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• EARTHWORKS

• Areas and Volumes of earthworks • Distribution Analysis (HAQL and MASS DIAGRAM) • ROUTE SURVEYING • DEFINITION • Route Surveying is a survey which supplies data necessary to determine the alignment, grades, and earthworks quantities necessary for the location and construction of engineering projects. This includes highways, drainage, canal, pipelines, railways, transmission lines, and other civil engineering projects that do not close upon the point of beginning

ROUTE LOCATION STAGES OF HIGHWAY SURVEYS • Development of the interstate highway system and more general acceptance of the limited access principle for major highways have resulted in a more and more highway projects being to serve local traffic, surveys for highway projects where new location is being considered start with a general study of the entire area between termini, proceed to more specific studies of possible alternative routes, and finally conclude with a detailed survey of the selected route and staking of the final centerline on the ground.

• These procedures are generally carried in three stages: • RECONAISSANCE • PRELIMINARY SURVEY • LOCATION SURVEY .

and the study of each of these corridors in sufficient detail to enable the proper officials to decide which will provide the optimum location.RECONAISSANCE • Includes a general study of the entire area the development of one or more alternative routes or corridors. .

PRELIMINARY SURVEY • Is a survey of selected corridors in sufficient detail to permit staking of the final centerline on the ground in some cases. the preliminary survey may be completed and staked in the field without variation in other instances. . Minor adjustments may be required during the location survey.

specifications.LOCATION SURVEY • Consists in staking the final centerline and obtaining all additional information necessary to enable the design engineer to prepare completed plans. . and estimates of earthwork quantities and to prepare deeds and descriptions covering the rights of way to be acquired.

• EMBANKMENT – the term embankment describes the fill added above the low points along the roadway to raise the level to the bottom of the pavement structure material for embankment commonly comes from roadway cuts or designated borrow areas. • EXCAVATION – is the process of loosening and removing earth or rock from its original position in a cut and transporting it to a fill or to a waste deposit.EARTHWORKS • EARTHWORKS – the construction of large open cuttings or excavations involving both cutting and filling of material other than rock. .

Two important parts of the work of setting slope stakes: Setting the Stakes Keeping the Notes .• • • • • SETTING STAKES FOR EARTHWORK The first step in connection with earthwork is staking out or setting slope stakes as it is commonly called.

• A record of benchmarks and of elevations and rates of grades established. • In practice. . • The base and side slopes of the cross section for each class of material. notes of alignment.The data for setting the stakes are: • The ground with center stakes set at every station. and various convenient data are commonly given in addition to the above mentioned data. a full profile.

00 : 1.00 • LOOSE ROCK 0. • MATERIAL EXCAVATION SIDE SLOPE • ORDINARY EARTH 1.• Side Slopes most commonly employed for cuts and fills.00 .00 • SOFT CLAY OR SAND 2 or 3 : 1.00 • SOLID ROCK 0.50 : 1.50 : 1.00 • COURSE GRAVEL 1.25 : 1.

.• SETTING THE STAKES • Setting the stakes work consists of: • Making upon the back of the center stakes the cut or fill in feet or meters and tenths. cut or fill at that point. as C 2 3 or F 4 7 • Setting side stakes or slope stakes at each side of centerline at the point where the side slope intersects the surface of the ground and marking upon the inner side of the stake.

FIGURE .

FIGURE .

.• Process of determining the height of cut or fill at the center stake or at any other points between the center space and slope stake.

FIGURE .

• Grade ROD = difference in elevations between the line of sight (HI) and the grade elevation • Ground ROD = HI – Grad Elevation • CUT = Grade ROD – Ground ROD .• Let HI = elevation of the line of sight or telescope refereed fro known or assumed datum.

FIGURE .

• When the instrument is set up above the grade or subgrade: • Grade ROD A = (HI)A – Grade Elevation • FILL = Ground ROD A – Grade ROD A – When the instrument is set up below the grade or subgrade: • Grade ROD B = Grade Elevation – (HI)B • FILL = Grade ROD B + Ground ROD B .

or below it of the slope stakes are determined as follows: . the distances and their heights above the base.SETTING SIDE OF SLOPE (FIELD PROCEDURES) • The cross – sectioning is done after the grade lines have been determined in the office. The amounts of cut and fill at the center are computed.

Assume that the third trial point is on the slope.An engineer’s level is set up and rod readings are taken at the center and at trial point. compute the distance fro the center using the following formulas: DL = B / 2 + SHL S = Horizontal / Vertical DR = B / 2 + SHR Where: S = Side Slope HL = Side Height Left B = Base pr Width HR = Side Height Right DL = Distance out left DR = Distance out right .

A stake is placed here indicating the right of the slope point above or below the base or sub grade. the point is correctly located. the rod is to be moved out for another trial point. if this distance is less than the calculated distance. if equal. . if greater. the rod is to be moved in.• Measure the distance from the center to the trial point.

• Figure . then the trial point is too far out the center line of the roadway and the direction to the rodman is to move in.• ILLUSTRATION: – If the measured distance is greater than the calculated distance.

the trial point is too near to the centerline of the roadway and the direction to the rodman is to move out.– • If the measured distance is less than the calculated distance. Figure .

• Figure . If the measured distance is exactly equal to the calculated distance. the point is correctly located and the slope stake is at on the ground indicating the height of the slope point above or below the ground.• C.

. such a cross-section is called level section.ROAD CROSS SECTION A. LEVEL SECTION • If the ground level in a direction transverse to the centerline. and the distance to the slope stake can be calculated once the center cut or fill has been determined. the only rod reading necessary is that the centerstake.

1.LEVEL SECTION IN CUT • Figure Centerheight = 1.83 .83m Base for Cut = 8.00m SS for Cut = 1:1 DR = DL = B / 2 + SC = 4 + 1 (1.83) = 5.

50m Base for Fill = 7.50 : 1.00m SS for Fill = -1.LEVEL SECTION IN FILL Centerheight = 1.50 + 1.00 DR = DL = B / 2 + SC = 3.• Figure 2.75 .50) = 5.50 (1.

B. .THREE LEVEL SECTION • When Rod readings are taken at each slope stake in addition to readings taken at the center as will normally be done whEre the ground is sloping the cross-section is called Three Level Section.

96m .00 + 1(4.63m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 4.00m SS for Cut = 1.63) = 4.• FIGURE: • Base for Cut = 8.00 + 1(0.96) = 8.00 • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 4.00:1.

00m SS for Fill = 1.62) = 7.12) = 8.18m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 3.• FIGURE: • Base for Fill = 7.00 • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 3.43 .50 + 1.50(3.50 + 1.50:1.50(2.

. the cross section is called a FIVE LEVEL SECTION.C.FIVE LEVEL SECTION • When rod reading is taken at the centerside the slope stake and at points on each side of the center of the distance of half the width of the road bed.

• FIGURE:

• Base for Fill = 7.00m SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00 • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 3.50 + 1.50(2.42) = 7.13m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 3.50 + 1.50(3.28) = 9.23m

**SAMPLE PROBLEM (Setting Slope Stakes)
**

In setting slope stakes, the height of cut at the center has been found to be 1.43m, the ground readings at center “M” and trial point A on the slope are 2.33m and 1.46m, respectively, and the measured distance from the center line of the roadway to the trial point is 8.24m. If the base of the roadway is 9m and the side slope is 1.50:1.00, should the trial point be moved in or out?

• FIGURE:

• Grade Rod – Grade Rod @ M = 2.33+ 1.43 = 3.76 • Measured Distance (DM) = 8.24 • Calculated Distance (DC) = B / 2 + SHR • Where: B / 2 = 4.5m • HR = 3.76 – 1.46 = 2.30m • 1.50 / 1.00 = SHR / 2.30 • SHR = 2.30 (1.50) / 1.00 • SHR = 3.45 • DC = 4.5 + 3.45 = 7.95 • Since DC < DM • --- Move In

SOLUTION

• FIGURE:

Base for Cut = 8.00m SS for Cut = 1:1 DL = B / 2 + SHL = 4.00 + 1(2.75) = 6.75m DR = B / 2 + SHR = 4.00 + 1(3.60) = 7.60m

76m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 3.5 + 1.50(2.84) = 7.92) = 7.• FIGURE: • Base for Fill = 7.00 • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 3.50(2.00m SS for Fill = 1.50:1.50 + 1.88m .

. IRREGULAR SECTION IN CUT • A cross section for which observation is taken to points between center and slope stakes at irregular intervals is called irregular section.D.

47) = 7.60) = 6.00 + 1(2.47m .00m SS for Cut = 1:1 • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 4.00 + 1(3.60m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 4.• FIGURE: • Base for Cut = 8.

A peg is usually driven to grade at this point and its position is indicated by a guard stake marked “Grade”. . SIDE HILL SECTION • Where the cross-section passes through from cut to fill. it is called a SIDE HILL SECTION and an additional observation is made to determine the distance from center to the grade point. In this case also cross-section is taken additional plus station.E. That is the point where subgrade will intersect the natural ground surface.

00 + 1(3.60) = 8.67) = 7.• Base for Cut = 8.99m • DR = B / 2 + SHR = 4.00m • DL = B / 2 + SHL = 3.50 + 1.47m .50(3.00m Base for Fill = 7.

find the areas of each of the following cross-section note.• PROBLEMS: • In two ways. given the corresponding bases and side slope if not given they are to be computed .

03 / -2.05 / 3.27 C. BASE WIDTH SIDE SLOPE 7.• • • • • • • • • A.24 .84 + 2.86 – 1.84 6.00 / 2.83 ? / 2.50:1.00 / 3.00m SIDE SLOPE 1.27 8.65 + 3.85 / 3.02 ? ? 4.84 B. BASE WIDTH ? SIDE SLOPE ? 5.08 4.79 / -1. BASE WIDTH 8.00 ? / 12.

00 ? / -3.00 1.50:1.00m (Cut) 5.00m SIDE SLOPE 1.94 8.50 / -3.• • • • • • • • • D.32 1.97 / -3.61 3.04 / 0.00 (Fill) 1.28 -2.44 / 2.44 .00 3.82 ? / -2.47 -0.00 / -1.56 6. BASE WIDTH 8.00:1.66 / -5.74 E.28 / -2. BASE WIDTH SIDE SLOPE 6.11 7.

a. LEVEL SECTION IN CUT • figure .

THREE LEVEL SECTION IN FILL • figure .b.

c. FIVE LEVEL SECTION IN CUT • Figure: .

d. IRREGULAR SECTION IN FILL • Figure: .

e. SIDE HILL SECTION • Figure: .

METHODS OF DETERMINING VOLUMES OF EARTHWORKS .

figure .

By Average End Areas • V = L / 2 (A1 + A2) • Where: • V = Volume of Section of Earthworks between Sta 1 and 2. m . m³ • A1 . m² • L = Perpendicular Distance between the end station.A. A2 = Cross – sectional area of end stations.

• By where heavy cuts or fills occur on sharp curves.• NOTES: • The above volume formula is exact only when A1 = A2 but is approximate A1 <> A2. The computed volume of earthwork ay be corrected for curvature out of ordinarily the corrected is not large enough to be considered. . the method of end areas is sufficiently precise for ordinary earthwork. • Considering the facts that cross-sections are usually a considerable distance apart and that minor inequalities in the surface of the earth between sections are not considered.

m² AM = Area of mid section parallel to the end sections and which will be computed as the averages of respective end dimensions. m³ A1 . m³ . By Prismoidal Formula • • • • • V = L / 6 (A1 + 4AM + A2) Where: V = Volume of section of earthwork between Sta 1 and 2 of volume of prismoid.B. A2 = cross – sectional area of end sections.

pyramids and wedges. of sides. any prismoid may be resolve into prisms.• NOTES: • A Prismoidal is a solid having for its two ends any dissimilar parallel plane figures of the same no. having a common altitudes the perpendicular distance between the two parallel end plane cross – section. and all the sides of the solid plane figures. . Also.

and if the areas of successive cross-section cliff or widely usually it yields smaller values than those computed from average end areas. is a small surface deviations are observed. the use of Prismoidal formula is justified only if cross-section are taken at short intervals.• As far as volume of earthworks are concerned. .

PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA • Figure: .C.

m • b1 = Distance between slope stakes at end section ABC where the altitude is h1. It is subtracted algebraically from the volume as determined by the average and the areas method to give the more nearly correct volume as determined by the Prismoidal formula. m • h1 = Altitude of end section ABC at Sta 1. m • b2 = Distance between slope stake at end section DEF where the altitude is h2. m • h2 = Altitude of end section DEF at Sta 2. m³ • L = Perpendicular distance between 2 parallel and sections.• CD = L / 12 (b1 – b2)(h1 – h2) • Where: • CD = Prismoidal Correction. m .

. there should be equal number of slope in both bases so that on equal number triangles can be found. where. The Prismoidal correction can then be found.PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FOR IRREGULAR SECTION • In prismoid. however one base or any a five level section or three level section and other. The Prismoidal correction can then be found using either the fundamental formula of correction. CD = L / 12 (b1 – b2)(h1 – h2) • or any of the formulas derive from it.

• A five level section (or irregular section) or both bases are irregular sections or. For the purpose of determining the Prismoidal correction. The determination of the correction is at best only approximate. if one base is a five level section and the other irregular section. the following may be used: . the formulas cannot be directly applied without making certain assumptions because there are more triangles formed in one section than in the other.

– Plot the irregular or five level sections on cross sections paper.– Neglect the intermediate heights thereby reducing the sections into three level or level sections this is the most convenient method. This is more accurate than method A but involves more work. – Reduce the five level or irregular section by calculation to equivalent level or three level sections as follows: . Draw on this section two equalizing lines starting from the same point or the center height such that the error added equal the areas subtracted approximately by estimating the center height as well as the distances in the right or in the left can then be scaled.

. C is the center point. a quadratic formula in one unknown is formed from which C is determined.) • Equate this area forced per the irregular or five-level section • Base SS being known. and S is the side slope. To LEVEL SECTIONS • The area of a level section BC + SC (B is the base.1. • Solve for the corresponding value of C.

2.To THREE LEVEL SECTIONS • Figure: .

HR and HL. It is simpler to covert to level section.• • • • • • Total Area of three level section in cut A = A1 + A2 Where: A1 = B / 4 (HL + HR) A2 = C / 4 (B + S) (HL + HR) Then K = BC / 2 + (HL + HR) (B / 4 – CS / 2) • NOTE: • The unknowns are C. Two these should be assumed and the third computed. .

25:1. between the volume of the prismoid between the two-end sections by the following methods: • END AREA METHOD • PRISMOIDAL FORMULA • END AREA METHOD and PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA .00.• PROBLEM: – Given the following cross-section notes of a roadway with a base of 6m and SS of 1.

55 + 2.55 + 2.84+2.• Given: STATION 10 + 000 10 + 020 CROSS – SECTION NOTES +6.65 + 0.55 + 3.84 +7.52 .84 +6.85 +3.64+1.

• SOLUTION: • Compute for the area at each station crosssection and at mid-section Figure: .

55m Area by method of triangle and rhombus A1 = BC + SC² = 27.25(2.84) = 6.12m² .• • • • • • • Check for Cut distances DR1 = DL1 = B / 2 + SHR = 1 / 2 (6m) + 1.

• Figure: .

55) + 1 / 2 (1.65m DL2 = B / 2 + SHL2 = 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(3.60m² .64) = 7.52)(3) • • A2 = 16.55m Area by method of triangle A2 = Aa + AL + Ac + Ad = 1 / 2 (3)(3.25(0.85)(7.65) + 1 / 2 (0.• • • • • • • • • • Check for the distances DR2 = B / 2 + SHR2 = 1 / 2 (6) + 1.64) + 1 / 2 (1.52) = 3.85)(3.

• Compute for the dimensions of the mid sections Figure .

64) DLm = 7.84 + 1.55 + 3.05m HCm = 1 / 2 (HC1 + HC2) = 1 / 2 (2.68m HLm = 3.55 + 7.55) HRm = 1.65) = 1 / 2 (6.345m HRm = 1 /2 (HR1 + HR2) HLm = 1 / 2 (HL1 + HL2) = 1 / 2 (6.52) DRm = 5.85) HCm = 2.84 + 3.84 + 0.DRm = 1 / 2 (DR1 + DR2) = 1 / 2 (2.10m DLm = 1 / 2 (DL1 + DL2) = 1 / 2 (2.24m .

345) + 1 / 2 (3)(1.10)(2.25(3.05)(2.10m DLm = B / 2 SHLm = 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(1.24) + 1 / 2 (7.68m .05m Area by method of triangle Am = Ae + Af + Ag + Ah = 1 / 2 (3)(3.Check for Cut distances DRm = B / 2 SHRm = 1 / 2 (6) + 1.68) DRm = 5.22) DLm = 7.68) Am = 21.345) + 1 / 2 (5.

COMPUTE FOR THE VOLUME OF EARTHWORK VOLUME OF CUT IN BETWEEN THE TWO STATIONS • Figure .

20m² .60) • = 437. By End Area Method • Ve = L / 2 (A1 + A2) • Where: • L = (10 + 020) – (10 + 000) • = 20m • A1 = 27.12 + 16. • Ve = 20 / 2 (27.1.60m² • Then.12m² • A2 = 16.

• Vp = 20 / 6 (27.13m³ . By Prismoidal Formula • Vp = L / 6 (A1 + 4Am + A2) • Where: • L = 20m • A1 = 27.67m² • Then.12 + 4*21.60m² • Am = 21.2.67 + 16.60) • = 434.12m² • A2 = 16.

Prismoidal Formula for Correction Cp = L / 12 (A1 + A2)(b1 – b2) Note: Resolve the given prismoid into a series of triangular prismoid into a series of triangular prismoid. Cp = Cpa + Cpb + Cpc + Ppd .

84 – 0.65m³ Cpc = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 3.135m³ .52)(3-3) = 0 Then.55 – 3.84 – 1.85)(6.55 – 7.785 = 3.785m³ Ppd = 20 / 12 (2.Where: Cpa = 20 / 12 (2.65) = 4.85)(6.64)(3-3) = 0 Cpb = 20 / 12 (2.55) = 1.65 + 4.84 – 1. Cp = -1.

Cp • = 437.065m³ • Given the following cross section notes.20 – 3.25:1.00 . The roadway base is 6m with side slope of 1.4.135 • Vc = 434. determine the volume of the prismoid b end areas method and apply the Prismoidal formula. Corrected Volume • Vc = Ve .

84 +3.24 • 10 + 050 +7.12 .84 +2.24 +2.50 +2.00 +3.12 +3.50 +2.05 +3.00 +2.00 +5.• STATIONS CROSS-SECTION NOTES • 10 + 040 +4.05 • +0.85 +3.80 +2.00 +7.65 +3.25 +4.

• SOLUTION: • Compute for the end areas of the end sections • figure: .

84) DL1 = 4.05 DL1 = B / 2 + SHL1 = 3 + 1.85) + 3.05) + 1 / 2 (2.25(0.85)(3) • + 1 / 2 (2.12 + 2.12)(4.• Check for distances: • DR1 = B / 2 + SHR1 • = 3 + 1.25(3.5)(1.11m² .5(3) + 1 / 2 (2.24) • DR1 = 7.05) • A1 = 23.05 • A1 = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 • = 1 / 2 (3.

• Figure: .

42 + 3.65m DL2 = B / 2 + SHL2 = 3 + 1.25(3.85) DL2 = 7.12 +2.25)(2) • + 1 / 2 (2.50)(1.65)(2.12 + 3.11m² .50 + 3.• Check for distances: • DR2 = B / 2 + SHR2 • = 3 + 1.65) • – 1 / 2 (4.80m • A2 = Aa + Ab + Ac + Ad + Ae + Af • = 1 / 2 (2.84)(5.52) • A2 = 27.80) + 1 / 2 (2.25)(4) + 1 / 2 (2.25(2.12) • DR2 = 5.84) – 1 / 2 (2.00)(3.

CONVERT THE END SECTIONS TO AN EQUIVALENT LEVEL SECTIONS .

• Figure .

11= 13 HCe1 + S (HCe1)² • 3.11 = 6 C1 + 1.25 C1² • By quadratic formula • C1 = 2. Let C1 = HCe1 • 3.25 (HCe1)².52) . DRe1 = DLe2 • = 3 + 1.• A1 = five level section – A1 (equivalent level section) • 1.25(2.52m • DRe1 = B / 2 + SHCe1.11 = 6 HCe1 + 1.

• Figure: .

• A2 = irregular section = A2 (equivalent level section) • 27.25(HCe2)² • Let Ce = HCe2 • By quadratic formula • C2 = HCe2 • Dre2 = B / 2 + SHRe2 • = 3 + 1.25 • DLe2 = DRe2 .11 = 6HCe2 + 1.11 = BHCe2 + S(HCe2)² • 27.

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