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the enneagram - …info from the underground

the enneagram - …info from the underground

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the enneagram …info from the underground

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None of us has a firm grasp on the nature of reality. Most of us don’t even know who we really are. Our view of the world is for the most part, a restrictive one and because our views of ourselves and the world around us are so ingrained, we rarely notice how limiting they are. Because they are so pervasive, they become much like diluted background noise, much like the air that we breathe. The Enneagram of Personality is represented by a nine pointed symbol that can help us become more aware of what and how we are. It describes nine Enneagram types—essentially nine ways of being. Often called “fixations,” these nine ways of being can show us what it is that we don’t readily see in ourselves—ways that are not quite in touch with our real selves. Our fixations are primarily defensive in nature and arise as we attempt to negotiate a world which feels threatening to us when we are young and vulnerable. They are thus basically compensatory, and once they are established become automatic and mechanical. While they help to protect us when we are young, they continue to exist long after they have served any useful function and they serve to disconnect us from our true inner selves. It is not clear why we acquire the precise fixations that we develop; they seem to arise from some combination of innate predispositions, early conditions surrounding our nurturance and, perhaps, spiritual conditions which we do not entirely understand. But, because these ingrained strategies for negotiating the world are rigid, and

developed to serve the needs of ourselves when we are immature, they cannot serve as effective means for negotiating life. They lead to pain, suffering and unhappiness. If we are able to tap into our inner strength, our motivations become pure and our actions truly effective. The Enneagram also describes our unique strengths. The nine different ways of being, or “energies,” all have both negative and positive aspects contained within them. When we are unbalanced, we are stuck in distorted views, and act in accordingly distorted, limiting ways. When we are more balanced, we are more in touch with the real self, often referred to as our “essence.” We are then less limited in our approach to experience. We are more closely in tune with actual reality, and the gifts of our enneatype start to manifest. Each of us has all nine energies within us, however, one of these energies will be dominant and will manifest in type specific ways. This makes the Enneagram a great tool for trying to understand ourselves and for trying to understand other people, especially when others appear to be so different from ourselves. G.I. Gurdjieff was the first person on record to introduce the Enneagram symbol to the public. Later, Oscar Ichazo used the Enneagram to present his Arica Theory, the source from which the Enneagram of Personality was developed. Since then, many people, such as Claudio Naranjo, Helen Palmer, A.H. Almaas, Don Riso and Russ Hudson, have given their own interpretations and discoveries related to the system. This site was constructed to provide some basic information, as well as some harder to find information. On the left, you will find a menu of links for enneagram type descriptions, instinctual subtype descriptions, historical insights, and reference materials. This site will continue to grow with more information in the future. Look forward to articles on topics such as wings, lines, and enneagram movement. This is a beginning. We hope you enjoy exploring the site. …info from the underground This site is a member of Web Ring. To browse visit here <http://ss.webring.com/navbar?f=l;y=oceanmoonshine;u=defurl>. ***(This site is non-profit, educational, and informational. The material presented is a result of the authors’ personal interpretation of the subject matter. We are in no way affiliated with any “official School” relating to the Enneagram).***

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Type Descriptions
Enneatype One
Type Description People of Enneatype One are idealists. They are idealists in the sense that they bring to all of their experience an implicit sense of “how things should be.” This sense of an unmet ideal permeates the One’s experience of the world. It is as though they were simultaneously aware of how things are and of how they should be. Since reality as the One perceives it, and the ideal as the One conceives it, very infrequently coincide, Ones experience reality as being essentially flawed and approach it from a standpoint of frustration. Ones are people of action and therefore tend to deal with their belief in the world’s inherent imperfection with the deep seated conviction that something ought to be done. The flaws should be fixed; the system reformed; the sin expurgated. Some Ones, like Martin Luther or Mahatma Gandhi, are leaders and reformers in the classic sense, but virtually all Ones have a pronounced streak of perfectionism, a perfectionism which is active; it seeks not just to judge but to fix. To be sure, other types can have perfectionistic streaks, but the One’s perfectionism is more than a quirk; it is a central compulsion, and while it may not extend to all areas of the One’s life, it will be very much front and centre in those areas upon which the One has chosen to focus. And Ones are people who have a highly developed capacity to focus; they are disciplined people who can attend to their jobs while steadfastly refusing to be drawn into distractions. Ones generally have a fine eye for detail and are typically quite skilled in at least a few key areas. They are people who can commit, who will “follow through;” they are people who will do what they see as their duty. Ones are dedicated, competent and conscientious and they know how to persevere. They are people of principle who can be counted on to do what they say they will do. Ones are not only aware of the flaws they see embedded in the very structure of reality, but also, by extension, of the flaws they see in others, and more importantly of those they find in themselves. This is naturally not an easy dynamic for the type One individual, or for the intimates in a One’s life, especially as Ones tend to focus their reform efforts on those they love. Ones tend to worry about those they love, and they feel it is their duty to help others achieve the excellence that the One believes them capable of achieving. These reform efforts are a sign of the One’s love, but can, paradoxically, cause others to feel unloved, as though they were simply never quite good enough for the One. For obvious reasons, this can be a particularly difficult dynamic for the children of type One individuals. On the positive side though, Ones are loyal and dedicated. They will sacrifice for those that they love. They will not abandon those who have been placed in their charge. Of course, as mentioned, Ones are quite hard on themselves also. They tend to feel guilty for not quite measuring up to their own impossible standards, and are frequently somewhat impatient with the many little flaws that are inherent in being human. On the high side, Ones can approach this with a kind of self-deprecatory humour, which gives them perspective and which breaks the tension. Ones know they are sticklers and can sometimes see the humour in it all. On the low side, the One’s frustration at a world which is imperfect, and with themselves for not measuring up, can lead to a stance of anger and resentment against a world so poorly made. For this reason, in the traditional enneagram, anger is considered to be the distinctive passion or “vice” of type One. Oscar Ichazo

they do not wish to be at war with their own sense of what is right and wrong. awareness of anger is usually vigorously repressed from consciousness. whether this involves one of their hobbies or one of their causes. but whether they are career oriented or not. Ones are “doers. does not tend to be the One’s strongest suit.) In order to appease their punitive superegos. and they can then readily justify their excess as being necessary. even if it is only grudging. especially if male in our society. They are generally somewhat emotionally repressed. Ones are generally serious people who find it difficult to relax and who often needlessly deny themselves many of the harmless pleasures of life.” When the type One personality is sufficiently unbalanced. Others may be very much aware of the One’s anger. and often enough manage to achieve it. They are usually talented and have multiple interests. Ones don’t always find sexuality to be an area of life that flows smoothly. but rather that the One is honest and not skilled in the arts of deception.” As the One’s superego is already over burdened.” Ones tend to have been good boys and girls: “young adults. When anger does break through into an overt expression. messages which imply that sex is “dirty. Ones tend to feel guilty about their anger. They will act on what they see to be correct. their intellectual vision is . What you see is what you get. are not hypocrites. This is undoubtedly exacerbated by a society that has sent conflicted messages to the One’s superego about sexuality. they often have an endearing naïveté when it comes to those who are less principled and more duplicitous than themselves. and others generally recognise this and respond favourably. Integrity is a rare quality. unless they are quite unhealthy.succinctly defined this anger as a “standing against reality. but Ones more than all other Enneatypes strive to embody it. Anger is a “bad emotion” and Ones strive sincerely and wholeheartedly to be “good. frustration. (Introspection. They are sometimes uncomfortable with their sensuous side. it approaches each situation and each individual as being “not good enough. but often simply feel that relaxation is a manifestation of idleness and hence an indulgence which shouldn’t be allowed. especially in this regard. the punitiveness of their superego is turned outward. They tend to be authentic. and usually only allow anger to manifest in one of its less obvious permutations— impatience. even in extreme cases violent.” The One’s anger usually exists in a quiescent state. Ones generally maintain tight control of their tempers. others can be impressed by the depth of the One’s self-righteous fury. tend to see the active expression of emotion as a sign of weakness and a lack of self-control. are generally getting things done. even if it is in their own flawed way. and. even as the One vehemently denies its existence through clenched teeth.) Ones.” Ones are susceptible to these sorts of messages and to all messages sent to them about how things “ought to be. annoyance and judgmental criticality. “Integrity” in its root meaning refers to a type of internal unity. (The word “integer”—the word which denotes a “unit” reflects this ancient meaning. Ones often command respect from others. They seldom consciously adopt a social role and are uncomfortable with posturing or self-promotion. As they generally have strong instincts. They can become frankly aggressive.” eagle scouts and straight A students. Although they are generally practical people involved in the world. but serves as the backdrop to all other emotional states and makes for a generally tense character. which does not imply at all that the One is superficial. when they integrate the emotional energy that they so often repress. as being “for a good cause.” They are sometimes workaholics. Ones may be exacting. but they don’t ask from others what they would be unwilling to do themselves. Ones are sincere.” When the unhealthy One brings a reforming energy to this sentiment.

many reformers are Ones. When healthy. In addition to those already cited. John Kerry. There is still a small plaque in the lobby of CBS headquarters in New York City which contains the image of Murrow and the inscription: “He set standards of excellence that remain unsurpassed. Biographies of the great German philosopher. and the Stoic philosopher Epictetus. as was Gregory Peck and Peck’s fictional Atticus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird. Ralph Nader who organised a team of young idealists who were appropriately termed “Crusaders. Ones are the most noble of all Enneatypes. They can frequently be found in the helping professions. They are more extroverted and somewhat less self-restrained. a clear type One. Their perfectionism becomes coupled with kindness and a gentleness of spirit. many. On the broadcasting scene more recently. certainly their philosophies manifest type One concerns. for that matter. Appropriate compassion clarifies their vision. and on the scene more recently. Bach and George Harrison. And musicians as diverse as J. Osama bin Laden is a chilling such example. Rudi Giuliani is a good example of a more passionate type One politician. It is not without reason that Henry David Thoreau is frequently typed as a One with Nine. Immanuel Kant. As indicated earlier. are conservative. the attorney for the prosecution: Patrick Fitzgerald. It is not uncommon for Ones to be drawn to politics—Al Gore. Not all type One philosophers were careful thinkers however: consider Ayn Rand. Plato. There is even a regal quality to the healthy One. Murrow was a One. when they feel with sensitivity. Their judgment is tempered by mercy. likewise seem to have been Ones. Michael Dukakis and Hillary Clinton are obvious examples.S. the very opinionated Keith Olbermann. A dominant Nine wing often manifests in the need to withdraw under stress and as an ability to merge with chosen activities. St.tempered with compassion and they cease to judge. as was Gandhi himself. Type Exemplars It is not uncommon for Ones to be intellectual. Ones with a Two wing tend to be warmer and more emotionally expressive than those with a Nine wing.” While some reformers buck the system. Authors include Flannery O’Connor. Paul. they see with precision. whom Nietzsche accused of harbouring resentiment. Joan of Arc comes to mind. naturalist and author of Civil Disobedience which would later influence Gandhi. George Bernard Shaw. the thoughtful Fareed Zakaria. Some actors are Ones: Henry Fonda. Diane Lane are Ones. such as John Paul II. Also.” Also consider the recently deceased William F. Samuel Johnson and Noam Chomsky. Ones with the Nine wing frequently love nature. as they find there the perfection they so deeply admire. indicate that he was very likely an Enneatype One. The famous journalist. Some are even reactionary. but not all Ones are so wooden. Buckley Jr. Or consider. Henry David Thoreau. . Edward R. Emma Thompson. Also. was a One.

sometimes to a fault. Ones do not mistake themselves for Sevens. unlike Sixes. is lost forever… There is. Ones are primarily people of action. Darcy from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice.S. whereas Ones are self-denying. a natural defect. The relentless pursuit of perfection can take its toll and lead to depression. and they are far more comfortable adopting a leadership role than is the more withdrawn and reclusive Five.” acco rding to the prevailing value system. who is sometimes mistaken for a Five. it is often one of their blind spots. unlike Threes. certainly too little for the convenience of the world. emotionally expressive and concerned with people than are Ones. Sevens tend to have problems with immaturity however. I cannot forget the follies and vices of other so soon as I ought. and King Peter from the Narnia chronicles. But Ones are far less self-doubting than Sixes. But Fours have a tendency towards self-indulgence when unhappy. especially when female. Darcy describes his character in these terms: “I have faults enough. My temper I dare not vouch for. My temper would perhaps be called resentful. a good case could also be made for typing “God the Father” as a One. but however intelligent they are.” And as we are on the discussion of fictional examples. My good opinion once lost. Ones tend to worry and can sometimes mistype as Sixes. or be mistyped by others. Lewis was also a One. Mr. which not even the best education can overcome. I believe. whose creator. Ones . they are quite sure that they are right. Sevens tend to be spendthrifts. of understanding. Some Ones make good caricatures of themselves. It is. My feelings are not puffed about with every attempt to move them. too little yielding. although Sevens might well find that they themselves have a perfectionistic streak. This certainty makes Ones decisive. C. although the converse is probably more common. whereas Sixes are generally ambivalent. But. Even the most intellectual of type Ones—consider Plato in this regard—want to leave a tangible mark. And. Ones are frugal. Too messy. Both types attempt to embody an ideal and Threes can sometimes seem “perfect. and Ones are very much the adult. who are more feeling oriented. It is not likely for a One to mistype as a Three although the converse does occur. Spock. Aragorn from the Tolkien trilogy. but Ones are much more concerned with abstract principles than Twos. Plato created the academy which survived for the better part of a millennium. and when the wing is strong. In addition. Ones are often intelligent. Martha Stewart comes to mind. in every disposition a tendency to some particular evil. Ones are frequently unaware of their image. Ones are less affiliative than most Sixes and their decisions are not likely to be reached by seeking group consensus. nor their offenses against myself. but they are not. Mr.” Possible Mistypes Ones can mistake themselves for Twos. as does “Miss Manners” and the “Church Lady. not thought. Dostoevsky’s Grand Inquisitor.Other fictional examples of type One include Mr. I hope. I believe. Ones are decidedly not. independent and emotionally detached and can easily mistype themselves. Fours are comfortable feeling deep emotions. as examples of Enneatype Five. At such times a One can mistype as a Four.

although these qualities will typically be societally reinforced in female Twos and somewhat suppressed in males. the Two is not afraid of rolling up the sleeves and getting the hands dirty. if the wing is especially strong. but able to care for others as well. it is always others who are needy and dependent. so the Two tends to keep this dynamic in check and is frequently unaware of its existence. Ones can be quite dominating.” From the standpoint of the Two. and they relate to them from a standpoint of helpfulness. even in the midst of hardship. Finally. They need to be appreciated.” but both seductiveness and nurturing are manifestations of the same unconsciously manipulative desire to find a way to engage the other’s attention.” Ones seldom have a hard time expressing their opinions or making their requirements known. and they see themselves as the correct person for satisfying that need. not the Two. but Ones dominate in service to an ideal and lack the Eight’s expansiveness. who are generally far more “laid back. They are emotionally demonstrative and are generally comfortable with the physical expression of emotions. Twos are also drawn to the role of parent—specifically what we traditionally think of as the more nurturing. Eights to consider themselves to be more powerful. . This places Twos. Ones and Nines might cross-type. and they accomplish this by being “indispensable. This is true whether the Two is male or female. in a sort of “one up” position with respect to those they are serving. mothering role. nursing and counselling. Enneatype Two Type Description People of Enneatype Two are essentially related to other people. as Twos also have needs. Twos are warm people. This competitiveness is at cross purposes with the Two’s desire to be admired for virtue however. Seductive Twos are often performers or entertainers. like enneatype Eight. Ones generally have a more cerebral orientation than do Eights. Twos are often seductive in their presentation. Twos who adopt the seductive approach are often competitive with members of the same sex and jealous of those they deem more desirable. Twos see themselves as being not only strong enough to care for themselves.have a hard time having fun. Ones are more prissy that Eights. whereas Nines frequently struggle with self-assertion. Eights are more visceral than Ones. Eights more tactless and crude than Ones. Sevens usually find a way to enjoy themselves. they need to receive a considerable amount of attention and gratitude. the situation is a bit more complex. Ones tend to consider themselves to be morally superior to their opponents. even though they are serving others. They tend to be practical people who thrive in the “hands on” helping professions such as teaching. but Ones are far more judgmental and have a much harder time relaxing than Enneatype Nines. Twos have a built in radar for what the other might need. In reality. Metaphorically speaking. They place a very high value on their personal relationships and devote an enormous amount of time and energy to them. they simultaneously give their performance while receiving the adulation of their audience. They want to occupy a central position in the lives of chosen others. This might seem at odds with the description of Twos as being “mothering. they need to be needed.

a distorted image of him or herself as being good.” They give out of t he fullness of their hearts. Sometimes this term is construed as indicating that the Two is prone to flattering others.” Pride. Such Twos. They are the ones who make sure that large families get together for reunions—they cook the food and strongly encourage everyone to attend. And what they want in return for their service is the undying gratitude of those that they serve and to have their self-image as being loving and selfless reinforced. require that others pay them back for all that they have done. These are the Twos who are so solicitous of their children that their children are never allowed to grow up.It is entirely true that Twos are other oriented individuals who provide a great deal of nurturing and support to those in their charge. because they have extended themselves for others. In an increasingly fractured society. are masters in the art of selfdeception and something of this quality attaches to all Twos who have not consciously worked to see through it. The Two will strive to maintain this self-image even in the face of enormous evidence to the contrary—and if the Two is unhealthy. Nothing is ever enough. The Two’s self-image of being giving and helpful is not at all without merit. Twos often serve as the social “glue” which. Twos don’t simply give. gratitude is actually owed to them. then. they are entitled to it. feeling entirely justified in being so. when unhealthy. Other Twos. And it is true that when they give. keeps the office staff informed of everyone’s birthday—they are the ones who pass the cards around for others to sign. The dark side of type Two revolves around their frequently unacknowledged need for appreciation. but. irrational and even abusive. When Twos become truly unhealthy. kind and loving. they are trying to be helpful.” the ego most in need of flattering here is actually the Two’s. They find themselves the victim of a host of physical ailments which make them unable to care for themselves. When they don’t receive what they feel is owed them. and Twos generally will simply not allow into their consciousness any evidence that contradicts their positive self-image as being loving and giving. Twos are believed to manifest the vice of “pride. Under such circumstances they can become hysterical. Being unlovable is the Two’s deepest fear. Twos sometimes do flatter others. in this context. They subtly encourage weakness in their spouses and friends. Ichazo describes this psychic mechanism as ego-flat (ego-flattery). Twos are not consciously aware of their need for appreciation. for instance. so that the ledger of debit and credit always seems to remain in the Two’s favour. they are often the ones working indefatigably to make sure that everyone is cared for. Unhealthy Two energy can sometimes manifest in what is known as the classic co-dependent personality. In the traditional Enneagram. of their need to be needed. as the Two’s underlying programme is “to give in order to get. There is indeed some truth to this. Such Twos actively encourage dependencies in others so that they can feel needed. they can become bossy and manipulative. but it is only a partial truth. Twos are likely to object that they do not in fact “give to get. they begin to fear that the love and appreciation that they so deeply desire will never materialise. become dependent themselves. seems to be a technical term which indicates that the Two has. They tend to overestimate the nature and extent of what they have given however. and needs to maintain. they give to get. They want others to be weak so that they can feel strong and so that their ties to their intimates will remain uncut. they are fully attending to the other person. because they “have earned the right” and because their intentions are good. Twos tend to feel that. there will be plenty of evidence to the contrary. Because they are focusing . Unhealthy Twos then.

Billie Holiday is another.) Twos with a One wing tend to be more emotionally restrained than those with a Three wing and are frequently attracted to causes as well as people. John Denver. Type Exemplars Many of the saints in the Catholic pantheon are undoubtedly Twos. As indicated above. he frequently reminded his followers of the need for reconciliation even in the darkest of times. The recently deceased playwright (and feminist) Wendy Wasserstein was a Two. even as she neglected her own needs. Monica Lewinsky: her “giving” nature almost brought down a government. perhaps the central benefit. Mary recognised that Jesus was tired and in need of a bath. They are frequently competitive but are also extremely generous with their time and energy. she was always the one who sewed and cooked for others. the bodhisattva whose compassion inspired the Chinese for centuries. the helpless. More recently. like all of the Enneagram programmes. Mother Teresa is frequently cited as a Two. ambitious and image oriented than those with a Two wing. and tend to remain. reminiscent of type Two energy. Kwan Yin. Some Twos turn their compassion to larger social causes. His love of children. unaware of their own neediness. Also. who renounces entering into Nirvana so long as even one sentient being remains in the realm of suffering. One of the benefits of learning the Enneagram. but Mary Magdalene stands out in this regard (but not Jesus’s mother who was likely a Nine). They offer the love and support that all human beings consciously or unconsciously need in order to be whole. They can become self-righteous if they are unbalanced or don’t receive the appreciation which is their due. they are. the downtrodden and overburdened is. while those in the Two’s life will often be very much aware that the Two’s giving is not entirely selfless. many performers are Twos. The truth is that the Two’s programme of “giving to get” is. at the very least. Kathy Bates and Alan Alda. One such is Dolly Parton. Some Twos combine their capacity for nurturing with a well developed intellect and utilise the latter in service of the former. Only a feminine divinity wishes for the meek to inherit the earth. Berry Brazeleton is one such . On the road. She was everyone’s confidant and protector. largely unconscious. was undoubtedly a Two. New York City had lost a genuinely nice person. A good case could be made for typing Jesus of Nazareth as a Two as well. as are actors John Ritter.on others. the New York Times bemoaned the fact that. In her obituary. is that it can enable us all to become more aware of the unconscious agendas that underlie much of our behaviour and determine much of our fate. Twos with the Three wing are more expansive. While all others were looking to Jesus as their saviour. (Perhaps this represents Christianity’s way of paying the often unappreciated Feminine principle its proper respect. Something of the idealism of type One attaches to their giving. The paediatrician and child advocate T. The religions of the East pay homage to this ideal in the image of the bodhisattva. Healthy Twos are truly loving and gentle. Archbishop Desmond Tutu was one such. Comedians Bill Cosby and Will Ferrell are also Twos. in addition to losing a talented author.

Comedian—Wayne Brady. Fictional examples include Sesame Street’s. especially when the wing is strong. Twos and Fives are not likely to mistype.” It is not uncommon for Twos to be attracted to teaching and some intelligent Twos are successful academics. especially if the wing is strong. Marie exemplifies the classic “Jewish mother” syndrome without actually being Jewish. are likely unaware of how deeply motivated they are by the desire to serve others. Twos might mistype as Four. in order to get the job done. Big Bird. His books have been designed to provide comfort for children and their mothers alike. and many Twos do. Ones are more likely to be motivated by principles of abstract justice and are far more emotionally restrained than Twos. Twos are far more helpful to others than is the more self oriented Seven. when necessary. Not all Twos have a profession that one might think typical. But Sixes suffer from ambivalence. especially. Fours are much more withdrawn and introspective than is the other focused Two who is frequently unaware of underlying motivations. especially if female. Threes tend to be more ambitious and focused on their personal concerns than the is more other oriented Two. Possible Mistypes Twos can mistype as Ones. whereas Twos generally know exactly how they feel and what they want. These qualities are not confined to Four however. Intellectual Twos who mistype as Five however.example. love to cook. it is more likely for a male Two to mistype in this fashion. Twos are far more emotionally expressive and drawn to service than is the more reclusive and withdrawn Five. In general. Twos and Threes can cross-type. Fives pursue knowledge for its own sake. Sixes are far more likely to suffer from self-doubt than is the more self-assured Two. Star Trek’s Dr. if they have artistic inclinations or believe themselves to be depressive. Twos and Sixes commonly mistype. and while they might very much enjoy teaching. however. are far more oriented to competency issues than are Twos and can much more readily put their emotions on hold. Threes. James Dobson is another specialist in child psychology whose One wing and connection to Eight is quite apparent. Male Twos are somewhat more likely than female Twos to mistype in this way as type Two qualities are typically encouraged more in females than males. In addition. Twos are more likely to . they tend to keep some distance between themselves and others. Consider Magic Johnson for instance. Famous chefs Emeril Lagasse and Julia Child are Twos. Twos are more feeling oriented and emotionally demonstrative than Ones however. Such a mistype could occur if the Two was “intellectual. in fact. although it is more common for the Six. Twos and Sevens are both generally extroverted and generous and can sometimes cross-type. McCoy and Marie Barone from Everybody Loves Raymond. Again. But Twos are primarily feeling oriented whereas the more mercurial Sevens are oriented to thinking. to mistype as a Two than the reverse.

frequently charming and sometimes charismatic. although it is far more likely for Nines. focused. They believe in their innate abilities and are optimistic about their prospects. But Twos are far more emotionally vulnerable than is the much tougher Eight and Twos only resort to bossiness under stress and when less direct methods fail to produce the desired results. they are often secretly afraid of being or becoming “losers. and many Threes unwittingly live out their parents’ unlived lives. They tend to be good networkers and know how to rise through the ranks. Twos can be quite bossy and could conceivably mistype as Eight. Twos are quite strong willed. Whichever ideal is chosen however. generally extroverted. are socially competent.” sometimes even extraordinarily so. Threes frequently are successful. Twos under stress become domineering. Nines struggle with self-assertion. They tend to be doggedly determined and are not easily deterred by failure. At the very centre of the type Three fixation then. success oriented and image conscious. Twos are far more likely to engage in manipulative behaviour than are Eights who are up front about where they stand and what they want. is approximated by just a few. Twos are proud and have a strong sense of their self worth. to mistype as Twos. They know how to present themselves. But Nines are selfeffacing and humble.” It is almost as though they were afraid of being “found out. by its very nature. Indeed at a very deep and largely subconscious level. Nines under stress tend to withdraw. Threes are people who adopt an ideal of success and attempt to embody it. Many Threes subtly and even unconsciously alter their self-presentation to appeal to the particular person or audience with whom they are engaging. the ideal will be drawn from the broader culture. They tend therefore to be highly socially aware and attuned to how others perceive them. than for the reverse to occur.follow through on promises of aid whereas Sevens have sometimes “moved on. If the Three is less connected to the parents. is a fundamental confusion about the relationship between appearance and reality. Threes feel as though they need to see themselves reflected in the eyes of others in order even to exist. is a good case in point. it is something which. Twos and Nines might cross-type. determination and focus. ambitious. there are many possible ideals from which the Three might choose. But while Threes do tend to be “successful. This ideal frequently comes from their parents. Threes tend to pursue their chosen ideal with zest. Sevens towards their activities. or for some reason finds other influences more compelling. Threes are therefore forced to compete. whose success has even managed to be inspirational. self-confident. they sometimes lose touch with who they really are. Enneatype Three Type Description People of Enneatype Three are adaptable. The problem is that in the process of doing so. As modern western culture is pluralistic.” Twos are primarily oriented towards their relationships. Lance Armstrong.” Some Threes actually self-destruct when . especially those who identify with a nurturing role. who they are and who they are taken to be. image and substance. Threes thrive on the admiration of others and will pursue success in order to achieve it. at least as defined by their chosen system of values.

It is the fate of enneatype Three to be forced to confront the question of the true nature of the self most directly and most intimately. Threes can turn into a “human doing. although they seldom allow this to show. When this occurs. Threes are said to harbour the vice of “deceit. Traditionally. and for seducing others into making that same mistake. They have a healthy pragmatism. It is not surprising then that Threes can sometimes find intimacy difficult. are representative of core fixations at the heart of the human condition and are hence universal. but they are often difficult to really know. and certainly many Threes are ethical in that sense of the term. they become glib and superficial. There is an important sense in which the core fixation of enneatype Three is a part of the universal condition of all human beings. rather than for what they have achieved or how they appear. The central deception of the Three however. As they descend into narcissism. The once . Threes get in trouble when they confuse true happiness. is that which the Three engages in by mistaking the image he or she projects. if they do achieve success.” This vice doesn’t necessarily refer to dishonesty in the conventional sense. When Threes are out of touch with themselves. Six and Nine. they lead from the heart. which depends on inner states. The primary types of the Enneagram—Three. they tend to devalue themselves as persons. for the reality of an inner life. They take on leadership roles without any desire to dominate or enforce an abstract ideal. of course. or at least of all who still identify with the ego rather than the essential self. Healthy Threes manage to embody valuable ideal qualities without losing contact with their depths and they inspire and encourage others to live up to their own individual ideals. how poorly anyone really sees them. Threes can sometimes manage to convince themselves that they are happy because they have achieved the external markers of happiness. The attainment of the image never quite satisfies. although some. it is as if they had an inner checklist to determine the extent of their well being: good job—check. Threes can begin to wonder whether they are truly loved for who they are. They are prone to identity crises and are sometimes depressive. how alone they actually feel even in the company of those who treat them with adoration. Threes tend to be large hearted. Their need to be validated for their image often hides a sense of shame and confusion about who they really are. they enjoy the things of the earth and want others to share in them as well. Increasingly cut off from their depths. Elvis Presley is a striking example of this phenomenon. When they become unhealthy however. many Threes hide a sense of meaninglessness. such is their disconnect from their true selves. Threes ignore the inner promptings of their heart which tell them that something vital may well be missing. with the image of happiness that they so easily project. the more likely the Three is to experience psychological disturbances of various kinds. attractive spouse—check. Beneath the façade. The dilemma for Threes is that if they don’t achieve their goals. and the greater the disjunction between the Three’s image and who they feel themselves to really be. They are generous with their time and energy and are willing to help others actualise their potential.” They immerse themselves in activity in order to distract themselves from their growing sense of inner emptiness. they can become cold blooded and ruthless in pursuit of their goals. It is as if they realise how disconnected they are from their grandiose image. how false and phony it all is. beautiful children—check.they achieve overwhelming degrees of fame or fortune. generous and likable. with the images we project rather than the substantial beings we are meant to be or become—virtually all of us that is. do adopt lying as one means of furthering their ambitions.

In addition to the already cited Elvis. Hideki Matsui and Alex Rodriguez… heck. Brian Williams and the recently deceased Peter Jennings. Brad Pitt and Robe Lowe come to mind.optimistic Three becomes cynical and nihilistic. Truman Capote and F. is Condoleezza Rice. . Also. Wilber is far too comfortable with name dropping and self-promotion and having his picture taken to be a Five however. although not Charlton Heston. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Pericles was a Three. Madonna. as well as baseball’s Derek Jeter. they are unable to believe in others. Michael Jordan. Type Exemplars Many leaders have been Threes. they tend to use this ability to further their personal and professional goals. quite versatile and elegant in his presentation. is a clear example of a Three who reinvented himself in midlife when his earlier profession was no long a viable option for him. Diane Sawyer. half of the Yankee Baseball team are Threes. A good case can be made for typing the biblical Moses as a Three. David Bowie is another. suffered emotional crises subsequent to achieving great fame. Threes with a Four wing sometimes attempt to escape its pressure by way of workaholism. former Mr. On the scene more recently. Many famous athletes are Threes: Tiger Woods. who’s an Eight. but also Ben Kingsley and Jennifer Connelly. Also. physicians Mehmet Oz. Shania Twain. both of whom. Scott Fitzgerald were Threes. they intuitively know how to connect with others at an emotional level. Universe. like Elvis. Threes with the Two wing are warmer and more people oriented than those with a Four wing. Ken Wilber is quite a good example of how an intellectual Enneatype Three can be mistyped as a Five. Authors Gail Godwin. Many entertainers have been Threes. Threes with the Four wing tend to focus their energy on projects rather than people. They are generous and expansive and usually have a large number of friends and acquaintances. Consequently. They tend to be more conflicted about matters relating to intimacy than Threes with a Two wing. and Sanjay Gupta. Classic extroverts. Also talk show host Oprah Winfrey. Many actors are threes—Tom Cruise. The introspective energy of the Four wing is difficult for the Three to integrate. Jane Pauley. Andy Warhol was an artist whose work also strikingly demonstrates the type Three concern with the nature of image. Paul McCartney and Sting. as is the overall Yankee persona. Whitney Huston and Jennifer Lopez come to mind. The physicist Brian Greene and the late Carl Sagan are also examples of intellectual Threes. unable to believe in themselves. although they still have a fair amount of social energy. Newscasters are frequently Threes. such are Anderson Cooper. The American presidents George Washington and Bill Clinton were Threes. Deepak Chopra. with Fitzgerald portraying classic Three concerns in his novels.

but Fours are much more introspective and emotionally aware. Threes can detach from their emotions more readily. Threes can mistype as Fours. but Threes are far more self-confident and comfortable with self-promotion than Sixes. especially if the wing is strong. but Threes are far smoother than Eights who often enough adopt a manner reminiscent of a bull in a China shop. even emotionally self-indulgent when unhealthy. Threes and Sevens are both outgoing and talented. . Sixes are more anxious than Threes and are not as optimistic about future prospects as are Threes. and when they are feeling low. although Fives recognise their selfconsciousness and are unlikely to mistype as Threes. Both types can suffer from depression. Threes are more concerned with appearance than Eights who sometimes even delight in confounding others’ expectations. they increasingly detach from their inner states and become less emotionally aware. and both Threes and Eights can be competitive. Threes have an exuberant self-confident belief in their own abilities that doesn’t come naturally to Fives. As indicated above. But Threes are much more comfortable with self-presentation and self-promotion than are Ones who often find these things to be difficult or impossible. Some Eights will even deliberately accentuate their crudeness as if to prove that they are unconcerned with others’ perceptions. Threes unlike Eights. Ones are seldom as acutely aware of the image they are projecting than are Threes. but Threes much less so than Fours. Threes and Twos can mistype. They can much more readily take on a leadership role and tend to be more self-promotional then Fives. Typically. are not concerned with domination as such but only as a means of achieving validation. Threes and Sixes can both be successful and image conscious. it is Threes who mistype or are mistyped as Ones. they tend to consider it a sign of weakness and try to work it off. Jackie Kennedy Onassis is a good example of a Three who is sometimes mistyped as a Four. but Threes generally have an exceptional amount of focus whereas Sevens tend to be scattered. intellectual Threes can mistype as Fives. they have a much harder time putting their emotions on hold to get the job done. but his most central problems centred around his concerns with image. But Threes tend to be more ambitious than the more other regarding Two. and he had difficulties establishing truly authentic intimate relationships because of it. detach from emotions under stress and can be workaholics. are dominating. because of her detachment. Elvis Presley is a Three who is commonly mistyped as a Two because of his generosity and large hearted energy.Fictional examples include Hercules and Odysseus and Star Trek’s Captain Kirk (as well as William Shatner who plays him). especially if the wing is strong. Both traits can be accounted for by recognising the fact that she was a Three. again. Finally. Threes care more about status than Sevens who are far more concerned with enjoyment than are the more serious Threes. Some Threes. As Threes become unhealthy. Possible Mistypes Threes and Ones are both oriented towards an ideal. like Eights. because of her elegance and sometimes even mistyped as a Five. and while Twos can be very competent.

contributes to the Four’s characteristic need to withdraw. who tend to underestimate their own abilities. as Fours feel that they are not only unable to live up to society’s ideal but to their own individual ideals as well. Enneatype Four Type Description People of Enneatype Four construct their identities around their perception of themselves as being somehow unique and fundamentally different from others. To be sure. the inner life can thus become more real than the outer. and functions as the basis for the Four’s attempt to create a persona that properly reflects who they feel they really are. and fears of being somehow deeply flawed or defective. frustration and heightened feelings of self-consciousness. Threes have trouble with authenticity however. and their issues surrounding identity fraught with frustrations.” This style may be. which. In the realm of fantasy. It also necessarily falls short of the Four’s own personal ideal. This dynamic of striving and falling short is at the core of the Four’s sense of shame. they immerse themselves in their own mental landscapes where they are free to cultivate and analyze their feelings. Fours are not content (or even able) to live out the role assigned them by their societies or their families. Threes are much more self-confident than Nines. and inevitably fails to convey the true depths and complexity of the self. There is a paradoxical quality to this whole endeavour. Of all the types. They tend to feel that their outsider status. their own creation. by its nature. delusory. along with the Four’s emotional sensitivity. Fours are the most acutely aware that the persona is a construct—something which has been created and can thus be re-created. their sense of style and their heightened sense of self-consciousness. but all Fours have a sense that their identities are. The Four’s inner landscape is thus complex. Fours compensate for their feelings of inferiority with an equally strong sense of superiority. Fours strive for authenticity. Fours tend to feel a sense of disdain for whatever is ordinary and for the “common” sorts of lives with which most people seem to content themselves. This deep felt sense of being “different from” or “other than” pervades the Four’s sense of self. This sense of perpetually “falling short” contributes to the Four’s sense of inadequacy.” Thus a feeling of being a member of the “true aristocracy” alternates with deep feelings of shame. When Fours withdraw. for instance. for an expression of themselves which is “true. This is indeed the fundamental respect in which Fours are artists. . one of casual elegance (“shabby chic” perhaps).Threes and Nines can be mistaken if the Nine is unusually successful or the Three unusually depressed.” but the image they portray is. it will tend to bear the Four’s own original stamp and will be an expression of the Four’s current sense of self. confer on them a stamp of genuineness and “class. Fours generally construct a persona and project an image which has flair or “style. they selfconsciously search for an expression they feel will be truly authentic. but whichever image is chosen. whereas Nines have difficulty adopting social poses. in some respect. they may or may not be artists in the conventional sense of the term. or it may be more flagrantly counter culture. There is even an enervating quality to the whole psychic drama. Fours are not constrained by the mundane considerations which are the plague of everyday life.

triggers the Four’s struggle for authenticity. As Fours have a well developed emotional intelligence. and. literature or music. while others are more likely to withdraw. and of all the types. expressed this well when he stated: “I am certain of nothing but the holiness of the heart’s affections and the truth of the imagination. love relationships seldom progress smoothly. When Fours are unbalanced however. This. making them often seem somewhat moody or temperamental. can result in states of self-absorption or descents into melancholia or despair. As Fours introspect. Fours are often in search of the perfect lover. but as those in the Four’s life are frequently unaware of the inner chain of connections which has given rise to the Four’s current emotional state. Fours are said to suffer from “envy. looking for who they “really are. no centre for the Four to hold onto. On the high side. Often enough. are non-judgmental (of everything except bad taste) and are unafraid of looking at the dark side of human nature. there tends to be an unpredictable quality to intimate relations with Fours. the envy that Fours experience actually manifests as a longing… a sort of wistful desire that they too be capable of the simpler sorts of happiness that others seem so readily able to achieve. There seems to be no ground. John Keats. in turn. they sometimes try to incorporate those very same qualities into themselves. they are highly sensitive to the emotional states of those they love. They can therefore be highly supportive of friends and lovers. probably have the most complex palette of emotional states. By a process known as introjection. When unbalanced. when they are unbalanced.Fours are primarily emotional by nature. their emotional sensitivity.” they encounter a constantly shifting play of emotional states emanating from a wellspring which seems to have an infinite depth. .” The envy that Fours experience is a fundamental manifestation of the Four’s feeling of defectiveness and tends to be a recurring problem for type Four individuals until such time as they have learned self-acceptance. they tend to interpret reality at least as much in terms of its symbolic content and emotional resonance. In the traditional Enneagram.” Fours are thus emotionally attuned to meaning. someone who will rescue them from their self-absorption. and easily feel misunderstood. the Four’s envy can take a nasty turn as unhealthy Fours tend to project their selfloathing outward.” Fours often idealise qualities they find in others and then come to envy those same qualities. feeling justified in being so because they have been misunderstood. Such insight might find expression in art. and this attention to meaning sometimes gives Fours access to a dimension of reality that others miss. a Four. While Fours are not blind to the “facts” and the supposed “objective” state of affairs. They tend to lash out at the very ones who have been most supportive and who might be trying to help them. but is often enough simply manifested in an idiosyncratic lifestyle which expresses the Four’s own personal vision. feel incapable of restraining themselves. Some Fours act out their emotional states in episodes of high drama. they know how to wound with words. and because they have suffered so terribly. once again. the previously sensitive Four can become spiteful and vindictive. so the Four shifts focus to the level of presentation and persona. At such times. If this causes the Four’s intimates to withdraw. Fours tend to inhabit their emotional states. the Four’s abandonment issues are likely to be triggered. This emotionality feeds the identity issues which are at the core of enneatype Four. which is generally accompanied by an introspective nature. The “true self” cannot be found. but as they have high expectations of lovers. suffer from a sense of shame. as the idealised quality is seen as basically belonging to “the other.

practical and competitive than Fours with a Five wing. Arbus said: “Freaks was a thing I photographed a lot. Healthy Fours retain their emotional sensitivity and receptivity without experiencing either as a source of pain and wounding. with a shame that would not abandon me… I was then already bearing the underground in my soul. are grounded in an identity much deeper than their currently chosen persona or their shifting emotional states. Annie Lenox.” a label he always detested). much that is dark and unsavoury. Mahler. But. It has a fullness and depth to it that is the deepest and truest source of creativity. Also the more classical composers: Beethoven. making it difficult to overcome. I just used to adore them. They actually “fall in love with suffering” as they come to believe that suffering is a sign of their depth of soul. Fours show us our happiness too. Bouts of self-indulgence and even dissolution are not uncommon. covertly. was likewise a Four.resulting in a frantic attempt to re-ignite the relationship. Diane Arbus. fearfully. Her obsession with those whom most consider to be “freaks” demonstrates a typical Fourish interest in whatever exists outside the boundaries of the conventional. by night. At one point he declared in typical Fourish fashion “My debauchery I undertook solitarily. Rather than looking for practical solutions to their difficulties. I still do adore some of them. while still predominantly emotional. They tend to be introspective. It was one of the first things I photographed and it had a terrific kind of excitement for me. The idea of themselves as being melancholic can thus become a part of their idealised self-image. Their happiness is thus devoid of the grasping after pleasure that characterises so much that goes by that name. Fours with a Five wing are more withdrawn and. more likely to be intellectuals who infuse their feelings with ideas. Alanis Morrisette. Fours sometimes masochistically cultivate their negative emotional states. and Tchaikovsky. Fours are prone to fantasising about a saviour who will rescue them from their unhappiness. they are capable of experiencing a sort of happiness that embraces both the light and dark sides of life. Healthier Fours. Chopin. filthily. as were Albert Camus and Fyodor Dostoyevsky. About a collection of photographs aptly entitled Freaks. when healthy. Fours with a Three wing are generally more outgoing. They often have a dramatic flair and tend to be emotionally expressive.” Many singer/songwriters have been Fours. including Bob Dylan (“the voice of his generation. Dostoyevsky’s “underground man” was also a Four… an unhealthy one to be sure. The photographer. It has always been the task of enneatype Four to confront the complexities of the emotional life. I don ’t quite mean . often to the point of selfabsorption. on the other hand. and it is very often Fours who retrieve for us much that would prefer to stay comfortably hidden from consciousness. Prince. This can become a recurring pattern in the life of an unhealthy Four. as unbalanced Fours feel justified in attempting to compensate for the general lack of pleasure that they experience in their lives. Type Exemplars Existential Philosophy is attractive to many Fours and several of the most significant Existentialist writers have been Fours: Søren Kierkegaard who searched for a truth that was “true for him” was a Four. Having learned selfacceptance. much that is disturbing and unsettling.

whereas Ones under stress become increasingly self-denying and emotionally repressed. Marguerite Duras. Fours and Twos can both be emotionally expressive. especially when the wing is strong. Freaks were born with their trauma. Finally. although here. Judy Garland. Lawrence. The principle difference lies in the relationship that each type has to emotional experience. Both Threes and Fours are concerned with image and. Possible Mistypes Fours and Ones are both oriented towards an ideal. D. whereas Fours are likely to want a time out to process their emotions. There’s a quality of legend about freaks. when the wing is strong. like Twos. Marcel Proust. especially those who have artistic inclinations. Actors include: Sarah Bernhardt. Sylvia Plath. William Blake. To name a few: Oscar Wilde. although the One’s ideal generally has a moral torque whereas the Four’s is more aesthetic and personal. Rachel Weisz. William Faulkner. They’ve already passed their test in life. J. Threes however. Both can also have perfectionistic streaks. The principle difference centres around the fact that Twos tend to be focused on others. Most people go through life dreading they’ll have a traumatic experience. and. it is typically Threes who mistype as Four rather than the converse. But Fours tend to be self-absorbed. when stressed. Fours and Fives share many traits in common and can easily be mistyped. Many famous writers have been Fours.D. Kasimir Malevich. Johnny Depp. but it is Twos. The romantic movement was replete with Fours: Percy Bysshe Shelley. Lord Byron and John Keats were all Fours. Threes tend to detach from emotions under stress and to focus on being competent. and Fours. once again.H. and Blanche du Bois. Both types are frequently introspective. can experience neediness under stress. Fours generally know exactly how they are feeling and are generally comfortable dealing with emotional expressions from others. Amadeo Modigliani. Isabel Allende and Anais Nin. Salinger. Famous fictional characters include The Bell Jar’s Esther Greenwood. become self-indulgent and more emotionally expressive.” Famous artists include Gustav Klimt. can mistype. Anna Karenina. and Winona Ryder. Nin’s diary is a captivating portrait of a talented but unhealthy Four caught up in a state of narcissistic self-absorption. who are more likely to mistype as Fours than the converse. They’re aristocrats. intellectually inclined and prone to withdrawal. Jeremy Irons. Frida Kahlo. whereas Fours tend toward self-absorption. Egon Schiele. Edvard Munch and Francisco de Goya. Laurence Olivier.they’re my best friends but they made me feel a mixture of shame and awe. are generally more comfortable with self-presentation and are more likely to achieve “success” in the conventional sense of the term than are the more reclusive and self-conscious Fours. Fours are introspective and tend to magnify their perceived flaws whereas Twos tend to have a self-flattering self-image. Like a person in a fairy tale who stops you and demands that you answer a riddle. Fives. Fours are introspective whereas Threes tend to focus outward. Virginia Woolf. Samuel Taylor Coleridge. on the other hand. tend to detach from direct emotional experience .

They have busy minds. especially if the Six is artistically inclined and individualistic. creative. Enneatype Five Type Description People of enneatype Five defend themselves against a world they experience as intrusive by retreating into the safety of their minds. in affairs of the world. and need to take time to process their emotional response. Most Sixes form interpersonal bonds quite naturally. Sixes frequently suffer from inner conflict but they are not essentially self-absorbed. Sevens are generally far more extroverted than Fours. observant. Fours and Sevens can both be unconventional. and both can be attention seeking. therefore. it is not especially uncommon for Sevens to mistype as Fours. and many famous thinkers have naturally been Fives. while making a living doing something that requires little intellectual energy.under stress. who tend to detach from unpleasant emotions. Fives feel comfortable and at home in the realm of thought. whereas Fours often cultivate their negative mental states. Most Fives have at least a few intellectual interests. While almost the opposite in some respects. . some Fives prefer to keep their theorising to their private lives. which they cultivate with a true passion. to approach reality at some distance and to adopt a stance at some remove from the main action. Fours have a far darker inner mental landscape than do Nines however. Fives also generally display an idiosyncratic view of the world. but Fours with Three wings can present as passionate. Fours require a good deal of time alone and often work on projects which have no practical application. and self-indulgent. often by way of quips or strategically placed oneliners. who are usually very involved with friends and family and. they can confuse their pain with the melancholia of type Four. Fours are more inclined to self-revelation than are Fives. who generally find self-disclosure to be especially taxing. Moreover. and both can be creative and sensitive. Fours tend to feel like misfits who can’t quite find their place. Sevens are in flight from this pain however. Eights are practical people of action. Fives tend. and their attitude of restrained indifference to authorities and to the rules and procedures of the workplace. But not all Fives earn a living directly utilising their minds. Eights however tend to repress from consciousness any feelings of vulnerability whereas Fours are comfortable exploring such emotions. are endlessly curious. fun loving persona that they project to the world and their own often anxious internal mental states. Surprisingly. but sometimes by way of diatribes or verbal dissertations. their focus on competency. It is not common for Fours and Eights to be mistaken for one another. more generally. Nines are conflict avoidant whereas Fours sometimes invite conflict as a means to intensify experience. areas of expertise. It is not uncommon therefore for Fives to be intellectuals in the standard sense of the term. Such Fives can be recognised by their need for privacy. perceptive and frequently intellectually provocative. something which doesn’t come as easily to more reclusive and self-conscious Fours. But Fours are less attuned to the needs and expectations of others than are Sixes. Fours and Nines are both withdrawn types. When they recognise the disparity between the optimistic. Nines tend to relate well to others and to find a niche in their social circle. Fours and Sixes can mistype. This they tend to reveal in bits and pieces. and such behaviour might generate a mistype. expressive and domineering. Finally.

and others in the Five’s life typically find themselves having to take the initiative in this regard. and generally find dealing with “masked people” to be quite tedious. they don’t feel adequately defended against the world. Fives can turn out to be surprisingly supportive as friends and passionate as lovers. Fives typically have few relationships. Perhaps Rilke. and the instincts and the capacity for practical activity remain generally underdeveloped. The challenge for them is to find someone with whom they can form this connection. that is) Fives frequently find a way to slip out the side door when no one is looking. It is that part which Fives reserve for themselves and perhaps share with a very few others. So. Fives tend to be sensitive. Few people know what is going on beneath the surface. Fives often find themselves processing their emotions later. someone with whom they can feel at home. There are many reasons for the emotional restraint characteristic of Fives. a Five himself. they . Part of this stems from the Five ’s eccentricity. Partly. therefore. Fives tend to be non-judgmental of those they love. Trying to bridge the distance can be difficult for Fives. which in turn stems from the fact that Fives spend so much time in the realm of thought.” Fives are usually somewhat restrained when it comes to emotional expression. expressed the ideal form of relationship for a type Five individual: “Once the realisation is accepted that even between the closest human beings infinite distances continue.” Fives often have little capacity for small talk and find most social interactions draining. in the privacy of their rooms. that some part of the Five is not quite present. and can accept others as they are. They tend to truly appreciate those few people with whom they feel a real connection. but the ones they have. Fives are afraid of being emotionally vulnerable. emotion interfuses with thought. Fives sometimes adopt an attitude of careless indifference or intellectual superiority. These tend to feel invasive to Fives. who characteristically withdraw in order to protect their boundaries. without glossing over their imperfections. To compensate for their sensitivity. tend to have substance. more than anyone else. Fives are frequently uncomfortable in the social realm. Those Fives who are interested in forming relationships want to relate to the person behind the mask. if they succeed in loving the distance between them which makes it possible for each to see the other whole against the sky. For most Fives. become socially isolated and sometimes suffer from loneliness. Fives trust their own minds and feel little need to adjust their beliefs to accommodate the opinions of the majority. if only on an intuitive level. it is a function of the Five ’s tendency to “detach. but often have stronger feelings than they let on. all Fives utilise or over-utilise their intellects as their chief means of negotiating life. When the distance is bridged however. a wonderful living side by side can grow. They tend to have permeable ego boundaries and often sense the unspoken thoughts and unexpressed feelings of those in their environments. Fives can.” all of them share certain basic markers. In particular.” Fives often experience a sort of separation between themselves and their emotions. The social problem for Fives revolves around the fact that they find it difficult to reach out to others even when they very much want to form a connection. The general formula for understanding type Five individuals is to recognise that their intellects take the lead. while it is true that not all Fives are “intellectuals. Partly. too. opinions that Fives often feel are shallow or “stupid. it is their most primitive defence. as they are not based on superficial qualities. which generally has the unfortunate consequence of creating further distance between themselves and others.Others in the Five’s life often recognise. a great deal is kept in reserve. When required to socialise with those they find uninteresting (most people.

Fives tend to be drawn to frankly nihilistic explanations of the world or to reductionist explanations. in all its infinite and truly irreducible complexity.”) Because of their sensitivity and their often exaggerated fears of inadequacy. They sometimes deal with this by developing a minimalistic lifestyle in which they make few demands on others in exchange for others making few demands on them. Words and overt expressions of emotion almost feel “too much. In the classic Enneagram. This frequently exacerbates the Five’s feelings of alienation and adds to their sense that human relationships are somehow essentially flawed. There are many Fives who have accumulated a vast wealth of knowledge. And there are many more Fives who only share their knowledge. They cease to fear being overwhelmed by the . a classic type Five. In an expression of extreme and unbalanced intellectual arrogance. Fives are believed to embody the vice of “avarice. (Jean-Paul Sartre. make an uneasy peace with the messiness of life and engage it more fully. Fives engage life from a stance of fear. to form relationships and to make meaningful intellectual and personal contributions. so to speak. And.) When unhealthy. to a mere system of thought. in this way. or a desire for more and more of what the world has to offer (more characteristic of type Seven). As they become more and more ungrounded. either by the demands of others or by the strength of their own emotions. finally. As Five’s fear being intruded upon themselves. considered human relationships to be that from which one could neither escape nor find true satisfaction. their characteristic “gold” never benefits the world from which Fives typically feel so alienated. provocative and cynical. who never truly share the depth or uniqueness of their being even in the context of their closest personal relationships. and even misanthropic. they tend to expect the same in return. and the human beings who inhabit it. as Fives can generally sense what is going on beneath the surface with others. Their fear gets in the way. there was thus “no exit. Fives attempt to reduce reality. They become increasingly alienated. although this fear is not always conscious or obvious. for instance. from emotional involvement and sometimes from life itself.” Clearly.lack a certain resilience in this regard and have a pervasive sense of distrust when it comes to expressing themselves to others.” Naturally. the tendency to filter experience through the lens of a favoured theoretical framework is given free rein. Fives tend to withhold themselves from others. who “just don’t understand. Fives in the grip of this process become increasingly argumentative.” Fives are also afraid of being intrusive. but they almost always retain a deeply embedded fear that life is somehow going to demand more of them than they can deliver. they likewise fear intruding on others. Fives essentially fear being overwhelmed. (Nihilism without the Angst. Healthy Fives on the other hand find a way to enter life. their thought systems take on a darker and darker tinge. this is a technical use of the term as Fives are seldom materialistic. however. reductionism being a thinly veiled form of nihilism. Fives don’t tend to think of themselves as being unemotional and are often surprised when they realise just what a disjunction there is between their own perception of themselves and the perceptions that others have of them. this dynamic often leads to misunderstandings. and the sphere of intimate relationships is not usually the most smooth running aspect of a Five’s life. to little more than feverish figments of their own over wrought imaginations. it refers to the tendency to withhold. Rather than referring to a grasping tendency. They cut themselves off from the world and from human involvement. Many Fives. which they never share with anyone. Unhealthy Fives become overly enamoured of their own systems of thought.

science or business. Freud and Marx. The Year of Magical Thinking.world and are thus able to engage it more fully. . Schopenhauer. Rilke. Fives are generally willing to break with established systems of thought if their own investigations lead in that direction. Dickinson. recently Joan Didion. Some famous Fives have been creative writers and artists. Sontag and. Fictional examples include Merlin the magician. Hegel. In this regard. Star Trek’s Data. and Bill Gates. Thus. Elliot. House’s Dr House and both Brenda and George from Six Feet Under. or more than a few as the case may be. Writers include Kafka. the X Files’ Fox Mulder. than math. the latter commonly being typed as a Four. Burroughs. Descartes. and he sadly succumbed to nihilism in the end. whose recent autobiographical memoir. Fives with a Six wing are often systematic thinkers who are drawn to more analytic disciplines than those with a Four wing. Revenge of the nerds. Scientific revolutions were likewise inaugurated by the theories of Newton and Einstein. Laurie Anderson. Joyce. from which thought itself might rescue him—so. Sartre and de Beauvoir—to name a few. Type Exemplars Many famous philosophers have been Fives: Aristotle. And they generally have an extra layer of detachment to their personality as compared to those with a Four wing. (but not Spock who was a One). Sinead O’Connor and Kurt Cobain. both Fives. Dostoevsky’s Ivan Karamazov. a Five. Nietzsche and more recently. The Buddha is frequently typed as a Five. but he was uncomfortable expressing himself emotionally except through his art. serves as a revealing portrait of how a Five deals with her experience of grief. Fives with a Four wing tend to be somewhat more emotionally centred than those with a Six wing and also tend to be more drawn to the arts and humanities. Fives are often drawn to film directing: consider Tim Burton. John Lennon. Thom Yorke. Fives with a Four wing tend to be attuned to the aesthetics of their environment and to meaning and metaphor as much as to fact and function. not a Four. They cease to fear being overwhelmed by the strength of their own emotions and therefore develop the capacity to give and receive love. Leibniz. he considered his malady to be primarily a derangement of thought. Wes Anderson and Stanley Kubrick. although this is hardly a rigid rule. so to speak. is a case in point. Singer/songwriters include Trent Reznor. their thought systems are sometimes revolutionary. They are also more likely to be able to work within a system or to find a place for themselves in the world of business. The computer age is often conducive to the peculiar talents of Fives. consider Darwin. Beckett. academia and law than are the more impractical Four wingers. certainly his emphasis on withdrawal from the world and redemption through understanding are reminiscent of Fivish concerns. Valery. Wittgenstein. He can be distinguished from a Four however by his profoundly schizoid tendencies. Cobain is sometimes also mistyped as a Four. Artists include Georgia O’Keefe and Vincent van Gogh. Among other things.

Fours to welcome it. however. Nevertheless. sometimes mistype as Fours. are much more focused on action and are generally more comfortable taking on leadership roles than are most Fives. always retain some degree of discomfort when it comes to the experience and expression of their emotional states.O. personally idiosyncratic. an Eight. Ones are also generally more judgmental of what they perceive to be rule violations or moral lapses than are Fives who tend to adopt more of a “live and let live” attitude when it comes to the petty vices. Fives tend to be conflict avoidant. Wilson. even social Fives. In general. Fives tend to fear emotional overwhelm. especially in their areas of expertise and Eights can be intellectual and more self-restrained than type descriptions would indicate. although he is as certain of his ideas as is the more assertive Pinker. The sociobiologist Steven Pinker is an example of this. whereas . Fives and Twos are quite different and should not be mistyped. and are comfortable with intimacy. optimistic. In addition. But contrast his open. is detachment. and Fives. Socrates. Fives can be self-confident. And while Fives can become scattered and even manic under stress. But. is frequently mistyped as a Five. especially with the Four wing. In particular. but occasionally an intellectual Two can confuse the need to take care of others with the independence characteristic of Fives. so a mistype is possible. is self-effacing and almost shy in person. are primarily introverted. Fours and Fives can easily be mistyped by others. Fives. So. while the two types are quite different in many respects. Sixes tend to be more grounded than Fives however and usually form bonds with their fellow humans more readily than do Fives. Sevens really are true extraverts (whether they recognise this or not) whereas Fives. they sometimes mistype or are mistyped by others as Fives. and emotionally sensitive than Threes. has been mistyped as an Eight. a Five. Intellectual Threes can sometimes mistype or be mistyped as Fives. not so much. Ones. Wilson (his fellow sociobiologist at Harvard University) in order to recognise the difference. As Sixes are often intellectual. after all. Sixes have a much more immediate relationship to their emotions than do Fives whose primary defence. Sevens can be cerebral and frequently underestimate the extent of their extroversion and their need for external stimulation. a mistype is possible. This is especially likely to occur if the wing is strong. for instance. Fives can be intense and can experience manic states. Threes are more self-confident. and Nietzsche. unlike Fours. the reverse almost never occurs. it is the Seven who might mistype as a Five. Twos are emotionally expressive however. a Five. Sevens are much more open to experience of all sorts than are Fives who become easily depleted by too much stimulation. self-promoting style with that of E. reclusive. Fives tend to be more intellectually innovative. But Socrates impressed others as much by his powerful presence as by his intellect.Possible Mistypes Fives and Ones are easy to mistype as both are focused on competency and tend to detach from emotions under stress. the overall pattern of their life reveals that this is more the exception than the rule. expansive. Such Fives recognise that they have strong emotions and don’t identify with the often extremely cerebral portrait of type Five. image-conscious and socially competent than are Fives. Ones. whereas Fives are prone to withdrawal and emotional withholding.

But Nines are generally attracted to thought systems which offer some sense of comfort and harmony. and the legitimate exercise of authority versus the abuse and misuse of power.” they can quiet their restlessness. and will assume different proportions in different individuals. The mistype between Fives and Nines is a common mistype. in general. as though there existed nothing. Thus.the very sensitive Nietzsche frequently had a hard enough time getting out of bed. especially children. More noticeably. but they respond to them in quite a wide variety of ways. grounded physical presence. Given this essential dynamic. or to their friends or causes. Socrates had no difficulty negotiating physical reality. Feeling . Enneatype Six Type Description People of enneatype Six are essentially insecure. Sixes are looking for something in which to believe or someone in whom they can place their trust. trust and distrust. or are mistyped by others. But the Six’s tendency towards distrust and suspicion works against any sort of faith in authority and often even presents as antiauthoritarianism. and achieve some semblance of much needed “peace of mind. as though life has never quite provided them with a proper footing. there is usually some tentativeness to a Five’s physical presence—some part of them is not quite there. either internally or externally. which could serve as a solid foundation.” This desire for some solidity. as Fives. this is hardly ever the case with Fives. All Sixes share these core issues. Nines tend to relate to a wide variety of people easily and comfortably. tend to form strong personal bonds. Nines are far less likely to display intellectual arrogance than are Fives who often think that most people are intellectually rather dim. making type Six the most complicated and variegated of all the enneatypes and the most difficult by far to describe with specificity. Sixes are essentially thinking types and tend to utilise their minds in their attempt to find a solid foundation. These tend to root themselves in more personal loyalties—loyalties to family. In particular. on the other hand. so there are some real commonalities. and a deep seated desire to find something or someone stable enough in which to place some trust. whether it be in the form of an individual or a creed. an essential disquietude. two opposite pulls exist side by side in the personality of enneatype Six. At a level which barely reaches consciousness. and there exists at the core of enneatype Six a tight knot of anxiety. is often very susceptible to the temptation to turn authority over to an external source. One of the more appealing aspects of the type Six personality is the trueness they can show to those they love. gives rise to a complicated relationship to those they view as authorities. Both Nines and Fives are withdrawn types and many Nines are intellectual. The side of the Six which is looking for something to believe in. it is not surprising therefore to find that Sixes have core issues centring around the contrast between faith and scepticism. Fives. In contrast. Some Sixes never find a system or an authority which satisfies their questioning nature. it is generally Nines who mistype. Eights are comfortable in the world and have an expansive. combined with their general suspiciousness. are frequently attracted to what disturbs them. Nietzsche’s daytime experience was interfused with images emanating from his subconscious. frequently alternating in the same individual. The type Six fixation is therefore deeply and fundamentally existential. Sixes. Sixes feel that if they can find “one sure thing.

As they are being driven by their own inner uncertainty. They ferret out the potential danger in a situation. are then. this internal dynamic is projected outwards. others in the Six’s life might well experience the Six as being unnecessarily negative. the tendency to look for problems can lead to unnecessary worrying. they tend to be unaware that they are behaving in an aggressive fashion and alienating those whom they might well like to befriend. The doubting nature of type Six can be turned to good stead when the Six uses it to discover what is wrong or missing. but they are all manifestations of the same underlying uncertainty. They often have an almost “sixth” sense in this regard. elemental concerns which confront all human beings. prone to questioning and challenging the motives and beliefs of those around them. It is therefore not accurate to describe Sixes as loyalists. Once again.” In general. rather they have a complex of energy concentrated around and centred on loyalty dynamics. Many Sixes are naturally prone to doubt and self-questioning. gifted debaters. also want to find something or someone in which to place their trust. Sixes who adopt this approach are frequently perplexed by the amount of animosity they arouse. and Sixes are notorious for adopting the position of the “devil’s advocate. In some Sixes. thus. this vigilance is essentially a defensive manoeuvre. and they want to know what lies beneath. is determined by the extent to which the Six overcomes fear or succumbs to it. They are far harder on themselves. Sixes tend to be very aware of the reactivity of others and considerably less so of their own. they reason. These various strategies of coping with the core issues of type Six are obviously quite different in their presentation. they find some comfort in being true to others. like everything else with enneatype Six. Sixes frequently have the capacity to detect what is hidden. Sometimes this strategy succeeds in forcing the Six’s interlocutor to clarify his or her position or to seek common ground with the Six. and an unbalanced Six can lash out at those who trigger their insecurities with stunning and seemingly irrational acts of disloyalty. or the stalwart players who form the defensive line. In addition. in extreme cases.” Many Sixes are. Issues surrounding loyalty are. The issues which confront type Six. in being steadfast. paranoid ideation. It is the fate of enneatype Six to be forced to address these issues most centrally. they can arm themselves against them. they intuitively seek the weakness in an argument or the flaws covered by the pleasing exterior. however. On the down side. Sixes rightly suspect that there is more going on in any given situation than what is presented on the surface. so they fail to understand why others are “overreacting. Other times however. Sixes tend to feel that if they are aware of all the inherent dangers in a situation. Thus a pattern which is essentially defensive from the point of view of the Six. after all. fraught with contradictions.essentially unsure themselves. The integrity with which this is done. It is the intensity of the energy with which the Six confronts these issues which differentiates type Six from other types who. in some fundamental respect. . it only serves to turn the Six’s interlocutor into an opponent who feels justified in responding aggressively to what they understandably perceive as an attack. is often perceived as an assault by those on the receiving end. the Six will experience many needless hours of misery. This means that Sixes are typically good trouble shooters. If this tendency to focus on what might go wrong is left unchecked. catastrophising or. something in which to believe. Sixes can show real perseverance when it comes to their personal relationships and they can give of themselves selflessly—without expectation of reward and with little need of special recognition.

who wants it. It is not so much that all Sixes are politically motivated. union organisers.” They thereby strive to avoid triggering aggression in others. They sense who has power. Some Sixes adopt a basically phobic approach. especially those in which there is a perceived imbalance of power which disfavours the Six. as. For counter-phobic Sixes.Sixes are attuned to power relations and to underlying power dynamics. in response to the illegitimate or insensitive exercise of authority. perhaps. both are driven by fear or anxiety. It refers to a difference in overt behaviour. Counter-phobic Sixes can be aggressive. As power abuse against children is almost universal. Most Sixes. some phobic Sixes are also unaware of their underlying anxiety. Counter-phobia is thus a permutation on phobia. until such point as the Six achieves liberation. This approach sometimes succeeds in obscuring from the counter-phobic Six’s line of vision the fear which is actually at the root of their behaviour. Because anxiety serves as the backdrop to all their emotional states. have a preferred or dominant approach which colours all of their dealings with the world and which is generally readily recognizable to others. depending on the amount of stress they are experiencing. however. they often take decisive positions when it comes to social issues or causes. an anxiety which is often readily apparent to others. They strive to avoid undue attention and to defuse tension by appearing to be “harmless. that while the phobic and counter-phobic approach seem diametrically opposed. Something of the unfairly punishing authority tends to stay with Sixes long after they have moved into adulthood and serves to colour all of their subsequent intimate relationships. it is the rare Six who isn’t forced to confront core issues head on at a very vulnerable age. Phobic Sixes are generally compliant. they often identify with the underdog and can even devote themselves to the cause of redressing what they see as injuries done to those without power. It is important to note. These Sixes are. as Sixes do tend to be oriented to power dynamics. so they adopt an oppositional attitude and throw themselves into action. the rule to remember in this regard is that the inner core of all Sixes is phobic. Sixes are quite sensitive as children and can be seriously wounded by abuses of power visited against them by their parents or teachers. There are many Sixes who adopt neither an exclusively phobic nor counter-phobic approach. the inner tension of living with their anxiety is greater than the fear of any external threat they might be facing. or perhaps even those who defend the rights of the unborn. so to speak. Other Sixes adopt the opposite strategy of dealing with anxieties and become counter-phobic. As they easily tend to feel like victims themselves. This is the Six who takes on authority or who adopts a dare devil attitude towards physical danger. that Sixes adopt their fundamental strategy for dealing with their underlying anxieties and for handling imbalanced power relationships. It is typically at a quite young age then. however. but. Sixes can be found on all ends of the political spectrum. Such Sixes switch modes. and frequently adopt a rebellious or anti-authoritarian demeanour. Consequently. but its root cause is nevertheless one of fear. essentially taking a defiant stand against whomever or whatever they find threatening. and they are often the ones who sense an imbalance or injustice where others simply see the status quo. who will misuse it. some Sixes are unaware of its existence. who will use it. counter-phobic Sixes frequently deny being anxious. sometimes a very striking difference indeed. as they have nothing with which to contrast it. . affiliative and cooperative. Interestingly. or feminists. Such Sixes are often unaware of the fear which motivates their actions. like all the types.

while projecting their own unacknowledged shadow onto those with whom they disagree. live a life of integrity. but not the theory behind the enneagram. Fear is always of something definite. but Sixes experience it at the very core of their consciousness. Kierkegaard defines anxiety as the “dizziness of freedom” and describes it as the underlying. Up to this point. it’s necessary to have a more precise grasp of key terms. a true “hero’s journey. which often enough are simply place holders in the consciousness of the type Six personality. universal condition of human existence. and. not any of the more immediate fears. In order to get a better grip on this. of some danger which requires our attention. according to common usage. many of the behaviours of counter-phobic Sixes would be considered courageous. but potentially manageable thing. however. it’s important to refine our understanding. Some of these settle for a simulacra of true courage and attempt to find peace of mind by convincing themselves of the truth of some contrived system of belief. As with all of the vices and virtues associated with the enneatypes. They may harbour fears and anxieties but nevertheless manifest courage by refusing to succumb to them. the vice is that of cowardice and the corresponding virtue that of courage. is a truly existential emotion and in order to better understand it. Anxiety is then. and thus attaches to all of the fixations. like the journeys of all the enneatypes. Then there are those Sixes who choose to over identify with the role of “rebel” and adopt a defiant and oppositional stand against whatever exists. It is as though the Six feels their anxiety bubbling up to the centre of consciousness and then scans the environment for something external to fear.In the traditional enneagram. not fear of any one thing. the vice and virtue of the Six must be understood as being distinct from what is commonly understood by those terms. And it is this most basic and fundamental emotion which must be dealt with directly and defeated if the Six is to achieve true liberation.” Many Sixes succumb to their anxieties and fears. but of the very condition of being conscious and of having to make choices in a world which does not make its meaning or goals transparent to us and which frequently enough seems inimicable to human aspirations and to human existence. insofar as they refuse the easy answer and do not give way to the reactive . According to A. the type Six personality most directly experiences and suffers from a loss of “basic trust” in the goodness of the universe. To this end they might surround themselves by a chorus of voices from like-minded others. the passion of the Six is fear. Anxiety. which often enough succeeds in sowing little more than negativity. Other Sixes however. This loss of basic trust is the very condition of fallen existence. Many Sixes are no more cowardly than individuals of other types when we consider the term according to its common usage. From an external perspective they well may seem unexceptional. we have been using the terms “anxiety” and “fear” more or less interchangeably. all pervasive. It is this more fundamental emotion which most directly characterises the core emotional state of type Six. Almaas. this feared. It is that which triggers our primal “fight or flight” response. It is. but at this juncture. Fear is the natural and often useful response which we experience in the face of some external threat. can then occupy the Six’s attention and avert it from that nameless horror that they sense might exist at the very heart of human existence. but. H. it is perhaps helpful to turn to the existential philosophers who made a point of studying anxiety in all its forms and all its manifestations.

Such Sixes develop a kind of strength to which others instinctively turn in times of difficulty. There are also some few Sixes who achieve a true liberation. a horrible fear of my own existence. but only as a very general rule. Type Exemplars The biblical Eve is an enneatype Six. but was largely a gifted bullshitter who managed to falsely convince others of his advanced state of enlightenment. Krishnamurti argued. They are often drawn to systems of thought. Ouspensky. they can master externals as well. and I became a mass of quivering fear. as evidenced by his name. They can be counted on to follow through and to demonstrate leadership when a real danger threatens as they have successfully conquered so many imaginary ones. we inwardly accept the authority.) The New Testament’s “Doubting Thomas” is also a classic type Six personality.response. They can be counted on.” And that “the primary cause of disorder in ourselves is the seeking of reality promised by another … It is a most extraordinary thing that although most of us are opposed to political tyranny and dictatorship. both of whom broke with teachers whom they found restrictive. Sixes with a Seven wing tend to be somewhat more amiable and adventurous. We owe most of what we know of Gurdjieff’s teachings to Ouspensky. (The Six/One dynamic tends to be contentious like that. (Issues of authority and false authority tend to be a central significance in the life of those who are born as enneatype Six. A liberated Six has a kind of human heartedness which is truly inspirational. of another to twist our minds and our way of life. just as it came out of the darkness. political or philosophical which help them explain their experiences and which provide them with a framework which confers on them some semblance of control and prediction. a One because his commandments seemed arbitrary and his authority over her was assumed rather than earned.” Carlos Castaneda was also a Six. a subtle greatness which is thinly disguised by their modesty. but they are somewhat less capable of focus than are Sixes with a Five wing. Sixes with the Five wing generally tend more towards introversion than do those with a Seven wing. Krishnamurti and P. After this the universe . the tyranny. He had a good deal of insight. but to be yourself all the time. generally more optimistic overall. Two which stand out in this regard are J. she defied God the Father.) The American philosopher William James was also an enneatype Six who recorded a life altering experience which aptly illustrates how he experienced bringing the central concerns of his fixation to the forefront of consciousness: “I went one evening into a dressing room in the twilight to procure some article that was there. They characteristically withdraw under stress and typically have a few trusted friends to whom they can turn in times of trouble. Many renowned thinkers have been Sixes.D. They tend to look outside themselves for the means of assuaging their anxiety and thus often have a more extroverted nature than do those with a Five wing. They rise to the occasion. among other things that “the function of education is to help you from childhood not to imitate anybody. They tend to have multiple hobbies and interests. they demonstrate a quiet victory over their inner demons. when suddenly there fell upon me without any warning. whether religious.. Having developed some degree of self-mastery. These Sixes almost invariably manifest a feeling of solidarity with their kinfolk—and they consider virtually everyone to be kin.It was as though something hitherto solid within my breast gave way entirely.

Twos. Diane Keaton. recently elected to be senator for the state of Minnesota. Gloria Steinem. Ones also tend to find it easier to repress their emotional responses under pressure. Diane Keaton. and Spike Lee. George Orwell was likewise a Six whose literary work reflects his concern with overt and covert misuses of power. and with a sense of the insecurity of life that I never knew before and that I have never felt since. Bruce Springsteen and Woody Guthrie. so unconscious of that pit of insecurity beneath the surface of life. I remember wondering how other people could live. and even when in a position of power. Sixes and Twos are easy to mistype. a part once performed by Mel Gibson. Other Sixes include Carrie White from Carrie and Luke from “Cool Hand Luke. Musicians include Neil Young. Robert Kennedy and his son. Maureen Dowd. who also displays a type Six focus. Talk show hosts Johnny Carson and David Letterman are likewise Sixes. Che Guevara. Richard Nixon. often question whether they are up to the task at hand. they tend to be drawn to politics and to political theorising. Twos tend to be self-assured. or be mistaken by others. yet another type Six. Fictional examples include Norma Rae. even very competent Sixes.. likewise played by a type Six actor. Sixes tend to be more affiliative than Ones however. Richard Wright and Charles Bukowski. ” Ones. Columnist Christopher Hitchens is a Six. Annie Hall. as well as Sally Field who plays her part. and in this respect can mistake themselves. In general. and Hamlet. Sixes suffer from self-doubt. Marilyn Monroe. as Ones. Sixes. Malcolm X and feminist thinkers Andrea Dworkin. It was like a revelation… for months I was unable to go out into the dark alone. Tom Hanks. Mel Gibson. how I myself had lived. In general I dreaded to be left alone. especially female Sixes are commonly mistype as Twos.” As Sixes are interested in power dynamics. Jack Lemmon. Jane Fonda and Hugh Grant. often rule by establishing consensus or by personally converting others to “the cause. than do Sixes who tend to find themselves struggling with anxiety. is also a Six.was changed for me altogether. Robert Kennedy Jr. And Al Franken. . even those who are less than competent. Also. the serious funny man.” Possible Mistypes Some Sixes become perfectionistic and somewhat rigid. are likely to appeal to abstract ideals and are less comfortable in general with forming alliances. He tends to be critical of whomever is in power. and yours as well. Consider in this regard Friedrich Engels. but with a mostly counter-phobic presentation. Lou Reed. I woke morning after morning with a horrible dread at the pit of my stomach. on the other hand. Betty Friedan and Mary Daly. tend to be sure that they can solve their problems. Paul Krugman as well. Aldous Huxley. columnist for the New York Times. John Cusack. Famous directors include Woody Allen who typically acts out archetypal phobic Six concerns in his films. causing each side to mistakenly assume that he is on their side. Some Ones likewise suffer from anxiety and are prone to worry. Julia Roberts. Famous actors include Rod Serling. But Sixes tend to suffer much more from ambivalence than do Twos who tend to know exactly how they feel and what they want.

Sixes seldom have a problem meeting their responsibilities whereas the converse is often true for Sevens. and Sixes. Sixes and Sevens can mistype if the wing is strong and the Six particularly lively or the Seven especially aware of inner anxiety. and Nines sometimes do. especially if the wing is strong and the Six is intellectual. as a Four. moreover. their lives unconstrained. Sixes. or are mistyped by others as Five. They always want more. or to the lethargy of a dull. They aren’t as smooth as Threes in this regard or nearly as self-confident. whereas Sixes tend to be guarded in this respect. Sevens are determined not to allow their lives to succumb to boredom or inertia. Also. It is typically Sixes who mistype. but there is always an element of self-consciousness that attaches to efforts at self-promotion on the part of Sixes. Sevens want more than that. and counter-phobia in Sixes can mimic the iconoclasm common in type Five. tend to relate far better than Fives do to whomever is a part of their social scene. Counter-phobic Sixes can resemble Eights. tend to find it easier to find a niche than do the more idiosyncratic Fives. Sixes tend to think that Nines have “buried their heads in the sand. Both types can be emotionally complex and suffer from ambivalence. are not concerned primarily with being authentic because they are far less image oriented than are Fours. although generally it is the Six who mistypes. Usually the Six’s inner doubt. Sixes are more likely to look for and find practical applications to theory than do Fives who are often uninterested in such considerations. Eights are more grounded than counter-phobic Sixes. Enneatype Seven Type Description People of enneatype Seven are essentially concerned that their options remain open. . rather than the reverse. In general. are not essentially selfabsorbed. do not habitually detach under pressure. This is especially true if the Six is creative and prone to depression. unlike Fours. pedestrian existence. they automatically consider the positions and feelings of others. Sixes and Fives can quite readily mistype. counter-phobic Sixes are more volatile and less predictable than Eights. the conter-phobic presentation therefore differs from the more strategic aggression of type Eight. Sixes. anxiety and reactivity will betray itself however. however. or is mistyped by others. unlike Fives. sometimes in an exaggerated fashion. Threes tend to be optimistic about their future prospects.” This is the opposite orientation to the Six who is prone to suspicion of others’ motives and tends to worry about the future. But Sevens tend to be optimistic about their future prospects. Both types can be drawn to systems of thought. Sixes are prone to self-doubt. especially as Sixes do not always appear to be anxious. pessimistic even. Sixes and Nines are a common mistype. and their ability to find happiness unfettered by what they see as the largely petty concerns which seem to consume most people.Sixes can become image conscious and at such times can resemble Threes. Sixes. Sixes and Fours can mistype. Nines tend to be trusting however. as a general rule. in general. and often believe that somehow “everything will work out. both types can be quite aggressive and even dominating. But Sixes.” Nines tend to think that Sixes should mellow out. Finally.

Sevens are future oriented.” which bestseller is really worth reading. exciting ideas. optimism entails the suspension of criticality and blaming…” In some key respects. they seek their distraction in the external world and generally excel at multi-tasking and adventure seeking. The Seven’s enthusiasm can prove contagious. and Sevens. Insofar as the Seven is relating to an idealisation of the partner. the idealisation process can serve to distract the Seven from the reality of the situation and to undermine true intimacy in personal relationships. They tend to be multi-talented. Sevens are enthusiasts who enjoy the pleasures of the senses and who don’t believe in any form of self denial. For this reason. the real person remains unseen and the Seven essentially disengaged. inspirational even. like Fives and Sixes. restless people who are generally convinced that something better is just around the corner. Sevens have the gift of sensing the potential in a situation. Sevens frequently know who the cool people are. To escape this feeling of constraint. They like to fantasise and conceptualise. As Sevens are essentially afraid of being overpowered by negative states of mind. but as soon as they attempt to work through the fine details of their ideas or plans. of seeing the ideal in the actual. Naranjo says: “It is possible to say that the optimistic attitude of type VII and the joyful mood that is habitual to them would not be possible without the operation of idealisation in regard to the world in general and the more significant people in it. creative. These strategies are primarily mental. In relationship with others as in connection with oneself. makes experience feel more real to Sevens. Youthful. open minded and resilient people who do their best to appreciate their lives. Here again. the idealisation process can prove beneficial. the mental nature of the type Seven fixation manifests itself. insouciant and facile. Sevens are the most energetic and active of the enneatypes. they typically also have a high opinion of themselves and their talents. On the downside. Given such an ebullient description. About this feature of enneatype Seven. are fixated in the mental centre. paradoxically. and are especially fond of collecting those they find unusual. Their exuberance and self-confidence can carry them . they tend to feel constrained. entertaining or stimulating. Sevens tend to focus on their strengths and virtues and to downplay their flaws and vices. to change jobs on a whim and to experiment with alternative lifestyles. One of the reasons that Sevens do this is that it serves to juice up their experience. They sense that the walls are always just about to close in. But such is the case. generally know lots of people. which new musical group is the “next great band. There is a sort of existential claustrophobia at the heart of enneatype Seven. Immersion in what the world has to offer frequently serves to refine the palate. and Sevens don’t like to settle for second rate distractions. They are willing to pick up and move at a moment’s notice. They are quick thinkers who have a great deal of energy and who make lots of plans. They tend towards extroversion. as others might very well be motivated to attempt to bring the actual situation closer to the ideal that the Seven is able to envisage. Sevens also tend to be impulsive. Just as Sevens tend to adopt an idealised version of those who are important to them. They therefore develop strategies for escape. They can frequently be counted on to bring energy and excitement to situations which have begun to grow stale. what the best restaurant is. Idealisation. original thoughts and unusual attitudes. Sevens are full of plans for the future. it might be difficult to appreciate the fact that Sevens are essentially fear types who are in flight from pain. always striving to remain one step ahead of their inner demons. They look outside themselves for their means of escape. Sevens push forward into action.

and as they tend to search for escape externally. something very close to the core of the type Seven fixation. a natural aptitude and quick grasp of the basics. As Sevens don’t want to confront their own darker emotions. They are counterproductive. of course. energy and future orientation. to bring more pain than pleasure. But. in general. Once again. Sevens can simply be immature. irresponsible and willful. as though life owes something to them. Sevens. and triggers the deepest defences of the type Seven fixation. there is always the danger with Sevens. As Sevens have a compulsive need to avoid pain. that one addiction will simply be replaced by another. the same compulsive need which gave rise to the addiction in the first place. is not the same thing as true expertise. The essential nature of addiction involves the drive to find solace and a sense of well being in a source external to the self. who are generally immune to society’s messages that sexuality is shameful. as “upbeat” as they generally are. nurture them. and Sevens more than most. should be dealt with by lesser mortals who don’t find responsibility so cumbersome. just like anyone else. Sevens are prone to addictions of all sorts. Human beings in general. they can generally convince others as well. Part of this can be accounted for by their open mindedness. are the most talented of the enneatypes. Paradoxically. Sevens tend to be rational and generally come to realise this. and many Sevens seem younger than their age. the more likely they are to erupt into consciousness in the form of an anxiety disorder or a severe manic or depressive episode. gambling. Unhealthy Sevens even make a virtue of their irresponsibility. they will remain . They tend to feel as though they somehow deserve more than others. of course. Less balanced Sevens can be petulant when they don’t get their way. drugs. They can usually do better than most. but unless they focus on their talents. Sevens.some real distance. in general. Sevens are noted for their youthfulness. and Sevens tend to have strong powers of will. can form addictions to many different things—shopping. do experience sadness and melancholy. combined with an engaging presentation. without even trying. such as paying the bills. in the long run. All of this is compounded by the fact that. convincing themselves that it is a sign of their innate superiority. commit to them. Childlikeness can give way to childishness. such Sevens believe. Having convinced themselves that they are really more accomplished than they are. But. Sevens actually are people of high ability—smart and personable. (Sexual adventurousness comes naturally to most Sevens. foster them. can serve the Seven in good stead when it comes time to break it. or even to a particular sexual partner or to sexual adventures in general. and goes some way towards indicating why Ichazo used the term “charlatan” as the name for the fixation of enneatype Seven. This often leads to charges of insensitivity being levelled against the Seven. The more that Sevens flee from negative emotions. Acknowledging the pain in others forces the Seven to confront the pain within. which manifests in an unfounded feeling of entitlement. Even somewhat more balanced Sevens are often a bit selfcentred.) The problem with this. The mundane details of life. and one of the frequent sources of sadness for Sevens is the frustration they experience as they come to realise how many opportunities for true self-development they have squandered by moving on to the next cool thing. until the underlying compulsion to avoid pain is addressed. The Seven’s degree of health is directly proportional to their capacity to stay with their own pain and to acknowledge and accept the pain in others. On the down side. and open mindedness and tolerance to self-indulgence and lack of discrimination. is that addictions tend. they can find it difficult to see others in their totality. they often find it difficult to acknowledge the pain that others experience.

Sevens with an Eight wing are more success oriented. It’s a very serious disease and it interferes completely with the work. They can be overbearing in the pursuit of their desires and are generally more aggressive and competitive than those with a Six wing. there tends to be a more obviously manic quality to Sevens with the Six wing. If the Seven can use these feelings of sadness and frustration as spurs to self-development. . If not. Actualised Sevens become substantial. suggests that true happiness is realised by commitment. to more pain. without losing the essential fluidity of the soul.” Consider in this regard. Sober Sevens are the “wise children” of the Enneagram. or the true joy they are. Overall. to what Ichazo calls. more than most. Aristotle. gluttony does not refer to the desire to fill the belly. excitement. if. in fact. as pleasure feeds only the lower aspects of our nature and ultimately leads to self-conflict and frustration.” In the traditional enneagram. Sevens who are unable to face their demons never achieve their potential. but to excellence. capable of showing others how to delight in the beauty and brightness of the sensible world without running in fear from its shadow.” Sevens want more pleasure. who defied the gender stereotypes of her time to become an impressive scientist and mathematician was also a Seven. distraction and adventure. their promise essentially unfulfilled. Type Exemplars Sevens. to stay with it. They tend to be mercurial and charming and generally more sweet tempered and engaging than their Eight winged counterparts. the Seven will once again seek distraction. develop maturity and groundedness. in particular. he argues. it is a most deceptive and seductive source of actual pain. card player and funny man was a Seven. A Feynman quotation: “There is a computer disease that anybody who works with computers knows about. Richard Feynman. capacities and talents. not to pleasure. anything which will fill them up. but to a more fundamental desire. Sevens would do well to bear in mind the advice of the ancient philosophers towards those who choose hedonism as a style of life. It is this ceaseless desire for pleasure and avoidance of pain which keeps Sevens from true self-fulfillment. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and William Shakespeare. are considered “Renaissance Men. The trouble with computers is that you ‘play’ with them!” Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Edison manifest the inventive side of the type Seven personality and many inventors have. the vice or passion of enneatype Seven is gluttony and the corresponding virtue that of sobriety. Such a life path is insufficient for happiness in the long run. is always the fortunate by-product of something much more fundamental. Emilie du Chatelet. pragmatic and driven. in other words.undeveloped. perhaps they can break the spell of their compulsion. True and abiding happiness. they suggest. in the long run. In this context. to the development of our skills. More recently. a state of always “wanting more. Sevens with the Six wing are generally more openly anxious and ungrounded than those with an Eight wing. physicist. capable of experiencing in its depths. when healthy. It refers to a pervasively desirous state. anything which will keep the nameless object of their fears at bay. move into action and onto the next “adventure. been Sevens. Sevens who are able to confront pain. such Sevens as Leonardo da Vinci. they can truly sense that their underlying strategy to avoid pain leads.

Timothy Leary. Both types often enjoy entertaining and the pleasures of the senses. in contrast. Directors Steven Spielberg. Cummings were Sevens. Bill Maher. with the leadership qualities of his Eight wing. Robert Louis Stevenson. Finally. Bette Midler. sometimes seen in type Seven. Famous actors include Goldie Hawn. Famous musicians include Mick Jagger. Likewise the New Age/Self Help movement has been inspired by quite a few Sevens: Consider Marianne Williamson. Henry Miller and Kurt Vonnegut. Elizabeth Taylor and George Clooney. Also. both types can be “needy. Both Sevens and Twos are expansive. Sevens and Ones are both prone to feelings of frustration. Mark Victor Hansen. Jim Carrey. The art of Sevens tends to be vibrant and expansive—glittering surfaces with intimated depths.” Politician and Gay activist Harvey Milk: he combined the flamboyance. whose multi-tasking often leaves them with “something . Thomas Wolfe. Wayne Dyer and Stephen Covey. Robin Williams. the recently deceased Hunter Thompson. In addition. whereas Twos are most focused on their relationships. Bono. Nevertheless. Ram Dass. Maude from Harold and Maude. Twos have far more “follow through” than do Sevens. Jack Nicholson.E. Drugs and Rock and Roll. Joan Collins. Ones tend towards rigidity. Sevens tend to have problems with immaturity. Ones towards moralism. Chuck Berry. was also a Seven.Famous artists include Paul Gauguin. the two types are very different. Sevens towards expansiveness. Elaine Boozler. the indomitable Peter Pan. The counter-culture movement of the 1960’s was permeated by type Seven energy and many of the figures who achieved prominence in that period were Sevens. talk show hosts Larry King and Conan O’Brien. Possible Mistypes Sevens often have a perfectionistic streak. Sevens towards libertinism. Fictional examples include Holly Golightly from Breakfast at Tiffany’s. and Laurence van der Post readily come to mind in this regard. Federico Fellini and Mel Brooks were Sevens. Cameron Diaz. transpersonal psychologist and early student of the Enneagram. some confusion might arise between type Seven and type One. Byron Katie. the latter clearly delighting in word play. Type Seven authors include Colin Wilson. Nate from Six Feet Under and. Salvador Dali and Francis Bacon. Ones are very much the adult. Ones tend to be selfconstrained and self-denying whereas Sevens tend. Howard Stern. of course. The charges are vague… I am actually on trial for Sex. Charles Tart. Iggy Pop. Mark Twain. Warren Beatty. Joan Rivers and Mike Myers to name a few. Sevens are naturally drawn to humour and many comedians have been Sevens—Jon Stewart. and Elton John. charm and a certain shameless quality. to be expansive and even hedonistic. “Gonzo Journalist”: “Nobody seems to know what my crimes are. Also. extroverted and generous. If a casual observer had insufficient knowledge. The poets William Wordsworth and E.” Sevens are more oriented towards their activities however.

Sevens. whereas Nines often give too much deference to the . once again. Threes care about the impressions of others whereas Sevens. to be more averse to responsibility than Sixes. Sevens are fixated in the intellectual centre whereas Twos. they can therefore think of themselves as being more melancholic than they actually are. Sevens and Fives are both thinking types who generally enjoy a wide range of intellectual and cultural activities. whereas that of type Four has its roots in a feeling of worthlessness. Sevens are extroverts whereas Fives are true introverts. This is because both types can be creative. it is not especially unusual for Sevens to initially mistype as Four. whereas Sevens are in flight from pain. unlike Sevens who tend to move on when the intellectual work becomes too immersed in detail. however. The Five’s life should reveal a pronounced pattern of withdrawing under stress. in some settings. Nevertheless. But Sevens are scattered whereas Threes excel at focus. In addition. The overall pattern of the Seven’s life. tend to focus quite readily on their chosen fields of activity. Nevertheless. Sevens and Eights can mistype. Threes are oriented towards success. Sevens and Threes are each outgoing and talented and both types can be self-centred. something with which Sevens have to struggle. especially if the wing is strong. Because they sometimes enjoy their time alone. unlike Sevens. The melancholy of type Seven is primarily driven by anxiety however. But Eights lack the nervous energy of type Seven and. some Sevens do initially mistype as Five. Sevens tend. Sevens frequently underestimate the extent of their extroversion. and both types generally have a positive regard for others. Sevens tend to look on the bright side whereas Sixes find it difficult to make light of their difficulties. from an external point of view. however. they could not truly be extroverts. Both types can be idiosyncratic and counter-cultural. who are often quite popular as well. and Fives can become scattered and lose focus like Sevens. they reason.else to do” when the time comes for attending to duties and responsibilities. ought to reveal the pattern of seeking distraction by way of engaging others. although it is more common for Sevens to mistype as Eight than vice versa. As a general rule. even sometimes choosing to inhabit them. In addition. Sevens and Six can mistype. Sevens are prone to self-centeredness however. While it is quite uncommon for Fours to mistype as Seven. Although Fives do not tend to mistype as Seven. Both types can be dominating and both enjoy adventure. overall. Sevens tend to overestimate the extent of their suffering and sadness because they find such mental states to be so threatening to their sense of self. especially if the wing is strong. giving them the sense that they are more Five-like than they actually are. can. primarily those with the Three wing. look like Sevens and artistic Sevens might resemble Fours. Sevens and Nines are both optimistic. more extroverted Fours. unconventional. Fours are far less extroverted than Sevens who truly seek out people as a principle means of distraction. whereas Sevens are focused on enjoyment. have a far more optimistic outlook on life than do Sixes who are generally aware of just what might go wrong. Fours are comfortable with their negative mental states. no matter how intelligent. Fives tend to be far more focused on their individual intellectual activities than are Sevens. attention seeking and even flamboyant in their presentation. often pursuing a line of thought until they take it to the very end. are primarily fixated in the emotional centre. Both types can be high energy and intellectual and both tend to have a quick nervous energy. will sacrifice the good opinion of others if it interferes with their desires and their own conception of what is valuable.

balanced and truly happy life. friends or business connections. There is an unapologetically expansive quality to the physical presence of the type Eight personality. The central problem for individuals of enneatype Eight is that the need to avoid being controlled can manifest in the need to control. company or political party.” to do whatever needs to be done. most Eights have quite a number of social connections. Eights are very much present in the world and are frequently extroverts. Thus. Life thus dictates competition from the point of view of the Eight. triggers the Eight’s fear of being controlled. while the Eight’s loneliness can only be assuaged by finding an equal. in other words. Eights are looking. whether to family members. but the deeper problem for the Eight is that the need to avoid any semblance of being controlled can rob the Eight of the fluidity.” and. the need to be “in charge. Eights of the latter sort tend to be independent contractors. Eights are competitive. Eights typically have an enormous amount of energy and frequently have powerful physical appetites. strong willed. but. more to the point. intimate relations are often the arena in which the Eight’s control issues are most obviously played out. and even outlaws—those who. Eights of the former sort are typically found in positions of leadership. Eights generally don’t have to announce their presence for others to know they are there. Enneatype Eight Type Description People of enneatype Eight are essentially unwilling to be controlled. to see if they can be trusted not to betray the Eight’s confidence. This can lead to all sorts of practical difficulties. or an “opting out” altogether of the current system and its structures of power. they fully intend to be masters of their fate. Vulnerability. intimacy requires Eights to lower their defences and thereby become vulnerable. as the world is not always liable to conform to the dictates of the Eight’s will. either by others or by their circumstances. whether it be of their own family.” Nines more grounded. practical. decisive. Betrayal is absolutely intolerable to Eights and any hint of it can provoke a powerful retaliatory response. Soft and tender emotions tend to make Eights feel “weak. ideally. and Eights naturally intend to be the ones who survive. a paradoxical combination to be sure. to “take charge. Eights of both basic tendencies need to feel financially independent. Sevens are more “hyper. Eights often experience life as a struggle for existence in which only the fittest survive. Questions of trust assume a pivotal position. Sevens tend to throw themselves into activity under stress. they always retain an uneasy association with any hierarchical relationship which does not position the Eight at the top. whereas Nines are prone to withdrawal. expansive. if they do admit someone into the inner sanctum. While Eights do not trust easily. both for someone they can respect and someone they can protect. they generally prove to be stalwart . They typically adopt a survival strategy that involves either a rise to the top of the existing hierarchy. exist outside of the accepted framework of civil society and its often artificial system of rules and obligations. and while most Eights do manage to find some means of making peace with their society. in turn. freelancers of all sorts. Eights tend to test their intimates to see if they are worthy.thoughts and feelings of others. True intimacy however does not come easily or naturally to Eights. the Eight’s feelings of vulnerability can best be assuaged if they know that their intimates depend on them. and tough minded.” the compulsion to dominate. While some Eights adopt something of the “lone wolf” persona. receptivity and acceptance that is generally necessary to live a full.

Healthy Eights however develop a generosity of character which is almost the direct opposite of the unhealthy Eight’s selfish self-assertion.” the lust of type Eight manifests in the need to push outwardsto assert the self in order to attain the objects of desire. Bennett. the experience of tender emotions such as compassion. As mentioned. they reason. and the lust of type Eight need not manifest sexually. they are perfectly willing to misuse power however. When unhealthy. Eights are often prone to anger. which consists of personal loyalties and freely chosen commitments. and herein lies one of the keys to understanding why the passion of type Eight might be considered a vice or sin. ego boundaries are consolidated. the world kept in opposition. The ability to accept the more tender emotions into consciousness. as Eights are generally strategic. are suspicious of rules. those Eights who have developed the capacity to love. sexual or otherwise.” Anger. Unhealthy Eights. the term should not be read in its narrow or conventional sense. and the Eight focused on domination. love. are among the most generous character types in the Enneagram. which is more characteristic of the gluttony of type Seven. a weakness posing as strength. Their rebellion and lack of respect for “the rules” therefore. melancholy and pity can cause the Eight to feel vulnerable. In the Eight’s experience of anger. they seldom take on a battle they know they cannot win. In this light it is worth remembering that one of Gurdjieff’s students. They are crude. While Eights tend not to respect external systems of rules. As with the passions of all the enneatypes. dangerous and grotesquely insensitive to the feelings of others. is often camouflaged. He found power in restraint and strength in humility. These the Eight will fight to protect. Healthy Eights. (Perhaps it looked something like the face of Johnny Cash as he sang Trent Reznor’s “Hurt. The lust of type Eight has an expansive quality to it—rather than the need to “take in. they often have their own internal sense of right and wrong. as some Eights are simply unwilling or unable to compromise their sense of self-sufficiency. Only the strong survive. the passion of type Eight is said to be “lust. and often take an oppositional stance to authority. noted that at the end of his life. the weapon that the constitutionally weak use to keep the naturally strong “in line.” Eights. on the other hand. on the other hand. far from being a weakness is actually a sign of true strength. sadism being a clear and obvious manifestation of the attempt to attain power by means of domination and humiliation. It is. In the traditional Enneagram. When it does. a feeling of ego permeability and “openness.” This should not be confused with the insistent desire to enjoy the pleasures of the senses. Gurdjieff’s face wore the saddest expression he had ever seen. the Eight often finds it difficult to marry the often enormous desire for purely physical gratification with the more tender emotions of love and compassion. sorrow. like counter-phobic Sixes. are the most brutal of the enneatypes. Unhealthy Eights are bullies who enjoy intimidating those whom they see as weak and who feel little compunction about walking over anyone who crosses their path. at least as the Eight experiences it. But. Eights are often said to have an internal sense of “justice. one of the few feelings they allow themselves to feel in its pure form.”) Eights frequently consider “morality” to be just one more means by which society attempts to exert illegitimate control over them. embodies a feeling of being in opposition to the world and. An element of sadism frequently enters the picture. a sense of the importance of overcoming that opposition. as such emotions are caused by.friends and steadfast allies. . J. brutal.G. and in turn cause.” and it is true that Eights are acutely aware of the ways in which power is used and abused. and whoever gets in the Eight’s way might have to be sacrificed to the Eight’s ambition. Martin Luther King should be considered in this regard. Not all Eights do form truly intimate relationships however.

jollity and seductive charm of the lusty. No matter what a man is saying to you. Gurdjieff’s legacy is more recent. Josef Stalin. Winston Churchill. yet through an insistence on overpowering becomes incapable of receiving—when being can only be known in a receptive attitude. What the Eight primarily desires is power… power sufficient to insulate the Eight from ever being vulnerable or weak. A good quotation from Lyndon Johnson’s biography illustrates enneatype Eight’s means of sising up an individual: “While Lyndon Johnson was not. Naturally. Eights with a Seven wing especially tend to relish intensity of experience. He had a genius for studying a man and learning his strengths and weaknesses and hopes and fears. Conversely.” “He tried to teach his young assistants to read men--“Watch their hands. so mistypes of him are not so common. it involves a quality of self-assertion. in pleasure and in the power to find his pleasure. Fidel Castro. the suppression of tenderness. Hannibal. and the denial of the love need in the loss of wholeness and sense of being. They are generally less obviously volatile than Eights with a Seven wing but can slip just as radically into open aggression when pushed.” Eights with a Seven wing tend to be more expansive extraverted and openly aggressive than those with the Nine wing. Julius Caesar. many of the world’s most influential modern leaders have also been Eights: Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Indira Gandhi and Lyndon Johnson. Eights with a Nine wing hold more of their energy in reserve and exhibit more of a grounded. they knew. Type Exemplars Socrates and George Gurdjieff were both Eights. Each impressed his followers as much by his personal presence as by his intellectual contributions. Enneatype VIII pursues being. Martin Luther King Jr. really feared. it’s not as important as what you can read .” although both men do demonstrate the Eight’s often strong connection to Five. They are more likely to be sensation seekers and are generally more overtly ambitious than those with a Nine wing. his deepest strengths and weaknesses: what it was that the man wanted--not what he said he wanted but what he really wanted--and what it was that the man feared. a tightening of the ego boundaries. a stance that is often oppositional between the Eight and the other. Those who mistype Socrates as an enneatype Five seem to be labouring under the false impression that only Fives can be “thinkers.Whether the passion of lust manifests sexually or not. a reader of men--a great reader of men.. as his two assistants knew. it is the loss of relationship. Each were men of large appetites and expansive energies. By doggedly claiming satisfaction where a semblance of satisfaction can be imagined… he perpetuates the ontic deficiency that only feeds his lusty pursuit of triumph and other being substitutes. Naranjo comments thus: “Hidden as it may be behind the enthusiastic expansiveness. even stubborn quality. “Read eyes. They murdered millions. given the nature of the type Eight fixation. a reader of books. Golda Meir. then. watch their eyes” he told them. The ancient world seems to have provided a fitting stage for type Eight energy and many of the key military figures of antiquity have been Eights—Alexander. Such power is always a delusion however. Mao Tse Tung. Attila and Emperor Qin to name just a few notable examples. he was. and it is the search for it which prevents the Eight from attaining true health and integrity of character.

Charlton Heston. something which is . “The most important thing a man has to tell you is what he isn’t telling you. (Bobby) Baker. Eights and Threes are both competitive. Scott. Twos are more likely to be mistyped as Eights than the converse. with an ability. Queen Latifah. Frank Sinatra. Pink and the “Man in Black”—Johhny Cash. who is typically a law unto himself. with a gift that was so instinctive that a close observer of his reading habits. Senator John McCain is also an Eight. Singers include Courtney Love. Twos are primarily emotionally centred whereas Eights repress the more tender emotions. Also the former senator. And.” He read with a novelist’s sensitivity. Also. The authors Ernest Hemingway. While it is true that Twos can be quite bossy. Famous Eight artists include Pablo Picasso. to look into a man’s heart and know his innermost worries and desires. “If he saw the other fellow was trying not to say something. Typically it is the more passionate and visceral type One who is mistaken for the Eight—Rudi Giuliani being a case in point. “The most important thing a man has to say is what he’s trying not to say. the longer he talked. Edward Abbey and Norman Mailer were also Eights. but Threes are fundamentally concerned with receiving external validation. Eights are direct. he told them. Both are drawn to leadership roles. Twos are manipulative. “He seemed to sense each man’s individual price and the commodity he preferred as coin. the actor who famously played him. Sidney Poitier and John Wayne. Robert G. Eights include Donald Rumsfeld and the aptly named Vice President Dick Cheney. Eights self-sufficient to a fault. and Lucien Freud. and even that mistype is likely to occur under a narrow set of circumstances.” Busby explains. “The Donald. Eights are hard etc. feminist and philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft. But Ones dominate in service to an ideal and are more rule bound than is the Eight.” he said. Bette Davis. the more likely he was to let slip a hint of that vulnerability he was so anxious to conceal. On the American scene more recently. Also: television “personalities” Dr Phil. Twos are soft.” For that reason.in his eyes”--and to read between the lines: more interested in men’s weaknesses than in their strengths because it was weakness that could be exploited. Possible Mistypes Eights and Ones can both be dominating and self-assertive. were also Eights.” And Lyndon Johnson himself read with a genius that couldn’t be taught. of course. he tried to teach his assistants how to learn a man’s weakness. it was important to keep the man talking.” Fictional Examples include: Plato’s Thrasymachus. calls it a “sense”. Nancy Grace and Paula Dean. shocking in the depth of its penetration and perception.) General George Patton and George C. with an insight that was unerring. Star Wars’ Darth Vader and Lucy from the comic strip Peanuts. “That’s why he wouldn’t let a conversation end. Ann Richards. or Osama bin Laden. Diego Rivera. he wouldn’t let it (the conversation) end until he got it out of him. and both can be dominating and drawn to leadership roles. Twos are needy.” (From Robert Caro’s Lyndon Johnson. Other actors include Shelley Winters.

especially if the wing is especially strong. But an examination of the fundamental themes of their lives should reveal the stark underlying differences. As a general rule.” they adopt a strategy o f “going with the flow. competitive and even dominating. Eights and Nines might possibly be mistyped. Eights can be mistyped as Fives when they are especially intellectual. Eights have an expansive physical presence. as they sometimes are in their own areas of expertise. Both types can be sensation seekers who love adventure. Fives are sensitive and are susceptible to overwhelm and energy depletion. Fives can be mistaken for Eights when they are especially self-confident. Moreover. are frequently insensitive. Sevens have a lighter approach to life and generally have a quick nervous. Eights and counter-phobic Sixes can quite easily be mistyped. Eights. But Fours are generally far more comfortable expressing their emotions than are Eights. whereas Eights often enjoy a good fight.” They intuitively know how to wait for the openings so that they can slip effortlessly into the stream. But there is a much more reactive. competitive and dominating.almost entirely foreign to enneatype Eight’s mindset. harmony and balance and to avoid conflict and disruption. and are especially more comfortable with expressing vulnerability. even if it is grudging. and are more likely to overwhelm others than to be overwhelmed themselves. Eights and Sevens can be mistyped. mental energy which contrasts with the more grounded instinctual energy of type Eight. Sevens find focusing to be quite challenging whereas focus comes naturally to Eights. Both types are independent and place a premium on the avoidance of displays of vulnerability. Threes are much smoother and conciliatory than Eights. Nines don’t tend to “sweat the small stuff. Eights have to avoid being overwhelming. In addition. and. Threes want to be admired. if the wing is particularly strong. once again. Nines struggle with self-assertion whereas self-assertion comes naturally to Eights.” On the whole. But as a general rule. on the other hand. they are self - . A mistype between Eight and Four is generally unlikely. should not be mistaken for Fours. Nines tend to see the best in people. Enneatype Nine Type Description People of enneatype Nine are essentially looking to maintain a sense of peace. especially. especially in close personal relationships. both types tend to have issues with authority. Such Fours can be passionate. Nines are fairly “easy going. there is generally a more personal quality to the aggression of type Six than there is to the more goal oriented aggression of type Eight. volatile. especially one with a sexual/social instinctual stacking could conceivably be mistaken for an Eight. Both types can be competitive and overwhelming. unpredictable quality to the aggression of counter-phobic Sixes than there is to the generally more strategic aggression of type Eight. something which seems compromising from the standpoint of type Eight. but a Four with Three. to be fundamentally optimistic about the future. But Nines are generally conflict avoidant. and it is not uncommon for counter-phobic Sixes to mistype themselves as Eights. to have a calming and grounding effect on those around them. when reasonably healthy. even if they do sometimes do it an a paradoxically aggressive fashion. Eights want respect. Both types can be ambitious. Nines have to avoid being overwhelmed by others.

The central problem for Nines revolves around the fact that their desire to maintain peace and to avoid conflict is compulsive. As the potential for conflict in life is virtually ubiquitous. slashed the benefits to the school lunch programme. or authorised the bombing of Iraq. Sometimes Nines who take on leadership roles seem to be the living embodiment of a solution that has been offered to us from the depths of the collective unconscious. Some such Nines are able to take on leadership roles because they wear their fixations lightly or because they are buoyed by the ambitions of others to whom they are attached. Less healthy Nines who take on leadership roles however. an eclipse of the experiencer or inner witnessing in the person. even-tempered and likable individuals. Perhaps they enjoy the benefits of a fortunate upbringing or perhaps their work on themselves has borne fruit. About this phenomenon. are often actually deeply entrenched in a peculiar form of self-abnegation. Given such a portrait. Thus. He has a ready smile and a genial manner. even as they take on roles of leadership. Such comfortably numb Nines simply fail to process any information which would be a cause of discomfort or disturbance. Abraham Lincoln. but confess plainly that events have controlled me. are likely to embody these valuable qualities. Nines aspire to be supportive. Even as they rule. could modestly state “I claim not to have controlled events. loving and gentle and more than any other enneatype. are actually internal to the psyche. they serve those they lead. leaves the Nine at a serious disadvantage when it comes to living a full. tend to adopt a strategy of “muffling” from awareness the likely negative consequences of their actions.” Healthy Nines are in touch with their depths and are able to maintain their sense of self even in the face of the most forceful opposition or the most appalling conflict. Hence we encounter the portrait of the “nice guy. Many Nines are reasonably “successful” when it comes to their interactions with the world. thus enabling the Nine to remain insulated. satisfying and honest life. “Not wanting to see. They represent the only possible answer to the exigencies of a time in which the forward path cannot be determined by aggressive self-assertion or even by clarity of intellect. Often they surround themselves with like-minded others who reinforce their sense of security and who serve as a buffer from all forms of dissent. many Nines manage to “succeed” while maintaining an attitude of forbearance and cooperation. Most of the unhealthy Nine’s insulating buffers against reality. They are frequently productive and often manage to rise through the ranks on the basis of their likability and reliability without having to engage too forcefully in direct competition. something easily attested to by the sheer number of leaders who have had a type Nine fixation. A deeply entranced Nine simply dissociates from whatever is unpleasant or unpalatable. This deeply rooted tendency to avoid discord plays itself out both internally and in the realm of external action. but generally manifests most centrally in close personal relationships.effacing. But he has just busted the union. not wanting to be in touch with one’s experience is something akin to cognitive laziness. as intimate relationships more than anything else tend to trigger core defences. which would seem to involve self-assertion. Naranjo comments. perhaps the greatest of America’s presidents. the Nine’s inability to confront it forcefully and deal with it effectively. He heads for his private sanctuary.” the one who is affable to even the lowliest employee. tolerant. he mindlessly . He means no one any harm. it might seem difficult to understand what is so problematic about the type Nine fixation.” Unhealthy Nines. from whatever disturbs his preferred view of the world. however. Nines are not necessarily without ambition either. even in a capitalist economic system.

have managed to do so because they have unwittingly embodied and reflected back the irresponsibility and lack of consciousness of those who brought them to power. They adopt an attitude of acceptance towards life. It can be difficult to respect someone who will not defend boundaries. They don’t ask for too much. Nines tend to merge with their partners and to empathetically take on the partner’s feelings and desires. it would be fair to say that. These tendencies are not left behind until a Nine is truly healthy. On any individual occasion.” In that manner. The problem with this approach. often deleterious one. About such rulers. the Nine’s core issues tend to manifest most profoundly in the context of intimate relationships. but as a general policy it does not bode well for either the Nine or the partner of the Nine. signals to us that one of our boundaries has been violated. While the above may seem something of an exaggerated portrait. as anger is the emotion which. Many Nines seem to find it excruciatingly difficult to assert themselves against those they love. whereas the partner is willing to put up a fight. As Nines tend to have a diffuse sense of their boundaries. The problems generated from this policy follow a few predictable patterns. They pay their dues to the world but essentially prefer to withdraw from it. to idealise those whom they love and to ignore whatever would disturb their comfort and peace of mind. His conscience is clear. although resentment invariably builds beneath the calm and placid surface. It is an almost universal rule that those leaders who rise to power in spite of. Nines would do well to develop a certain kind of healthy selfishness. As mentioned above. at a level which seldom breaks through to conscious awareness. They are frequently creative in a modest and unassuming way. in its pure form. this policy of appeasement might indeed be reasonable. He never assumes any responsibility for the evil he has wrought. even when it comes to trivial matters. especially to their children. Other individuals gladly accept the willingness of the Nine to adopt their agenda and become overtly dominating and. . or even by virtue of their unconsciousness. both for the Nine and for those in the Nine’s life. The Nine’s partner might actually begin to resent the passivity of the Nine. is that problems do not cease to exist. It is here that the Nine’s need to avoid conflict bears its most obvious fruit. The anger exists however and will manifest itself. exaggerations often serve to illustrate key points. he watches the TV. most Nines simply feel that they don’t deserve too much. they follow those they lead. even as they rule. They would rather defer to their partner than assert their own preferences. While some Nines do assume positions of leadership. This naturally makes it difficult for the Nine to cause hurt or frustration to those they love. perhaps in passive-aggressive foot dragging or “checking out” from important engagements. of course. simply because the Nine ignores them. as many of their difficulties turn on the fact that they are too selfless. the Nine gets to avoid the unpleasantness of a conflict and vicariously enjoy the pleasure that the partner feels. The Nine might even appear to accept such aggressions against them. most Nines are not especially ambitious. They have consequences.kisses his wife. even abusive. who will not take a well defined position. in some cases. Virtually all Nines tend to see what they wish to see. At a very deep level. sometimes they ask for too little. They enjoy their hobbies and appreciate some time to themselves. He sleeps well. For some Nines. It seems only reasonable to “give in. they reason. They generally value simplicity and cultivate the virtue of patience. Their preference is not very strong. They are “home bodies” who are generally devoted to their families. they tend also to fall asleep to their anger. Nine’s have a difficult time accessing their anger.

a sense of self. although it can manifest in that manner in some individuals.” Without a well developed personality. it is. the Nine is left in a state of permeability to forces both outside the ego and to those subterranean forces that reside beneath it. he cannot begin to struggle with his mechanical habits. tend to be kind. According to the teachings of the traditional enneagram. the essential virtue of each type appears when the fixation or vice weakens. All of these manifestations of anger are naturally a good deal more harmful to the Nine and to the Nine’s relationships than expressing it in a way which is appropriate to the needs of the situation. As they heal themselves. even at average levels of health. their personalities dimly sense and partially embody the nature of their type specific virtue. he cannot begin to study himself. indolence does not here refer to laziness in the traditional sense. the constructed personality is simply that—a construct through which consciousness operates. much of it built out of defences and reactions to dangers which are no longer present.” Nines. it is a necessary step towards the development of true individuality. indicated that the virtue of type Nine was what he called “Holy Love. the vice of indolence. The really crucial problem for type Nine individuals is that they tend to have an inadequate sense of self. The ability of a Nine to acknowledge anger and recognise and deal with its causes is a pretty good measure of the Nine’s general level of health. the father of the modern Enneagram. they heal their relationships with others and actively work towards healing the wounds of our ailing planet. it gives the individual a base from which to operate. the lack of attention to what constitutes true work. There is. Gurdjieff has this to say: “For inner growth. As already indicated. they are able to extend that love to others in a truly effective and beneficial manner. Other Nines experience instances in which pent up anger expresses itself inappropriately and unexpectedly with such a fury that it shocks those on the receiving end. but to the lack of attention to the most important matter at hand. without a firm sense of self and adequately defined boundaries. however ultimately flawed and partial. compassionate and tolerant individuals. both a limitation and an obscuration. It is the difficulty that type Nine individuals have in addressing this core issue which is called in the traditional enneagram. for work on oneself. in a sense. a certain development of personality. Nines intuitively grasp that the constructed personality. Nines are sometimes called “the peacemakers” but they are not . As type Nine individuals learn to love and honour their own integrity. the personality with which most of us identify. the development of a solid sense of self from which the Nine can be truly effective in the world.unprocessed anger manifests itself through the development of psychosomatic illnesses. True love does involve openness to others and permeability of ego boundaries. just as Nines have known all along. But the constructed personality also serves a necessary function. Like all of the fixations. i. At a largely subconscious level. This is. This leads to a tendency on the part of Nines to both downplay their own significance and to borrow a sense of significance from others. While the constructed self is not ultimately who we are. a sort of paradox at the heart of the type Nine fixation. the type Nine fixation can be viewed as a sort of failed short cut. Understanding this essential porousness of the ego of enneatype Nine is absolutely essential to an understanding of all of the basic manifestations of the Nine’s specific problems and challenges. it can be viewed as the personality’s flawed attempt to achieve the true virtue. Oscar Ichazo. as well as a certain strength of essence are required. in fact.e. is not the true self. it does involve acceptance and forgiveness. in fact. An insufficiently developed personality means that… a man cannot begin to work on himself. it does involve a sense of the interconnectedness of all things. it is not who they are. a very deep truth.

we can even see Walt Disney. Jimi Hendrix. Also. in this light. They typically withdraw under stress more than those with an Eight wing. His father is the Six. (G. G. Bush are all examples of enneatype Nine. Josh Rouse. Musicians include Paula Abdul. They tend to lose focus and can get lost in worlds of their imagination. Nines with an Eight wing are overall more grounded and assertive.) Famous actors Uma Thurman. Jennifer Anniston.K. Dwight D. Willie Nelson and Janet Jackson. Jimmy Stewart. If you open yourself to insight. Nines with a One wing tend to be more cerebral and imaginative than those with an Eight wing. Ingrid Bergman. Eisenhower and G. photographer for the Sierra Club for many years were both Nines.really worthy of that name until they leave behind the idea that peace is synonymous with the absence of conflict. the fantasist. Gerald Ford. Dave Mathews. Also. the nature that Nines are able to manifest when they shed the passivity associated with their fixation. American transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson and more recently. Painters include Marc Chagall and Henri Matisse. Ronald Reagan. But. and Ray Romano. Keanu Reeves. you are one with the Tao and you can embody it completely. Sophia Loren. Liv Tyler. evolutionary theorist Stephen J. John Muir. Eric Clapton. hence not a Six. She had that quality of acceptance. A good case could be made for typing Jesus’s mother Mary as a Type Nine. Nines with a One wing are more theoretical. Consider Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell in this regard. and many famous naturalists have been Nines. Lao Tzu. They sometimes find it difficult to ground themselves. you are one with insight . those with an Eight wing more practical. Bush is a perfect example of the principle of disintegration. Bush is not an over thinker who is fixated in the mental centre.W. Rowling and Laura Ingalls Wilder. Making peace requires the Nine to develop a truly active nature. essayist of nature Joseph Wood Krutch. Authors include J.W. Gould. Nines tend to have an innate desire to attain a sense of unity with nature. cartoonist Charles Schulz.W. Kevin Costner. In an extended sense. They tend also to be more sociable than those with a One wing. and Ansel Adams. the founder of the Sierra Club. Nine goes to Six under stress. or whoever was the guiding spirit behind the mystical/philosophical Tao Te Ching also expresses the Nine’s sensitivity to nature and desire for harmony and balance: If you open yourself to the Tao. Type Exemplars Presidents Abraham Lincoln. Nines often have an intuitive grasp of the workings of the subconscious mind. naturalist Mark Bittner who befriended the wild parrots of Telegraph Hill.

Even very successful Nines tend to adopt an attitude of easy-going.g. in this way they might appear somewhat One-like. Rowling’s famous hero. Ones have generally tense personalities and experience real difficulties when it comes to relaxation. (The Nine’s conflict avoidance is often enough not global. creative. unlike Threes. they tend to be more cooperative than overtly competitive. are truly humble and generally self-effacing. Nines and Threes can mistype if the Nine is especially successful or the Three especially depressed. whereas Twos tend to have a high opinion of themselves and tend to want to receive recognition for their good deeds.) Possible Mistypes Nines and Ones can be mistaken for each other if the wing is especially strong or the individual observed under a narrow set of circumstances. On a personal level. the director of Star Wars. although it is generally the Nine who mistypes as a Four or who is mistyped as a Four by . Open yourself to the Tao. Harry Potter is a Nine. and can be charismatic like many Threes. and everything will fall into place. Other fictional examples include Star Wars’ Luke Skywalker. Nines. can have an opinionated streak and strong moral convictions which they might express freely. something which generally does not come easily to the more driven Threes. so that there are some Nines who will forcefully argue for e. (Mrs Claus is likely the Two. Nines are far less likely to try to control others or the environment and are generally much more capable of seeing the elements of truth in opposing points of view. their essential goal oriented nature is likely to assert itself fairly quickly.) But this potential similarity notwithstanding. you are one with loss and you can accept it completely. Finally. It is especially the case that female Nines who are identified with a nurturing role might mistake themselves for Twos. Fictional examples include most of the hobbits in Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings. and the director of the films—Peter Jackson. their political positions while nevertheless deferring to their spouses on all matters of any significance.and you can use it completely. Nines generally find ways to relax when feeling tense.K. Nines often struggle with self-assertion. Both types tend to be generous and oriented towards feelings and relationships. as well as the author of that book and its sequels. despite his penchant for giving. while Threes can lose their motivation when depressed. much as Threes can. Finally. withdrawn and introverted and for these reasons can cross-type. whereas Ones find it comes more or less naturally. as well as George Lucas. unpretentiousness. Nines. Nines and Twos can easily mistype. however. But the overall pattern of their lives ought to indicate the true type. Nines can identify with a social role. something which is often a weak spot for Ones. Nines and Fours can both be sensitive. then trust your natural responses. J. And even workaholic Nines seem to know how to relax. “Santa Claus” is a Nine. in particular. Twos are also far more aggressive when pushed than are Nines who characteristically withdraw under stress. If you open yourself to loss. Also. not a Two.

Assertion comes naturally to Eights. Nines are also not in search of an authentic self or the proper presentation of that self.” Nines tend to withdraw under stress. especially strong unpleasant emotions. who often feel like misfits. Eights to assert themselves. This is almost never the case with Sixes who have a suspicious streak. Nines lack the nervous mental energy of type Six. Fives almost never mistype as Nines. they therefore think they must be Fours. Fives to only a few. who tend to see the best in others and who characteristically detach from strong emotions. Nines tend to be conflict avoidant. they tend to see the best in others. Sevens tend to push their agenda. the two should be distinguishable in terms of the manner in which they assert themselves. In addition. Nines moreover tend to be trusting and optimistic about the future. Nines tend to relate well to a greater variety of people than do Fours. Nines. One of the principle differences lies in their approach to thought. Finally.” A mistype between Nines and Eights might be generated if the wing is especially strong. Nines tend to go with the flow. and Sevens can appear to be easy going and self-effacing. they are generally somewhat oblivious to these concerns. and many Nines feel inadequate when depressed. although Nines seldom mistype as Sevens and it is not common for Sevens to mistype as Nines. Eights sometimes invite conflict in order to rev up their experience or to “clear the air. generally believe that there is something possibly threatening just below the surface and often have a very cautious view about the future outcome of present events. Nines and Fives are both withdrawn types and many Nines are systematic thinkers and intellectuals. The internal landscape of Fours is much darker than that of Nines however. Nines and Sevens are both optimistic. Nines tend to be “laid back. . although Nines more commonly mistype or are mistyped as Sixes than the reverse. Sevens tend towards hyperactivity.others on the basis of these similarities. Nines and Sixes can easily mistype or be mistyped by others. Sevens tend to be self-centred. so the two might be confused. sometimes recognise that they are far less happy than they let on. not so for Nines. Overall. but as a general rule. in particular. Nines tend to look for thought systems which offer some sense of harmony. therefore there are some commonalities which might generate a mistype. many Sixes do not appear to be visibly anxious and some Nines do. Fives are attracted to what disturbs them and often embrace or struggle against nihilism. however. Nines relate well to a wide variety of people. whereas Nines tend to yield too much to the preferences of others. It is generally Nines who mistake themselves or are mistaken by others as Fives. This is exacerbated by the fact that both Sixes and Nines tend to be blinded to the nature of their respective fixations.

There is. they are that in us which is most akin to the other animals and they are affected by our fixations in ways that follow predictable patterns. the sexual instinct and the social instinct. some attempt has been made to describe the manner in which these instincts manifest. These instincts are the most primitive portions of our being. we repeatedly and automatically select out evidence which reinforces our prejudices. we unconsciously assume that our type specific perceptions of reality are absolutely grounded in Truth. The Enneagram of personality illustrates for us the fact that none of us are free. To that end. so far. Claudio Naranjo. (in addition to the favoured wing. This cognitive distortion does not remain isolated. accurate descriptions which illustrate our distortions and which resonate with our personal experiences can potentially serve a useful function. for instance. is either dominated by concerns related . Enneagram theorists have been working with these divisions ever since. According to Naranjo. Because of its power over us. and. namely the instinct for self-preservation. and are selectively blind to evidence which would refute our unacknowledged biases. Perhaps some awareness of our own type specific fixations can enable us to glimpse the bars of our own prison cells or to see through the spaces that exist between those bars. Oscar Ichazo. Thus. along with the intellect and emotions. The general pattern which seems to occur is that one of the three instincts becomes preferred and over-utilised. left out of our brief discussion of fixation. one key element—the instincts. type One for instance. for instance. In the portions of this site which follow. each of the nine personality types operates in a similar fashion. Under the guidance of this cognitive distortion. So powerful is this distortion that it affects every aspect of consciousness. It infects our passions so that our emotional responses become conditioned and un-free. in ways that are susceptible to analysis and description. Clearly. the father of the modern Enneagram of personality. in the nomenclature which has developed around the Enneagram of personality. it mixes with the second most preferred instinct. to offer an example. subdivided the instinctual centre into three distinct individual centres. A One. one of the first theorists who worked to develop the Enneagram. and it too is constrained and bound by the influence of the dominant fixation.Instinctual Subtypes Introduction to Instinctual Subtypes According to the Enneagram of personality. an entirely natural and predictable response to the belief that the world is a dangerous place populated by individuals who are not what they seem to be. a dominant instinctual preference. but we have. Some description of those type specific patterns is contained in the type descriptions in other portions of this site. Nine or Two as the case may be). Each of us suffers from a distortion which corrupts our intellects and controls our emotions. Instinct. defines what he refers to as the “essential core” of personality as an interference with instinct by passion under the sustaining influence of a distorting cognition. our way of seeing the world has direct and obvious consequences for how we feel about it. and that response is one of fear or pervasive anxiety. each of us experiences the world in a distorted fashion. while the third remains generally undeveloped. an individual is considered to have a dominant fixation. constitutes the third centre of human consciousness. While the above example is an illustration of the cognitive fixation and corresponding passion of enneatype Six.

such as a focus on diet or exercise which might be punitive or otherwise excessive.” By this. As its name would indicate. When the instinct for self-preservation is last in the instinctual stacking. he seems to have meant that. they frequently develop a high degree of self-sufficiency. and stability. and. The life of the self is found in the life of the other. what.” If a self-pres One’s second most utilised instinct is the sexual instinct. issues of health are ignored. In such threatening conditions. this instinct will take a back seat. there are six possible combinations of instinctual preferences. as life is ephemeral and safety an illusion. individuals who are dominated by the sexual instinct are concerned with sexual fulfillment in the obvious sense of that term. in which case she will be referred to as a self-pres One. if the individual is dominated by the sexual or social instincts. all of us are dominated by the instinct for self-preservation. Those individuals who are dominated by the instinct for self-preservation often have a grounded or practical quality. as the dominant instinct is overdeveloped. A few words can be said in general about the various instincts. to its needs. and can easily override the other instincts should the life or safety of the individual be in immediate danger.” The sexual instinct focuses on attraction and excitement. it is not being properly utilised. security. as each stacking preference will exhibit some commonalities across types. the individual will often be somewhat ungrounded or seemingly “immature. in this disturbed state often does not actually best serve the overall interests of the individual who is in its grip. she will be called a selfpres/sexual One. as there are some definite type specific differences. But. as the instinct is unbalanced and guided by a fixated personality. In the more extraverted types.” All of these qualities can clearly be beneficial. by concerns related to the sexual instinct. health. is a frequent manifestation of a dominant instinct for self-preservation. or by those of the social instinct. In fact. but when the personality is unbalanced. it certainly will attend to the needs associated with that instinct. comforts. seems to promise to expand and intensify life. but sexual subtypes are seldom interested in sex merely . apart from the self. when unbalanced. Overall. a dominant self-preservational instinct can manifest in an obsessive concern with questions of health. This instinct is the strongest and most fundamental in virtually all life forms.” Such individuals often have a hard time focusing on issues such as financial security or the commitment to the development of practical skills. These combinations can be described independently of the dominant types. the “stackings” are discussed both independently of type and in accordance with it. life or security is not obviously or immediately endangered. Many self-pres subtypes devote themselves to programmes for self-improvement and. or. individuals who are self-pres last. Claudio Naranjo describes the dominant instinct as a “weakness which looks like a strength. In addition. The instinct for self-preservation is attuned to the protection of the self. when our health. it remains implied that her stacking is self-pres/sexual/social. discipline and maturity. each one of these preferences manifests in ways that admit of some description. Each of these combinations can also be described as channelled through type. in this sense it appears to be a strength. often find it difficult to develop “inwardness. of all the subtypes are probably the most “focused. In the pages that follow. it is useful to note which of the instincts comes second. Sometimes. in which case she is referred to as a social One. Some self-pres types. worry too much about health. in which case she will be classified as a sexual One. mortality.to the instinct for self-preservation. in what has come to be known as “the instinctual stacking. worry in general. in more general circumstances. of whatever sort. But. finances or security.

The social instinct focuses on the group. as they are the most acutely aware of the opinions of others. they are generally willing to take risks in order to attain their ideals. In addition. the individual is going to find it difficult to see why it is important to form social connections or to cultivate multiple relationships. it essentially focuses on connecting to that which is larger than the self. to be somewhat impatient and to grow bored or frustrated with mundane reality. a belief that sex is just another physical drive for physical pleasure is a pretty good sign that an individual is not a sexual subtype. as they tend to feel that they need relationships in order to reclaim lost or inaccessible portions of the self.as a physical act. Sexual subtypes are also usually willing to sacrifice for those who matter most to them. can lead to an inability to protect important boundaries. On the high side. As there are aspects of ourselves which we can only see when in close relationship to others. In less balanced personalities. And the desire for intensity of experience can lead sexual subtypes to take unnecessary risks. Social subtypes can therefore suffer from self-consciousness. sexual subtypes often bring a certain passion and experimentalism to their lives. When the social instinct is least developed. as the sexual subtypes tend to feel somehow incomplete or unfinished without a relationship to ground them. those whose sexual instinct remains undeveloped might find it difficult to cultivate some forms of selfawareness. thrill seeking or self-medication sometimes enter the picture. Social subtypes are the most likely to feel a sense of social responsibility to the needs of the group and to work to serve those needs. Such personalities often do not form truly intimate relationships. They extend themselves toward others and often have a sort of generosity with their time and energy. family members or professional colleagues. When the overall personality is unbalanced. the personality can lack a certain charisma and momentum. as they don’t feel driven to do so. they suffer the most when they feel a sense of social rejection. can lead to a . They generally have lots of “connections” whether to friends. they need to feel as though they are making their own contributions. the sexual instinct can manifest in a desire for intensity of many different sorts. On the high side. When the sexual instinct is least developed. Individuals whose social instinct is dominant need to feel a sense of “belonging. By extension. In fact. Social subtypes can sometimes fail to focus on the needs of the self as they are searching for their identity in terms of the larger whole. the merging tendency. social subtypes are the most likely to sacrifice their narrow interests in service of that which is larger than themselves. Individuals whose social instinct is first tend to be the warmest of the subtypes.” They need to feel as though they have found a place in the group. they have an expanded sense of what constitutes the self and tend to merge with those they love. this can lead to a need to conform to the standards of the group in order to achieve acceptance. consequently. This. sexual subtypes tend to struggle with issues of neediness and dependency. when taken to extremes. hierarchy. and can lead to various forms of addiction. social subtypes are the most prone to feelings of social shame. in turn. their personal relationships can suffer from a lack of attention. On the down side however. but the primary manifestation will generally be a concern with finding the ideal partner. the big picture. Sexual subtypes generally have romantic longings for the ideal partner and hence have high expectations and ideals. They are aware of group dynamics and underlying emotional currents. acquaintances. On the down side however. status.

Too much energy goes where it is not needed and not enough energy goes where it should. both within a given personality and as distinct patterns. balance and virtue can nevertheless sometimes be attained. dependent—when they are. as Socrates maintained. virtue cannot be taught. he emphasised the fact that all of us engage in what he called the “wrong use of centres. find interdependence difficult and dependence on others barely tolerable. even by those who charge high fees. can find it difficult to negotiate the needs of the social realm which make this possible. young. as defined by each instinct alone and in terms of the alignment of two or three (stacking). when each aspect of the psyche was performing what it was primitively meant to perform. that an individual had developed the internal conditions which enabled him or her to be excellent and to achieve true happiness. in order to achieve any kind of effective inner transformation. Those whose social instinct is last in the instinctual stacking. But all human beings are interdependent. when feeling is called for. weak. Gurdjieff. Perhaps. which resides at an unconscious level helping to ensure survival. we who have made contributions to this site are flawed and fixated and do not have the knowledge of how to achieve liberation. Each of the types of the Enneagram of personality engage in this wrong use of centres in type specific ways. Perhaps it once existed and has been lost to us. or perhaps we focus on feeling when we ought to move into action. Sexual. as we all must find a niche in the larger whole. like beauty. And.” We use our intellects perhaps. in particular. Surely. So. although some degree of health. an individual whose social instinct is dominant might try to use the energy of the social instinct to further the needs of the instinct for self-preservation. These three instincts are built into our bestial nature. In particular. was considered to be a matter of balance and harmony. for instance. self-knowledge is a necessary first step. This “false independence” almost certainly leads to unnecessary suffering and impoverishment of experience. This utilisation is inefficient however. We do not have the knowledge of how to achieve this balance. the Enneagram of personality can be of some small help to some few people and it is in that spirit that this site was developed. We also do not know anyone who has this knowledge. old or dying. In the ancient world. for instance. sick. The “wrong use of centres” does not further the overall true needs of the individual. both of ourselves and our species. we want to know how these drives manifest and function. Perhaps it has always been the case that. From the perspective of the enneagram. but the wrong use of centres extends to the various distortions of the instincts as well. Aristotle suggested that it was only when true internal harmony was achieved. Those whose social instinct remains undeveloped are trying to attain a type of independence and self-sufficiency which is not possible for human beings. the proper relationship of the parts to the whole. . Type Stackings Instincts—Self-preservation. We do not know how to achieve excellence or to be happy. whose work in many ways prefigured the modern Enneagram of personality. those whose social instinct is least developed. and sometimes. health.certain amount of social isolation. believed that none of us use our energies properly. Social.

But integrating our personality with instinct requires that each side of ourselves is fully aware of the other side. the missing piece. Animals. dealing with formalities as an afterthought. Frollo from “Hunchback of Notre Dame. People typically have a strong reaction one way or another towards Sx’s. May be prone to self-medicating. the wanderer. as more or less fully instinctual beings.Sexuals attract others without really trying. This works like a screening function in the mating process. This may occur as a blockage of the sexual instinct which can be redirected as a more generally brooding and troubled personality. Marilyn Monroe. whether we know it or not. Joan Crawford. Motivation: to know the heart. Familiar roles: the devotee. Possibly attracted to radical views on politics. forming a secret bond. and are likewise drawn to those things that nourish and sustain them. They live according to a strictly personal outlook and are not particularly concerned with the approval of others outside of their immediate concern. philosophy. Janis Joplin. Sp’s have a strong reaction against things that threaten to harm their comfort or health. impulsively destructive behaviour. and sometimes its lead agent for change. Can seem restless. They may identify so strongly with whatever they’re involved with that they often become the symbol of its core essence. Basic Instinctual Subtype Stackings The Sexual Stackings sx/sp This is perhaps the most internally conflicted of the stackings. Johnny Cash. and on autopilot. Examples of sx/sp: Prince. Self-pres people instinctively avoid certain foods and environments. form a secure union. reconcile inner conflict. and potentially the most inconsistent in behaviour. If they find a soul mate they will unite without fanfare. don’t have this problem. The Social instinct is driven towards gaining protection and empowerment within larger entities. spirituality or creativity that reflect . Soc’s typically react strongly against anything which would jeopardise or displace their position or reputation. They also repel others in the same way. Powerful sexual impulses facing inner resistance may manifest symbolically in the psyche. Johnny Depp. torn between the comforts of a stable home life and the urge to wander. Ozzy Osbourne. automatic. Personality can only get in the way. Carl Jung. the seeker. and vice versa. They seem to be searching for something. They may isolate themselves for long periods of time before re-emerging.” sx/so This is the type that exudes the most raw charisma and sexual energy. like an antipheromone. Under periods of stress severe sexual tensions may manifest as erratic. Otherwise we are automated. this sub-variant seeks to alter the fundamental structure of something while at once embodying its purest or most extreme form. The instinct is always trying to work for our survival. giving way to soulful interpretations of the unconscious. Princess Di. Hardly content with the status quo.

as in business clubs or volunteer organisations where a shared professional culture can facilitate social bonds. root level. May have a characteristically blunt and direct style of communication that can take others some getting used to. Failure to satisfy an especially intense desire for connection may cause this sub-variant to spite others at the risk of jeopardising the need for an equal. question assumptions. It’s not uncommon for them to have a pet social. Motivation: to attain a position of material and societal security. Bono. to the establishment of an impermeable bond. and this type takes . They tend to live conservatively and dress in an inconspicuously appropriate fashion befitting their status in life. exhibitionist. mysterious quality to them. They enjoy pushing other’s buttons. instead favouring personal interests. and especially serious and practical minded in their focus to gain material security and in making useful connections that support their goals. Donald Trump. This type may lack a certain degree of interpersonal warmth which can give the impression of coldness or disinterest in others. in contrast to the other sub-variant’s surface formality. loyalty is very important to them and they will not hesitate to end a relationship on grounds of disloyalty. They are quietly intense. activist. even a sense of selfishness. While prone to exhibitionism. Examples of sx/so: Madonna. Can feel pulled between wanting a life of maximum intensity and reassuring episodes of peaceful convention. John Lennon. the pillar of society. They attach to others at an organic. May exploit and seek to redefine sexuality to reflect their own colourful and uncertain understanding of it. Robin Williams. they instead preserve the select few enduring bonds they carefully form along the way. Somewhat hesitant to enter new relationships. political or spiritual cause which they’re able to support with heartfelt conviction. When they do form a connection. Joan of Arc. stabilising force. Others can be taken aback by how suddenly and completely this type can lock into them.their penchant for testing boundaries. Drew Barrymore. but once they do it is with an attitude of life commitment. Yukio Mishima. Familiar roles: provocateur. especially those resistant to their modes of expression. Familiar Roles: the businessperson. Motivation: to impact others. but to others may seem oblivious to the greater social world around them. Examples of sp/so: Bill Gates. sp/sx These people often have an earthy. The sanctuary of home is of paramount concern. the responsible citizen. Richard Simmons. and enjoy being the benefactors in assisting society’s practical needs. Elvis. Sinead O’Connor. The Self-pres Stackings sp/so This type is generally private and reserved. Harrison Ford. They are particularly strong in matters of commitment and sacrifice. and by the depth of understanding of the others’ condition. George Michael. They are slow to commit. they are strongly attracted to grounding influences which can anchor them and provide stability. Martha Stewart. challenge convention. May be drawn to groups that attract like minded individuals.

Arnold Schwarzenegger. its instinctual energy and anger are directed inward. the mystic. Familiar Roles: the mate. Margaret Cho. Depth and discrimination characterise this stacking.particular delight in decorating their spaces to reflect their cherished sense of taste and depth. The motivation for this type is to attain status within their chosen sphere—the “social climber. the social One is less conflicted. but have difficulty sustaining these bonds when apart. but are generally more pragmatic and less partisan than the other social variant. comfortable environment where they can pursue their private interests in depth. but lacking a defined approach that would give their relationships a more solid standing. Motivation: to live in a secure. They are often attuned to pop culture and the latest trends. Jackie Onassis. They may have political interests. so/sx This type has very strong one to one social skills. This is the natural political type. the instinctual energy has a natural outlet. They may lack warmth and individual identity and this could lead to problems in forming meaningful relationships outside of a shared social interest. but tends to be a bit formal and awkward in one to one relations. The social instinct lends itself more to a plan.” Examples of so/sp: Hillary Clinton. Bill Clinton. Eric Clapton. but is usually uncomfortable in group settings. Howard Stern.” It is essentially opposed to Oneness.” Examples of soc/sx: Michael Jackson. Not everyone sees things the same way as the One . affiliating themselves with groups or theories which best defend their social and material interests. They enjoy cultivating multiple relationships. Emily Dickinson. willing to adapt and mirror others in order to connect. The Social Stackings so/sp This type is often the most comfortable in group settings. Jack McFarland from “Will & Grace. the quiet supporter. Ted Nugent. This type’s motivation is to create lasting connections with those they are interested in—the “best friend. Bill O’Reilly. Examples of sp/sx: George Harrison.” Instinctual Subtypes by Enneatype The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype One Enneatype One belongs to the instinctual/gut triad. This inward build-up of energies gives to the sexual variant an energy similar to a cork under pressure. but the sexual instinct is passionate and impulsive and its needs don’t take kindly to “going underground. and can be intensely involved when in the presence of someone they are interested in. This may give the impression of being flighty and rootless. Rush Limbaugh. an order. The fixation of the One is focused on containment and improvement. Comparatively.

The pride they take in their work is commendable. On the high side. On the down side. This manifests in the self-pres variant as the need to “fix” the environment. for instance. they can be very critical of the people close to them. in opposition to self-pres One energy. On the down side. therefore. When their ideal falls short. The social instinct is satisfied when others follow their rules or hold up their standards of justice. in many ways. The sexual instinct is. The focus of their perfectionism is on their loved ones. They tend to watch their health and to not overindulge. They convey to others that . buying quality. this type can relax a little more than the self-pres/social. These individuals can be counted on to do the right thing. They can also be very hard on themselves. They do share the inner conflict between their sexual and self-pres instincts with the sexual/self-pres. they can become obsessive-compulsive. they do this in a truly helpful way. In the mind of the self-pres/sexual One. When healthy. but the self-pres energy usually wins out. the judgmental criticality is a sign of commitment and love. Despite being critical of their mates. Self-pres/Sexual This type is more fiery than the self-pres/social. and that’s where problems arise for the One who wants to be “right” and wants the social realm also to be “right. for instance. pride themselves on. which can work well when the person is balanced. Anger is repressed. When out of balance. but it’s there just under the surface. organised. so inner conflict is seen more as the sexual variant is expressed through the Oneness. This energy is mainly contained.” The self-pres energy of type One is in sync with its dominant fixation. It’s an explosion of built up repression that has to be released. and practical. The instinctual energy of the sexual instinct is more apparent than with the self-pres/social. Self-pres/Social Enneatype One’s basic fear is of not being perfect. They are likely to be the person on the block who offers a hand. Although normally controlled. Social/Self-pres When the social instinct is dominant in enneatype One. This type is very community minded. They can lose the forest for the trees in attempting to make their homes and environments perfect. the self-pres One can become obsessive-compulsive. anal. They prioritise time well. putting forth their best effort. they are usually very committed to their relationships. how to maintain your lawn just right. Perfection comes from dotting all the i’s. They still have many of the same concerns of the first type. When healthy. This type is the most steady. but there is this secondary energy that wants to throw all their repression out the window. tells you. and/or perfectionistic. finding the bargain. the fear of not being perfect manifests with regards to their connection to others. their example of efficiency is inspiring. not being good enough. frustration usually turns inward. but on the down side. The energy of this type is the most consistent. they are more volatile. especially with the Nine wing. this type is likely to erupt from time to time with those close to them.however.

Because the self-pres instinct is last. this subtype could easily be mistaken for other enneatypes. They can have a great sense of humour. and they also tend to be more emotionally demonstrative than the other non-sexual subtypes. This subtype is a mass of contradictions. When their standards or ideals aren’t met. they are more personable. Rules aren’t quite as important. Usually. They will zero in on what they want to make better and the intensity of their conviction is more obvious. On the high side. you’ll likely know about it. they can be brutal to others while being very sensitive themselves to the slightest criticism. the contradictions and struggle usually make for a very interesting person. they can be quite persuasive when it comes to their chosen causes. somewhat “lighter” and don’t generally take themselves as seriously. Sexual/Social The instinctual energy of this subtype is the most at odds with their dominant Oneness. Along with this. They can be highly critical of their spouses. With this as their focus. Frustration for the social/self-pres One comes when others aren’t maintaining the same ideals and standards the One holds. Close bonds are the focus of their perfectionism. The difference between this type and the self-pres/sexual is that the sexual first intensity wins out. physical environment. This subtype is the most intense. they can be judgmental and intrusive when their input is not called for. Competition and intensity can enter the picture. They can be very jealous and protective of their relationships. and can generate the impetus for action we so often see with this type. This type is likely to have an interest in politics and social concerns. Their blind spot can be their inability to see the impact of their intensity in the social realm. they can approach the world with the attitude that they need to be right at all costs. the One’s fear of not being perfect manifests directly in the realm of close personal relationships. combining high ideals with passion. Most of their focus is on people and society. The anger and frustration is more visible in this subtype. This frustration in the social arena combines with the self-pres concerns. On the down side. however those concerns centre more on individuals. but judge themselves for doing so. not just their .they can be trusted and have everyone’s best interest in mind. They are similar to the self-pres/social in the respect that both types will be community minded. Along with the sexual/social subtype. Social/Sexual The social/sexual One will have the same concerns as the social/self-pres types. They focus on having a perfect mate or perfect friends and family. Their sense of humour can be sarcastic and biting. They want to let themselves go. expecting perfection from them. On the down side. On the down side. but the self-pres/social will focus more on self and this type will extend its focus to the group. their sensitivity can cause them to hold grudges. On the down side. They are looking for perfection in everyone they are close to. when this extra outward energy is taken too far. but there is much less emphasis on perfectionism in the material. Sexual/Self-pres When the sexual instinct is dominant. there is still a sense of organisation and a desire to do the job right. they can even be somewhat sloppy.

This results in a cycle of giving followed by anger. cook. They are outwardly competitive. the hurt and fear of type Two is that they aren’t lovable. So the self-pres Two wants to bring love to themselves. They give of themselves in concrete terms. They do this in a way that relates to their environment. and the ego’s game is to force the other person into giving the Two what the Two wants. the fear of being unloved is less focused on key individuals. friendly and very personable. they too may be mistyped as other enneatypes. As Twos become less healthy. this type is warm and engaging. They are likely to be there physically to help. It would be nice if someone helped them out once . They begin to force the issue. where they give to get. their fear is of not being loved or seen as loving. Like the social/sexual. The survival energy is based on the need to feel love from intimates. They become blind to the fact that their ego is engaged and they start to manipulate others into feeling guilty for not returning their love. thoughtful cards. expecting the return of whatever good they have brought to others. because they just can’t accept that they don’t deserve to be loved. This subtype is warm. and possessions. When this image/feeling energy combines with the sexual instinct. it compounds the outward merging energy of both the Two and the sexual instinct. they might still focus energy on the situation. Twos give with acceptance of any outcome. like the social/sexual. Two is part of the feeling triad. When healthy. Deep down. It’s very important for them to be understood. remembering special days. their safety. The anger that is under the surface with the other instinctual variants of type One is much more likely to be apparent with this subtype. lend a hand. The image/feeling issues of the type combine with the social instinct. as in doing things for others. resulting in a type very focused on others. Giving and doing can result in a feeling of entitlement. They give to others in acts of kindness—gifts. comfort. You always know where you stand with them. They can also be very persuasive. When the social instinct is dominant. If they have an opinion you are going to hear about it. If their love goes unreciprocated. The basic fear of being unlovable manifests differently with the various instinctual stackings. they will resent that they are the ones that do all the work. The heart energy of the Two is an outward energy. Their focus is usually on their home and family. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Two Healthy Twos know how to give of themselves without the need for reciprocity on their terms. but they accept life for what it is. and can make for the very caring compassionate drive that is often seen in the social Two. They can mimic type Eight’s energy in this regard. fix something. The sin of pride becomes very apparent in this subtype. On the down side. while the self-pres energy focuses inward. The self-pres Two turns their fear of being unloved into material giving. pride creeps in and they can’t accept that the love and closeness they want from another is not available. and focuses on the need to maintain social bonds. Self-pres/Social The self-pres instinct in the Two is somewhat at odds with the dominant type Two fixation. On the high side. but on the down side this same energy can bring with it the full brunt of the One’s anger and the need to be right.spouses. but pride blinds them. They can be very charismatic and engaging. or don’t even see that they are manipulating others. They justify.

for instance playing friends against each other in an attempt to keep themselves as the centre of attention. This subtype has strong opinions. When the social instinct is last. On the high side. but their blind spot (just like all the heart centred types) is not always being able to read how they are making others feel. On the upside they are great friends—usually positive and inspiring. On the down side. They are friends with everyone. They will use humour and charm. usually in the form of a guilt trip. They constantly fear the loss of their standing within the group. On the high side. On the down side they can be too clingy. On the high side. but. When unhealthy. they can make a lot of demands on their loved ones. On the down side. manipulation can enter into the picture when things aren’t going as the Two would like. The Two is past oriented. On the high side. Social/Sexual The soc/sexual Two is very people oriented. as long as this subtype takes the time to tend to their own needs. especially in the present. their friendship. so they manipulate the group in indirect ways to keep themselves in good standing. They can become “know-it-alls. the Two will most certainly let others know.in a while. on the down side. it helps dampen some of the image issues that surface when this subtype is out of balance. They will remind you of how many friends they have. they are more connected to the people closest to them and not as concerned about others. Social/Self-pres The social instinct in the Two emphasises the Two’s issues with pride. but are blind to . They get involved in the community in a helping way. They may exaggerate just how close those friends are to them. Their gift to others is themselves. feeling that it’s their turn to be catered to for a while. causing people to feel violated. When their attempts to give love don’t get appreciated. they can gain much enjoyment in service to others and the life they build for themselves and their friends and family. Their focus is not so much on material things. Twos are usually very good at reading others’ emotions and needs. they have an emotional tally in their minds of all the good they have done in the past for others. They make a point of making a connection with most everyone they meet. It becomes a vicious cycle because the more they get rejected the more they push. they want to give to society. They develop a feeling of entitlement. For instance they do charity work or volunteer for their church.” They need to tell you how everything should be done for your own good. since they have done so much. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype is more assertive then the self-pres/social subtype in giving and getting love. this type can be the glue that holds people together. as the one that others have to turn to. Sexual/Self-pres Jealousy is a big issue for the sexual variant of type Two. Their world is usually wrapped around their family. they can be very manipulative. they can’t see how they push away the people from whom they most want love. The fear of not being seen as loving becomes the focus for the social Two. They can be stubborn and passive-aggressive in an attempt to get their needs met.

This subtype loves attention. like the social/sexual. we find a subtype that can be very competitive when it comes to social status. since image validation is accentuated. the sexual variant issues get triggered. but is even more accentuated in the sexual variant because the underlying fear of both the enneatype and the sexual instinct are very similar. They make themselves attractive to be lovable.how they can make others feel at the moment. They differ in that they give their attention to more people. The down side can be similar to that of the sex/self-pres. With the soc/sexual the issues and dysfunction are more apparent before the intimacy even begins. When the social instinct is dominant. This is common to all unhealthy Twos. They actually have a softer presentation than the fiercely intense sex/self-pres. Feelings of safety and security are tied to the Three’s always having enough and to being seen by others as having enough. The fear of being unlovable and the concern with validation are expressed differently with the different instinctual stackings. the Two develops powers of introspection which helps them form truly healthy relationships. When unhealthy. The sexual/social. tend to consider their presence to be their gift. but the secondary social instinct brings the issue of pride more into focus as well. When healthier. They expect their intimates to read their minds and do things for them to show their appreciation. the jealousy. Therefore. The biggest difference will be in intensity. the need for validation is tied to material possessions. when the relationship becomes more intimate. they can become controlling and manipulative with their loved ones. and are very good at making the other person feel special. Telling the difference between self-pres/sexual subtype and sexual/self-pres subtype can be very difficult with enneatype Two because type Two energy itself can mimic the energy of the sexual instinct. the difference being that their relationships are taken more seriously. With the self-pres instinct dominant. They may not work as hard in those early stages as the soc/sex will. the self-pres/sexual Two will adopt more of an air of entitlement as compared to the sexual/self-pres subtype. a self-pres Two can still have many of the same issues as the sexual Two. On the high side. They can be very flirtatious. This subtype has a lot of charisma. Social Threes may go to great lengths to further the image of themselves as being successful. Their love can spread to all of humanity. once they move beyond the early stages. but at some point. the concern with validation of image is accentuated. They can be wonderful friends just like the soc/sex. so there is generally a competitive nature to social Threes. They will be less direct when it comes to expressing their needs. . On the down side. When unhealthy. the sex/self-pres subtype can become volatile with their intimates. if this attention is not reciprocated. and the intense focus on others. Sexual/Social This subtype shares most of the same issues with the sex/self-pres subtype—the flirtatiousness. In the social Three. They give by shows of affection and by spending time with those they are focused on. they can be a role model for acceptance and caring. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Three Enneatype Three belongs to the feeling/image triad.

This Three derives validation from peer admiration due to high social rank. a social/self-pres Three born in American society will likely strive to epitomise the “American dream” by embodying all the qualities most Americans currently associate with perfection. Their focus is not naturally in the social arena. they can have a distrust of new people within their circle of influence. They generally put a great deal of effort into their work. admired by others and finally stop feeling like a failure. a large house. Self-pres Threes seem to feel that if they get that promotion. You may see them having quite a talent for design and creativity especially. less energy is available for intimate relationships. Of course. Their sense of style is quite apparent. As the sexual instinct is last.) will vary greatly depending on the individual life circumstances. unless the social Three perceives their status as being “exceptional” compared to their peers. These Threes are competitive in a quiet way. With the social instinct being last. This subtype is prone to double and triple booking the hours of the day. and. The social Three thus focuses their energy on the arena of social status. Self-pres/Social This subtype is the most reserved and introverted of the subtypes of enneatype Three. the actual sources of admiration (money. When healthier. be the perfect mother or father for instance. they can be very generous with what they have learned and acquired. which necessitates a degree of conformity to the norms of the individual’s culture. These Threes often try to do it all. and possibly the hardest worker. They slow down and begin to accept themselves as they are.The sexual Three is competitive in the area of physical attraction. Social/Self-pres The social instinct combines with the dominant Threeness and accentuates the desire for external validation. These Threes will work tirelessly to find an attractive mate. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype also focuses on material success but is overall less concerned with status. The false belief that they are what they accomplish is the driving force behind the behaviour of selfpres/soc Threes. However. college degrees. For example. and maintaining relationships with friends and family. etc. while working many hours. Their focus is on being seen as someone who is able to attract and secure a mate. On the high side. There is a strong desire to excel. of course. but when unbalanced can become cold when their self-pres instinct is threatened in any way. so this can unnerve the self-pres/sexual Three. flashy cars. drive a high status car. there is no middle ground. They usually do what it takes to rise to the top. The bottom line is. They take their relationships seriously. where it comes to their homes and appearance. These Threes can therefore have a hard time with intimacy until they learn to slow down and prioritise their relationships. excelling at whatever they choose to do. although the areas chosen may differ widely from one Three to the next. they feel utterly valueless. the goal will always be on attaining an enviable status in the eyes of others. this subtype comes to the realisation that all of their hard work won’t change what they fundamentally feel inside. have enough money or buy a big enough house they will then be lovable. This stems from the Three’s fear that they are inherently empty and must continuously prove their worth by receiving validation. attain a beautiful home. The driving motivation for their hard work comes down to their fear of not being good enough. . They learn to prioritise other aspects of their lives. possess a physically appealing appearance.

This type can still be materially successful. this Three will have an desirable home. For this stacking. this subtype of Three can mimic a sexual variant’s vivaciousness and out-reaching. Being social types. Self-preservation in the secondary position can also lead to fears and preoccupations with health and safety when the social needs are believed to be unmet. they sometimes lack the resources for sustained intimacy. there is more internal motivation (stemming from the selfpreservation instinct in the secondary position) to maintain order and stability for themselves. but may be lacking deep. Social/Sexual This stacking will cause most of the social variant issues described for the social/self-pres to manifest. highly-respected careers in fields such as medicine. this Three will strive for the accumulation of wealth in cultures where there is social validation for wealth. Having the sexual instinct in the last position diminishes this type’s need for intimacy and intensity. With the social/self-pres stacking. law. this Three will find it difficult to expend sufficient energy in practical matters. their interpersonal skills become a useful tool for grounding themselves and for finding what they really want from life and for finding who they really are. The motivation for attainment of material wealth will be derived less out of need for stability and more purely from the desire for social admiration. the need for material stability is intensified. This often leads to a tendency to have lucrative. sexual validation as well as intimacy are also sought. unhealthy Threes of this stacking will have many colleagues in high places and successful. There will be many occasions where the lure of enjoyment (even excess) will take precedence over the need to stay on the “straight and narrow. While social validation is still the primary focus. When this subtype is healthy. As with all self-preservation last types. . which means recognising the real self first. They learn to maintain a more consistent identity. respectable acquaintances.” Focus on interpersonal relationships. as well as longing for intensity of experience is far more pronounced in this type of Three than in the social/self-pres. they can become very generous and can direct their high energy and enthusiasm into the social sphere with extremely positive results. however. except where there is social pressure to do so. As a result. Because this is still a social subtype. etc.) When these Threes are healthy. bringing all of who they really are to the forefront. status will invariably be associated with wealth.When backed by the self-preservational instinct. Having the social instinct backed by the sexual instinct creates the most playful energy combination. Therefore. because the social and self-pres needs will trump the effort for closer bonds. making this Three seem somewhat like a Seven. However. true friends. With this soc/sexual subtype the motivation to keep up appearances is more purely external. but they will not be as directly focused on this goal as the social/self-pres Three. but most likely it will fall into disarray when visitors are not expected. and it is more likely for this subtype to choose “impractically” in the area of relationships (though they may keep their more “socially unacceptable” friends hidden from public scrutiny. just as with the social/self-pres Three. The primary differences will be in the arena of interpersonal relationships.

They are more prone to depression than the other subtypes. which is to reveal the real self and trust that they are lovable even with their flaws. This type especially wrestles with the authenticity of the persona/image they create. to perhaps collect items of personal emotional significance. They are likely to value their possessions. deluding themselves that if they are admired. they realise this competition is self-defeating. When healthier. Because they feel unworthy of true love. This insatiable need often leads to intense jealousy. etc. They can resemble type One in terms of their efficiency and practicality. lacks trust in their intimates. The outward sexual energy coupled with the secondary self-pres energy can cause these Threes to focus on projecting an image of themselves to the world. and begin to disentangle the real self from the flux of partial identities they create. like the sex/self-pres. Although their focus will be more on the emotional aesthetic. This subtype can also resemble type Six in terms of having a great deal of anxiety. they don’t believe that anyone can love them solely for themselves. the image protects the real self. It’s not uncommon to find this subtype in the arts. When the sex/soc is healthier. achievements. these Fours do have a considerable practical side. Ageing is often especially difficult for this subtype. The sex/soc subtype. they may become worthy of love. Less flashy than some of the subtypes of Four. On the one hand. which only serves to distance others from them. for instance. especially with the Four wing.Sexual/Self-pres This subtype can appear almost Four-like. This anxiety often revolves around self-pres . especially as actors. They learn that being vulnerable is necessary if they are to get what they really want. Sexual/Social The focus of this subtype is less on material gain. This subtype likes to be seen as the alpha male or alpha female. singers or performers. They can be very emotional and then become very businesslike. They can be dramatic and appear introspective. they nevertheless have a quiet charm and developed sense of style. This subtype is likely to be in a constant state of flux when it comes to the image they project and for this reason. they continuously strive to hold onto their intimates’ admiration. They will seek validation in the area of their persona. Therefore. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Four Self-pres/Social This subtype is the least volatile and fiery of the type Four stackings. While they share a lot with the sex/self-pres Three. This insecurity leads to an incessant need for reassurance from intimates. They can take comfort in the thought that another person’s success and attention do not take away their worth in any way. thus erroneously affirming the Three’s basic fear that they are unworthy of true love. There is an on and off quality to these Threes. but at the same time they hate the image they project. they run the risk of burn-out and disillusionment. They may. these Threes begin to trust their intimate relationships. have shelves and shelves of books and have a place for each book. They do this through vigorous maintenance of their appearance. The basic fear for this type is loss of intimate love. in the form of words of affirmation or time spent together (to the exclusion of others). the secondary social instinct adds an element of competition when it comes to questions of desirability.

they find that they can form relationships without feeling as though they are sacrificing authenticity. The social Four often deals with this dilemma by defining themselves as being outside the social system. When this subtype is reasonably healthy. these Fours can become very disdainful of the social environment. There is more of a passionate sense about them as compared to the self/soc. fitting in. or finding a way to make a valued contribution. They can be harsh critics of the current mores. They also start to envy the ease with which others seem to form relationships and maintain friendships. They have more of a sensual relationship with their environment. By defining themselves always in terms of the system. They have romantic ideals of what the world should be like. when less healthy they might suffer from boughts of melancholy or self pity. causing this subtype to habitually analyze their relationships to the point where they find it difficult to be present to them. these Fours can be very productive. They develop true insight into social dynamics and have an eye for the nuances and subtleties of social interactions. This enables them to become action oriented. These Fours are much more tortured by their difficulty with respect to maintaining close relationships. When healthy. Their strong self-pres instinct also lends a degree of independence to this subtype. Ironically. They are able to see the ways in which their emotionality might cloud their better judgment and to use that insight to establish equilibrium. As the sexual instinct is least pronounced. this Four stays essentially tied to it. They are likely to utilise charm and humour. This agenda conflicts with the Four’s sense of being “different from” or “other than. They no longer feel that they have to automatically define themselves as “different from others. Social/Self-pres This subtype can mimic type One when it comes to social values. When unhealthy. reality always falls short. Social/Sexual This is overall the “lightest” type Four when it comes to social interaction. When Fours of this subtype are healthy. The self-preservational instinct tends to be in conflict with the sexual instinct. Many Four writers are soc/self. The social instinct tends to give the personality a focus on being included.” The Four’s need to establish a separate identity conflicts with the social instinct’s drive towards inclusion. They feel as if these things help to express who they are. Social anxiety combines with the Four’s shame issues to make this type feel that the pressure associated with “fitting in” is just not worth it. this type can be the most withdrawn of the Fours. even if it is to establish distance.” as outside the group.concerns such as those surrounding health issues and mortality. they are often gifted critics of the prevailing culture. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype also cares very much about their surroundings and their possessions. The strong self-pres instinct however often helps these individuals to recognise how their state of mind is impacting their health and well being. They are also the most likely of the Fours to intellectualise their emotions and in this way resemble type Five. Fours with the social/self-pres stacking tend to acutely feel a sense of social shame at not quite belonging. They can drift . This type is more scattered and can be downright disorganised. this subtype of Four is prone to romanticise intimacy without actually pursuing real relationships.

Sexual/Social This subtype is able to connect with others and with life itself. although not all Fours of this subtype are artists. . but they frequently lack the energy to actually accomplish what they would like. They can go from relationship to relationship. When their powerful fantasies don’t match reality. When healthy and with the right support from friends (and perhaps a little push) they tap into their instinctual energy. Intimates will know of their insecurities and dark moody side while acquaintances will see a softer. they lack the focus of the Eight and the instinctual energy that would keep them grounded. Although they can appear almost Eight-like at times with their lust for life and desire for passionate experience. this subtype learns to balance the need for passion with the less obvious need for groundedness which can come from solid and focused relationships with others and with their creative outlets. They can drift and withdraw very easily.through life always feeling like an outsider. because of the way they seem to embody the archetype of the tortured artist. friendlier side. this subtype does tend to bring their emotions into focus more readily then the other subtypes of Four. What is under the surface with the self-pres/sexual is now bubbling to the surface. This subtype can resemble type Seven because of their drama. partly due to the undeveloped self-pres instinct. passion for experience and tendency to suffer from frustration when life seems dull. they can seem to throw themselves into experience. Like type Seven. they become very restless. Sometimes alcohol or substance abuse can be a problem. They can alternate from being the life of the party to withdrawing. Dramatic mood swings are very likely with this type. They are the most involved and connected of the subtypes of Four. They take the fire and passion of the sexual instinct and turn it inward. yet they usually have friends. Stereotype aside. but always with an undertone of volatility and a tendency to dramatise. When healthy. but they never feel as though they really fit in. This subtype has a real difficulty remaining grounded. These Fours become more healthy when they learn to control their impulsivenss and focus their energies. A positive connection to others helps them stay focused. They are often quite creative. This subtype of Four could be considered the most classic Four. They are driven to form connections but have very high demands of their partners. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Five The self-preservational instinct is accentuated by the type Five fixation. the social and sexual instincts therefore set up some degree of conflict with the dominant type Five fixation. they begin to see how much they can accomplish. When dominant. The other two instincts are in opposition to the main type. seemingly tortured by each one. This can cause both brooding and fiery outbursts. They are the most driven of the subtypes of Four to express themselves publicly and type Four celebrities are commonly found with this stacking. Sexual/Self-pres This is a very volatile type. When they do this. This subtype’s energy is geared towards people. talented people who have many interests.

withdrawing tendencies of the Five. As the social instinct is the least developed. While they can usually handle themselves socially. They feel an energy drain from people’s demands on them. Fives of this subtype love their time alone with a passion. they have more disdain for people and little use for the social aspects of life. They can be the most practical of the instinctual stackings. Because this subtype is good at minimising their needs they can get along fine with few relationships or without a romantic partner. but given their concerns for protecting their space and time and lacking the instinctual drive of a strong sexual instinct. The self-pres energy gives this subtype a solid foundation and some degree of practicality. is more typical of the depictions of type Five. but it doesn’t usually present that way. These Fives are masters at minimising their needs. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype. Their detached level of personal involvement somehow brings objectivity to their insights. but it can’t really be accessed. friendly. and pursue it more actively even than the other subtype of self-pres Five. so these Fives will pull up faster and harder into self-pres mode if they should feel at all threatened. they often want to find time for intimates as well. and loyal. The intensity of the sexual instinct is reserved for their intimates and even there it is sporadic. but with the self-pres/sexual instinctual stacking. This subtype has an ideal vision of what a close or romantic relationship should be. These Fives are conflicted when it comes to experiencing and expressing emotions. Others are aware that there is more going on beneath the surface. Because the social instinct is dominant. This is a dynamic common to all Fives. This can become problematic in personal relationships. The most notable and potentially frustrating thing about people of this type is the difficulty involved in getting really close to them. This . On the down side. The social arena is more important and is invested with more energy. Social/Self-pres One might think that the energy of this subtype would be warmer and friendlier than that of the selfpres/social. the balance of these forces is pretty precarious and it seems as though the scales are being constantly adjusted one way or another. The selfpreservational instinct accentuates the self-contained. Their issues usually revolve around demands made on their time. With the social instinct second in the stacking. but the need to maintain their own time to pursue their interests is always a point of contention. these Fives are much more aware of their role in the group. They actually value it very much. they generally do find friends or colleagues and they may even be married. They want to be left alone or they want to share their inner world with their intimates. this instinctual stacking is warm. This instinctual stacking is what is described in most Enneagram books. they always hold back when it comes to intensity or intimacy in a relationship which can frustrate a sexual variant type. like the self-pres/social. the social arena gets the drier more intellectual approach almost by default. although with the sexual instinct second. They usually default to emotional repression and to detached intellectual analysis. They need their down time and have no problem spending time alone.Self-pres/Social In the average health range. energy just doesn’t flow in that direction. Even though they shy away from intense personal relationships they often have a lot of intuition about others. They are therefore more careful of their involvements with others.

This subtype of Five is more likely to fear rejection than the other subtypes of Five. Their interest in structure. any failure in the realm of interpersonal relationships triggers a fear that there is no safety in the world.” and also experience the sexual drive of wanting to connect with intimates. without the emotional intensity of the sexual instinct setting up any distraction. they can actually go to the other extreme and be very shy. When relaxed and comfortable with others. might not seem like social subtypes at all. This doesn’t mean that people of this subtype are necessarily any healthier however. People of this subtype are very aware of how they “fit in. People of this subtype are usually warm and when feeling secure are likely to let people in and even to initiate contact. This will help them to see that their world will not come to an end with a little rejection. They can really be content to adopt the role of “people watcher. Fives of this subtype feel a sense of belonging socially. the sexual instinct can easily be seen. This subtype could be seen as the most intellectual of type Five. those Fives who withdraw from social contact because of feelings of insecurity. humanity or spirituality. people of this subtype can be very engaging (for a Five). It might not be obvious that they actually very much desire contact. accentuates their natural inclination for acquiring knowledge. the less chance they have of being rejected. without having to be personally involved and invested. They smile a lot and are often friendly. If they do have a few people relatively close to them. The healthier people of this subtype are. they can really strike a good balance between their need to withdraw and their need to connect to the larger social world. the social instinct actually works as a release value for the sexual component. For this reason. This serves as their connection with people. . people of this subtype could easily be mistyped. especially social structure. These Fives fit the role of the scientist or professor quite well in this respect. People of this subtype tend to think that the more they understand people. This tends to be a blind spot for people of this subtype as they don’t see that what will actually help them to become healthier is gaining more life experience. Their blind spot revolves around the fact that they tend to convince themselves they can get along just fine in the observer role. This subtype will centre a lot of their intellectual interest around the workings of society. With the sexual instinct least developed. By means of these abstract mental constructs. Personality systems like the Enneagram function as tool to help this subtype of Five to feel safe in the world. Like other social/sexual subtypes. The combination of the basic desire for knowing with the social instinct’s need to “fit in. they have the tendency to cultivate many relationships. When they feel insecure however.” but they do it from a closer and closer perspective.” makes people of this subtype want to find a niche as the expert. but being Fives they also tend to hold a part of themselves back for fear of rejection or of being overwhelmed by the demands of the relationship. For people of this subtype. The outgoing energy is not the result of true integration to Eight but is the result of the compulsive pull of the instincts. Social/Sexual When reasonably healthy. Their energy is quite different from the social/self-pres subtype because both the social and sexual energies push outwards. the more they are able to integrate their mental constructs with their actual experiences. this subtype is in the position of having a strong pull towards understanding the workings of the world around them.will sometimes give others the impression of coldness. Because both of the dominant instincts are focused on people. They want to be liked by everyone. and so partly balance out some of the withdrawing tendencies of the Five. It does feel safer to them.

When unhealthy. The sexual/self-pres subtype differs however in being more intense. Not only do they have a strong desire to merge with a significant other.Sexual/Self-pres This subtype has a lot in common the self-pres/sexual instinctual stacking. They are less concerned than the social/sexual subtype with social rejection. Sexual/social This subtype is the most dramatic of the instinctual stackings of type Five. the need for independence and emotional expression. the energy of the sexual instinct can combine with the dominant type Five fixation to create a very impulsive Eight-like anger. they will want to share whatever knowledge. or if they feel that the connection doesn’t serve their true needs. The intensity. can seem to cut the connection precipitously and “go cold. talent or insight they may have. They have a strong desire to express themselves. Then the intensity and emotion become apparent. They must feel that they can share their emotions with a significant other without being judged. With this subtype. This subtype can become quite accomplished if they are able to form an intimate connection with someone who will help ground them and provide them with a feeling of security. They experience many of the same internal conflicts surrounding relationships. The strength of their convictions can then come out quite forcefully. while at other times will want intense connection. They can also become very arrogant. The internal struggle for this subtype is similar to that of the selfpres/sexual. This is their private world that they share. this subtype is not very concerned with how others perceive them (except their intimates). Because the social instinct is least developed. They entertain more dark nihilistic ideas. a lot of energy revolves around the issue of boundaries. all combine with the social instinct to produce a highly charged personality. but if they feel betrayed. pessimistic and the most confrontational of all the subtypes of Five. but take rejection from intimates very much to heart. Sexual/self-pres Fives tend to forge strong connections quickly and deeply. This subtype is deceptive in that they may not seem to be especially intense—until they are engaged in a conversation they find interesting.” They have high standards for significant others. When unhealthy. Relationships can be difficult. ideas that most others don’t want to consider. more counter-phobic. . this subtype can be very dark. but more energised and volatile. aggression. they also want to make their mark in the larger social sphere. and can be the most Four-like of all the instinctual subtypes of type Five. counter-phobic stance and desire to connect deeply. because individuals of this subtype will still want their own space and alone time. and getting to know this subtype means getting to know that. When Fives of this subtype feel a sense of safety due to healthy intimate relationships. begin to feel overwhelmed.

While mainly phobic. usually in a “going towards” fashion.” This stance usually involves a testing of others to make sure that they are safe. but for different reasons. Adhering to rules is seen as very important to this type. Conversely. The self-pres combines with the social instinct in such a way that the Six looks to find security in alliances. Self-pres/Sexual This type shares with the self-pres/social stacking the need to keep their environment in order. They get things done before they become a problem. They would rather feel comforted by the safety of like-minded individuals. but at the same time. They can appear like enneatype One in their ability to get things done. They are concerned about how they are seen sexually. The differences revolve around the fact that they find their security more in their ability to attract a mate. their counter-phobic nature shows in their sense of fun. their organisational style.) Social/Self-pres This type appears One-like also. Their intimates are very important. but still. Their alliances to groups and authority can be quite conflicting. especially when they fear it threatens their self-preservational concerns. Family and traditions are often very important to them. it’s just not where they locate their security. Their . with whom they can make strong alliances. The stance with regards to political or social concerns can vary wildly within this subtype. and are likely to overcome fear in order to engage in adventures. This stacking is the most visibly anxious Six. their anxiety is closely tied to the pulse and feedback of the people closest to them. such as distrusting reactively or trusting too vehemently. With the social instinct last in their stacking. This type is the least counter-phobic of the instinctual stackings of type Six. they can become frozen with anxiety. They are less outwardly fearful than the self-pres/social. They are drawn to intensity. when healthy. Their issues with security are focused on their loved ones. In relationships. This type is usually very independent and proactive when it comes to the details of life. The self-pres in the Six brings a focus on security. Does the other person have the best interests of the Six at heart? They question other’s intentions. They can exhaust themselves from worrying. It’s not so much that they can’t be counter-phobic. They are usually political in some form. On the down side. The self-pres is looking for safety and alliances with others. Security to the self-pres/social Six is generated by connections with other individuals or groups. their sense of duty. the social instinct combines with the self-pres to give this subtype a strong desire to know where they fit within the group. (This is especially true with the Seven wing. and their loyalty. These alliances with others foster a “going towards. they are very loyal and trustworthy. testing others is always an essential element in determining who becomes a trusted friend or romantic partner. This is the result of their lack of a close connection to people (a function of the undeveloped sexual instinct). It’s not generally an overt confrontational testing. They also can appear One-like in that way. they can counter-phobicaly oppose groups. This time. this subtype can have a natural distrust of the social dynamic. the more assertive energy of the sexual instinct can manifest in a more counter-phobic stance.Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Six Self-pres/Social This subtype of Six is generally warm and friendly. They have issues with authority.

the differences between themselves and others are not bothersome and may even be seen as reassuring. enthusiasm and curiosity are infectious. They are very loyal friends. their “us against them” thinking can turn into bigotry. They are likely to use humour to charm people. Their need to find security within the group is threatened when others don’t do things the way they do or think the way they think. On the down side. they can appear almost Two-like sometimes. They do volunteer work. because with this type. They go with the flow more than the other subtypes. On the up side. On the down side. Their security comes from maintaining close bonds. Female Sixes are likely to emphasise their looks in order to be attractive. and “playing the martyr. the counter-phobic energy is directed more toward individuals than towards ideas and concepts. The sexual/self-pres Six can appear Three-like. coupled with the sexual instinct being last. Their need for people in their lives. This softens the strong stances seen in the soc/self-pres. They go through life looking for the people they think will be able to direct them. They can be competitive and appear Eight-like. these are people with a strong moral compass. It’s more about controlling the people closest to them. On the down side. beauty and merging. This type is identified with their respective gender roles for security. their charm. security comes from making alliances with individuals. because of their need for validation and competitiveness.allegiance is not to individuals but to a group of like-minded others. they can make individuals into their authority figures and rely too much on them. although that can be said more or less about all reasonably healthy Sixes. With this stacking. paranoia about the relationship can set in. for maintaining their friendship. When they are healthier. On the down side. But with the self-pres/soc and the soc/sex nothing much more than your support is required. They become politicians. They can be very possessive of their mates. They are a lighter Six. The sexual Six is counter-phobic in terms of needing to prove their desirability and strength. but on the down side may whine and complain about their circumstances to garner support. In the sexual/self-pres Six. When healthier. paranoia.” In relationships. These Sixes are always testing their mates for loyalty. and in such professions where it is possible to identify with a group which has clearly defined rules and purposes. They rely on key people in their lives when doubt sets in. This can turn to extreme jealousy. they can become very critical of others when they fear their differences. Male Sixes are likely to show strength as a form of counter-phobia. they can be counted on to do the right thing. This occurs mostly when this subtype is unhealthy. Their weakness comes from their self-pres instinct being last. Social/Sexual This type can be very different from the other social type. causes them to worry about the close bonds they have with others and can also cause them to “go towards” while at the same time requiring validation about the strength of the bond. Paranoia arises when the Six feels abandoned by intimates. doubt and anxiety is relieved by the knowledge that one’s intimates really are trustworthy. because the soc/sex doesn’t find its security in organisations and government. . They fear rejection much more then the soc/self-pres. This subtype could possibly find themselves in jobs such as with the police of fire fighting force. Security comes from knowing they are desirable. so they are not as independent as the self-pres/soc. They are generally solid people. Sexual/Self-pres The sexual/self-pres Six is more concerned with strength.

and the Six too might be unaware of its presence. both experiences of the body and the mind. The typical things we associate with anxiety aren’t obvious with this subtype. and more fun loving than other self-pres subtypes. which can lead to depression. The nature of the Six to “go towards. away from boredom or pain. Their anxiety is focused in the arena of relationships. Sexual/Social The counter-phobic stance of the sexual Six can be seen in competition for attracting the right mate. and acting out. While the self-pres energy is an inward turning energy. Their energy goes to the comforts of the body and positive experiences. Sevens go towards the external world for relief. The intensity of the sexual instinct brings with it a passion that is unwavering for the love and protection of their loved ones. Self-pres/Social Self-pres/soc Seven has many friends and loves to entertain. even the more visibly anxious subtypes might not be aware of their underlying anxiety. This type is likely to be found quite commonly among actresses and actors as they tend towards a dramatic presentation. Sevens want to experience life with their friends. anger. They can have a very focused intensity. and in testing to see who is worthy of trust. This can be true of all the subtypes of type Six. This future orientation of the self/social Seven . when coupled with the Seven’s outward orientation. in their defence of their loved ones and social standing. This outward energy is sometimes counterbalanced with inward doubting. They are less possessive of their mates.On the high side.” combined with the merging of the sexual instinct. can sometimes create an idealisation of others. Their need to be identified with their desirability and their strong social instinct. Like all Sevens. the self-pres subtype of Seven can appear outgoing. the fear of losing the close relationship can cause this subtype to desperately lash out counter-phobicaly. especially as it pertains to the future. They define themselves in accordance with the prevailing gender norms opting to appear masculine or feminine as the case may be. this subtype can be the most fiercely loyal to their friendships and to those loved ones who have gained their trust. The self-pres in type Seven manifests in a desire for sensual pleasures. anxiety is not always obvious. they have an enthusiastic quality. combine to sometimes make them public figures. Social seven tends to exhibit a nervous energy compared to the other subtypes of Seven while a dominant sexual instinct often accentuates the outward energy of the Seven in terms of a seeking after intensity. Making plans for life is essential for the self-pres/social Seven. So. and since their stance is mostly counter-phobic. but still feel the need to have control in the relationship. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Seven The instinctual energies often appear to manifest differently in enneatype Seven. They can appear Four-like in their desire to express themselves and give into their passions. On the down side. at the lower levels of health. but the underlying structure really is the same as with any other type. The sexual/social can appear Eight-like. Their anxiety exists at a core level so that Sixes don’t always know how to gauge its existence. Anxiety isn’t as noticeable with the sexual variant of type Six. The Seven fixation results in a running away from the internal. especially when the self-pres instinct is last. the ones that have passed the test of the Six. This is true of both sexual subtypes and especially true of the sexual/social.

the infusion of enthusiasm comes through when they are engaged in their plans and fulfilling them. With social second in the stacking much of their energy will spill over into maintaining social connections. While they may be very good and comfortable in a large group and when dealing with surface social relationships. the concern with issues of image and relation to the group is somewhat at odds with dominant type Seven fixation. or renovating the house. With the sexual instinct least developed. They start to realise that the next great plan may not give them the happiness they are expecting. although commitment can also be a problem for this subtype. When unhealthier. as commitments can feel like a limitation on their options.can be an escape from boredom. they are community minded. The more friends. The self-pres backup for the social instinct adds a grounding force that is missing with the social/sexual. but in the self-pres/sexual subtype. While still possessing a good sense of humour. (These can even become quite needy when unbalanced. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype is similar to the self-pres/social. This subtype of Seven is overall more focused than the self-pres/social. Social/Self-pres Enneatype Seven is a mentally fixated type. They generally have a great sense of humour. this subtype also usually has more focus and follow-through when it comes to their many projects. have a lot of energy and usually socially accomplished. but they will usually avoid the most troublesome areas. they sometimes can struggle with forming and maintaining connections in a closer relationship. The self-pres/social Seven’s plans usually focus around typical self-pres concerns such as making money. the more opportunities the Seven has to be distracted. the areas and characteristics most painful to them. Their focus is on their intimates although certainly not solely on them as they usually have many other fires burning also. There is often more of an artistic flair. but their plans and pursuits are more passionate in nature. Their focus is more on relationships. so many of the plans they make for the future don’t come to fruition. These Sevens can have a hard time making or keeping commitments. For the social Seven.) With sexual instinct least developed. whether they be material things or experiences. This subtype can even be known to use introspection as an escape. When this subtype gets healthier they learn to ground themselves. This doesn’t stop them however from forging ahead and moving onto the next grand scheme. There is an underlying sense of insecurity and anxiety that isn’t as apparent in the other subtypes of Seven which is especially noticeable with the Six wing. On the high side. slow down and actually appreciate the many things they have acquired. with image focus generally underdeveloped. their many friendships serve mostly as tools which help keep the Seven distracted from facing themselves and their problems. sharp quick minds and many interests. exploring job opportunities. They can be moodier then the other subtype. They can go inward with a seeming depth. These qualities might be common to all subtypes of the Seven. This can result in some apparently conflicting behaviours in the social/self-pres Seven. . they can feel unmotivated to put in the work it takes to maintain a close relationship. they can lose trust in the bonds they have.

and performing in general. Sexual/Self-pres The energy of the sexual instinct is. These Sevens want to keep things light. They may end up in marriages or long term commitments where they hook up with someone reliable and stable. at odds with the type Seven fixation. interacting with this subtype of Seven can feel draining. they can be very clingy but don’t want at the same time to lose their freedom. They want to recreate it again and again. The sexual/self-pres Seven’s addictive behaviour with relationships can extend to other areas. making them laugh and entertaining them but intimacy can feel threatening and constraining. In intimate relationships. Many rock stars are sexual Sevens the buzz they experience from music can be similar to what they experience in relationships. The Seven’s focus is future oriented and outward. It’s not that the soc/sexual goes into the relationship with this kind of pattern in mind. This subtype of Seven can have the biggest extremes in behaviour and with material . this subtype is “the charmer. because they are “on” so much of the time. in some ways. things become onesided in a way that favours the interests of the Seven. almost drug-like for them. they can be very selfish in these relationships. but they also have a way of becoming attached and sometimes very dependent on their romantic partners. Creativity can also function as a release of frustration from the boredom. Sexual/Social This subtype has a lot of energy. They cultivate many friendships and can thrive on winning people over. These Sevens usually have a great sense of humour and many comedians are soc/sexual sevens. For others. their health and commitments can fall by the wayside in lieu of the buzz of the newest excitement. They are very attracted to the falling in love part. The social and sexual instincts go hand in hand with the type Seven fixation. This eventually leads to trouble if the soc/sexual seven doesn’t realise that responsibility for his or her own life can’t be transferred to another. someone with a much more low key personality. intense energy and this energy is going to find a way to manifest. while the sexual variant is instinctual and dwells on the inner self as far as relationships and identity are concerned. The rock star image and lifestyle can be attractive to the sexual Seven. With the self-pres instinct least developed in the stacking. as it often contains a frenetic quality. They have fast sharp minds that incorporate social awareness into their humour which they use to get by in their interactions with the world. This gives them the stability they don’t have themselves. This combination can make for a Seven that can be Four-like in many ways. The buzz and high of that is very stimulating to them. On the down side. away from the inner world. It is just easy for the dynamic to default to that dynamic. Their problems come when that buzz wears off. They can have a flamboyant style and be very moody and intense. there is often a push-pull quality. When unhealthy. On the down side. In relationships. crazy. commitment is a big issue for this subtype.Social/Sexual This Seven has a lot of energy although not always a productive energy.” but they maintain their freedom from any strong ties to the one person. they tend to lose focus on their many plans. On the down side. like music.

With the self-pres least developed. They can lose focus and drift similar to the social/sexual subtype and their high energy can likewise be draining for others. look for too many easy ways out. they make great business owners. The Eight is an instinctual type and the variants are instinctual energies. but they typically also take too many risks. They have many of the same issues and share many of the same problems as the other sexual first subtype with regards to relationship addiction and have even more dependency issues then the sexual/selfpres. not on what has happened. With this subtype. but they exhibit more outward energy. You see what you get. They can be introverted. they can become dependent on others to add a much needed stabilising element to their busy hedonistic lives. They know how to make decisions and aren’t afraid to implement them. A self-pres Eight takes care of their self-pres needs. They show a sense of fairness and have an instinctual drive to do what needs to be done. they are very much in control of themselves and their direction in life. Self-pres/social Eights are the least dramatic of type Eight.success in life. But you will know where you stand with a selfpres/sexual Eight.” While they may desire a close romantic relationship. Their control over their . They can appear Five-like in this way. Because the sexual instinct is last. A social Eight is social and issues of control extend to their circle of influence. the one pulling in and the other pushing forward. They are usually blind to their past. What separates them from Fours who they might resemble superficially is their planning and future orientation. such as the realm of family and close friendship. They can be seen as “all business. as in the case of rock stars. they have a very focused attitude in the areas of life in which the two energies coincide. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Eight Each of the instincts of enneatype Eight are amplified and manifest without conflict with the main enneatype. those things they are really passionate about. they can sometimes be seen as difficult to warm up to. along with the “can do” attitude. Their drama and intensity is focused on what they are going to do. They are frequently entrepreneurial. so they sometimes become very successful. moving forward and not looking back. especially when the Nine wing is dominant. Although their outward energy is in contrast to their inward self-pres energy. as they are concerned about the demands a relationship might make on their time. The sexual instinct gets amplified also. they often have more of an on-off quality to them. they don’t want it if it is at the expense of their self-pres needs. the self-preservational instinct combines with the social to make a subtype that is very focused on the external environment. But. Because the self-preservational instinct and the sexual instinct are in conflict. Self-pres/Social Self-pres/soc Eights are very self reliant. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype is more fiery and impulsive. They still have the “no nonsense” approach to life. you have drama mixed with mental energy. even though they are often quiet. With the self-pres instinct last in the stacking they aren’t afraid of taking risks. On the high side. The lust of the Eight is best exemplified in the sexual Eight. They are “no nonsense” types.” This type has a tendency to see relationships as somehow “getting in the way.

although they might still be very entrepreneurial. The lust for life manifests through connection to others. Like the social/self-pres Eight. The self-pres/sexual Eight feels very independent. they have a tendency to distrust people and tend to challenge them to see where they stand. They are likely to use humour to accomplish this. On the high side. using humour to charm people. . may be the least entrepreneurial of the instinctual subtypes of type Eight. They feel as though they need no one outside of the few people they are close to. and if the Seven wing is dominant. This subtype. With the social instinct last in the instinctual stacking. Social/Self-pres This subtype generally has a larger sphere of influence. The lust of the Eight combines with the sexual instinct to make one of the most fiery of the combinations of all of the enneatypes. The self-pres instinct combines with the social to give this subtype a “can do” approach to life. They can be very charismatic also. but the intensity level is augmented. similar to that of the self-pres/soc. their awareness of the social dynamic makes them very charismatic. The soc/self-pres Eight. this subtype can be blunt and confrontational with people who aren’t in their inner circle. to find out what makes them tick. they can use their interpersonal awareness to con people. They are more aware of group dynamics. keeping others on their toes. They are also just as likely to oppose the group or the person in charge of it. They can sense the power in any situation and they like to challenge people. especially if Seven is the dominant wing. On the down side. they are less concerned with group dynamics. The “can do” attitude that the other subtypes have is now intertwined with an outward passionate storm of energy. Sexual/Self-pres This subtype is a very charismatic. The social/sexual is more talkative. Social/Sexual This subtype of Eight comes across a little softer then the sexual first subtypes. The social instinct combines with the sexual to make a subtype that is very aware of interpersonal dynamics. causes an exaggerated awareness of whoever is in control. They have a very assertive energy and they demand attention. When healthier. Since the sexual instinct is first. On the down side.intimate life will be noticeable. When sex/selfpres Eights are unbalanced. This often leads these Eights to get involved in politics. or to rise to levels of leadership within their place of business. when combined with the type Eight fixation. they are very quick to anger and have a difficult time controlling their impulses. largely because the self-preservational instinct is last. The sexual/self-pres Eight will be similar to the selfpres/sex Eight with respect to interests and attachment to close friends and family. Sexual/self-pres Eights aren’t afraid to tell you what they think. when unhealthy. they realise there is sometimes a greater strength in adopting a softer approach. can use their awareness of power relations to abuse whatever power they might have. or within their social organisations. these Eights usually don’t let an opportunity pass by to connect with those they find interesting. They can enjoy making others react to them. The difference is that their scope of interests extends further into the social arena. may even be mistaken for a Seven. They are likely to be more socially minded then the other subtypes of Eight. The social instinct. This subtype usually has a wide circle of friends. On the down side.

home and other practical matters. this subtype has a lot of extroverted energy. They can be aware of being walked over and they might even be aware of the anger it causes. They sometimes get frustrated because they don’t feel that they can say what they really want to say. They demand everyone’s attention. Because Nines are of touch with their instinctual energy they have a very conflicted relationship to the expression of the various instincts. but they become frustrated with their seeming inability to control this pattern. Self-pres/Sexual This subtype is self-effacing also. In relationships. At times. the self-pres instinct combines with the merging qualities of the Nine to make a person committed and connected strongly in areas of security. This type isn’t afraid to go after what they want in life. They can be very charismatic.it can make them overly aware of issues involving control. They may be the subtype of Nine which is most aware of the boundaries between themselves and others and at the same time. The assertive energy of the Eight combines with the assertive energy of the sexual instinct. But when given a chance and the time to express themselves. They merge their environment with their loved ones. They feel as though it’s just not worth it. it’s almost as if their energy gets ahead of them. but at the same time be unaware of the fallout they might encounter because of their sometimes excessive self-assertion. but is generally more assertive. While self-pres needs are important to this type. Sexual/Social This subtype of Eight manifests as the alpha male and alpha female. They often have a vision of the future. to some degree. and usually get it. there seems to be a complex and interesting balance between the . While they do desire attention and recognition. The fixation on lust and the emphasis on control combine with great intensity. anything that distracts them from their problems. The Instinctual Stackings of Enneatype Nine Enneatype Nines are out of touch with the instinctual centre. possibly the most frustrated when those boundaries are violated. They are especially sensitive to any hint that others may be trying to control them. the fact that they are essentially Nines. Self-pres/Social This subtype is the most self-effacing of type Nine. but with the selfpres/sexual instinctual stacking. which can cause problems. With the self-preservational instinct least developed. not wanting to provoke any confrontation. of all Nines. possibly the least assertive of all the enneagram types. with the sexual instinct last in the stacking. holding back affection. sometimes causes them to put the needs of others before their own. This subtype is usually very deliberate and methodical in their speech. On the down side. When under stress. but they may misuse power themselves. They can harness a tremendous amount of energy for change. this subtype can be passiveaggressive and withdraw under stress. this type is likely to do busy work. They could possibly go long periods of time without talking to their spouse directly. This is true. but they have their blind spots too. They can feel as though they have been looked over and passed by. They are therefore often very short and concise with their communication. they can be quite talkative. they seldom actively pursue it.

These Nines can appear to have a stronger connection to Three. They move towards others in a way which can resemble Twos. They are helpful people who generally have a great sense of humour. and tend to use their charm to get a lot of their self-pres needs met by the people in their lives. On the down side. Part of this must come from the realisation on the part of the Nine that they have invited this overstepping of their boundaries from others by not defining them. for this reason. this subtype can suffer from some of the same problems as the other social subtype. they have a hard time tending to their own needs. they sometimes even develop a sense of entitlement. Their skill is in conflict management.” The social/sexual energy combines with the Nine’s merging tendency and conflict avoidance to create a subtype that is very charming and uses humour quite extensively to engage with the people in their lives. Sometimes this subtype can use their social connections in a passive-aggressive way against the partner. involves becoming aware of this dynamic and realising they do have the power to control their boundaries. This combination seems to raise consciousness of this dynamic. With the self-pres instinct last in the stacking. They might be the soccer coach. they lead by consensus and charm. Close relationships will usually work or not for this subtype depending on how well they deal with this issue. When in leadership roles. they tend to avoid intensity. This can be positive for both parties. Intimate relationships might be frustrating for the partner of this subtype of Nine because the Nine’s social engagements might make the partner feel as though the Nine is connected with everyone except them. though they are just as likely to return help to those they charm into helping them. they might join and participate in a political party. Sexual/Self-pres The energy of the sexual instinct is at odds with the dominant type Nine energy and makes for a conflicted subtype. they might withhold attention from the partner in lieu of spending time with friends. They usually fall into a relationship in which the partner pushes them to “do more” with their lives. and for all Nines. Social/Self-pres Social Nines feel the need for validation and for “fitting in” but they feel these indirectly. When the Eight wing is dominant. With the sexual instinct last. but they are motivated by a desire to initiate and maintain contact without provoking conflict. In relationships. This subtype can have an intense relationship with their environment. On the high side. They get involved with the social environment. they can be frustrating because they can easily lose focus when it comes to their life priorities.withdrawing energy caused by the dominant self-pres instinct and the assertive energy of the sexual instinct. They are often drawn to . but they are actively involved with people. The assertive fiery energy engages in a constant push-pull with the calm peace-seeking energy of the Nine. but often ends up causing resentment to build for both partners. Getting healthy for this subtype. the social/self-pres Nine generally knows a lot of people and gets along with most everyone. or if politically inclined. Social/Sexual This subtype is “everyone’s friend. They drift.

With the self-pres instinct last. this subtype might not engage socially with the same smoothness as other subtypes of Nine. They seem to go towards others in a staccato fashion—they connect in bursts. These Nines are the most connected and assertive of the subtypes of Nine. because the sexual energy tends to flow in a manner similar to the energy of the wing. The central conflict for these Nines will still be in the realm of close intimate relationships and these Nines will have many of the same issues and challenges as the sexual/self-pres Nines. rock climbing etc.solo sports or to an active engagement with nature that involves some risk and exertion. This subtype might have a hard time judging clearly the degree to which they have merged. but overall there is less of a tendency to withdraw. . The merging of the Nine combines with the intensity of the sexual instinct to create a subtype that will always be in danger of losing themselves in a relationship. then withdraw. When it comes to intimate relationships. A Nine with a One wing would therefore appear more Onelike and a Nine with Eight might be mistaken for an Eight. this subtype can neglect selfpreservational needs in favour of the intensity of their sexual instinct’s pursuits. As with the self-pres/sexual. These Nines are drawn to peak experiences. They might enjoy outdoor solo sports or engaging in nature by way of hiking. especially when it comes to relationships. Individuals of this subtype could easily be mistaken for the dominant wing. this subtype can be needy. With the social instinct last in the stacking. There is still some internal struggle. there can be an on/off quality when it comes to relating and these Nines are often somewhat moodier than the other subtypes. Sexual/Social This subtype of Nine may appear least like a stereotypical Nine because the outward sexual and social energies obscure some of the withdrawing and “zoning out” tendencies of the Nine. as with the sexual/self-pres. Their boundaries for themselves and their partner can become blurred which can lead to conflicts.

All our ordinary knowledge which is based on ordinary methods of observation and verification of observations. The following are some of the main points which Gurdjieff discussed when introducing the Enneagram. all scientific theories deduced from the observations of facts accessible to us in subjective states of consciousness. because objective truths can only be truly understood through states of objective consciousness. Attempts to connect these phenomena into some sort of system in a scientific or philosophical way lead to nothing because man cannot reconstruct the idea of the whole starting from separate facts and they cannot divine the principles of the division of the whole without knowing the laws upon which this division is based. taking as a basis the division of ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ states of consciousness. Ouspensky in his book. preserve and transmit their knowledge from person to person and generation to generation. he called subjective. published in 1949. people with access to objective knowledge have used myths.The Unknown Enneagram Unveiling the Enneagram Introductory Points Gurdjieff introduced the Enneagram symbol to his students in 1916. .” (ISOM 278) 2. the unity of all things. Distortions and corruptions always creep in. and cannot be truly understood through the ordinary. knowledge accompanying ‘an objective state of consciousness. it ends up leading to delusions. due to the difficulty of expressing objective knowledge in ordinary words and language. been transmitted through either logical. it is a poor vehicle for the expression of objective truths. 3. “For subjective consciousness the world is split up into millions of separate and unconnected phenomena. unity in diversity.” (ISOM 279) 5. symbols and verbal formulas of various kinds in order to express. One of the most important “objective truths” is Unity—that is. When the subjective mind attempts to comprehend objective truths and/or their representations and forms of expression. These forms are designed to transmit knowledge directly to a person’s higher centres of consciousness. subjective mind.D. 1. The person receiving the transmission of these ideas was required to undergo special preparation. Gurdjieff says. IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS: FRAGMENTS OF AN UNKNOWN TEACHING.’ knowledge of the All. Since human language has developed in order to express the impressions of subjective consciousness. knowledge of things in themselves. in early talks given in Russia. The content of Gurdjieff’s lectures on this subject was recorded and presented by P. Therefore. According to Ouspensky: “G. was for him objective knowledge. philosophical systems or through religious doctrines. Knowledge based upon ancient methods and principles of observation. according to the account in Ouspensky’s book. in the past. The idea of the unity of all things has. used the expressions ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ in a special sense. The Enneagram symbol was developed in order to express objective truths. 4.

They cannot be interpreted literally. 8. so to speak. However. “Know Thyself. 10. And then the symbol becomes for him a synthesis of his knowledge and serves him for the expression and transmission of his knowledge just as it served the man who constructed it. 12. The right understanding of symbols cannot lead to dispute. Symbols were designed for the higher intellectual centre. reducing their complexity by ascribing a final and definite meaning. and the most direct and practical way of doing that is through noticing and understanding how these laws operate within oneself. and can only be understood by. rigidly. and also increases the striving towards actual results. This study can be approached by attempting to understand the laws of duality and trinity. magic. 7. However. so it does not remain theoretical. G. people begin to dispute. It leads to deeper knowledge. so below”—which emphasises the correspondence between the microcosm and the macrocosm—found in the Emerald Tablet of Hermes Trismegustus. incompetence and ignorance in these matters can transform these into “instruments of delusion.” found in the Temple of Apollo at Delhi and popularly associated with Socrates. Instead. In the case of symbols. understanding these symbols requires the ability to see multiple points of view simultaneously. and myths for the higher emotional centre. . There is such a thing as the “symbolism of speech. and therefore have endless aspects which can be examined. alchemy. Systems such as theosophical addition and the symbology of geometric figures.6. some of these were diagrams which both expressed objective knowledge of the fundamental laws of the universe and also showed the way to that knowledge. and maintain opinions which are believed to be right but which have no relation to what is being said. already knows what is comprised in this symbol.. 11.” (ISOM 281) 9. astrology and the Tarot are all means of transmitting the idea of Unity. uniformly and dogmatically. “To understand the inner meaning of what is said is possible only on a certain level of development and when accompanied by the corresponding efforts and state of the listener” (ISOM 284). cabbalistic words and letters.” According to G. The study of symbols was used as a preparation for the receiving of objective knowledge. instead of approaching things heard in this way. Two important verbal formulas are given: “As above. these symbols of objective knowledge can only be truly understood by a person who already possesses objective consciousness. refute. one who.” One reason for this is that the symbols express the unity of endless diversity. says “The meaning of a symbol and the disclosure of its essence can only be given to. Paradoxically.

theoretical statements from one line can sometimes be explained from the point of view of another line. producing confusion and error. This desire for exactitude in definitions becomes an unconscious fetter. Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff 17. Exact definitions DO exist on the way of true knowledge—“only there do they exist”—but they are very different from what we usually conceive them to be. Before studying the Enneagram symbol. Because of this. these kinds of exact analytical definitions imply in exactitude in meaning. Attempts at literal interpretations of speech dealing with objective knowledge and the union of diversity and unity is doomed to failure and leads to even more delusions. Conveying the exact knowledge of details before there is an understanding of the essential nature of a thing increases the difficulty of understanding that essential nature. the closer to the centre. 16. 15. 14. in the absence of complete knowledge and understanding of the fundamental lines. . it is essential to understand some aspects of the teaching which makes use of it. No one can give a person what they did not possess. However. properly perceived. these intermediate ways may end up leading to a mixing of lines. 18. and it may sometimes be possible to form an intermediate line between two adjacent ones. The only thing that can be given is an impetus. Symbolism. In the sphere of higher knowledge. The intellectualism of contemporary education produces a tendency in people to look for logical explanations and engage in logical arguments against everything they hear. Picture 1. The ways which lead to the knowledge of Unity approach it like the radii of a circle moving towards its centre. as well as the relationship of this teaching to other systems which use symbolism for the transmission of knowledge. A person needs to learn how to listen before he or she can understand symbolic speech. A person will not attain knowledge except through themselves and through making the necessary efforts. or do for them work that they need to do for themselves. acts as an impetus for this kind of knowledge.13. the closer the ways approach each other.

The law of octaves involves the complete process of the note “do” going through a succession of tones until it reaches the “do” of the next octave. In addition. arresting one another.” (ISOM 122) Traditionally in the West. the Egyptian.: “Completely self-supporting and independent of the other lines and it has been unknown up to the present time [1916]. vibrations are regarded as continuous. There are two intervals in the octave. which is a repetition of the first tone but in another octave. The principle known lines are the Hebraic. called by Gurdjieff “shock points. Vibrations develop in a regular way according to the nature of the original impulse. due to their incompleteness. 20. 22. 24. gives ten steps. leading to periodic accelerations and retardations. proceeding uninterruptedly. The teaching which uses the Enneagram symbol and whose theory Gurdjieff presented is. crossing one another. 23. OR THE LAW OF OCTAVES According to Gurdjieff. weakening. However. places at the base of the understanding of vibrations the principle of the Discontinuity of Vibrations. The Enneagram symbol cannot be found anywhere in the books or oral transmission of “occultism. they issue from various sources and proceed in various directions. and the process of development which it expresses. the Persian and the Hindu. It unites into one whole all knowledge connected with the law of the structure of the octave.19. actually involves the numbers 1–10. Ancient knowledge. according to G.” which.” (ISOM 286) 21. however. in order to understand this law. strengthening. when added to the eight mentioned above. and so on. “These vibrations proceed in all kinds. After this temporary retardation. the vibrations again proceed uniformly until . The Enneagram symbol is used to express the Law of Seven in its union with the Law of Three. either ascending or descending. densities of the matter which constitutes the universe. colliding.” “Those who knew” felt it was necessary to keep knowledge of it secret. it is first necessary to regard the universe as consisting of vibrations. attempts at their practical realisation can only bring negative results. there exists theosophy and Western occultism which are mixtures of the fundamental lines. ************* THE LAW OF SEVEN. aspects. This means that the force of the original impulse in vibrations does not act uniformly. but at a certain moment they slow down and no longer “obey” the original impulse: they begin to change their nature and direction. The final “do” is the eighth step. The “do” must pass through 7 tones which represent the Law of Seven. but becomes alternately stronger and weaker. the law of octaves. and which acts as the end of the first process and the beginning of the next. until the force of the original impulse naturally weakens. some hints and partial representations of it can occasionally be found in the literature. Thus. from the finest to the coarsest.

making it possible for the vibrations of the receptive octave to develop freely and without checks. magnetic and other vibrations. A musical octave is the period between one do and the next.. only those intervals between mi-fa and si-do are called “intervals.another check in their development takes place. and inevitably either develops/ascends or degenerates/descends. and these are the precise places of retardation in the octave. deviations from the original direction take place. there is the principle of the deviation of forces. heat. which was known in ancient times. from school to school. and in some way or another one octave will fill up the interval of the other. chemical. The differences in the notes or the pitch of the notes are called “intervals. If this continues. changing.” The ideas of the octave have been handed down from teacher to pupil. at the moment when an octave is passing .” The smallest intervals occur between mi-fa and si-do. making a complete circle. When octaves are spoken of in a “cosmic” sense. All this is the clear and direct effect of the intervals—retardations in the development of vibrations. and is divided into seven unequal parts. and then discovered again. ascending and descending.” (ISOM 124) However. Observations of this have established that if. According to G. Deviation after deviation can eventually result in the line of the octaves turning completely around and proceeding in a direction opposite to the original direction.” This law explains why there are no straight lines in nature. and why ordinary human beings can neither “think” nor “do” and why everything happens in a way opposed to what is desired or expected. By studying the seven-tone scale. fluctuations are constantly taking place in the rising and falling. The law of octaves explains many phenomena in our lives which seem incomprehensible: First. At these moments. Second is the fact that nothing stays in the same place or remains what it was. the law of octaves can also be found in light. The periods of uniform action of the momentum are not equal and the periods or retardation are not symmetrical. going somewhere. known as “the octave. Octaves intersect and meet. The right development of octaves—that is. octaves which develop in a consecutive and orderly way— is based on what looks like an accident. This resulted in the development of the seven-tone musical scale. “The seven-tone musical scale is the formula of a cosmic law which was worked out by ancient schools and applied to music. then forgotten. it may even return to the original direction. The laws which govern the deflection of vibrations from their primary direction were known to ancient science and were incorporated into a formula which has been preserved up to our times. One of these schools found that it was possible to apply this formula to music. one can gain a foundation for understanding the cosmic law of octaves. Third. everything is moving.

Control over things begins with control over ourselves. there enters into it “additional shock” which corresponds in force and character. a person can learn to create the additional shocks that are necessary. In reality. a more complete construction of the symbol which is more complicated and which connects it with a complete expression of the law of octaves. this control can be attained by understanding the law of octaves. a rightly organised school which follows all esoteric traditions. the original direction will be maintained without a loss or change in its nature. There is. it is usually either by accident or only a superficial resemblance to actual attainment. however. and if they do attain anything. Picture 2. and these can only be created in a school which itself is created on these principles. The Enneagram symbol as presented shows the inner laws of one octave and points to a way of cognising the essence of a thing examined in itself. Without the help of a real school.” that is. people can do nothing. The possibility of specially created additional shocks gives a practical aspect to the study of the law of octaves. People then live under the illusion that it is possible for them “to do. Shocks occur accidentally. However. this is all an illusion. Ouspensky ************* 25. Most people have no control over things within themselves. a person “can never understand the law of octaves and know the moments of the intervals or be able to create necessary additional shocks. A person can easily deceive themselves and take the result “obtained” as the result desired. By recognising the moments of the intervals in one’s activities.through an interval. In reality. according to Gurdjieff. . to attain a projected aim. Peter D. However. that is. those lines of development which are straightened by accident can give people the impression that these straight lines exist naturally and are the rule rather than the exception.” (ISOM 134) This is because certain conditions are necessary for this purpose. But people then convince themselves that they have achieved their aim and give the impression to others that anyone else can also attain their aim. But it is only possible to learn this in a school.

The succession of stages in the process are connected with the succession of the remaining numbers from 1 to 9. 29. Because it is the ninth point which closes and begins the cycle. every note. 31. to one who knows the scales of the passage and laws of the structure of the octave. 32. . a complete cycle. The separate points which divide the circumference represent the steps of the process. Also. The symbol as a whole is a Do. just as the apex of the triangle multiplies itself infinitely in the line of its base. every tone. the circle is closed. having an orderly and complete existence. closing the circle. This makes possible “the manifold forms of its manifestation in the most diverse triangles” (ISOM 288). The intervals— which require outside “shocks” to help maintain the unfolding of the process—connect one process with another process. shown along the circumference. says: “From this it follows that the law of octaves connects all possible processes of the universe and. It symbolises the Law of Three. It is the zero of the decimal system. and which sounds in the endlessly flowing cycle as the two do’s in an octave. 33. the number 9 is located at the upper point of the triangle. which begins anew at that point. They are representations of an ascending octave. is another octave. taken on another scale. 28. 34.26. The cycle is completed by the ninth step of filling up the “interval” si-do. it presents the possibility of an exact cognition of everything and every phenomenon in its essential nature and of all its interrelations with phenomena and things connected with it. Every beginning and completion of the cycle is found in the apex of the triangle. 9-3-6 is the free trinity of the symbol. where beginning and end merge. corresponding to do. G. Every process is determined in its development by the law of the structure of the seven-tone scale.” (ISOM 285) 27. 9—do 1—re 2—mi 3—interval 4—fa 5—sol 6—interval 7—la 8—si 9—do 30. The apex of the triangle closes the duality of its base. The closed circle symbolises the eternally returning and uninterruptedly flowing process of the isolated existence of a thing or phenomenon under examination.

and are only active. giving the seven notes of the octave.uk/philo_lawof3.htm>. The laws of the construction of the six-pointed figure inside the circle are based on the laws of Unity being reflected in all phenomena. the third. 3 and 6 correspond to the two intervals in the octave. It must be remembered that a phenomenon which appears to be simple may actually be a very complicated combination of trinities.) 37. This teaching of the Three Forces is at the root of all ancient systems.142857 2 / 7 = 0. in reality. the unit is divided into seven unequal parts. The first force is called Active (or positive). Passive (or negative). a third force is necessary. The decimal system is based on these same laws. The 9-3-6 triangle connects the Law of Seven and the Law of Three. all three forces are equally active. they are also the points from which the “do” of one octave can enter another octave. by studying oneself. ************** THE LAW OF THREE According to Gurdjieff. It is the law of the Three Forces: every phenomenon. regardless of scale.] ************** 36. but the third force is not easily accessible to direct observation and understanding.285714 . we get the following numbers: 0 equals 1 1 / 7 = 0.35. passive and neutralising in relation to one another at the given moment when they meet. One force or two forces can never produce a phenomenon. one may learn to observe and see in oneself the action of the three forces. while the 9 replaces the fundamental note. However.co. Neutralising (sometimes also referred to as “reconciling”). However. the second. is the result of the meeting of three different and opposing forces.” [NOTE: see also <http://www. (The graphic representation does not show the inequalities of the parts. By taking a unit as one note containing a whole octave within itself.endlesssearch. the Law of Three is the fundamental law that creates all phenomena in all the unity or diversity of all universes. due to the functional limitations of ordinary psychological activity and the fundamental categories of ordinary perceptions of the phenomenal world. The third force belongs to “the real world. These points are the places in the octave where shocks from outside sources occur. where the octave can be penetrated to make connection with what exists outside. The first two forces are generally comprehensible to ordinary people. By dividing the unit into seven. such as time and space.

the process of nutrition and transformation of substances in the human organism. coffee. G. By using “theosophical addition” the sum of the numbers of the period give the number nine. The Enneagram can be used to symbolise such processes as the harmonious development of a human being. found between sol and la is intentionally represented in the wrong place.” (ISOM 294) . says.: “The apparent placing of the interval in its wrong place itself shows to those who are able to read the symbol what kind of ‘shock’ is required for the passage from si to do. each cosmos. 39. each plant. tea. a whole octave. that is. G.857142 7 / 7 = 0. The inner triangle is representative of the presence of higher elements in an organism. Some plants do possess these higher elements.” (ISOM 291) 42. Each separate note includes a whole octave subject to the same laws as the others. tobacco and other plants which play a definite role in the life of human beings. plants such as hemp. According to Ouspensky: “… when G. According to G.999999 The inner figure is obtained through connecting—by straight lines—the numbers in the 142857 sequence in the order in which they appear in the sequence. it is almost impossible to understand the enneagram. and the “Ray of Creation” which emanates from the Absolute. that is.” (ISOM 290) 41. Then they began to move in the direction of the numbers… [142857 and 936] … turning around one another at the points of meeting. 38. The Law of Three stands out from the Law of Seven: “The triangle penetrates through the period and these two figures in combination give the inner structure of the octave and its notes.428571 4 / 7 = 0. organised his Institute in France [1922] and when his pupils were studying dances and dervish exercises. ADDITIONAL POINTS 43. The interval which is designated by the number 6. poppy. 40. Its rightful place should be between si-do. showed them exercises connected with the ‘movement of the enneagram.’ On the floor of the hall where the exercises took place a large enneagram was drawn and the pupils who took part in the exercises stood on spots marked by the numbers 1 to 9. each organism.714285 6 / 7 = 0. “Each completed whole. hops.3 / 7 = 0. A study of these plants can reveal much in regard to the enneagram. at the points where the lines intersect in the enneagram.571428 5 / 7 = 0. Without taking part in exercises of moving according to the symbol. The Enneagram can be experienced through movement. 45. is an enneagram… But not each of these enneagrams has an inner triangle…” (ISOM 293) 44.

CLOSING REMARKS Based on the account in Ouspensky’s book, Gurdjieff ended his introductory lectures on the Enneagram with the following remarks: “Speaking in general, it must be understood that the enneagram is a universal symbol. All knowledge can be included in the enneagram and with the help of the Enneagram it can be interpreted. And in this connection only what a man is able to put into the enneagram does he actually know, that is understand. What he cannot put into the enneagram, he does not understand. For the man who is able to make use of it, the enneagram makes books and libraries entirely unnecessary. Everything can be included and read in the enneagram. A man may be quite alone in the desert and he can trace the enneagram in the sand and in it read the eternal laws of the universe. And everything he can learn something new, something he did not know before.” “If two men who have been in different (esoteric) schools meet, they will draw the enneagram and with its help they will be able at once to establish which of them knows more and which, consequently, stands upon which step, that is to say, which is the elder, which is the teacher and which is the pupil. The enneagram is a fundamental hieroglyph of a universal language which has as many different meanings as there are levels of men.” “The Enneagram is perpetual motion, the same perpetual motion that men have sought since the remotest antiquity and could never find. And it is clear why they could not find perpetual motion. They sought outside themselves that which was within them; and they attempted to construct perpetual motion as a machine is constructed, whereas real perpetual motion is part of another perpetual motion and cannot be created apart from it. The enneagram is a schematic diagram of perpetual motion, that is, of a machine of eternal movement. But of course it is necessary to know how to read the diagram. The understanding of this symbol and the ability to make use of it give man very great power. It is perpetual motion and it also the philosopher’s stone of the alchemists.” “The knowledge of the enneagram has for a very long time been preserved in secret and if it is now, so to speak, made available to all, it is only in an incomplete and theoretical form of which nobody could make any practical use without instruction from a man who knows.” “In order to understand the Enneagram, it must be thought of as in motion, as moving. A motionless enneagram is a dead symbol; the living symbol is in motion.” (ISOM 294)

All quotations from IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS, by P.D.Ouspensky, Harcourt Brace & Company, 1977. [NOTE: Another version of this material—purported to be a lecture given by Gurdjieff in 1916—can be found at http://www.endlesssearch.co.uk/philo_enneagramtalk.htm] Arica Psychology The contemporary Enneagram of Personality is derived in large part from the teachings of Oscar Ichazo. However, Ichazo’s “Arica Theory” contains a great deal of material that is not present in the currently popular versions of the Enneagram. In fact, Ichazo asserts that his Arica system is a complete map of the human psyche. In 1969 and 1970, when Ichazo was transmitting this material to a group of around 50 North Americans, his presentation of theory focused almost solely on “Protoanalysis/Fixations” and “Mentations.” Of these, the teachings of “Protoanalysis/Fixations” became the basis for the Enneagram of Personality. Dr Claudio Naranjo was the person most responsible for bringing back to North America the theory Ichazo was presenting in Chile at that time. By his own account, this was the theory of Protoanalysis/Fixations which is presented by John Lilly and Joseph Hart in Charles Tart’s “Transpersonal Psychologies.” (John Lilly was the other major figure who publicly transmitted what he had learned in Arica.) The Arica School had not yet been established then, and Naranjo and Lilly both left the group just as the School was being founded. Neither of them spent more than eight months working with Ichazo. In the Arica School which eventually developed, Protoanalysis/Fixations was just one particular training, and it took place at the Third Level of study. The first two levels were concerned with introductory material which would serve to aid in the understanding and practice of Protoanalysis. In particular, the theoretical and practical study of the Hypergnostic Systems and the Domains of Consciousness was closely related to the ideas presented in Protoanalysis/Fixations. While the work of Claudio Naranjo (and all those who followed) in developing the Enneagram system has gained much public attention, the ideas of Oscar Ichazo have remained relatively unknown, due in large part to the lack of a major comprehensive public exposition by Ichazo. (In terms of writing, Ichazo has focused mostly on producing training manuals, letters, lectures and articles, and occasionally giving interviews. A major work, The Arica Way, which he has been preparing for over 20 years, is said to be near completion. In 2005, Ichazo and Arica finally established an internet site to officially present some of these writings and materials to the public.) The following is a summary and analysis of some of the basic introductory concepts of the Systems and Domains as presented in Ichazo’s Arica Theory. These explanations are meant to serve as an aid to a further understanding of the contemporary Enneagram system, just as they are used as related material within the Arica school. A brief exposition of Ichazo’s Theory of Trialectics will also follow. According to Ichazo, the Enneagons must be worked with Trialectical logic, not from a linear or dualistic perspective.

Some attempts will also be made at showing similarities and differences between Ichazo’s ideas and those of G.I. Gurdjieff. The author of this article is in no way affiliated with the Arica School nor any Gurdjieff Work/Fourth Way organisation, and all information here is derived from either existing written materials or internet sources (in some cases anonymous). A list of source material can be found at the end of this article. All interpretations of the source material are based on the personal understanding of this article’s author. ******** According to Ichazo, the personality of a human being is made up of Nine Constituents which are codependent and interrelated. The Nine Constituents Of The Human Personality are given as follows: 1. Materiality, or Elements 2. Systems 3. Mentations 4. Senses Consciousness 5. Mental Perceptions 6. Domains 7. Feelings or Discriminative Mind 8. Willing Intention 9. Access Base As stated above, this presentation will be primarily focused on the Systems and the Domains. THE SYSTEMS Ichazo asserts that Consciousness precedes the body. But this is consciousness in the sense of a pure, eternal, permanent, unchanging consciousness, often referred to as Essence. However, when this consciousness manifests in the material world as a human being, it becomes part of the world of space, time, change and multiplicity, and takes the form of nine different physical systems. The Nine Systems are given as 1. Sexual 2. Skeletal 3. Digestive 4. Protective

5. Circulatory 6. Expression 7. Coordination 8. Central Nervous System 9. Unity These nine physical systems then give rise to the Hypergnostic Systems. In the Arica school, the study of the Hypergnostic systems is considered key for gaining an understanding of one’s psyche and developing the “internal witness,” also called the “natural persona.” In Eastern traditions, the “inner witness” is usually established through years of meditation, learning to observe our inner processes while maintaining an aspect of ourselves that is neutral and nonattached. Only when our contact with this inner witness is stabilised can true “self-observation” be accomplished. Ichazo asserts that in his system, this process, which usually takes years, can be completed in days. He considers this “speeding up” of the process to be one of the main characteristics which distinguishes the Arica system from traditional esoteric paths. This permanent inner witness has a special kind of awareness that can know reality as it truly is. The development of the “natural persona” seems to correspond to Gurdjieff’s Man Number Four and Man number Five, i.e., the development of a person who has balanced their Centres and established a unified, permanent “I.” From this it can be seen that the Enneagram of Personality is derived from a system whose original aim was to help establish self-observation and self-knowledge through stabilising contact with a higher aspect of ourselves which transcends the limitations of ordinary human faculties. This aspect is our Essential nature, and it is through this nature that one can experience one’s connection with the Absolute. The Nine Hypergnostic Systems consist of 3 Instincts, 4 Functions, and 2 Poles. They are listed as: 1. The Sexual Pole, which comes from the Sexual system 2. The Function of Space, which comes from the skeletal/muscular system 3. The Conservation Instinct, from the digestive system 4. The Function of Time, from the protective system (skin/lymph system) 5. The Relations Instinct, from the circulatory system 6. The Function of Expression, from the expression system 7. The Function of Coordination, from the coordination system 8. The Adaptation instinct, from the central nervous system 9. The Spiritual pole, from the unity system

Greed. The Historical Ego is further subdivided into a triad of egos: Ego-Vengeance. and the accumulation of wealth are all related to this Ego because these contribute to a sense of being secure in our ability to meet the demands of the Conservation Instinct. These are non-verbal “felt” questions. Through experience. instructing us on how to live and survive. As Ichazo points out. the Instincts manifest in our consciousness as innate basic questions. the most important of these are the Three Instincts. and its centre is felt at the top of the abdominal cavity. or satisfaction and relaxation. These correspond to points 8. respectively. Emotional and Intellectual.9. instinctually establishing whether one feels hunger and tension.1 triad the Being Group. This leads to the development of a fixation in one of the three points of this triad. It results from the needs of the alimentary tract. The Conservation Instinct is the organism’s instinct to feed itself in order to preserve its life. 9. The need to meet the demands of the Conservation Instinct produces a concentration of our attention on that area. THE CONSERVATION INSTINCT According to Ichazo. Because it learns from past experiences. These instinctual questions call our attention and cannot be eliminated or postponed because they are basic to our psyche. producing 3 “types”: Over-Justice-maker (fixated in Ego-Vengeance). The Conservation Instinct is also known as the Self-preservation Instinct. it learns how to get the food that is needed for survival. These Instincts produce the three fundamental centres of attention: Physical. and 1. The need to eat means that one has to acquire food through work and involvement in a certain process. in turn. the Conservation instinct will become infused with the “instinctual poison” of Greed. which leads to the development of an artificial “ego” or “I” with which we become identified. Greed (ego-indolence). as well as with the teachings of Gurdjieff. According to Ichazo. on the Enneagram symbol. This “ego” will have its own particular concerns. The innate non-verbal question projected here is “How am I?” This question has to be answered constantly by the organism. and Possessiveness (ego-resentment). When the Conservation instinct is consistently threatened during childhood. . the entire self then centres its attention on the lack of a feeling of well-being in that area. or the Over-Perfectionist (fixated in Ego-Resentment). in the solar plexus. Our sense of property. which are actually the demands of our need for simple survival. can be broken down into the three poisons at the root of the three “egos”: Avarice (ego-vengeance). Ichazo calls the 8. the Over-Nonconformist (fixated in Ego-Indolence). demands and strategies for success. Ichazo calls this “ego” the Historical Ego. As a natural development. possession.From the point of view of the study of the contemporary Enneagram. these centres are in keeping with most traditional esoteric teachings. Ego-Indolence and EgoResentment.

) A sense of insecurity in the Relations Instinct during childhood leads to the formation of the three fixated “types” in this triad: Over-Independent (fixated in Ego-flattery). Ego-Go.3 and 4. giving the three root poisons of Envy (Egoflattery). This is the Intellectual Centre. . and Jealousy (Ego-melancholy. Ichazo calls this the Image Ego because it is always adopting a “persona. Ichazo calls the 2. which includes the heart. and EgoPlanning. arteries. veins. It develops from the needs of the circulatory system. lungs. our emotions result from our relations with other people. The instinctual innate question asked here is “Who am I with. respectively. which is one reason why this system corresponds to our relationship with the community of which we are a part. the Adaptation Instinct is the result of our basic need to constantly adapt ourselves to our natural and social environment in order to survive. Hate (Ego-go). which correspond to points 5.THE RELATION INSTINCT According to the Arica theory. Ichazo points out that people are related to their environment most directly and intimately though breathing. The Adaptation Instinct naturally develops into the poison of Deceit. The Practical Ego is further subdivided into three Egos: Ego-Stinginess. on the Enneagram symbol. and a strong focus of attention on this centre develops. friend or foe?” The answer will produce the primary emotions of like and dislike. THE ADAPTATION INSTINCT According to Arica Theory.6 and 7. In order to deal with the concerns of this centre. The instinctual innate question projected here is “Where am I?” According to Ichazo. Over-Efficient (fixated in Egogo). Deceit (Ego-Cowardice) and Mythomania (Ego-Planning). Ego-Cowardice. The Image Ego is subdivided into three Egos: Ego-Flattery. and Ego Melancholy. These correspond to points 2. an artificial Ego or “I” develops which has the knowhow to survive. the fundamental need to orient ourselves gives us direction on what to do and how to behave in order to succeed in our environment. This instinct is the product of the central nervous system and its felt centre is in the cranial cavity. and Over-Reasoner (Ego-melancholy). According to Ichazo. known in the Arica system as the Practical Ego. It is the basis of our sense of working and doing. the Relation Instinct is our instinct for associating with other people as a fundamental principle of survival. The poison which naturally develops in the Relations Instinct is Hate.4 triad the Living Group. on the Enneagram symbol. An artificial Ego or “I” then develops which is concerned with how we appear to others and how others appear to us. This can be broken down according to the three corresponding egos of the triad. Its felt centre is in the thoracic cavity. Deceit is subdivided into the three root poisons of this triad: Confusion (Ego-stinginess).3.” playing a social role. and kidneys. composed of thoughts and mind constructs. respectively.

a thirteenth century Islamic philosopher who expanded on the work of Aristotle.7 triad as the Doing Group. emotional and intellectual—which are misused. However. whereby each individual has a primary fixation for each Centre. one is the predominant fixation. People ordinarily cycle through all of these on a regular basis. ********* Ichazo seems to assert that each of these artificial “Egos” or false “I”’s is present in everyone. a person may actually be balanced in one or more Centres. as far as the explanations of all these characteristics of our psychology. and that we cycle through all these on a regular basis. . giving the impression that this is our real “I.The resulting fixated “types” which develop from the Adaptation Instinct are given as the OverObserver (fixated in Ego-Stinginess). intellectual) has three imbalances.I. For instance. In the Sufi system Bakhtiar presents. Consequently. the Sufi Enneagram Bakhtiar presents describes 64 possible combinations. emotional and mental—into twelve “basic” types (symbolised by the astrological signs of the Zodiac). emotional. Finally. in the Sufi system. Furthermore. when we are in a disharmonious state—which is the habitual terrestrial condition of humanity in general—the three Egos of the three Centres begin to conflict with each other. Over-Adventurer (fixated in Ego-Cowardice) and Over-Idealist (fixated in Ego-Planning). Ichazo’s Tri-fix approach is consistent with the Sufi Enneagram system presented by Laleh Bakhtiar.” This leads to the formation of a “false personality. while the other two are secondary. 5 may be the main fixation. undisciplined and in conflict with one another. It should be noted that all of this is consistent with the teachings of G. Of these three fixations. the 27 were further subdivided into 72 types. although the details are unclear. A person usually suffers from one imbalance per Centre. However. Ichazo designates the 5. along with self-love and vanity. leading to 9 imbalances. It seems to have involved blending the three primary types—physical. the point from which we continually begin all our processes. which Gurdjieff says were known in ancient times.6. Apparently.” But in reality. disorder and suffering. In this sense. one of these Egos becomes the primary fixation. there is one aspect which comes to dominate our personality and this is called our “chief feature. Ichazo is much more explicit and detailed than Gurdjieff. creating a fourth option for each Centre.” Gurdjieff taught that “chief feature” arose from the Seven Deadly Sins. Gurdjieff was working with a system of Personality Types. it is just an artificial Ego with which we have become primarily identified through early life circumstances. Gurdjieff asserts that we have multiple “I”’s with we mistakenly identify ourselves. However. where people in their habitual state are portrayed as operating with three Centres or “brains”—physical. leading to fragmentation. while 9 and 3 can be the secondary fixations. each of the traditional Centres (physical. which is based on the work of Nasr al-Din Tusi. These were then divided into the 27 human types. However. It is also important to remember that Ichazo postulates a Tri-fix. Gurdjieff.

This tension can only be alleviated by purifying and clarifying the energy of these Poles. as well as a sense of Guilt. where the primary sexual organs are located. with the psyche of the human being fluctuating between the sense of one’s gender identity and one’s individual identity. The Sexual Pole is the outcome of our instinct for procreating to ensure the survival of the species. for the purposes of studying the relationship between the popular versions of the Enneagram of Personality and its basis in the Arica system. but does include a Function of Coordination and Kinsethetic Awareness which may be similar. Both Poles are connected with survival and questions about our identity. Its felt centre is in the pelvic region. The innate instinctual question asked here relates to our gender identity. It should be noted that. It is based on a need to perpetuate our survival as a certain identifiable. Ichazo does not describe a Moving Centre. It may be interesting to note. while in the Gurdjieff system the Sexual Centre is considered part of the “Belly centre. In addition. THE FOUR FUNCTIONS An in-depth study of the Hypergnostic Systems would also involve an analysis of the workings of the Four Functions mentioned earlier and how they interrelate with the Instincts and Poles. Understanding Ichazo’s theory of the Domains may provide more insight into the way the Egofixations manifest themselves and the approaches one can take to minimise the fixations. individual entity. however. such an analysis is not entirely necessary. They represent material directly related to the Enneagram of Personality Types which is not being used in the general Enneagram community partially due to the lack of a transmission process. DOMAINS OF CONSCIOUSNESS One important area of study in the second level of the Arica school involves learning about the Domains of Consciousness. The Spiritual Pole is centred in the brain. The Spiritual Pole develops the psychic poisons of Ignorance. The Sexual Pole develops the psychic poison of Lust. there is no evidence that the theory of the Domains was used by Gurdjieff or his followers.THE SEXUAL POLE AND THE SPIRITUAL POLE In addition to the Three Instincts. that Gurdjieff included a “Moving Centre” as part of the Belly Centre.” in Ichazo’s theory it is given a separate place of importance and explicitly coupled with the Spiritual Pole. However. Arica Theory describes two Poles between which our whole life is supported. Ichazo calls these the Sexual and Spiritual Poles. Arrogance and Stupidity as well as a sense of Duality. . The Spiritual Pole is related to our sense of our identity as individuals. Arica theory postulates a constant tension between the Sexual and Spiritual Poles.

Ichazo describes this as two poles on an axis: If the axis is broken and we become fixated on one extreme. These dichotomies are not opposed to each other. Ego-Flattery. each one supporting the other in a circulatory way. the Over-Justicemaker. in Work and Activities. the Over-Reasoner. Social Interaction 6. Ego-Indolence. Position and Authority 8. in Laws and Morals. while the Domains describe our relationship with the external world. the Over-Adventurer. Ego-Vengeance. 6. Intellectual 5. Ego-Go. . in Creativity. the Over-Independent. Ego-Planning. the Over-Idealist. in the Spiritual Domain. the Over-Perfectionist. Individuals and societies tend to value one side of the dichotomy over the other. with a tendency towards one of the dichotomous positions of those domains: 1. the Over-Observer. the Over-Efficient. 4. Ego-Melancholy. 8. Ego-Stinginess. and these specialised areas are connected with the needs of our psychic life. then that extreme becomes negative.The Hypergnostic Systems describe how people are composed internally. but in reality. Health and Security 3. 5. Laws and Morals 9. in the Domain of Social Interaction. both are equally valid. Sentiments 2. Ego-Cowardice. Work and Activities 7. 2. in Hierarchy and Authority. The Nine Domains of Consciousness according to Ichazo’s Arica Theory are the following: 1. Human society and our activities in the world are divided into these Nine Domains. but are instead complimentary. in the Intellectual Domain. becomes fixated in the Domain of Sentiments. 3. 9. 7. When people develop their ego-fixations (what is often called their Enneagram “type”) they become primarily fixated in certain domains. the Over-Nonconformist. Spiritual Ichazo states that there is a natural dichotomy within each domain. Ego-Resentment. in Health and Security. Creativity 4.

Intellectual: +Reasoning -Sophistry / +Overview -Superficial 5. Lies . Sentiments: +Self Control -Callousness / +Sensitivity -Touchy 2. Position & Authority: +Self-Respect -Superiority / +Modesty -Inferiority 8. Fears 3. Schemer/Bullshitter 4.Each dichotomy has a positive and negative characteristic. Believer/Doubter Imbalance in the domains leads to “invaders. Work & Activities: +Labour -Overwork / +Amusement -Loafing 7. theatre and examples from life. Heartless/Gushy 2. Fussy/Messy 3. Spiritual: +Spirituality -Fanaticism / +Realism -Scepticism In the Arica school. Busybody/Loner 6. The Characters corresponding to the Dichotomies of the Domains are given as follows: 1. Laws & Morals: +Morality -Puritanism / +Tolerance -Hedonism 9. Workhorse/Idler 7. Pretentious/Loser 8. Argumentative/Shallow 5. Health & Security: +Routine -Meticulous / +Flexibility -Negligence 3. the Domains and their Dichotomies are studied through the use of characters. as shown in the following list of the Dichotomies of the Domains: 1. Social Interaction: +Sociable -Meddling / +Privacy -Alienation 6.” Enneagon of the Invaders: 1. Creativity: +Knowhow -Cunning / +Fantasy -Daydreaming 4. Self-Righteous/Libertine 9. Jealousies 2.

Panic 7. This allows a person to maintain control and order in their approach to life. irregular behaviour.4. Cruelty 9. Sensuality According to Ichazo. Remorses 9. Prejudices The stress of the imbalance in the Domain opens the Doors of Compensation: 1. It is necessary to realise that. Ichazo also states that this balancing of the Dichotomies of the Domains allows the manifestation of true Will. Toximania 2. unprocessed materials which might be causing undue influence on their psyche and behaviour. Over-exertion 4. Phobia 6. An individual in the Arica school engages in the observation of the “karma” which has built up in all these domains. each individual exists and lives in all nine Domains. and then balance it with the other point. Gluttony 8. . thorough and technical purification from unconscious. so each of these areas must be dealt with by each person. A person can spend some time at one point.” the student is able to achieve a complete. Worries 7. “Karma” is defined within Arica as the negative and positive rememberings associated with each area. although people tend to fixate in the Domains corresponding to their Tri-fix. coupled with a compulsion to repeat that experience through imbalanced. it is necessary to balance the Dichotomies and not become fixated at the extremes. Psychosomatic Illness 3. By remembering and letting go of the Karma within each domain through a methodical process of “Karma cleaning. This Will is not the same as our ordinary “will” which is just the result of anxiety or desire. Hatreds 6. Rivalries 8. which comes from the spirit. it is an accumulation of energy connected with a painful experience. Crime 5. Envies 5.

” The fixation is also known as “Over-Justicemaker.” This ego derives from the Historical Ego. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. The primary defence mechanism is Rationalisation. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Morality on one side. A secondary defence mechanism is Resistance. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Laws and Morals. it is necessary to understand Protoanalysis/Fixations. the differences that can be seen among people—their “personalities”—are the result of their becoming attached and imbalanced in certain Domains. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Redemption. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Cruelty as a compensatory mechanism. The Passion which feeds this ego is Lust (Excess). the Libertine at the other. Ego-vengeance experiences a sense of abuse in the childhood relationship with a Mother figure. Sketches of these 9 egos are listed below using the terminology of the Arica school and coupled with their corresponding Domains. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Vengeance. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Self-righteous character at one end. which is a response to the Conservation Instinct. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Innocence. The psychic poison of the Conservation Instinct at the root of Ego-Vengeance is Avarice. or Divine Truth. In Ichazo’s theory. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. Protoanalysis/Fixations is the study of how these attachments and imbalances develop. Systems and Ways of personal development. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the Passive-Aggresive Personality Disorder. 1 Point 8 is known as “Ego-vengeance. the aim of all this is to become independent of the Domains and the Systems in order to be able to work with the Higher Self.Ultimately. A sense of Remorse invades the consciousness in this domain. BEING GROUP: 8. the theory of Protoanalysis is the primary source from which the contemporary Enneagram of Personality has been developed. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Truth. PROTOANALYSIS/FIXATIONS As mentioned earlier. or Tolerance at the other side. Although Ichazo usually does not group these factors together in this way. it is being done here in order to better compare and contrast these “egos” with the more popular descriptions of the Enneagram “types” which are currently being circulated. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Justice. 9. which redeems the past. experiences in early childhood lead to the development of certain false Egos to which people become attached and which they identify as their true selves. The poison of this domain is Mythomania. It can manifest in a negative sense as Puritanism at one extreme or Hedonism at the other extreme. According to Ichazo. In order to do this. .

which is “immensely mystical” and which entails becoming aware of one’s “internal inner clarity. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Spirituality on one side.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Perfectionist. Man alone can know that all comes from God. without preconceptions about what should be happening. God. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the Avoidant/Dependent Personality Disorders.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Nonconformist. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Sensuality as a compensatory mechanism. and Life itself. As soon as the mind’s word mechanism is destroyed. love. According to Ichazo.” The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Love/ Divine Love. The poisons of this domain are Ignorance.” ********* Point 1 is known as “Ego-resentment. Prejudices invade the consciousness in this domain. that this existence is its own definition. and that the individual experiences the truth of Reality most completely when he views each moment fresh. The psychic poison of the Conservation Instinct at the root of Ego-Indolence is Greed.” This ego derives from the Historical Ego. which is a response to the Conservation Instinct. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Disillusionment. the natural condition of the mind.’ All men feel this somewhat. The psychic poison of the Conservation Instinct at the root of Ego-Resentment is Possessiveness. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. they are not cold. and continues whether an individual understands it or not. appears. A secondary defence mechanism is Symbolisation. Divine Love is “The awareness that though the laws which govern reality are objective. Love begins the moment man contemplates the Creation and says. like all natural phenomena. Ego-indolence experiences a sense of abandonment in the childhood relationship with a Mother figure. Arrogance and Stupidity. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Action. .” ********* Point 9 is known as “Ego-indolence.” This ego derives from the Historical Ego. because these cosmic laws inevitably lead to the creation of organic life. the Doubter at the other. fulfills a cosmic purpose. no animal can feel this at all. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Self-Awareness. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Believer at one end. Divine Truth is “The awareness that the cosmos objectively exists now. which is a response to the Conservation Instinct. Becoming fixated in the Spiritual Domain. or Realism at the other side. The primary defence mechanism is Compensation. ‘Thank you.According to Ichazo. The Passion which feeds this ego is Laziness (Sloth). The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Seeking. It can manifest in a negative sense as Fanaticism at one extreme or Scepticism at the other extreme.

These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Heartless character at one end. The primary defence mechanism is Isolation. The poison of this domain is Lechery. Fears invade the consciousness in this domain.” This ego is derives from the Image Ego. 3. 4 Point 2 is known as “Ego-flattery.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Independent. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Self-Control on one side. The Passion which feeds this ego is Anger. A secondary defence mechanism is Undoing. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Vanity. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. which works by recalling oneself in self-observation permanently. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Attention. Ego-Flattery experiences a sense of being controlled in the childhood relationship with a Father figure. or Sensitivity at the other side. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Resentment. Within this movement each moment is connected by the process with the one goal.Ego-resentment experiences a sense of being unloved in the childhood relationship with a Mother figure. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the Narcissistic Personality Disorder. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Serenity. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Health and Security. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Psychosomatic Illness as a compensatory mechanism. or Flexibility at the other side. The poison of this domain is Anger. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Perfection. which is a response to the Relation Instinct. According to Ichazo. the Messy person at the other. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. . The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Perfection. It can manifest in a negative sense as Callousness at one extreme or Touchiness at the other extreme. the Gushy character at the other. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder. It can manifest in a negative sense as Meticulousness at one extreme or Negligence at the other extreme. moving with direction and purpose. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Toximania as a compensatory mechanism. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Sentiments. The Passion which feeds this ego is Pride. and thus is perfect. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Fussy character at one end. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Routine on one side. The psychic poison of the Relation Instinct at the root of Ego-Flattery is Envy. Divine Perfection is “The awareness that Reality is a process. The primary defence mechanism is Denial. Jealousies invade the consciousness in this domain.” LIVING GROUP: 2. A secondary defence mechanism is Repression. or Divine Perfection.

A secondary defence mechanism is Compulsion. The Passion which feeds this ego is Deceit. This is true freedom. The easiest way to deal with this force is to move with it. or Divine Harmony. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Over-exertion as a compensatory mechanism. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Creativity. The psychic poison of the Relation Instinct at the root of Ego-Go is Hate. which goes with art. operating as an interconnected unity. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Creativity. the Bullshitter at the other. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Schemer character at one end. flows with a certain force. The primary defence mechanism is Identification. or Fantasy at the other side. also known as the Way of Security. which deals with the construction of our lives. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the Histrionic Personality Disorder. Certitude in the objectivity and the total applicability of those laws is true hope. Ego-Go experiences a sense of being ignored in the childhood relationship with a Father figure. The psychic poison of the Relation Instinct at the root of Ego-Melancholy is Jealousy.The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Freedom. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Harmony.” This ego derives from the Image Ego.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Efficient. which is a response to the Relation Instinct.” This ego derives from the Image Ego. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Efficiency.” ********* Point 3 is known as “Ego-Go. It can manifest in a negative sense as Cunning at one extreme or Daydreaming at the other extreme. or Divine Will. . The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Will. The highest law is the totality of Reality itself. The poison of this domain is Avarice. moving with direction and according to fixed natural laws. Lies invade the consciousness in this domain. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Humility. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Liberty.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Reasoner. According to Ichazo.” ********** Point 4 is known as “Ego-Melancholy. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Know-how on one side. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Hyperactivity. and that these laws are completely objective. Divine Will is “The awareness that Reality. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Truthfulness. Divine Harmony is “The awareness that there are no exceptions to the natural laws which govern the Cosmos. According to Ichazo. which is a response to the Relation instinct.

Ego-Melancholy experiences a sense of being criticised in the childhood relationship with a Father figure. that these laws continue to operate within them throughout their lives. According to Ichazo.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Observer. Worsening of this fixation can lead to the Borderline Personality Disorder. It can manifest in a negative sense as Meddling at one extreme or Alienation at the other extreme. The psychic poison of the Adaptation Instinct at the root of Ego-Stinge is Confusion. each individual always has an intimate physical connection with the Totality of Reality—the Cosmos. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Phobias as a compensatory mechanism. A sense of Hatred invades the consciousness in this domain. . The Passion which feeds this ego is Avarice. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Analysis. Ego-stinginess experiences a sense of Alienation in the childhood relationship with siblings and/or peers.” This ego derives from the Practical Ego. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Equanimity. The poison of this domain is Deception. objective laws. 7 Point 5 is known as “Ego-Stinginess. A secondary defence mechanism is Regression. The primary defence mechanism is Introjection. Becoming fixated in the Intellectual Domain. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Crime as a compensatory mechanism. or the way of pure clear analysis. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Melancholia. Because all the laws are interconnected. Worsening of this fixation can lead to either the Schizoid or Anti-Social Personality Disorder. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness.” DOING GROUP: 5. The Passion which feeds this ego is Envy. 6. The primary defence mechanism is Sublimation. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Clarity. A secondary defence mechanism is Reaction-formation. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Origin. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. the Loner at the other. or having an Overview at the other side. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Withdrawal. which is a response to the Adaptation Instinct. the Shallow character at the other. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Social Interaction. or Privacy at the other side. The poison of this domain is Envy. Divine Origin is “The awareness that all individuals are born as the result of natural. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Busybody at one end. or Divine Origin. From this springs true originality. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. This can manifest in a positive sense as Sociability on one side. It can manifest in a negative sense as Sophistry at one extreme or Superficiality at the other extreme. This can manifest in a positive sense as a focus on Reason on one side. Envies invade the consciousness in this domain. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Argumentative character at one end.

an individual can exist in a state of harmony with Reality. existing in a state of balance. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. moving toward his own personal fulfillment. Ego-Cowardice experiences a sense of being Useless in the childhood relationship with siblings and/or peers. Divine Strength is “The awareness that the Cosmos is a self-regulating mechanism. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Courage. The psychic poison of the Adaptation Instinct at the root of Ego-Cowardice is Deceit. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Enchantment. or avoiding the results of natural processes. According to Ichazo. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Work and Activities. Divine Omniscience is “The awareness that because every individual is intimately connected with the entire cosmos by the operation of objective laws within their own bodies.” ********* . there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. we are completely at peace with our past. there is no possibility of hiding from the Cosmos. or Divine Strength. which is a response to the Adaptation Instinct. and as long as the objective laws which govern this balance are respected. the Idler at the other. not a belief.” This ego derives from the Practical Ego. It can manifest in a negative sense as Overwork at one extreme or Loafing at the other extreme. When we understand this. The primary defence mechanism is Projection. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Detachment (Non-Attachment). which is to realise that our actions must be internalised if they are to be real actions. It is the certitude that each of us has an Essence and that this Essence coming from God. The Passion which feeds this ego is Fear. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Action. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Panic as a compensatory mechanism. Worsening of this fixation can lead to Paranoid Personality Disorder. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Workhorse at one end. belongs to God. Faith is a Holy Idea.” ********* Point 6 is known as “Ego-Cowardice. A secondary defence mechanism is Conversion. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Omniscience. According to Ichazo. Because the cosmic laws govern every aspect of ourselves. there is no separateness or alienation except as a mental hallucination. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyser for the transformation of this ego is Holy Strength. or Divine Omniscience. This can manifest in a positive sense as Labour on one side. Worries invade the consciousness in this domain. The poison of this domain is Jealousy.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Adventurer.The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Observation. which is how we relate magically with the world. The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Insecurity. or Amusement at the other side. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Prudence.

The poison of this domain is Confusion of thought. Using this law. These dichotomies are represented by two characters: the Pretentious character at one end. The Passion which feeds this ego is Gluttony. . Everything follows a pre-established cyclical pattern. continuously being aware of the Presence of the Eternal. They must be worked by using the laws of cycles and processes which he has termed Trialectical Logic. there is a swing to the dichotomies of that domain. linear formal logic. Divine Wisdom (or Work) is “The awareness that Reality exists as a succession of moments. Ichazo uses the Enneagram figure to represent the Three Laws of Trialectics: 1. This can lead to the Virtue (energy) of Sobriety. the enneagons which comprise his system cannot be worked with subjective interpretations. the Loser at the other. The Trap which simultaneously restricts but potentially liberates this ego is its focus on Idealism.’ and that it is only by existing in the present that the constant unfolding of the Cosmos [can] be experienced. Rivalries invade the consciousness in this domain. or Modesty at the other side. Only by working in the present can real work be done and real results achieved. one can observe with precision the cyclical transformation of all phenomena over time. The psychic poison of the Adaptation Instinct at the root of Ego-Planning is Mythomania. This can manifest in a positive sense as Self-Respect on one side. and everything is in a determined point of the cycle.” TRIALECTICS According to Ichazo. Ego-Planning experiences a sense of being Inferiorised in the childhood relationship with siblings and/or peers. or dialectical logic. According to Ichazo.” This ego derives from the Practical Ego. The stress of being fixated and imbalanced in this domain can lead to Gluttony as a compensatory mechanism. The primary defence mechanism is Displacement. their synthesis in this form is an original proposition from Ichazo.Point 7 is known as “Ego-Planning. which is a response to the Adaptation Instinct. The Holy Idea which acts as a catalyzer for the transformation of this ego is Holy Wisdom or Divine Wisdom (sometimes described as Holy Work). The main ego-characteristic of this fixation is Dreaming. Further worsening leads to psychosomatic illness. Although the principles presented in Trialectics have similarities with ideas found in Eastern philosophy and Western physics. The Law of Mutation states that there is mutation from one material manifestation point (MMP) to another MMP. It can manifest in a negative sense as Superiority at one extreme or Inferiority at the other extreme. Worsening of this fixation can lead to Schizotypal Personality Disorder. A secondary defence mechanism is Disassociation. Becoming fixated in the Domain of Position and Authority.” The fixation is also known as “Over-Idealist. The Way of self-realisation of this ego is the Way of Presence. This Law is represented in the Enneagram figure as the sequence of 9 points along the circumference of the circle. each experienced as ‘the present.

Books and Articles:       INTERVIEWS WITH OSCAR ICHAZO ed. and by understanding reality according to the Laws of cycles described in the theory of Trialectics. by A. (For this reason. The Law of Circulation states that inside everything is the seed of its apparent opposite. function and result.2. Stability is transient. change is inevitable. Almaas CHARACTER AND NEUROSIS by Claudio Naranjo     . According to Ichazo’s system. 1991 TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGIES. and “The Gurdjieff Work” by Kathleen Riordan. reaction. See especially “The Arica Training” by John Lilly and Joseph Hart. by John and Antoinetta Lilly FACETS OF UNITY. THE CENTRE OF THE CYLCONE. by Charles Tart. AUTUMN. Seemingly contradictory MMP’s are mutually related to each other through a cyclical process of circulation. This can be observed in the Arica “law of causation” composed of action. by using techniques and meditations for minimising one’s attachment to—and identification with—the various egos. Every point in an apparent state of equilibrium is in reality internally nurturing its own change into another manifestation (such as the transformation of ice to water to vapour). Oscar Ichazo emphasised in an interview with Michael Goldberg that the Fixation point could be seen as the result of the actions of the Wing Points). and there will always be an orientation and movement towards either improvement or deterioration. ed. This Law is represented in the Enneagram figure by each point having two Wing points which act as the action and reaction resulting in the main point. The Law of Attraction states that each MMP has an inherent attraction or orientation towards a higher or lower MMP. by John Bleibtreu BETWEEN METAPHYSICS AND PROTOANALYSIS by Oscar Ichazo MASTER LEVEL EXERCISES: PSYCHOALCHEMY by Oscar Ichazo LETTERS TO THE SCHOOL by Oscar Ichazo THE ARICAN JOURNAL. it is possible to achieve a state of “emptiness” from which one can begin to work with the Higher Self. 3.H. by John Lilly THE DYADIC CYCLONE. ********* FURTHER READING The following list of source material is recommended for a more complete and thorough understanding of Ichazo’s Arica system and its relationship with the contemporary Enneagram of Personality. This is represented in the Enneagram figure as the inner Lines of Change.

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GOD’S WILL BE DONE, vol. 1-3, by Laleh Bakhtiar TAKING WITH THE LEFT HAND by William Patrick Patterson

Weblinks:     http://www.arica.org/index.cfm http://www.9waysofworking.com/qEnneagram_monthly_English.htm http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=8786 http://www.sufienneagram.com/

The Legend of the Enneagram
About the enneagon, all that we have is a legend; we don’t have historical data. But it is said that it is extremely old, extremely old… —Oscar Ichazo, 1979 *****LEGEND OF THE ENNEAGRAM I-III AND NOTES CURRENTLY UNAVAILABLE*****

Transmission of the Enneagram, Hidden Lore of the Nine Points
Naranjo, Ichazo, and The School Chilean-born psychiatrist Claudio Naranjo was living and working in the U.S. in the late 1960s when he first heard of Oscar Ichazo. Several of his former patients from Chile wrote to him to tell of the impressive experiences they were having with this new teacher. Several years before, back in Chile, Naranjo had developed an “extended family” of his private psychiatric patients, bringing them together in a group that became interested in spiritual questions as well as ordinary psychological ones. The techniques that Naranjo was using with this group of about 60 people included meditation, Gestalt therapy, various readings, and “psychedelic” sessions. At the time in Chile, it was not a legal problem for Naranjo to be using psychedelics as part of his official activities. Besides the therapeutic use of psychedelics, he also produced some scientific studies of these substances. For instance, his study of the nature and content of the experiences produced by Ayahuasca—a hallucinogenic concoction used by South American shamans—can be found in Hallucinogens and Shamanism, ed. by Michael Harner (1974). Under the influence of these psychedelics, several of Naranjo’s patients—many of them very educated, intelligent and talented people—reported intense, life-changing experiences of “complete integration” and “total centeredness,” experiences which they were never able to recapture—until some years later, that is, when they met Ichazo.

It is interesting to note here that some of Oscar Ichazo’s earliest mystical experiences also reportedly came from using Ayahuasca (a.k.a. Yage) with the shamans of South America when he was a teenager. When Naranjo left to work in the U.S., these former patients somehow made contact with the Bolivian-born Ichazo who was teaching in places like Santiago and Arica, Chile. They reported to Naranjo that, after just a few days and weeks of working with Ichazo, they were having drug-free experiences of the same nature and intensity as their former psychedelic experiences. They were having these experiences more often and with even more intensity. One man reported that his lifelong feelings of anxiety had disappeared and he was—purely incidentally and without any intention on his part—having telepathic experiences as well. According to Naranjo, Ichazo was described to him by the students as a Sufi teacher. At the time, Naranjo was involved with another Sufi group, one under the direction of Idries Shah, and he was very interested in the possible Sufi connection with the Sarmoun, the secret society which was reputed to be the source of Gurdjieff’s teaching. Naranjo first made contact with Ichazo by letter. In the letters he received, Naranjo noticed an authoritarian streak he did not like. Strange events surrounded Naranjo’s early contacts with Ichazo. He has told the following story: In June of 1969, Naranjo was giving a series of lectures at the University of Miami. After the lectures were over, he was supposed to return home, but instead stayed in Miami for a few more days, something he wasn’t planning on doing. The hotel he was staying at was too expensive, so he asked the first person he met if there was a cheaper hotel, and checked in to the cheaper one. No one knew he was there. On the day he checked in to the new hotel, he called home to let his wife know he was still in Miami. She said there was a wire from Ichazo, telling Naranjo to contact such-and-such a person at the McAlister hotel on that same exact day. This was the precise hotel at which Naranjo had just arrived. Instead of calling the person immediately, Naranjo had a shower and a nap, then woke up and did a little writing. Finally, he picked up the phone to call the person, and just then the other person had picked up the phone at the same time, and they were immediately connected. Naranjo asked Ichazo about this and was told, “These things happen when you are on the path.” Naranjo knew these coincidences as a well-known occurrence in Sufism. The teacher gives the student “tadjalli,” which is sometimes expressed in terms of coincidences. Students are often asked to keep a journal of these coincidences. Naranjo didn’t know what these coincidences meant, but just took them as one more hint that “something is going on.” Naranjo’s doubts about Ichazo increased even more after they first met in 1969. He describes Ichazo in this first meeting as being overly-polite, diplomatic, and engaged in many formalities, all of which made Naranjo very suspicious. Overall, Naranjo reacted negatively to Ichazo as a person, considering him manipulative and unimpressive, seemingly without much talent and not even particularly intelligent. This negative impression was also shared by some others who had accompanied Naranjo.

However, Naranjo went through some experiences with Ichazo that he considered surprising and convincing, of a different nature than the ordinary. Some of these experiences were through direct contact with Ichazo; for instance, through a technique called “direct transmission of consciousness,” which Ichazo calls by the Spanish phrase “traspaso.” This technique involves two people sitting in front of each other staring directly into each other’s eyes and, through certain meditative and ritual processes, they can achieve a shared consciousness. Interestingly, Naranjo later began using this technique under the name “meditation in relation.” When Ichazo learned of this, he issued a scathing denunciation of what he considered Naranjo’s distorted imitation. (see Ichazo’s Letters to the School, 1988) At the time, Naranjo connected the Traspaso technique with the Sufi concept of “baraka.” Naranjo describes baraka as a subtle but palpable energy which can be passed on. In the area of spiritual development, Naranjo says, nothing can be done without baraka; anything effective is more than technique—it’s technique plus a person that has baraka. This subtle quality can be transmitted through direct contact with a person, place or object which carries the energy. Ichazo equated baraka with “the holy spirit” and said that he was capable of elevating others through the strength of his own baraka. He spoke more about baraka in a discussion of the Two Ways: the Way of Grace and the Way of the Law. The Way of the Law is the Way of the Prophets; it is a long and hard Way. But what Ichazo claimed to be offering was a Way of Grace, investing a tremendous energy of baraka. Baraka is something which is usually given only in proportion to effort. However, in these circumstances, it would be given freely in large amounts to make things easier. Ichazo said: “Our work is exceptional in that I am trained and entitled to do much work for others…” Nothing is done without work, and Ichazo implied that he could put in his energy somehow to facilitate this process. In Naranjo’s opinion, this method did seem to work experientially, although he did not know how it was done. Sometimes Naranjo went into unusual ecstatic states. Other times he experienced what Ichazo calls “satori” states. This “satori” is not necessarily the same as the “satori” described by some Eastern traditions. According to Naranjo, in Ichazo’s system, “satori” is a very intensified experience of the here and now—a crystal clear state where thought dies down. This idea of satori caused some confusion later on when the Arica school advertised that, by using Ichazo’s methods, people could attain satori in a few weeks. Naranjo was familiar with some of the states he was experiencing, but had many more of them while working with Ichazo. Some states came from certain exercises. Naranjo was left with the impression that Ichazo’s background was enormous, his “bag of tricks” incredible. He had apparently received training in every esoteric system imaginable. His knowledge of chakra yoga, for instance, impressed Naranjo. Chakra yoga is not part of the programme, but Ichazo would use it with people with whom he felt it could be useful. Naranjo had some background in chakra yoga, but didn’t tell Ichazo this. However, Ichazo immediately detected that Naranjo had done work on chakras, saying Naranjo’s higher

Ichazo’s use of the Enneagram further convinced Naranjo that he was connected with Gurdjieff and the Sarmoun. not what the West needs. Ichazo would diagnose a person in about 1 hour. This conversation once again indicates that Naranjo believed that Ichazo was teaching Sufism and Ichazo did not contradict him. that in most cases the imagery of chakra yoga is more geared towards the Eastern mind and is obsolete to the West. Ichazo said that it was true. Ichazo excused himself and they began doing some chakra work again. Naranjo heard 40 lectures by Ichazo. involving about 45 psychological entities. Naranjo also learned some movements. north of Afghanistan in Central Asia. by the Sarmoun. the concepts of Essence and Personality central to what Gurdieff conveyed had been worked out in a great amount of detail. Ichazo never again talked of chakras until a few days later when Naranjo finally confronted him. It is very likely that these movements are. In addition. . with cosmic visions producing tears and laughter… After 10 minutes of this. giving a chart of the personality structure: a general map of the workings of the Centres. Naranjo said Ichazo was the first person he had heard who was giving further info along the same lines as G. desire for Union. He describes this as streams of electricity running through him.chakras were well-developed. but then stopped him because he said Naranjo was in too analytical a state and it was useless. those presented in Ichazo ’s book Master Level Exercises and known in Arica as Psychocalisthenics. In Ichazo’s system. They discussed yoga work and Naranjo had an impression of Ichazo’s tremendous knowledge. visualisations and some physical movements drawn from Yoga. air force exercises and ballet. Naranjo told him he thought they were going to learn Sufism. Apparently. Ichazo taught Naranjo breathing exercises which were similar to Pranayama. not Chakra Yoga. he wanted to stop because he couldn’t handle it… But the next day Ichazo began putting him off. These exercises are a combination of breathing techniques. He said that Naranjo had a “piece of cork” in his solar plexus… Ichazo proposed to do chakra yoga with Naranjo. They tried again and failed again… and that was the last time they ever worked with the chakras. in essence. etc. but which were impressive.. Ichazo gave Naranjo an exercise of listening to Sufi music with certain chakras. The working of personality is broken down into 5 lower Centres (which Naranjo explicitly states is related to the chakras) and each is understood in terms of working on an Enneagram. which Ichazo claims is a synthesis of some techniques he learned from his time with Sufis in the Pamir. which didn’t cause far-out states. although Ichazo didn’t give them much importance. and these convinced Naranjo that Ichazo was trained in the same school as Gurdjieff. Naranjo went into one of the most impressive explosions he ’s ever experienced. On the third day of yoga work. but had some differences. but his lower ones needed a lot of work.e. Ichazo was primarily teaching the psychological level of Protoanalysis at that time. i. Self-preservation. like the workings of Fear and Pride and Appetite. Naranjo may be referring to consciousness-raising techniques Ichazo developed. like Kinerhythm. But Naranjo was very convinced by his experiences. According to Naranjo.

and this is the way our personal machine works. Briefly. but noticed that Ichazo did seem very effective in finding out a person’s inner state. Ichazo summarised these aspects. Phrased in this way. It apparently did not occur to Naranjo that by acting in the way he mentions. Ichazo describes “Archangel Metatron” as a faculty of the Higher Mind which allows a person to have special knowledge of a Divine nature. According to Naranjo. Ichazo told Naranjo almost everything about Naranjo’s personality without asking any questions or knowing anything about Naranjo. in “tuning-in” to people. The Arica system was produced under this state of consciousness. Among Kabbalists. He did this with Naranjo. Ichazo would give a map of this and certain ways of working with it to “clean” this lower level. These are technical terms which require some background in esoteric doctrine and which can easily lead to bizarre interpretations. However. after years of both exoteric and esoteric study. Metatron is known as “the Angel of the Presence. it should be mentioned that Metatron is traditionally associated with the highest levels of the Kabbalah.The way these entities interlocked with each other was different from individual to individual. one psychological entity leads to another and another. since Ichazo has asserted that. according to Laleh Bakhtiar. mostly just attending to Ichazo (although he did meditate in his presence). is traditionally known as the Sign of the Presence of God (or the Divine Presence) and is also known as the symbol of the Face of God.” Interestingly. It is an archetypal figure representing “the Presence of God. In fact.. and there are practically countless possibilities. showing how they fit together.” a state of consciousness in which the Unity of God is remembered without interruption. its technical quality. relationships between all these. presenting them panoramically and integrating one with another. he received this wisdom through using techniques for attaining higher consciousness. flow of events. but Naranjo says he had been mostly passive: not talking about himself. he once heard Ichazo mention that what had impressed him (Ichazo) about this teaching when he first encountered it was its scientific quality. the Sufi Enneagram.” and associated with the Crown Sephirah. . etc. In connection with this. John Lilly was already reporting that Ichazo claimed to have received his knowledge from the Archangel Metatron and the Green Qutb. In basically 8 hours of talking. it all gave the impression of a very coherent science. Ichazo accurately mentioned almost all the things Naranjo had seen about himself in the past in various therapies and episodes of self-analysis. there was not much left to intuition or improvisation. Naranjo was not sure of the extent of Ichazo’s telepathic abilities. and in fact is said to be the bridge by which the knowledge of the Kabbalah was transmitted to Abraham. permutations. in such a state he was able to discover the “science” of the 108 enneagons which constitute the Arica theory. not behaving with much response. in the early 1970’s. the implication is not so clear. It should be noted that. he was revealing his personality (Naranjo is known to be an Enneatype 5). They had previously interacted. Each person has a certain flow of energy. which is sometimes designated as “the Vast Countenance. it seems clear that Ichazo was implying that he had received this teaching and did not develop it himself.

a spiritual force which manifests in the material world in different forms and is responsible for aiding humanity wherever there is a true need. etc. Islam. contact with the Green Qutb implies connection with higher forces on a more subtle plane which are responsible for the evolutionary development of humanity to a higher spiritual level. Qutb means “centre. for “types. the angel who appeared to Muhammed. claims that he synthesised his own system based on what he learned in his experience with the various traditional Ways. as well as the completeness of techniques. But for our cosmic predicament.500 years. working with ideas. The colour green is associated with the legendary Khidr. Ichazo also connects this aspect with the Green Maitreya Buddha. Ichazo said it was a book of “the School. Some implication has been made that Ichazo may be this Bodhisattva. often represented as a living person who is considered the Chief of the Sufis. breathing. Ichazo offered that this would be one side of their studies. Even the symbolical language had aspects of Christianity. but with Enneagrams. Naranjo also once heard Ichazo speak briefly about the I Ching. Naranjo was impressed by the ideas and awed by the completeness of the theoretical picture Ichazo presented. The study also would include such things as Kabbalah and examination of consciousness. vatrayana meditation.” Hexagrams deal with humanity’s social predicament. the Bodhisattva who will bring the science of Enlightenment of the next 2. but Naranjo’s impression was not that he put them together.” . Green is also the colour which most powerfully stimulates the Lataif. Through the stabilising of an ego-less state. Sufi dancing. an individual or group is able to surrender their personal will to the Divine Will and work for the Divine Plan. Ichazo. which included Zen practices. etc. Buddhism. but that it’s one integral tradition. however. Among the Sufis. faculties of higher consciousness similar to the Hindu chakras. In Ichazo’s explanation. Enneagrams are used. or Elias. The Archetypal figure for this aspect of the Higher Mind is the Archangel Gabriel. Trigrams are for the individual level.The Green Qutb is a phrase Ichazo derived from Sufi doctrine. insistence on the “here and now” through verbal and non-verbal means. Oscar Ichazo Naranjo believed that the teaching situation in Arica beginning in 1970 would be extremely intense. Ichazo seemed to have been exposed to much.” and is used to designate the Axis or Magnetic Pole around which the entire Sufi enterprise revolves.” but they use it not with hexagrams. Ichazo told him that he was using a Sufi method called “the Rapidness. Picture 3.

an analysis of these world cycles and the way a new culture springs from certain people at certain moments was a major part of the work of Rodney Collin. Ichazo said this was a plantation moment. As Naranjo states. a student of P. Although by using this technique people can be very quickly prepared for playing a part in an important operation. The members of Arica who had reached the highest levels through their early work directly with Ichazo would then be responsible for implementing these ideas in Arica Centres around the world. Naranjo didn’t think that Ichazo would be doing this for 20 years.” In fact. there is also an increased danger of wrong development. from South America. The Sufis usually use ways that blend into ordinary life. and that this was a moment in history (c. It is said to be a secret technique for rapid development which is preserved by the Naqshbandi Order. by 1980. so that development happens gradually. Ichazo conveyed to Naranjo that this (c. Ichazo had withdrawn to Hawaii. a “seeding” moment. generating a new tree. He said this could be done in some world cycles. he believed Ichazo would withdraw to one of the secret schools known as “Power houses. where one culture dies and another one is born. this method is not normally used in the Sufi orders.D.” According to Naranjo. Interestingly. also known as the Shattari method.) These moments of “plantation” are said to happen only once in a very long time. Naranjo noticed how some statements like the above displayed Ichazo’s almost messianic sense of mission. there was a need for “seed” people. Using this “Rapid” method. students would be expected to be involved in developmental work for at least 12 hours a day. This prediction was made in the early 1970’s. was used in India in the fifteenth century by the Sufi Sheikh Abdullah Shattar. It is a highly-reserved method which is preserved for historical emergencies.The Rapidness. Ichazo is Bolivian. Comparing humanity to a tree. I can do that.” Ichazo told Naranjo that it was “lawful” for him to use this method at this time—speaking in terms of a Higher Law. Ichazo guaranteed a permanent awakened condition: “If you work and you let me work. 1970) was an important moment. and would last for 20 years. An account of the techniques used by Ichazo as part of his programme at that time can be found in John Lilly’s “Centre of the Cyclone. Ouspensky who began teaching in South America in 1949 (see Collin’s “Theory of Celestial Influence. 1970) that had not happened in 2000 years. and that Arica was going to be an extremely important factor in this global change. although “nothing . A high-protein diet would be used to give high energy. Consequently. and he made statements to the effect that the person whose mission it would be to do this work would have had to be Bolivian.” 1954. Ichazo later began predicting that a major cataclysm would take place in the next ten years if humanity did not change its ways. to work on various “trainings” and “letters” which he would then send to the Arica Institute Headquarters in New York. The type of work Ichazo was doing was supposedly related to these cycles. However. a “seed” person contains a whole spirit of a culture and can regenerate a whole culture.

He didn’t have a natural group. Naranjo wondered why “they” chose Ichazo and not someone more gifted! Ichazo told Naranjo he was contacted early in life. they said. This man. however. through the studies and practices he was engaged in. as well as various European occultist groups which were prominent at the end of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.” For instance. Sufism. Before travelling. When he went to the apartment where his teachers were. studied Buddhism and Confucianism. alchemy. and based on that. Bolivia. and they taught him Kabbalah. the Stoics. invited Ichazo to participate in a study group of highranking European and Oriental mystics in Buenos Aires. when he was back in Chile. and the biological cycles of palaeontology. Ichazo said that he was the Alpha and the Omega. after which he was transformed. Eventually they decided to teach Ichazo in earnest. and the wisdom of the I Ching. and he passed through an initiation in which he had to sit in a lotus position on a post for three days until the teachers returned. he could join the group. They used him as a kind of “guinea pig” on which to try out different techniques. Back in his hut. he would teach a study group which focused on the wisdom of Pythagoras. By 1960 he had synthesised his Theory of Trialectics. who chose Ichazo and what School was created for him? The following is a summary of what allegedly took place: When Ichazo was 19. They were attempting to synthesise all mysticism and present the synthesis as a new Way. speaking intimately. (He was using the Pampas exercises as a major part of his teaching in 1970. Zen and techniques from the Gurdjieff work. he found the men waiting for him.about his demeanour is messianic. see Lilly’s The Centre of the Cyclone for a description). He noted the resemblances of these things to systems of divination like the Kabbalah. Plato. and his way was very difficult and strenuous. the work of Mendeleyev. Theosophists. Ichazo ’s personality structure broke down completely. he began to travel and study in the East. he synthesised a set of exercises called the Pampas. Epicureans and Cynics. Ichazo served them coffee. By 1954. This group worked with Ichazo for two more years and then opened doors for him to study in the Orient. Ichazo’s body was so rigid he had to be lifted off the post. the nonEuclidian geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky. Yoga. Now.1950. a seemingly biblical reference to the Book of Revelations. He studied Sufism in Afghanistan and the Pamir. he had synthesised his theory of the 108 enneagons. so an artificial one was created for him. taking many years. and the martial arts in Hong Kong in 1960. They discussed the work of Gurdjieff and Ouspensky. c. astrology and numerology. The question arises. whose identity has remained anonymous. During this time. the I Ching. composed of Martinists. . He learned all of the higher yogas. In 1956. Sceptics. studied Tantra in the Kashmir in 1958. When they returned. Argentina. the Atomic Models of Bohr. the theories of numbers of Pythagoras and Euclid. Some events in Ichazo’s life made him think he was chosen. he was discovered by a 60-year-old European businessman in La Paz. He studied mythological enneads. a new logic based on cycles. he remained at home in Chile for a few years. and chosen early in life. Rosicrucians and Anthroposophists.

The Maschevilles were known to be in contact with the head of the Martinist organisation at that time.In 1964. According to Naranjo. Things got so busy and crowded there that I decided to move to the remote little town of Arica and filter out all except the really committed persons who would follow me there…” The above implies that he was acting on his own initiative. has never been disclosed. Ichazo said specifically that he was handed the whole of the Tradition that is spread in many branches around the world in various cultures. a Martinist teacher from a French family living in South America in the early 20th century. because the European influence was not as strong there and Christianity could fade away. but according to Claudio Naranjo and John Lilly. Ichazo had taken his position as one of the heads of the School and began his teaching mission. Europe had had its time. Ichazo went into a “divine coma” for seven days. and those people who will be the “seed people” would be the seed of a very important development— the creation of new cultural reforms which would embody the Truth. exactly. . According to Ichazo. Picture 4. Naranjo also believed that Ichazo seemed to be in contact with his own teachers. these teachers were. Ichazo was given the “order” by his teachers to go to Arica. For instance. according to Naranjo. Ichazo explained the reason behind South America being the centre of this new cultural movement. the French occultist known as Papus. he was still acting under the direction of his own teachers. He was given “the whole works” and the mission of translating it into Western terms. “When I came out of it I knew that I should teach. The only name Ichazo has ever mentioned publicly is Leo Costet de Mascheville. especially South America. but they weren’t in Chile. Who. Then I went to Santiago and started lecturing in the Institute for Applied Psychology. while living with his father and digesting his learnings. to teach there. Chile. Leo Costet de Mascheville. it was impossible that all my good luck should be only for myself. But it took me two years to act on this decision. after one of his original teachers had died. in La Paz. “They direct…” A story also circulated that. So South America would be the source from which the new movement would begin. and now it would be the Americas’ time. the only one of his teachers Ichazo has ever mentioned by name According to Naranjo. A new culture would be born from his efforts.

based on things he said and terms he used. when it originated. “I’m always awake behind my veil but you can’t see me. dry with another. Ichazo also spoke disdainfully about current Mahayana Buddhism. comparing it to a science. stretching. Ichazo said. There was one that took an hour and a half. including that of Gurdjieff.” as long as the work continued. with mantras. movements.” Naranjo asked Ichazo about Castaneda’s Don Juan.Naranjo had no doubts that Ichazo had been taught by Sufis. becoming an expression of the worst of the Hindu spirit. Naranjo opened up to Ichazo about his feelings of distrust for him. and Ichazo seemed to have a high regard for Don Juan. they don’t have “the key. however.” they can’t pass it down. and the Divine body.” Ichazo told Naranjo that the Way of Buddha is easier because he’s rejected the world. Naranjo noticed that Ichazo’s communication style would change significantly from one person to another. all done together in a certain way. “Our way is the way of the Juggler… In a world that’s asleep.” He recommended to Naranjo that he should work at least 2 hours a day. Naranjo said Ichazo knew some very sophisticated meditations. giving him certain meditations. the body of Virtues. Ichazo said. Ichazo declared Don Juan a fake and the whole thing a hoax. He put down the schools of contemporary India in general. “Our tradition is highly technical” he said. breathing techniques. but Ichazo wouldn’t mention what school it was. “That is not our way…” because although they have attained Union with God. However. So Naranjo had no doubt that someone “handed over the Tradition” to Ichazo. “You must have the key… you must be able to go in and out of the world. but was no longer viable. He could be emotional and poetic with one person. very physical ones. for instance. Ichazo said it was “ok. ideas found in most traditional esoteric schools. Ichazo did speak slightly disdainfully of the traditional Sufi orders. the Mental body. As for “enlightened” Hindus of recent time. saying that it had been great at one time. In connection with the 10-month training he was offering. which is the body of true feelings. Judeo-Christian sources were also present in his terminology. “You never know till you have proof… we need questioning minds. According to Naranjo. you play…” Ichazo would say. in later interviews. Ichazo talked of “higher bodies”: The Astral body. saying they had become very “byzantine. He said. Naranjo had been in contact with another Sufi school and said there were certain things that the Sufis knew but which were not in the Sufi books—at least not the Sufi books which were part of Naranjo’s large collection. The “permanent awakened condition” (which he guaranteed could be produced in the 10-month training) corresponded to the development of the Astral body. he said that Jesus is the School’s greatest saint.” making unnecessary and misleading elaborations in their system. . saying that there was not time to waste on discussing them.

“I want people with researchoriented minds… people who want to compare. before they had formally met. One cannot help but grow. He said. whether one strives for it or not. “Forget anything any book says about the Tarot.” (Naranjo was under the impression that after such a Tarot game. Naranjo had sent Ichazo some of his writings on the commonalities of the traditional ways of growth. substitute feelings. But he was not impressed in the least by Ichazo the person. who want to interrelate things…” In fact.According to Naranjo. Naranjo found it all to be a very integral and integrated tradition. and would also have telepathic contact with Ichazo and other members of the School. These lower feelings are called “Passions. until the School was complete.” and Ichazo didn’t “smell” holy or wise or even intelligent.” He usually went by “smell. Ichazo spoke of School “games. people asked Naranjo if he recommended Ichazo. for him because he bypassed his “heart. This was unusual. as opposed to habitual feelings. Naranjo asked Ichazo about what came next after the establishment of the Arica school. not exclusivism. Virtues are the true feelings. After the development of the Astral body. Ichazo said that some people would feel satisfied stopping after the first stage. and could not emphasise that enough.. Ichazo told Naranjo that there was no commitment to continue with him after the 10 month training. Ichazo’s teacher had told him to go to Arica and be there at a certain date and hour and just wait. He imagined that some would want to stay in a group. This latter is a Westernisation. when one is “awakened.” They need to be replaced by higher feelings. but others would feel called to continue. Ichazo also mentioned that he wanted to show both the traditional ways and the “experimental” way that he himself had created. but could be a more gradual development as part of ordinary life.) Ichazo also spoke of possibly travelling in connection with other stages of the work. When he returned to California after spending those first few weeks with Ichazo. but Naranjo couldn’t deny that . both spiritual and therapeutic. He would say.” and in connection with this. These later stages would not necessitate the same kind of intense training period. there are two more stages: the Mental body and the Divine body. Ichazo would take on a different tone when discussing the Tarot: more respectful. It’s God’s game… I am here because of the outcome of a Tarot game.” one is open to impressions all the time. the Tarot was very important. His response: “I don’t feel like recommending him… I don’t dare recommend him… but I wouldn’t want to miss it…” Naranjo decided to take the risk for himself because he felt he had enough hints that there was something real there. ceremonious. which are false. He was very distrustful of Ichazo. Naranjo got the impression that there would be innovation and experimentalism in the School. Others might do some teaching. A person then has Astral contact which can give assistance and guidance. According to Naranjo. continuing along those lines. Ichazo seemed impressed by these. with a serious aspect and attitude.

Interviews with Oscar Ichazo (1982).cfm Picture 5. Hallucinogens and Shamanism (1974). Naranjo decided to take these experiences as indications that something was really happening. and he was fighting his own paranoia. indirect evidence that Ichazo had a power and/or technique that worked. so Naranjo thought it might be intentional and part of the teaching. Report from Chile: Oscar Ichazo and the School.htm While Ichazo’s version can be found in his “Letter to the Transpersonal Community” at http://www. Letters to the School (1988). Michael.he’d been effective. not expecting anything.org/txt/naranjo. However.intuition. if he was more enlightened and closer to his ultimate goals after those first 2 months. Master Level Exercises: Psychoalchemy (1986). Claudio. Ichazo. Naranjo. Then again.arica. Claudio. Oscar. So in 1970. The details of what took place are unclear: Naranjo’s version can be found at http://www. The work he did was fragmentary. he had not worked in the real sense of the intensive 10-month programme. He felt something was going on. If nothing else. Harner. Oscar. Naranjo was sceptical of the ecstatic states he had experienced with Ichazo. he never finished the programme and had to leave Arica prematurely. Naranjo had gotten to Arica feeling very detached. ed. He didn’t feel that he was. feeling he had nothing to lose. Character and Neurosis (1994). Naranjo began the intensive 10-month programme… However.org/articles/trletter. Bleibtreu. he had gotten Naranjo more irritated than he had been in years. he had been touched somehow. He was doubtful of their impact and asked himself if he felt like a better person because of them. Big Sur Tapes (1970). . Claudio Naranjo SOURCES       Naranjo. Ichazo. But after a while he was finding he was investing a lot of energy trying to decide if he approved or not. John.

“Letter to the Transpersonal Community” in The Arican Journal. The Mystical Qabalah (1935). Rodney.H. The People of the Secret (1984). The Dyadic Cyclone (1974). Vol 1–3 (1993–94).  Ichazo.. ed. N. God’s Will Be Done. Shah. Theory of Celestial Influence (1954). Fortune. William P. Collin. FACETS OF UNITY —A former student of Naranjo—and a teacher of Maitri. Ernest. Scott.  Almaas. Shah. Riso and Hudson—gives his analysis of the Holy Ideas connected with the Enneagram. A. Patterson.          For more on Ichazo’s reputed South American teachers. Taking with the Left Hand (1998). Lilly and J. Lilly. (See “The Arica Training” by J. Laleh. Transpersonal Psychologies (1975). strongly influenced by Buddhist and Sufi teachings.  Archer. THE SUFI TRADITION IN THE WEST —Contains a chapter with a Sufi view of Gurdjieff and his followers. Dion. John and Antoinetta. Enneagram Studies The following books are recommended for studies of the Enneagram:  Ali-Shah Omar. Tart. Autumn 1991. Idries. Oscar. see: <http://korc.wisdomtraditions. Lilly. The Sufis (1964). A Perfumed Scorpion (1979). THE SUFI MYSTERY . Hart) Bakhtiar. Charles.org/>. ed. John.P. Idries. The Centre of the Cyclone (1971).

 Bennett. J.  Bennett. John. GURDJIEFF: MAKING A NEW WORLD —A student of Gurdjieff.G.G.M. Ichazo claims to have been taught by Theosophists.  Blavatsky. 1973–1980.  Bakhtiar. J. GOD’S WILL BE DONE VOL.  Barnstone. Willis. THE GREEK QABALAH —Traces the development of alphabetical mysticism and numerology in the Ancient world. THE MASTERS OF WISDOM —Exploration of a possible “Inner Circle of Humanity” with whom Gurdjieff supposedly was in contact. O.  Bliebtreu. Kieren. traditions highly influential in the teachings of Gurdjieff and Ichazo. Laleh. NICOMACHEAN ETHICS Aristotle.  Bernbaum.—Contains an article about the Sarmoun monastery.  Burke. Bennett gives an account of Gurdjieff’s life and teachings. Ouspensky and various Sufi teachers. etc. Edwin. INTERVIEWS WITH OSCAR ICHAZO —A collection of early interviews with Ichazo. THE SECRET DOCTRINE —Founder of the modern Theosophy movement. 1-3 —Traditional Islamic Sufi teachings connected with the Enneagram. Kabbalah. THE WAY TO SHAMBHALA —Scholarly study of the traditional myth of the existence of hidden guardians of the highest wisdom in the mountains of Central Asia. Hermeticism. THE OTHER BIBLE: ANCIENT ALTERNATIVE SCRIPTURES —Texts from Gnosticism.  Barry. ed.. AMONG THE DERVISHES . and their connections with Ancient traditions. Madame.  Aristotle. METAPHYSICS —Strong influence on Islamic philosophers of the Middle Ages and the contemporary work of Oscar Ichazo.

includes sections on the importance of numbers 9 and 7 in shamanic cosmologies. Eknath. where Ichazo made contact with these ideas. THE UPANISHADS —Basic texts of Indian esotericism. THE BLACK ARTS —Chapters on traditional esoteric systems.  Collin. THE MYSTICAL QABALAH —Discussion of the Qabalah by a former member of the Golden Dawn and student of Theosophy.  Evans-Wentz.  Fortune. Richard. etc. contains an interesting section on the “characters” used in numerology. trans. Numerology. —Basic texts of Chinese esotericism. Collin’s Fourth Way groups were highly influential in South America. SHAMANISM —Survey of shamanism around the world. and Gurdjieff asserts that the knowledge expressed by the Enneagram system was.Y..  Eliade.  Cavendish. Alchemy. “re-discovered” by the founders of China. Dion. THE TAOIST CLASSICS. . Ichazo often references the Qabalah and learned it among occultist groups. Tarot. W. also discusses the Sarmoun. Thomas. TIBETAN YOGA AND SECRET DOCTRINES —Example of the kind of Hindu and Tibetan teachings which would have been circulating among Theosophists at the time Ichazo was studying with them.  Cleary. Ichazo studied with shamans in South America.—Contains various references to Gurdjieff and his school and their connection with Sufism. such as Kabbalah. Mircea. 4 vols. THE THEORY OF CELESTIAL INFLUENCE —A student of Ouspensky gives his theories. Rodney. based on the translations of Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup.  Easwaran. and some say Gurdjieff’s teachings show the influence of Shamanism. Ichazo correlates his system with that of Taoism.

K. THE PYTHAGOREAN SOURCE BOOK —Compendium of Pythagorean and Neo-Pythagorean texts.I. KING OF THE WORLD —Articles concerning the myths of a hidden centre of wisdom in Central Asia. Greer.  Guenon. MEETINGS WITH REMARKABLE MEN —Part-biography. 1914-1924. ORIGEN: AN EXHORTATION TO MARTYRDOM. PRAYER AND SELECTED WORKS —Ichazo cites the Neoplatonic Christian mystic Origen as an influence on his work. G. c. G.  Guenon. part-allegory.  Gurdjieff.  Guthrie. .I.W. Rene. Rowan. The Enneagram is often traced back to Pythagoras.  Gurdjieff. BEELZEBUB’S TALES TO HIS GRANDSON —Gurdjieff’s own mammoth exposition of his teaching in the form of a science-fiction novel. Gurdjieff recounts his early life and adventures. Rene.  Gurdjieff.’s early talks with students. SYMBOLISM OF SACRED SCIENCE —Studies of esoteric symbolism by a French occultist-turned Sufi dervish. VIEWS FROM THE REAL WORLD —G.I. trans. G.

According to Ichazo. SUFISM AND TAOISM —Scholarly correlation of the key concepts of Sufism with those of Taoism.  Ichazo.I.  Ichazo. Harner. . Oscar. with much material on Geber. Oscar.  Horney. based on his studies. Oscar.  Ichazo. FROM METAPHYSICS TO PROTOANALYSIS —Lectures given by Ichazo explaining his overall Arica theory. ALCHEMY —Survey of the principal historical figures and developments in alchemy. 1987. Karen. John. FICTIONS AND FACTIONS —Clarifies the relationship between the Sufi school of Idries Shah and the followers of G.  Holmyard. contains an introduction with some background material on Ichazo’s sources. also contains Ichazo ’s “Letter to the Transpersonal Community. OUR INNER CONFLICTS —Horney’s work was highly-influential on Naranjo. LETTERS TO THE SCHOOL —Contains Ichazo’s specific criticism of the contemporary Enneagram movement.” where he gives his views on Gurdjieff’s ideas and the background of the Enneagram. Toshirō.  Izutsu. HALLUCINOGENS AND SHAMANISM —Contains an article by Claudio Naranjo. MASTER LEVEL EXERCISES —Exposition of daily exercises used by Aricans. both traditions highly important in the work of Gurdjieff and Ichazo. Jafar Saadiq. Karen. Oscar. she discusses 3 groups of neurotic characters. Jafar Saadiq was the first to speak publicly about the Enneagram. a student of the Sufi teacher and 6th Imam.  Hayter. Michael. Gurdjieff. THE ARICAN JOURNAL (AUTUMN 1991) —Detailed exposition of the Arica theory. NEUROSIS AND HUMAN GROWTH Horney.  Ichazo. c. Augey. Ichazo took ayahuasca with shamans in South America. ed.

 Lull. both exoteric and esoteric. Ramon. 1970.    Lilly.  Naranjo. CHARACTER AND NEUROSIS —Naranjo’s primary exposition of his version of the nine Enneagram “types. THE DYADIC CYCLONE —Further accounts of involvement with Ichazo and Arica. who Ichazo cites as influential in the transmission of ideas contained in the Enneagram teaching. . PSEUDO-DIONYSIUS—THE COMPLETE WORKS —Pseudo-dionysius was a Christian Neo-Platonist of the 6th century A. Lefort. Raphael. trans. Colm. SHAMBHALA —Synthesises much material concerning myths of a hidden centre of ancient wisdom. c. GNOSIS.D. —Correlates Fourth Way teachings of Gurdjieff/Ouspensky with those of a “previously unknown” esotericism of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. John.  LePage. who spent much time in the Middle East and was in contact with the Sufis. Victoria. Ramon. Lilly. is often cited as being somehow connected with the Enneagram. Ramon. Boris. 3 vols. THE ART OF CONTEMPLATION Lull. John and Antoinetta. Gurdjieff was educated within the Eastern Orthodox tradition and claims to have spent time at Mt.  Mouravieff. ARS MAGNA —This Christian mystic of the Middle Ages. Athos. Claudio. THE BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Lull. THE CENTRE OF THE CYCLONE —Lilly’s experiences with Oscar Ichazo and his teachings as part of the early trainings in Arica.” Draws on both traditional and contemporary sources. THE TEACHERS OF GURDJIEFF —Sufi teaching directed at students of Gurdjieff’s work.  Luibheid.

Seyyed Hossain. P.D. ENNEAGRAM —Student of Naranjo and Speeth gives a very readible exposition of the Enneagram ideas developed in California throughout the 1970’s and ’80’s. P. Sex.  Papus. the Laws of Manu. “the Superman” and Eternal Recurrence. to such subjects as Esoteric schools. Helen. Yoga. Ichazo studied with Martinist teachers who were appointed th by Papus to teach in South America in the early 20 century. c. Introduces the Enneagram. INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC COSMOLOGICAL DOCTRINES —Scholarly analysis of the teachings of Islamic philosophers and Sufis of the Middle Ages. Nasr. the Tarot.  Palmer. IN SEARCH OF THE MIRACULOUS —Thorough account of Gurdjieff’s early lectures to students in Russia. THE KABBALAH —Papus was one of the most influential Martinists. asserting the Sufi origins for the Enneagram.  Ouspensky. 1915. Nasr was a teacher of Bakhtiar and wrote the introduction to vol.  Ouspensky.D. the New Testament. . A NEW MODEL OF THE UNIVERSE —Student of Gurdjieff applies knowledge gained from his time with G. including the idea of the nine celestial spheres. 2 of her Enneagram books.

Idries. continuously referenced by Ichazo. YOGA SUTRAS —Early exposition of esoteric principles.  Patterson.G. and the 10 Blameable Qualities. THE SUFIS —Introduction to Sufism from the spokesman of an Afghan Sufi family.  Shah. Patanjali. with reference to the Enneagram. Contains a great deal of background information concerning the history of the modern Enneagram. THE REPUBLIC —These works by Plato are essential texts for esoteric studies. the Commanding Self. TAKING WITH THE LEFT HAND —An orthodox Gurdjieffian gives his analysis of the contemporary Enneagram scene. Israel.  Plato.  Pauwells and Bergier.  Plotinus. THE TREE OF LIFE —Summary of Occultist ideas circulating in the early-20 century. Ernest.  Scott. th  Riso. THE PEOPLE OF THE SECRET —Speculations on the idea of hidden guardians of ancient wisdom. ENNEADS —The original exposition of Neo-Platonic ideas.  Shah. Bennett. often referenced by Ichazo. William. PERSONALITY TYPES —An ex-Jesuit and an ex-Gurdjeffian present their own ideas concerning the Enneagram types. THE WAY OF THE SUFI . as well as on Gurdjieff and other esoteric subjects. Gurdjieff and Ichazo both claimed to have studied with Sufis in the area of Afghanistan and Central Asia.  Regardie. containing a section on the Sufi ideas of Essence. contains a chapter on Gurdjieff. TIMAEUS Plato. Idries. Don Richard and Russ Hudon. MORNING OF THE MAGICIANS —Contains a section on the Legend of the Nine Unknowns. Neo-Platonism is constantly linked with Enneagram and Sufi teachings. Possibly anonymously co-written by J.

 Trungpa. Gurdjieff. many of which are used in the Arica school. ed. Charles. Chogyam. Charles. Buddhism. trans. Idries. studying their esoteric practices. MYSTICAL AND VISIONARY TREATISES OF SUHRAWARDI —Contains an introduction describing the variations on the system of 9 celestial spheres in use among the Sufis of the Middle Ages.  Thackston. Ichazo strongly influenced by Tantric practices. Yoga. She has since repudiated the contemporary Enneagram of Personality. contains sayings of the “Sarmoun. SUFI THOUGHT AND ACTION —Contains an article which describes a Sufi system very similar to that described by Bakhtiar.”  Shah. ROSICRUCIAN WISDOM —Ichazo worked with Rosicrucians and Anthroposophists. Christian Mysticism and Western Magic  Tart.  Shah. Idries.  Steiner. WAKING UP —Very readable exposition of the ideas of G. the Arica School. . THE GURDJIEFF WORK —Basic introduction to Gurdjieff and his legacy. Speeth was married to Naranjo and was a teacher of Helen Palmer. Contemporary Sufism.  Speeth. Gurdjieff supposedly spent 4 years living in Tibet. THE LION’S ROAR —Introduction to basic Tantric ideas of Tibetan Buddhism. W. Through her.  Tart.T. the latter school primarily derived from Steiner. Kathleen Riordan. —Contains chapters on the Gurdjieff Work. INTRODUCTION TO ZEN BUDDHISM —Ichazo received early training in Zen Buddhism. many Gurdjieffian ideas entered the contemporary Enneagram scene. ed. Rudolph.—Shah asserts the Sufi background of Gurdjieff’s teachings. TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGIES. D. THE COMMANDING SELF —Contains a chapter about the Enneagram symbol.  Suzuki..I.

from an 18th century Naqshbandi Sufi. and the Gurdjeffian Enneagram. the Pythagorean Tetractys. Colin.  Westcott.  West. trans.” . Shah. THE SACRED KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF THE MIND —In-depth exposition of traditional Sufi teachings concerning the structure of the human psyche and its potential for development. THE CHALDEAN ORACLES —The Chaldean Oracles are referred to by Ichazo as an ancient exposition of the Laws of Three and Seven. c. 2500 BC.  Wilson. THE SERPENT IN THE SKY —Contains an analysis of the relationship between the Egyptian Ennead. Gurdjieff often referred to a knowledge that was known in “pre-sand Egypt. —Contains a section on Gurdjieff and his possible connection with a form of wisdom which existed in Ancient Egypt. Gurdjieff claimed the Enneagram was developed in Chaldea. symbolised in the Enneagram. John Anthony. Waliullah. FROM ATLANTIS TO THE SPHINX.

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