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Wind Power Modelling and Impact on Power System Dynamics- PhD Thesis Slootweg

# Wind Power Modelling and Impact on Power System Dynamics- PhD Thesis Slootweg

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07/09/2013

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## Sections

As described in section 4.2.1, the wind speed in this thesis is considered to consist of four
terms: the initial average value, a ramp component, a gust component and turbulence. In
deriving the wind speed signal for the aggregated wind park model, the wind speed is divided
into a deterministic and a stochastic part. The stochastic part consists of the turbulence term in
equation (4.1). In the aggregated park model, this term is neglected, because in a wind park

Chapter 4. Turbine Model Adaptation and Aggregation

89

the effect of turbulence on the aggregated output power is reduced due to the smoothing effect
of the large number of wind turbines, which is supported by measurements carried out at
existing wind parks [58]. A further advantage of neglecting the turbulence is that it accelerates
the computations, as calculating the turbulence for each wind turbine at each time step using
the method described in section 4.2.1 comprises a substantial computational burden.
The deterministic part consists of the average value of the initial average wind speed and, if
present, the gust and ramp component. The pattern is assumed to be the same for each wind
turbine, but it may be shifted in time, depending on the layout of the park and the wind speed
and angle of attack. The initial average value can be assumed to be the same throughout the
park. The gust and ramp components travel through the park and the time instant at which
they arrive at the individual turbines depends on the average wind speed, the angle of attack
and the wind park layout. The start and stop times of the gust and the ramp at each individual
wind turbine can thus be calculated from a single wind speed signal applied to the aggregated
wind park model as a whole, taking the wind direction and the park layout into account. The
wind speed signal is specified by entering the start and stop times of the gust and the ramp
relative to the centre of the wind park as well as the wind direction. Note that this implies that
wake effects are neglected.

The following steps are taken in order to calculate the wind speed at the individual turbines
from the wind speed acting on the aggregated wind park model

Step 1. Construct Line Parallel to Wind Speed Front through Park’s Centre

First, a coordinate system with its origin at the lower left corner of the wind park is assumed.
Then, an equation describing a line parallel to the wind speed front within this coordinate
system and running through the park’s centre with the coordinates (w/2, h/2) is derived. The
equation that describes this line is the following:

(4.6)

in which " is the angle of attack of the wind speed front, w and l are the width and length of
the wind park respectively and a and b are coefficients.

Step 2. Calculate Distance of Turbines to Line Parallel to Wind Speed Front

Second, the distance of the individual turbines to the line parallel to the wind speed front is
calculated. Tho this end, for each turbine an equation for a line perpendicular to the line
constructed in step 1 and crossing through the turbine’s location is derived:

Wind Power: Modelling and Impact on Power System Dynamics

90

(4.7)

in which xi and yi are the coordinates of the ith turbine in the coordinate system defined in
step 1.
Then, the point of intersection (xis,yis) of both lines is calculated

(4.8)

Finally, the length between the point of intersection of the line through the park’s centre and
the line from step 1 on the one hand and the location of the ith wind turbine on the other is
calculated.

(4.9)

Step 3. Calculate Ramp and Gust Arrival Times

The last step is to calculate the ramp and gust arrival times at the individual wind turbines. To
this end, the distance between the ith turbine and the line from step 1 divided by the initial
average wind speed vwa, is added to or subtracted from the arrival times at the park’s centre.

(4.10)

Whether the amount is added or subtracted depends on the angle of attack " of the wind speed
and on the location of the turbines. If a negative start and end time result from (4.10), this
means that the corresponding wind speed component has passed the turbine already. If only
the start time is negative, the wind speed component is currently passing the turbine. The
ramp and gust amplitude are of course not affected.

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91

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