eliminating bottlenecks and maximizing the rate of production though existing equipment. increased labor productivity and elimination of bottlenecks and machine downtime can be achieved. while minimizing machine downtime • Flexibility .

sequence. moving materials among workstations is waste as it can potentially be eliminated. process. timing. or feature that is not required for creating value from the client’s perspective is waste and should be eliminated. that clearly state the content. This eliminates variation in the way that workers perform their job 9 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig. Any material. To illustrate.10: TPS The key principles describing Lean Manufacturing can be summarized as: • Recognition of waste – The first step is to recognize what does and does not create value from a client’s perspective. • Standard processes – Lean requires an implementation of very detailed production guidelines (labeled Standard Work). and outcome of all actions by workers.

the production cycle time can be reduced significantly • Pull-production – Just-in-Time (JIT). back-flows or waiting scenarios. When this is successfully implemented. interruption.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • Continuous flow – Lean usually aims at the implementation of a continuous production flow that is free of bottlenecks. when it is needed. Production is pulled by the downstream workstation so that each workstation should only produce what is requested by the next workstation (this approach has to be compared to a Push-production) • Quality at the Source – Lean aims at eliminating defects at the source and for quality inspection to be done by the workers as part of the in-line production process • Continuous improvement – Lean requires striving for perfection by continually removing layers of waste (as they are uncovered). detours. Pull-production aims at producing only what is needed. 10 . This in turn requires a high level of worker involvement in the continuous improvement process.

products and processes. This search for individual facts or data requires an open-ended question for which there is no ready answer. Research is a hunt for the truth. Research is the way you educate yourself. devices. It comprises the creation of ideas and generation of knowledge that lead to new and substantial improved insights and/or the development of new materials. Data are gathered through experiments. of: Seven types of wastes in factory 1. 11 . Good reflective inquiry produces theories and hypotheses and benefits any intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena.5 Research Methodology Research is any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to increase knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles. surveys or other methodologies.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig. It should have the potential to produce results that are sufficiently relevant to increase knowledge.

The term Operations Research (OR) describes the discipline that is focused on the application of Information technology for informed decision-making. and procedures. machines. Generally speaking. It takes the form of systematic investigation into phenomena of concern to the field of study using a range of quantitative and qualitative approaches. or reject what is already known. The goal of OR is to provide rational bases for decision making by seeking to understand and structure complex situations. OR improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of an institution. Much of the actual work is conducted by using analytical and numerical techniques to develop and manipulate mathematical models of organizational systems that are composed of people. research is defined as a process of creating new and unique knowledge specific to an applied field of study. This article introduces some of the methods and application that are affiliated with OR. the results of which add to. confirm. The maintenance of practice competency and the advancement of practice knowledge are critical components of the research. From this investigation new understandings are developed as practices are explored in relation to peer review concepts. OR represents the study of optimal resource allocation. In other words. hence some of the benefits offered by OR include: • Decrease Cost or Investment • Increase Revenue or Return on Investment • Increase Market Share • Manage and Reduce Risk • Improve Quality 12 . and to utilize this understanding to predict system behavior and improve system performance. principles and theories.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” In applied fields of study. and elaborates on some of the benefits that may be gained by incorporating OR into the actual business framework. It is also a reflective investigation of the dynamic interaction between theory and practice in a profession field of study.

you should have already identified the stream you want to analyze but it’s not possible.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • Increase Throughput while Decreasing Delays • Achieve Improved Utilization form Limited Resources • Demonstrate Feasibility and Workability Fig of research methodology 1.5.1 Statement of problem A current scenario disable us to see the complete door-to-door flow in facility and to identify and prioritize areas for improvement Before you create a current state map. All the actions (value-added and non-value added) required to 13 .

the design flow from concept to completion is not clear. the movement of material through the factory is the flow that usually comes to mind must be visible. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and. Primarily. The meaning is simple: Follow a product's production path from customer to supplier. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record.5.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” take a product from raw material to the customer. But the information flow must also be adequately considered since it tells each Process what to make or do next. until you publish. and need to draw a visual picture of every process in the material and information flow. It is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data . no one else has access to it. 1. and improving on temporary basis that to of an individual parts. Current method does not helps to see and understand the flow of material and information as a product makes its way through the finished good. to pass information on to others. to make decisions about important issues. Within the production flow. data is collected to provide information regarding a specific topic In primary data collection.for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. Currently a stream view means looking at only a part but not the whole the whole picture. both flows must be mapped. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: • • Questionnaire Interviews 14 . just individual processes. you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires.2Collection of data: Data collection is simply how information is gathered.

we have used OBSERVATION as method of data collection. 15 . In this project.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • • • • • • Focus group interviews Observation Case-studies Diaries Critical Incidents Portfolios.

Gorman and Clayton define observation studies as those that "involve the systematic recording of observable phenomena or behavior in a natural setting" .1 Observation "Observations" usually implies that you are watching some process and either measuring or noting the change that has taken place. so that you can have an idea of how quickly (or slowly) the changes are occurring. 16 .9: Data collection methods 1.Other authors define observation within the broader context of ethnography or the narrower one of participation observation.5. Usually you will also want to note the time of the observation.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.2. We "see what we expect to see".

Interrupted involvement. Researcher as an explicit role. Observation alone. Roles of Observer The role of the participant observer is not simple. conducted over time give the type of insights required? • Cost of the research: To what extent can the researcher afford to be committed for extended periods of time? Are there additional costs such as training? 17 . or will in-depth interviews. objects and events in a systematic manner. Observational methods may be: • • • • • • • structured or unstructured disguised or undisguised natural or contrived personal mechanical non-participant Participant.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people. with the participant taking a number of different roles. Choice of roles: The role adopted depends on the following: • Purpose of the research: Does the research require continued longitudinal involvement (long period of time). There are different ways of classifying the role: • • • • Researcher as employee. for example.

signal. Ban. If time is a problem alternate approaches will have to be sought 1. will he or she also feel able to develop the type of trusting relationships that are important? What are the ethical issues? • • The amount of time the researcher has at his disposal: Some methods involve a considerable amount of time. The extent to which the researcher would be comfortable in the role: If the researcher intends to keep his identity concealed.5.card. The essence of the Kanban concept is that a supplier or the warehouse should only deliver components to 18 .3 Research Instruments • Process Activity Mapping • Supply chain responsiveness matrix • Product Variety Funnel • Quality filter mapping • Forrester effect mapping • Decision point analysis • Overall Structure Maps KANBAN SYSTEM: The Japanese refer to Kanban as a simple parts-movement system that depends on cards and boxes/containers to take parts from one work station to another on a production line. Kanban stands for Kan. and may take time.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • The extent to which access can be gained: Gaining access where the role of the researcher is either explicit or covert can be difficult.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” the production line as and when they are needed.12: KANBAN SYSTEM Advantages of Kanban Process: • • • • • • • • • A simple and understandable process Provides quick and precise information Low costs associated with the transfer of information Provides quick response to changes Limit of over-capacity in processes Avoids overproduction Is minimizing waste Control can be maintained Delegates responsibility to line workers KAIZEN: For continuous improvement: 19 . Fig. so that there is no storage in the production area.

Shitsuke . Seiso – Cleanliness Key elements of Kaizen are: • • • • 4. The Kaizen cycle has four steps: • Establishing a plan to change whatever needs to be improved • Carrying out changes on a small scale • Observing the results • Evaluating both the results and the process and determining what has been learned 20 . Kaizen is based on a Five-S framework: 1.Involvement of all employees Willingness . small group activities. etc. Seiri – Tidiness 2.Suggestion for improvement Teamwork . Quality Control Circles. Seiketsu .Standardized clean-up 5.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Kaizen literally stands for ‘Kai’-change and ‘Zen’-to become good. labor relations. The Kaizen philosophy lies behind many Japanese management concepts such as Total Quality Control.Discipline Quality . Seiton – Orderliness 3.Quality circles Effort .To change • Communication • Improved morale • Personal discipline The Kaizen method of continuous incremental improvements is an originally Japanese management concept for incremental change.

Shortening the elapsed time from raw materials to finished goods leads to the best quality.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” BENEFITS OF KAIZEN: • It improves safety. and shortest delivery time. At the same time many rings are being processed from all the machines & hence contribute to loud noise. • It improves the dedication of the employees as it keeps them safe from any kind of mishap. lowest cost. As noise is major problem in Face & Outer grinding Department Company is looking for single piece flow of the material i. Relatively small changes in the position of a machine in a factory can affect the flow of materials considerably. Getting it wrong can lead to inefficiency. Layout determines the way in which materials and other inputs (like people and information) flow through the operation. equipment and staff in the manufacturing operation. high costs and unhappy 21 . large volumes of inventory and work in progress. Creating flow exposes inefficiencies that demand immediate solutions.e. LAYOUT: Laying out a factory involves deciding where to put all the facilities. companies have to create continuous flow wherever applicable. • It makes the plant well-organized SINGLE PIECE FLOW SYSTEM: To become lean. Rings fall on each other & it creates noise. there should not be ring to ring contact. This in turn can affect the costs and effectiveness of the overall manufacturing operation. machines. inflexibility. • It improves efficiency of workers as well as the whole plant.

Staffs comfort. There are three basic types: • • • Process layout Cell layout Product layout Detailed design of the layout: Once the basic layout type has been decided. 22 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” customers. The tasks that will be undertaken by each work centre. The space to be devoted to each work centre. Accessibility. Clarity of flow. Length of flow. the next step is to decide on the detailed design of the layout to determine: • • • The exact location of all facilities. Management coordination. Changing a layout can be expensive and difficult. plant. Basic layout types: Once the type of operation has been selected the basic layout type needs to be selected. so it is best to get it right first time. equipment and staff that constitute the ‘work centers’ of the operation. General objectives: The general objectives of detailed design of factory layouts are: • • • • • • Inherent safety.

figures etc could not be provided due to industrial policy of company. Generalization should be done to apply the flow throughout the entire range of products. block diagrams. Long-term flexibility. taking images were totally prohibited 23 . Period of Industrial visit was limited duration was not sufficient to practically implement the suggested proposals.5.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • • Use of space. even access to some department were constraint to visitors. 1. Selection of method from available was a tedious & hectic task since every method had its own pros & cons hence rating were used to rate each method on basis of parameters like 1) User friendliness 2) Installation 3) Suitability 4) Repairs & servicing 5) Capital involvement 6) End results Many information like certain maps.4 Research limitations The study is limited to Shared Operation department & component of channel T6 is taken into consideration.

1 LEAN MANUFACTURING: Lean is centered on preserving value with less work. "Lean" is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value 24 . Lean manufacturing.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 2 Review of Literature LITERATURE REVIEW: This section of the report provides a brief background on the topics we researched in order to complete this project. value stream mapping and information about the sponsoring company were relevant information we needed to consider before we began work on the project 2.

and administrative and office processes 2. service related industries. The main benefits are (1) lower production costs. software development. At Toyota. product development. supply chain. "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. (2) Increased output and (3) Shorter production leads times.3 SCOPE & OBJECTIVE Primary objective: • Visualizing the waste caused due to layout & material movement using VSM. it is also used in logistics. where the technique originated. and thus a target for elimination. it is known as "material and information flow mapping” It can be applied to nearly any value chain Value stream mapping has supporting methods that are often used in Lean environments to analyze and design flows at the system level (across multiple processes) Although value stream mapping is often associated with manufacturing. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service. Objectives and Key Principles of Lean Manufacturing: Lean Manufacturing reflects a set of tools and methodologies that aims at the continuous elimination of all waste in the production process. Secondary objective: 25 . healthcare. 2.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” for the end customer to be wasteful.2 VALUE STREAM ANALYSES Value stream mapping is a lean manufacturing technique used to analyze and design the flow of materials and information required to bring a product or service to a consumer.

Tata Motors. • Optimum utilization of available space in FOD. Tafe.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • Review the inventory allocation system.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to increase knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles. devices. Research is the way you educate yourself. • Comparative study of tote boxes and Blue containers. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique 26 . It comprises the creation of ideas and generation of knowledge that lead to new and substantial improved insights and/or the development of new materials. surveys or other methodologies 2. Research is a hunt for the truth. Data are gathered through experiments. Spicer). • Components for channels T6 are under the scope of the project (Customers: Mahindra & Mahindra. This search for individual facts or data requires an open-ended question for which there is no ready answer. SCOPE • Inventory allocation system. you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. products and processes. Good reflective inquiry produces theories and hypotheses and benefits any intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena. • Project work is limited to shared operations area as far as VSM is concerned 2.5 COLLECTION OF DATA In primary data collection. layout study are scoped to Face & OD Grinding Department. It should have the potential to produce results that are sufficiently relevant to increase knowledge.

e. SKF was founded by Sven Wingquist in 1907 when he got the patent for self aligning bearing in Sweden. Usually you will also want to note the time of the observation. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include observation "Observations" usually implies that you are watching some process and either measuring or noting the change that has taken place. We "see what we expect to see 2. This was followed by patent in 12 other countries. no one else has access to it. until you publish. By the dawn of the year 1965 it started a 27 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” to you and your research and.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS • Process Activity Mapping • Supply chain responsiveness matrix • Product Variety Funnel • Quality filter mapping • Forrester effect mapping • Decision point analysis • Overall Structure Maps 2. Gorman and Clayton define observation studies as those that "involve the systematic recording of observable phenomena or behavior in a natural setting" .By the time it when it was 1927 the company began its trading operations in India at Kolkata with East India Company.7 COMPANY PROFILE Svenska Kullager Fabriken i. By the year 1910 company had a base in United Kingdom with employee strength of 325 and manufacturing operations in multiple countries (around 32).Other authors define observation within the broader context of ethnography or the narrower one of participation observation. so that you can have an idea of how quickly (or slowly) the changes are occurring.

seals.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” manufacturing factory at Pune. maintenance services. Remember though. Services include technical support.9 TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT The chapter describes four basic layout types. services and lubrication systems. 2. In the year 1989 a factory at Bangalore was established with a purpose of manufacture of SDGBB.A decade later SKF India decided it was time to diversify so in 1999 it entered into manufacturing seals. SKF Group is the leading global supplier of products. mechatronics.8 PRODUCT PROFILE Products:• • • • • • • • • • • Mechatronics Power Transmission Products Seals Product SKF Lubrication Systems Bearing Housing and Accessories Condition Monitoring Products Hydraulic Seals Industrial Shaft Seals Maintenance and Lubrication Products Plain Bearings Rolling Bearings 2. condition monitoring and training. Half a decade later it felt a need to change its name and thus was renamed as “SKF India”. solutions and services within rolling bearings. at the end of doing this the chapter does make the point that most layout types are hybrids of two or more 28 .

Nevertheless it is important to understand each of them so that their advantages and disadvantages can be identified 1) Fixed position layout 2) Product layout 3) Process layout 4) Cell layout 5) Specialized layout 2. with the objective of zero defects. 29 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” of these four basic types. reliable and efficient business process Applying continuous improvement through the organization.10 QUALITY CONTROL & MANUFACTURING EXCELLENCE The quality assurance department consists of quality managers that work on each channel of the manufacturing unit to ensure the quality of products being produced. services and solutions that will ensure customer satisfaction by. • • Operating capable. they implement TPM and 6 Sigma on the shop floor. For achieving continuous improvement and for manufacturing excellence. The SKF quality policy goes: SKF shall only market products.

This was followed by patent in 12 other countries.By the time it when it was 1927 the company began its trading operations 30 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 3 COMPANY PROFILE 3.e.1 The SKF Group:Svenska Kullager Fabriken i. SKF was founded by Sven Wingquist in 1907 when he got the patent for self aligning bearing in Sweden. By the year 1910 company had a base in United Kingdom with employee strength of 325 and manufacturing operations in multiple countries (around 32).

Seals. Empowerment of people and company. services and lubrication systems. By the dawn of the year 1965 it started a manufacturing factory at Pune. seals. distributors & suppliers delivering industry-leading. Services. 31 . maintenance services. Vision:To equip the world with SKF knowledge Mission:To be the preferred company for customers. high value products. half a decade later it felt a need to change its name and thus was renamed as “SKF India”. By utilizing capabilities from all or some of the platforms. mechatronics.A decade later SKF India decided it was time to diversify so in 1999 it entered into manufacturing seals. In the year 1989 a factory at Bangalore was established with a purpose of manufacture of SDGBB. solutions and services within rolling bearings. Five technology platforms:SKF groups its technologies in five platforms: Bearings and units. Mechatronics. Openness and most important thing is teamwork.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” in India at Kolkata with East India Company. SKF develops tailor-made offers for each customer segment. condition monitoring and training. services and knowledge.engineered solutions Values:The values that company stresses on while achieving its vision are High Ethics. Services include technical support. and Lubrication Systems. SKF Group is the leading global supplier of products.

Financial targets:- 32 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” helping customers improve performance. medical. servicing industrial original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and aftermarket customers respectively.2: Five technology platforms Three divisions. machine tool. reduce energy use and lower total costs. whereof examples include cars and light trucks. 40 segments:SKF does business mainly through three divisions: Industrial Division and Service Division. Fig. while bringing increased added value to SKF. wind energy. SKF operates in around 40 customer segments. food and beverage and paper industries. railway. and Automotive Division. servicing automotive OEMs and aftermarket customers.

the number of first filings of patent applications was 218. forming bases for new standards.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” SKF's long-term financial targets are to have an operating margin level of 12%. The Group's efforts in research and development have resulted in numerous innovations. Research and development:Technical development. Fig. annual sales growth in local currencies of 6-8% and a return on capital employed of 24%. products and solutions in the bearing world.2 Certification:33 . quality and marketing have been in focus at SKF since the very start. In 2009.3: SKF governance structure 3.

ISO/TS 16949 (automotive). Fig.3 SKF Care:SKF defines sustainability as SKF Care. Its operations are also certified to either ISO 9001 or applicable customer industry standards.g. 34 . Environmental Care. AS9100 (aviation) or IRIS (railway) for quality management systems. e. Within each of these four cornerstones.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” The Group has global certification to IS0 14001 (environmental management systems) and OHSAS 18001 (health and safety) standards. key focus areas and targets are defined to drive continuous performance improvement.4: SKF Care 3. Employee Care and Community Care. comprising Business Care.

SKF Six Sigma projects are run by extensively trained Black Belts and Green Belts.1% in 2008 and 2. Within the SKF Six Sigma 35 . where Black Belts are required to run two projects a year and Green Belts one project a year. In 2009. the reduction was 18%.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Beyond ZeroBeyond Zero is a commitment.4 Six Sigma:- SKF Six Sigma is a continuous improvement program within SKF that targets waste and defects in all business processes. compared with reduction of 9. stating that SKF is to realize business objectives in such a way that negative environmental impact is minimized. Beyond Zero goes beyond traditional practice of reducing negative impact by striving for an overall positive environmental impact. while positive impact is enhance. 3. Therefore. Beyond Zero influences SKF's development of products and solutions.2% in 2007. the Group has set a target to reduce CO2 emissions by a minimum of 5% annually. launched in 2005. irrespective of production volume. CO2Carbon dioxide (CO2) is by far the most significant greenhouse gas generated as a result of SKF's operations.

sales and distribution. Six Sigma on variation and quality – the result is better quality faster. Lean focuses on speed and waste. sales and human resources. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) A methodology which focuses on developing new products and services to the market with optimal performance levels.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” program are a number of tools and methodologies ranging from traditional DMAIC and Design for Six Sigma to Lean and other waste reducing methodologies. The foundations for SKF Six Sigma improvements are that they are fact based and sustainable and contribute to the business objectives. Six Sigma for GrowthA customer focused approach and targets improvements in the growth areas such as marketing. Lean Six SigmaA methodology which combines tools from both Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma. 36 . Transactional Six Sigma Focuses on people processes such as service.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Chapter 4 PRODUCT PROFILE 37 .

mechatronics just included the combination between mechanics and electronics. Computer of engineering. a multidisciplinary field control. Mechatronics that is to say it is rejects splitting engineering into separate disciplines. hence the word is a combination 38 . Originally. engineering.1) Mechatronics is a design process that includes a combination of Mechanical engineering. Electrical.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 4 Products:• • • • • • • • • • • Mechatronics Power Transmission Products Seals Product SKF Lubrication Systems Bearing Housing and Accessories Condition Monitoring Products Hydraulic Seals Industrial Shaft Seals Maintenance and Lubrication Products Plain Bearings Rolling Bearings 4.

but how to implement actuators. polyarchy.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” of mechanics and electronics. automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems and spin-assist. the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme. Within the mechatronic field. planetary exploration rovers. It is used to control or regulate such a system (see control theory). mechanics. the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yakama in 1969. however. electronics. Through collaboration. mainly two technologies are used to produce movement: piezo-electric actuators and motors. and computing to generate a simpler. hard disks. The methods for achieving a technical effect are described by control algorithms. it includes aspects of electronics. Hybrid systems important to mechatronics include production systems. synergy drives. which might or might not utilize formal methods in their design. as technical systems have become more and more complex the word has been "updated" during recent years to include more technical areas. or electromagnetic actuators and motors. For some mechatronic systems. the main issue is no longer how to implement a control system. and CD players. Well known examples of piezoelectric based mechatronics systems are camera autofocus or anti-shake functions. and every-day equipment such as autofocus cameras. and computing to do its day-to-day jobs. Some mechatronic systems have restrictive energy source requirements and have 39 . An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system. and hybrid. Modern production equipment consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to a control architecture. Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems. more economical and reliable system. A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics. video. The most known architectures involve hierarchy. The term "mechatronics" was coined by Tesoro Mori. hierarchy.

Figure of mechatronics 4. optimising the lubrication systems of your power train systems is essential to ensuring as efficient and economical vehicle operation as possible.2) Lubrication Systems With energy prices rising and both markets and legislation demanding more efficient engines. allows transforming mechanical energy from shock and vibration or thermal energy into electrical energy. energy harvesting. The Lubrication Systems Modelling packages from Flow master enable you 40 . But a new trend.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” traditionally uses batteries.

41 . e. a combined Geometric and Empirical Analysis module and a New Geometric Data Wizard complete a Graphical User Interface built on simplicity. powerful new Component Analytical Models. bearings. usability and productivity. oil pumps. hydraulic lash adjusters. Fig of lubrication sysytem The Advanced Heat Exchanger Module provides a wide range of single and two phase heat exchangers. oil passage ways.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” to understand the complex dynamics of an entire lubrication system taking into account all the main consumers of oil. AC components. camshaft variable timing devices. chain and belt tensioners and sumps (oil pans). pressure limiting and regulating valves.g.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Simulation Features: • Steady State and Transient flow analysis using a wide range of heat transfer options Wide range of standard and lubrication specific components Accurate prediction of lubricant flow rates. another set of transformers is required to step it back down to safer or more usable voltage levels at destination. Alternating current is normally preferred as its voltage may be easily stepped up by a transformer in order to minimize resistive loss in the conductors used to transmit power over great distances. • • 42 .3) Power transmission is usually associated most with electric power transmission. pressures and temperatures for critical design cases 4.

Their use is critical in providing a way for fluid power to be converted to linear motion. non-metallic ring captured in a groove or fixed in a combination of rings. Figure 1 shows the sealing element in free state.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 4. The sealing elements are being installed into the respective groove with a preload. forming a seal assembly. Hydraulic seals are vital in machinery. to block or separate fluid in reciprocating motion applications. preload after the assembly of the seal and the free space needed in the housing. Hydraulic cylinders are being used in mechanical applications where reciprocating forces and movements are needed. The sealing element is able to work in low pressures due to this preload.4) Hydraulic seal is a relatively soft. Sealing element is one of the most important parts of the cylinders. Figure 2 shows the pressurized media filling into 43 .

N to exclude contaminants to separate fluids or gases. In this respect sealing elements are produced from elastomers. The tasks of the seals are N to retain lubricant. for shaft Diameters over 200 mm / 8 inch). and N to withstand differences in pressure. Each of these designs and their material combinations has specific properties which make it more. or less. Elastic characteristic is symbolized in with the force P applied on the plate attached to a spring. The permissible sealing gap indicated as “S” in our catalogue should be checked carefully in order to prevent extrusion of the product during the application The seals are intended for the sealing of openings between a rotating and a stationary component or between two components in relative motion. showing the final position. 44 . thermoplastics or thermoplastic elastomers Elastomers used in sealing elements are visco elastic materials. suitable for a particular application. The seals should also perform adequately with a minimum of friction and wear even in critical applications or under un favorable operating conditions In order to meet these different requirements. the plate moves and when the force disappears. SKF shaft seals for rotating machine components are produced in many designs.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” the groove and sealing element is expanded with this pressure. Sealing elements are produced from such materials that can change their form when force is applied 2) and can return to the original form when this force disappears. the spring moves back to its original position. materials and executions. Viscos characteristic is symbolized in with the force P applied on the plate in water. N Large diameter seals (LDS. for shaft Diameters up to 200 mm / 8 inch). The main groups are: a)Radial shaft seals N Small diameter seals (SDS.

The simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole. this should always be checked before ordering. comprising just a bearing surface and no rolling elements. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat 45 . PTFE material. The products shown in the size listing tables in this catalogue are the more popular metric and inch sizes. N Axial clamp seals.e. Axial shaft seals N Mechanical seals. 4.. The inclusion of a single design to the SKF range of seals is not an indication of its availability. N V-ring seals. which can be supplied on request.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” N Radial shaft seals. Wear sleeves are also manufactured as special accessories. the part of the shaft in contact with the bearing) slides over the bearing surface. Information about the complete range will be found in our standard range stock list. Therefore the journal (i.5) Plain bearing is the simplest type of bearing.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

surfaces designed to allow motion; e.g., a drawer and the slides it rests on or the ways on the bed of a lathe. Plain bearings, in general, are the least expensive type of bearing. They are also compact and lightweight, and they have a high load-carrying capacity. Plain bearings must be made from a material that is durable, low friction, low wear to the bearing and shaft, resistant to elevated temperatures, and corrosion resistant. Often the bearing is made up of at least two constituents, where one is soft and the other is hard. The hard constituent supports the load while the soft constituent supports the hard constituent. In general, the harder the surfaces in contact the lower the coefficient of friction and the greater the pressure required for the two to seize

4.6) Rolling-element bearing, also known as a rolling bearing, is a bearing which carries a load by placing round elements between two bearing rings. The relative motion of the pieces causes the round elements to roll with very little rolling resistance and with little sliding. One of the earliest and best-known rolling-element bearings are sets of logs lay on the ground with a large stone block on top. As the stone is pulled, the logs roll along the ground with little sliding friction. As each log comes
46

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

out the back, it is moved to the front where the block then rolls on to it. It is possible to imitate such a bearing by placing several pens or pencils on a table and placing an item on top of them. See "bearings" for more on the historical development of bearings. A rolling element rotary bearing uses a shaft in a much larger hole, and cylinders called "rollers" tightly fill the space between the shaft and hole. As the shaft turns, each roller acts as the logs in the above example. However, since the bearing is round, the rollers never fall out from under the load. Rolling-element bearings have the advantage of a good tradeoff between cost, size, weight, carrying capacity, durability, accuracy, friction, and so on. Other bearing designs are often better on one specific attribute, but worse in most other attributes, although fluid bearing scan sometimes simultaneously outperform on carrying capacity, durability, accuracy, friction, rotation rate and sometimes cost. Only plain bearings are used as widely as rolling-element bearings. Typical rolling-element bearings range in size from 10 mm diameter to a few meters diameter, and have load-carrying capacity from a few tens of grams to many thousands of tones.A particularly common kind of rolling-element bearing is the ball bearing. The bearing has inner and outer races between which balls roll. Each race features a groove usually shaped so the ball fits slightly loose. Thus, in principle, the ball contacts each race across a very narrow area. However, a load on an infinitely small point would cause infinitely high contact pressure. In practice, the ball deforms (flattens) slightly where it contacts each race much as a tire flattens where it contacts the road. The race also yields slightly where each ball presses against it. Thus, the contact between ball and race is of finite size and has finite pressure. Note also that the deformed ball and race do not roll entirely smoothly because different parts of the ball are moving at different speeds as it rolls. Thus, there are opposing forces and sliding motions at each ball/race contact. Overall, these cause bearing drag. Most rolling-element bearings feature cages. The cages reduce friction, wear, and bind by preventing the elements
47

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

from rubbing against each other. Caged roller bearings were invented by John Harrison in the mid-18th century as part of his work on chronometers

Fig of Roller bearing

4.6 Milestones:•

1961-Company was incorporated under the name 'Associated Bearing Company'. 1965-Company commenced production of its first factory located at Chinchwad, Pune. 1987-Company has rechristened as SKF Bearing India. Company proposed to set up a new manufacturing unit for manufacture of 9.0 million nos. of ball bearings at Bommasandra in Karnataka. SKF of Sweden was the technical collaborators of the project.

• •

1989-Company set up manufacturing unit for SDGBB in Bangalore. 1990- Company’s Chinchwad unit received a license to manufacture 22.35 million numbers of ball and roller bearings per annum. Its Bommasandra unit
48

France. • • • 2002. 1997-Company commenced up gradation of Pune plant with capital outlay of Rs. • 2004-Company acquired Vibration Engineer and Consultants-a private limited company.. Company established SKF Center for learning. Company was honored with ‘Lean & Six Sigma Excellence Award’ by Symbiosis Centre for Management & Human Resource Development. 1999-SKF Bearings India inked an agreement with Telco to supply hub bearings for its latest model Tata Indica. to monitor the condition of bearings in industrial processes.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” was licensed to manufacture 26. Company installed an electronic machine reliability inspection system called `Marlin'.S.7 Awards and recognition:• SKF India was awarded CNBC Asia’s ‘India Business Leader Award for Talent Management’.130 crore. Company bagged Six Sigma Award at CII 5th National Convention on ‘Achieving Business Excellence for Global Competitiveness’. Singapore. 4.SKF became the first bearing company in India to obtain ISO/TS-16949 for the Automotive Business Unit. Argentina etc. Italy.4 million numbers of ball and roller bearings per annum. The name of the company was changed to 'SKF India'. Company inaugurated SKF Application Development Center. • 1995-Company forayed international markets namely U.A. • • • 49 . Company received Regional Quality Circle competition award held by Toyota Kirloskar Suppliers’ Association.

Sweden. Uttarkhand to manufacture bearings. Maharashtra 50 . Mumbai 400002.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 4. Ltd.356.779 (USD in Millions) Market Cap: . The new facility will strengthen Company’s leadership position in the domestic bearing market. SKF India plans to increase capacity of its Haridwar.5 Million (Year ending Dec 2009) Corporate Address: Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Building. The total capital investment of this plant will be around Rs. 1. a wholly owned subsidiary of AB SKF.9 SNAPSHOT: Date of Establishment: .362708 (Rs. The plant is expected to become operational by first the quarter of 2010. offers customers complete sealing solutions based on our leading edge technology 4. 15972.1961 Revenue: . Netaji Subhash Road.Rs.24573. 942.8 Future plans:In Future. SKF India's associate company.Rs.500 million and will have a manufacturing capacity of 48 million bearings. SKF Technologies (India) Pvt.1 Million (year ending Dec 2009) Net Profit: . in Millions) Financials Total Income: .

Phil Knights. Giuseppe Donato. Tryggve Sthen.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Management Details:Chairperson: .Rakesh Makhija Directors: . Mehra Managing director: .Pradeep Bhandari Auditors: .Kamlesh C. Kamlesh C Mehra. Pradeep Bhandari. Shishir Joshipura. Vartan Vartanian Company Secretary: . Narendra J Jhaveri. Henrik Lange.BSR & Associates CHAPTER 5 MARKET COMPETITOR 51 .Darius C Shroff. R Makhija. Rakesh Makhija.

45 123.49 -1.24 4334.23 1013.60 1190.38 -1.72 -1.68 17.73 467.36 1338.92 11.99 26.63 504/230 156/72 680/401 102/41 129/35 298/146 52 Sales (Rs.11 0.1 Market share of SKF India Ltd:Compan y SKF India Timken India FAG Bearings NRB Bearings ABC Bearings Bimetal 15709.45 89.30 19.04 -0. (Rs.90 565.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 4.00 -1.12 9396.30 3191.34 24647.40 148.05 265.31 12.90 2907.19 9490.Million) 52-Week High/Low .86 1421.Million ) Curren t Price Chang e (%) P/E Ratio Market Cap.24 7976.76 6.

Segment wise Net Sales 5.85 21.71 196. The company is a subsidiary of SKF Group.5 0 0.81 116/43 30/16 0/0 Source: Table 1 shine. solutions and other related products for a wide range of industry application.21 142.00 4.33 95.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Bearings Austin Engg. Sweden. The group was founded in 1907 and has presence 130 countries. seals.00 332.69 46.99 4.70 1. it owns 103 factories across 24 53 .58 0.45 6.com Fig 5:.48 64.2 Business Operation:Bearings: Background SKF India incorporated in 1961 is engaged in manufacturing bearings.60 29. Deccan Bearings Asian Bearing 816.

Company manufactures ball and roller bearing components 5.) Shared operations should never be allowed to become a bottleneck. Channels contain operations like groove grinding. It involves heat treatment and the Face & OD Grinding processes for the components. Factory manufactures 183 types of bearings in this plant. washing. greasing. (in some cases F&OD is also done at channels. which are further divided into channels to produce bearings of certain range of bore and strength. shared operations are the very first step in the factory. inspection etc. ball filling. All this components require hardening. Only 8 furnaces & 12 F&OD Grinding machines are there to cater the requirements of the18 channels producing bearings. each containing inner & outer Rings. therefore shared operations should have more capacity than needed for serving the involved channels For good visualization buffers for next operations in the involved channels shall be located where the shared operations are located.4 SHARED OPERATIONS For a component.The analysis of the buffer status is visual 54 .000 employees.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” countries and has a workforce of 40. which is done in heat treatment dept. Factory is divided into 2 sections DGBB (Deep Groove Ball Bearing) & TRB (Taper Roller Bearing).

Shared operations sequence prioritization is based on • Sequence list from all involved channels • All the involved channels previous operations buffers.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” (preferably in webcam mode if needed) and done by the persons in charge of physical flow for shared operations (forklift drivers). 55 . • Buffer after shared operations.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” S u p p l i e r S Cu p p l i e r D C o m p o n e n ts C hanne l 1 S u p p lie r A S h a re d o p e r a t io n C u s to m e r L oa ps et r a t i o n order Ch a nnel 2 S u p p l i eB ur f f Be r B u ffe r B u ffe r C u s to m e r L oa ps et r a o t ri o d n e r S u p p lie r E C o m p o n en ts Fig 6: Entire supply chain and Shared operations as a vital part of it 56 B u f f e rB u f f e r B u f f e r .

7 FACE & OD GRINDING OPERATION:- Grinding:- Fig.7: . W-Work piece 57 .Grinding Process Note: G-Grinding Wheel. B-Blade. R-Regulating Wheel.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 5.

Therefore the parts to be ground on a centre less (center less) grinder do not need center holes. For the outer ring (OR) and inner ring (IR). the work piece is not mechanically constrained during centre less (center less) grinding. The regulating wheel consists of soft material like rubber and can contain some hard grain material to achieve good traction between work piece and regulating wheel. the work piece is supported in the grinding machine on its own outer diameter by a work blade and by the regulating wheel.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Soft buffer after heat treatment gets converted into hard buffer. drivers or work head fixtures at the ends. In difference from other cylindrical processes. Instead. while grinding between centers. The Grinding process is the stage where the rings reach the exact dimensions and tolerances that the final product requires. where the work piece is held in the grinding machine. Centre less (center less) grinding is an OD (outer diameter) grinding process. The blade of the grinding machine is usually positioned in a way that the center of the work piece is higher than the virtual line between the centers of the regulating wheel and the grinding wheel. the order of the grinding process is as follows. The tolerance range for grinding processes is usually in the order of 10 microns. Track Honing 58 . for face and grinding operation. Hard buffer is Then forwarded to next dept. Also the blade is designed with an angle in order to ensure that the work piece is fixed between the blade and the regulating wheel. The work piece is rotating between a high speed grinding wheel and a slower speed regulating wheel with a smaller diameter.

The dimensions of the IR and OR are measured to the exact micron in order to pair them and determine the exact ball size to be used. Missing Ball. Etching . 4.SKF stamps its mark on every bearing along with the model number and technical specifications that it falls under. the process of track honing removes only around 15 microns totally. Ball Filling . T6. 59 .Balls of appropriate size are filled between the 2 rings. etc.The cages are inserted and riveted in place to ensure even spacing of the balls during the functioning of the bearing. T3. Then Quality Check. This is done by chemical etching.The clearance between the balls and the race way is measured and the bearings are categorized as T2. Caging . Oil/Greasing .The rings are passed through a washing unit before the appropriate lubricant is applied. Ring Pairing .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” The finest of material removal operations.6 Assembly:. Visual Inspection is done. Clearance Check .The sensitive ball and cage assembly is protected from debris and impurities in this stage. Vibration. Shielding/Sealing .Assembly of Bearing consists of following steps. A seal is a watertight protection whereas a shield protects only against larger debris. giving the characteristic polished and smooth shine to the track surface. The number of balls is so decided such that the rings need to be elastically deformed in order to insert the last ball between them. Packing: The finished rings are packaged individually and then into crates before they are sent to the store for dispatch.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 6 Quality control and manufacturing excellence 60 .

5. • • Operating capable.2 Basic layout types The chapter describes four basic layout types. The SKF quality policy goes: SKF shall only market products. Remember though. with the objective of zero defects. 61 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 5. at the end of doing this the chapter does make the point that most layout types are hybrids of two or more of these four basic types. Nevertheless it is important to understand each of them so that their advantages and disadvantages can be identified. For achieving continuous improvement and for manufacturing excellence. reliable and efficient business process Applying continuous improvement through the organization. services and solutions that will ensure customer satisfaction by. they implement TPM and 6 Sigma on the shop floor.1 QUALITY: The quality assurance department consists of quality managers that work on each channel of the manufacturing unit to ensure the quality of products being produced.

This is because moving the actors. Several examples are mentioned in the text. cameras etc. to the set or location is considerably easier than the other way round. Figure of fixed position layout 62 . Most movies are shot in a studio and on location. In both cases resources centre around a fixed position (the studio set or the location).“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fixed position layout Unusually. in a fixed position layout the resources travel to the product or customer rather than the other way round. An additional one is the production of movies. technicians.

‘Products’ with different requirements move between the clusters of transforming resources in different ways.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Process layout Process layouts are sometimes called functional layouts because the transforming resources with the same. It can usually cope with a wide variety of different processing requirements. function are grouped together. it is complex to manage with flows crossing each other and moving on irregular and intermittent paths. or similar. This makes this kind of layout particularly flexible. However. 63 .

the transformed resource may move to a different cell in the operation or it may be a finished product or service. In a cell layout.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Cell layout Primarily this type of layout is an attempt to reduce the complexity of process layouts. Each cell may be arranged in either a process or product layout. It divides transforming resource up into small clusters which can be used to act upon different products or product groups. 64 . Within each cell layout can be almost identical to product layout (treated next). the transformed resources entering the operation move into a cell in which all the transforming resources it requires in located. After being processed in the cell.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Figure of cell layout Product layout Here the transforming resources are arranged for the convenience of product flow. especially the ‘back office’ of services such as banks and insurance companies. The classic image of the assembly line is typical of how we think of product layouts. 65 . In fact this type of layout is also common in many service industries. It is the processing requirements of a particular product or service which dictates exactly where and in what order facilities are located.

This suggested layout is then modified to ensure full compliance with safety considerations. They are intended to provide the underlying principles which help in putting a layout together. For example. It is not worth repeating those here but it is worth making one important point.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Figure of product layout Detailed layout design Several techniques are described in the chapter. In practice. 66 . there are nearly always more considerations than those which can be included in a particular technique. Most techniques are inevitably simplifications. considerations of safety will always need to be included in layout decisions but often these are brought into the decision making process after an initial layout has been suggested by using one of the techniques.

This requires a detailed understanding of all the processes involved so that non-value-added activities can be identified and eliminated. known as the value stream. 67 . Value stream mapping is a technique that can aid in developing this required knowledge.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Figure of detail layout in a restaurant A major activity in the journey towards quality is the effective management of the flow of products and services through the series of the activities involved in providing value to the customer. Value Stream Mapping is a powerful tool for analyzing information and material flow throughout an organization or between organizations and identifying and planning improvements.

you will use value stream mapping to identify sources of non-value added time or materials. 68 . wastewater discharges. water. hazardous wastes. and develop a plan for implementing improvements. improve production flow. • Identify root causes of wastes and inefficiencies. The Green Suppliers Network incorporates both “lean and clean” elements into its mapping techniques to help you: • Recognize where environmental impacts occur in a product line. such as air emissions. • Identify pollution and wastes generated by the production activities. reduce inventory. Conventional value stream mapping can overlook environmental wastes. • The ability for participants from different parts of an organization to gain an Understanding of the overall information and material flow Value stream mapping is a Lean process-mapping method for understanding the sequence of activities used to produce a product. or raw materials used in excess of what is needed to meet consumer needs • Pollutants and material wastes released into the environment. Value stream maps serve as a critical tool during the review process and can reveal substantial opportunities to reduce costs. and solid wastes (trash or discarded scrap) • Hazardous substances that adversely affect human health or the environment during their use in production or presence in products. • Quantify raw materials used by processes and compare it to materials actually needed to produce the product. • Planning and identifying kaizen events for optimum effectiveness. save time.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Benefits of manufacturing excellence: • The ability to dramatically reduce inventory and improve lead-time. During the Green Suppliers Network technical review. and improve environmental performance. such as: • Energy. identify opportunities to increase efficiency.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 7 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 69 .

then immediately select and implement one or more Kaizen Events.1). Before you create a current state map. Value Stream Mapping is a pencil and paper tool that helps to see and understand the flow of material and information as a product makes its way through the value stream. including: •5S/Workplace •QuickChangeover •Cellular/FlowManufacturing •Pull/KanbanSystems • Total Productive Maintenance This approach maintains the momentum and excitement of the team. But the information flow must also be considered since it tells each Process what to make or do next. you should have already identified the value stream you want to analyze. and improving the whole. the team members that developed the Value Stream Maps are utilized for the implementation of the Kaizen Event(s).“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 7. not just individual processes. as well as ensures buy-in to the future state plan. the movement of material through the factory is the flow that usually comes to mind. not just individual parts. Within the production flow. A. 70 . the design flow from concept to completion. The Value Stream Mapping Team will develop the implementation plan. Taking a value stream view means looking at the whole picture. A value stream is all the actions (value-added and non-value added) required to take a product from raw material to the customer. both flows must be mapped.DATA INTERPRETATION: A current state value stream map will enable us to see the complete door-to-door flow in your facility and to identify and prioritize areas for improvement. and draw a visual picture of every process in the material and information flow. The meaning is simple: Follow a product's production path from customer to supplier. The Value Stream Mapping Event will identify opportunities to remove waste. Typically.

: Data Table C. 71 . : Change-over time.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Symbols used: : Inventory accumulated : Process / Operation : Transport.T. : Information Flow. C/O : Cycle time.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 72 .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.13: Current state mapping of 2872 inner rings. 73 .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig. 74 .14: Current state mapping of 32211 inner rings.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 75 .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.15: Current state mapping of 32211 outer rings. 76 .

77 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.16: Material movement chart of 32211 inner rings.

78 .17: Material movement chart of 32211 outer rings.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig 18: FISHBONE DIAGRAM FOR LONG LEAD TIME IN SHARED OPERATIONS 79 .

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it. encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names. suggesting conclusions. and social science domains. cleaning. OBSERVATIONS • Space in F & OD dept. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches. science. in different business. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle. and supporting decision making. and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information. though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 6. transforming. is not distributed channel wise. hence confusion ab • • 7A. Space requirement in FOD: 80 .2) DATA ANALYSIS: Analysis of data is a process of inspecting.

One day requirements of the channels have to be catered by FOD.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Table. Material handler personally decides where to keep the hard buffer from HT dept. So the challenge in front of us is to find out the way of spacing the buffer in available space. But is very important that once the grinding is done the material should not wait in this department. there will be visual and clear indications about the availability of the material in space allocated for the particular operator. there is confusion about where to place the hard material as there is no proper allocation of space. Lead time of grinding is less than HT. according to availability of the space. It is clear that buffer has to be kept machine wise. hence material moves faster in transit buffer but the problem of tracking the batch persists because the space is not allocated machine wise. 7B. it should be immediately moved to channels since space available in FOD is very limited. Once the space will be allocated in proper manner.2: Machine wise space requirements in FOD Table shows the space requirements in the FOD department. 81 . FINDING • • Due to lack of space in F & OD dept.

but space for hard buffer is same.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” • • No material movement occurs in third shift.e. Rough pass is not followed by finish pass immediately hence waiting time & number of settings are also increased. • This allocation of hard buffer is not known to operators and because of this the same batch gets separated. in first shift. • In two months period 5-6 times pallet felling down cases was observed in shared operations. • As space is major constraint in F & OD dept. • So for the same type setting is done twice due to non availability of the material. • It is also observed that same material is handled twice due to improper allocation of hard buffer. • Actually the whole process of material movement is wrong. • Noise is major problem in F & OD dept (Avg. • Frequent maintenance on Face grinding machine 1584 is required hence down time is higher. • On Face grinding machine 166 material feeding is a great problem since two operators are required to feed the machine. material movement is difficult & hectic. • New Machine is put in F & OD dept. Material movement is person dependent and due to this same type gets separated and is placed at different positions. Noise Level-119dB). • F & OD grinding is not done continuously i. 82 . • This is because tote boxes cannot rest on each other comfortably. • No information flow between the departments. • Setting time on F & OD machines is high compare to furnaces. hence too much hard buffer gets accumulated in F & OD dept.

This is clearer in the material movement chart in previous chapter. 83 .19: Material movement not in single direction • As figure shows.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig. This causes movement of same material more than once in face & OD grinding department. the material handling in the factory is not in single direction.

20: Current Layout of FOD department 84 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION CONCLUSION 85 .

It is this Future State which highlights the waste in the 'system' that can be eliminated or reduced. clear picture of the chain of activities in the stream is visualized. We also tried to suggest some ways to minimize those wastes. The next step is to develop the 'Future State Implementation Plan'. After finishing Current State Value Stream Map. 86 . no production system can afford to have NVA in their value stream. we plotted the current state VSM and identified the wastes. This FSVSM will play a role of benchmark to the planners and executers as they plan their future improvement activities and schedules. By seeing the amount of 'waste' the team can identify opportunities to improve. The ultimate aim of system is single piece flow & it can be achieved through the approach of continuous improvement by visualizing and eliminating wastes in the systems After having the picture of current system as it is now through VSM. If not eliminate we must try to minimize the buffer states and idle runs. In this era of zero defect and six sigma. a Future State Map looks six months or more down the road at what the organization can achieve. Once the current state VSM is mapped. In our case of shared operations area. VSM proves to be a powerful tool to visualize the non value added activities in the system. Next step is identifying the NVAs and attack them to have shorter path towards the final product. Future State Value Stream Map helps with the larger process of developing your Lean Manufacturing Strategy. engineering and strategy than Present State mapping. It proves very useful in seeing the bottleneck from perspective of waste elimination. It requires significant knowledge of Core Disciplines and other specific topics. Designing a Future State requires more art. Challenge lies in seeing it. there is a value stream. it is important to plot the Future State VSM to have goal in our eyes.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Whenever there is a product for a customer.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 8 RECOMMENDATIONS 8. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 87 .

Once the rings are face grinded. 88 . they become transit buffer and should be moved as quickly as possible to the next process station. OD grinding is not done in shared operations. one proposal of keeping the buffer is put in the next figure. Some types are moved to channels after face grinding only. Currently only space is provided but no visual communication is there. That is why the inventory should be placed and allocated according to the requirements of the face machines.1 Machine wise allocation of pallets in the available space:Process map shows that face grinding is the first step in grinding area.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Analysis and careful study of the conditions and requirements in the department resulted in 4 suggestions in the FOD department. Considering this entire criterion. • Machine wise allocation of pallets in the available space • Replacement of tote boxes with blue container • Fast processing of Hard Buffer • Single piece flow system 8.

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” Fig. 89 .22: Machine wise allocation of buffer in FOD dept.

Space required for one pallet and one container is almost same. They are made of Teflon compound which makes less noise and can help in reducing metal to metal contact resulting into dents. That means vertical space can be used efficiently using containers. But it requires technical up gradation of machines for the loading of the rings to machines. Fig. So. As we have seen tote boxes have proved unsafe and noise producing in the factory.23: Blue container occupying nearly equal space of pallet & can hold 7 box inventories 90 .“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 8. On the same area. Currently some channels use these containers. Blue containers can be the option for them to store and move the inventory through the factory. vertical space is only option. if two containers are placed one above other it can hold inventory which is double of current capacity.2 Replacement of tote boxes with blue container: Space is major constraint in FOD dept. Now horizontal expansion cannot be done. One container can hold material equal to 7 tote boxes as an average.

output rate in FOD is higher. it will increase the time of operator to change the container at out put.3 Fast processing of Hard Buffer:Compare to HT dept.4 Single piece flow system:91 . forklift has to be used. More than 50% are old machines hence they require high maintenance. Material if directly taken on machine from HT dept will reduce the huge inventory in FOD dept. Fig. Thus hard buffer waiting time in dept will reduce and the space available can be use effectively. But now setting times on Face & Grinding is very high.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” One more pre requisite for using containers is that to store them vertically. If some technological up gradation is done their regular breakdown can be reduced. This will automatically increase the output and material can be moved to channels or CSM. If setting time is reduced material waiting time in dept can be reduced. 8. Process time is very less in FOD dept. 8. On machine if these boxes are used. i.e.24: Containers kept one on one are safe and use vertical space efficiently. hence it will make it easy for operator and we can use that free time of operator else where.

By doing so noise level will be reduced to great extent and fatigue on employees will be reduced. So if the flow of rings is made in a single piece flow there will not be metal to metal contact.e. 92 . Rings fall on each other & it creates noise. there should not be ring to ring contact. At the same time many rings are being processed from all the machines & hence contribute to loud noise. Fig.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” As noise is major problem in Face & Outer grinding Department Company is looking for single piece flow of the material i.25: Future State Value stream Map .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 10 APPENDICES 93 .

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

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“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

S u p p l i e r S Cu p p l i e r D
C o m p o n e n ts

C ha nnel 1

S u p p lie r A

B u f f e rB u f f e r B u f f e r

S h a re d o p e r a t io n

C u s to m e r L oa ps et r a t i o n order

Ch a nnel 2

S u p p l i eB ur f f Be r B

u ffe r B u ffe r

C u s to m e r L oa ps et r a o t ri o d n e r

S u p p lie r E
C o m p o n en ts
: Entire supply chain and Shared operations as a vital part of it 95

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company”

STEPS IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

96

“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” CHAPTER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 97 .

org. Lean Enterprise Institute 98 . N Gupta. 2008.com/processes/machining/grind. books.google.efunda. crystec.lean.com 2. edition-2 6. Tata McGraw Hill. Mike Rother and John Shook. Delhi.) Operations Management.“Study of Operation layout using Value Stream mapping (VSM) in Face & Outer grinding department of SKF Company” 1. Plant layout and materials handling. Prentice Hall. Kothari.) Total Quality management.) Learning to See.annual report. http://www. New Age International. 2000 5.R.skf.com 3. C.) Research Methodology.in 4.) .) ISBN: 0-9667843-0-8 . B Valarmathi. John Wiley 7.) www. http://www. 2009.co.

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