Indonesian Suramadu Bridge

Detailed Design of Main Bridge

Consortium of Chinese Contractors
November, 2005

Indonesian Suramadu Bridge

Detailed Design of Main Bridge

CONTENTS
1 Detailed Design................................................................................................. 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 General Introduction.....................................................................................................1 Technical Criteria .........................................................................................................1 Structural Design ..........................................................................................................2

2 Structural Analysis and Calculations .............................................................. 14
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Actions on the Structure .............................................................................................14 Integral Analysis of the Whole Bridge .......................................................................14 Seismic Analysis.........................................................................................................15 Calculation of Foundation ..........................................................................................17 Transverse Analysis of Pylon .....................................................................................17 Local Analysis of Deck ..............................................................................................18 Local Analysis of Anchorage System.........................................................................19 Buckling Stability Analysis ........................................................................................21 Wind Stability Analysis ..............................................................................................22

3 Monographic Studies ...................................................................................... 24
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Seismic Hazard Evaluation on Site ............................................................................24 Study of Seismic Dynamic Parameters ......................................................................24 Geophysical Survey....................................................................................................25 Geological Investigation.............................................................................................25 Wind Tunnel Study on Wind-resistance Performance................................................25 Anchoring System Analysis of Stay Cable in the Pylon ............................................26 Mechanics Analysis of Shear Connectors of Composite Girder ................................27 Underwater Topographical Survey.............................................................................27 Study on Topographical Evolution and Local Scour Caused by Suramadu Bridge ...28

Consortium of Chinese Contractors

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Indonesian Suramadu Bridge

Detailed Design of Main Bridge

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1.1

Detailed Design
General Introduction

Suramadu bridge is located in the northern part of east Java province of Indonesia. It spans Madura Strait and connects Surabaya with Madura island. The main bridge is cable stayed bridge with steel-concrete composite beam and twin tower pylons and twin cable planes. The span arrangement is 192+434+192m=818m. The approach bridge at each side is prestressed concrete continuous beam with box section and span length 40+7×80+40m=640m. Main bridge and approach bridge are connected with the V-pier. 1.2 Technical Criteria

(1) Design safety level: level I; (2) Design reference period of the bridge: 100 years; (3) Design running speed of vehicle: 80km/h; (4) The width of bridge deck: dual running, 0.4m (side parapet) + 3.05m (pedestrian and motorcycle way) + 1.3m (side reserve) + 9.75m (carriageway) + 1m (central reserve) + 9.75m (carriageway) + 1.3m (side reserve) + 3.05m (pedestrian and motorcycle way) + 0.4m (side parapet) = 30m; (5) Longitudinal gradient of deck: ≤1%; (6) Transverse gradient of deck: 2%, two-way slope; (7) Navigation headroom: 400×35m; (8) Vehicle load: Highway-I class in JTG D60-2004; (9) Load on motorcycle way: For integral structural analysis, p = 4.0kPa; for calculating members directly acted by pedestrian load, p = 5.0kPa; (10) Wind load: basic wind velocity is 27m/s; (11) Design criteria of earthquake resistance Level I: For 10% exceeding probability within 50 years (475 years return period), horizontal peak acceleration at ground surface PGA = 0.15g; Level II: For 2% exceeding probability within 50 years (2500 years return period), horizontal peak acceleration at ground surface PGA = 0.24g;
Consortium of Chinese Contractors -1-

1 Structural Design Structural system The main bridge is in floating system.2. and Figure 1. 2 main girders are arranged at outer side and 2 stringers at inner side.0°C.1 Superstructure Steel girders Steel girders are composed of main girders. 1. minimum system temperature is taken to be 15.3 1. floor beam and main girders.3. floor beams are set every 4m along the bridge. the height at the central line of the box is 2800mm. longitudinal earthquake-resistance dampers are set at pylon towers. Steel main girder is in welded box section.1-2 shows the typical cross section of deck. (13) Temperature action Maximum system temperature is taken to be 40. floor beams and stringers. To meet the needs of fabrication and connection with floor beams. For standard segment. For ordinary segments. and stringer and floor beams all adopts high strength bolts.1-1 shows the general arrangement of the main bridge. rubber positive blocks are arranged between main girder and pylon shaft at pylon. In transverse direction. and concrete stoppers are set on the V-pier to restrain the transverse movement at bridge end.0°C. same with the deck slab. To limit the movement along the bridge. Consortium of Chinese Contractors -2- . and 2% transverse slope. reference temperature is taken to be 30. Vertical bearings are set only at side piers. Transverse distance between the outsides of webs is 2300mm.3. Figure 1.3. 1.2 1. In the cross section of the bridge.3. is set on the top flange.0°C.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge (12) Ship collision force Collision with 30° angle to the surface of foundation: collision force = 14356kN. Connection between main girders. Collision perpendicular to the surface of foundation: collision force = 8282kN. the actual width of top flange and bottom flange is all 2420mm.3.

Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.3.1-1 Consortium of Chinese Contractors General Arrangement of Superstructure -3- .

longitudinal prestressing tendons are also arranged in the deck slab. mid pylon shafts and upper pylon shafts. The thickness of prefabricated slabs is 250mm.3. web. Transverse prestressing tendons are arranged in concrete deck slab in the whole bridge.3. The total height is 141. Lower transbeam between the lower and mid pylon shafts. the top surface should be aligned with the design surface of cast-in-situ slab. Pylon shafts and transbeams are all in hollow box section. and upper transbeam between the upper pylon shafts are set.3. At bridge end and mid span where horizontal components of stay cables are small. 1. and bottom flange.2.1-2 Typical Cross Section of Deck Floor beam and stringer all adopt welded I-section.331m. Consortium of Chinese Contractors -4- .2. and the thickness of cast-in-situ slab is 270mm. mid transbeam between the mid and upper pylon shafts. including top flange. and supported on the top flange of steel girders via Φ20mm rubber band to prevent the cement paste from leaking when cast the joint concrete.2 Deck slab Concrete deck slab comprises two parts: prefabricated slab and cast-in-situ slab. 1. When installing the prefabricated slabs.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.3 Pylon tower The pylon tower is in door shape including tower seat. lower pylon shafts.

4 Stay cable Cross section of stay cable is galvanized parallel steel wires of Φ7mm with high strength.3. of which the inner layer is in black.3.3.3 shows the general dimensions of pylon tower.2.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.2.3 Pylon Tower 1. and Consortium of Chinese Contractors -5- . Figure 1.2. and extruded with two layers of high density polyethylene.

Standard strength of steel wires is fpk=1670MPa. vibration absorber is placed in the cable sleeve. in the main girder along the bridge is 12m for standard girder segment.4-2 is the diagram of HCA damper installed between stay cable and deck. and the surface of outer HDPE sheath is set as bifilar helix. Figure 1. according to the actual situation and measured vibration properties of cables after bridge completed. General design drawing of stay cable is shown in Figure 1.2. Stay cable is tensioned at the pylon end and fixed at the main girder end. and cold cast anchor devices are adopted to anchor the cable.3.3.2. In addition.2.4-1 Stay Cable To control the vibration of cable. Distance between anchor points of stay cable in the pylon is 2. Consortium of Chinese Contractors -6- .4-1.2m. HCA viscid dampers will be also installed outside to lessen the vibration. Figure 1.3.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge the outer layer in color.

steel anchor boxes.3.2.3.5-1 Consortium of Chinese Contractors Steel Anchor Box and Main Girder -7- . cushions.2.2.5 Anchorage of stay cable Except stay cables SC16 and SC17 which are anchored in the counterweight concrete block at bridge end. bracing ribs.2.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.3. composed of anchor plates. and stiffeners. at the lower end of other cables.5-1 is the illustration of half of an anchor box and the main girder. are all set for the cables in the main girders.4-2 HCA Viscid Damper 1. Figure 1.3. Figure 1.

of which one is movable in two directions. SC1.2. stay cables are anchored on the corbels extruded from the inner wall of tower.2. Vertical supporting capacity of one bearing is 8000kN. and horizontal supporting capacity of the transversely fixed bearing is 6000kN. SC2 and MC2. Figure 1.2.3.5-2 is the illustration of a steel anchor beam in the pylon shaft.02rad.6 Bearing 2 sets of earthquake-resistance steel spherical bearings are arranged under the main girders at each side pier of main bridge. and the other is movable in longitudinal direction and fixed in transverse direction. Figure 1.3. Consortium of Chinese Contractors -8- . and loop prestressing tendons are used to reinforce the concrete. Maximum movement of bearing along the bridge is ±60cm.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge In the pylon tower.3. MC1.2. For C0. steel anchor beams and loop prestressing tendons are adopted for the anchorage system respectively.5-2 Steel Anchor Beam in the Pylon Shaft 1. Other cables are all anchored with the steel anchor beams inside the pylon shaft. Figure 1.3. and the maximum rotation angle is 0.6 shows an assembled steel spherical bearing to be installed.

length of stroke (mm) ±600. F = 2400kN. minimum safety factor of damping force = 1.2.6 Earthquake-resistance Steel Spherical Bearing 1. α = 0.3. damping coefficient. Figure 1. C = 3000kN (m/s)-0.3.7 shows an example of the longitudinal damper installed under steel girder.2.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.4. Main parameters of damper are: exponent of velocity.4. Consortium of Chinese Contractors -9- .7 Longitudinal damper 2 longitudinal viscous dampers are set under the main girders at each pylon tower.3.5.2. normal damping force.

expansion joint at bridge end should adapt to the large and complex movements under different load cases.3.8-1 is schematic drawing of the swivel-joist expansion joint. Even rotations of the bridge about the three special axes should also be easily coped with.2.8-2 shows the state when the expansion is being installed. and Figure 1.3. The joint should not only follow the main movement along the bridge but also distinctive movements in the 2 spatial directions perpendicular to the main direction.7 Longitudinal Viscous Damper 1. Maurer swivel-joist expansion joint is to be chosen the bridge.3.10 - .2. the expansion joint can also be used under seismic action. To meet the requirements above. With special seismic devices.8 Expansion joint For the main bridge.2. Consortium of Chinese Contractors .Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1.2. Figure 1.3.

The diameter of piles is 2.3.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 1. and the holes are formed using steel pile casings. Dimension of pile cap normal to the bridge direction is 57.3 shows the general arrangement of piles and pile cap of pylon.8-1 Swivel-joist Expansion Joint Figure 1.2. 34m along the bridge.2.2m.3. There are 56 piles for every pylon.11 - . Piles foundation is cast in-situ.8-2 Expansion Joint Being Installed 1. and 6m Consortium of Chinese Contractors . and the minimum distance between piles from center to center is 6m.3.3 Substructure Figure 1.4m.3.

oxygen. 2 coats of improved epoxy zinc rich primer (2×40µm).3 General Arrangement of Pile Cap and Foundation 1. Figure 1.3.3. and 2 coats of polyurethane top coating (2×50µm). The major natural corrosive mediators to steel structure are chloride ion.3. moisture and strong ultraviolet ray. 1.12 - Consortium of Chinese Contractors . 2 coats of MIO epoxy undercoating (2×50µm). and to prevent the anchor devices from corrosion.4 Prevention of corrosion for steel structure Climate at the bridge site belongs to typical tropical rainforest climate.5 Construction method . To protect the inner box surface of main girders and steel anchor beams in the upper shafts. The total thickness of dry film is 300µm.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge in thickness. dehumidifiers will be placed in the upper shafts of pylon towers and the box section of main girders. For the external surface of steel structure. coating to prevent corrosion includes: 1 coat of inorganic zinc silicate primer at workshop (20µm).

The pile cap will be cast with several layers and cooling circulation water pipes will be placed to control the temperature. Underwater concrete will be cast in-situ continuously and under strict control. 1. Since the pile cap is a bulk concrete structure.5.2 Pile cap Pile cap is to be constructed with steel caisson.5.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 1. 1. Quality of pile will be checked using ultrasonic testing method. Temporary bracket at pylon and bridge end and temporary pier at side span will be set up to assist installing the girders. influence of hydration heat on the quality of pile cap must be effectively decreased.1 Pile foundation Hole of pile will be drilled on the off-shore platform and protected with steel casing. and the bearing capacity will be tested with Osterbog method.3.5.4 Deck girders Steel girders and concrete deck slab of the bridge will be constructed with balancing cantilever method segment by segment.3 Pylon tower Roll-over and climbing formwork methods are to be used for the construction of pylon tower.3.3.3. Consortium of Chinese Contractors .13 - . 1.5.

co-operation of steel girders. Classification of the structural actions in detail is shown in Table 2. and pile foundation of pylon is incorporated in the Consortium of Chinese Contractors . stay cables. variable action. Table 2.2 Integral Analysis of the Whole Bridge In integral analysis of the whole bridge. In accordance with the actual construction procedures. stay cables use cable element. Combinations of all possible actions will be used in the design. Totally 564 elements are divided for the whole bridge. deck slab (including prestressing action in it) and pylon towers are taken into consideration. and statuses of construction step by step and service are simulated respectively.0 No. in which girder and pylons use beam elements.1 Structural Analysis and Calculations Actions on the Structure Structural actions include: permanent action.1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Permanent action Self-weight of structure (including superimposed dead load) Prestressing force Concrete shrinkage and creep Water floatage force Foundation settlement Classification of Actions Variable action Vehicle load Vehicle impact force Soil lateral pressure caused by vehicle Pedestrian load (including motorcycle) Vehicle braking force Wind load Water pressure Temperature effect Bearing frictional resistance Static rupture force of stay cable Replacement of stay cables Accidental action Collision force of ship or drifter Collision force of vehicle Seismic action Dynamic rupture force of stay cable 2. and accidental action. the whole structure is analyzed using programs MIDAS.14 - .Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 2 2.

15 - . One method is to use 6 springs to imitate the restraints of pile to the pylon along and about three directions. Main girder and pylon are relatively free in longitudinal direction. i.e. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . and connected with springs in transverse direction.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge integral model by simulating it as gantry structure in the rule of equivalent displacement. Time-history analysis is carried out to calculate the structure under horizontal and vertical earthquake action. and stay cables are simulated with truss elements. two methods are adopted to simulate the interaction among pile. girder can float longitudinally relative to the pylon but is restricted by the pylon. but allowing for the effects of sagging of cables and geometric stiffness due to dead load. Main girder and pylons are simulated with space beam element.2 Integral Analysis Model of the Whole Structure 2. and girder can slide on the side pier in longitudinal direction. Figure 2.. The input time-history curves are synthesized targeted at response spectrum. soil and superstructure. For the pile group foundation.3 Seismic Analysis Seismic analysis of the main bridge includes the selection of parameters of damper. The structure is three-span continuous composite girder cable stayed bridge with totally floating system and twin pylons. structural analysis under seismic action and evaluation of earthquake-resistance performance of structure. the other is to fix the piles under a certain distance below the scouring line.2 is the analysis model of the whole structure. Figure 2.

16 - .3 Seismic Analysis Models Consortium of Chinese Contractors .3.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Seismic analysis models with the two methods are shown in Figure 2. (a) Six-spring model (b) Pile fixed model Figure 2.

17 - . Pile group is calculated with “m” method. τp is the average ultimate friction force of soil around the pile. etc. cable force. Transbeams of pylon are fully prestressed concrete structure.4) where U is the parameter of pile. l is the length of pile under local scouring line.4 Calculation of Foundation Piles are designed as friction type. A is the cross sectional area of pile. and allowable bearing capacity of one pile is calculated in accordance with Equation 2. wind and temperature.5 is the transverse analysis model of pylon. Figure 2. and σp is the ultimate bearing capacity of soil at pile tip. Stress of transbeams and strength of pylon shafts at different load cases are checked in the calculations.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 2.4: 1 [ P] = (Ulτ p + Aσ R ) 2 (2.5 Transverse Analysis of Pylon In addition to the integral analysis model of the whole bridge which will calculate the pylon in longitudinal direction. and pylon shafts are ordinary reinforced concrete structure. transverse analysis model is also formed to calculate the pylon under the most unfavorable load combinations of dead load. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . 2.

and main girders. shell and 3-D frame elements are adopted to simulate the structure.6 Local Analysis of Deck In order to get to know the stress distribution of each main components of composite grider. stringers.5 Transverse Analysis Model of Pylon 2. certain length of deck girders under the pylon and at bridge end are chosen to carry out the local analysis. Space models are built up and block. deck slab and anchor boxes are all incorporated.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 2. floor beams.6 is the local analysis model of deck under the pylon. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . especially in deck slab.18 - . Figure 2. respectively.

7.1 Steel anchor box in the main girder To calculate the local stress of anchor box in the main girder under the cable force.19 - .Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 2. and stress fluctuation in anchor box and main girder is acquired for different anchor boxes along the bridge. Figure 2.7.6 Local Analysis Model of Deck under Pylon 2. (a) The whole model (half) Consortium of Chinese Contractors . analysis models of anchor boxes for different specifications of cables are formed.7 Local Analysis of Anchorage System 2.1 is a local analysis model of anchor box in the main girder.

7.7.7. Figure 2.20 - .1 Local Analysis Model of Anchor Box in Main Girder 2.2 Steel anchor beam in the pylon For different types of anchor devices and steel anchor beams.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge (b) Anchor box (half) Figure 2. Figure 2.1 Local Analysis Model of Anchor Box in Main Girder Consortium of Chinese Contractors .2. several models are built up to calculate the stress in the steel anchor beams under different load combinations.7.2 shows a local analysis model of steel anchor beam in the pylon.

8-2 show the calculation models of the latter two states.8-1 The longest Single Cantilever State (at Mid Span) at Construction Stage Consortium of Chinese Contractors .8 Buckling Stability Analysis To calculate the structural buckling stability both under construction and at service stage. Figure 2. the longest single cantilever state (at mid span) at construction stage.8-1 and 2. three the most unfavorable states are considered in the structural analysis model: service state. Figure 2.21 - . and the longest double cantilever state at construction stage.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 2.

22 - . the bridge is analyzed to check the wind stability. and compare the CFD results with Consortium of Chinese Contractors . (6) To perform CFD simulation of the deck of the bridge.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge Figure 2. (2) Modal analysis (3) To check flutter stability of the bridge and determination of the aerodynamic derivatives of the bridge deck for both the service state and the most unfavorable construction state. (5) To determine the aerodynamic coefficients of the bridge deck at both the service state and the construction state. including: (1) To determine of wind speed parameters for wind resistance study.9 Wind Stability Analysis To ensure the structural safety of the bridge during construction and service stage.8-2 The longest Double Cantilever State at Construction Stage 2. (4) To study the performance of vortex-excited resonance of the bridge at both the service state and the construction state.

Table 2. Table 2.9 State Calculation Models of Wind Stability Analysis Triple Girder Model Single Spine Girder Model Service State Longest Single-cantilever State Longest Double-cantilever State Consortium of Chinese Contractors .23 - .9 shows the calculation models for different states and using different simulation methods.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge the test results.

(3) Analysis and evaluation of seismic-geological catastrophe at the location of the bridge. (4) Several groups of time-history curves. (3) Duration of earthquake motion which contains 95% of the total energy. respectively. (2) Engineering geological survey in field region.24 - .02.05 and 0. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . (5) Horizontal shear-wave velocity and horizontal compression-wave velocity. Study report of seismic dynamic parameters will provide the following results: (1) Horizontal PGA and its exceeding probability curve. survey and analysis of earthquake fault and its impact analysis in the near field region. and determination of dynamic parameters at the location of bridge for design purpose.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 3 3. which correspond to the earthquakes of return period of 475 and 2500 years.2 Study of Seismic Dynamic Parameters The study is to determine the design earthquake motion parameters. 3. response analysis of soil layer. (2) Horizontal and vertical design acceleration response spectra (critical damping is 0.1 Monographic Studies Seismic Hazard Evaluation on Site Main work of seismic hazard evaluation includes: (1) Investigation. (4) Fatalness analysis of earthquake. period not less than bridge’s natural period) at the base of pylon tower.

(4) To evaluate the investigating and testing data and provide solutions to the geotechnical problems. Consortium of Chinese Contractors .Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge 3.4 Geological Investigation Main purposes of geological investigation are: (1) To determine the subsurface stratigraphy and stratigraphic relationships (and their variability). (3) Combined with measurement of wave speed inside the hole and dynamic 3-axis test. 3. wind tunnel study mainly includes the following parts: (1) Determination of wind speed parameters for wind resistance study.3 Geophysical Survey The objectives of geophysical survey are as follows: (1) To divide and compare vertically and horizontally the rock layer within the pylon area.25 - . (3) To give comprehensive information for suitable foundation system. and determine the engineering category of the site. (2) Modal analyses of bridge structure. (2) To find out the fault features at pylon area. 3. (3) Wind tunnel study on wind-resistant performance. (2) To obtain lithological and mechanical characteristic of soil. to determine the earthquake guarding level at the pylon area.5 Wind Tunnel Study on Wind-resistance Performance To ensure the wind-resistant safety of the bridge under construction and during service stage.

main contents of the study are as follows: Consortium of Chinese Contractors . Sectional model at service state Figure 3.6 Anchoring System Analysis of Stay Cable in the Pylon For different anchorage systems in the pylon. Figure 3. a. Sectional model at construction state b.5 shows the sectional models in the wind tunnel test.26 - .Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge (4) Full bridge aeroelastic model test.5 Sectional Model in the Wind Tunnel Test 3.

Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge (1) Comparison of several kinds of anchorage systems.27 - . (2) Steel anchor beam in the pylon. (2) Analyzing the shear strength of stud shear connectors on the floor beams and stringers. Steel anchor beam. Patterns to prestress the concrete pylon will be compared and determined. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . and strength of pylon wall under cable forces will be checked. Strength and rigidity of steel anchor beam. (3) Prestresed concrete structure for anchoring the cables. quantitatively analyzing the shear strength of stud shear connectors. especially for studs at the girder section where there are cables. to verify whether the existing data could meet the requirements for the study of sea bed evolvement and hydrograph analysis. analyzing if the arrangement and number of stud shear connectors on the steel girders are reasonable.8 Underwater Topographical Survey Main tasks of underwater topographical survey include: (1) By investigating and collecting the existing marine chart information. and strength and reinforcement of concrete pylon wall will all be checked under the maximum cable force and other load cases such as replacing the cable or rupture of one cable. steel anchor box and loop prestressing concrete are compared. (3) According to the result. bearing capacity of concrete corbel under steel beam.7 Mechanics Analysis of Shear Connectors of Composite Girder Mechanics analysis of shear connectors of composite girder mainly aims at: (1) Studying the behavior of the studs between the box girder and concrete slab. 3. 3.

3.28 - . Main contents of the study include: (1) The tidal flow before the construction of the bridge. respectively.9 Study on Topographical Evolution and Local Scour Caused by Suramadu Bridge The objective of the study is to understand the change of tide level and tidal flow caused by the construction of Suramadu bridge. Consortium of Chinese Contractors . which will provide basic information for hydrographical analysis and design of the bridge. and to estimate the local scour near the bridge piers. (3) To obtain the data of the transition of water courses and coastal line and some relevant technical requirements for the design work. (3) Tidal flow after construction of the bridge under the average tide and the tides with return period of 20-year and 100-year. (4) Seabed change caused by the bridge.Indonesian Suramadu Bridge Detailed Design of Main Bridge (2) To carry out underwater topographical survey to get to know the seabed morphology. to predict the sediment transport and its resulting change of topography. (5) Local scour near the key piers of the bridge under various conditions. (2) Change of the tidal flow after construction of the bridge.

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