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Dna

Dna

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Published by: Dotzie Ichi on Mar 27, 2013
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03/27/2013

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DNA fingerprinting is a way of identifying a specific individual, rather than simply identifying a species or some particular trait.

It is also known as genetic fingerprinting or DNA profiling. As a technology, it has been around since at least 1985, when it was announced by its inventor, Sir Alec Jeffreys. DNA fingerprinting is currently used both for identifying paternity or maternity and for identifying criminals or victims. There is discussion of using DNAfingerprinting as a sort of personal identifier as well, although the viability of this is debatable. The vast majority of a human's DNA will match exactly that of any other human, making distinguishing between two people rather difficult. DNA fingerprinting uses a specific type ofDNA sequence, known as a microsatellite, to make identification much easier. Microsatellites are short pieces of DNA which repeat many times in a given person's DNA. In a given area, microsatellites tend to be highly variable, making them ideal for DNAfingerprinting. By comparing a number of microsatellites in a given area, one can identify a person relatively easily.

The sections of DNA used in DNA fingerprinting, although highly variable, are passed down from parents to their children. Although not all of the sections will necessarily be passed on, no child has pairs that their parents do not have. This means that by comparing large groups of these sections, paternity, maternity, or even both, may be determined. DNA fingerprintinghas a high success rate and a very low false-positive rate, making it an extremely popular form of paternity and maternity verification. In forensics, DNA fingerprinting is very attractive because it doesn't require actual fingerprints, which may or may not be left behind, and may or may not be obscured. Because all of the DNA sections are contained in every cell, any piece of a person's body, from a strand of hair to a skin follicle to a drop of blood, may be used to identify them using DNAfingerprinting. This is useful in the case of identifying a criminal, because even a drop of blood or skin left at the crime scene may be enough to establish innocence or guilt, and it is virtually impossible to remove all physical trace of one's presence. DNA fingerprinting is useful in the case of identifying victims because even in cases where the body may be disfigured past identification, and teeth or other identifying features may be destroyed, all it takes is a single cell for positive identification. DNA fingerprinting is by no means perfect, however. It cannot establish beyond the shadow of a doubt that a specific cell comes from a specific person; it can only establish a probability. In many cases this probability is very high -- one in ten billion, for example -- but in some cases it may be much lower. The probability also becomes obscured when dealing with direct descendents, who may share a large portion of the examined areas of DNA with a parent. Despite these problems, DNA fingerprinting is becoming more and more prevalent in the world of criminal forensics. Though some legal questions exist, such as the conclusiveness of DNA fingerprinting and the extent to which it is legal by national laws to compile databases of people's DNA and to take samples of their DNA for comparison, the benefits currently seem to outweigh the problems.

It replaced silk in military applications such asparachutes and flak vests. with reinforcing fibers like glass or carbon fiber. Engineering-grade nylon is processed by extrusion. package paper. Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer. carpets. such a composite has a higher density than pure nylon. Type 6. Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. Solid nylon is used in hair combs. silky material. Nylon is used for mechanical parts such as machine screws.  Nylon is a thermoplastic.to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Nylon fibers are used in many applications. a nylon is available in glass-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity. first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938). Nylon is made of repeating units linked by amide bonds and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). gears and other low. and was used in many types of vehicle tires.6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon.     Nylon can be used as the matrix material in composite materials. and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of molded nylon. including clothes fabrics. and injection molding. followed more famously by women's stockings ("nylons". bridal veils. molecules with an acid (-COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (-NH2) groups on each end. and rope etc. For use in tools such as the spudger. which are then reacted to form long polymer chains. There are two common ways of making nylon for fiber applications. Such thermoplastic composites (25% glass fiber) are frequently used in car components next to the engine. The resulting nylon is named on the basis of the number of carbon atoms separating the two acid groups and the two amines. such as intake manifolds. 1940) after being introduced as a fabric at the1939 New York World's Fair. pipes. casting. . In one approach.NYLON: A Synthetic Fiber. These are formed into monomers of intermediatemolecular weight. musical strings. where the good heat resistance of such materials makes them feasible competitors to metals. and molybdenum sulfide-filled variants which increase lubricity.

The molecular weight of nylon products so attacked drops fast. a more rapid moisture absorption. made of hexamethylene diamine with six carbon atoms and adipic acid. This process creates nylon 6. nylon 6 is made from a single six-carbon substance called caprolactam. a reaction essentially the reverse of the synthetic reaction shown above. better sunlight resistance Softer "Hand" Higher melting point (256 °C/492. it has a higher impact resistance. The reaction is of the type: . The second approach: a compound has an acid at one end and an amine at the other and is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units of (-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x.6. When being molded. more readily fades. nylon 6 is easy to dye. and cracks form quickly at the affected zones.6 include:        Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures More compact molecular structure Better weathering properties. then nylon 6 is the assigned name (may also be referred to as polymer). nylon must be dried to prevent hydrolysis in the molding machine barrel since water at high temperatures can also degrade the polymer. Lower members of the nylons (such as nylon 6) are affected more than higher members such as nylon 12. greater elasticity and elastic recovery. The characteristic features of nylon 6. especially by strong acids. In this equation. This means that nylon parts cannot be used in contact with sulfuric acid for example. In other words. if n = 5. such as the electrolyte used in lead-acid batteries.  All nylons are susceptible to hydrolysis.Concepts of nylon production The first approach: combining molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with two chemicals that contain amine (NH2) groups on each end.8 °F) Superior colorfastness Excellent abrasion resistance On the other hand.

RESEARCH PROJECT IN CHEMISTRY SUBMITTED BY: JOHN VIR DE VERA SUBMITTED TO: MRS. CYNTHIA NABUTEL .

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