DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL

BY

JIMIT VYAS AND MAHAVIR SOLANKI

GUIDED BY : MR BHAVESH PATEL

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 1 

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Certainly, help and encouragement from others are always appreciated, but in different times, such magnanimity is valued even more. This said, this Dissertation would never have been completed without the generous help and support that I received from numerous people along the way.

I wish to express my deepest thanks and gratitude to my elite guide Mr Bhavesh P Patel, Mechanical Engineering Dept., U.V. Patel College of Engg., Mehsana, for his invaluable guidance and advice, without that the Dissertation would not have appear in present shape. He also motivated me at every moment during entire dissertation.

I also hearty thankful and express deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Bhavesh Prajapati, senior manager at GMM Pflauder, for giving opportunity to undertake a dissertation in the industry and furnishing the details and help. Special thanks to Mr. Ankit Prajapati, Design Engineer, at GMM Pflauder, for his keen interest and guidance in carrying out the work. I wish to thank the principal Dr. J. L. Juneja and all the staff members of Mechatronics & Mechanical Dept., U. V. Patel College of Engg., especially to , Prof. J. M. Prajapati, Prof. J. P. Patel, Prof. V. B. Patel, for their co-operation, guidance and support during the work.

Jimit Vyas & Mahavir Solanki

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 2 

 
ASTRACT
The significance of the title of the project comes to front with designing structure of the pressure vessel for static loading and its assessment by Ansys , is basically a project concerned with design of different pressure vessel elements such as shell, Dish end ,operating manhole ,support leg based on standards and codes ; and evolution of shell and dish end analysed by means of ansys .The key feature included in the project is to check the behaviour of pressure vessel in case of fluctuating load .The [procedural step includes various aspects such as selecting the material based on ASME codes ,and then designing on the standards procedures with referring standard manuals based on ASME .Further we have included the different manufacturing methods practice by the industries and different aspects of it . And step by step approaches to the NTD method practice by the industries followed with standards and also included within the report work. This will be making a clear picture f this method among the reader . conclusively, this modus operandi of design based on technical standard and codes ., can be employed on practical design of pressure vessel as per required by the industry or the problem statement given associated to the field of pressure vessel.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 3 

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 4  . When the pressure vessel is exposed to this pressure. Cylindrical or spherical pressure vessels (e. closed end cylinder. r.. The second method is based on elasticity solution and is always applicable regardless of the r/t ratio and can be referred to as the solution for “thick wall” pressure vessels. The normal stresses resulting from this pressure are functions of the radius of the element under consideration.e. the thin wall pressure vessel can be used. The pressure vessels are designed with great care because rupture of pressure vessels means an explosion which may cause loss of life and property. the shape of the pressure vessel (i. Two types of analysis are commonly applied to pressure vessels. boilers and tanks) are commonly used in industry to carry both liquids and gases under pressure. The fluid being stored may undergo a change of state inside the pressure vessel as in case of steam boilers or it may combine with other reagents as in a chemical plant. from all directions. t. the material comprising the vessel is subjected to pressure loading.. pipes.  INTRODUTION: The pressure vessels (i. Both types of analysis are discussed here. although for most engineering applications. and hence stresses. hydraulic cylinders. cylinder or tanks) are used to store fluids under pressure. open ended cylinder. The material of pressure vessels may be brittle such that cast iron or ductile such as mild steel. to wall thickness.g. of r/t≥10. The most common method is based on a simple mechanics approach and is applicable to “thin wall” pressure vessels which by definition have a ratio of inner radius. gun barrels.e. or sphere) as well as the applied pressure.

and they are built for working pressures at temperatures not exceeding 250 c and unfired .  Classification of Pressure Vessels Unfired Cylindrical Pressure Vessels (Classification Based on IS 2825-1969) a) Class 1 : Vessels that are to contain lethal or toxic substances. Vessels designed for the operation below -20 C and Vessels intended for any other operation not stipulated in the code. class3 vessels are not recommended for services at temperatutre below 0c. The maximum thickness of shell is limited to 38 mm. c) class 3: there are vessels for relatively light duties having plate thickness not in excess of 16 mm. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 5  . b) Class 2: vessels which do not fall in the scope of clas1 and class 3 are to be termed as class2 vessels.

circumferential welded joints connecting from heads to main shells to nozzles and to communicating chambers.  Categories Of Welded Joints The term categories specifies the location of the joint in a vessels. IS-2825 specifies 4 categories of welds. tubes sheets and flat heads to main shells . b) Category B: circumferential welded joints with in the main shell. to formed heads .to heads and to flat sided vessels and those joints connecting nozzles to communicating chambers. d) Category d: welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles to main sheels . nozzles and transitions in diameter including joints between the transtations and a cylinder at either the large of small end.) a) category A: longitudinal welded joints within the main sheet. These categories are intended for specifying the special requirements regarding the joint type and degree of inspection. communicating chambers . communicating chambers. c) Category c: welded joints connecting flanges. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 6  . but not the type of joint. (Refer fig. to nozzles or to communicating chambers and any welded joints connecting one side plate to another side plate of a flat sided vessel.nozzles and any welded joints within a formed or flat head.

  STRESS Types of Stresses Tensile Compressive Bending Axial Membrane Principal Tangential Strain induced Longitudinal Normal Shear Bearing Discontinuity Tensile Thermal Load induced Circumferential Radial Classes of stress Primary Stress General: Primary general membrane stress Pm Primary general bending stress Pb Primary local stress. PL Secondary stress: Secondary membrane stress. F Definition and Examples PRIMARY GENERAL STRESS: These stress act over a full cross section of the vessel. Primary general stress are divided into membrane and U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 7  . Qm Secondary bending stress Qb Peak stress. Primary stress are generally due to internal or external pressure or produced by sustained external forces and moments.

Membrane stress in the nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to pressure or external loads. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 8  . Bending stress in the ligaments of closely spaced openings. Pm Circumferential and longitudinal stress due to pressure. Compressive and tensile axial stresses due to wind.  bending stresses. Calculated value of a primary bending stress may be allowed to go higher than that of a primary membrane stress. Primary general membrane stress. Axial compression due to weight. Membrane stress in the centre of the flat head. Primary general bending stress. LOCAL PRIMARY MEMBRANE STESS. Longitudinal stress due to the bending of the horizontal vessel over the saddles. PL Pm+ membrane stress at local discontinuities: Head-shell juncture Cone-cylinder juncture Nozzle-shell juncture Shell-flange juncture Head-skirt juncture Shell-stiffening ring juncture Pm+ membrane stresses from local sustained loads: Support legs Nozzle loads Beam supports Major attachments SECONDARY STRESS Secondary membrane stress Qm Axial stress at the juncture of a flange and the hub of the flange Thermal stresses. Bending stress in a shallow conical head. Pb Bending stress in the centre of a flat head or crown of a dished head.

These stresses are additive and define the overall state of stress in the vessel or component. It is primary local stress if it is produced from an unrelenting load or a secondary stress if produced by a relenting load.  Membrane stress in the knuckle area of the head. Stress due to notch effect. The nonuniform portion of the stress distribution in a thick-walled vessels due to internal pressure. Membrane stress due to local relenting loads. General and local loads can produce membrane and bending stresses. Discontinuity stresses at stiffening or support ring. lugs. O the other hand. the stresses from the inward radial load could be either a primary local stress or secondary stress. Qb Bending stress at the gross structural discontinuity: nozzle. Thermal stress in a wall caused by a sudden change in the surface temperature. etc.. Peak Stress F Stress at the corner of discontinuity. The stresses applied more or less continuously and uniformly across an entire section of the vessel are primary stresses. The stresses due to pressure and wind are primary membrane stresses. Secondary bending stress. The stress variation of the radial stress due to internal pressure in thick-walled vessels. LOADINGS Loadings or forces are the “causes” of stress in pressure vessels. (stress concentration). Loadings may be applied over a large portion (general area) of the vessel or over a local area of the vessel. (relenting loadings only). U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 9  . Thermal stresses in cladding or weld overlay.

platforms. the load will relax once slight deformation occurs. installed equipment. transportation. Torsional load. Pressure loads—Internal or external pressure (design. c. Moment loads—Due to wind. the stress will be redistributed. attached equipment. mixers.. etc.e. ladders.. seismic. hydrotest. Thermal loads—Hot box design of skirt-head attachment.e. i. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 10  . Tangential load.5SE Primary membrane + secondary (Q): Pm+Q< 3SE Loading can be outlined as follows: Categories of loadings General loads—Applied more or less continuously across a vessel section. d. Basically each combination of stresses ( stress categories will have different allowables. internal. Moment load—Longitudinal or circumferential. Compressive/tensile loads—Due to dead weight.5 SE PL=Pm+Qm< 1. operating. f. a. erection. platforms. Shear load—Longitudinal or circumferential. and hydrostatic head of liquid).  If it is a primary stress. piping and vessel contents. i. Thermal load. e. Radial load—Inward or Outward. Primary stress: Pm < SE Primary membrane local (PL): PL=Pm+ PL <1. attached Piping. if it is a secondary stress. Local loads—Due to reactions from supports. b.

b. Shop and field hydro-test Earthquake Erection Transportation Upset. Design—Incorrect design data. shut down FAILURE IN PRESSURE VESSELS Categories of Failures: Material--Improper Selection of materials. Loading due to attached piping and equipment. Loadings to and from vessel supports. g. defects in material. c.  Types of Loadings 1) Steady loads—Long-term duration. emergency Thermal Loads Startup. inaccurate or incorrect design methods. Dead weight. Internal/external pressure. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 11  . improper or insufficient fabrication procedures including welding. Thermal loads. f. Fabrication – Poor quality control. Variable. heat treatment or forming methods. inadequate shop testing. a. Wind Loads Types of Loadings 1) Non-steady loads.Short-term duration. continuous. e. d. Vessel contents.

Division 2. Excessive plastic deformation—The primary and secondary stress limits as outlined in ASME Section VIII. are intended to prevent excessive plastic deformation and incremental collapse.  Service—Change of service condition by the user. Creep is a time-dependent phenomenon. and fabrication methods are as follows: Lethal Fatigue (cyclic) Brittle (low temperature) High Temperature High shock or vibration Vessel contents Hydrogen Ammonia Compressed air Caustic Chlorides TYPES OF FAILURES Elastic deformation—Elastic instability or elastic buckling. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 12  . vessel geometry. Brittle fracture—Can occur at low or intermediate temperature. upset conditions. inexperienced operations or maintenance personnel. Brittle fractures have occurred in vessels made of low carbon steel in the 40-50 F range during hydrotest where minor flaws exist. whereas fatigue is a cyclic-dependent phenomenon o TYPES OF FAILURES o Plastic instability—Incremental collapse.e. Cumulative damage leads to instability of vessel by plastic deformation.. incremental collapse is cyclic strain accumulation or cumulative cyclic deformation. i. progressive fracture. Some types of services which requires special attention both for selection of materials. and stiffness as well as properties of materials are protecting against buckling. Stress rupture—Creep deformation as a result of fatigue or cyclic loading. design details.

The core is stressed into plastic range but below ultimate strength. This creates compressive stress in the core. Multilayer—Begins with a core about ½ in. thick.” Multilayer auto-frettage—Begins with a core about ½ in. likewise caustic service can cause stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel. thick. The outer rings are maintained at a margin below yield strength. Each layer is vented (except the core) and welded individually with no overlapping welds. Corrosion can reduce fatigue life by pitting the surface and propagating cracks. o Corrosion fatigue—Occurs when corrosive and fatigue effects occur simultaneously. The process of compressing layers is called auto-frettage from the French word meaning “selfhooping. SPECIAL PROBLEMS Thick Walled Pressure Vessels Mono-bloc. Multi-wall—Begins with a core about ½ in.  o o High Strain—Low cyclic fatigue is strain-governed and occurs mainly in lowerstrength/high-ductile materials. Bands or forged rings are slipped outside and then the core is expanded hydraulically.Solid vessel wall. which is relaxed during pressurization. The elastic deformation residual in U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 13  . Stress corrosion—It is well know that chlorides cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. thick and successive layers are applied. Material selection and fatigue properties are the major considerations. Outer layers about the same thickness are successive “ shrunk fit” over the core. Materials selection is critical in these services. to 2 in.

material. one attaching the sheet to the core and the final closures weld. Wire wrapped vessels: Begin with inner core of thickness less than required for pressure. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 14  . which is relaxed during pressurization. the vessel is in cyclic service. The stress is always caused by some form of mechanical restrain.  the outer bands induces compressive stress in the core. Core is wrapped with steel cables in tension until the desired autofrettage is achieved. cause failure due to excessive deformations. THERMAL STRESS Whenever the expansion or contraction that would occur normally as a result of heating or cooling an object is prevented. diameter and change in directions would all have different displacements if allowed to expand freely. The stresses in the respective parts at or near the juncture are called discontinuity stresses. They can however. FATIGUE ANALYSIS When a vessel is subject to repeated loading that could cause failure by the development of a progressive fracture. Discontinuity stresses do become an important factor in fatigue design where cyclic loading is a consideration. DISCONTINUITY STRESSES Vessel sections of different thickness. Only two longitudinal welds are used. Coil wrapped vessels: Begin with a core that is subsequently wrapped or coiled with a thin steel sheet until the desired thickness is obtained. Thermal stresses will not cause failure by rupture. thermal stresses are developed. since they are connected in a continuous structure. However. Fatigue analysis can also be a result of thermal vibrations as well as other loadings. Discontinuity stresses are “ secondary stresses” and are self-limiting. Vessels 5 to 6 ft in diameter for pressure up to 5000psi have been made in this manner. they must deflect and rotate together. Thermal stresses are “secondary stresses” because they are self-limiting.

3-in. b. such as at a head junction or nozzle opening. misalignment. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls greater than 3/8 in. 2-in. NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT Fig : nozzle reinforcement Limits. and thermal gradients are the significant stresses. Normal reinforcement methods apply to Page 15  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  . and less. No reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction is required for nozzles. a. pipe size and smaller in vessel walls 3/8 in. defects in construction.  In fatigue service the localized stresses at abrupt changes in section.

diameter-1/3 the vessel diameter but not to exceed 40. it is recommended that re-pads be atleast 2in wide. Openings in flat heads: Reinforcements for the openings in the flats heads and blind flanges shall be as follows a. Width While no minimum is stated. 3. Vessels greater than 60-in. 5. a. Openings in torispherical heads. 9. 8. reinforcement shall be in accordance with para. re-pads can also be put inside providing they do not interfere with the vessel’s operation. Thickness It is recommended that pad be not less then 75% nor more than 150% of the part to which they are attached. Openings < ½ head diameter. no additional credit may be taken for the higher strength.75 Increasing head thickness by 1.5(tr).414 b.area to be replaced equals 0. 2. or thickness of head or flange may be increased by: Doubling C value Using C=0. diameter and less-1/2 the vessel diameter but not to exceed 20 in. If a higher strength material is used. 1-7 of ASME Code. Openings>1/2 head diameter –shall be designed as a bolted flange connection.in a. Strength It is advisable but not mandatory for reinforcing pad material to be the same as the vessel material. Forming: Reinforcing pads should be formed as closely to the contour of the vessel as possible. 1b.  Vessels 60-in. either in the pad or in the nozzle neck. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 16  . 4. While normally put on the outside of the vessel.

Reinforcement required for openings subject to external pressure only or when longitudinal compression governs shall only be 50 % of that required for internal pressure and tr. 11. Re-pads over seams If at all possible. General Reinforcement should be calculated in the corroded condition assuming maximum tolerance (minimum t) 12. the seam should be ground flush before attaching the pad. Ligaments When there is a series of closely spaced openings in a vessel shell and it is impractical to reinforce each opening. pads should not cover weld seams. a. division 1. 15. Openings in elliptical heads When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within 0.  When a nozzle openings and all its reinforcement fall within the dished portion. ASME code. Openings that have been reinforcement may located in a welded joint. the required thickness of head for reinforcement purpose shall be computed using M=1 10. the construction efficiency of the ligaments between the holes is acceptable. provided the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 17  . to the edge of a main seam.8 D of an elliptical head. does not allow a welded joint to have two different weld joint efficiencies 13. Openings through seams. is thickness required for external pressure 16. the required thickness of the head for reinforcement purpose shall be equal to the thickness required for a seamless sphere of radius K(D). External pressures. the reinforcement to be checked) shall not be located closer than ½ in. When unavoidable. 17. Openings near seams Small nozzles ( for which the code does not require. 14. Multiple openings: is acceptable.

No portion of the cross-section shall apply to more than one openings. 1. 18. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement: 17 b. 3. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 18  . Must have a combined area equal to the sum of the two areas 2. For two openings closer than 2 times the average diameters and where limits of reinforcement overlap. required for the two openings. the area between the openings shall meet the following 1. When more than two openings are to be provided with combined reinforcement: The minimum distance between the two centers is 1 1/3 the average diameters. Any overlap area shall be proportional between the two openings by the ratio of the diameters. A correction factor f may be used for “ integrally reinforced” nozzle to compensate for differences in stress from longitudinal to circumferential axis of the vessel. b. 2. circle circumscribing the multiple openings. The area of reinforcement between the two nozzle shall be atleast 50% of the area Multiple openings may be reinforced s an opening equal in diameter to that of a Plane of reinforcement.0 for the longitudinal axis to 0. c.5 for circumferential.  a. Value of f vary from 1.

  CHAPTER 2 ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 19  .

VIII DIV.Reactors .Vessels . Page 20  For Pressure vessels U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  . Bins. For Low Pressure Storage Tanks.1 / IS: 2825 ASME SEC.0 CODES AND STANDARDS The following codes and standards shall be followed unless otherwise specified: ASME SEC. VIII DIV.2 For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high pressure / high thickness / critical service) ASME SEC.3 API 650 / IS: 803 API 620 For Storage Spheres For Pressure vessels (Selectively for high pressure) For Storage Tanks.Steel Flare Stacks 2.Storage Tanks .0 SCOPE This specification covers the design basis for following equipment: . VIII DIV. VIII DIV.Steel silos.Columns .  Engineering Design Guidelines For Pressure Vessels 1.Spheres .2 ASME SEC. Hoppers .

297 / PD 5500 For Local load / stress analysis For Silos Hoppers and Bins FRP vessels / tanks. steam storage catch water vessels. and applicable standards/ Specifications.II ASTM / IS IS: 875 / SITE DATA IS: 1893 / SITE DATA ASME SEC. IX WRC BULLETIN# 107.1 ASME SEC.  API 620 / BS 7777 ASME SEC. VIIIDIV.` Welded Aluminium Alloy Storage Tanks. For material specification For material specification (Tanks) For wind load consideration For seismic design consideration For welding.1 Cryogenic Storage Tanks (Double Wall) For workmanship of Vessels not categorized under any other code. 3. ISO R831/ IBR For Steam producing. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 21  .0 DESIGN CRITERIA Equipment shall be designed in compliance with the latest design code requirements. condensate flash drums and similar vessels IS: 9178 / DIN 1055 BS: 4994 / ASME SEC X ASME: B 96.

b) For stainless steel vessel and high alloy vessels -3 mm.6mm (Including corrosion allowance not exceeding 3.0mm). Wall thickness (mm) = Dia/1000 + 2. c) Tangent to Tangent height (H) to Diameter (D) ratio (H/D) greater than 5 shall be considered as column and designed accordingly. but not less than that calculated as per following: FOR DIAMETERS LESS THAN 2400mm Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +1.5 Corrosion Allowance. e) For stainless steel and high alloy columns / towers -5mm. if any. Corrosion allowance. but not less than that calculated as per following for diameter more than 1500mm. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 22  .5 + Corrosion Allowance All dimension are in mm. if any shall be added to minimum thickness.0mm.0 MINIMUM SHELL/HEAD THICKNESS Minimum thickness shall be as given below a) For carbon and low alloy steel vessels.5 + Corrosion Allowance FOR DIAMETERS 2400mm AND ABOVE Wall thickness = Dia/1000 +2. shall be added to minimum thickness. d) For carbon and low alloy steel columns / towers -8mm (including corrosion allowance not exceeding 3.  4.

 
5.0 5.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Vessel sizing
All Columns All Clad/Lined Vessels All Other Vessels Tanks & Spheres Based on inside diameter Based on inside diameter Based on outside diameter Based on inside diameter

Vessels (Thickness>50mm) Based on inside diameter

5.2

Vessel End Closures :

- Unless otherwise specified Deep Torispherical Dished End or 2:1 Ellipsoidal Dished End as per IS - 4049 shall be used for pressure vessels. Seamless dished end shall be used for specific services whenever specified by process licensor. - Hemispherical Ends shall be considered when the thickness of shell exceeds 70mm. - Flat Covers may be used for atmospheric vessels - Pipe Caps may be used for vessels diameter < 600mm having no internals. - Flanged Covers shall be used for Vessels /Columns of Diameter < 900mm having internals. - All columns below 900mm shall be provided with intermediate body flanges. Numbers of Intermediate flanges shall be decided based on column height and type of internals

5.3

Pressure

Pressure for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.3.1 Operating Pressure
Maximum pressure likely to occur any time during the lifetime of the vessel

5.3.2 Design Pressure
a) When operating pressure is up to 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to operating pressure plus 10% ( minimum 1Kg./cm2 g ). U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 23 

 
b) When operating pressure is over 70 Kg./cm2 g , Design pressure shall be equal to operating pressure plus 5% ( minimum 7 Kg./cm2g). c) Design pressure calculated above shall be at the top of vertical vessel or at the highest point of horizontal vessel. d) The design pressure at any lower point is to be determined by adding the maximum operating liquid head and any pressure gradient within the vessel. e) Vessels operating under vacuum / partial vacuum shall be designed for an external pressure of 1.055 Kg./cm2 g. f) Vessels shall be designed for steam out conditions if specified on process data sheet.

5.3.3 Test Pressure
a) Pressure Vessels shall be hydrostatically tested in the fabricators shop to 1.5 /1.3/ 1.25 (depending on design code) times the design pressure corrected for temperature. b) In addition, all vertical vessels / columns shall be designed so as to permit site testing of the vessel at a pressure of 1.5/ 1.3 / 1.25 (depending on design code) times the design pressure measured at the top with the vessel in the vertical position and completely filled with water. The design shall be based on fully corroded condition. c) Vessels open to atmosphere shall be tested by filling with water to the top. d) 1. Pressure Chambers of combination units that have been designed to operate independently shall be hydrostatically tested to code test pressure as separate vessels i.e. each chamber shall be tested without pressure in the adjacent chamber. 2. When pressure chambers of combination units have their common elements designed for maximum differential pressure the common elements shall be subjected to 1.5/ 1.3 times the differential pressure. 3. Coils shall be tested separately to code test pressure. e) Unless otherwise specified in applicable design code allowable stress during hydro test in tension shall not exceed 90% of yield point. f) Storage tanks shall be tested as per applicable code and specifications.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 24 

 
5.4 Temperature

Temperature for each vessel shall be specified in the following manner:

5.4.1 Operating Temperature
Maximum / minimum temperature likely to occur any during the lifetime of vessel.

5.4.2 Design temperature
a) For vessels operating at 0C and over: Design temperature shall be equal to maximum operating temperature plus 15 0C. b) For Vessels operating below 0C: Design temperature shall be equal to lowest operating temperature. c) Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) shall be lower of minimum atmospheric temperature and minimum operating temperature.

5.5

Corrosion allowance :

Unless otherwise specified by Process Licensor, minimum corrosion allowance shall be considered as follows : - Carbon Steel, low alloy steel column, Vessels, Spheres : 1.5 mm - Clad / Lined vessel: Nil - Storage Tank, shell and bottom : 1.5 mm - Storage tank, Fixed roof / Floating Roof : Nil For alloy lined or clad vessels, no corrosion allowance is required on the base metal. The cladding or lining material (in no case less than 1.5 mm thickness) shall be considered for corrosion allowance. Cladding or lining thickness shall not be included in strength calculations. Corrosion allowance for flange faces of Girth / Body flanges shall be considered equal to that specified for vessel.

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 25 

Vessels and columns with diameter greater than 1000mm shall be provided with 500 NB manhole. b) Drag coefficient for spherical vessel shall be 0.7 minimum. < 8m Shell 1 Roof 1 Page 26  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .7 Earthquake Consideration : Earthquake load shall be calculated in accordance with IS : 1893 / site data if specially developed and available 5.6 minimum. Nominal capacity for floating roof tanks shall be volume of cylindrical shell minus free board volume.8. 5. 5.2 Sphere Stored capacity shall be 85% of nominal capacity.  5. Stored capacity shall be 90% of Nominal capacity.8. b) For storage tanks minimum number of manholes (Size 500mm) shall be as follows: Tank Diameter Dia. 5.1 Tank Capacity shall be specified as Nominal capacity and stored capacity Nominal capacity for fixed roof tanks be volume of cylindrical shell. if required vessels and columns with diameter 1200mm and above may be provided with 600NB manhole. However.6 Wind Consideration Wind load shall be calculated on the basis of IS : 875 / site data.9 Manholes : a) Vessels and columns with diameter between 900 and 1000 mm shall be provided with 450 NB manhole. a) Drag coefficient for cylindrical vessels shall be 0.8 Capacity 5.

10.D. 5.Self Reinforced Nozzle Neck : Based on I. 5.D. > 36m 2 4 2 2 Floating roofs (pontoon or double deck type) shall be provided with manholes to inspect the entire interior of the roofs. .11 Nozzle size : Unless otherwise specified . < 36 dia Dia.2 Floating roof design shall be in fabricators scope having proven track record.10 Floating Roof : 5.1 Unless otherwise specified floating roof shall be of following construction.10.1 a) All nozzles and man-ways including self-reinforced type shall be 'set in' type and attached to vessel with full penetration welds. b) Self reinforced nozzles up to 80mm NB may be 'set on' type. Foam seal of proven make shall be provided unless otherwise specified. Tank Diameter 12 M < >12 M < 60M > 60M Type of Roof Double Deck Type Pontoon Type Double Deck Type 5.12 Flanges U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 27  .Minimum nozzle Size : 40 NB . Size of manhole shall be 500 mm minimum.  > 8m dia. Column : 50 NB . 5. 5.11.Minimum Nozzle Size.Safety Valve Nozzle : Based on I.

vent/drain connection as per following : VESSEL VOLUME.13 Internals : Removable internals shall be bolted type and bolting shall be stainless steel Type 304. m3 (mm) 6.2 For nozzles 100 NB and below. caustic.47 (SERIES 'B') 5. Slip on flanges may be used for nozzles above 100NB in Class 150 rating only.12. 5. severe cyclic service and corrosive service (where corrosion allowance is in excess of 3mm). NB U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 28  .14 Spares : Gaskets : Fasteners: Sight/Light Glass: Two sets for each installed gasket. 5.0 to 71.0 and larger 40 40 50 80 40 50 80 100 VENT SIZE. 4 sets for each installed glass. NB (mm) DRAIN SIZE.5 and above 600 NB shall be as per ASME /ANSI B 16. unless specified otherwise. 10 % (Minimum two in each size) of installed fasteners.0 and smaller 6. only weld neck flange shall be used.3 Slip on flanges shall not be used in Lethal. Hydrogen.1 Unless otherwise specified nozzle flanges up to 600NB shall be as per ASME /ANSI B16.  5.15 Vent/Drain Connections: Vessel shall be provided with one number each.0 71.0 to 17.0 17.12.12. 5. All flanges above Class 150 rating shall be weld neck type 5.

  5. shall be provided with pipe davit per relevant standard.0 PAINTING As per Standard Specification. 6.0 MATERIAL SELECTION : Material of various parts of equipment shall be selected per process data sheet guidelines and proper care shall be taken for the points as given in Annexure.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR TALL COLUMN DESIGN Mechanical design of self supporting Tall Column / Tower shall be carried out for various load combinations as per Annexure-II 10. 8. TYPICAL U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 29  . 9. CARBON STEEL MATERIAL IS ORDERED TO MEET THE IMPACT REQUIREMENTS OF SUPPLEMENT OF STANDARD ASME SA 20. unless otherwise stated. Annexure : I 1. WHICH REQUIRES TESTING OF INDIVIDUAL PLATES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE.0 INSULATION THICKNESS : As indicated on process data sheet by process licensor 7.0 STATUTORY PROVISIONS : National laws and statutory provisions together with any local byelaws for the state shall be complied with.16 Pipe Davit : Vertical Vessel / Column having safety valve size > 80 NB and or having internals.I or as specified. PRESSURE VESSEL STEEL PLATES ARE PURCHASED TO THE REQUIREMENT OF THE STANDARD ASME SA-20.

CHECK FOR IMPACT TESTING REQUIREMENT AS PER UCS-66 FOR COINCIDENT TEMPERATURE AND PART THICKNESS. MATERIAL SHALL BE SELECTED AS PER API 650 /API 620 AS APPLICABLE. 7. NORMALISED TO MEET IMPACT REQUIREMENTS PER SUPPLEMENT SS OF SA 20 AT-50F 2. MATERIAL FOR PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 SHALL BE GIVEN SPECIAL CONSIDERATION AS PER CODE. 6.60.  MATERIAL SPECIFICATION IS AS FOLLOWS SA 516 GR. NONFERROUS MATERIAL AND SUPER ALLOYS SHALL BE SELECTED BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION. SELECTION OF STAINLESS STEEL MATERIAL SHALL BE BASED ON PROCESS RECOMMENDATION/PROCESS LICENSOR. ATMOSPHERIC/LOW PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS. ALL PIPES SHALL BE OF SEAMLESS CONSTRUCTION. MATERIALS FOR CAUSTIC SERVICE SOUR SERVICE OR SOUR + HIC SHALL BE SELECTED BASED ON SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION OF PROCESS LICENSOR. ALL PERMANENT ATTACHMENTS WELDED DIRECTLY TO 9 % NICKEL STEEL SHOULD BE OF THE SAME MATERIAL OR OF AN AUSTENTIC STAINLESS STEEL TYPE WHICH CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT. 9. 8. 3. 4. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 30  . 5.

2 Internal and or external design pressure specified on process data sheets. insulation and operating liquid etc. VIII Div. Annexure -II DESIGN PHILOSOPHY OF TALL COLUMNS Mechanical design of self-supporting tall column and its anchorage block shall be carried out considering combination of various loads. The weight of attachments to be considered shall be as per Table -1 enclosed Other loading as specified in UG-22 of ASME Code Sec. wherever applicable. ladders piping and attached equipment should be given due consideration.3 Seismic forces and moments shall be computed in accordance with IS 1893 (latest edition).4 Basic wind pressure and wind velocity (including that due to winds of short duration as in squalls) for the computation of forces / moments and dynamic analysis respectively shall be in accordance with IS 875 (latest edition). nozzles. welded and removable attachments. ladders. 1.  10.1 1. MATERIAL FOR VESSEL /COLUMN SKIRT SHALL BE THE SAME MATERIAL AS OF VESSEL/ COLUMN SHELL FOR THE UPPER PART WITH A MINIMUM OF 500MM. 1. Unless otherwise specified importance factor and damping coefficient shall be considered as 2 and 2% respectively.0 Loadings The loadings to be considered in designing a self-supporting tall column/tower shall include: 1. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 31  . trays. platforms. manholes.1. 1. Additional wind loading on column due to external attachments like platforms. Self weight of column inclusive of piping.5 Loadings resulting in localised and gross stresses due to attachment or mounting of reflux / reboiler / condenser etc. 1.

Flaring of skirt shall be stopped if the deflection falls within limits or half angle of cone reaches maximum limit of 9 deg. the thickness of shell courses shall be increased one starting from bottom course above skirt and proceeding upwards till the deflection falls within allowable limits. 3.4 Test Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under test pressure filled with water plus 33% of specified wind load on uninsulated column considered.0 2. or earthquake force.1 Loading Condition Erection Condition: Column (un-corroded) erected on foundation without insulation. skirt shall be gradually flared to reduce the deflection. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 32  . trays removable internals. 3. but with welded attachments plus full wind on column.1 If the deflection of column exceeds the above allowable limit the thickness of skirt shall be increased as first trial up to a maximum value equal to the column thickness and this exercise shall be stopped if the deflection falls within allowable limit.  2. platforms.3 If the above two steps prove inadequate in limiting the deflection within allowable limits. 2.2 Operation Condition: Column (in corroded condition) under design pressure. including welded items. 2. trays etc. EARTHQUAKE AND WIND SHALL BE CONSIDERED NOT ACTING CONCURRENTLY 3. platforms. piping. reboiler mounted on column. 3.3 2.2 If the above step is inadequate.0 Deflection of Column Analysis shall be carries out for following conditions : Maximum allowable deflection at top of column shall be equal to height of the column divided by 200. plus full wind on insulated column with all other projections open to wind. ladder. insulating and operating liquid etc.

7. Shape factor for shell (for wind force calculation) : 0. I (Clause UG-99) at top of column. TABLE-1 DETAILS AND WEIGHT OF COLUMN ATTACHMENT 1. 6./m Equivalent projection to be considered for wind load on caged ladder : 300 mm Distance of platform below each manhole : Approx.0 Dynamic Analysis Dynamic analysis of each column shall be carried out for stability under transverse wind induced vibrations as per standard design practice./m2 Weight of plain Ladder: 15 Kg.7 Weight of trays (with liquid) to be considered. I. 3. A minimum number of 8 foundation bolts shall be provided.0 Stress Limits The stresses due to pressure weight wind / seismic loads shall be combined using maximum principle stress theory for ASME Section VIII Div. 4.0 Minimum Hydrotest Pressure Minimum Hydrotest Pressure (in Horizontal position) shall be equal to 1.3 x design pressure x temperature correction factor as specified in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 5. 2. 1000 mm Page 33  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  .  4. The recommended magnification amplitude shall be limited to tower diameter divided by five. shall be designed based on overturning moment (greater of seismic or wind). : 120 Kg. Numbers of foundation bolts shall be in multiple of four. anchor chairs compression ring. 5 6. Thicknesses are accordingly chosen to keep the within limits as per Table-2./m Weight of caged ladder: 37 Kg.0 Skirt Support Base Base supporting including base plate. foundation bolting etc.

1200 mm for column dia./m2. E = Weld joint efficiency of circumferential weld. 11. Equivalent height of platform (for wind load computation) : 1000 mm Weight of platforms : 170 Kg. column. from column insulation surface. B = 'B' value calculated as per Clause UG-23 (b).  7. Platform shall be considered all around TABLE -2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR COMBINED LOADING VESSEL CONDITION / TEMP. Maximum distance between consecutive platform : 5000 mm Projection of Platform : 900mm up to 1meter dia.1./ CONDITIONS TYPE OF STRESSES OPERATING NEW OR CORRODED CORRODED TEMPERATURE AMBIENT LONGITUDINAL 0.> 1 meter. depending on extent of radiography. 9. 8. VIII Div.PxE LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE STRESS Where KxB KxSxE ERECTION TEST NEW CORRODED AMBIENT DESIGN KxSxE KxB B S = Basic allowable Tensile Stress as per Clause UG 23 (a) of ASME Code Sec. 10. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 34  .90xY.

if joint is compression type.2 as per ASME Sec VIII Div 1.49S.  K = Factor for increasing basic allowable value when wind or seismic load is present.70S. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 35  . b) 0. 1. Note : Allowable stresses in skirt to shell joint shall be as per following : a) 0. if joint is shear type.

  CHAPTER 3 DESIGN PROCEDURE AND CALUCULATION U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 36  .

Let. t = Thickness of the shell. it is on longitudinal section(or on the cylinder walls).i U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 37  . In other words. d = Internal diameter of the cylinder shell. l = length of cylinder. We know that total force on a longitudinal section of the shell = Intensity of pressure × projected Area = p × d × l and the total resisting force acting on the cylinder walls = σ t1 × 2t × l …ii From equation (i) and (ii) .  DESIGN THEORY Circumferential or Hoop Stress A tensile stress acting in a direction tangential to the circumference is called Circumferential or Hoop Stress. we have …. and σ t1 = hoop stress for the material of the cylinder.(Q of two section) …. p = Intensity of internal pressure.. Now.

t = p × σt 2 = π (d) ² 4 p×d p×d or t = 4σ t 2 4t Page 38  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  . it is a tensile stress acting on the transverse or circumferential section. Fig of Longitudinal stress Let σ t 2 = Longitudinal stress.t From equation (i) and (ii). we have σ t 2 × πd. = Intensity of pressure × Cross.ii or σ t1 = p×d 2t or t = p×d 2σ t1 Longitudinal Stress A tensile stress acting in a direction of the axis is called longitudinal stress.sectional Area =p× π (d)² 4 ………i ………ii In this case. the total force acting on the transverse section and total resisting force = σ t 2 × πd.. In other words.  σ t1 × 2t × l = p × d × l ….

  Design of Shell Due to Internal Pressure As discussed in article on thin vessel are cylindrical pressure vessel is subjected to tangential ( σ t ) and longitudinal ( σ L ) stresses. Considering the joint efficiency. Pi × ( Di + t ) 2t η ×σ = η × σ × 2t = Pi × ( Di + t ) t= Pi × Di 2(η × σ ) − Pi Design of Elliptical Head: Elliptical heads are suitable for cylinders subjected to pressures over 1. The thickness of shell can be found by following procedure.5 MPa. It’s thickness can be calculated by the following equation: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 39  . where as the test pressure is taken as 30% more than internal pressure. σt = Pi × Di P × Di and σ L = i 2t 4t where D= mean diameter = Di + t Rule The design pressure is taken as 5% to 10% more than internal pressure. The shallow forming reduces manufacturing cost.

CA = corrosion Allowance in mm t = Actual thickness of shell in mm tr = require thickness as per calculation in mm.  t= where. k= Major Axis Diameter 0. Of nozzle d = d i + 2 CA where. tn = Actual thickness of nozzle trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm t rn = Pi × Di 2 × σ ×η − Pi U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 40  .5d i = Major Axis Diameter c pi diW 2σ J Rule > Generally.6) 1 W = (2 + 22 ) 6 =1 t= Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J Design of Manhole Let. d i = internal dia. k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2. di = Major axis of ellipse W= Stress intensification factor 1 W = (2 + k 2 ) 6 Where .

or X= di + t + tn -3CA 2 (whichever is maximum) d op = outer dia. Of Reinforcing Pad in mm t p = Thickness of Reinforcing Pad in mm U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 41  . Of Reinforcing Pad in mm d ip = inner dia.  h1actual = Height of the nozzle above the shell in mm h 2actual = Height of the nozzle below the shell in mm h1 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists above the shell in mm h 2 = Height till where the effect of the nozzle persists below the shell in mm To calculate h1 and h 2 consider a term ‘h’ h = 2.5 ( tn – CA) (whichever is smaller) (whichever is smaller) (whichever is smaller) h1 = h h2 = h centre line h1actual h 2actual X = Distance where the effect of the nozzle persists in mm on each side of the X = d.5 ( t – CA) or or or h = 2.

d ip ) t p Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3) When Ar = 0 or negative. τW = tW = Weld Height LW = Weld Length.  Area Calculation Area pertaining to material removed. These legs can be bolted to plates. Area Required.707 × tW × LW × n ∑W 0. P 1 lies between 400 N/ mm and P 2 may be upto 2000 N/ m . B) Wind Load Wind load can be estimated as : Pw1 = K P H Do 1 This equation is valid for heights upto 20m. Beyond 20m. A = d × tr A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA) A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA) Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA) A r = ( d op . Therefore. Area required. the wind pressure is higher and hence for heights above 20m. compensates. The design for leg supports is similar to that for bracket support. Pw 2 = KP2 H 2 Do 2 2 Generally. then the shear stresses in the weld will be given by: ∑W 2 P2 = KP 1 H 2 Do mm 0. no reinforcement is necessary as the vessel thickness self Design of Leg: A) Legs support In certain cases. These types of supports are suitable only for small vessels as there is a concentrated local stress at the joint. legs can be made detachable to the vessel. Excess area in the Shell.707 × tW × LW × n τ W = w2 Where. the bending moment due to wind at the base will be U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 42  . If the legs are welded to the shell. Excess area in the Nozzle.

σbw = Mw = Mw = Pw1h1 2 Pw1h1 h + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 ) 2 2 Mw z Where Z= section Modulus The wind load would create tensile stress on the wind side and compressive on the other side.  (IF H ≤ 20 m) (IF H> 20m) Therefore. bending stress will be. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 43  .

t= t= Pi × Di + CA 2 × σ ×η − Pi (0. k= 0.6) 1 W = (2 + 22 ) 6 =1 t= Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J where. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 44  . Joint Efficiency for shell = 1. As per Equation.588 MPa Internal Diameter (Di) = 496mm Corrosion Allowance (CA) = Nil.  Design Calculation 1) Thickness of cylinder Given data Internal pressure (P) = 0.066mm 2) Elliptical Head 1 W = (2 + k 2 ) 6 where .066 ∴ t = 1. k = 2 ( how ever k should not be greater than 2.5d i Major Axis Diameter = Major Axis Diameter c k=2 Rule > Generally.588) × (496) 2 ×137 × 1 − 0.588 (Q CA is NIL) = 1.

51 mm d = di + CA = 254. tn = Actual thickness of nozzle = 9.51 mm.588 N/ mm 2 Internal diameter (Di) = 496 mm Thickness (t) = 6 mm.  di = Major axis of ellipse = 496mm W = Stress intensification factor = 1 Pi ⋅ di ⋅W 2 ⋅σ ⋅ J t= t= 0.06 mm ∴ t = 1.51 2 × 137 × 1 − 0.06 mm 3) Design Of Manhole INLET NOZZLE (N1) GIVEN DATA Internal pressure (Pi) = 0.51 Pi × Di 2 × σ ×η − Pi A = 2 ×137 ×1 − 0.066 mm.588 × 254.588 × 496 × 1 2 ×137 × 1 = 1.588 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 45  .27 mm.588 × 254. trn = Required thickness as per calculation in mm. CA = NIL Joint Efficiency (η ) = 1 Internal diameter of nozzle (di) = 254.588 t 1 rn = t rn = 0. 0. tr = require thickness = 1.

  = 0. ( Take X whichever maximum) Therefore. A = (2 × 254.5 (9.27-0) U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 46  or h = 2.51 + 6 +9.5 ( t – CA) = 2.51 mm.52 mm.51-254.27) = 23.066-0) = 1255.69 mm 2 Excess area in the nozzle inside the shell A3 = 2 h2 (tn – 2CA) = 2 × 15 ( 9.75 mm2 Excess area in the nozzle.547 – 0) = 261. X = di + t + tn -3CA 2 = 254.547 mm. Therefore.066 = 271.3 mm2 Excess area in the shell.175 mm ( Take X whichever smaller) .547 mm. A2 = 2 × 15 ( 9.51)(6-1. A1 = (2X – d ) ( t – tr –CA) Generally.51 × 1. Area Calculation Area Pertaining to material removed. A2 = 2h1(tn – trn – CA) h = 2. X = d = 254.5 × 6 = 15mm h1 = h2 = h = 15 mm.27 – 0 2 = 142. t rn = 0.27 – 0.5 ( tn – CA) = 2. A = d × tr = 254.

7×730×2. 4) Design of leg Wind load Here .413×0. Mw = Pw1h1 2 Mw = Mw = Pw1h1 2 Pw1h1 h + Pw 2 ( h1 + 2 ) 2 2 = 626.41 N.508 = 626.7 P = Wind pressure = 730 N/ mm 2 1 H = Height of the vessel above foundation =2413 mm Do = Outer Diameter Of Vessels Wind load can be estimated as : Pw1 = K P H Do 1 = 0.1 mm 2 Area required Ar = A – ( A1 + A2 + A3) = -1524.38 N (IF H ≤ 20 m) (IF H> 20m) Here we use . Z = section Modulus Z= 3 bh 3 − b1h1 6h U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 47  . Therefore.38 × 1206.47 = 755.24 As Ar is –ve or zero reinforcement is not necessary.m Here we use I.  = 278.Section. K = Coefficient depending on shape factor = 0.

96 t 3 Therefore.41 13.  = 4t(5t)3 − 3t(3t)3 6(5t) = 13. σbw = Mw z 755.96t 3 (as σ bw = 350 N/mm²) 350× 106 = t = 5. Bending Stress will be .36 × 10−3 m ∴ L= 123 123 + + 1834 3 3 = 1916 mm U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 48  .

27                                  5 .51  9.36mm                                    U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 49  .  SUMMARY    SHELL     HEAD      MAN HOLE     REINFORCEMENT  PAD     LEG       INTERNAL DIAMETER (Di)  LENGTH (L)  THICKNESS (t)  THICKNESS (t)  HEIGHT (h)  DIAMETER OF OPENING (di)  THICKNESS OF NOZZLE (tn)  AS AREA CALCULATED IS   ‐ve      RF PAD IS NOT REQUIRED        THICKNESS OF LEGS      496mm  1734mm   6mm                                   6mm                              173mm  254.

  DESIGN CODES APPROCH 2 BY ASME U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 50  .

0.0.76 0.50 TORISPHERICAL HEAD: t= 0.E.46 1.8 1.1 2.2 2.Di / (2SE. = P.0 2.87 0.K.2 1.4 2.29 1.64 1.Di/ (2SE-0.1P) + CA FOR KNUCKLE RADIUS.2P) + CA OTHERS.0 K 0.0 K 1.66 0.8 2.83 1.4 1.71 0. r = 6% OF CROWN RADIUS (L) t =PLM/ (2S.37 1.57 0.07 1.14 1.2P) + CA where L=CROWN RADIUS M=CONSTANT BASED ON RATIO OF RADIUS(L/r) CROWN AND KNUCLE U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 51  .6 2.6 1.  DESIGN THEORY PRESSURE VESSEL HEAD DESIGN UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE THICKNESS OF HEADS/ CLOSURES: ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD: t t K MAJOR & = P.5 2.2P) + CA =CONSTANT BASED ON THE MINOR AXIS (D/2H) RATIO OF “VALUES OF FACTOR K” D/2H 3.00 D/2H 1.885 PL/ (SE-0.5 1.

72 1.54 L/r 12.0 7.00 1.0 1.00 3.06 1. CONICAL HEAD: t = PDi/ 2 COS α (SE-0.41 1.0 16.0 M 1.Ri/ (2SE.58 1.50 2. r SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 3t.00 2. KNUCKLE RADIUS.69 1.6P) + CA α = half apex angle HEMISPHERICAL HEAD: t = P.0.62 1.33) OBROUND/ NON-CIRCULAR HEADS (INCLUDING SQUARE/ RECTANGULAR) U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 52  .0 16.0 1.0 M 1.10 1.0 9.50 3.77 (USE NEAREST VALUE OF L/r. INTERPOLATION UNNECESSARY) NOTE: – MAXIMUM RATIO ALLOWED BY UG-32 (j) WHEN L EQUALS THE OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF THE SKIRT OF THE HEAD.1 – 0.0 10. dependent on joint geometry of head cover to shell (range 0.0 13.65 1.25 11.36 1.75 1.50 4.22 6.34) CIRCULAR COVER/ HEADS t = Di * SQRT(CP/SE) + CA Where C = Factor.  “VALUES OF FACTOR M” L/r 1.0 8.0 L/r 5.18 1.50 1.31 1.2P) + CA FLAT HEADS & COVERS (UG.0 14.67 M 1.46 1.15 1.0 15.

Specifications – Mandatory Appendices Specific Important Subjects to Supplement Subsections – Non-Mandatory Appendices Additional Information. Suggested Good Practices Inclusions: – Unfired Steam Boilers/ Generators Evaporators Heat Exchangers – Direct Fired Vessels Gas Fired Jacketed Steam Kettles(Jacket Pressure less than 50 PSI) Additional Interpretation: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 53  .4 . Guidelines.4 d / D) + CA PRESSURE VESSEL SHELL COMPONENT DESIGN UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE Pressure Vessel Definition: – Containers of Pressure Internal External – Pressure Source External Application of Heat Code Coverage: – Subsections Rule.(2.  t = Di * SQRT(Z*CP/SE) where Z = 3.

Ri / (2SE.2P) + CA CONICAL SECTION: (INTERNAL PRESSURE) t =P.Di/ 2COSα(SE. excluding corrosion allowance for compressed air/ steam/ water service(for CS/AS) – Corrosion allowance shall be based on experience/ field data(No value/ code recommended). CYLINDRICAL SHELL: Circumferential stress: U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 54  .0. CYLINDRICAL SHELL: Circumferential stress: t = P.Ri / (SE.Ri / (2SE+0.0. – Field fabrication are acceptable.4P) + CA SPHERICAL SHELL: t = P. – Other standards for components are acceptable Guidelines for Designed Thickness (To be adopted): – (1/16)” excluding corrosion allowance for shell & head (Min. THICKNESS CALCULATIONS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE. for unfired steam boiler shell – (3/32)” min.) – The above will not apply to heat transfer surface – (1/4)” min.6P) + CA Longitudinal stress: t = P.0.  – The code rules may not cover all designs & constructions procedures.6P) + CA Stress Calculation UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE. Such additional design & construction procedure may be adopted which are safe and acceptable.

  Sc = P (Ri + 0.8tCOSα)/4Et COSα U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 55  .4t)/ 2Et SPHERICAL SHELL: Sc = P (Ri + 0.2 tCOSα)/2Et COSα Sl =P (Di – 0.2t)/ 2Et CONICAL SHELL SECTION: Sc =P (Di + 1.6t)/ Et Longitudinal stress: Sl = P (Ri .0.

2008 at 10:04:27 PM U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 56  .  ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL Project Author jimit and mahavir Subject shell analysis Prepared For project report Project Created Sunday. May 25. 2008 at 10:04:27 PM Project Last Modified Sunday. May 25.

Inc. A quality approach to engineering design usually mandates physical testing as the final means of validating structural integrity to a measured precision. Evaluate designs by considering this information in conjunction with experimental test data and the practical experience of design engineers and analysts. Convergence and alert criteria may be defined for any of the results and can serve as guides for evaluating the quality of calculated results and the acceptability of values in the context of known design requirements. ANSYS automated FEA (Finite Element Analysis) technologies from ANSYS. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 57  . Each scenario presented below represents one complete engineering simulation. Alert ranges typically represent known aspects of the design specification.  1 Introduction The ANSYS CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) software program was used in conjunction with 3D CAD (Computer-Aided Design) solid geometry to simulate the behavior of mechanical bodies under thermal/structural loading conditions. A result meeting this criteria is said to be "converged". N. Notice Do not accept or reject a design based solely on the data presented in this report. A)" unit system. Convergence criteria sets a specific limit on the allowable change in a result between iterations. The definition of a simulation includes known factors about a design such as material properties per body. V. contact behavior between bodies (in an assembly). All values are presented in the "SI Metric (m. Multiple scenarios allow comparison of results given different loading conditions. to generate the results listed in this report. and types and magnitudes of loading conditions. materials or geometric configurations. °C. kg. Solution history provides a means of assessing the quality of results by examining how values change during successive iterations of solution refinement. Alert criteria define "allowable" ranges for result values. s. The results of a simulation provide insight into how the bodies may perform and how the design might be improved.

Scenario 1 2.06×10-7 N·m z] [-1.73.1.PRT. respectively.2.2.4×10-2 m³. associated with "Model" has an overall relevance of 0.16×10-7 N y.  2.2.1.81×10-5 N·m 3.73 by 0. 2.2.1. 0.52 109.000.69 1. Structural Supports Name "Fixed Support" Type Fixed Surface Reaction Force 1. Structural Loads Name Type Magnitude Vector Reaction Force N/A Reaction Vector N/A Force Reaction Moment N/A Reaction Vector N/A Moment "Pressure" Pressure 600.16×10-9 N·m y.2". "Model" "Model" obtains geometry from the Pro/ENGINEER® cylinder\SHEEL. No mesh controls specified.71×10-3 N Reaction Force Vector Reaction Moment Reaction Moment Vector [1.81×10-5 N·m x. The model has a total mass of 109.1. 0. 1.71×10-3 N x.52 m along the global x.1. The model has a total volume of 1. Mesh "Mesh". Bodies Name Material Nonlinear Material Effects Bounding Box(m) Mass (kg) Volume (m³) Nodes Elements 1. 1. Table 2. 1.1.2.1.69 kg.4×10-2 4968 684 "SHEEL" "Structural Steel" Yes 2. Structural Loading Table 3.1.67×10-9 N z] U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 58  .52 by 0.52. Structural Supports Table 3.1. 3. "Mesh" contains 4968 nodes and 684 elements.2.0 Pa N/A 2. "Environment" Simulation Type is set to Static Analysis Type is set to Static Structural "Environment" contains all loading conditions defined for "Model" in this scenario. y and z axes. 2. part "H:\shaell and The bounding box for the model measures 1.2.

1. Theoretically. Thermal expansion calculations use a constant reference temperature of 22.1.1 "Model" 8.13 None None "Stress Tool" "Model" "Stress Tool" "Model" Safety Margin 6.6×106 Pa 3.3.13 Convergence tracking not enabled. Structural Results Table 3.1.2. Table 3. "Solution" Solver Type is set to Program Controlled Weak Springs is set to Program Controlled Large Deflection is set to Off "Solution" contains the calculated response for "Model" given loading conditions defined in "Environment".1.3.2.2.3.3. 2.0 m 4.96×106 Pa 1.3. Results Name Scope Type Safety Factor Minimum Alert Criteria 7.3. 2. Shear Stress Safety Table 3.  2.3. Equivalent Stress Safety Table 3.3.3. Definition Name Stress Limit "Stress Tool" Yield strength per material. at a uniform temperature of 22. Values Name Figure Scope Minimum Maximum Minimum Occurs Maximum Occurs Alert On On Criteria "Equivalent Stress" A1.1.3. Definition Name Shear Limit Shear Factor U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 59  . 2.2 "Model" 0.5×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None "Maximum Stress" Shear None "Model" 4.2.0 °C for "SHEEL".27×10-5 m SHEEL SHEEL None Convergence tracking not enabled.87×107 Pa SHEEL SHEEL None "Total Deformation" A1.0 °C no strain results from thermal expansion or contraction.

69 Convergence tracking not enabled.  "Stress Tool 2" Yield strength per material. Results Name Scope Type Safety Factor Minimum Alert Criteria 6.3.69 None None "Stress Tool 2" "Model" "Stress Tool 2" "Model" Safety Margin 5.5 Table 3.3.2. stress Figure A1.1. "Equivalent Stress" Contours U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 60  . 0.

"Total Deformation" Contours U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 61  .2.  Scenario 1 Figures deformation Figure A1.

  AppendicesA1.6×108 Pa 2. Definition of "Structural Steel" Table A2.2.0 1.3 2. "Structural Steel" Constant Properties Name Compressive Ultimate Strength Compressive Yield Strength Density Poisson's Ratio Tensile Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength Young's Modulus Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Relative Permeability Resistivity Table A2.5×108 Pa 4.0 J/kg·°C 60.0×1011 Pa 1. A2.2×10-5 1/°C 434.1.5 W/m·°C 10.000.5×108 Pa 7.850. Alternating Stress Value 0.0 kg/m³ 0.0 Pa 2.7×10-7 Ohm·m U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 62  .

0 50.11 0.0×109 Pa 2.0 100.0 10.62×107 Pa Table A2.  Mean Value 0.0 2.000.21 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 63  .000.41×108 Pa 2.38×108 Pa 1.5. Strain-Life Parameters Table A2. "Strain-Life Parameters" Strength Coefficient Strength Exponent Ductility Coefficient 9.0 20.0 Table A2.62×108 Pa 2. "Alternating Stress" Cycles 10.41×109 Pa 1.0 1.3.4.000.2×108 Pa -0.000.9×109 Pa 1.0 200.000.000.0 20.83×109 Pa 1.0 Alternating Stress 4.14×108 Pa 8.07×109 Pa 4.0 100.14×108 Pa 1.0 200.000.

0×109 Pa 0.2 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 64  .  Ductility Exponent Cyclic Strength Coefficient Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent -0.47 1.

2008 Sunday. May 25. 2008 11.  Project Author Subject Prepared for First Saved Last Saved Product Version Jimit vyas and mahavir solanki Ellipsoidal dish end project analysis Sunday.0 Release U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 65  . May 25.

°C.  Contents • Model o Geometry ELIPTICALHEAD o Mesh CFX-Mesh Method o Static Structural Analysis Settings Loads Solution Solution Information Results Max Equivalent Stress Results Max Shear Stress Results Material Data o Structural Steel • Units TABLE 1 Unit System Metric (m.508 m 0. s. N.173 m 3 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 66  . kg. A) Angle Degrees Rotational Velocity rad/s Model Geometry TABLE Model > Geometry > Parts Object Name State Graphics Properties Visible Transparency Definition Suppressed Material Stiffness Behavior Nonlinear Material Effects Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z ELIPTICALHEAD Meshed Yes 1 No Structural Steel Flexible Yes 0. V.508 m 0.

9271e-003 m³ 15.6178 kg·m² 2289 6232 Mesh TABLE Model > Mesh Object Name State Defaults Physics Preference Relevance Advanced Relevance Center Element Size Shape Checking Solid Element Midside Nodes Straight Sided Elements Initial Size Seed Smoothing Transition Statistics Nodes Elements TABLE Model > Mesh > Mesh Controls Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Definition Suppressed Method Element Midside Nodes Mesh Solved CFD 0 Fine Default CFD Dropped Active Assembly Medium Slow 2289 6232 5 CFX-Mesh Method Fully Defined Geometry Selection 1 Body No CFX-Mesh Dropped 4 Static Structural U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 67  .0962e-017 m -3.343 kg·m² 0.34417 kg·m² 0.1168e-017 m 1.128 kg -8.  Properties Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z Moment of Inertia Ip1 Moment of Inertia Ip2 Moment of Inertia Ip3 Statistics Nodes Elements 1.7996e-002 m 0.

e+005 Pa (ramped) No 1 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 68  .  TABLE Model > Analysis Object Name State Definition Physics Type Analysis Type Options Reference Temp TABLE Model > Static Structural > Loads Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Definition Define By Type Magnitude Suppressed FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Pressure Static Structural Fully Defined Structural Static Structural 22. °C 8 Pressure Fully Defined Fixed Support 2 6 Geometry Selection 4 Faces 1 Face Normal To Pressure Fixed Support 6.

TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information Object Name Solution Information State Solved Solution Information Solution Output Solver Output Newton-Raphson Residuals 0 Update Interval 2.  Solution TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution Object Name Solution State Solved Adaptive Mesh Refinement Max Refinement Loops 1. m 4. s Load Step 1 Substep 1 Iteration Number 1 FIGURE Model > Static equivalent stress 9 10 11 Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation 1.6963e+007 Pa 0.5 s Display Points All TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results Object Name Equivalent Stress State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Display Time End Time Results Minimum 3.1032e-005 m Structural > Solution > Equivalent Stress > 2 Figure U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 69  .101e+006 Pa Maximum 3.6131e+006 Pa 1. Refinement Depth 2.1378e+007 Pa Information Time 1.

  FIGURE Model > Static Structural maximum shear stress > Solution > Maximum Shear Stress > 3 Figure U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 70  .

  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name Max Equivalent Stress State Solved Definition Theory Max Equivalent Stress Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Safety Factor Safety Margin Display Time End Time Results Minimum 7.9674 6.9674 12 13 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 71  .

3 7850.  Information Time Load Step Substep Iteration Number 1.5e+008 Pa 4. s 1 1 1 14 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name Max Shear Stress State Solved Definition Theory Max Shear Stress Factor 0.5 Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results Object Name Safety Factor Safety Margin State Solved Scope Geometry All Bodies Definition Type Safety Factor Safety Margin Display Time End Time Results Minimum 7.2e-005 1/°C 2. s Load Step 1 Substep 1 Iteration Number 1 15 Material Data Structural Steel TABLE Structural Steel > Constants Structural Young's Modulus Poisson's Ratio Density Thermal Expansion Tensile Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength Compressive Ultimate Strength Thermal 16 2. Pa U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 72  .369 Information Time 1.5e+008 Pa 2.6e+008 Pa 0.e+011 Pa 0.369 6. kg/m³ 1.

5 W/m·°C 434.896e+009 100.827e+009 50. 1. Cycles Cycles Alternating Stress Pa 10.7e-007 Ohm·m 4 TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes Interpolation Log-Log Mean Curve Type Mean Stress TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress Curve Data Mean Value Pa 0. TABLE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs.999e+009 20.  Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Electromagnetics Relative Permeability Resistivity FIGURE Structural Steel > Alternating Stress 60. J/kg·°C 10000 1. 2.413e+009 17 18 19 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 73  . 1. 3.

106 Ductility Coefficient 0.62e+008 2.38e+008 1.069e+009 4.47 Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 1.2 20 21 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 74  .14e+008 1.e+009 Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0. 10000 20000 1.62e+007 5 TABLE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes Display Curve Type Strain-Life TABLE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters Strength Coefficient Pa 9.213 Ductility Exponent -0.14e+008 8.e+006 FIGURE Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters 1. 2000.e+005 1.41e+008 2.e+005 2.  200.2e+008 Strength Exponent -0.

March 18. 2008 Tuesday.  FATIGUE ANALYSIS Project Author Subject Prepared for First Saved Last Saved JIMIT AND MAHAVIR FATIGUE ANALYSIS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL Monday.0 Release U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 75  . March 17. 2008 Product Version 11.

kg. s. N. °C. V.  Contents • Model o Geometry Mesh Static Structural FATIGUEANALYSIS o o Loads Solution Solution Information Results Max Equivalent Stress Results Max Shear Stress Results Fatigue Tool Results Result Charts goodman stress life rl Results • o Material Data Structural Steel 2 Analysis Settings Units TABLE 1 Unit System Angle Metric (m. A) Degrees Rotational Velocity rad/s U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 76  .

5 kg 0.782 m 2.08 m Part Color TABLE Model > Geometry > Parts Object Name State FATIGUEANALYSIS Meshed U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 77  .3 ProEngineer Millimeters Geometry Fully Defined Element Control Program Controlled Display Style Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z Properties Volume Mass Statistics Bodies Active Bodies Nodes Elements 1 1 12181 6191 0.762 m 0.  Model Geometry TABLE Model > Geometry Object Name State Definition Source Type Length Unit D:\pressurevesselanalysis\fatigueanalysis\FATIGUEANALYSIS.30847 m³ 2421.PRT.

 
Graphics Properties Visible Transparency Definition Suppressed Material Stiffness Behavior No Structural Steel 2 Flexible Yes 1

Nonlinear Material Effects Yes Bounding Box Length X Length Y Length Z Properties Volume Mass Centroid X Centroid Y Centroid Z Moment of Inertia Ip1 Moment of Inertia Ip2 Moment of Inertia Ip3 Statistics Nodes Elements 12181 6191 0.30847 m³ 2421.5 kg -2.3696e-003 m 2.1709e-003 m -8.3295e-004 m 522.75 kg·m² 522.8 kg·m² 80.459 kg·m² 0.762 m 0.782 m 2.08 m

Common Decisions to Both Types of Fatigue Analysis
Once the decision on which type of fatigue analysis to perform, Stress Life or Strain Life, there are 4 other topics upon which your fatigue results are dependent upon. Input decisions that are common to both types of fatigue analyses are listed below: • Loading Type • Mean Stress Effects
U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 78 

 
• Multiaxial Stress Correction • Fatigue Modification Factor Within Mean Stress Effects, the available options are quite different. In the following ections, we will explore all of these additional decisions. These input decision trees for fatigue analysis in both both Stress Life and Strain Life are outlined in Figures 1 and 2. in detail below.

predicted life and types of post processing available. We will look at each of these choices

Mesh
TABLE Model > Mesh Object Name State Defaults Physics Preference Relevance Advanced Relevance Center Element Size Shape Checking Coarse Default Standard Mechanical Mechanical 0 Mesh Solved

Solid Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled Straight Sided Elements Initial Size Seed Smoothing Transition Statistics Nodes Elements 12181 6191 No Active Assembly Low Fast

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 79 

 

Static Structural
TABLE Model > Analysis Object Name State Definition Physics Type Analysis Type Options Reference Temp 22. °C TABLE Model > Static Structural > Analysis Settings Object Name State Step Controls Number Of Steps 1. Analysis Settings Fully Defined Structural Static Structural Static Structural Fully Defined

Current Step Number 1. Step End Time 1. s Program Controlled TABLE Model > Static Structural > Loads Object Name State Scope Scoping Method Geometry Selection Geometry Definition Define By Type Magnitude Suppressed Normal To Pressure -6.e+005 Pa (ramped) No Fixed Support 10 Faces 2 Faces Pressure Fully Defined Fixed Support

U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

Page 80 

  FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Pressure Solution TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution Object Name State Solution Obsolete Adaptive Mesh Refinement Max Refinement Loops 1. Refinement Depth TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Solution Information Object Name State Solution Information Solution Output Solver Output Solution Information Not Solved 2. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 81  .

4133e-004 m Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation End Time All Bodies Equivalent Stress Solved Maximum Shear Stress Total Deformation 2. s 1 1 4. m 4.5 s All Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name State Definition Theory Max Equivalent Stress Max Equivalent Stress Solved Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Equivalent Stress > Results Object Name State Scope Safety Factor Safety Margin Solved U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 82  .  Newton-Raphson Residuals 0 Update Interval Display Points TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Results Object Name State Scope Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Maximum Information Time Load Step Substep 1.5341e+007 Pa 0.4722e+007 Pa 2.7782 Pa 6.757 Pa 3.

537 Safety Factor Safety Margin End Time All Bodies Safety Factor Safety Margin Solved U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 83  .5 Max Shear Stress Solved Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Max Shear Stress > Results Object Name State Scope Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Information Time 1.8627 2.537 2.8627 Safety Factor Safety Margin End Time All Bodies Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Stress Safety Tools Object Name State Definition Theory Factor Max Shear Stress 0.  Geometry Definition Type Display Time Results Minimum Information Time Load Step Substep 1. s 1 1 3. s 3.

e+009 cycles 5000.e+006 cycles Data Equivalent (Von Mises) 32 Yes 1. Non-constant amplitude.dat 5. Fatigue Tool Solved us\EngineeringData\Load Histories\sampleHistory2.e-003 Mean Stress Theory Goodman Stress Component Bin Size Use Quick Rainflow Counting Infinite Life Maximum Points To Plot Life Units Units Name 1 block is equal to cycles 1. Proportional Loading U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 84  .  Load Step Substep 1 1 Iteration Number 1 TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools Object Name State Materials Fatigue Factor (Kf) Loading Type History Location Scale Factor Definition Display Time Options Analysis Type Stress Life End Time History Data Data C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v110\AISOL\CommonFiles\Language\enStrength 1.

the load ratio varies over time. The bin size defines how many divisions the cycle counting history should be organized into for the history data loading type. the critical fatigue location can be found by looking at a single set of FE results. The Rainflow and damage U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 85  . In quick counting. proportional loading also needs only one set of FE results. another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue analysis is the ability to set the value used for infinite life. Since loading is proportional. But instead of using a single load ratio to calculate alternating and mean values. Setting a higher value will make small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. Bin size defaults to 32. Strictly speaking. the fatigue tool will use the life at the last point. A larger bin size has greater precision but will take longer to solve and use more memory. the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if the alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. Non-constantAmplitude. in non-constant amplitude loading. The accuracy of quick counting is usually very good if a proper number of bins are used when counting. proportional loading within the ANSYS Fatigue Module uses a “quick counting” technique to substantially reduce runtime and memory. This provides for an added level of safety because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit. which can be compared to the available constant amplitude test data. However. if the alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve. Cycle counting is a means to reduce a complex load history into a number of events.  Non-constant amplitude. In constant amplitude loading. data is not sorted into bins until after partial damages are found. Think of this as coupling an FE analysis with strain-gauge results collected over a given time interval. cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high enough. However. cumulative damage calculations (including cycle counting such as Rainflow and damage summation such as Miner’s rule) need to be done to determine the total amount of fatigue damage and which cycle combinations cause thatdamage. bin size specifies the number of divisions of the rainflow matrix. meaning that the Rainflow Matrix is 32 x 32 in dimension. To help control this. the fatigue loading which causes the maximum damage cannot easily be seen. alternating andmean stresses are sorted into bins before partial damage is calculated. Without quick counting. Thus. For Stress Life.

FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 86  .  matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in your loading history.

50. Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Result Charts U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 87  .  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Results Object Name Life State Scope Safety Factor Damage Solved Geometry Definition All Bodies Type Design Life Results Life Safety Factor Damage 1.e+007 cycles 0.e+009 cycles Minimum Maximum TABLE 2.

This result may be scoped.) From the rainflow matrix figure.2328e+008 Pa 6. (Such as if most of the alternating stress cycles occur at a negative mean stress. Pa 1.  Object Name State Scope Rainflow Matrix Damage Matrix Solved Geometry Options All Bodies Chart Viewing Style Three Dimensional Results Minimum Range Maximum Range Minimum Mean Maximum Mean Definition 0. This result is onlyapplicable for non-constant amplitude loading where rainflow counting is needed. In this 3-D histogram. This result gives the user a measure of the composition of a loading history. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 88  . the user can see that most of the alternating stresses have a positive mean stress and that in this case the majority of alternating stresses are quite low. The Z-axis corresponds to the number of counts for a given alternating and mean stress bin.e+009 cycles FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Rainflow Matrix Rainflow Matrix Chart Rainflow Matrix Chart is a plot of the rainflow matrix at the critical location.1628e+007 Pa Design Life 1. alternating and mean stress is divided into bins and plotted.9246e+008 Pa -3.

This result is similar to the rainflow matrix except that the percent damage that each of the Rainflow bin cause is plotted as the Z-axis. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 89  . in this particular case although most of the counts occur at the lower stress amplitudes. This result may be scoped. As can be seen from the \corresponding damage matrix for the above rainflow matrix.  FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tool > Damage Matrix Damage Matrix Chart Damage Matrix Chart is a plot of the damage matrix at the critical location on the model. This result is only applicable for non-constant amplitude loading where rainflow counting is needed. most of the damage occurs at the higher stress amplitudes.

Loading Type Scale Factor Definition Fully Reversed 1. Display Time Options End Time Analysis Type Mean Stress Theory U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Stress Life Goodman Page 90  .  TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > Fatigue Tools Object Name State Materials goodman stress life rl Solved Fatigue Strength Factor (Kf) 1.

with the ANSYS Fatigue Module currently supporting the first three: • Constant amplitude. proportional loading • Constant amplitude. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 91  . Proportional Loading Constant amplitude. If the principal stress cycles counted simply and it is non-proportional loading. fatigue damage occurs when stress at a point changes over time. proportional loading is the classic. then the If the principal stress cannot be axes do not change.e+006 cycles Types of Cyclic Loading Unlike static stress. Loading is of constant amplitude because only one set of FE stress results along with a loading ratio is required to calculate the alternating and mean values. Is the loading a variant of a sine wave with a single load ratio or does the loading vary perhaps erratically. with the load ratio changing with time? The second identifier. non-proportional loading In the above descriptions.  Stress Component Life Units Equivalent (Von Mises) Units Name 1 cycle is equal to cycles 1. non-proportional loading • Non-constant amplitude. the amplitude identifier is readily understood. then it is proportional loading. proportional loading • Non-constant amplitude. describes whether the changing load causes the principal stress axes to change. axes do change. There are essentially four classes of fatigue loading. proportionality. “back of the envelope” calculation describing whether the load has a constant maximum value or continually varies with time. Constant amplitude. which is analyzed with calculations for a single stress state.

Loading is proportional since only one set of FE results are needed (principal stress axes do not change over time). a load ratio of 0). no cycle counting or cumulative damage calculations need to be done. if the alternating stress is lower than the lowest alternating stress on the fatigue curve. Common types of constant amplitude loading are fully reversed (apply a load. In constant amplitude loading. since there are only two loadings. the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 92  . Since loading is proportional. FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl Value of Infinite Life Another available option when conducting a variable amplitude fatigue analysis is the ability to set the value used for infinite life. a load ratio of -1) and zero-based (apply a load then remove it.  The loading ratio is defined as the ratio of the second load to the first load (LR = L2/L1). then apply an equal and opposite load. looking at a single set of FE results can identify critical fatigue locations. Likewise.

cycles with very small alternating stresses may be present and may incorrectly predict too much damage if the number of the small stress cycles is high enough. The rainflow and damage matrix results can be helpful in determining the effects of small stress cycles in your loading history. To help control this. Both damage matrices came from the same loading (and thus same rainflow matrix). the user can set the infinite life value that will be used if the alternating stress is beyond the limit of the SN curve. but the first damage matrix was calculated with an infinite life if 1e6 cycles and the second was calculated with an infinite life of 1e9 cycles.e+009 cycles U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 93  . Setting a higher value will make small stress cycles less damaging if they occur many times. However. FIGURE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl TABLE Model > Static Structural > Solution > goodman stress life rl > Results Object Name Life State Scope Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress Solved Geometry Definition All Bodies Type Design Life Life Damage Safety Factor Equivalent Alternating Stress 1. in non-constant amplitude loading. The rainflow and damage matrices shown in Figure 13 illustrates the possible effects of infinite life. This provides for an added level of safety because many materials do not exhibit an endurance limit.  fatigue tool will use the life at the last point.

6e+008 Pa Compressive Ultimate Strength 0.  Results Minimum Maximum Material Data 1.5e+008 Pa 4.4722e+007 Pa Structural Steel 2 TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Constants Structural Young's Modulus Poisson's Ratio Density Thermal Expansion Tensile Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Tensile Ultimate Strength 2.e+011 Pa 0.7e-007 Ohm·m U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 94  .5e+008 Pa 2.3 7850.2e-005 1/°C 2.e+012 cycles 1.895 4.5 W/m·°C 434. J/kg·°C Relative Permeability Resistivity 10000 1. kg/m³ 1. Pa Thermal Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Electromagnetics 60.e-003 8.7782 Pa 6.

  FIGURE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Property Attributes Interpolation Log-Log Mean Curve Type Mean Stress U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 95  .

e+006 8.38e+008 2.896e+009 1.  TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Alternating Stress > Alternating Stress vs.41e+008 2. 50.e+005 1. Cycles Cycles 10.e+005 1.62e+008 2. 10000 20000 Alternating Stress Pa 3. 200.413e+009 1.069e+009 4.14e+008 1.827e+009 1.999e+009 2. 20. 2000. 100.14e+008 1.62e+007 FIGURE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 96  .

47 1.2 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 97  .  TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Property Attributes Display Curve Type Strain-Life TABLE Structural Steel 2 > Strain-Life Parameters > Strain-Life Parameters Strength Coefficient Pa Strength Exponent Ductility Coefficient Ductility Exponent Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 9.e+009 Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent 0.2e+008 -0.213 -0.106 0.

Physics Table Table 4. File Table 2. User Figure Figure Figure 4 1 File 2 Mesh 3 Domain 4 Boundary 5 Boundary Information Information Physics Physics Flows for for for for for Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 windanalysiscfx11_001 Report windanalysiscfx11_001 Data 2 3 Fig: Wind analysis U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 98  . Mesh Table 3.  Wind analysis Contents 1. Solution Table 5.

res 15 March 2008 03:46:08 PM CFX5 Air at 25 C None None File Version 11. pressure distributation on face of vessel U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 99  . File Report Table 1. File Information for windanalysiscfx11_001 Case File Path File Date File Time File Type Fluids Solids Particles windanalysiscfx11_001 D:/pressurevesselanalysis/windanalysiscfx11_001.  1.0 Figure 2.

Mesh Information for windanalysiscfx11_001 Domain pressurevessel Nodes 7338 Elements 28308 Figure 3.  2. Mesh Report Table 2. streamline and pressure representation U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 100  .

F45. Boundary Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001 Domain Name Location Type Settings Flow Regime = Subsonic Normal Speed = 47 [m s^-1] Mass And Momentum = Normal Speed Eddy Length Scale = 0.4.1 [m] Fractional Intensity = 0.4 Outlet Symmetry Wall Wall Wall U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 101  .05 Turbulence = Intensity and Length Scale Flow Regime = Subsonic Mass And Momentum = Static Pressure Relative Pressure = 0 [Pa] Wall Influence On Flow = No Slip Wall Influence On Flow = Free Slip Wall Influence On Flow = No Slip pressurevessel inlet inlet Inlet pressurevessel outlet pressurevessel symp pressurevessel body pressurevessel freewalls pressurevessel pressurevessel Default outlet symp body freewalls F41.  3. Domain Physics for windanalysiscfx11_001 Name Location Type Materials Models pressurevessel B4 Heat Transfer Model = Isothermal Turbulence Model = SST Fluid Air at 25 C Turbulent Wall Functions = Automatic Buoyancy Model = Non Buoyant Domain Motion = Stationary Table 4. Physics Report Table 3.

Boundary Flows for windanalysiscfx11_001 Location body freewalls inlet outlet symp Type Mass Flow Momentum X Y Z -8.0000e+00 8.1811e-07 -8.4447e+01 1.7405e+02 -5.1929e+03 0. Solution Report Table 5.0000e+00 Boundary 1.3776e+01 0.4953e+02 0.0000e+00 By interpolation we get: for 41 m/s of wind speed the wind pressure is 730 N/ m2 and from the standard wind load table we compare the result which is very accurate.7405e+02 1.3129e+01 Boundary 0.0000e+00 -2.8922e+03 Boundary -1.5967e+01 0.9325e-02 5. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 102  .7561e+03 2.3151e+00 8.7605e+02 -1.  4.0000e+00 Boundary 0.5579e-06 -1.5229e+03 1.0000e+00 -1.0000e+00 Boundary 0.0000e+00 pressurevessel Default Boundary 0.

  INTRODUCTION TO GLASS LINING Introduction of Glass lining (Glasteel) In recent years. Pfaudler began investigating new approaches in glass development that would lead to a glass composition that could be made available to all users of glass-lined equipment. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 103  . because of the expansion of the chemical process and pharmaceutical industries world-wide and increased concerns for safety and quality control.

Pfaudler's first "international glass". Now GMM Pfaudler customers. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 104  . However. The result is Glasteel 9100®. High resistance to thermally induced stresses. can purchase a single glass system and be assured of getting the same high quality worldwide. GMM Pfaudler sets a standard the world can depend on. nonadherence and heat transfer efficiency. glass.g. Relatively small amounts of dissolved SiO can be highly effective in reducing the corrosion rate of the Glasteel 9100 system. An exception to this are chemistries that involve the element silicon (Si). Pfaudler established the criteria for a new composition: A non-crystalline structure. It has also been shown that colloidal silica additions to recipes containing the highly corrosive fluorine ion (F-) can drastically reduce the corrosive rate. especially when ionised. thermal shock resistance. SiO.  Together with the chemical process industry and with the co-operation of Pfaudler divisions around the world. A formulation that could be easily produced by all Pfaudler manufacturing plants. Increased resistance to acid and alkali corrosion. offering an unmatched combination of corrosion resistance. High resistance to impact. these are very recipe sensitive and general statements cannot usually be made. With Glasteel 9100 ®. thereby greatly extending its usage range. regardless of where their processing operations are located. e. impact strength. Si.

Zn2+ Ca2+. corrosion rate increases. Glasteel 9100 ® is highly resistant to condensing water vapour. Agueous Neutral pHMedia With these type media. hydrochloric or acetic acid. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 105  . to counter the possible danger of the condensate shifting to an alkaline pH. tap water. pH-unstable system. Also. For aqueous solutions of alkaline materials with a pH value of 14. the influence of the nature and amount of other dissolved substances and agitation. salt solutions. The result is that concentrated alkalis require a more definite setting of the temperature limits.  Water Pure Water Pure water in the liquid phase is not very aggressive. Its behaviour resembles highly diluted acid and corrodes only the surface layer of the glass ("ion exchange process"). the temperature gradient for alkaline glass corrosion. even a slight alkalization can change the situation. Other factors affecting alkaline corrosion are the specific reaction and the dissolving ability of the chemical. However. is steeper. e. Carbonates and phosphates usually increase the rate while alcohols and some ionic species. may reduce it.g. A13+. Alkalis As alkali concentration rises. the isocorrosion curves for diluted alkaline solutions have to be consulted for orientation purposes. If there is a shift toward higher pH values.g. e. At 170°C. The corrosion rate of concentrated alkaline solutions cannot be expressed by the pH value alone. e. it is recommended that the vessel contents be slightly acidified with a volatile acid. It is also highly recommended that the unjacketed top head be insulated or heat traced to reduce condensation formation. corrosion rate depends greatly on the type and quantity of the dissolved substance. the particular concentration must also be considered to establish appropriate operating temperatures. But because this water is an unbuffered. a corrosion rate of 0.g.1 mm/year can be expected.

2. autoclaves with PTFE inserts were used. meaningful testing is strongly advised. sodium carbonate and ammonia take into account technically relevant parameters influencing the rate of corrosion. for example) can cause major changes in the rate of corrosion.  Isocorrosion curves for sodium hydroxide. even very slight contamination (tap water in sodium hydroxide. procedures are carried out in polypropylene bottles. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 106  . By comparing the results with control experiments. Under actual operating conditions. Is ideal for the higher temperatures required by today's chemical process applications. To eliminate the influence of the testing equipment on the rate of corrosion. Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® 1 . potassium hydroxide. 6. inhibition effects by calcium ions. Other factors. Provides extended thermal shock protection for faster heating and cooling. 5. 3. can affect the corrosion rate as well. Extends the range of Glasteel® applications. 4. such as product velocity and splash zone. the volume/ surface area ratio. Provides increased operating safety margin through its enhanced thermal protection. it is proven that the testing equipment does not have an inhibiting effect. for example. alkaline concentration and temperature. Due to these interactive complexities. Allows safe and easy handling of high temperature processes never before approved for Glasteel equipment. For solutions above the boiling point. Provides potential for reduced cycle time compared to conventional vessel glass.

These changes permit trouble-free application of the required high-stress coating and provide the highly corrosive-resistant glass-lined surface for which Pfaudler has been respected for years. operation below the maximum and above the minimum is recommended. but its primary application is based on improved alkali resistance. Technical details of corrosion rates in common chemicals and thermal operation limits are available on request. as well as changes in equipment design and materials of construction. Introduction of media into a vessel. Type 4300 glass coatings are advisable wherever alkaline conditions prevail during the U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 107  . Contact Pfaudler for details. Introduction of media into a jacket. GMM Pfaudler Type 4300 ® glass is still an acidic type of glass. Because so many variables are involved. Where in practical. B. Type 4300 Glass Coatings Type 4300 ® glass coatings represent a new aspect of this tradition and are designed to bridge a perceived gap in the application range. CAUTION: "Safe" operating temperatures vary with conditions. Temperature Limits Although Ultra-Glas 6500 ® has a high degree of helpful compressive stress in the glass layer there are definite limits to the level of thermal stress which the glass can withstand without incurring damage: Only two thermal conditions must be considered when determining the temperature limits: A. temperature ranges are given only as a guide. altered applications and firing procedures.  The features of GMM Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® are the result of changes in glass composition and material preparation.

In practical operation these materials are always encountered with liquid additives. inhibition effects. The Need For PPG U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 108  . Compared to our world renowned standard glass. technically relevant parameters influencing the rate of corrosion (for example. Inadequate redox stability of the vessel material in the alkaline range. This means that higher process temperatures can be used. dissolved substances or gases which may have positive or negative effects on resistance. or as a result of concentration and temperature. or that.  cycle. Although it is adequate for mild service. We therefore recommend performing corrosion tests or contacting a Pfaudler consultant to assure material suitability for individual processes. Corrosion Resistance For pure acids and bases most commonly used in the chemical industry . the volume/surface area ratio. and temperature) are considered. it is not recommended for aggressive acid conditions. concentration. these glass coatings will have three times the life expectations. under otherwise equal conditions. In addition. The Type 4300 ® glass does make a slight concession in the area of acid resistance. Danger of discoloration of alkaline products due to incorporation of metals. Stabilization of high-molecular alkalis sensitive to metal contact. or where concentration and/or temperature conditions exceed permissible limits for conventional glass. Type 4300 ® glass coatings are advisable where any of the following conditions exist: Protection of alkaline products against metal contamination. Type 4300 ® has three times better alkali resistance.

vitamins and fine chemicals.especially in terms of glasslined reactors and components.  When the requirements of the Bulk Drug industry were studied recently. The process equipment of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries has so far been very similar . Two of the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry are increased purity in order to comply with the FDA and GMP requirements and alternating alkali/acid operation. the need for a different glass was evident. in context of the stringent requirements of GMP and FDA. U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 109  . Pfaudler's response was a novel glass tailored to the needs of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. In light of the survey.

  Appendix U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 110  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 111  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 112  .

  U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 113  .

0 U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  Page 114  .  BIBLOGRAPHY Dennis Moss Hiadri Farzdak C.S Sharma Somnath chatopadhay For Ansys : Tutorials of cfx 11.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful