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Dictionary Of Petroleum Engineering

The Author Parmanand Thakur Creation Date: 9th, November, 2000.

Prepared By: Petroleum Engineer: Mohammed Zouhry El-Helu. E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
1. A (‫)ﺭﻤﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺒﻴﺭ‬

Ampere, a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.



A two-legged (with two legs), metal or wooden support in the form of the letter "A" for hoisting or exerting a vertical pull with block and tackle or block and winch line, the block fastened to the 3pex of the A-frame, Such a frame fixed to move off location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing of the location by electronic means.


A-h (‫)ﺃﻤﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬



A-mast (‫)ﺭﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬

An A-shaped arrangement of upright poles, usually steel, used for lifting heavy loads.

5 6.

AAODC (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors.


AAPG (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬

American Association of Petroleum Geologists.


Abandon (‫)ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬

To cease producing oil or gas from a well when it becomes unprofitable. A wildcat (‫ )ﺒﺌﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬may be abandoned after it has been proven nonproductive. Usually, before a well is abandoned, some of the casing is

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
removed and salvaged (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬،‫ )ﻴﻨﻘﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ‬and one or more cement plugs placed in the borehole to prevent migration of fluids between the various formations. In many states, abandonment must be approved by an official regulatory agency before being undertaken.


ABANDONED OIL ((‫ﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻭﻙ )ﺍﻟﻤ‬

Oil permitted to escape from storage tanks or pipeline by an operator. If the operator makes no effort to recover the oil, the land owner (‫ )ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬on whose property the oil has run may trap the oil for his own use.

10. Abandoned Well (‫)ﺒﺌﺭ ﻤﻬﺠﻭﺭﺓ‬
Converting a drilled well to a condition that can be left indefinitely

(‫ )ﻷﺠل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﻤﻰ‬without further attention and which will not damage fresh water supplies or potential petroleum reservoirs.

11. Abd (‫)ﺇﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
Or abdn, abbr abandoned; used in drilling reports.

12. Abnormal pressure (‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬
Pressure exerted by a formation and exceeding or falling below the normal pressure to be expected at a given depth. Normal pressure increases approximately (0.465 psi) per foot of depth. Thus, normal pressure at 10,000 ft is 4,650 psi; abnormal pressure is higher than or lower than 4,650 psi. Formations with abnormally high pressure (‫ )ﻀﻐﻁ ﻁﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺸﺎﺫ‬must be controlled to prevent a blowout. (See pressure gradient.).

13. Aboard (‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺘﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬
adon or in a ship or offshore drilling rig.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
14. ABS (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻔﻥ( )ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
(1) Abbr, the American Bureau (‫ )ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬of Shipping; an organization that sets standards and specifications for ships and ship equipment manufactured in the U.S. (2) Absolute permeability (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬, the case with which a fluid flows through a formation that is 100 percent saturated with that fluid.

15. ABSOLUTE alcohol ((‫ﻁﻠﻕ )ﺼﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫)ﻜﺤﻭل ﻤ‬
One hundred percent ethyl alcohol.

16. Absolute porosity (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
Of the total bulk volume of a rock sample, the percentage that is composed of pore spaces or voids (‫)ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬. (See porosity.)

17. Absolute pressure (‫ﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
The pressure reckoned (‫ُﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬from absolute zero pressure, or gauge pressure (‫ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱ‬plus the pressure of the atmosphere. It is expressed in units of force per unit of area, as pounds per square inch absolute (psia).

18. Absolute temperature scale
A measure of temperature in which zero degrees is absolute zero. The Rankine absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees Fahrenheit, in which water freezes at 491.691 and boils at 671.691. The Kelvin absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees centigrade, in which water freezes at 2731 and boils at 373


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
19. Absolute zero (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬
A hypothetical temperature (‫ )ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬at which there is a total absence of heat.

20. Absorb (‫)ﻴﻤﺘﺹ‬
To recover liquid hydrocarbons from natural or refinery gas in a gasabsorption plant. The wet gas enters the absorber (‫ )ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬at the bottom and rises to the top, encountering a stream of a absorption oil (a light oil or similar fraction) traveling downward over bubble-cap trays (‫)ﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺅﺅﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺎﻗﻴﻊ‬. The lighter fraction removes, or absorbs, the heavier liquid hydrocarbons from the wet gas.

21. Absorber (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
A vertical, cylindrical vessel that recovers heavier hydrocarbons from a mixture of predominantly (‫ )ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬lighter hydrocarbons. (See absorb.)

22. Absorption gasoline (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
The gasoline extracted from natural gas by putting the gas in contact with an oil in a vessel and subsequently (‫ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‬،‫ )ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ‬distilling the gasoline from the heavier oil.

23. ABSORPTION OIL (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil with a high affinity for light hydrocarbons but containing few if any of the light compound, composing gasoline or natural gas. The oil used in an absorption plant (q.v.).


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
24. ABSORPTION PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil field facility that removes liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas, especially casinghead gas (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬. The gas is run through oil of a proper character which absorbs the liquid components of the gas. The liquids are then recovered from the oil by distillation.

25. Absorption tower (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
(See absorber.)

26. Abyssal (‫)ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬
of or relating to the bottom waters of the ocean.

27. AC (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺩﺩ‬
Abbr of Alternating Aurrent.

A procedure whereby an oil product is subjected to intensified but controlled

conditions of heat, pressure, radiation, or other variables to produce, in a short time, the effects of long-time storage or use under normal conditions.

29. Accelerator (‫)ﻤﺴﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﻟﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
A chemical additive that reduces the setting time of cement. (See cementing materials.)

30. Accelerator jar (‫ﻉ )ﻤﺯﻭﺩ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ( ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺭ‬  ‫ﻤ‬ )
(See jar accelerator.)


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
31. Accord Implementation Acts
The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act, S.C. 1988, c.28 and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act, S.N.S. 1987, c.3. The federal and provincial "mirror" legislation implements the provisions of the 1986 Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord and governs all petroleum activities that take place in the offshore area.

32. Accumulate (‫)ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ‬
To amass (‫ﱢﺱ‬ ‫ )ﻴﻜﺩ‬or collect. When oil and gas migrate into porous formations, the quantity collected is called an accumulation.

33. Accumulator ((‫ﺭﺍﻜﻡ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻤ‬
(1). a vessel or tank that receives and temporarily stores a liquid used in a continuous process in a gas plant. (2). On a drilling rig, an accumulator stores the nitrogen-pressurized hydraulic fluid used in closing the blowout preventers. (See blowout presenter control unit.). (3). A drip accumulator (‫ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﻁﺭ‬collects the liquid hydrocarbons that condense out of a wet gas traveling through a pipeline.

34. ACCUMULATOR SYSTEM (‫)ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
A hydraulic system designed to provide power to all closure elements (‫ )ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ‬of the rig's blowout preventer stack (‫)ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬. Hydraulic oil is forced into one or more vessels by a high-pressure, smallvolume pump and Its charge of Inert gas, usually nitrogen. The gas is compressed and stores potential energy. When the system is actuated, the oil 6

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
under high pressure is released and opens or closes the valves on the BOP stack.

35. acetic acid ((‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﻴﻙ )ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻙ‬
An organic acid compound sometimes used to acidize oil wells. It is not as corrosive as other acids used in well treatments. Its chemical formula is C2H4O2, or CH3COOH.

36. ACETONE (‫)ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻭﻥ‬
A flammable (‫)ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻼﺸﺘﻌﺎل‬, liquid compound used widely in industry as a solvent for many organic substances.

37. ACETYLENE (‫)ﺃﺴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A colorless (‫)ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‬, highly flammable gas with a sweetish odor (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ;)ﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ ﺤﻠﻭﺓ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬used with oxygen In oxyacetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻠﻴﻥ‬. It is produced synthetically by incomplete combustion (‫ )ﺇﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬of coal gas and also by the action of water on calcium carbide (CaC2). Also can be made from natural gas.

3 39. acetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A method of joining steel components, in which acetylene gas and oxygen are mixed in a torch (‫ ﻤﺸﻌل‬،‫َﻕ‬ ‫ِﺤﺭ‬ ‫ )ﻤ‬to attain the high temperatures needed to weld.

40. Acid (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ‬
Any chemical compound, one element of which is hydrogen, that dissociates (‫ )ﻴﺘﻔﻜﻙ‬in solution to produce free-hydrogen ions. (See ion.) For example, hydrochloric acid, HCI, dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+, and 7

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chloride ions, Cl-. This reaction is expressed chemically as HC@-H + + Cl-(See dissociation.).

4 42. ACID BOTTLE INCLINATOR (‫)ﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
A device used in a well to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of the well bore. The acid is used to etch a horizontal line on the container, and from the angle the line makes with the wall of the container, the angle of the well's course can be arrived at.

4 44. Acid fracture (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
To open cracks in productive hard-limestone formations by using a combination of oil and acid (or water and acid) under high pressure. (See formation fracturing)

45. ACID-RECOVERY PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ‬
An auxiliary facility at some refineries where sludge acid (‫ )ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬is separated into acid oil, tar, and weak sulfuric acid (‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ‬. The sulfuric acid is then re-concentrated.

46. Recovery (‫)ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬
The total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated (‫ُﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬to be produced from a well or field.

47. ACID SLUDGE (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬
The residue left after treating petroleum with sulfuric acid for the removal of Impurities (‫)ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺌﺏ‬. The sludge is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and the impurities which the acid has removed from the oil.


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A refining process in which unfinished petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuels, and lubricating stocks are treated with sulfuric acid to improve color, odor, and other properties.

49. Acidity (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ‬
The relative acid strengths of liquids as measured by pH; a pH value below 7. (See pH value.)

50. Acidize (‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ )
To treat oil-bearing limestone or other formations, using a chemical reaction with acid, to increase production. Hydrochloric or other acid is injected into the formation under pressure. The acid etches the rock, enlarging the pore spaces and passages (‫ )ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬through which the reservoir fluids flow. The acid is then pumped out and the well swabbed (‫ )ﻴﻨﻅﻑ‬and put back into production (‫ُﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫)ﻴ‬. Chemical inhibitors combined with the acid prevent corrosion of the pipe.

51. ACIDIZING A WELL (‫)ﺘﺤﻤﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
A technique for increasing the flow of oil from a well by the use of a quantity of acid pumped downhole and into the rock formation. Hydrochloric acid is pumped or forced under high pressure into a limestone formation which dissolves the limestone, enlarging the cavity and increasing the surface area of the hole opposite the producing formation. The high pressure of the treatment also forces the acid into cracks and fissures (‫ )ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ‬enlarging them and resulting in an increased flow of oil into the well bore.


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52. ACOUSTIC PLENUM (‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬،‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺠﻴﺞ‬
A sound-proof room; an off Ice or "sanctuary (‫ ")ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺠﺄ‬aboard an

offshore drilling platform protected from the noise of drilling engines and pipe handling.

53. acoustic position reference (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A system consisting of: a beacon (‫ )ﻤﻨﺎﺭﺓ‬positioned on the seafloor to transmit an acoustic signal (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬, a set of three or four hydrophones mounted on the hull of a floating offshore drilling vessel to receive the signal, and a position display unit (‫ )ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬to track (‫ )ﻴﺘﻌﻘﺏ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻤﺎ‬the relative positions of the rig and the drill site. Monitoring of the display unit ensures accurate positioning of the rig over the site.

54. ACOUSTIC REENTRY (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬
A method used In offshore operations, particularly in deep water for repositioning a drillship or semisubmersible drilling platform over a hole previously drilled and cased. The technique employs acoustic signals emitted (‫ﹸﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﹸﺭﺴل ﺃﻭ ﺘ‬ ‫ )ﺘ‬by equipment on board the ship which are "bounced off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﹸﺒﺘﺕ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬ ‫ ")ﺜ‬the submerged wellhead indicating to receivers the location of the hole. In hostile environments (‫ )ﺃﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﻋﺩﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬such as a severe storm or encroaching ice, a drillship may be forced to move off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ )ﻴﺤﺭﻙ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing (‫ )ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬of the location by electronic means.


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55. Acoustic survey (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ )ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ( ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A well logging method that measures the time required for sound impulses (‫ )ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬to travel through a given length of rock to permit estimation of the rock porosity of a given formation and of the type of fluid contained in the rock. This process is also called sonic logging.

56. Acre-foot (‫)ﺃﻜﺭ )ﻓﺩﺍﻥ( ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬
A unit of volume often used in oil-reservoir analysis, equivalent to the volume (as of oil or water) necessary to cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot.

A unit of measurement applied to petroleum reserves; an acre of producing formation one foot thick.

58. Acre-ft

5 60. Across (‫)ﺨﻼل‬
over. The term usually describes conditions of flow on one side of a piece of equipment as compared with conditions on the opposite side where a fluid is flowing (e.g., a pressure drop across a separator).

61. ACS (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬
American Chemical Society.

62. AC T
Automatic custody transfer, more commonly called LACT, lease automatic custody transfer.


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Automatic Custody Transfer System (q.v.),

64. Activated charcoal (‫)ﻓﺤﻡ )ﻤﻨﺸﻁ( ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
A form of carbon characterized by a high absorptive and adsorptive capacity for gases, vapors, and colloidal solids.

See Operator.

66. ACV (‫)ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ )ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ( ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬
Air cushion vehicle.





((‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬.

67. ADA MUD (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
A material which may be added to drilling mud to condition it in order to obtain satisfactory core samples.

68. ADAPTER (‫)ﻤﺤﻭل ﻭﺼل ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ‬
A device to provide a connection between two dissimilar parts or between similar parts of different sizes. See Swage.

69. ADDITIVE (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain

characteristics or to give them other desirable properties. additive a substance or compound added in small amounts to a larger volume of another substance to change some characteristic of the latter. In the oil industry, additives are used in lubricating oil, fuel, drilling mud, and cement for cementing casing.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain characteristics or to give them other desirable properties.

71. adhere (‫)ﻴﻠﺼﻕ‬
To stick or bond to (as paint to a metallic surface).

72. adiabatic change (‫)ﺘﺤﻭل ﻜﻅﻭﻡ‬
A change in the temperature of a gas, caused specifically by a change in the pressure of the gas.

73. adjustable choke ((‫)ﺇﺨﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺩﻴل )ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬
A choke in which a conical needle and seat vary the rate of flow. adsorption the adhesion of a thin film (‫ )ﻓﻴﻠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺭﻗﻴﻕ‬of a gas or liquid to the surface of a solid. Liquid hydrocarbons are recovered from natural gas by passing the gas through activated charcoal, which extracts the heavier hydrocarbons. Steam treatment of the charcoal removes the adsorbed hydrocarbons, which are then collected and recondensed.

74. ADSORPTION (‫)ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact.

75. ADVANCE PAYMENT AGREEMENT (‫)ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻕ‬
A transaction (‫ )ﺼﻔﻘﺔ‬in which one operator advances a sum of money (‫ )ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬or credit to another operator to assist In developing an oil or gas field. The agreement provides an option to the "lender" to buy a portion or all of the production resulting from the development work.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

T 79. air is injected into drilling fluid to reduce the density of the fluid. T 83. to infuse with or force air into. T 81. Z. age (‫)ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬ to allow cement to . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This process is sometimes called curing. aeration ((‫ﻼ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ The technique of injecting air or gas into a fluid. Under an agency contract. atmospheric oxygen for normal activity. AERIFY (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻭﻴﺯ‬ To change Into a gaseous form. AGA (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ American Gas Association. 84.mzhelu@gmail. AGENCY CONTRACT A type of agreement which in many cases has replaced the concession (q. gasify.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 77. T 78. 80. aerobic (‫)ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ requiring free. or reach a stage harder than that of immediate setting.v. AEC (‫)ﻭﻜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬ Atomic Energy Commission.) as the form of petroleum development agreement in the Middle East and with OPEC countries elsewhere. title to oil installations 14 Petroleum Engineer: M. For example. aft toward or near the stern of a ship or offshore drilling rig. AFRA (‫)ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺃﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬ Average freight rate assessment (for tankers). 85. T T 82.

. New T York City-based parent group of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. T T 8 90. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The SPE.) 91.mzhelu@gmail. but !he government bears none of the costs of initial exploration. headquartered (‫ )ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬in Dallas. does away with (‫( )ﻴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ‬eliminate) the need for counterweights on the rear end of the walking beam. T T . Also. T 88. exclusive right to exploit the minerals as is the case under a concession agreement. 86. AIMME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. the foreign company does not have a long-term. Tex. Air balanced beam-pumping unit (See sucker-rod pumping.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and oil produced arc held by the host government. The device is attached to the well end of the walking beam and. 15 Petroleum Engineer: M. and Petroleum Engineers. AIR-BALANCED BEAM PUMPING UNIT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ An oil well pumping jack equipped with a piston and rod that works in an air chamber to balance the weight of the string of sucker rods. AIChE (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ‬ American Institute of Chemical Engineers. AIME the American Institute of Mining. acting as a shock absorber. Metallurgical. publishes the Journal of Petroleum Technology. Z.

an air chamber (q. 93. AIR-COOLED ENGINE An engine in which heat from the combustion chamber and friction is T dissipated to the atmosphere through metal tins integral to the engine's cylinder head and block assemblies.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 92. the valve is shut off until the piston moves back on another compression stroke. Z. T 95. T 94. AIR CHAMBER A small tank or "bottle" connected to a reciprocating pump's discharge T chamber or fine to absorb and dampen the surges in pressure from the rhythmic pumping action. Air chambers are charged with sufficient air pressure to provide an air cushion that minimizes the pounding and vibration associated with the pumping of fluids with plunger pumps. a "bottle" or welded steel tank with air under pressure for use in starting certain types of gas engines on leases or at pumping stations. This pushes the piston as on a power stroke. quick-opening and closing valve is instantly opened admitting the high pressure air into the firing chamber.v. The heat generated flows though the 16 Petroleum Engineer: M.). By this time the engine is rolling so the fuel (gas) valve is opened. AIR BOTTLE A steel cylinder of oxygen for oxyacetylene welding. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. fires engine fires and begins .mzhelu@gmail. To start the engine a hand-operated. Air bursts do not destroy marine life as did explosive charges. AIR BURSTS A geophysical technique used in marine seismic work in which bursts of compressed air from an air gun towed by the seismographic vessel are used to produce sound waves. Then the valve is opened for another shot of air. The compressed air at a pressure of 200 pounds or so per square inch is piped from the tank to the engine's cylinderhead. After a burst of air.

water in the subsurface formations and downhole gas pressure cannot be controlled. penetration is faster. in addition. AIR CUSHION TRANSPORT A vehicle employing the hover craft principle of down-thrusting air stream T support. Air-cut having inadvertent mechanical incorporation of air into a fluid system. T 97. two-cycle engine without water jacketing. since the entry of water into the system reduces its efficiency. T 98. It is more economical (mud is expensive and the preparation of the slurry and maintaining its condition is time consuming). Although air does a good job of cooling the bit and bringing out the pulverized rock. air drilling is T considered a better medium than conventional drilling mud. A small. of penetration is increased considerably when air drilling is used. it has severe limitations. water pump. When drilling in an area where these two types of intrusions may occur. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering engine head and cylinder walls and into the fins by conductance and is given off by the fins acting as radiators. T 17 Petroleum Engineer: . However. T 96. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In certain types of formations. The air cushion protects the tundra from being cut by the wheels or treads of conventional vehicles. a mud system must be on standby to avert possible trouble. With air drilling. This method of removing cuttings from the wellbore is as efficient or more efficient than the traditional methods using water or drilling mud. developed to transport equipment and supplies in the arctic regions. air drilling a method of rotary drilling that uses compressed air as its circulation medium. and bit life is longer.mzhelu@gmail. a principal problem in air drilling is the penetration of formations containing water. drilling rates are higher. or conventional radiator. AIR DRILLING The use of air as a drilling fluid.

com . The T alkylation process starts with small molecules and ends up with larger ones. AIR-INJECTION METHOD A type of secondary recovery Ii production by forcing the oil from the T reservoir into the well bore.v. acetylene and propylene. Cc-. AIR HOIST A hoist. Z. this method is not a common practice except in areas where there is insufficient gas for repressuring. the most important aliphatics are the gases. ethylene. AIRED UP Refers to a condition in a plunger pump when the suction chamber is full of T air or gas blocking the intake of oil into the chamber. Before the pump will operate efficiently. T 100. alkylation is the reaction of butylene or propylene with 18 Petroleum Engineer: M. Butylene. T 103. T 105.mzhelu@gmail. the air must be bled off and vented to the atmosphere through a bleeder line or by loosening the suction valve covers to permit the escape of the air. of the dangers inherent in the use of air.c-3u-. To a refining engineer. ALKYLATION A refining process that. T 102. is the reverse of cracking. ALIPHATICS One of the two classes of organic petrochemicals the other is the aromatics T (q.). T T 101. Air gap the distance from the normal level of the sea surface to the bottom of the hull T or base of an offshore drilling platform. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.t. simply stated. T 104. AIR WRENCH See Impact Wrench.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 99. a mechanism for lifting operated by a compressed air motor.

T 107. this figure is established monthly by its conservation agency. ALLOWABLE The amount of oil or gas a well or leasehold is permitted to produce under T proration order of a state regulatory body. ALTERNATE FIELDS Fuels-gas. alkylate. alpha particle one of the extremely small particles of an atom that is ejected from a T radioactive substance (as radium or uranium) as it 'disintegrates. T 106. In a state using proration. a T close nipple. sand. and other sediment deposited by a stream as it T spreads out on a plain or overflows its banks and then recedes. allowable the amount of oil or gas produced from a well per unit of time. T 1 . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. gasoline. or tar sands by T various methods. for example and one of eight is unable to make its production for some reason the other seven wells can increase their flow to make up the loss of the ailing well. a superior gasoline blending component. Alpha particles have a positive charge. clay. the lease is considered producing unit. Under a lease allowable.mzhelu@gmail. Alternate fuels may also include steam from geothermal 19 Petroleum Engineer: M. heating oil-made from coal. ALL-THREAD NIPPLE A short piece of small-diameter pipe with threads over its entire length. Also the silt laid down by a tributary stream as it joins the mainstream T 109. oil shales.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering isobutane to form an isoparaffin. In some instances if a lease has eight wells. ALLUVIAL FAN Pertains to the silt. Z. T 108.

T 119. ambient temperature the temperature of the medium by which an object is surrounded. COS.v. T CO@th6'us-o of amines (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 1 113.).kid-motinter. AMINE UNIT A natural gas treatment unit for removing contaminants-H-S. 120..1 so they can be moved to the site of new gas production. AMERIPOL The trade name for products made from a type of synthetic rubber. Z. AMMONIUM SULFATE A salt having commercial value which is obtained in the distillation of shale T oils. COS. T C02) occurring in process streams.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wells where super-heated water deep in the earth is used to generate steam for electric power . AMOND DRILL BIT Drill bit with many small industrial (man-made) diamonds set in the nose or cutting surface of the bit. T 117. 1 115. AMINE Organic bases used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases (H2S. Two common T amines are monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). 118. Amine units are often f. Gas containing H2S and other impurities must be cleaned up before it is acceptable to gas transmission pipelines.mzhelu@gmail. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE A chemical used as a catalytic agent in oil refining and for the removal of odor T and color from cracked gasoline. Diamonds are many times harder than @ hardest 20 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 116.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. AMYL HYDRIDE This fraction in the distillation of petroleum was used as an anesthetic by T J. Z. the T term often refers to the tail pipe. T 1 122. Under certain conditions. Richardson in the year 1865. T 1 131. T 21 Petroleum Engineer: M. In downhole equipment. amortization 1. 2. and interest in equal annual installments. anchor any device that secures or fastens equipment. ampere a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt T applied across a resistance of 1 ohm. T 1 127. T the return of invested principal in a sinking . anaerobic bacteria any of several types of bacteria that do not require free oxygen to live or are T not destroyed by its absence. floating drilling vessels are sometimes secured over drill sites by large metal anchors like those used on ships. so a diamond bit makes possible longer bit runs before round trip is necessary to change bits. anaerobic bacteria can cause scale to form in water-handling facilities in oil fields. ampere hour a unit of electricity equal to the amount produced in 1 hour by a flow of 1 T ampere.mzhelu@gmail. T 132. a large bolt for securing an engine or other item of equipment to T its foundation. T 125. T 1 129. principal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering steel. The return of a debt. T 1 124.Bigelow and B. ANCHOR BOLT A stud bolt. In offshore drilling.

) T 1 145. angle of deviation (See deviation. 1 136. T 140. the angle at which a well is deflected from the vertical T by a whipstock or other deflecting tool. anchor wash pipe spear a fishing tool attached to washover pipe by means of slips and T released from the pipe once the fish is engaged by the tool. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) T 1 143.mzhelu@gmail. Z. ANEMOMETER An instrument for measuring and indicating the force or speed of the wind. Tangle sub (See bent sub. anchor buoy a floating marker used in a spread mooring system to position each anchor of T a semisubmersible rig or drill ship. angle-azimuth indicator (See riser-angle indicator. T T 22 Petroleum Engineer: . T T 138. angle of deflection in directional drilling. Angular unconformity an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides are not parallel.) T T 141. It provides a way to perform a washover and retrieve a stuck fish off the bottom in one round trip.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 134.) T 139. T 137. angle of drift (See deviation.

Z.) T T 23 Petroleum Engineer: M. anhydrous without water. sometimes termed the annulus. See Annulus of a Well. Annulus (See annular space. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. aniline point the lowest temperature at which the chemical aniline and a solvent (such as T the oil in oil-base muds) will mix completely. if no pipe is present. T 148. Annular Blowout Preventer ((‫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬،‫)ﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﺇﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﺤﻠﻘﻲ )ﺸﻤﻭل‬ a large valve. defined by wall of the borehole. T 149. CaSO4.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 146. Generally. anion (See ion.mzhelu@gmail.) T 150. Anhydrite formations are sometimes encountered during drilling T 147. the outer wall of which may be the wall of either the borehole or the casing. the space around a pipe in a wellbore. anhydrite the common name for calcium . the oil of oil-base muds should have an aniline point of at least 150 F to obtain maximum service life from the rubber components in the mud system. sometimes called gypsum or T gyp. The ring of T space surrounding the well's casing. T 1 153. usually installed above the ram preventers. which forms a seal T in the annular space between the pipe and wellbore or. 2. on the wellbore itself T 151. ANNULAR SPACE (‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﻲ‬ The space between the well's casing and the wall of the borehole. the space surrounding a cylindrical object within a cylinder.

T T 24 Petroleum Engineer: M. BUOYANT A source of electric current (DC) for protecting offshore plat forms and other T steel structures resting on the sea floor against corrosion. The anode is anchored to the se t floor a few hundred feet away from the structure but is held off bottom by is buoyancy. T 1 161. T T 157. See also Rectifier Bed. anomaly a deviation from the norm. ANS I American National Standards Institute.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 154. The weak current moving from anode to the structure reverses the flow of current associated with the corrosion of metal. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Annular and annulus are often used interchangeably as both derive from the Latin stem word annularis which means "relating to or forming a . ANNULUS OF A WELL The space between the surface casing or conductor casing and the producing T or well-bore casing. T 158. The anode is connected to a source of DC current on the platform by an insulated cable." T 1 156. the term indicates an abnormality T such as a fault or dome in a sedimentary bed. the negative terminal of which is grounded to the steel structure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The weak current is supplied by a transformer-rectifier. TANTICLINAL FOLD T A subsurface formation resembling an anticline. anode the positive element of any electrical device from which electricity flows. 1 5 9 . In geology. ANODE. This the completion of the circuit from rectifier to anode to structure is through the sea water.

T 167. specifically. 166. Tetraethyl lead is one well-known compound. The addition of small amounts of these chemicals has the effect of slowing down the explosion or burning of the air-gasoline vapor mixture in the combustion chamber. anticline an arched. and policies of oil-well servicing contractors.mzhelu@gmail. which T sets some standards. ethylene glycol. antiknock compound any substance added to the fuel of an internal-combustion engine to prevent detonation of the fuel. the T opposite of a syncline. per gallon of fuel. Antiknock compounds effectively raise the octane rating of a fuel so that the fuel burns properly in the combustion chamber of the engine. Z. anticlinal trap a hydrocarbon trap in which petroleum accumulates in the top of an anticline. thus giving the piston a "push" instead of a sudden explosive blow.. T 25 Petroleum Engineer: M. to reduce 'ping" or knock in high-compression. inverted-trough configuration of folded and stratified rocks. antifreeze a chemical compound that prevents the water in the cooling system of an T engine from freezing. The compounds contribute also to smoother performance. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tetraethyl lead. ANTIKNOCK COMPOUNDS Certain chemicals which are added to automotive gasolines to improve their T performance.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 . AOSC the Association of Oil Well Servicing Contractors. T 165. based in Dallas. Tex. principles. internal combustion engines. T T 164. of the engine and more mile.

2.C. make. T through its research and engineering work. 3. capacity. and other information. pressure vessels. degrees API. TAPI BID SHEETAND WELL SPECIFICATIONS T A form many operators use in soliciting bids on a well to be drifted and T completed. T 1 171. Founded in 1920. (slang) indicative of a job being properly or thoroughly (as. Z. and a department of production in Dallas. commencement date. used to designate API gravity. The API. (slang) when used sarcastically. indicative of substandard performance that is predictable or usual (as. It maintains departments of transportation. the American Petroleum .. he lists the rig and equipment to be furnished by him draw works. D. TAPI T American Petroleum Institute the oil industry's trade association. The operator asking for bids fills out the part of the form giving the name and location of the well. When a drilling contractor submits a bid. derrick or mast size. The bid sheet brings operator and contractor together. this national oil trade organization' is the leading standardizing organization on oil-filed drilling and producing equipment. 4. as it were. 26 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 169. issues specifications for manufacture of pipe.mzhelu@gmail. and other equipment. then they arrive at rates and other matters. "It's API for that engine to be broken down"). refining. depth or formation to be drilled into. establishes operating and safety standards for all segments of the petroleum industry. The form is submitted to drilling contractors in the area of the proposed well. and marketing in Washington. and furnishes statistical and other information to government agencies having to do with the industry. etc. tool joints. slush pumps. "His work is strictly API"). drill-pipe.

AQUIFER A water-bearing rock strata. AQUAGEL A specially prepared bentonite (clay) widely used as a conditioning material in T drilling mud. T 27 Petroleum Engineer: M. T T 178. leaving much of the oil behind. aquifer 1. derived from specific gravity in accordance with the following equatio T 1 176.mzhelu@gmail. T 177. defined in API Specification 10A. T 179. API gravity bears a relationship to true specific gravity but is more convenient to work with than the decimal fractions which would result if petroleum were expressed in specific gravity. underlying the oil . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cylindrical tank. 2. If the wells are produced at an excessive rate the water may bypass the oil and break into the well bore. also Water Coning. When wells are drilled in the reservoir. API gravity the measure of gravity of liquid petroleum products on the North American continent. the part of a water-drive reservoir that contains the water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 172. API cement class a classification system for oil-well cements. APPRAISAL DRILLING Wells drilled in the vicinity of a discovery or wildcat well in order to evaluate T the extent and the importance of the find. In a water-drive field the aquifer is the water T zone of a reservoir. See Channeling. T 1 174. TAPI GRAVITY T Gravity (weight per unit of volume) of crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons T as measured by a system recommended by the API. APRON RING The bottom most ring of steel plates in the wall of an upright. a rock that contains water. Z. the water pushes the oil toward the wells boreholes.

ARBITRAGE. selling. 1 186. (2) A person who uses such a machine in making electric welds. A sophisticated method of trading in world petroleum markets. which T serves as an electrode. arenaceous shale). T 1 183. arenaceous pertaining to sand or sandy rocks (as. or trading of petroleum or products in various markets to T make a profit from short-term differences in prices in one market as compared to those in another. arc weld to join metals by utilizing the arc created between the welding rod. PRODUCT (PETROLEUM) The buying. the making of maps of such areas. AREAL GEOLOGY The branch of geology that pertains to the distribution. The term arc welding derives from the arc of electricity which spans the gap between the tip of the welding rod (the electrode) and the piece of metal being welded. In the field the welding unit is usually skid mounted. T 184. TARC WELDER (1) An electric welding unit consisting of a gasoline direct connected to a DC T generator. which fuse. The flow of electricity jumping the gap produces the heal to melt the rod onto the moiten area of the metal. The high temperature generated by the arc melts both the electrode and the metal. Z. and a metal object. T 181. The arc is a discharge of electric current across an air gap.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 180. also. and form of T the areas of the earth's surface occupied by different types of rocks or geologic . position. T T 28 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.

ARGON An inert. and gas lift are the most common methods of artificial . Waterflood.v. submersible pumps. Z. The name aromatics derives from their rather pleasant odor. etc. water drive. The unique ring structure of their carbon atoms makes it possible to transform aromatics into an almost endless number of chemicals. after reservoir T pressure has declined to the point at which the well no longer produces by means of natural energy.). T 194.mzhelu@gmail. T 1 192. a hydrometer T (q.-are not present or have been depleted. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. odorless gaseous element sometimes and in some T locations produced with natural gas. Sucker-rod pumps. T solution gas. and xylene are the principal aromatics and are commonly referred to as the BTX group (q. T 1 189. T 193. hydraulic pumps. colorless. Benzene. artificial lift any method used to raise oil to the surface through a well. argillaceous pertaining to a nonproductive formation that consists of clay or shale (as.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 187. T 29 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.). ARTIFICIAL DRIVES Methods of producing oil from a reservoir when natural drives-gas-cap. toluene. and in situ combustion are examples of artificial drives. AROMATICS A group of hydrocarbon fractions that forms the basis of most organic T chemicals so far synthesized. repessuring or recycling. 190. AREOMETER An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids. T argillaccous sand).

the American Society of T Mechanical Engineers. wind drag. 197. The thrusters fore and aft reposition the ship. See Brea. 200. the name applied to a sophisticated T drillship positioning technique consisting of subsurface acoustical equipment linked to shipboard computers that control ship's thrusters. or talc and applied while hot. The asphalt is combined with finely ground mica. and wave action. ASK SYSTEM Automatic station-keeping system. 199.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 ‫ ﻟﺒ‬،‫)ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ 196. Asphalt is dark brown or black in color and at normal temperatures is a solid. See Dynamic Stationing. ASPHALT A solid hydrocarbon found as a natural deposit. Its official publication is Mechanical Engineering. consisting of asbestos T saturated with asphalt. Combined with a subsequent wrapping of asbestos felt. Z. asbestos felt (‫ﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ a wrapping material that protects pipeline coatings. clay. Crude of high asphaltic content when subjected to distillation to remove the lighter fractions such as naphtha and kerosene leave asphalt as a residue. this coating protects the buried pipe from corrosion. asphalt enamel an asphalt-base enamel applied as a coating to pipe that is to be . T 198. a New York City-based organization whose equipment standards are sometimes used by the oil industry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 30 Petroleum Engineer: M. soapstone. current. compensating for drift.mzhelu@gmail. ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

T 2 207.mzhelu@gmail. T 2 211. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. ASPHALT-BASE CRUDE Crude oil containing very little paraffin wax and a residue primarily asphaltic. It maintains national offices in Chicago. ASSE the American Society of Safety Engineers. ASPHALTIC SANDS Natural mixtures of asphalts with varying proportions of loose sand. liquid. asphalt material one of a group of solid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 201. 202. lubricating oil. composed of T complex molecules. See Paraffin-base Crude.) 2 205. This type crude is particularly suitable for making high-quality gasoline. asphalt-base oil (See naphthalene-base oil. T 2 209. and nitrogen are often relatively high. or semisolid materials that are predominantly mixtures of hydrocarbons and their nonmetallic derivatives and are obtained either from natural bituminous deposits or from the residues of petroleum refining. T 31 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sulfur. This bitumen is composed of soft asphalt. and . The T quantity of bituminous cementing material extracted from the sand may run as high as 12 percent. ASPHALTIC PETROLEUM Petroleum which contains sufficient amounts of asphalt in solution to make T recovery commercially practical by merely distilling off the solvent oils. 203. oxygen. Asphaltenes are polyaromatic compounds with high carbon-hydrogen ratios in their molecules from which asphalt is made. ASPHALTENES At the very bottom of the crude oil barrel are the asphaltenes. which establishes safety practices T for several industries.

A sample of oil is heated in a flask. T T 2 216. ASSET. T 2 214. stabilizers. a drill assembly may include other pieces of downhole equipment besides the drill bit. When the first drop of "distillate" is obtained the temperature at which this "initial boiling point" of the oil.mzhelu@gmail. the liquid is collected in a graduate. based in Philadelphia. Z.. which T sets guidelines for the use of equipment and materials for oil fields. the stern of an offshore drilling rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 212. a transferee. damping subs. in oil and gas usage. El-Helu E-Mail: . etc. The test is continued until all 32 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 2 218. either as free gas or in solution. T 219. ASSIGNEE A recipient of an interest in property or a contract. ASTM DISTILLATION A test of an oil's distillation properties standardized by the American Society T for Testing and Materials. moving T backwards. 220. the T recipient of an oil or gas lease. the vapors pass through a tube where they are cooled and condensed. or abaft. ASTM the American Society for Testing and Materials. WASTING See Wasting Asset. Gas occurring alone T in a reservoir is unassociated gas. ASSEMBLY A term to describe a number of special pieces of equipment fitted together to T perform a particular function. such as drill collars. ASSOCIATED GAS Gas that occurs with oil. astern in the rear of. e.g. T 221.

atm atmosphere.69 pounds per square inch. 2 234. T T 2 224. 29 92 inches of mercury or 33. T 2 226. atmospheric pressure cure the aging of specimens for test purposes at normal atmospheric pressure for T a designated period of time under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. ONE The pressure of the ambient air at sea level.mzhelu@gmail. 14. T 222.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering distillable fractions over and have been measured and their properties . ATMOSPHERE. At sea level. this pressure is approximately 14.7 psi. T 33 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. athwart reaching from one side to the other side of an offshore drilling rig. ATMOSPHERIC STILL A refining vessel in which crude oil is heated and product is distilled off at the T pressure of one atmosphere. Z. atom the smallest quantity of an element capable of either entering into a chemical T combination or existing alone.90 feet T 2 228. T Air at sea level. T 2 232. T 2 230. atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted over the surface of the earth by the weight of the T atmosphere.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 235. Usually . is used as the basis. attapulgite a fibrous clay mineral that is a viscosity-building substance. Every element is assigned an atomic weight. T 2 246. relative weight of an element as compared to another element T taken as a standard. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. AUSTRALIAN OFFSET A humorous reference to a well drilled miles away from proven production. See Ultrasonic Atomizer. ATOMIZER. T 2 244. used principally in T saltwater-base drilling muds.) 34 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. T 242. atomize to spray a liquid through a restricted opening. T 2 241. with a weight of 12. FUEL OIL A nozzle or spraying device used to break up fuel oil into a fine spray so the T oil may be brought into more intimate contact with the air in the combustion chamber. T 2 239. or T temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. T 2 237. Authigenic Refers to rocks/minerals which were formed or were generated in place. (See instrumentation. atomic weight the average. causing it to break into tiny T droplets and mix thoroughly with the surrounding air. pressure. Z.

com . (See lease automatic custody transfer. 2 258.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 247. T 2 256.mzhelu@gmail. Z. or temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. measuring. automatic. Such automatic handling of oil is usually confined to leases with settled production. pressure. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside. and turning into a pipeline the crude produced on a lease.) 2 249.) T 252. (See instrumentation. testing. automatic custody transfer A system for automatically measuring and sampling oil or products at points T of receipt or delivery. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. control unit. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 2 251. Automatic drillers free the driller from the sometimes tedious task of manipulating the drawworks brake in order to maintain correct weight on the bit. automatic driller (See automatic drilling.) A system of oil handling on a lease. receiving into tankage. T 2 254.drilling-control unit a mechanism used to regulate the amount of weight on the bit and not T requiring attendance by personnel. T 35 Petroleum Engineer: M. automatic pumping station an automatically operated station installed on a pipeline to increase line T pressure when a fluid is being transported.

T 2 264. 2 266. systems.or hydraulic-fluid-operated device that fits into the opening in the T rotary table when the drill stem must be suspended in the wellbore (as when a connection. automatic wire-welding T machines are used to put on the filler beads. AUTOMATIC TANK BATTERY A lease tank battery (two or more tanks) equipped with automatic measuring. AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINE After two joints of pipe are joined by tack welds. If conditions become abnormal.mzhelu@gmail. automatic shutdown a system in which certain instruments are used to control or maintain the T operating conditions of a process. Automatic slips. eliminate the need for roughnecks to set and take out slips manually. also called power slips. this system automatically stops the process and notifies the operator of the problem. or processes. is being made). 2 269. or trip.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 260. (See T instrumentation. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) T 262. avg verage. (See slips. T . auxiliary equipment equipment subsidiary or supplementary to the main equipment used in an T operation. and recording devices. T switching (full tank to empty and full tank into the pipeline). automatic slips an air. A 36 Petroleum Engineer: M. automation automatic self-regulating control of equipment.) T 267. See Automatic Custody Transfer.

T 273. T 272. the direction of the face of the deviation tool with T respect to magnetic north as recorded bra deviation instrument. A mixture T of an azeotrophic liquid and another liquid or liquids boils at a temperature either higher or lower than that of its components. 37 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and petroleum oils.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 . AXLE GREASE A cold-setting grease made of rosin oil. azimuth in directional drilling. T See Grease. Z. hydrated lime. azeotrope a liquid mixture that exhibits a maximum or minimum boiling point.

B/D barrels per day.v. BACK-IN FARM-OUT A farm-out agreement (q. into a specified individual working interest (q. an alloy containing tin. 280.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.H. to slack of 1 on a cable or winch line. T 2 7 9 .). BA BBI T T A soft. Because the driver's cab is mounted on the end opposite the mast support. 2 282.).v.mzhelu@gmail. (See carrier rig. copper and antimony. B. T T 2 278. at a later date. Z. the unit must be backed up to the wellhead. B bottom . 283. back-in unit a portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled. to unscrew. used in drilling reports.) in which a retained nonoperating interest of the lessor may be converted.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering T 274.) 284. silver-colored metal alloy of relatively low melting point used for engine and pump bearing. Brake horsepower (q. BACK OFF To raise the drill bit off the bottom of the hole.P. 38 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 2 276. BACK-IN PROVISION A term used to describe a provision in a farm-out agreement whereby the person granting the farm-out (the farmer) retains an option to exchange a retained override for a share of the working interest. using the hoisting engines for motive power.

com .). back-off joint a section of pipe with left-hand threads on one end and conventional righthand threads on the other. improves the gas-oil ratio. back up to hold one section of an object (as pipe) while another is being screwed into or out of it. BACK-PRESSURE VALVE A check valve (q. 286. Chokes and piping. 287. 39 Petroleum Engineer: M. hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. This results in the expenditure of smaller volumes of gas from the reservoir. A backup wrench is any wrench used to hold a pipe or bolt to prevent its turning while another length of pipe or a nut is being tightened or loosened. 288. In setting a liner. BACK-OFF WHEEL See Stripper Wheel. 290. BACK-UP MAN The person who holds (with a wrench) one length of pipe while another length is being screwed into or out of it. BACK PRESSURE The pressure against the face of the reservoir rock caused by the control valves at the wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 285. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and ensures the recovery of more oil.mzhelu@gmail. Z.v. Maintenance of backpressure reduces the pressure differential between the formation and the borehole so that oil moves into the well with a smaller pressure loss. 289. a back-off joint is attached to it so that the drill pipe may be disengaged from the liner by conventional righthand rotation.

BACKHOE A self-propelled ditching machine with a hydraulically operated arm equipped with a toothed shovel that scoops earth as the shovel is pulled back toward the machine. also. 40 Petroleum Engineer: M. BAD OIL Cut oil (q.) 3 301. 2 296. bactericide anything that destroys bacteria. 2 294. 299. BACKFILL To replace the earth dug from a ditch or trench. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bacteria a large.) 2 298. Backside.mzhelu@gmail. Back washing is done on closed system filters and on open-bed. Z. backup tongs the tongs used to back up the drill pipe as it is being made up or taken out of the drill stem.). gravity . the earth removed from an excavation. (See anaerobic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. 3 303. (See make up and tongs. 292. widely distributed group of typically one-celled microorganisms. BACKWASHING Reversing the fluid flow through a filter to clean out sediment that has clogged the filter or reduced its efficiency.v. BACKSIDE PUMPING See Pumping.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 291.

BAFFLES Plates or obstructions built into a tank or other vessel that change the direction of the flow of fluids or gases.mzhelu@gmail. 308. fitted with a valve at its lower end. it is thrust upward opening the valve to admit the mud-water Slurry. bailing 312. BAIL DOWN To reduce the level of liquid in a well bore by bailing. used to remove water. bailer a long cylindrical container. 41 Petroleum Engineer: M. BA I L To evacuate the liquid contents of a drill hole with the use of a long. BAILER DART The protruding "tongue" of the valve on the bottom of a bailer. bailing line the cable attached to the bailer. passed over a sheave at the top of the derrick. sand. bailed-up bit (See ball up. placed to change the direction. 3 310. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. baffle plate a partial restriction. cylindrical bucket (bailer). When the dart reaches the bottom of the hole. guide the flow. 3 0 7 . 313. or promote mixing within a tank or vessel. Z. or oil from a well. generally a plate. mud.) 311. .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 305. and spooled on the reel.

ballast weight added to make a mobile offshore drilling rig more seaworthy. 320. etc. 321.mzhelu@gmail. but sometimes concrete or iron is used additionally to lower the rig's center of gravity permanently.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 315. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or both. increase its draft. which by rising or falling shuts or opens the valve. 316. 317. or sink it to the seafloor. filling it. ball up to collect a mass of sticky consolidated material. consisting of a valve connected with a hollow floating ball. A bit with such material attached to it is termed a bailed-up bit. usually drill cuttings. drill collars. Ballast is usually seawater. Z. ball joint (See flex joint. or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel called a bailer to the bottom of a well. BAIT BOX A pipeliner's lunch pail. 318. and retrieving . hard rubber. 42 Petroleum Engineer: M. to recover bottomhole fluids. 319.) ball sealers balls made of nylon. ball cock a device for regulating the level of fluid in a tank. The condition frequently is a result of inadequate pump pressure or insufficient drilling fluid. samples. and used to shut off perforations through which excessive fluid is lost. bails. BALL AND SEAT A type of valve used in a plunger pump. on drill pipe. tool joints.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
322. ballast tanks
vessels that contain ballast water.

323. ballasted Condition
the condition of a floating offshore drilling rig when ballast has been added

The fouling of a rotary drilling bit in sticky, gumbo-like shale which causes a serious drag on the bit and loss of circulation.

325. balling up
the failure of an anchor to hold in a soft bottom, instead pulling out with a large ball of mud on it.

A type of quick opening valve with a spherical core, a ball with a full-bore port, that fits and turns in a mating cavity in the valve body. Drilling engine to the crank and pitman assembly that actuates the working beam. Used in former years in drilling with cable tools. Old pumping wells still use a band wheel.

A contract or charter agreement between the owner of a drilling rig, semisubmersible, or drillship and a second party in which the owner rents or leases his equipment (usually short-term) barefoot, i.e., without the owner or his representative taking any part in the operation or maintenance of the equipment. The lessee agrees to man or stiff the equipment and operate it without assistance from or responsibility by the owner. Also bareboat charter for boats or ships.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
Wells completed in firm sandstone or limestone that show no indication of caving or disintegrating may be finished "barefoot," i.e., without casing through the producing interval.

3 331. barge
any one of many types of flat-decked, shallow-draft vessels usually towed by a boat. In cargo service, barges are used widely to transport crude oil and refined products on rivers and other inland waters. A complete drilling rig may be assembled on a barge, which usually is submersible; that is, it has a submersible hull or base that is flooded with water at the drilling site. Drilling equipment, crew quarters, etc., are mounted on a superstructure above the water level.

See Reel Barge.

333. barite
barium sulfate, BaSO4,,; a mineral used to increase the weight of drilling mud. Its specific gravity is 4.2 (i.e., it is 4.2 times heavier than water). (See mud.)

3 335. barium sulfate
1. a chemical combination of barium, sulfur, and oxygen; barite. 2. a tenacious scale that is very difficult to remove.

A whistle-like device attached to the exhaust pipe of a one cylindered oil field engine so that the lease pumper can tell from a whether or not the engine is running. The noise the device makes resembles the back of a hoarse fox.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A specially processed barite (barium sulfate) to which Aquagel has been added, used as a conditioning material in drilling mud in order to obtain satisfactory cores and formation samples.

338. barrel
(bbl) a measure of volume for petroleum products. One barrel (1 bbl) is the equivalent of 42 U.S. gal or 158.97 liters. One cubic meter (1 m') equals 6.2897 bbl.

339. barrel compressor
a special type of centrifugal compressor with a barrel-shaped housing.

3 341. barrel-mile
a unit of measure for pipeline shipment of oil that signifies 1 bbl moved 1 mile.

A building on the refinecy grounds where barrels are filled with various grades of lubricating and other oils, sealed, and made ready for shipment oil house. See Drum.

343. barrels per day
(BPD, bpd, BID, b/d) a measure of the rate of flow of a well;. the total amount of oil produced or processed per day.

3 345. basalt
an igneous rock that is dense, fine-grained, and dark gray or black.

346. base
a substance capable of combining with charged hydrogen atoms (ions) to form a salt. A typical base is sodium hydroxide (caustic), with the chemical 45

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
symbol NAOH. For example, sodium hydroxide combines with hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride (a salt) and water; this reaction is written chemically as NAOH + HCI NACI + H2O4.

347. basement rock
either igneous or metamorphic rock, usually not containing petroleum. Ordinarily it lies below sedimentary rock. When it is encountered in drilling, the well usually is abandoned.

Impurities and foreign matter contained in a tank of crude oil, e.g., water sand, oil-water emulsions. When produced, crude oil may contain one, or more of these impurities. In the lease tank the impurities settle to the bottom of the tank, with the relatively clean oil on top. After repeated filling andemptying of the tank, the sediment builds up to the pipeline connection and must be removed. This is done by unbolting the plate from the clean out box on the back of the tank and shoveling out the heavy, accumulated sediment.

3 351. basic sediment and water (BS&W)
she water and other extraneous material present in crude oil. Usually, the BS&W con. tent must be quite low before a pipeline will accept the oil for delivery to a refinery. The amount acceptable depends on a number of factors but usually runs from less than 5 percent to a small fraction of 1 percent.

3 5 2 . BA S I N
A synclinal structure in the subsurface, once the bed of a prehistoric sea. Basins. composed of sedimentary rock, are regarded as good prospects for oil exploration.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 354. basket sub
a fishing accessory run above a bit or mill to recover small pieces of metal or junk in a well.

3 356. BASTARD
(1) Any nonstandard piece of equipment. (2) A kind of file. (3) A word used in grudging admiration, or as a term of opprobrium.

3 5 7 . BA T C H
A measured amount of oil or refined product in a pipeline or a tank. a shipment of oil or product by pipeline.

See Interface.

3 360. batch treating
the process by which a single quantity of crude oil emulsion is broken into oil and water. The emulsion is gathered and stored in a tank or container prior to treating. Compare with flow-line treating.

361. batching sphere
a large rubber ball placed in a pipeline to separate batches.

A great mass of intruded igneous of metamorphosed rock found at or near the surface of the earth. The presence of a batholith, often referred to as a shield, usually precludes drilling for oil or gas as there are no sedimentary formations above it. The largest batholith in the U.S. is in Idaho, underlying nearly two-thirds of the state.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
Two or more lease or stock tanks connected together to receive oil production from a well or a producing lease; a tank battery. The lease tank batter y is the starting point for crude oil on its way to the refinery-via gathering line, pump station, and trunk line to the refinery tank farm. It is at the tank battery where the pipeline gauger measures and tests the oil, and after making out a run ticket (q.v.) opens the tank valve, turning the oil into the pipeline system. A battery is two or more units of equipment linked together in the performance of a function, e.g., separator battery; heater battery; filter batters., and tank battery.

See Trickle-charged Battery.

366. Baume gravity
specific gravity as measured by the Baum6 scale. Two arbitrary scales are employed one for liquids lighter than water and the other for liquids heavier than water. This scale also is used to describe the density of acid solutions.

The French chemist who devised a simple method to measure the relative weights of liquids using the hydrometer (q.v.).

3 369. bbl

370. bbl/d
barrels per day.

3 372. BCD
Barrels per calendar day. See Stream Day. 48

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 7 3 . Bcf
billion cubic feet of gas.

3 375. Bcf (Billion Cubic Feet)
A volume measurement of natural gas measured in billions of cubic feet.

3 377. Bcf/d
billion cubic feet of gas per day.

3 379. BDC
bottom dead center.

3 381. BEAD
A course of molten metal laid down by a welder (electric or oxyacetylene) in joining two pieces of metal. See Pipeline Welding.

A metal or glass container with a small opening fitted with a stopper that is lowered into a tank of oil to obtain a sample of oil.

383. beam
the extreme width of the hull of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig.

384. beam counterbalance
the weights installed on the end of the walking beam, which is opposite from the end over the well. The counterbalance offsets, or balances, the weight of sucker rods and other downhole equipment installed in the well. (See suckerrod pumping.)

385. beam-pumping unit
a machine designed specifically for sucker-rod pumping, using a horizontal member (walking beam) that is worked up and down by a rotating crank to produce reciprocating motion. bean (See choke.) 49

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A well whose fluid is being lifted by rods and pump actuated by a walking beam (q.v.).

3 388. BEAN
A choke used to regulate the flow of fluid from a well.

In early pipeline parlance, the joint of line pipe laid just before the break for lunch. When the bean joint was bucked in (q.v.) the pipe liners grabbed lunch buckets from the gang truck and found a comfortable place to cat.

A type of revolving bearing. The other type is the roller bearing (q v.),

Thin, bimetal, half-round bearings that fit in the journal box around a shaft to provide a smooth, hard surface. One-half of the insert (in cross section, a semicircle) fits into the journal box, the other half into the journal box cap. Insert bearings era designated bimetal because although the bearing surface is made of babbitt (q.v.) it is backed with a layer of bronze, brass, or steel. There are also trimetal insert bearings. They are made with steel backing, a "soft" alloy middle layer, and a babbitt outer layer. Babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, copper, and antimony. was invented by Isaac Babbitt in 1862.

A shaft-supporting bearing outside the body or frame of a pump's gear box or engine's crankcase; a bearing on a pump's pinion shaft outside the gear box; a line-shaft bearing.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
A type of cylindrical. Revolting bearing. The other type is the ball bearing (q.v.).

See Saddle Bearing.

A bearing and its frame in the shape of a saddle stirrup; e.g. the bearing connecting the pitman and the walking beam on an early-day cable tool drilling or pumping well.

A bearing to support the endwise or downward thrust or weight of a machinery part against another. Thrust bearings can be constructed of ball bearings or cylindrical roller bearings held in a circular frame or housing that fits over a shaft

398. bed
a specific layer of earth or rock in contrast to other layers of different material lying above, below, or adjacent to it.

399. bedding plane
the surface that separates each successive layer of a stratified rock from its preceding layer.

Refers to oil and gas reservoirs penetrated or passed through by wells but never tapped or produced. Behind the pipe refers usually to tight formations of low permeability which, although recognized, were passed through because they were uneconomical to produce at the time. Today, however, 51

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
with the growing scarcity of oil and high prices, many of these passedthrough formations are getting a second look by producers.

A threaded pipe joint; the spigot or male end is threaded and screwed into the bell or female coupling. The female end of a coupling has threads on the inside circumference.

An excavation dug beneath a pipeline to provide room for the use of tools by workers; a hole larger in diameter at the bottom than at the top.

A welder who can do oxyacetylene or electric welding in a bell hole. This requires a great deal of skill as the molten metal from the welding rod is being laid on upside down and tends to tall away from the weld; a skilled welder.

A large swage nipple for attaching casinghead fittings to the well's casing above the ground or at the surface. The bell nipple is threaded on the casing end and has a plain or weld end to take the casinghead valves.

4 406. bellows meter
(See orifice meter.)

4 408. belt
a flexible band or cord connecting and passing about each of two or more pulleys to transmit power or impart motion.

409. belt guard
a protective grill or cover for a belt and pulleys. 52

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
4 411. BELT HALL
A wooden shed built to protect the wide belt that runs from the engine to the band wheel on a cable tool rig or an old beam pumping well. The belt hall extends from the engine house to the derrick.

Testing of methods or materials on so small a scale that it can be carried out on a laboratory table or specially constructed bench.

4 414. bent sub
a short cylindrical device installed in the drill stem between the bottommost drill collar and a downhole mud motor. The purpose of the bent sub is to deflect the mud motor off vertical to drill a directional hole.

415. bentonite
a colloidal clay, composed of montmorillonite, which swells when wet. Because of its gel-forming properties, ben-tonite is a major component of drilling muds. (See gel and mud.)

An old term for light petroleum distillates in the gasoline and naphtha range.

4 418. BENZOL
The general term which refers to commercial benzene which may contain other aromatic hydrocarbons.

419. beta particle
one of the extremely small particles, sometimes called rays, emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive substance such as radium or uranium as it disintegrates. Beta particles have a negative charge.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
An oxyacetylene pipe-cutting machine. A device that holds an acetylene cutting torch so that the ends of joints of pipe may be trimmed off It an angle to the pipe's long axis. Line pipe is beveled in preparation for welding joints together

421. BFPH
barrels of fluid per hour; used in drilling reports.

422. BHP
bottomhole pressure.

4 424. BHT
bottomhole temperature.

A 24-inch pipeline from Longview, Texas, to Norris City, Illinois, built during World War 11 to meet the problem caused by tanker losses at sea as a result of submarine attacks. Later during the war the pipeline was extended to Pennsylvania. Following the war the line was sold to a private company and converted to a gas line.

Said of a person who is moving in influential circles or has suddenly gone from a small job to one of considerably larger responsibility; a big operator. often used pejoratively.

The petroleum chemist who developed the first profitable means of cracking low-value middle distillates into lighter fractions (gasolines) by the use of heat and pressure. 54

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
The use of bacteria to separate kerogen from oil shale. Certain bacteria Will biodegrade the minerals in oil shale, releasing the kerogen from the shale in liquid or semiliquid form. (From studies made by Dr. Ten Fu Yen and Dr. Milo D. Appleman. University of Southern California, Professors of Bacteriology.)

431. bioherm
a reef or mound built by small organisms such as coral or oysters. Buried bioherms, formed in the geologic past, sometimes yield petroleum.

4 433. BIOMASS
Wood and other plant materials used to make methanol as a supplement to petroleum.

(1) To flatten and spread the strands of a cable or wire rope. (2) The sharted or mesh-enclosed cage used to hoist workmen from crew boats to offshore platforms.

To pay close attention to a job or to follow a person closely with the intent to learn or to help; to follow up on a job until finished.

436. birdcage
to flatten and spread the strands of a wire rope. a wire rope in such a condition.

4 438. bit
the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. Most bits used in rotary drilling are roller-cone bits. The bit consists of the cutting element and the circulating element. The circulating element permits the passage of drilling fluid and utilizes the hydraulic force of the fluid stream to improve 55

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
drilling rates. In rotary drilling, several drill collars are joined to the bottom end of the drill-pipe column. The bit is attached to the end of the drill collar.

4 440. bit breaker
a device used in rotary drilling to unscrew, or break out, the bit from the drill stem. It is usually placed in the rotary table.

4 442. bit cone
(See roller-cone bit.)

443. bit dresser
1. a member of a cable-tool drilling crew who repairs bits. 2. a machine used to repair, sharpen, and gauge bits.

444. bit gauge
a circular ring used to determine whether a bit is of the correct outside diameter. Often bit gauges are used to determine if the bit has been worn down to a diameter smaller than specifications allow; such a bit is termed undergauge.

445. bit record
a report on each bit used in an operation, listing its type, the amount of footage it drilled, and the nature of the formation penetrated.

A bit with super-hard metal lugs or cutting points inserted in the bit's cutting cones; a rock bit with cutting elements added that are harder art more durable than the teeth of a mill-tooth bit (q.v.).

447. Bitumen
Petroleum in semi-solid or solid forms.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

4 458. may yield as much as 12 percent asphalt. Z. 4 456.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 448. BITUMEN. slow-moving machinery where the use of higher-grade lubes would be impractical. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The oil is floated off and undergoes treatment before it is piped to a refinery. BLACK OILS (1) A term denoting residual oil used in ships' boilers or in large heating or generating plants bunkers. OIL SANDS A heavy petroleum-like substance found in certain consolidated sand formations at the surface of the earth or at relatively shallow depths where it can be surface mined after the removal of a few feet of overburden. (2) Black-colored oil used or lubricating heavy. 459. 4 452.) 4 . bitumens mixtures of hydrocarbons. 449. BITUMINOUS SAND Tar sand. blank casing a casing without perforations 57 Petroleum Engineer: M. a mixture of asphalt and loose sand which. 450.mzhelu@gmail. bl black. when processed. but basically it involves the heating of the oil sands to separate the oil. bituminous shale (See oil shale. The extraction process is complicated. Black Magic a proprietary name for a basic concentrate of oil-base mud.

usually casing. 468. or tank from which samples are drawn or to vent air or oil. as oil from a grease. 4 470. Z. 462. generally slowly through a valve called a bleeder. 471. blank off to close off (as with a blank flange or bull plug).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 460. or bleed off. BLEEDING The tendency of a liquid component to separate from a lubricant. 461. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. blank pipe a pipe. blank liner a liner with no perforations. blank flange a solid disk used to dead-end. BLEED LINE A line on the wellhead or blowout preventer stack through which gas pressure can be bled to prevent a threatened blowout. to seep out. or close off. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. 463. bld bailed.. To bleed down. a companion flange. bleed (‫)ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺱ‬ to drain off liquid or gas. means to slowly release pressure from a well or from pressurized . BLEEDER VALVE A small valve on a pipeline. 58 Petroleum Engineer: M. sample valve. with no perforations. BLEEDING CORE A core sample of rock highly saturated and of such good permeability that oil drips from the pore. 4 467. 4 465.

blind to close a line to prevent flow. The process of mixing two or more oils having different properties to obtain a lubricating oil of intermediate or desired properties. (2) To prevent the flow of liquid or gas in a line. blind drilling a drilling operation in which the drilling fluid is not returned to the . (3) A chock.) 479. BLOCK (1) A pulley or sheave in a rigid frame. blind ram an integral part of a blowout preventer. 478. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 59 Petroleum Engineer: M. BLM Bureau of Land Management. Certain classes of tube oils are blended to a specified viscosity. BLIND FLANGE A companion flange with a disc bolted to one end to seal off a section of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 473. Its ends do not fit around the drill pipe but seal against each other and shut off the space below completely. notably gasolines. BLENDING. 475. Sometimes blind-drilling techniques are resorted to when lost circulation occurs. Z. 474. serving as the closing element. are also blended to obtain desired properties. 4 481. 4 477. (See ram. Other products.

on axles and crude bearings. slow-moving machinery. BLOCK LEASE A lease executed by owners of separate tracts or. sometimes. In contact with a hot journal bearing. 484. BLOCK AND TACKLE An arrangement of ropes and blocks (pulleys) used to hoist or pull. the grease melts slowly lubricating the bearing. Z. The valve is made with a small bleeder line and valve which are tapped into the block valve's bonnet. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. rigid unit integral to the forging.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 482. 483. 60 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 4 487. Block trees are often used on multiwell offshore platforms to conserve space. BLOCK GREASE A grease of high melting point that can be handled in block or stick form. separate leases executed by owners of individual tracts which provide that drilling of one or more test wells within the combined area or block will satisfy the conditions of the lease as to each of the tracts in the block. When the block valve is closed. Block grease is used on . its effectiveness may be checked by opening the bleeder valve for evidence of any leakage from the upstream or high-pressure side. BLOCK AND BLEED VALVE A heavy-duty mainline valve made to hold " bubbletight" against high pressure. 485. Valve pockets for the special valve assembly are bored in the steel forging which mites the valve assembly a strong. BLOCK TREE A type of well-completion Christmas tree in which a number of control and production valves are made as a unit in one block of steel.

g. very little mixing of the two types of crude occurs at the interface. e. BLOCKING Pumping measured amounts of crude oil or product through a pipeline in batches or blocks. it is switched into separate . heavy-duly valve on a crude oil or products trunk line placed on each side of a pipeline river crossing to isolate possible crossing.. 489. 490. which conducts the air or gas used for circulation away from the rig to reduce the danger of fire and to transport the cuttings a suitable distance from the well. And when each arrives at destination. In a packed or full line pumping under high pressure. vents the returns during air or gas drilling. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 488. the pulverized rock from the action of the bit is brought up from the bottom of the hole by compressed air and blown through the blooie pipe into the burn pit. 61 Petroleum Engineer: M. the point in the line where the two are in contact. one behind the other. Should the well need to be controlled because of oil or gas in quantity and under high pressure. BLOOIE PIPE A horizontal vent pipe extending from the wellhead a couple of feet from the rig floor to a burn pit. The blooie pipe. In air drilling no mud is used. makes. it too is vented to the burn pit. Should gas or oil be encountered. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BLOCK VALVE A large. For example when moving different grades or types of crude. the well must be mudded up. 4 492. the two are not mixed but are blocked through the line. blooey line the discharge pipe from a well being drilled by air drilling. sweet or sour. Drilling mud is pumped into the hole and circulated as in conventional rotary drilling.mzhelu@gmail. named for the noise.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 494. BLOWBY The escape of combustion or unburned fuel past the engine's piston and piston rings into the crankcase. 497. 4 . BLOWDOWN STACK A vent or stack into which the contents of a processing unit are emptied when an emergency arises. blow out 1. blowdown the emptying or depressurizing of a material from a vessel. 496.) to drain off the "drip gasoline" and to allow the natural gas to "blow" fort moment to clear the line and drip of all liquid. 2. 5 502. used to transfer crude oil and water mixtures if pump agitation would create unwanted emulsions. to suddenly expel oil-well fluids from the borehole with great velocity. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Steam is injected into the stack to prevent ignition of volatile material o a water quench is sometimes used. BLOWING THE DRIP To open the valve on a drip (q. to expel a portion of water and steam from a boiler to limit its concentration of minerals. blow case a pumping device capable of transferring liquid. 62 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. Blowby occurs during the power stroke but unburned fuel can also escape during the compression stroke on sparkignition engines. Z. the material thus discarded. 500.v.mzhelu@gmail. 495. BLOOM The irridescent cast of color in lubricating oil.

BLOWOUT Out of control gas and/or oil pressure erupting from a well being drilled. uncontrolled eruption of gas and oil from a well. 5 510. 5 512. 5 505. Z. that is manipulated to open and close the blowout preventers. a wild well. 513. (See annular blowout proventer and ram blowout preventer.) 508.mzhelu@gmail. or stop valve. blowout preventer control unit a device that stores hydraulic fluid under pressure in special containers and provides a method to open and close the blowout preventers quickly and reliably. SPHERICAL See Spherical Blowout Preventer. blowoff cock a device which permits or arrests a flow of liquid from a receptacle or through a pipe. BLOWOUT PREVENTER. faucet. 63 Petroleum Engineer: M. 5 507.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 503. Usually compressed air and hydraulic pressure provide the opening and closing force in the unit. a dangerous. usually located near the driller's position on the rig floor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. blowout preventer control (BOP) panel a set of controls. . blowout preventer (BOP) equipment installed at the wellhead at surface level on land rigs and on the seafloor of floating offshore rigs to prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe or in an open hole during drilling and completion operations. BLOWPIPE (WELDINQAND CUTTING) See Welding Torch.

BOBTAIL PLANT A gas plant which extracts liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas but does not break down the liquid product into its separate components. The liquid instead is pump ?d to a fractionator plant where it is separated into various components or fractions in fractionator towers. 517. used in drilling reports. 522. 520. Board The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. The corresponding federal statutes and regulations are the Federal Securities Act and the Securities and Exchange (SEC) regulations. usually used in reference to total production of oil and water from a well.mzhelu@gmail. 519. Z. BO barrels of oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 514. BOBTAIL A short-bodied truck. BLUESKYLAW A statute which regulates the issuance and sale of securities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. BODY Colloquial term for the viscosity of oil. 5 1 8 . 521. States differ in subjecting the sale of property interests in oil and gas to Blue Sky . 5 516. BNOC British National oil Corporation (q.). 64 Petroleum Engineer: M. BLPD barrels of liquid per day. The term usually is restricted to state statutes.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng." 527.mzhelu@gmail. Boiloff is a problem for shippers of LNG in the specially built ocean carriers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 523. boil-weevil hanger a tubing hanger. sturdy frame or small platform with multiple wheels (4 to 8) for moving heavy objects short distances. oil. Boiloff occurs when the holding vessel's insulation fails to maintain the low temperature required to keep the gas in liquid form. 5 529. or gas and is used to generate steam from water. 65 Petroleum Engineer: M. boiler a closed pressure vessel that has a furnace equipped to burn coal. on the opposite side of the rotary from the pipe rocker. boil-weevil corner (slang. to fake a report. 530. BOILER HOUSE (1) A lightly constructed building to house steam boilers. A low. obsolete) the work station of an inexerienced rotary helper. 5 532. 5 525. sometimes shortened to "weevil. (2) To make a report without doing the work. boil weevil (slang) an inexperienced rig or oil-filed worker. BOIL OFF The vaporization or gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other gases liquefied by applying high pressure and severe cooling. BOGIES Colloquial term for small transport dollies. 526. .

BOILING POINT. bomb a thick-walled container. boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. INITIAL The temperature at which a product being distilled comes to a boiling point.7 psig). (See bottomhole pressure. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. 5 537. the temperature at which this occurs. The boiling point of water is 212 F or 100 C at atmospheric pressure (14. the beginning of the distillation of a particular product. BOLLWEEVIL An inexperienced worker or "green hand" on a drilling crew. bomb a thick-walled container. The heavy wooden or metal] beam rests on a pin that allows the forward end of the load to pivot as truck turns a corner. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually steel.) 541.mzhelu@gmail. 538. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. 539.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 533. usually steel. (See bottomhole pressure. Z. BOLSTER A support on a truck bed used for hauling pipe. BONNET The upper part of a gate valve that encloses the packing gland and supports the valve .) 540. 66 Petroleum Engineer: M. 5 535. . This may be in the form of an overriding royalty reserved to the landowner in addition to the usual one-eighth royalty. properties and all facilities.) 550. See Royalty Bidding. boom Stop the steel projections on a crane that the boom strikes if raised too high or lowered too far. used on some types of cranes or derricks to support the hoisting lines that carry the load. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Another form is called an oil or royalty bonus. 5 549. Z. It is also called a boom ratchet. 67 Petroleum Engineer: M. BONUS Usually. BOOK VALUE The worth of an oil company. the bonus is the money paid by the lessee for the execution of an oil and gas lease by the landowner.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 542. boom a movable arm of tubular or bar steel. 5 547. 544. boom dog a ratchet device on a crane that prevents the boom of the crane from being lowered but still permits it to be raised. BONUS BIDDING Competitive bidding for oil and gas leases in which the lease providing for a fixed royally is offered to the prospective lessee offering to pay the largest bonus to the lessor. less depreciation 545.. boom ratchet (See boom dog.

BOOSTER STATION A pipeline pumping station usually on a main fine or trunk fine an intermediate station.) 557. 5 559. it helps to separate gas from wet oil. 5 555.) 68 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Also called a flume or conductor pipe. Z. boomer 1.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 551.mzhelu@gmail.) boot sub (See Junk sub. BOP STACK Blowout preventer stack (q. a floater or transient. (slang) an oil-field worker who moves from one center of activity to another. BOP blowout preventer. 2. 556. boot basket (See junk sub. through which well fluids are conducted before entering the larger . a field station that pumps into a tank farm or main station. 553. BOOMCATS Caterpillar tractors equipped with side booms and winches used in pipeline construction to lift joints of pipe and to lower sections of the line into the ditch. A device used to tighten chains on a load of pipe or other equipment on a truck to make it secure. 552. boot a tubular device placed vertically inside or outside a larger vessel.

and canals for the purpose of installing casing or steel conduits to hold a pipeline. large-diameter auger used to bore under roads. railroads. BOPD barrels of oil per day.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 5 561. 5 . 565. 69 Petroleum Engineer: M. 568. the uncased drill hole from the surface to the bottom of the we If. BOREHOLE The hole in the earth made by the drill. BOP/BOP Stack Blowout preventers/blowout preventer stack . BORING MACHINE A power-driven. assembly of heavy-duty valves attached to the wellhead to control well pressure and prevent a blowout. 562. bottle test a test in which varying amounts of a chemical are added to bottled samples of an emulsion to determine how much of the chemical is needed to break the emulsion into oil and water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BORE AND STROKE See Pump Specifications.mzhelu@gmail. 5 567. Z. bottled gas liquefied petroleum gas placed in small containers for sale to domestic customers. 563. bore the diameter of the cylinder of an engine.

brought about by excessive longitudinal strain or by a combination of longitudinal strain and the swagging action of a body. 574. It is often marked on the engine . A bottleneck may result if the downward motion of the drill pipe is stopped with the slips instead of the brake. it is referred to as packed-hole assembly (q. in the string. 575. BOTTOM-HOLE ASSEMBLY (BHA) A drilling string comprised of a drillbit and several drill collars is a simple bottom-hole assembly. BOTTOM FRACTION The last cut.). bottom hold-down a mechanism for anchoring a bottom-hole pump in the well. Z. Such an assembly may also include a bottom-hole reamer above the bit or above the first drill collar.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 571. BOTTLENECKING The deformation of the ends of the casing or tubing in the hanger resulting from excessive weight of the string of pipe and the squeezing action of the slips. 578. bottom-hole pertaining to the lowest or deepest part of a well. 576. 577.mzhelu@gmail. When in addition to drill collars and reamers there are two or three stabilizers. bottleneck an area of reduced diameter in pipe. The main purpose of a hole assembly is to keep the bit drilling as straight down as possible. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 70 Petroleum Engineer: M. 5 573. the "bottom of the barrel" in petroleum distillation. bottom dead center (BDC) the position of the piston at the lowest point possible in the cylinder of an engine.v.

583. (See choke. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. planning to drill a well on his own land.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 579.mzhelu@gmail. readings are usually taken at different rates of I low in order to arrive at a maximum productivity rate. 582. 584. (See packer. bottom-hole plug a bridge plug or cement plug placed near the bottom of the hole to shut off a depleted.) 5 586. water-producing. BOTTOM-HOLE HEATER Equipment used in the bottom of the well bore to increase bottom-hole temperature in an effort to increase the recovery of low gravity or heavy oil. A bottom-hole letter is often used by the operator as security for obtaining a loan to finance the drilling of the well. 587. the former requires payment upon completion of the well whether it produces or . bottom-hole contract a contract providing for the payment of money or other considerations upon the completion of a well to a specified depth.) 5 581. In contrast to a dry-hole letter. BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE The reservoir or formation pressure at the bottom of the hole. If measured under flowing conditions. bottom-hole choke a device with a restricted opening placed in the lower end of the tubing to control the rate of flow. 71 Petroleum Engineer: M. or unproductive zone. A decline in pressure indicates the amount of depletion from the reservoir. Z. BOTTOM-HOLE LETTER An agreement by which an operator. secures the promise from another to contribute to the cost of the well. bottom-hole packer a device that blocks passage through the annular space between two strings of pipe and is installed near the bottom of the hole.

72 Petroleum Engineer: M. BOTTOM-HOLE PUMP A pump located in the bottom of the well and not operated by sucker rods and surface power units. bottoms 1. By the movements of an indicator over a circular scale. 589. Bourdon tube a flattened metal tube bent in a curve. bottom water water found below oil and gas in a producing formation. semisubmersible drilling rig when the rig is submerged. Bottom-hole pumps are compact. bottom-hole separator a device used to separate oil and gas at the bottom of wells to increase the volumetric efficiency of the pumping . 5 591. 595. which tends to straighten under pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 588. to drill to a specified depth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. a Bourdon tube indicates the pressure applied to it. BOTTOM OUT To reach total depth. 594. high-volume units driven by an electric motor or hydraulically operated. 2. 593.mzhelu@gmail. bottom-loading pressure the pressure exerted on the bottom hull of a column-stabilized. 592. bottoms-up a complete trip from the bottom of the wellbore to the top. 596. the liquids and residue that collect in the bottom of a vessel (such as tank bottoms) or that remain in the bottom of a storage tank after a period of service. the residual fractions remaining at the bottom of a fractionating tower after lighter components have been distilled off as vapors.

601. bowline knot a knot primarily used in lifting heavy equipment with the catline. 602. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 597. box (See tool joint. actuates recording instruments. box and pin (See tool Joint. connected to. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 6 604. regardless of the weight of the load on it. since it can be readily tied and untied.] source of gas pressure at the other. 73 Petroleum Engineer: M. bow lines n pl the lines running from the bow of a mobile offshore drilling rig. crescent-shaped tube closed at one end. With increases in gas pressure the Bourdon. especially the forward mooring lines. 5 600. BOWL A device that fits in the rotary table and holds the wedges or slips that support a string of tubing or casing.) 6 606.mzhelu@gmail. BOX AND PIN JOINT A type Of screw coupling used to connect sucker rods and drill pipe.) 607. The box is a thick-walled collar with threads on the inside the pin is threaded on the outer circumference and is screwed into the box. . used in pressure recording devices or in pilot operated control mechanisms. BOWLINE A knot used to form a loop in a rope which will neither slip nor jan. BOUROON TUBE A small. don tube flexes (attempts to straighten) and this movement through roper linkage.

mzhelu@gmail. brake band a part of the brake mechanism. bradenhead flange a flanged connection at the top of the oil-well casing. provided the temperature remains constant. BPH barrels per hour. that grips a drum when tightened. 6 614. 6 619. 611. BOYLE'S LAW "The volume of any weight of gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure. Bradenhead was an early-day name for the wellhead or casinghead. brackish water water that contains relatively low concentrations of any soluble salts. bradenhead squeezing the process by which hydraulic pressure is applied to a well to force fluid or cement outside the wellbore. Brackish water is saltier than fresh water but not as salty as salt water. 615.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 608. On a drilling 74 Petroleum Engineer: M. BRADENHEAD GAS Casinghead gas. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the term "bradenhead" is obsolete.) The bradenhead. Z. is closed to shut off the annulus when making a bradenhead squeeze. (See squeeze. or casinghead. 617. used in drilling reports. Although this term is still used. bpd barrels per day. 616. bradenhead (obsolete) casinghead." 6 610. consisting of a flexible steel band lined with asbestos or a similar material.

627. the brake band acts on the flanges of the drum on the drawworks to control the lowering of the travelt'ng block and its load of drill pipe.v. especially one who uses a telegraph key (q.). it prevents friction sparks.H. joined to and diverging from another line. 6 625. branch line a line. BRASSPOUNDER A telegrapher. BRAKE HORSEPOWER (S. brake rider (slang) a driller who is said to rely too heavily on the drawworks brake. Until the 1940s or so. Because it is brass. See Telegrapher's Bug.).) 628. drum. or tubing. (The editor was once an oilfield telegrapher. Z. usually a pipe. 75 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BREA A . 620. much of the communication from oil patch to division and head offices was by telegraph. asphaltic material formed at oil see pages when the fighter fractions of the oil have evaporated. 6 623. or reel where the brake is applied to control the movement of the unit.mzhelu@gmail. the actual or delivered horsepower as contrasted to "indicated horsepower" (q. 621. brake flange the surface on a winch.v. casting. tar-like substand.P.) The power developed by an engine as measured at the drive shaft. leaving the black. 626. brass running nipple a device used in the flow cross of the Christmas tree as a thread protector while the rods are being run.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rig.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 630. break to begin or start (as to break circulation or break tour). Z. 636. BREAK CIRCULATION To resume the movement of drilling fluid down the drill pipes through the . 635. BREAK-OUT TANKAGE Tankage at a take-off point or delivery point on a large crude oil or products pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: . 6 638. 634. 631.mzhelu@gmail. (2) To loosen a threaded pipe joint. Moving the rig and rigging up are usually carried on during daylight. BREAKING DOWN THE PI1PE Unscrewing stands of drillpipe in one-joint lengths usually in preparation for stacking and moving to another well location. breakdown a failure of equipment. to retrieve relevant information from a comprehensive report. pertaining to the amount of pressure needed at the wellhead to rupture the formation in a fracture treatment or squeeze job (as formation breakdown pressure). break tour to begin operating 24 hours a day. 76 Petroleum Engineer: M. eyes" of the bit.. breadth the greatest overall dimension measured perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig. When the rig is ready for operation on a new location. crews break tour and start operating 24 hours a day. and upward through the annulus to the surface 633. BREAK OUT (1) To isolate pertinent figures from a mass of data. 632.

Z. breaking strength the load under which a chain . 641. breakout tongs (See tongs and break out. a tank of crude oil expands because of the rise in temperature during the day and contracts as it cools at night. breakout block a heavy plate that fits in the rotary table and holds the drill bit while it is being unscrewed from the drill collar.) 643. Tubing breathes when it moves up and down in sequence with a sucker-rod pump. BREATHING The movement of oil vapors and air in and out of a storage tank owing to the alternate heating by day and cooling by night of the vapors above the oil in the tank. (See bit breaker. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 6 646. bridge 1.mzhelu@gmail. 6 648.) 644. expelling vapors as it expands and taking in air as it contracts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 640. an obstruction in the borehole.) 642. For example. 2. usually caused by the caving in of the wall of the borehole or by the intrusion of a large boulder. breakout cathead (See cathead. a tool placed in the hole to retain cement or other material that may later be removed. 77 Petroleum Engineer: M. regular rhythm. Breathing occurs in tanks of vessels when vapors are expelled and air is taken in. drilled out. breathe to move with a slight. or left permanently.

flaky. (See lost-circulation material. 650. and a rubber sealing element. BRIGHT SPOTS White areas on seismographic recording strips which may signal to the geologist or trained observer the presence of hydrocarbons. salt water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 6 654. dissolved in it. especially sodium chloride. 656. brine water that has a large quantity of salt. a plug mandrel. BRIDGE OVER The collapse of the walls of the borehole around the drill column. The name originated from the clear. or granular material added to a cement slurry or drilling fluid to aid in scaling formations in which lost circulation has occurred. composed primarily of slips. 78 Petroleum Engineer: M. BRIGHT STOCKS High-viscosity. (See sucker-rod pumping.) 652. bridging material the fibrous. 651.mzhelu@gmail. bright appearance of the dewaxed tubes. and dewaxed lubricating oils.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 649. Z. that is run and set in casing to isolate a lower zone while testing an upper section. used for blending with lower viscosity oils. fully refined. bridle a cable on a pumping unit. 655. bridge plug a downhole tool. looped over the horse head and connected to the carrier bar to support the polished-rod .

659.K. bring in a well to complete a well and put it in producing status." They are usually run in newly constructed lines to remove rust and mill scale (q.v. to begin a new job after being promoted. Bristle or foam pigs are easy to run. 658.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 657. 79 Petroleum Engineer: M. 664. British thermal unit (Btu) a measure of heat energy equivalent to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1 F. BROKEOUT To be promoted. BRITISH NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION The United Kingdom government agency that "participates" in drilling and production activities in the British sectors of the North Sea with U. 6 662. Z. do not get hung up in the .S. 660. "He broke out as a driller at Midland".). used in drilling reports. the "corporation" through which Britain assumes ownership of he U. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. brkn broken. 663. oil companies and others. BRING BOTTOMS UP To wash rock cuttings from the bottom of the hole to the surface by maintaining circulation after halting the drilling operation.mzhelu@gmail. This allows time for closer inspection of the cuttings and for a decision as to how to proceed when encountering a certain formation. BRISTLE PIG A type of pipeline pig or scraper made of tough plastic covered with flamehardened steel bristles.'s share of the North Sea oil. and are easy to "catch.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 666. BRUCKER SURVIVAL CAPSULE A patented. 6 6 9 . BSD Barrels per stream day. 6 673.mzhelu@gmail. See Whitaker System. The vessel.3 persons. any newly promoted oil field worker whose performance is still untried. BS&W monitor a device used in LACT systems to measure and record automatically the amount of water and other contaminants in oil being transferred to a pipeline and to divert contaminated oil to treatment facilities. 667. is self-propelled and is equipped with first-aid and life-support systems. caused by the impact of molecules of fluid surrounding the particle. Z. 668. sef-contained survival vessel that can be lowered from an offshore drilling platform or semisubmersible in the event of a fire or other emergency. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 671. BRONC A new driller promoted from helper. 80 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some models can accommodate . B S &W Short for basic sediment and water often found in crude oil. Brownian movement the random movement exhibited by microscopic particles when suspended in liquids or gases. See Stream Day. of spheroid shape. 670. a new tool pusher up from driller. Bscf/d billion standard cubic feet of gas per day.

678.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 7 4 . 81 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bubble-cap tray a perforated steel tray on which bubble caps are mounted. and chemical intermediates. 6 676. agricultural chemicals. The initials are used by refinery men in designating a unit of the refinery.mzhelu@gmail. the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. BT U British thermal unit. breaks out of solution as free gas saturation pressure. causing some of the vapor to condense to . 679. The perforations in the trays are made with small umbrella-like caps called bubble caps whose purpose is to force the rising vapors to bubble through the several inches of liquid standing on each tray before the vapors move upward to the next tray. BUBBLE-CAPTRAYS Shelves or horizontal baffles inside a fractionating tower or column that are perforated to allow the fluid charge to run down to the bottom of the column and the vapors to rise through the trays to the top where they are drawn off. The hot vapors bubbling through the liquid keep the liquid charge heated. BTX Benzene-toluene-xylene. 680. synthetic ruber. Bubble caps and trays are arranged in bubble towers. bubble cap a metal cap that has openings allowing vapor bubbles in a gas-processing tower to contact cool liquids. BUBBLE POINT The pressure at which gas. Z. cylindrical vessels set vertically in rows. 677. held in solution in crude oil. basic aromatics used in the manufacture of paints.

any type of fan. 687. 688. 6 690. oil production from a reservoir with a gas . BUCK UP To tighten pipe joints with a wrench. 6 686.) buck up to tighten up a screwed connection. buildup test a test in which a well is shut in for a prescribed period of time and a bottomhole pressure bomb run in the well to record increases or decreases in pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in effect. From this data and from knowledge of pressures in a nearby well. - 682. BUG BLOWERS Large fans used on or near the floor of the drilling rig to keep mosquitoes and other flying insects off the rig crew. bug blower (slang) a large fan installed on a drilling rig to blow insects away from the work area. 82 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 681. bubble tray (See bubble-cap tray. the effective drainage radius or the presence of permeability barriers or other production deterrents surrounding the wellbore can be estimated. Z. bubble tower a vertical. BUBBLE POINT PUMP A type of downhole oil pump very sensitive to gas. 6 684. cylindrical vessel in which bubble caps and bubble-cap trays are arranged.mzhelu@gmail. gas is released which gas-locks the pump until pressure is again built up by the oil I lowing into the well bore. When the saturation pressure is reached. This type of pump regulates.

closed end. BULK PLANT A distribution point for petroleum products. 6 698. 6 696. 6 700. 694. BULLDOGGED Said of a fishing toot lowered into the well bore that has latched onto lost pipe or another object being fished out and won't unlatch or cannot be disengaged. bull gear the large. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 83 Petroleum Engineer: M. BULL GANG Common laborers who do the ditching and other heavy work on a pipeline construction job. Z. bull plug a threaded nipple with a rounded.mzhelu@gmail. owing to a malfunction of the tool. bulkhead deck the highest deck to which watertight bulkheads extend on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig. A bulk plant usually has tank carunloading facilitiese and warehousing for products sold in packages or in barrels. 693. used to stop up a hole or close off the end of a line. bulkhead an interior wall that subdivides a mobile offshore drilling rig into compartments.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 692. circular gear in a mud pump that is driven by the prime mover and in turn drives the connecting rods. .

Other liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) with higher vapor pressure (q. BULLWAGON A casing wagon (q. earth.) are stored In Hortonsphores or spheroids that can withstand higher pressures per square inch. bullets n pl the devices loaded into perforating guns to penetrate into casing and cement and some distance into the formation when the guns are fired. fires bullets through the casing to provide holes through which the well fluids may enter. bulldozer a powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving rocks. (See gun-perforate. the large wheels and axle located on one side of the derrick floor used to hold the drilling line. 706. 713. when lowered to a selected depth within a well. bump a well to have too long a sucker-rod string on a pumping .v.) 710. so that the pump hits bottom on the downstroke.v.mzhelu@gmail. 712. 84 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Bullet tanks ire for storing gasoline or butane under pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 703. BULLET TANKS Colloquial term for horizontal pressure tanks made in the shape of a very fat bullet.). 705. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and so on. BULLWHEEL On a cable-tool rig. See Calf Wheel. 708. bullet perforator a tubular device that.

BUMP OFF A WELL To disconnect a rod-line well from a central power unit. The slip joint is inserted above the heavy drill collars in order to maintain the weight of the collars on the drill bit as the drillpipe above the slip joint up and down with the motion of the ship.mzhelu@gmail. pertaining to a cement plug which comes to rest on the float collar. bump off a well to disconnect a pull-rod line from a central power unit. "I have a bumped plug. but used in the normal drilling stem to compensate for vertical movement of the stem. When the fishing tool has a firm hold on the lost drillpipe or tubing. BUMPER SUB A slip joint that is part of the string of drillpipe used in drilling from a drillship to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action. 716. A cementing operator might say. BUNKER "C" FUEL OIL A heavy. 719. bumper jar (See jar. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. " when the plug strikes the float collar. bumped aoj in cementing operations. It also provides jarring action. the bumper sub imparts a jarring action to help free the "fish. 721. but to a lesser extent than a jar. 717." 720. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 714. which may also be stuck fast in the hole. 715. residual fuel oil used in ships' boilers and large heating and generating plants.) bumper sub a device similar to ajar. 85 Petroleum Engineer: M. BUMPER SUB (FISHING) A hydraulically actuated tool installed in the fishing string above the fishing tool to produce a jarring . especially in offshore drilling.

Z. the loading of bunker fuel on board ship for use by the ship's boilers. quarters for Single 011 field workers in the days when transportation to a nearby town was unavailable. bunker oil (See residuals. BUNKERING To supply fuel to vessels for use in the ships 'boilers. . See Ultrasonic Atomizer. usually a portable building used on remote well location to house the drilling crew and for supplies. If the object is floating. drill pipe. the immersed portion displaces a volume of fluid the weight of which is equal to the weight of the object. BURNER A device for the efficient combustion of a mixture of fuel and air.) 724. 726. 86 Petroleum Engineer: M. BURN PIT An excavation in which waste oil and other material are burned 732. BUNKHOUSE Crew quarters. used in fishing operations. burn shoe a type of rotary shoe designed to mill away metal tubular goods (such as casing. 736. burning point the lowest temperature at which an oil or fuel will burn when an open flame is held near its surface. 730. buoyancy the apparent loss of weight of an object immersed in a fluid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 723. and so on) causing stuck pipe. 728.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

BUTTERFLY VALVE A type of quick-opening valve whose orifice is opened and closed by a disk that pivots on a shaft in the throat of the valve. a constituent of LPG. a removable lining or sleeve inserted or screwed into an opening to limit its size. The two edges of the sheet are butted together and welded automatically. that is a gas in atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. 2. (See rollercone bit. 742. buy-back oil is the host government's share of "participation crude" it permits the company holding the concession (the producer) to buy back. BUTT-WELDED PIPE Pipe made from a rectangular sheet of steel which is formed on . Z. 739. butane a paraffin hydrocarbon. BUY-RACK CRUDE OIL In foreign countries.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 738. C4H10. 87 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 744.mzhelu@gmail. 741. 7 4 5 . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bushing 1. This occurs when the host government has no market for its share of oil received under the joint-interest or participation agreement. used in drilling reports. BW barrels of water. a pipe fitting of which the external thread is larger than its internal thread to allow two pipes of different sizes to be connected together. or serve as a guide. button bit a drilling bit with tungsten carbide inserts that resemble buttons. resist wear or corrosion.

used in drilling reports. BWPH barrels of water per hour. 747. BYPASS VALVE A valve by which the flow of liquid or gas in a system may be shunted pasta part of the system through which it normally flows. BWPD barrels of water per day. 88 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 746. 749. a valve that controls an alternate route for liquid or gas. 750. installed to permit passage of fluid through the line while adjustments or repairs are being made on the control. . bypass a pipe connection around a valve or other control mechanism. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

CABLE TOOLS The equipment necessary for cable tool drilling of a well. cable a rope of wire. cable tool drilling a drilling method in which the hole is drilled by dropping a sharply pointed bit on the bottom of the hole. cake thickness the thickness of the filter cake. 754. or other strong fibers. 759. made of strands of steel wire. over and over. PLUG A cast-iron plug. 757.I. called a bit. 755. C degrees centigrade or Celsius. picked up and dropped. 89 Petroleum Engineer: M. a flat plug used to close the end of a pipe or a valve.mzhelu@gmail. 756. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CABLE. sharpened to a chisel-like point on the lower end is attached to a drilling rope or wire line (cable) which is fastened to a walking beam above the rig floor that provides an up and down motion to the line and the metal drilling tools.1 scale. hemp. comes in a variety of cutting-edge configurations. as the hole is drilled. The bit is attached to a cable and the cable is picked up and dropped. (See cement Ceisius. 1 to 2 inches in diameter.) 753. C02-Shielded. 758. C. A heavy metal bar. DRILLING A heavy cable. The drilling tool.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 751. . C02-SHIELDED WELDING See Welding.

mzhelu@gmail. thus facilitating drilling. calcium-treated mud a freshwater drilling mud using calcium oxide (lime) or calcium sulfate (gyp) to retard the hydrating qualities of shale and clay formations. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or desiccant. and heated to drive off any remaining liquid hydrocarbons and water. Calcium-treated muds resist salt and anhydrite contamination. but may require further treatment to prevent gelation (solidification) under the high temperatures of deep wells. Chemical symbol is CaCO2. crushed. It sometimes contaminates drilling fluids but may be added to provide certain properties. It forms a tenacious scale in water-handling facilities and is a cause of water hardness.) on a (able tool rig. carbon. CALCINING (OF COKE) Calcining is the heating of a substance to drive off moisture and other gaseous impurities or to make it more friable or crushable. 764.) 765. and oxygen. (See anhydrite and gypsum. 762. The casing is usually run with the use of the calf wheels 90 Petroleum Engineer: M. sulfur. CALF WHEEL The spool or winch located across the derrick floor from the bull wheels (q. Its symbol is CaCl2.v. and oxygen. B B 763. calcium sulfate (CaSO4) forms a hard-to-remove scale in some water-handling facilities. calcium sulfate a chemical combination of calcium.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 760. 766. Petroleum coke is . calcium chloride a moisture-absorbing chemical. used as an accelerator in cements and as a drying agent. the main constituent of limestone. calcium carbonate a chemical combination of calcium. Z. Like calcium carbonate.

and water free or at a nominal charge to employees working on the lease and at nearby company installations pumping stations. oil companies furnished .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which are powered by the band wheel (q. Modern canning lines are fully automated. a settlement of oil company employees living on a lease in company housing. 769. 771. CANNING LINE A facility at refinery where cans are filled with lubricating oil. etc.g. gas. calibration tank (See proven tank. loading racks. e. Cam an eccentrically shaped disk that varies in distance from its center to various points on its circumference and that is mounted on a camshaft and serves to open the engine valves. gasoline plants. CALIPER LOG A tool for checking casing downhole for any bending or flattening or other deformation prior to running and setting a packer or other casing hardware. Z.) 768.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 767. calorie (Calory) the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C. In the early days. tank farms. Gulf Wolf Camp. and put in cases. A line from the call wheels runs to the crown block and down to the rig floor. 772.mzhelu@gmail. 770. and Tom Butler. See Drift Mandrel. CAMP. COMPANY A small community of oil field workers. Carter Camp. lights. 91 Petroleum Engineer: M.). Camps were known by company lease or simply the lease name. It is the metric equivalent of the British thermal unit.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the porous and permeable strata overlying salt domes that may serve as the reservoir rock. 2. CAODC the Canadian Association of Oil-Well Drilling Contractors. 777. when wired in. It also is called a condenser. the Canadian counterpart of the IADC. capacitor an electrical device that. cap a well to control a blowout by placing a very strong valve on the wellhead. 779. 776. canvas packer (obsolete) a device for sealing the annular space between the top of a liner and the existing casing string.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 773. 774. 92 Petroleum Engineer: M. capacitance probe a device used in most net-oil computers that senses the different dielectric constants of oil and water in an water-in-oil emulsion.the line of an electrical . 778. impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas reservoir that tends to prevent migration of fluids from the reservoir. canted leg pertaining to an independent leg jackup rig designed so that the legs may be slanted outward to increase support against lateral stresses when the unit is on the seafloor. Z.mzhelu@gmail. stores a charge of electricity and returns the charge to the line when certain electrical conditions occur. 781. cap rock 1.

The cap bead goes on top of the hot passes or filler beads to finish the weld. CAPITAL EXPENDITURES Nondeductible expenditures which must be recovered through depletion or depreciation. In Federal income tax law. permitting the oil to drain out of the pores of the rock. if held for investment. is usually considered a capital asset. Capillary Pressure A type of pressure data used to determine water saturation in a reservoir.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 782.mzhelu@gmail. property used in the taxpayers' trade or business and are not capital assets. Royalty. 785. the surface tension. Well equipment and lease bonuses paid by lessee. Flooding the formation with certain chemicals the capillary attraction. Capillary attraction or capillarity adversely affects the recovery of crude oil from a porous formation because a portion of the oil clings to the surface of each pore in the rock. CAPITAL ASSETS Assets acquired for investment and not for sale and requiring no personal services or management duties. See Tertiary . In the oil industry. CAPBEAD The final bead or course of metal laid on a pipeline weld. oil and gas leases are. ordinarily. these items illustrate expenditures that must be capitalized geophysical and geologic costs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 784. 786. 783. 93 Petroleum Engineer: M. CAPILLARY ATTRACTION The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid. Z.

790. CAPPING Closing in a well to prevent the escape of gas or oil.). 789.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 787. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cap screws are commonly used to fasten water jackets and other auxiliary pieces to an engine or pump. 788. Z. The bolt can be tightened or loosened but cannot be removed completely because of a shoulder at the end of the bolt. below the threads. 792. CAPITAL-GAP DILEMMA The growing disproportion of capital investment to oil reserves discovered. hexagonal head. CAPTURED BOLT A bolt held in place by a fixed nut or threaded piece.mzhelu@gmail.v. 791. CAPITAL STRING Another name for the production string (q. the increasing need for investment capital coupled with diminishing results in terms of oil and gas discovered spending more to find less oil. CAPSCREW A bolt made with an . CAPITAL-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY Said of the oil industry because of the great amounts of investment capital required to search for and establish petroleum reserves. Captured bolts are in reality a part of an adjustable piece and are so made to preclude the chance of being removed and dropped or because of limited space and accessibility in an item of equipment. and have slightly pointed ends. to aid in getting the "screw" into the tapped hole and started straight. 94 Petroleum Engineer: M.

) 797. CARBON PLANT A plant for the production of carbon black by burning natural gas in the absence of sufficient air. Carbon plants are located close to a source of gas and in more or less isolated sections of the country because of the heavy emission of smoke. 95 Petroleum Engineer: M. These are paid by the owner or owners of the remaining fraction who reimburse themselves out of profits from production. Z. most often a lease. 8 801. fermenting cellulose product used in drilling fluids to combat contamination from anhydrite (gyp) and to lower the water loss of the mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 793. carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) a non. sometimes makes up petroleum reservoirs. 795. CARRIED INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil or gas property.mzhelu@gmail. the holder of which has no obligation for operating costs. bulky carbon obtained as soot by burning natural gas in large horizontal "ovens" with insufficient air. Carbonate rock a sedimentary rock primarily composed of calcium carbonate (limestone) or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The person paying the costs is the carrying party. carbon black very fine particles of almost pure amorphous . CARBON BLACK A fine. 799. 796. carbonate reef (See reef. the other person is the carried party. usually produced from gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons by thermal decomposition or by controlled combustion with a restricted air supply.

com . "The numerous forms this interest is given from time to lime make it apparent the term carried interest dose not define any specific form of agreement but serves only serves only as a guide in preparing and interpreting instruments. 1 and drive-in unit. having the mast. However. The owner of the working interest in a producing property may grant an oil payment to a bank to pay off a loan. engines. CARRIED WORKING INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil and gas property conveyed or assigned to another party by the operator or owner of the working interest. hoist. the details varyinq considerably from arrangement to arrangement. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.) conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest.v. There are many different types of carried interests.e. the owner of the larger interest may convey an overriding royalty. In its simplest form a carried working interest is exempt from all costs of development and operation of the property. carrier rig a self-propelled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 803. one-sixteenth. 96 Petroleum Engineer: M." or "through well completion. wheeled unit used to service oil and gas wells. i." 804. the carried interest may specify "to casing point." If the arrangement specifies through well completion.. One authority has observed. Modern production rigs are usually carrier units. an oil payment or overridinq royalty (q. a working interest. CARVED-OUT INTEREST An interest. and other auxiliaries needed to service or work over a well mounted on a chassis powered by the engines used for hoisting. Z.' "to setting of tanks. For other considerations.) 805. which he has "sliced off" or carved out of his interest. then the carried Interest may assume the equivalent fractional interest of operating costs upon completion of the well. for example. (See back-in unit .

807. Cased pertaining to a wellbore in which casing is run and cemented. installed on the top of a string of pipe that does not extend to the surface. This pressure is critically important when a gas kick is being circulated out. Cased hole a wellbore in which casing has been run. because gas on the way to the surface expands. 808.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 806. CASHEONUS See Bonus. one inside the other). casing centralizer a device secured around the casing at various intervals to center it in the hole and provide a uniform cement sheath around the pipe. 8 810. 815. 8 812. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casing-burst pressure the amount of pressure that causes the wall of the casing to fail. It prevents a smaller string of pipe or tools from hanging up on the top of the column when run in the well. 8 814. 97 Petroleum Engineer: . casing adapter a swage nipple.mzhelu@gmail. Casing Steel pipe set in a well to prevent the hole from sloughing or caving and to enable formations to be isolated (there may be several strings of casing in a well. exerting more pressure than it did at the bottom of the well. usually beveled. Z.

818.mzhelu@gmail. so that it does not bind or stick to the casing in the hole in the area above the cement.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 816. is placed in the well ahead of the cement after the casing has been set. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 817. The cutter is run on a string of tubing or drill pipe. be retrieved with minimum difficulty.) 8 821. the casing can be cut above the cemented section and retrieved. 822. CASING PACKER. casing design chart a list of the various grades and weights of pipe available for the casing string. casing cutter a heavy cylindrical body fitted with a set of knives. Casing packs are used in wells of doubtful or limited production to permit reuse of valuable lengths of casing. usually an oil mud. The mud used is non-solidifying. casing coupling a tubular section of pipe that is threaded inside and used to connect two joints of casing. if necessary. A special mud. which includes pertinent safety factors such as stress effects to permit selection of the most economical and safest casing for a specific job. and the knives are rotated against the inner walls of the pipe to free the casing. Z. used to free a section of casing in the well. casing float collar (See float collar. EXTERNAL See External Casing Packer. even over long periods of time. 98 Petroleum Engineer: M. casing elevator (See . casing pack a method of cementing casing in a well so that the casing may. Since the mud does not gel.) 819.

casing protectors short. decision to set pipe is often difficult. 831.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 824. 8 . generally the depth at which the casing shoe rests. 8 826. tests made. they are made of steel or plastic. Also called a guide shoe. hollow. On a very good well there is no hesitation the operators and glad to run casing and complete the well. On a marginal well. threaded nipples screwed into the open end of the coupling and over the threaded end to protect the threads from dirt accumulation damage. casing shoe a short. casing pressure the pressure built up in a well between the casing and tubing or casing and drill pipe. CASING POINT A term that designates a time when a decision must be made whether casing is to be run and set or the well abandoned and plugged in a joint operating agreement. 8 828.) 99 Petroleum Engineer: M. casing point refers to the time when a well has been drilled to objective depth. To case a well often costs as much as drilling. and completing the well. casing slips (See slips. heavy. Z. Also called thread protectors. casing point the depth in a well at which casing is set. and the operator notifies the drilling parties of his recommendation with a respect to setting casing a production string. CASING PRESSURE Pressure between the casing and the well's tubing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom that is placed on the end of the casing string to serve as a reinforcing shoe and to aid in cutting off minor projections from the borehole wall as the casing is being lowered.

pointed at the bottom and equipped with a tool joint at the top for connection with a jar.) 8 837.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 832. low-pressure wells. 838. The lighter-weight casing is less costly. Two wagons are used. casing swage a solid. . used to make an opening in a collapsed casing and drive it back to its original shape. and adequate for certain kinds of shallow. CASING WAGON A small. easier to handle. cylindrical body. SHALLOW-WELL Small-diameter casing of lighter weight than conventional casing used in deep wells.mzhelu@gmail. The forward wagon holds the pipe in a V-shaped cradle the rear wagon is in reality a lever on wheels which raises the end of the casing so it is free to be pulled. 8 841. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the attached casing comes with it. each length or joint being joined to another as casing is run in a well.) 839. low cart for moving casing from the pipe rack to the derrick floor. casing spider (See spider. casing tongs (See tongs. CASING. 100 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 8 835. (See combination string. casing string Casing is manufactured in lengths of about 30 ft. The entire length of all the joints of casing is called the casing string. Z. casing spear a fishing tool designed to grab casing from the inside so that when the spear is retrieved.

CASING. gasoline or natural gasoline is a highly volatile.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 842. a trade name. like screw threads.). 843. used often to clear areas in earth-moving operations and in skidding rigs.) in deviated or crooked holes. casinghead gasoline liquid hydrocarbons that are extracted from casinghead gas. Casinghead. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is also called a spool.v. 844. CASINGHEAD GAS (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬ Gas produced with oil from an oil well as distinguished from gas from a gas well. cat a tractor designed to move easily over rough terrain. the part of the casing that protrudes above the surface and to which the control valves and flow pipes are attached. casinghead a heavy. 8 846.v. is said to be less susceptible to wall or differential sticking (q. The purpose of the patented axial grooves is to aid in running casing or a liner ( . The casinghead gas is taken off at the top of the well or at the separator. CASINGHEAD GASOLINE Liquid hydrocarbons separated from casinghead gas by the reduction of pressure at the wellhead or by a separator or absorption plant. 101 Petroleum Engineer: M. flanged steel fitting that connects to the first string of casing and provides a housing for the slips and packing assemblies by which intermediate strings of casing are suspended and the annulus sealed off.mzhelu@gmail. CASINGHEAD The top of the casing set in a well. Z.It is a shortened form of Caterpillar. water white liquid. SPIRALLED-WALL Well casing made with spiral grooves on the outer circumference of the pipe. The pipe with its grooves. 847.

CATALYSIS The increase or speeding up of a chemical reaction caused by a substance that remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. The other end of the cat shaft has a manual or air-actuated quick-release friction clutch and drum to which the tong jerk fine or spinning chain is attached. See Cat Shaft. CATALYST A substance which hastens or retards a chemical reaction without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process. and by using a large rope wrapped around it a few turns the drilling crew can do such jobs as make-up and break-out and light hoisting. 852. CAT WORKS A part of the rig's draw works.). or instigates chemical reactions without itself being affected. Z.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. accelerates.v. the gear and chain linkage that powers the cat heads.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 849. the rope used by the driller to exert a pull on pipe tongs in tightening (making up) or loosening (breaking out) joints of pipe. catalyst a substance that alters. CAT LINE A hoisting or pulling rope operated from a cat head (q. 853. spin in the easing and apply torque to the pipe tongs. 854. On a drilling rig. 8 . One cat head is a drum. Any reaction brought about by a separate agent. 102 Petroleum Engineer: M. CAT SHAFT The shaft on the draw works on which the cat heads are mounted. The cat works are used by the driller to make up and break out tool joint connections.

com . catenary Curve the shape assumed by a perfectly flexible line hanging under its own weight.). 8 857. complex hydrocarbon molecules by applying heat. from the bailer. and a chemical (the catalyst) to speed the process. catalytic cracking the breaking down of large. CATENARY The sag or curve of a cable or chain stretched between two supports. CATHEAD A spool-shaped hub on a winch shaft around which a rope is wound for pulling and hoisting. 860. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 859.mzhelu@gmail. cathode (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩ‬ the negative element of any electrical device as opposed to the anode. naphthas. a power take-off spool used by the driller as he operates the cat line(q. pressure. 862. and labeled to indicate the depth at which they were obtained. Electricity enters a circuit at the cathode.v. 861. CATCRACKER A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude oil. 103 Petroleum Engineer: M. or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. Z. Cuttings are carefully washed until they are free of foreign matter. See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit. dried. catch samples to obtain cuttings made by the bit as formations are penetrated for study by geologists.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 855. in cable-tool drilling. 858. 'Re samples are obtained from drilling fluid as it emerges from the wellbore or.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 864. tanks. CATHODIC PROTECTION (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ An anticorrosion technique for metal installations-pipelines. narrow walkway between tanks or other installations. Carbon or nonferrous anodes (q. trestle-like crossing placed at an opening in a pasture fence to prevent cattle from getting out while permitting vehicles to cross over the metal or wooden open framework. buildings in which weak electric currents are set up to offset the current associated with metal corrosion.) buried near the pipeline are connected to the pipe. any elevated walkway.v.mzhelu@gmail. 870. used td maintain an alkaline pH in drilling mud and in petroleum fractions. catwalk the ramp at the side of the drilling rig where pipe is laid out to be lifted to the derrick floor by the catline. 865. catline a hoisting or pulling line powered by the cathead. CATWALK raised. 104 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 8 867. cation (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻥ‬ (See ion. 869. Current flowing from the corroding anode to the metal installation control the corrosion of the installation. 868. Z. Its symbol is NaOH. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CATTLE GUARD A . used to lift heavy equipment on the rig. caustic soda (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ sodium hydroxide.

874. CAVEY FORMATION A formation that trends to cave or slough into the well's borch. 877. Blowout preventer valves (BOP stack) are also located beneath the derrick floor in the cellar. 876. 8 7 5 . CAVITATION The creation of a partial vacuum or a cavity by a high-speed blade or boat propeller moving in or through a liquid.71. Cavitation is also by a suction pump drawing in liquid whore there is an insufficient station or hydrostatic head to keep the line supplied. caving collapse of the walls of the .?. CELLAR An excavation dug at the drill site before erecting the derrick to provide working space for the casinghead equipment beneath the derrick floor. (See tug.) 872.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 871.mzhelu@gmail." 873. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cellar a pit in the ground dug to provide additional height between the rig floor and the wellhead to accommodate installation of 105 Petroleum Engineer: M. open spaces. also called sloughing. CD Contract depth the depth of a well called for or specified in contract. In the parlance of cable-tool drillers. cc cubic centimeter. "the hole doesn't stand up. usually resulting from dissolving by formation waters that may still be present. cavernous formation (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻬﻔﺔ‬ a rock formation that contains large.

WELLHEAD See Wellhead Cellar. Extensively used in the oil industry to bond casing to the walls of the wellbore. and other substances which hardens when mixed with water. double-decked. 882. semisubmersible drilling platform. CELLAR DECK Lower deck on a large.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering blowout preventers. 878. silica. lime. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. etc.) 8 880. rathole. cement 94 lb (1 cu ft) bentonite 100 lb ilmenite 100 lb barite 100 lb 883. cement additive a material added to cement during cementing of a well to change its properties. (See cementing materials. or bonded. Casing well-bonded to the formation transmits an acoustic signal quickly. Z. cement bond the adherence of casing to cement and cement to formation. Chemical accelerators. 106 Petroleum Engineer: M. chemical retarders. 881. When casing is run in a well. cellar deck the lower deck of a double-decked semisubmersible drilling rig. to the formation by means of . cement a powder consisting of alumina.) 884. (See main deck or Texas deck. mousehole. 885. CELLAR.mzhelu@gmail. cement bond survey an acoustic survey or sonic-logging method that records the quality or hardness of the cement in the annulus used to bond the casing and the formation. it is set. poorly bonded casing transmits a signal slowly. It also collects drainage water and other fluids for subsequent disposal. and weight-reduction materials are common additives.

thereby forcing it to follow another designated path.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 887. It is used in squeeze Cementing and other remedial cementing jobs. 890. . cement channeling during a cementing operation.mzhelu@gmail. 889. cement casing to fill the annulus between the casing and hole with cement to support the casing and to prevent migration of fluids between permeable zones. 107 Petroleum Engineer: M. cement plug a portion of cement placed at some point in the wellbore to seal it. Z. (See cementing. cement dump bailer a cylindrical container with a valve. used to release small batches of cement in a remedial cementing operation. 888. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CEMENTATION The filling in of the pore spaces of reservoir rock by the natural concretion of limestone. cement retainer a tool set temporarily in the casing or well to prevent the passage of cement. cement system a particular slurry containing cement and water with or without additives. 893. the rising of cement between the casing and the borehole wall when the slurry fails to rise uniformly throughout the annulus.) 891.

lightweight additives (such as bentonite). cementing basket a collapsible or folding metal cone that fits against the walls of the wellbore to prevent the passage of cement. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It has passages for cement slurry and retainer chambers for cementing wiper plugs. They affect either the density of the mixture or its setting time. cementing the application of a liquid slurry of cement and water to various points inside or outside the casing. (See primary cementing. Z. 897.mzhelu@gmail. . and squeeze cementing. cementing pump a high-pressure pump used to force cement down the casing and into the annular space between the casing and the wall of the borehole. common (or standard). cementing head an accessory attached to the top of the casing to facilitate cementing of the casing. sometimes called a metal-petal basket. cementing barge a barge containing the cementing pumps and other equipment needed for oilwell cementing in water operations. cementing materials a slurry of Portland cement and water and sometimes one or more additives. weighting materials (such as barium sulfate). 898. 899. Additives include accelerators (such as calcium chloride). The Portland cement used may be high early strength. or slow setting. retarders (such as gypsum). and a variety of lost-circulation materials (such as mica flakes).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 894.) 895. secondary Cementing. 108 Petroleum Engineer: M.

mzhelu@gmail. 906. 902. 907. centerline the middle line of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig from stem to stern as shown in a waterline view. 901. the center of mass. centigrade (Celsius) scale the metric system of temperature measurement used universally by scientists. O' represents the freezing point of water and 100' its boiling point at 760-mm barometric pressure. 109 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 900. center of gravity the point at which an object can be supported so that it balances and on which all gravitational forces on the body and the weight of the body are concentrated. center of flotation the geometric center of the water plane at which a mobile offshore drilling rig floats and about which a rig rotates when acted upon by an external force without a change in displacement. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. center of buoyancy the center of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating body (such as a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig). Z. 9 905. centipoise (cp) one-hundredth of a . Degrees centigrade are converted to degrees Fahrenheit by the following equation 'F = 9/5 ('C) + 32. 903. cementing time the total elapsed time needed to complete a cementing operation. In the centigrade scale. center of pressure the point on which all wind-pressure forces are concentrated.

It is a continuous-flow compressor with a low pressure ratio. or turbines. from which it is discharged into a diffuser. CENTRALIZERS. often used to transmit gas through a pipeline. usually by a series of blades. The band wheel is an excentric and as it revolves on a vertical axle a reciprocating motion is imparted to the shackle rods. Gas passing through the compressor contacts a rotating impeller. CENTRAL POWER A well-pumping installation consisting of an engine powering a large diameter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. centralizer (See casing centralizer. a more uniform cementing job is assured. Z. Cementing centralizers are made with two bands that fit the pipe tightly with spring steel ribs that arch out to press against the wall of the borehole. 909. 912. A central power may pump from 10 to 25 wells on a lease. cage-like devices fitted to a wells casing as it is run to keep the pipe centered in the borehole. where its velocity is slowed and its kinetic energy changed to static pressure.mzhelu@gmail. centrifugal compressor a compressor in which the flow of gas to be compressed is moved away from the center rapidly. horizontal band wheel with shackle-rod lines attached to its circumference. thus eliminating the need for individual treating facilities at each lease site.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 908. central oil-treating station a processing network used to treat emulsion produced from several leases. 910. By keeping the pipe centered. Centrifugal 110 Petroleum Engineer: . CEMENTING Cyclindrical.) 911. Centralizers are especially useful in deep or deviated holes.

because of their high speed. Centrifugal pumps. DECANTING A large centrifuge machine for separating or removing pulverized rock and fines from drilling mud returning from downhole. 915. often arranged in series on a line to achieve multistage compression. centrifuge a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances of varying . CENTRIFUGE. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A pump made with blades or impellers in a close-fitting case. 914. centrifuge test a test to determine the amount of BS&W in samples of oil or emulsion. 9 917.mzhelu@gmail. is fit for 111 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compressors are nonpositive-displacement machines. The liquid is pushed forward by the impellers as they rotate at high speed. also called the shake-out or grind-out machine. plan or facility complies with the relevant regulations or requirements. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 913. are able to handle large volumes of liquid. The samples are placed in tubes and spun in a centrifuge. Z. which breaks out the BS&W. 918. Certificate of Fitness A certificate issued by a certifying authority stating that a design. A decanting centrifuge located between the rig and mud pits removes the fine particles of rock from the mud by centrifugal action and discharges the clean mud to the working pits. A centrifuge is capable of spinning substances at high speeds to obtain high centrifugal forces.

CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. The higher the cetane number. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. Z. and can be operated safely and without posing a threat to the environment. The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. Temporary cessation usually does not affect the lease.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering purpose. Cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil. reworking operations. premium is .mzhelu@gmail. but a permanent shutdown terminates the ordinary oil and gas lease. 112 Petroleum Engineer: M. plans and facilities and to issue Certificates of Fitness. The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. governmental orders.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil. The higher the cetane number. 919. It may be owing to mechanical breakdown.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture. or depletion of oil or gas. the more easily the fuel is ignited. Certifying Authorities Organizations designated under the Nova Scotia Offshore Certificate of Fitness Regulations to conduct examinations of designs. the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture. CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. premium is 45-50. CESSATION OF PRODUCTION The termination of production from a well. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. 921. 920. 922. the more easily the fuel is ignited.

CHAIN WHEELS Some gate valves are operated from a distance either for safety or convenience.mzhelu@gmail. change house a doghouse in which a drilling rig crew changes clothes. and so forth. chain drive a drive system using a chain and chain gears to transmit power. 926. used for turning pipe or fittings of a diameter larger than that which a pipe wrench would fit. 928. a heavy line constructed of iron bars looped together and used for a mooring line. used in drilling reports. A double roller chain is made of two connected rows of links. CFG cubic feet of gas. a triple roller chain of three. 927. CFM Cubic feet per minute. chain tongs a tool. The chain is tightened around the pipe or . consisting of a handle and a releasable chain. Z. and rollers on the pins. The chain is reeved or passed over a drum or windlass which the operator turns to open or close the valve from a distance. which is then turned by means of the handle.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 923. Power transmissions use a roller chain. 113 Petroleum Engineer: M. transverse pins. 925. 929. chain in offshore drilling. Such valves have a gate wheel made to accept a chain in the wheel's outer circumference. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in which each link is made of side bars. 924.

the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. cement channeling. 933. 935. or damage the bit if it is near the bottom. channeling 1. . The natural tendency toward channeling is aggravated by excessive production rates. causing lost circulation. chase threads to clean and deburr the threads of a pipe so that it will make up properly. 932. When the size of a drill pipe is changed. the bypassing of oil in a water-drive field due to erratic or uncontrolled water encroachment. 2. 114 Petroleum Engineer: M. However. 936. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size. CHARGING STOCK Oil that is to be "charged" or treated in a particular refinery unit. the pressure surge may break down a formation. A surge of pressure in the mud in the drilling stem and annular space results.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 930. the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. and may help to flush out debris accumulated in or on the pipe.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chase pipe to rapidly lower the drill stem a few feet into the hole and then suddenly stop it with the drawworks brake. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size. 934. which encourage premature water encroachment. CHARCOALTEST A test to determine the gasoline content of natural gas. When the size of a drill pipe is changed. Z.

A company may be forced to lease land over a wide area before it has completed geological and geophysical studies. As the shaft rotates at high speed. 940. Chatter in a bearing is caused by an improperly fitted bearing or from excessive wear that permits lateral motion. the absence of "slam" as in other types of check valves. the journal (q. CHECKER B0ARD LEASING The acquisition of mineral rights (oil and gas) in a checkerboard pattern. chatter is caused by the valve disk opening and closing rapidly and repetitively.v.) strikes the bearing surface repetitively and rapidly. structively. CHATTER A noisy indication that a mechanical part is behaving erratically and de. Leases then may be taken on one-quarter section (160 acres) in each section of land.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 938. CHECK VALVE A valve with a free-swinging tongue or clapper that permits fluid in a pipeline to flow in one direction only. back-pressure valve. In the case of a spring-loaded relief valve. with the disc mounted on trunnions instead of a hinge as in more conventional check . striking against the seat sharply many times a second. anything used to lengthen a handle to increase the applied leverage. 939. Z. TILTING DISC A type of check valve. 115 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually for large-diameter pipelines. CHECK VALVE. 941. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. One advantage of the tilting disc is its quiet operation. CHEATER A length of pipe used to increase the leverage of a wrench. 9 943.mzhelu@gmail. check valve a valve that permits flow in one direction only.

the water will drop out. Some chemical treatments are acidizing. CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMP A small-volume. 950. CHEESE BOX An early-day. The chemical is used to break down water/oil emulsions that may be contained in the crude oil stream. and lubricating oil. Chemelectric treater a brand name for an electrostatic' treater. and can be drawn off. When the droplets of water are freed of their film of oil. The pump may be located at the wellhead and be actuated by the motion of the pumping jack.mzhelu@gmail. 945. 948. chemical cutoff a method of severing steel pipe in a well by applying high-pressure jets of very corrosive substance against the wall of the pipe. chemical treatment any of many processes in the oil industry that involve the use of a chemical to effect an operation. 946. settle out of the oil stream. Z. CHEMICAL FEEDER PUMP A small-volume pump used on oil leases to inject chemicals into flow lines. chemical pump an injection pump used to introduce a chemical into a fluid stream or receptacle. crude-oil 116 Petroleum Engineer: M. 947.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 944. gas oil. Chemicals are injected into oil streams to reduce any emulsified oil to free oil and water. a still to heat crude oil for distilling the products in those days-kerosene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 949. square. box-like refining . high-pressure pump for injecting chemicals into producing wells or pipelines. The resulting cut is very smooth.

956. Chlorite A commonly occurring clay mineral. 957. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer. 955. 952.mzhelu@gmail. 953.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering demulsification. scale removal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. paraffin removal. 951. footage rates are no longer applicable and daywork rates become effective. and water purification. rocks with high chlorine indications usually contain salt water only. Z. Rocks with low chlorine content are likely to contain gas or oil. chk choke. Chert is very hard and difficult to drill. chlorine survey a special type of radioactivity-logging survey used inside casing to measure the relative amount of chlorine in the formation outside the casing. cleaning and purging operations. CHILLERS Refinery apparatus in which the temperature of paraffin distillates is lowered preparatory to filtering out the solid wax. . corrosion inhibition. drillingfluid control. refinery and plant processes. chert a quartzitic rock with hardness equal to or harder than flint. chert clause a provision in a drilling contract that stipulates that. 117 Petroleum Engineer: M. when chart is encountered in drilling a well. water-flood injection.

118 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Surface chokes are part of the Christmas tree and contain a choke nipple.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 958. 962. 959. 961. (See adjustable choke. a chunk. Chokes are also used to control the rate of flow of the drilling mud out of the hole when the well is closed in with the blowout preventer and a kick is being circulated out of the hole. and positive choke. CHRISTMAS TREE An assembly of valves mounted on the casinghead through which a well is produced. choke an orifice installed in a line to restrict the flow and control the rate of production. bottomhole choke. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. with a small-diameter bore that serves to restrict the flow. choke manifold the arrangement of piping and chokes through which drilling mud is circulated when the blowout preventers are closed to control the pressures encountered during a kick.) 960. and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and . Christmas tree -the control valves. CHOCK A wedge or block to prevent a vehicle or other movable object from shifting position. The Christmas tree also contains valves for testing the well and for shutting it In if necessary. choke line an extension of pipe from the blowout-preventer assembly. used to direct well fluids from the annulus to the choke manifold. pressure gauges. or bean. Z.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the volume "swept out" or evacuated by the pistons of an engine in one working stroke. the power) of an automobile engine. used in drilling reports 968. circ circulated. churning motion of the drill . CIRCLE JACK (CABLE-TOOL RIG)A device used on the floor of a cable-tool rig to make up and break out (tighten and loosen) joints of drilling tools. used to describe the size (and by implication. above the floor.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 963. The jack 119 Petroleum Engineer: M. 967. 966. casing or tubing. CHRISTMAS TREE (MARINE) A subsea production system similar to a conventional land tree except it is assembled complete for remote installation on the sea floor with or without diver assistance. CHURN DRILLING Another name for cable tool drilling because of the up and down. a jacking device operated on a toothed or notched metal. The marine tree is installed from the drilling platform it Is lowered into position on guide cables anchored to foundation legs implanted in the ocean floor. CID Cubic inch displacement. 964. 965. circular track placed around the pipe joint protruding from the borehole. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer. The tree is then latched mechanically or hydraulically to the casing-head by remote control. Z.

the mud may be escaping into some porous formation or a cavity downhole. circulating head an accessory attached to the top of the drill pipe or tubing to form a connection with the mud system to permit circulation of the drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is operated manually with a handle. it is also a rotating head.). C ITY GATE The measuring point at which a gas distributing utility receives gas from a gas transmission company.mzhelu@gmail. In some cases. 973. Z. circulate -to pass from one point throughout a system and back to the starting point. 972. If circulation is "lost. CIRCULATION The round trip made by drilling mud. See Lose . When closer inspection of the formation rock just encountered is desired. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. circulating pressure the pressure generated by the mud pumps and exerted on the drill stem. and is connected to a wrench which tightens the pipe joint as the jack is advanced. 974. 971. CIRCULATE To pump drilling fluid into the borehole through the drill-pipe and back up the annulus between the pipe and the wall of the hole to cease drilling but to maintain circulation for any reason. down through the drill-pipe and up on the outside of the drillpipe. between the pipe and the walls of the borehole. notch by notch. 9 970." the flow out of the well is less than the flow into the well. 120 Petroleum Engineer: M. drilling is halted as circulation is continued to "bring bottoms up" (q.v. Drilling fluid circulates from the suction pit through the drill pipe to the bottom of the well and returns through the annulus.

A drag-line bucket. Cladding of pipe. 977. A wireline clamp holds the end of a wire rope against the main rope. a leakrepair clamp. In the oil patch cladding or "trimming" steel pipe and valves with corrosion-resistant metal alloy is necessary when H2S (hydrogen sulfide) and other corrosive gases must be handled. Like a trap door. as in certain valves. Z. anticorrosion alloys. the "tongue" of a check valve that permits a liquid or gas to I low in one direction only in a pipeline.3 costly than making them of . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to cover one metal with another by bonding the two. or saddle clamp. holds a piece of metal with the same curvature as the pipe over a hole in a line. CLAMPS. RIVER See River Clamps. CLAPPER The internal moving part. valves. 976. CLAMSHELL BUCKET A hinged. CLAMPS. When at rest the clapper is a few degrees off the vertical or. completely horizontal. 979.mzhelu@gmail. effecting a temporary seal. CLADDING Coating of one material with another. 121 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 975. while a polished-rod clamp attaches the top of the polished rod to the bridle of a pumping unit. For example. PIPELINE LINE-UP See Line-up Clamps. clamp a mechanical device used to hold an object in place. and fittings is les. 980. jaw-like digging implement suspended at the end of a cable running down from the boom of an excavating machine. See Sour Service Trim. the cheekvalve clapper works on a hinge attached to the body of the valve. 978.

v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 981. 983. gasoline. CLEAN CARGO Refined products-distillates. especially Fuller's earth. CLAUS PROCESS A process for the conversion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to plain sulfur developed in 1885 by the German chemist Claus. clay. Sandstone is a clastic rock. 982. a substance which tends to adsorb the coloring materials present in oil which passes through it. barges. clastic rocks pl sedimentary rocks composed of fragments of preexisting rocks. kerosene. This condition may be caused by a worn bit.a fine.). used in refining. circulating to clean the hole or by a broken or parted drill-string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CLEAN CIRCULATION The circulation of drilling mud free of rock cuttings from the bottom of the borehole. 9 986. LEAN OIL Crude oil containing less than one percent sediment and water (BS&W) pipeline oil oil clean enough to be accepted by a pipeline for transmission.mzhelu@gmail. CLAY PERCOLATER Refinery filtering equipment employing a type of clay to remove impurities or to change the color of lubricating oils. Z. . jet fuel-carried by tankers. resulting primarily from the decomposition of feldspathic rocks. 984. 988. crystalline material of hydrous silicates. CLAY The filtering medium. 122 Petroleum Engineer: M. and tank cars all refined products except bunker fuels and residuals (q.

used as a connecting link for a chain or cable. clean out to remove sand. . 993. 996.mzhelu@gmail. 994. Usually a plate near ground level is removed from the side of the tank to make the door. 123 Petroleum Engineer: M. rocks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 989. clearance volume the amount of space between the traveling and standing valves in a suckerrod pump when the pump is at the bottom of its stroke. 990. cleanout tools pi the tools or instruments such as bailers and swabs used to clean out an oil well. CLEVIS A U-shaped metal link or shackle with the ends of the U drilled to hold a pin or bolt. 992. clear to remove brush. scale. and other obstructions from an area. The opening is closed with a sheet of metal (a door) bolted in place. CLEAN-OUT BOX A square or rectangular opening on the side of a tank or other vessel through which the sediment that has accumulated can be removed. to clean the borehole of cuttings. and other deposits from the producing section of the well to restore or increase production. cleanout door an opening made to permit removal of sediments from the bottom of a tank. Z. trees. CLEAN-UP TRIP Running the drillpipe into the hole for circulation of mud only. 995. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 998. to temporarily shut in a well that is capable of producing oil or gas. a television installation in which the signal is transmitted by wire to a limited number of receivers. 2. 1 1002. to close the blowout preventers on a well to control a kick. a life-support system in which the gas is recycled continually while the carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added periodically. that is shut in (q. clingage the amount of oil that adheres to the wall of a measuring or prover tank after draining. CLOSEDIN closing ratio Refers to a . 1004. capable of producing. close nipple closed circuit a very short piece of pipe threaded its entire length. Clinton flake a finely shredded cellophane used as a lost-circulation material for cement. 1003. 1000.v. 2. close in 1. closed-in pressure closed system (See formation pressure. 1005. 1006.mzhelu@gmail.). 999. 124 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1. 1007.) a water-handling system that air is not allowed to enter to prevent corrosion or scale (such as a saltwater-disposal system). the ratio between the pressure in the hole and the operating-piston pressure needed to close the rams of a blowout preventer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.

1016. clutch a device that allows power to be engaged to and disengaged from a member being driven by a prime mover. 125 Petroleum Engineer: M. or dome. 1015. El-Helu E-Mail: .mzhelu@gmail. 1011. square centimeter. CLOUD POINT The temperature at which paraffin wax begins to crystallize or separate from the solution. Z. cubic centimeter carboxymethyl cellulose. an indication of the amount of producing formation that may be expected. and the bottom. 1013. centimeter. imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil as it is chilled under prescribed conditions. closure the vertical distance between the top of an anticline. C02 is used in conjunction with water-flooding. to engage or disengage a clutch. A secondary recovery technique in which carbon dioxide is injected into service wells in a field as part of a miscible recovery program. 1014. The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. cm cm2 Cm3 CMC CNSOPB CO2 INJECTION 1012.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1008. 1010. 1009.

COALGAS Also referred to as town gas.) A process for producing "natural gas" from coal. Coal is heated and brought in contact with steam. An artificial gas produced by pyrolysis (heating in the absence of air) of coal. illuminating and heating o'J'6btdined from the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. Machines that ride the pipe coat and wrap in one continuous operation. more than twice the thermal value. 1022. COATING & WRAPPING. COAL-SEAM GAS Methane found in certain coal fields in higher concentrations than is common. A field operation in preparing a pipeline to be put in the ditch Covered in). natural gas. Z. Coating and wrapping protects the pipeline from corrosion. 1020. COAL OIL Kerosene made from distilling crude oil in early-day pot stills.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1017. 'th a tar-like substance and then spiral-wrapped with chemically impregnated paper. coagulation COAL GASIFICATION (See flocculation. El-Helu E-Mail: . holes are drilled along the seams to permit the methane to escape and be brought to the surface. Hydrogen atoms in the vapor combine with coal's carbon atoms to produce a hydrocarbon product similar natural gas. on average.030 BTU per cubic foot. 1019. the coal is burned in situ and the resulting gases are collected and piped away 91 1021. In some coal operations in areas where the beds are tilted up 30 to 45' from horizontal.mzhelu@gmail. In other till-bed tiers. 1018. Coal gas has a BTU content of 450 per cubic foot. has 1. For 126 Petroleum Engineer: M.

). 1029. cylindrical vessels which receive their charge of residue at very high temperature (10002F.mzhelu@gmail. Z. COKE. . In more complex installations. The manufacture of needle coke requires special feeds to 127 Petroleum Engineer: M. In a large refinery that makes a lot of coke. COGENERATION PLANT A coal or gas-fired plant generates both process (commercial) steam and electricity for in-plant use or for sale. NEEDLE A form of petroleum coke that gets its name from its microscopic elongated crystalline structure-Needle coke is of a higher quality than the more ordinary sponge coke (q. 1024.). a tube bundle is used instead of a coil. 1026. the force that holds the molecules of a substance together). 1023. COKE DRUMS Large vertical.v. the drums are in batteries of tour to eight drums. Any cracked lighter products rise to the top of the drum and are drawn off. cohesion the attractive force between the same kinds of molecules (i. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. coil an accessory of tubing or pipe for installation in condensers or heat exchangers. COIL CAR (OR TRUCK) A tank car or transport truck equipped with heating coils in order to handle viscous liquids that will not flow at ordinary temperatures 1 1028.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering large pipeline construction jobs the pipe may be coated and wrapped the mill or in yards set up at central points along the right of way. a solid coal-like substance . because it is still very hot. The remaining heavier product remains and. cracks or is converted to petroleum coke.e..

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the hard. 1032. 1035. Severe conditions in refining parlance usually means higher temperatures and pressures in a process 1030. See Needle Coke. (2) The undesirable building up of carbon deposits on refinery vessels. temporary closure in the event a loaded pipeline is accidentally ruptured.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the coker and more severe operating conditions. With the carbon or coke is formed and settles to the bottom of the still.mzhelu@gmail. COKE. COLD PINCH To flatten the end of a pipe with a hydraulically powered set of pinchers. The weak physical structure of sponge coke makes it until. 1033. hence the name. The clamp is effective in stopping small leaks but is used only as a temporary measure until permanent repairs can be . Z. Sponge coke is used for electrodes and anodes. 1031. product to dry residue. SPONGE Petroleum coke that looks like a sponge. 1034. black substance remaining after oils and tars have been driven off by distillation. Pinching the pipe end is done to make a quick. COKE. COKING (1) The process of distilling a petroleum. 128 Petroleum Engineer: M. a pipe fitting with threads on the inside for joining two pieces of threaded pipe of the same size. COLLAR CLAMP A device fitted with rubber gaskets bolted around a leaking pipe collar. for use in blast furnaces and foundry work. COLLAR A coupling for two lengths of pipe. PETROLEUM Solid or fixed-carbon that remains in refining processes after distillation of all volatile hydrocarbons.

involving particles so minute they are not visible through optical microscopes. It keeps the main hull watertight if a collision occurs. It provides an accurate way to measure depth in a well.v. COLLAR POUNDER OR PECKER A pipeline worker who beats time with a hammer on the coupling into which a joint of pipe is being screwed by a tong gang.) to the blowout preventer stack. operated mechanically or magnetically to produce a log showing the location of each casing collar or coupling in a well. 1038. boxlike or tubular in shape. The purpose is twofold. Z. colloidal pertaining to a colloid. 1039. 1040. 1041. .mzhelu@gmail. collar locator a logging device for depth-correlation purposes. to keep the tong men pulling in unison and to warm up the collar so that a tighter screw joint can be made.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1036. collision bulkhead the foremost bulkhead that extends from the bottom to the freeboard deck of a drill ship. COLLET CONNECTOR A component of a subsea drilling system. Bentonite is an example of a colloidal clay. a mechanically or hydraulically operated latching collar connecting the marine riser (q. 1042. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. semisubmersible drilling rig a semisubmersible drilling rig that has a large lower hull. with several watertight columns extending to an upper deck on which the drilling machinery is located. column-stabilized. Such a rig can drill with the lower hull 129 Petroleum Engineer: M. colloid a liquid mixture or suspension in which the particles of suspended liquid or solid are very fine but not molecular in size.

gas-cap drive. 130 Petroleum Engineer: . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1043. whereas high collapse resistance and internal yield strength are needed for the bottom joints. In deep wells. Z. combination rig a light rig that has the essential elements of both rotary and cabletool drilling. In the middle of the casing. internal yield strength. The most suitable combination of types and weights of pipe helps to insure efficient production at a minimum cost. designed for various depths in a specific well to best withstand the conditions of that well. COME-ALOI A lever and lengths of chain with hooks attached to the ends of the chains. Usually the distance between the lower hull and upper deck is Fixed. 1045. combination trap a subsurface hydrocarbon trap that has the features of both a structural trap and a stratigraphic trap. high tensile strength is required in the top casing joints to carry the load. used for tightening or pulling a chain. average qualities are usually sufficient. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. provided by a gas cap above and the water below the oil in the reservoir. 1046. and tensile strength. It is sometimes used for reconditioning wells. combination drive the natural energy that forces fluids from a reservoir and into a wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering resting on bottom or submerged below the water and floating. and water drive.mzhelu@gmail. 1047. The hooks are alternately moved forward on the chain being tightened. combination string a casing string that has joints of various collapse resistance.) 1044.

to become profitable. to kick. 1049. Commingled Production Production of petroleum from more than one pool through a common wellbore or flowline without separate measurement of the petroleum. oil and gas production of sufficient quantity to justify keeping a well in 1054. 1055. change from a core barrel to the .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1048. day well in a readily accessible location on shore could be a commercial well whereas such a well in the North Sea or in the Arctic Islands would not be considered commercial. 1 1053. 131 Petroleum Engineer: M. run electric logs. 1 1057. come to see you commercial production (slang) to blow out. come-along come in come out of the hole a manually operated device used to tighten guy wires or move heavy loads. run casing. 1050. A well of sufficient net production that it could be expected to pay out in a reasonable time and yield a profit for the operator.mzhelu@gmail. This withdrawal is necessary to change the bit. 50-barrel-a. A well will "come to see you" if it blows out. Z. A shallow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. prepare for a drill-stem test. and so on. production. commercial quantity COMMERCIAL WELL an amount of oil and gas large enough to justify the expense of producing it. to produce. to pull the drill stem out of the wellbore. 1051.

COMMINGLING (1)The intentional mixing of petroleum products having similar specifications. 1061. and feed lines run from it to each fuel injector. A community lease may result from the execution of a single lease by the 132 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1058. Very often the two or more pay zones have different royalty interests. usually for convenient transportation in a pipeline. common rail a fuel-injection system on a diesel engine in which one line. 1 1060. common carrier any cargo transportation system available for public use. produced separately. each through its own tubing and into separate tank age on the lease. common cement a regular Portland cement classified either as API Class A or ASTM Type 1 1 1063. cement. In effect the single well with two pay zones is treated as two separate wells. refined products-as a public utility and common carrier. (2) Producing two pay zones in the same wellbore. Nearly all pipelines are common carriers. COMMON CARRIER A person or company having state or Federal authority to perform public transportation for hire. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. COMMUNITY LEASE A single lease covering two or more separately owned parcels of land. When this is true the zones. Z. holds fuel at a certain pressure. See Dual Completion. gas. an Organization engaged in the movement of petroleum products-oil. In some instances products of like specifications are commingled in a product pipeline for efficient and convenient handling.mzhelu@gmail. . or rail. commingling the mixing together of crude oil products with similar properties.

To finish a well so that it is ready to produce oil or gas. tubing is run. interests owned in the entre leased acreage. 1065. The two halves are held together by nuts and bolts. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Usually the result of the execution of community lease is the apportionment of royalties in proportion to the. This type flange or "union" is used on small-diameter piping. and the 133 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. the other concave. comp COMPANION FLANGE completed or completion. 1070.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering owners of separate tracts or by the execution of separate but identical leases by the owners of separate tracts when each lease purports the entire consolidated acreage. 1067. compartment COMPLETE A WELL a subdivision of space on a floating offshore drilling rig. . depth. Well completions vary according to the kind of well. used in drilling reports. and contact and flow valves are installed at the wellhead. After reaching total depth (TD) casing is run and cemented casing is perforated opposite the producing zone. company man an employee of the operator of a well. 1066. 1 1072. A two-part connector or coupling one part convex. commutator a ring consisting of a number of insulated-copper segments located on the rotating shaft of a generator or motor and used to reverse the direction of an electric current. 1 1069. usually a drilling engineer employed by the oil company engaged in the drilling.

and other machinery on a drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail. 1077. composite sample a sample of a substance that is a mixture or solution of several other substances. In a crude oil storage tank. 1075. Z. It is composed of clutches. Completion completion fluid The activities necessary to prepare a well for the production of oil or gas. and a number of shafts. (See well completion. composite stream a flow of oil and gas in one stream. 1078. 1074. 134 Petroleum Engineer: . both driven and driving. 1076. belts and pulleys. two or more different liquid hydrocarbons in one stream. but also for its properties that minimize formation damage. complete a well to finish work on a well and put it on productive status. drawworks.) 1073. compound the mechanism used to transmit power from the engines to the pump. a special drilling mud used when a well is being completed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formation from which it is to produce. It is selected not only for its ability to control formation pressure. a composite sample is taken at the top and bottom and in the middle. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chains and sprockets. COMPRESSION CUP A grease cup a container for grease made either with a screw cap or springloaded cap for forcing the grease onto a shaft bearing. to connect two or more power-producing devices such as engines to run one piece of driven equipment such as the drawworks.

High compression engines are generally more efficient in fuel utilization than those with lower compression ratios. . See Hot-plug Engine. compression ratio the ratio of the volume of an engine cylinder before compression to its post-compression volume.v. About a I-Ib rise in pressure causes a 2 F increase in temperature. 1081. compressor a device that raises the pressure of a compressible fluid such as air or gas. the compression ratio is 101. Compressors create a pressure differential to move or compress a vapor or a 135 Petroleum Engineer: M. if a cylinder volume of 1 0 in. COMPRESSION RATIO The ratio of the volume of an engine's cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke to the volume at the end or the top of the stroke.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1079. compression ignition (Cl) an ignition method used in diesel engines by which the air in the cylinder is compressed to such a degree by the piston that ignition occurs upon the injection of fuel. For example.'.mzhelu@gmail. 1080. compressive strength the degree of resistance of a material to a force acting along one of its axes in a manner tending to collapse it. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.' is compressed into 1 in. COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE A diesel engine (q. usually expressed in pounds of force per square inch (psi) of surface affected.) a four-cycle engine whose fuel charge is ignited by the heat of compression as the engine's piston comes up on the compression stroke. A cylinder of 10 cubic inch volume at the beginning of the compression stroke and one cubic inch at the top of the stroke indicates a 101 compression ratio. 1082.

000 to 1. AXIAL A gas compressor that takes in gas at the inlet and moves '. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. This is accomplished by the action of a central impeller shaft studded with hundreds of short. On large interstate gas transmission lines repressuring stations are located every 100 miles.) 1 1085. to boost the gas along to its destination. SKID-MOUNTED A "portable" gas compressor and engine module for use in repressuring (q. 11088. The impeller and its paddle-like blades rotate at speeds of 3. fixed .000 rpm.) or to inject gas into a high-pressure gas trunk line.000 cubic feet per minute. COMPRESSOR PLANT A pipeline installation to pump natural gas under pressure from one location to another through a pipeline. more or less. consuming power in the process. COMPRESSOR. (See centrifugal compressor and reciprocating compressor. 1089. They may be positive-displacement compressors-having a check valve to separate high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction-or nonpositive-displacement.500 pounds pressure to begin the next leg of its journey to the consumers' gas stoves and furnaces. The gas stream arrives at a compressor station at a few hundred pounds per square inch and is discharged from the station's multistage compressors at 1. Large compressors move up to 300. depending on terrain and other factors. computer a machine capable of processing information or providing data by automatically following preprogrammed directions 136 Petroleum Engineer: M.he charge axially over the compressor's long axis to the discharge port. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gas. COMPRESSOR.mzhelu@gmail.6. 1086.

1096. condensate reservoir a reservoir in ' which both condensate and gas exist in one homogeneous phase. 1097. 1094. as well as by certain other agencies and utility companies having power of eminent domain (q. Condensate The liquid resulting when a vapour is subjected to cooling or application of pressure. a liquid phase (condensate) . 1091. LEASE See Lease Condensate. at fair market value. CONDENSATE WATER Water vapor in solution with natural gas in the formation. liquid hydrocarbons condensed from gas and oil wells. 1092. a tract of land granted by a government to an individual or company for exploration and exploitation to recover minerals. 1095. 137 Petroleum Engineer: M. valves. Tcomputer program T concession a set of data fed into a computer to be evaluated or to solve a problem. for public use and benefit by state or federal government. When fluid is drawn from such a reservoir and the pressure decreases below the critical level. computer control a system in which the end devices in the field (switches. alarms. Z. CONDENSATE. When the gas is produced the water vapor condenses into liquid as both pressure and temperature are reduced. gauges.) are controlled by a program placed in a computer. See Retrograde Gas Condensate. etc.). Also.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1090.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CONDEMNATION The taking of land by purchase. 1093.mzhelu@gmail.

com . Sometimes the term applies to water used in boilers. CONDENSATE. 2. 138 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1103. to treat drilling mud with additives to give it certain properties. and shales. CONDENSER condition A water-cooled heat exchanger used for cooling and liquefying vapors. 1100. conductivity 1. the process by which vapors are converted into liquids. To condition and circulate mud is to ensure that additives are distributed evenly throughout a system by circulating the mud while it is being conditioned. and as a conductor of the drilling mud through loose. Compare retrograde condensation. clays. conductor pipe a short string of large-diameter casing used offshore and in marshy locations to keep the top of the wellbore open and to provide a means of conveying the upflowing drilling fluid from the wellbore to the mud pit. in which eddy currents produced by an alternating magnetic field induce in a receiver coil a voltage proportionate to the ability of the formation to conduct electricity. Z. 1104. 1102. and so on. 1099. See Casing. an electricallogging measurement obtained from an induction survey.mzhelu@gmail. the ability to transmit or convey (as heat or electricity). CONDUCTOR CASING A well's surface pipe used to seal off near-surface water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1098. chiefly accomplished by cooling the vapors. drilling operations. 1101. unconsolidated shallow layers of sand. RETROGRADE GAS condensation See Retrograde Gas Condensate. prevent the caving or sloughing of the walls of the hole.

1107.mzhelu@gmail. 1109. an old-style roof for large crude storage tanks. conformable layered in parallel and unbroken rows of rock. cone bit cone-roof tank CONEROOF a roller bit in which the cutters are conical.material that holds sandstone together. used in drilling reports. (See big. indicating no disturbance occurred during deposition of the rock. Z. congl CONGLOMERATE conglomerate. See Step-out Well.. the same type. cone a conical device on which cutting teeth are formed or mounted in a rollercone bat (See big. Conglomerates are a common form of reservoir rock. 139 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 1106.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering .) a tank with a fixed conical roof. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1110. 1112. A type of tank roof built in the form of a flat. CONFIRMATION WELL A well drilled to "prove" the formation or producing zone encountered by an exploratory or wildcat well. but still employed on banks storing less volatile products. inverted cone. Compare unconformity 1111. A type of sedimentary rock compounded of pebbles and rock fragments of various sizes held together by a cementing material. See Floating Roof. 1108.

A typical gang of 8 or 10 men has a welder and a helper. Connection gangs also install manifolds and do pipe work in and around pumping stations. 1115. 1116. a forged-metal shaft that joins the piston of an engine to the crankshaft. and repairs pipelines and field pumping units in their district. a place in electrical circuits where wires join together. 1118.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. coning the encroachment of reservoir water into the oil column and well because of uncontrolled production. 1114.). or interstices. 1117.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1113. and a connection foreman. CONICAL-TOWER PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform made of reinforced concrete for use in Arctic waters where pack ice prevents the use of conventional platform construction. 2. Compare interstitial water. 140 Petroleum Engineer: M. connects stock tanks to gathering lines. The structure is a truncated cone supporting a platform from which the wells are drilled. 1119. A pipeline crew that lays field gathering lines. a gang-truck driver and swamper (helper). the metal shaft that is joined to the bull gear and crosshead of a mud pump. of a formation from the time the formation was created. the boss of a pipeline connection gang (q. Z.mzhelu@gmail. connate water the original water retained in the pore space. 2. connecting rod . a section of pipe or fitting used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to a vessel. connection 1. 3 or 4 pipeliners. CONNECTION FOREMAIM CONNECTION GANG The supervisor.

1125. 1127. are used in the industry. console CONSORTIUM (See driller's console. since oil and gas are . together.. conservation preservation. that becomes mixed with cement slurry during displacement and affects it adversely. contaminant a material. 1124. to explore. usually a mud component.continental shelf a zone adjacent to a continent that extends from the 141 Petroleum Engineer: M.. its ability to deform or its resistance to flow. It is especially important in the petroleum industry. a zone continental margin that separates emergent continents from the deep sea bottom. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. consistency the cohesion of the individual particles of a given material.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1120. e. 1122. such as the trapping of condensable vapors.e.g.mzhelu@gmail. economy. avoidance of waste. 1121. CONSUMER GAS Gas sold by an interstate gas pipeline company to a utility company for resale to consumers. and produce oil. Z. i.) An international business association organized to pursue a common objective. Many conservation practices. drill. contactor a vessel or piece of equipment in which two or more substances are brought 1126. 1123.

A drilling contract covers such factors as the cost of drilling the well (whether by foot or by day). by geologists and geophysicists to depict subsurface conditions or formations. (See gas lift. sometimes called the external phase. 1134. Z.) CONTINENTAL SHELF continuous-flow gas lift continuous phase See Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). CONTOUR MAP A map showing land surface elevations by the use of contour lines (q. the distribution of expenses between operator and contractor. 1128. 1129. oil is the continuous phase.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering low waterline to the point at which the seafloor slopes off steeply to 600 feet deep or more. contract depth 142 the depth of the wellbore at which the drilling contract is fulfilled. In a water-in-oil emulsion. 1132. and type of equipment to be used. . usually written. 1133.).) 1131. contour map a map that has lines marked to indicate points or areas that are the same elevation above or below sea level. Petroleum Engineer: M.listing the terms under which services are to be performed. often used by geologists to depict subsurface features. CONTOUR LINE A line (as on a map) connecting points on a land surface that have the same elevation above or below sea level. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. contract an agreement.v. See lsopachous Map. (See internal phase. the liquid in which solids are suspended or droplets of another liquid are dispersed.mzhelu@gmail.

flowing naturally or capable of being pumped without further processing or dilution. .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1135. conventional gas-lift mandrel cooling tower (See gas-lift mandrel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Compare miniaturized completion. Z. CONTROLPANEL An assembly of indicators and recording instruments-pressure gauges. 143 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1138. control board a panel on which are grouped-various control devices such as switches and levers along with indicating instruments. Conventional Crude Oil Petroleum found in liquid form. control pod CONTROL VALVE. warning lamps. 1140.) A small-diameter valve used in process piping that is opened or closed by a quick-acting solenoid. 1141. 1139. 1136. conventional completion a method for completing a well in which tubing is set inside 4 1/2-inch or larger casing. The air flows counter.mzhelu@gmail.) A structure in which air contact is used to cool a stream of water that has been heated by circulating through a system. 1142.or crosscurrently to the water. ELECTRICALLY OPERATED (See hydraulic control pod. and other digital or audio signals-for monitoring and controlling a system or process.

(See illustration. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1143. lithology. 1145. cordage CORDROAD all of the rope on a ship or offshore drilling rig. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 1147. Core A cylindrical sample taken from a formation for geological analysis. 1146. geological age. CORE BIT A special drill bit for cutting and removing a plug-shaped rock sample from the bottom of the well bore. fluid content. and probable productivity of the formation. a log road. 1149. some are cylindrical. COOLING TOWER A large louvered structure (usually made of wood) over which water flows to cool and aerate it. 1144. p. boggy area by laying logs or heavy timbers side by side to make a bumpy but firm surf ace. open at the bottom and . core analysis laboratory analysis of a core sample to determine porosity. A passable road made through a swampy. angle of dip. Usually a conventional core barrel is substituted for the bit and procures a sample as it penetrates the formation. permeability. Although most cooling towers are square or rectangular in shape. core barrel a tubular device from 25 to 60 feet long run at the bottom of the drill pipe in place of a bit to cut a core sample. which produces strong air currents through the center of the structure for more rapid cooling. 47) 144 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1148.

CORE BOAT core catcher core cutterhead A seagoing vessel for drilling core holes in offshore areas. and fluid content of cores taken from 1155. 145 Petroleum Engineer: M. p. 1152. correlate to relate subsurface information obtained from one well to that of others so that the formations may be charted and their depths and thicknesses noted. the cutting element of the core-barrel assembly. Correlations are made by comparing electrical well logs. 47) 1156. In design it corresponds to one of the three main types of bit. a well. CORE SAMPLE A solid column of rock. 1153. (See illustration. CORE RECORD A record showing the depth.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1150. usually in the bottom of an existing wellbore. and cores from different wells. core drill to drill shallow. small-diameter wells to obtain geological information. 1154. Cores are also taken in geological studies of an area to determine its oil and gas prospects. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. the part of the core barrel that holds the formation sample. A continuous sample of the formation is provided from the top to the final . character. 1151. radioactivity logs. See also sidewall coring. Z. taken from the bottom of a well bore as a sample of an underground formation. usually from two to four Inches in diameter.

in which a galvanic or impressed direct electric current renders a pipeline cathodic. that portion of oil produced which is applied to paying off the cost of the well. 1161. to the recovery of the costs of drilling. COST CRUDE OIL Crude oil produced from an operator's own wells oil produced at "cost" on a lease or concession acreage as compared to purchased crude. The use of chemical inhibitors and closed systems are other examples of corrosion control. corrosion control the measures used to prevent or reduce the effects of corrosion. 1159. See Anode. Z. on offshore wells. Also. steel tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to isolate it from moisture and chemicals and to insulate it from galvanic currents. thus causing it to be a negative element in the circuit. These practices can range from simply painting material. completing. and equipping the production. and other metal structures is caused by a complex electrochemical action. 1158. CORRELATIVE RIGHTS. DOCTRINE OF The inherent right of an owner of oil or gas in a field to his share of the reservoir energy" and his right to be protected from wasteful practices by others in the field. to cathodic protection.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1157. In some production-sharing contracts particularly with governments foreign as well as our own.mzhelu@gmail. in another context. corrosion coupon a metal strip inserted into a system to monitor corrosion rate and to indicate corrosion-inhibitor effectiveness. 40 percent of 146 Petroleum Engineer: . The rusting and pling of pipelines. CORROSION The eating away of metal by chemical action or an electrochemical action. 1160.

The trailer can be made as long as necessary for the load. centipoise coupon cp CPC (See corrosion coupon.) 1167. in piping. 1166. 1163. a metal collar with internal threads used to join two sections of threaded pipe. the coupling pole is a telescoping length of steel .mzhelu@gmail. abbr computerized production control. COUPLING POLE The connecting member between the front and rear axles of a wagon or fourwheel trailer. a connection extending longitudinally between a driving shaft and a driven shaft. (see computer control) 147 Petroleum Engineer: M. Most such couplings are flexible and compensate for minor misalignment of the two shafts. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1165.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the oil produced is cost oil. 2. On pumping units in oil production. the remaining 60 percent is "Profit oil" and is divided. Z. in power transmission. 1164. coupling 1. As the costs are paid off the percent of cost oil is reduced and the percentage of profit oil increases accordingly. counterweights are used to offset the weight of the column or sucker rods and oil on the upstroke of the pum and the weight of the prods on the downstroke. counterbalance weight a weight applied to compensate for existing weight or force. On pipe-carrying oil field trailers. 1162. according to royalty interests. a pin in the pole can be removed and the rear-axle yoke (which is fastened to the pole by the pin) moved back to another hole. To lengthen the frame of the vehicle.

). And more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules..). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CRACKING The refining process of braking down the larger. 1172. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Cracking is accomplished by the application of heat and pressure.v. CRANE BARGE CRANK A derrick barge (q. heavier. and revolving heavy pieces of equipment. 1175.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1168. a machine for raising. 148 Petroleum Engineer: M. . and in certain advanced techniques. especially on offshore rigs and platforms. a rotating shaft to which connecting rods are attached. CRACKING A VALVE crane Opening a valve very slightly.v. CRACK A VALVE To open a valve so slightly as to permit a small amount of fluid or gas to 1169. 1170. 1173. by the use of a catalytic agent. Cracking is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. crankcase crankshaft the housing that encloses the crankshaft of an engine. lowering. An arm attached at right angles to the end of a shaft or axle for transmitting power to or from a connecting rod or pitman (q. 1174. escape. n.

1180. 1181. the driller or head well puller in charge on a well-servicing rig employed to pull sucker rods or tubing. the point at which the physical properties of a liquid and a gas are identical. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. crd crew chief cored. (2) To tail or fall apart (colloquial). 149 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1177. used in drilling reports. Often. 1179. in combination with power impulses. 1182. crg critical point coring. critical speed can cause damaging shock waves.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1176. in terms of temperature and pressure. the speed reached by an engine or rotating system that corresponds to a resonance frequency of the engine or system. the point at which. a fluid cannot be distinguished as being either a gas or a liquid. used in drilling reports. CRATER A bowl-shaped depression around a blowout well caused by the caving in and collapse of the surrounding earth structure. Z.mzhelu@gmail. critical pressure critical speed the pressure needed to condense a vapor at its critical temperature.

critical temperature the highest temperature at which a fluid can exist as a liquid or vapor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1187. Above this temperature the fluid is a gas and. 1188. regardless of the amount of pressure applied. 1184. a step-and-platform unit to provide access to a work platform or an elevated crossing. (See crooked hole. crosshead the block in a mud pump that is guided to move in a straight line and serves as a connection between the pony rod and connecting rod. . crossover joint a length of casing with one thread on the field end and a different thread in the coupling. See Stile.) 1186. used to make a changeover from one thread to another in a string of casing. CROSSOVER A stile. 1189.mzhelu@gmail. crooked hole a wellbore that has deviated from the vertical. 150 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1183. Z. cannot be liquefied. cross thread to screw together two threaded pieces without the threads of the pieces having been aligned properly. crooked-hole country a geographical area in which the subsurface formations are so arranged that it is difficult to drill a hole straight through them. It usually occurs where there is a section of alternating hard and soft strata steeply inclined from the horizontal.

A stationary pulley system located at the top of the derrick used for raising and lowering the string of drilling tools. 1191. It ranges in gravity from 9' to 55' API and in color from yellow to black. it is a sweet crude. and it may have a paraffin. the crown block or top of a derrick or mast. it is called a sour crude.v.v. 1195. CROWN PLATFORM A platform at the very top of the derrick that permits access to the sheaves of the crown block and provides a safe area for work involving the gin pole (q. In 151 Petroleum Engineer: M. or mixed base.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1190.mzhelu@gmail. crude oil unrefined liquid . crown CROWN BLOCK 1. asphalt. Crown-O-Matic a brand name for a special air-relay valve mounted near the crown that. Z. if it has little or no sulfur. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1193. 1192.). when struck by the traveling block. 2. the sheaves and supporting members to which the lines of the traveling block (q. CROWBAN CONNECTION A humorous reference to an assembly of pipe fittings so far out of alignment that a crowbar is required to force them to fit.) and hook are attached. 1196. crow's nest an elevated walkway where employees work (as the top of a derrick or refinery tower). If a crude oil. 1194. contains a sizable amount of sulfur or sulfur compounds. conveys air pressure to the air brakes of the drawworks to prevent the traveling block from striking the crown. or crude. the top of a piston.

and butane. crude oils may be referred to as heavy or light according to API gravity. and soap. a large vessel in which crude oil is heated and various components are taken off by distillation. 1202. bed linen. 1204. 152 Petroleum Engineer: M.. El-Helu E-Mail: .mzhelu@gmail. Sometimes it is convenient and economical to move certain natural gas liquids to refineries by injecting them into crude oil pipelines to be pumped with the crude. Z. See Reduced Crude Oil. CRUMB OUT To shovel out the loose earth in the bottom of a ditch. CRUDE STILL A primary refinery unit. CRUDE OIL. the lighter oils having the higher gravities. VOLATILES-LADEN See Buy-back Crude Oil. 1198. 1200. 1197. cubic. 1201. BUY-BACK CRUDE OIL. cryogenics cu the study of the effects of very low temperatures. REDUCED CRUDE OIL. 1203. a construction camp housekeeper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering addition. 1199. also to square up the floor and side of the ditch in preparation for laying of pipe. natural gasoline. A crude oil stream carrying condensate. CRUMB BOSS A person responsible for cleaning and keeping an oil field bunkhouse supplied with towels.

equal to approximately 1.mzhelu@gmail. CUBES cubic centimeter Short for cubic inch displacement. It is approximately equal to 0. CUPGREASE Originally.3' 1207.). Any square-jawed. 1211. but the measurements are usually expressed in terms of Bcf. 1212. Tcf. adjustable wrench that is of poor quality or worn out. by one foot wide.v. cure to age cement under specified conditions of temperature and pressure. Natural gas is measured in cubic feet. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. by one foot deep. a grease used in compression cups (q.31 yd'.v. CUP Disc with edges turned at right angles to the body used on plungers in certain kinds of pumps discs of durable plastic or other tough. 153 Petroleum Engineer: M. (cm3) a metric measure of volume. CID (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1205. See Knuckle Buster. 1210.) but today the term refers to grease having a calcium fatty-acid soap base. 1209. Cubic Foot A unit of measurement for volume. or Quads. pliable material used on pipeline pigs or scrapers to sweep the line. See Grease. one one-hundredth of a cubic meter. . 1206. It represents a volume one foot long. cubic meter CULTIVATOR WRENCH (M3) a metric measure of volume.061 in. Mcf.

a cushion may be needed to prevent collapse of the pipe. 1215.mzhelu@gmail. but in certain operations it is necessary to run the pipe or tubing nearly empty to maintain less pressure inside the pipe than in the annulus.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1213. See Roll a Tank. oil and water mixed in such a way as to produce an emulsion in which minute droplets of water are encased in a film of . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also called wet oil. 1214. a hand-held burner to which the oxygen and acetylene hoses are attached. cut oil an oil that contains water. One cut point is the temperature at which the product begins to boil or vaporize. 1 1217. 1218. usually in the form of an emulsion. In such case the water. 1219. A piece of oxyacetylene welding and cutting equipment. cut a petroleum fraction. cushion (‫)ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ a column of water or drilling fluid placed inside drill pipe or tubing to prevent it from being crushed by the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the annulus of the wellbore. Z. CUT POINTS The temperatures at which various distilling products are separated out of the charge stock. CUTTING OILS CUTTING TORCH Special oils used to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools. Usually the pipe or tubing is full of fluid. this is the end point. the initial boiling point The other cut point is the temperature at which the product is completely vaporized. although heavier. In such cases. cannot separate and settle to the bottom of a tank until the mixture is heated or treated with a chemical. CUT OIL Crude oil partially emulsified with water. The gases when 154 Petroleum Engineer: M.

) 1221. where it heats the hydrocarbons. also called RDX. 1220. 155 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1224.(See Sample. intense flame that "cuts" metal by melting it. strips out the gas liquids. high-explosive material (cyclo-trimethylene-trinitramine) used as the main charge in jet perforating guns. CUTTINGS Chips and small fragments of rock as the result of drilling that are brought to the surface by the flow of the drilling mud as it is circulated. Steam is injected in preset cycles into the reservoir. cyclic steam injection a method of producing heavy viscous hydrocarbons. (See jet-perforate. making them less viscous and able to flow into the wellbore. cylinder the unit of an internal-combustion engine in which combustion and compression take . cyclonite a powerful. See Welding Torch. and returns the dry gas to the producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ignited by the welder's lighter produce a small.mzhelu@gmail. Cuttings are important to the geologist who examines them for information concerning the type of rock being drifted. 1223. 1222. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 1225. CYCLING (OF GAS) Return to a gas reservoir of gas remaining after extraction of liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of maintaining pressure in the reservoir. and thus increasing the ultimate recovery of liquids from the reservoir. CYCLING PLANT An oil field installation that processes natural gas from a field.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. replaceable sleeve that fits into a cylinder. cylinder liner a removable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1226. . 156 Petroleum Engineer: M. it can be replaced without the block having to be replaced. CYLINDER STOCK A class of highly viscous oils so called because originally their main use was in preparation of products to be used for steam cylinder lubrication. CYLINDER. 1227.OIL Oils used to lubricate the cylinders ad valves of steam engines. When the sliding of the piston and rings wears out the liner.

Such an offshore platform is a large structure with room to drill and complete a number of wells. 1231. The production from single-well platforms is usually piped. D'Arcy's Law states that the velocity of a homogenous fluid in a porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid's viscosity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1229. Z. Daily drilling report a record made each day of the operations on a working drilling rig. the movement of other fluids including miscible fluids in consolidated rocks and other porous substances. When many wells are producing from a single platform. (See driller's report. the oil can be treated (put through oil-water separators). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. formulated a law which boars his name. as many as 60 have been drilled from a large platform by the use of directional drilling techniques. D&A DARCY'S LAW dry and abandoned. measured and pumped ashore. to a production platform for treatment and pumping . in 1856. During experimental studies on the flow of water through consolidated sand filter beds.) 157 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. as though the platform were simply a land lease. See Directional Drilling. 1 1233. 1230. D & P PLATFORM A drilling and production platform. This law has been extended to describe. with certain limitations. Henry D'Arcy. along with other wells on the offshore lease.

mzhelu@gmail. DC direct current. a part of the drill assembly. or other activities that delay actual drilling). 1235. darcy a unit of measure of permeability. 1238. used in drilling reports. DAY-WORK BASIS Refers to a drilling contract in which the work of drilling and completing a well is paid for by the days required for the job instead of by the feet drilled. 1236. 1239. A porous medium has a permeability of 1 darcy when a pressure of 1 atmosphere on a sample 1 cm long and 1 cm' in cross-section will force a liquid of 1-cp viscosity through the sample at the rate of 1 cm' per second. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1234. Damping subs are of the same diameter as the drill pipe into which they are screwed to form a part of the drill string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. that acts to dampen bit vibration and impact loads during drill . logging. See also Turnkey Contract. 158 Petroleum Engineer: M. DAMPING SUB Essentially. drill collar. day tour (pronounced "day tower") a period of 8 to 12 daylight hours worked by a drilling or workover crew when equipment is being run around the clock. The compensation for use of the rig at daywork rates is usually included in the drilling contract. a 6 to 8foot-long device. daywork rates the basis for payment on drilling contracts when footage rates are suspended (as when the drilling rig is used in taking extra cores. The permeability of reservoir rocks is usually so low that it is measured in millidarcy units. 1237. a downhole "shock absorber" for a string of drilling tools.

When stringing up the drilling line. 1242. The traveling block is then hoisted into the derrick. so called because it does not . See Fast Line. deadman a buried anchor to which guy wires are tied to steady the derrick. one might say. The anchored end of the drilling line that comes down from the crown block through a fixed sheave at ground level. the anchored fine. Compare fast line.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1240. the big traveling block is set on the rig floor and the free end of the line is threaded over the crown block and through the traveling block a sufficient number of times to lift the anticipated load with a good margin of safety.mzhelu@gmail. The free end is then attached to the draw works drum which is rotated until one layer of the line is spooled on. and in order to produce must be put on the pump. called a dead-!line anchor. The other end of the threaded or reeved line is the dead line or. 1241. the drilling line from the crown-block sheave to the anchor. mast. 1243. 159 Petroleum Engineer: M. stacks. 1245. and so on. Electric. 1244. DC-DC RIG DEAD LINE See Drill Rig. 1246. securely fastened to the mast or derrick substructure. DEAD OIL DEAD WELL deadline Crude oil containing no dissolved gas when it is produced. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and onto a storage drum. A well that will not flow. deadline tie-down anchor a device to which the deadline is attached.

braces. 1249. A pulley or sheave mounted in a steel frame which is securely fixed to the metal deck of a ship or barge. 1250. deadwood in an oil storage tank. DECANTING CENTRIFUGE deck DECKBLOCK See Centrifuge. the operation will automatically come to a halt. the ladders. When pressure is relaxed owing to some emergency. deep drilling 160 Petroleum Engineer: M. Their total volume is deducted from the tank volume when it is being strapped or calibrated. Deck blocks which lie horizontal to the vessel's deck are for horizontal pulls with hawser or cable. DEADMAN CONTROL A device for shutting down an operation should the attendant become incapacitated. 1248. The attendant using such a device must consciously exert pressure on a hold-down handle or lever to work the job. 1254. 1253. and other internal fixtures that reduce the oil capacity of a tank. piping. 1251. 1252. (nautical) floor.mzhelu@gmail. Decanting. deadweight ton (dwt) a unit of capacity of tank ships equal to the difference in tons between the ship's displacement when unloaded and when loaded. decontaminants materials added to cements or cement slurries to counteract the effects of contamination. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

defloccutation the dispersion of solids that have stuck together in drilling fluid. to increase the depth of a well. Z.000-foot) wells. Deep . in addition to extrastrong structural members. deepwater drilling offshore drilling operations in relatively deep oceans or seas.) 161 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. deep-well pump deepen a production pump designed for service in a deep well.000 to 30. 1255. 1. 1261. deflection a change in the angle of a wellbore.600. 1260. 1257. 1259. have massive substructures 25 to 35 feet high to accommodate the large and tall blowout preventer stacks flanged to the wellhead. usually by means of chemical thinners. It presents a number of special problems related to water depth. it is measured in degrees from the vertical.000 pounds.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering any drilling project that is deeper than average for a given area or period in time. Hook loads on deep rigs often exceed 800 tons. In directional drilling. (See flocculation. 1258. 1256. DEEP RIG A specially designed drifting derrick built to withstand the extreme hook loads of ultra-deep (20. DEFICIENCY GAS The difference between a quantity of gas a purchaser is obligated by contract either to take or pay for if not taken and the amount actually taken. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Deepening is generally a workover operation carried out to produce from a deeper formation or to control excessive gas found in the upper levels of a reservoir.

162 Petroleum Engineer: M. Several kinds of equipment get the gas out. the mud is degassed at the surface. Another method sprays the mud against a baffle in a spray tank which squeezes out the gas. DEGASSING DRILLING MUD An important part of well drilling operations is keep the drilling mud free of entrained gas. One method flows the mud over wide sheets so the slurry is no more than one-eighth to three eighths thick so the bubbles may come to the surface and escape. buobles that enter the mud as it circulates downhole through gaseous formations. Z. When mud of a certain density is circulated.mzhelu@gmail. equivalent to the difference between a 65 F base and a daily mean temperature (when the latter is less than 65 F). 1265. degree-day a unit of temperature and time.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1262. To guard against this dangerous situation occurring. under reduced atmospheric pressure. The total of degree-days for a given period of time can be used to estimate energy requirements such as the amount of fuel oil needed to heat a building. especially from 1264. A third method directs the mud through a vacuum tank where. 1263. defoamer degasser any chemical that prevents or lessens frothing or foaming in another agent. but all have one aim in commo to make it possible for the gas bubbles to free themselves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. One of the three functions of mud is to provide sufficient hydrostatic head to control a kick when high-pressure oil or gas is encountered. it can become infused with gas to an extent that although the volume of mud may increase the density is severely reduced. the bubbles of gas expand and break out of the slurry. the equipment used to remove unwanted gas from a . computed per day. drilling fluid.

API) a unit of measurement of the American Petroleum Institute that indicates the weight. Z. dehydrate to remove water from a substance. and tetraethylene. Dehydration is accomplished by contact of the wet gas with pure or "lean" glycol . Gas is led In to the bottom of a trayed or packed column in the presence of the glycol solution. Gas must be extremely dry to meet pipeline specifications. the lean glycol absorbs the entrained water. degrees API (. and dry gas is taken off at the top of the lower. The water vapor in natural gas must be removed to meet pipeline requirements. usually made annually in lieu of drilling to keep a lease valid. As the gas percolates upward through the solution. the boundaries of the productive formation.he use of various glycols diethylene. of oil. triethylene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Well drilled after a discovery well to determine the areal extent of a reservoir. Wells drilled outward from a successful wildcat well to determine the extent of the oil find. a typical maximum allowable water-vapor content is 7 LB per Mk.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1266.mzhelu@gmail. See Development Wells. it may not contain more than 7 pounds of water per million standard cubic feet. A common method of gas dehydration is through . or gravity. NATURAL GAS A tank or tower through which gas is run to remove entrained water. 1270.) 1 1268. 1272. 163 Petroleum Engineer: M. DEHYDRATOR. delay rental Delineation Well DELINEATION WELLS a payment. Dehydration of crude oil is normally accomplished by emulsion treating with emulsion breakers. (See API gravity. 1269. 1271.

1275.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1273. the density of a drilling mud may be 10 ppg. demulsity to resolve an emulsion.) the weight of a substance per unit of volume. 1276. held against the 164 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1274. DEMURRAGE The charge incurred by the shipper for detaining a .) A chemical used to "break dowi" crude oil/water emulsions. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1278. density log a special radioactivity log for open-hole surveying that responds to variations in the specific gravity of formations. It is a contact log (i.2 kg/liter. freight car. Thus freed. deliveryman a shipper's representative who takes delivery of oil from a pipeline company at a terminal or junction. 74. Z. For instance.mzhelu@gmail.) 1277. demethanizer DEMULSIFIER (See rich-oil demethanizer. Densilog density (See density log. Specific gravity or API gravity is also a measure of density. or 1.e. especially of water and oil. 1280. into its components.. The chemical reduces the surface tension of the film of oil surrounding the droplets of water. (See emulsion treating. or truck. the water settles to the bottom of the tank. High loading rates for oil tankers are of utmost importance in order to speed turnaround and minimize demurrage charges.8 lb/ftl. 1279.

v. DEPLETION ALLOWANCE DEPOSIT depositional environment See Percentage Depletion. The density log is an excellent porosity-measuring device. deplete to exhaust a supply. aeolian (wind-borne). 1282. deltaic (borne by a river at its delta). 1285. The tanks or tubs holds total of 90 barrels. DENSMORE. 165 Petroleum Engineer: . Formation Density Log. In 1865 he mounted two "iron banded" wooden tanks on a railway flatcar. AMOS The man who first devised a method of shipping crude oil by rail. 1281.). and Densilog. Densmore's innovation was the forerunner of the "unit train" for hauling oil and products. 1283. and interdeltaic (between river deltas). An accumulation of oil or gas capable of being produced commercially.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wall of the hole). Z. 1284. It emits neutrons and then measures the secondary gamma radiation that is scattered back to the detector in the instrument. Depositional environments are divided into five groups marine (ocean-borne). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the conditions under which a series of rock strata were laid down. Tank Train (q. alluvial (river-borne). Some trade names for it are Gamma-Gamma Density Log. especially for shaly sands.mzhelu@gmail. An oil and gas reservoir is depleted when most or all recoverable hydrocarbons have been produced. and the latest development.

natural gas. derrick 166 Petroleum Engineer: M. Depositional Facies A three dimensional body of rock that is differentiated from others by its unique physical attributes such as rock type(s).) a device used to measure the depth of a well or depth at a specific point in a well (as to the top of a 1'ner or to a fish) by counting the turns of a calibrated wheel rolling on a wireline as it is lowered into or pulled out of a well. depth in depth out depthometer the depth of the wellbore when a new bit is run in. (See depth out. a liquid hydrocarbon. Total depth is the depth after drilling is finished. By including a charge for depreciation. 1 1288. 2. stipulated in a drilling contract as contract depth. position in the rock layers. depreciation decrease in value of property (as a rig) due to normal wear or the passing of time. is from 1290.) the depth of the wellbore when a bit is pulled out of the hole. bedding structures. on offshore drilling rigs. Z. 1292. 1293. the manner in which it was deposited and the like. 1291. (See depth In. DEPROPANIZER A unit of a processing plant where propane. the distance to which a well is drilled. 1289. 1294. depth . fossils. a contractor can accumulate funds to replace a rig when it is worn out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1286. the distance from the baseline of a rig or ship to the uppermost continuous deck.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

which can be lowered and raised without disassembly. 1297. and tools and equipment for various tender work. used for drilling. the original derrick. the well also could be pumped by pumping jack or by a walking beam. a boat or ship with full-revolving crane. PUMPING In the early days. in effect. shorter derrick called a pumping derrick or pumping rig. DERRICK. 1298. it has largely been replaced by the mart. etc. a helicopter pad. The larger derrick or crane barges are self propelled and are. DERRICK BARGE A type of work boat on which a large crane is mounted for use offshore or other over-water work. DERRICK FLOOR The platform (usually 10 feet or more above the ground) of a derrick on which drilling oprations are carried o rig floor. 167 Petroleum Engineer: M. A crane 1296. usually of bolted construction.mzhelu@gmail. 1295. Well workovers could be done with these rigs. racking tubing or drillpipe as it is pulled from the well and unscrewed by other crow members on the derrick floor. Because the standard derrick must be assembled piece by piece. The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick and provide space to install blowout preventers. DERRICKMAN A member of the drilling crew who works up in derrick on the tubing board. the standard derrick has four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown block.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a large load-bearing structure. casingheads. before the widespread use of portable units for pulling and reconditioning a well. was often replaced by a smaller. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In drilling.

mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. design factor the ratio of the ultimate load a vessel or structure will sustain to the safe permissible load placed on it. to allow for unusual burst. 1301. A desander usually operates on the principle of a fast-moving stream of fluid being put into a whirling motion inside a cone-shaped . in certain product pipelines great effort is made to remove all water vapor before putting the line in service. or collapse stresses. desalt to remove dissolved salt from crude oil. Such safety factors are incorporated into the design of casing. 168 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sometimes fresh water is injected into the crude stream to dissolve salt for removal by electrostatic treaters. 1300. for example. DESICCANT DRYING The use of a drying agent to remove moisture from a stream of air or gas. To accomplish this. Z. 1304. others employ chemical processes to remove the salt. desander a centrifugal device used to remove fine particles of sand from drilling fluid to prevent abrasion of the pumps. desiccant a substance able to remove water from another substance with which it is in contact.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1299. tension. Some plants use electrostatic precipitation. desiccant-dried air or an inert gas is pumped through the line to absorb the moisture that may be Present even in the ambient air in the line. It may be liquid (as triethylene glycol) or solid (as silica gel). 1303. DESALTING PLANT An installation that removes salt water and crystalline salt from crude oil streams. 1302.

The principal function of the group is that of providing informational and educational programs for the enlightenment of its members about the industry they serve. 169 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1305. design water depth 1. lubricating oils containing additives that retard the formation of gums. Desk and Derrick Club an association of women employed in the petroleum and allied industries. 1309. desilter a centrifugal device. Membership ranges from secretaries through managers and directors of companies. 1307. and other harmful engine deposits. similar to a desander. Z. desulfurize DETERGENT OILS to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from oil or gas. 1306. DESILTER . As of January 1979. used to remove very fine particles. or silt. from drilling fluid to keep the amount of solids in the fluid to the lowest possible level. The detergents act to keep all products of oxidation and other foreign matter in suspension which permits it to be removed by the engine's filtering system. the vertical distance from the ocean bottom to the nominal water level plus the height of astronomical and storm tides. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. there are 103 clubs throughout the United States and Canada. .mzhelu@gmail. the deepest water in which an offshore drilling rig can operate. The lower the solids content of the mud is. the faster the rate of penetration. varnishes. 1310.DESANDER A filtering device on a drifting well's mud system that removes harmful abrasive material from the mud stream.

1316.000-foot hole. some considerably farther off than others. 1314. All wells are off the vertical. an exploitation well. 1317. 2. Compare preignition. DETRIUS Fragments of disintegrated rock. See Talus. DEVELOPMENT CLAUSE The drilling and delay-rental clause of a lease also. In drilling a 15. The drilling and bringing into production of wells in addition to the discovery well on a lease.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1311. it is not unusual to have such a deviation that the actual bottom of the hole is 170 Petroleum Engineer: M. an accumulation of material as the result of the wearing away or erosion of . development well 1. 1312. through many types of hard and soft lions. express clauses specifying the number of development wells to be drilled. DEVELOPMENT WELLS DEVIATED HOLE Wells drilled in an area already proved to be productive. for example. Z. 1313. 1315. detonation 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A well bore which is off the vertical either by design or accident. 2. 1318. a well drilled in proven territory in a field to complete a pattern of production. old car or truck. DETROIT IRON DEVELOPMENT A humorous reference to a large. The drilling of development wells may be required by the express or implied covenants of a lease. the knock or ping produced when fuel of too low an octane rating is used in the engine. an explosion.

Every effort is made to drill a straight hole. (pound per square inch absolute) or at sea level. And the technique for digging such a hole is quite advanced. or drift angle is the angle in degrees that shows the variation from the vertical as revealed by a deviation survey. deviation survey an operation made to determine the angle from which a bit has deviated from the vertical during . In addition to more drilling time it would also mean 1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. may have to be dug several hundred to 1. angle of drift. Deviated or crooked holes as they are commonly referred to are more expensive to drill than a straight hole for several reasons. a crooked hole. But there are times when drilling at an angle from the vertical serves a useful purpose. The angle of deviation. See Slant-hole Technique. DEW POINT The temperature at which water vapor condensed Out of at 14.mzhelu@gmail.000 feet. to reach a particular formation at 10.000 feet or so away from the well location. and on someone else's lease. or drift survey. This can be litigious business if the other lease owner gets picky about it. 1319. Z.000 feet more casing and an equal amount of tubing to complete the well. There are two basic deviation survey. on a severe Angle from the vertical. 1320. 1321. the other indicates both the angle and direction of deviation. instruments one reveals the angle of deviation only.000 feet farther. deviation the inclination of the wellbore from the vertical. 1322. For example.7psia. dew-point recorder a device used by gas transmission companies to determine and record continuously the dew point of the gas. 171 Petroleum Engineer: M.

recrystallization. a tong key. diatomaceous earth an earthy deposit made up of the siliceous cell walls of one-celled marine algae called diatoms. die collar a collar or coupling of tool steel. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1323. 1328. 1327. hardened steel piece. The die collar is made up on the drill pipe and lowered into the hole until it contacts the lost pipe. dies are cutters for making threads on a bolt or pipe. Z. diameter the distance across a circle measured through its center. 1326. In the measurement of pipe diameters. threaded internally. an insert for a wrench or set of tongs that bites into the pipe as the toot is closed on the pipe. that is used to retrieve pipe from the well on fishing jobs. 1325. compaction. DF diagenesis derrick floor. Rotation of the die collar on top of the pipe cuts 172 Petroleum Engineer: M. and sometimes replacement) that result in lithification. 1329. the chemical and physical changes that sediments undergo (after deposition. . diamond bit a drilling bit that has a steel body surfaced with industrial diamonds. the inside diameter is that of the interior circle and the outside diameter that of the exterior circle. used as an admixture for cement to produce a lowdensity slurry. the female counterpart of a taper tap.mzhelu@gmail. Also. in the plural. The rotation of the extremely hard diamonds cuts the surface of the rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DIE A replaceable. cementation.

com . as the diesel engine has no spark plugs. or nonconductor. DIESEL FUEL A fuel made of the light gas-oil range of refinery products. diesel-electric power the power supplied to a drilling rig by diesel engines driving electric generators. the fuel is ignited by the heat of compression within the engine's cylinders.mzhelu@gmail. 1330. The dielectric constant of oil is lower than that for water. the values of dielectricity assigned to substances. Combustion takes place within the cylinder above the piston. providing for a firm attachment. while a poor insulator has a low one. A substance that is a good insulator has a high dielectric constant. In a diesel engine air is drawn into the cylinders and compressed to very high pressures. 1 1332. also Cetane Number. and expansion of the combustion products imparts power to the piston. Diesel fuel and furnace oil are virtually the same product. powering drilling rigs. Z. and upon this principle a net-oil computer operates. See Diesel Engine. used widely offshore and gaining popularity onshore. 1334. 1333. The pipe is then retrieved from the hole. dielectric dielectric constant a substance that is an insulator. of electricity. 1335. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a diesel engine internal-combustion engine used extensively for high-compression. Self-ignition is an important property of diesel fuel. 173 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering threads on the outside of the pipe. ignition occurs as fuel is injected into the compressed and heated air.

DIESELING The tendency of some gasoline engines to continue running after the ignition has been shut off. DIESEL. (See differential pressure.) 1339. It is run near the bottom of the casing to automatically admit drilling fluids into the casing as needed so it sinks rather than floats in the well. 1337. or between atmospheric pressure at sea level and at 10.) 174 Petroleum Engineer: M. except it is run on the bottom of the casing and is incorporated into the guide shoe. differential pressure the difference between two fluid pressures.mzhelu@gmail. For example.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1336. the difference between the pressure in a reservoir and in a wellbore drilled in the . for example. RUDOLPH The German mechanical engineer who invented the internal combustion engine that bears his name. 1341. (See differential pressure. differential the difference in quantity or degree between two measurements or units. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. differential fill-up collar a device used in setting casing. 1338. differential fill-up shoe a device similar to a differential fill-up collar. This is often caused by improper fuel or carbon deposits in the combustion chamber hot enough to ignite the gasoline sucked into the engine as it makes a few revolutions after being turned off. the pressure differential across a choke is the variation between the pressure on one side and that on the other. Z.000 ft. 1340.

1348. DIGGER DIGGING TOOLS DILLPIPE One who digs or drills a well. Z. Necessary conditions for differential pressure sticking. are a permeable formation and a pressure differential across a nearly impermeable filter cake and drill stem. 1345. mattocks. 1347. . 1343.mzhelu@gmail. picks.. or wall sticking. a driller. spades. dip dip log (See formation dip.) a survey of a wellbore with a dip meter. Joints of drillpipe are about 30 feet long. thick-walled steel ripe used in rotary drilling to turn the drill bit and to provide a conduit for the drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1342.e. shovels. 1344. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. made to determine the direction-and angle of dip of certain formations exposed to the wellbore. 1349. i. Hand tools used in digging a ditch. differential-pressure sticking a condition in which the drill stem becomes stuck against the wall of the wellbore because part of the drill stem (usually the drill collars) has become embedded in the filter cake. differential-pressure gauge a pressure-measuring device actuated by two or more pressure-sensitive elements that act in opposition to produce an indication of the difference between two pressure sources. 1346. dipmeter survey 175 Petroleum Engineer: M.

cemetery.g. beneath a railroad. directional drilling intentional deviation of a wellbore from the . Controlled directional drilling makes it possible to reach subsurface areas laterally remote from the point where the bit enters the earth. to reach a pay zone beneath land where drilling cannot be done. 1351. See Killer Well. It involves the use of turbodrills. DynaDrills. 1353. e. it is sometimes necessary or advantageous to drill at an angle from the vertical. It also provides information about the geologic structure of the formation. whipstocks. direct connection a straightforward connection that makes the speeds of a prime mover and a driven machine identical.) directional hole a wellbore intentionally drilled at an angle from the vertical. It records data that permit computation of both the amount and direction of formation dip relative to the axis of the hole. a lake. 1350. . Z. drilling. 1352. and to reach the production zone of a burning well to flood the formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See directional 176 Petroleum Engineer: M. Although wellbores are normally drilled vertically. or other deflecting tools. DIRCTIONAL DRILLING The technique of drilling at an angle from the vertical by deflecting the drill 1 wells are drilled for a number of reasons to develop an offshore lease from one drilling platform.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering an oil-well-surveying method that determines the direction and angle of formation dip in relation to the borehole.

or deviation from the vertical.) 1356. DISCOVERY WELL ALLOWABLE An allowable above that of wells in a settled field. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1354. directional operator a practical or trained technician who supervises rig operations relating to directional drilling. 1360. usually employed by a company specializing in this service.mzhelu@gmail. A multi shot survey instrument obtains numerous readings in the hole as the device is pulled out of the well. an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides of it are parallel. A discovery well may also open a new horizon in an established . 1357. DIRTY CARGO disconformity discontinuous phase DISCOVERY WELL Bunker fuel and other block residual oils. (See continuous phase and internal phase) An exploratory well that encounters a new and previously untapped petroleum deposit a successful wildcat well. 177 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some states allow the operators of a discovery well to produce at the maximum efficiency rate (MER) until the costs of the well have been recovered in oil or gas. and direction of the drift. 1358. A single shot directional survey instrument makes a single photograph of a compass reading of the drift direction and the number of degrees the hole is off vertical. 1359. 1355. Z. (See directional drilling. directional survey a logging method that records hole drift.

that is pumped into the well behind the cement to force the cement out of the casing and into the annulus.mzhelu@gmail. 1366. exactly equal to the weight of the body. 1368. with an action similar to that of a piston but one-sided. usually at high pressures.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1361. dispatcher dispersion an employee responsible for scheduling movement of oil through pipelines. displacement plunger a device used to pump liquids. disposal well a well into which salt water is pumped. 1362. usually part of a salwater-disposal 178 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually drilling mud or salt . 1364. displacement rate a measurement of the speed with which a volume of cement slurry or mud is pumped down the hole. displacement the weight of fluid (as water) displaced by a freely floating body such as an offshore drilling rig. system. 1365. displacement meter a meter in which a piston is actuated by the pressure of a measured volume of liquid and the volume swept by the piston is equal to the volume of the liquid recorded. a suspension of extremely fine particles in a liquid (such as colloids in a colloidal solution). Z. displacement fluid in oil-well cementing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1367. the fluid. 1363.

in water.) 1374. diesel fuel. DISTILLATE quid . The force of expanding gas dissolved in the crude oil in the formation that drives the oil to the well bore and up to the surface through the production 1373. 179 Petroleum Engineer: M. dissociation the splitting up of a compound of two or more simple molecules. DISTILLATE FUEL OILS A term denoting products of refinery distillation sometimes referred to middle distillates. atoms. See Condensate. 1372. hydrochloric acid dissociates into hydrogen and chlorine molecules. or ions.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1369. temporary "refinery" (200 to 1. fractionate. 1 1371. usually by heating. DISTILLATION SYSTEM A small. and condensing the vapor back to liquid to purify. For example. usually water-white or pale straw color. home heating oil. or ions. kerosene.) 1376. it is called condensate or natural gasoline. Z. DISSOLVED GAS DISSOLVED-GAS DRIVE Gas contained in solution with the crude oil in the reservoir.mzhelu@gmail. i.000 b/d) set up at a remote drifting site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment. or form new products.. distillation the process of driving off gas or vapor from liquids or solids. (See distillate.e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Solution Gas. and of high API gravity (above 60') recovered from wet gas by a separator that condenses the liquid out of the gas stream. 1375. (Distillate is an older term for the liquid today.

the blowout preventer is closed and the valves of the diverter system open to vent the gas harmlessly to the atmosphere. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1378.usually to bury pipeline. Z. DIVESTITURE Specifically as it relates to the industry.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1377. ditch a trench or channel made in the earth. distribution the apportioning of daily production rates to wells on a lease. to break up. 1380. each to be 180 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.) encountered in relatively shallow offshore wells. 1381. Because there are many wells on a lease. the mud-flow channel from the conductor-pipe outlet is often called a ditch. to fragment an integrated oil company into individual. In shallow wells there is often insufficient overburden pressure around the base of the conductor casing to prevent the gas from a substantial kick from blowing out around the casing. (See mud-return line. cable.mzhelu@gmail. 1382. separate companies. a system used to control well blowouts encountered at relatively shallow depths and to protect floating rigs during blowouts by directing the flow away from the rig. DIVERTER SYSTEM An assembly of nipples and air-actuated valves welded to a well's surface or conductor casing for venting a gas kick (q. etc. On a drilling rig.) 1379. such production is apportioned on the basis of periodic tests rather than on the individual receiving and gauging of oil at each well. DITCHING MACHINE diverter See . When a kick occurs.

181 Petroleum Engineer: . 1387. a device similar to a die collar but with external threads. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. dk dle nipple DMWD DOCTOR SWEET dark. and others having an interest in the production. refining or marketing. 1386." 1388.mzhelu@gmail.). or MWD Downhole measurement while drilling (q. transportation. 1385. DOCTOR TEST A qualitative method of testing light fuel oils for the presence of sulfur compounds and mercaptans. the royalty owners.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering permitted to operate only within a single phase of the oil business exploration. Certain amounts of payment go to the operator of the producing property. 1383. A product that has been so treated is said to be "sweet to the doctor test. substances that are potentially corrosive and impart an objectionable odor to the fuel when burned. production. A term used to describe certain petroleum products that have been treated to remove sulfur compounds and mercaptans that are the sources of unpleasant odors. Z. The purchaser prepares the division order after determining the basis of ownership and then requires that the several owners of the oil being purchased execute the division order before payment for the oil commences.v. 1384. DIVISION ORDER A contract of sale to the buyer of crude oil or gas directing the buyer to pay for the product in the proportions set forth in the contract.

Z. doghouse 1. (See pipe dolly. change house.records. a small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office for the driller or as a storehouse for small objects. 1395. d ol dolly dolo dolomite. . 1393. geologist. DOG ROBBER A loyal aid or underling who does disagreeable or slightly unorthodox (shady)jobs for his boss. 1394. to hang back to drag one's feet. a master of the "midnight requisition" 1392. DOGLEG A deviation in the direction of a ditch or the bore hole of a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1389. any small building used as an office or for storage. 1391. The doghouse serves lunchroom.) dolomite. used in drilling reports. See Key Seat. dormitory. 1396. and others.mzhelu@gmail. 182 Petroleum Engineer: M. and storage room for small supplies and . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DOG FT DOG HOUSE To do less than one's share of work. 2. one-room shelter (usually made of fight tank iron) at a well site for the convenience and protection of the drilling crew. 1390. a sharp bend in a joint of pipe. used in drilling reports.

1400.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1397. 1403. Z. any of the various devices used in searching for petroleum deposits.) had not yet been accepted. tone cleaned. the seismograph used in prospecting for potential oil-bearing geological structures. (See salt dome. 1402. 1401. door sheet a plate at the base of a tank shell or wall that is removed to allow the tank 183 Petroleum Engineer: M. dolomite a type of sedimentary rock similar to limestone but rich in magnesium carbonate.) 1399. 1398. dome-roof tank DOODLE BUG a storage tank with a dome-shaped roof affixed to the shell.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. dome a geologic structure resembling an inverted bowl. A witching device. a short anticline plunging on all sides. a twig or branch of a small tree (poach is favored by some witchers) which when held by an "expert" practitioner as he walks over a plot of land is supposed to bend down locating a favorable place to drill a well. just large enough to accommodate an oil .v. doodlebug (slang) 1. The concept of pooling (q. 1120 of an acre. a popular term for any of the various geophysical prospecting equipment. DOOR MATS Colloquial term used in the early days to describe small tracts. 2. sometimes a reservoir rock for petroleum.

d op e DOPE CHOPPER a lubricant for the threads of oil-field tubular goods. DOPE GANG Workers who clean and apply a coat of enamel primer to a pipeline in preparation for coating with a tar-based anticorrosion material and wrapping with tough paper bandage. (See thribble board and fourble board. also riding the pipe. A machine for removing tar and asphalt coatings from line pipe. A second machine. Z. (Single-action pumps discharge on the for.mzhelu@gmail. coats and wraps the line in one operation. 1405.) 1409. double a length of drill pipe. casing. a machine rides the pipe. The pipe is placed in the chopper where guillotine-like blades cut through the dope but do not damage the pipe. when located at a height in the derrick or mast equal to two lengths of pipe joined together. cleaning it with rotating metal brushes and then on a pimer.) 184 Petroleum Engineer: . DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP A reciprocating pump (plunger pump) with two sets of suction and discharge valves permitting it to pump fluid during the forward and backward movement of each plunger. 1406. 1408. ward stroke and draw in fluid on the return stroke. consisting of two joints screwed together. On large pipeline projects. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1404. or tubing. 1407. double board the derrickman's working platform. Compare thribble and fourble. The chunks of coating fall onto a conveyor belt and are carried away from the job. or monkeyboard.

doughnut DOWN IN THE BIG HOLE DOWNCOMER downhole DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING a ring of wedges or a threaded. (See hoist. The two joints make a stand (q.mzhelu@gmail. consisting of two reels on which wire rope is wound. . tapered ring that supports a string of pipe." fours are "fourbles. The main drum is used for pulling tubing or drill pipe. 1416.) a pipe incorporating twice as many safety design factors as normally used. pertaining to the wellbore. double-drum hoist a device.)of pipe that is set back and racked in the derrick. that provides two hoisting drums in the assembly. 1411.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1410. 1415. 1 1414. A slang expression meaning to shift down into the lowest low gear. TDOUBLING YARD T An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project where line pipe is welded together in two-joint lengths preparatory to being transported to the job and strung along the right of way. A dowhole "real time" data gathering and transmitting system that sends information from the drill bit to the surface by one of several means. joint stands are called "thribbles. the second drum is used for swabbing. The data transmitted by some form of telemetry-hardwire or electronics or hydraulic 185 Petroleum Engineer: M." 1412. Three. 1418. Z.v. DOUBLES Drillpipe and tubing pulled from the well two joints at a time. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A pipe in which the flow of liquid or gas is downward.

downtime the period during which an item of equipment cannot be operated because of ongoing repair or maintenance.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering impulse-includes drilling angle and rate. 1425. 1423. The MWD system is the most advanced yet developed to keep the driller and geologist informed on conditions several thousand feet . used in drilling reports. the vertical distance between the bottom of a vessel floating in water and the 186 Petroleum Engineer: M. refining is downstream from production operations. downhole mud motor DOWNSTREAM a turbodrill or DynaDrill. Z. waterline. DP draft drill pipe. temperature. Refers to facilities or operations performed after those at the point of reference. For example. 1426. 1 1422. and condition of the bit. Bulldozer. 1420. type formation. DOWSING RODS DOZER See Doodle Bug. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1424. a crawler-type tractor equipped with a hydraulically operated blade for excavating and grading. 1419.mzhelu@gmail. marketing is downstream from refining.

is a continuation of the producing acreage and therefore more or less valuable as a source of additional oil or gas. draft marks pl numbers placed on the sides or ends of a floating offshore drilling rig to indicate its . usually offshore. immediately adjacent to a tract with proven production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1427. DRAINAGE TRACT A lease or tract of land. borers. 1432. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1428. DRAINAGE Migration of oil or gas in a reservoir owing to a pressure reduction caused by production from wells drilled into the reservoir. 1430. 1433. 187 Petroleum Engineer: M.) A type of large excavating machine made with a long boom over which a line runs down to a clamshell bucket. The bucket at the end of the fine is swung into position and is then dragged into the material to be moved or dug out.mzhelu@gmail. 1429. an offshore Federal lease contiguous to producing property whose subsurface geologic structure. drag bit DRAG LINE (See bat and fishtail bit. Local drainage is the movement of oil and gas toward the well bore of a producing well. DRAG UP To draw the wages one has coming and quit the job an expression used in the oil fields by pipeline construction workers and temporary or day la. 1431. drainage radius the area of a reservoir in which a single well serves as a point for drainage of reservoir fluids. Z.

cable. power take off. 1436. it was drilled near Titusville. Draw works are located on one side of the derrick floor. well drilled in search of oil. 1438. 1435. in 1859 to a depth of 69 1/2 feet using crude cable-tool equipment. 2. the hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig. and completed in 1859. the difference between static and flowing bottomhole pressures. the distance between the static level and the pumping level of the fluid in the annulus of a pumping well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DRAW WORKS The collective name for the hoisting drum.. clutches. drawworks DRAWING TI IE FIRES Shutting dowry a refinery unit in preparation for a turnaround (q. Some 69 feet deep. drawdown 1. 188 188 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1439. Pa.mzhelu@gmail. The man who drilled the country's first oil well near Titusville. brakes and other machinery used on a drilling rig. Drake well the first U. 1437. DRAINAGE UNIT The maximum area in an oil pool or field that may be drained efficiently by one well so as to produce the maximum amount of recoverable oil or gas in such an area.v. and serve as a power-control center for the hoisting gear and rotary elements of the drill column. Z. shaft. DRAKE COL. It is essentially a large winch that spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the drill stem and bit. EDWIN . Pennsylvania.).S.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1434.

1445. DRERRICK FLOOR dress DRESS-UP CREW Derrick floor. It does not measure the direction of inclination. pumps. 1447. 2. to gauge or measure pipe by means of a mandrel passed through it to ensure the passage of tools.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1440. the area where the driller and his crew work.mzhelu@gmail. etc. plants trees. 1446. off center. The drift mandrel (jack rabbit) is put through each joint of casing and tubing to make certain the inside diameters are sizes specified for the particular job. The dress-up crew smooths the land. This type sleeve connection is used on small-diameter. drift to move slowly out of . 1444. DRIFT MANDREL A device used to check the size of casing and tubing before it is run. 189 Petroleum Engineer: M. and builds fences and gates. low-pressure fines. A right-of-way gang that cleans up after the construction crews have completed their work. or out of register. 1443. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) a device dropped or run down the drill stem on a wireline to just above the bit to measure the inclination of the well off vertical at that point. DRESSER SLEEVE A slip-type collar that connects two lengths of plain-end (threadless) pipe. to sharpen or repair items of equipment (as drilling bits and tool joints). Z. 1441. drift angle drift indicator (See deviation. 1442. grass.

Z. some are fixed. 1 1450. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually to find and remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and gas. (See bit. plugs. 1451. a heavy steel "head" c quipped with various types of cutting or grinding teeth. used in drilling reports. to deflect the wellbore away from an obstruction in the hole. 1455. 1454. 1. or flat places in the pipe by use of a drift mandrel (q. 1453. A hole in the bottom of the drill permits the flow of drilling mud being pumped down through the drillpipe to wash the cuttings to the surface and also cool and lubricate the bit.) Testing casing or tubing for roundness. Pipe must be of proper diameter throughout to be able to run downhole tools such as packers. some turn on bearings. The tool attached to the lower end of the drilipipe.) drill bit DRILL BIT ROTARY 1456. "He drilled around me and got the promotion.connector between drillpipe and 190 Petroleum Engineer: M.) or jack rabbit.v. etc. . drift survey DRIFTING THE PIPE (See deviation survey. drig drill drilling. bends. drill ahead drill around to continue drilling operations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1448. 2. to bore a hole in the earth.mzhelu@gmail. making certain there are no kinks. (slang) to get the better of someone (as. . used between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem to weight the bit in order to improve its performance. Drag. FISH-TAIL DRILL BIT. Now the drill collar is used to concentrate a heavy mass of metal near the lower end of the drill column. The square corners on the collar. A type of old-style drilling tool in which the cutting tooth or teeth were the shape of a fish tail. DIAMOND DRILL BIT.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bit. DRILL BIT.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1464. three-cone roller bit. Square drill collars are used to prevent or minimize the chances of becoming hung up or stuck in a dogleg downhole. and bending stresses. 1465. DRAG See Diamond Drill Bit. DRILL BIT. which is located just above the drill bit in the string. torsion. Z. thick-walled tube. 1461. a non insert bit. DRILL COLLAR. Drilling was accomplished by the tearing and gouging action of the bit. SQUARE A type of drill collar whose cross section is square instead of circular as in a more conventional collar. MILL-TOOTH A drag bit. 1 1460. See Drill Bit. Mill-tooth bits a re used in relatively soft formations found at shallow pepths. 1462. drill collar a heavy. usually steel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the drill collar was a means of attaching the drill bit to the drillpipe and to strengthen the lower end of the drill column which is subject to extreme compression. 1 1458. and was efficient in soft formations the forerunner of the modern. act 191 Petroleum Engineer: M. A bit with cutting teeth integral to the metal of the cones of the bit.

Today. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. location. Z. joints of pipe 30 ft long are coupled together by means of tool joints. DRILL RIG. They may have a ship hull. bit and pipe. because of increased bit pressure and rapid rotation. 1472. 1471. DC-DC drill ship While not as stable as other floating structures (as a See Drilling Rig. drill ships. are capable of drilling exploratory wells in relatively deep waters. Drill Cores.000-foot lengths and weigh 50-100 tons. 1468. . or a trimaran hull.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as a reamer and to tend to keep the hole passable for the drillpipe.Drill collars were once a few feet long and weighed 400 or 500 pounds. drill pipe the heavy seamless tubing used to rotate the bit and circulate the drilling fluid. drill out to remove with the bit the residual cement that normally remains in the lower section of casing and the wellbore after the casing has been cemented. a ship constructed to permit a well to be drilled from it at an offshore semisubmersible). 1469. or ship shape.mzhelu@gmail. drill in to penetrate the productive formation after the casing is set and cemented on top of the pay zone. 1466. collars are made up in 1. a catamaran hull. Electric. Cores A cylindrical sample of rock obtained by drilling with a hollow donut-shaped 1467. Petroleum Engineer: M. drill site 192 the location of a drilling rig.

Drilling under pressure is advantageous in that the rate of penetration is relatively fast. Z. DRILL. drill to granite to drill a hole until basement rock is encountered. drill under pressure to carry on drilling operations while maintaining a seal (usually with a rotating head) to prevent the well fluids from blowing out. usually in a wildcat well. 1478. are available. the technique requires extreme caution. producing both a boring and a fracturing action simultaneously. the drill pipe. The hammer-like mechanism is located just above the bit and is actuated by air.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1474. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. composed of the kelly. that make up the drilling assembly from the surface to the bottom of the hole. 1476. drill stem the entire length of tubular pipes. If no hydrocarbon-bearing formations are found above the basement. permitting some of it to be withdrawn. ROTARY-PERCUSSION A drill bit that rotates in a conventional manner but at the same time acts as a high-frequency pneumatic hammer.mzhelu@gmail. Drill String A string of individual joints of drill pipe that extend from the bit to the kelly pipe. 1477. the drill bit. Tools that cut the pipe either internally or externally. the well is assumed to be dry. 1475. liquid. let cutoff or chemical cutoff also is used to free stuck . however. 193 Petroleum Engineer: M. or high-frequency 1479. and drill collars. and rotates. drill-pipe cutter a tool to cut drill pipe stuck in the hole. The drill string carries the mud down to.

drill-pipe float a valve installed in the drill stem that allows mud to be pumped down the drill stem but prevents flow back up the drill stem. they add to the mud's .) pertaining to packers and other tools left in the wellbore to be broken up later by the drill bit. 1486. drill-stem test drillable (See formation testing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Drillable equipment is made of cast iron. drill-pipe safety valve a special valve used to close off the drill pipe to prevent flow and having threads to match the drill pipe in use. plastic. drill-pipe protector an antifriction device of rubber or steel attached to each joint of drill pipe to minimize wear. the entry of formation pressure into the well. aluminum. 194 Petroleum Engineer: M. a check valve.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1480. drill-pipe pressure gauge an indicator that is mounted on the mud-circulating system to measure the amount of pressure in the drill stem. 1481. If the minute rock particles do not drop out in the mud pits or are not removed by surface equipment. 1484. drill-pipe pressure the amount of pressure exerted inside the drill pipe as a result of circulating pressure. or both. or other soft brittle material. 1483. 1487. 1482. 1485. DRILLED SOLIDS Rock particles broken and pulverized by the bit and picked up by the drilling mud as it circulates. Z.

1493. to depth. and pipe measurements. His main duty is operation of the drilling and hoisting equipment. driller's BOP control panel a series of controls on the rig floor that the driller manipulates to open and close the blowout preventers. driller's console a metal cabinet on the rig floor containing the controls that the driller manipulates to operate various functions of the drilling rig. 1 1492. but he is also responsible for the downhole condition of the well. 1494. 1495.) the area immediately surrounding the driller's console. driller's log a record that describes each formation encountered and lists the drilling time relative. 1490.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering This condition can cause serious drilling and circulation problems.mzhelu@gmail. operation of downhole tools. a record kept on the rig for each tour to show the footage . driller the employee directly in charge of a drilling or workover rig and crew. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 10-ft intervals. usually in 5. See Drilling Mud Density. Z. and other noteworthy occurrences. 1489. bit record. drilling fluid tests. driller's panel driller's position driller's report (See driller's console. 195 Petroleum Engineer: M.

1497. 1500. It sometimes indicates that the bit has penetrated a high-pressure zone and thus warns of the pos. One standard drilling contract form is the American Petroleum Institute's (API). DRILLING CONTRACT An agreement setting forth the items of major concern to both the operator and drilling contractor in the drilling of a designated well at a given location and at a specified time. DRILLING AND BELLING TOOL A long.) drilling barge DRILLING BLOCK 1498. another is the American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors'(AAODC). Z. particularly a deep well. This operation is "drilling in" the piling instead of the more common method of driving the piling. large-diameter. 1499.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1496.mzhelu@gmail. Piles then can be inserted and cemented. the operator will usually try to acquire a sizeable block of leases surrounding the site of the proposed exploratory . producing or production platforms The tool. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cylindrical drill with articulating cutting blades folded into the body of the drill for digging holes for piling-in off shore installations drilling. Before drilling such a well. (See barge. is so constructed that when it reaches the required depth of a few hundred feet the hinged cutting blades are extended to cut out a bell-shaped cavity at the bottom of the borehole. drilling break a sudden increase in the rate of penetration by the drill bit. two to four feet in diameter. See API Bid Sheet and Well Specifications 196 Petroleum Engineer: M. An area composed of separate contiguous leaseholds rage enough to drill an exploratory well. sibility of a blowout.

a derrickman. Fluids continuously circulated down the wellbore. drilling engine an internal-combustion engine used to power a drilling rig. fueled by diesel fuel.mzhelu@gmail. 1504. or gas. 197 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1503. From two to six engines are used on a rotary rig.). DRILLING CONTRACTOR A person or company whose business is drilling wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drilling control a device that controls the rate of penetration on a bit by maintaining a constant weight of a predetermined magnitude on the bit. gasoline. lubricate the drill pipe. a driller. 1509. 1505. drilling engineer Drilling Fluid an engineer who specializes in the technical aspects of drilling.v. INTANGIBLE drilling crew See Intangible Drilling Costs. DRILLING . carry rock cuttings to the surface and control down hole pressure. It is also called an automatic driller or automatic drilling control unit. 1508.) A mud engineer (q. others are contracted on a day rate. Wells are drilled on a per foot basis. and two or more helpers who operate a drilling or workover rig for one tour each day. to cool and lubricate the drill bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1501. 1507. 1506. See Turnkey Contract 1502. Z. drilling fluid analysis DRILLING FLUID SPECIALIST (See mud analysis.

DRILLING ISLAND A man-made island constructed in water 10 to 50 feet deep by dredging up the lake or bay bottom to make a foundation from which to drill wells. This procedure is used for development drilling. Compressed air. the chips are brought back up the annulus by the force of the high pressure air and are vented through the blooie pipe to the burn pit. rarely in wildcatting. ROTATING A heavy casing boiled to the top of the blowout present the casing through which air or gas drilling is done. As the bit pulverizes the rock. drilling head a special rotating head that has a gear and pinion drive arrangement to allow turning of the kelly simultaneously with scaling the kelly against well pressure. as the drilling fluid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1511.000. The kelly joint fits in the rotating element of the drilling head. enters the drillstring through a flexible hose attached to the kelly. also the tool pusher or rig . Such funds attract "high-bracket" persons who will receive certain tax benefits. Usually the fund is established as a joint venture or limited partnership with minimum investments of $5-$10. 1514. 1515. 1512.mzhelu@gmail. DRILLING HEAD. 198 Petroleum Engineer: M. drilling foreman the supervisor of drilling or workover operations on a rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DRILLING FUND A general term Cescribing a variety of organizations established to attract venture capital to oil and gas exploration and development. 1513. Z.

An advanced type of deep-drilling rig employs a mast like derrick of two principal members with a base as an integral part of the mast. HYDRAULIC A toot used in the drillstring for imparting an upward or downward jar or jolt to the drillpipe should it get stuck in . It the bit becomes lodged in the hole. Drilling Mud DRILLING MUD DENSITY A common term for drilling fluids. the sudden jar or impact developed by taking up of the slack in the jars aids in freeing the bit. drilling line DRILLING LOG DRILLING MAST a wire rope used to support the drilling tools. The weight of drilling mud expressed in pounds per U. .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1516. This type mast is generally used on shallow wells or for reconditioning work. 1520. 1523. The jars jolting action is initiated either by the weight or tension of the drillstring which the driller can apply. in contrast to the conventional four-legged derrick in the form of a pyramid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1519. DRILLING JARS A jointed section in a string of cable tools made with slack or play between the joints. 1518. A type of derrick consisting of two parallel legs.S. See Driller's Log. DRILLING JARS. 1 1522. The mast is held upright by guy wires. In 199 Petroleum Engineer: M.he hole while drilling or making a trip. Density of mud is important because it determines the hydrostatic pressure the mud will exert at any particular depth in the well. Z. gallon or in pounds per cubic foot.

penetration rate. 1524.) drilling rig DRILLING RIG.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the industry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an instrument that records hook load. rotary speed and torque. mud weight is synonymous with mud density. (See rig. the speed with which the bit drills the formation. MONOPOD drilling rate drilling recorder (See platform.) In states that regulate well spacing. 1532. 1 1527. during drilling. ELECTRIC 1533. 1531. one for the draw works and rotary table and one somewhat smaller set for lighting and auxiliary 200 Petroleum Engineer: M. drilling pattern DRILLING PERMIT (See well spacing. A typical engine-generator-motor rig-up would include fore such sets two for the mud pumps. A drilling rig that receives its power from a system comprised of diesel engine-DC generator-DC motor. 1525. 1528.) See Mat-supported Drilling Platform. a drilling permit is the authorization to drill at a specified location. Z. a well permit. pump rate and pressure. mud flow. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM. and so forth. 1530.mzhelu@gmail. drilling platform DRILLING PLATFORM. the rate of . See Monopod Drilling Platform. 1529. To "heavy up on the mud" is to increase its density.

DRILLING SPOOL (1)The part of the draw works that holds the drilling fine. DRILLING RIG. whose current is converted to DC current to drive DC motors for variable-speed drilling operations. See Drilling Rig. On the rig floor are the cat works and the rotary table as on a conventional rig. The power from the high-speed (1.) 201 Petroleum Engineer: M.800 rpm) diesel engines is transmitted through clutches and compound to the rotary table through a torque tube. (2) A flanged connector and installed within the blowout preventer stack to which the mud access lines and choke and kill lines are attached. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1535. and draw works are at or near ground level. Mechanical rigs use diesel engines coupled directly to the equipment or through compound shafts to drive the rotary. Another type of electric rig uses the same power-flow system but the generators are AC. the drum of drilling cable on which is spooled wire that is threaded over the crown block sheaves and attached to the traveling block.mzhelu@gmail. 12 to 15 feet below and behind the rig floor. DRILLING RIG. . drilling template (See temporary guide base. draw works. 1534.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering loads. and mud pumps. gear compound. rising at about a 45' angle to the gear and chain drive on the rig floor. 1536. Separate engine-AC generator sets Provide lighting and power for auxiliary functions. Electric. MECHANICAL The most common type of drilling rig is the mechanical compound rig. Z. SPLIT-LEVEL A land rig design in which the diesel engines.

DRILLWELL (DRILLSHIP) See Moonpool. If the formation pressure is sufficient. 1542. mud. The tender carries pipe. DRILLING. DRILLSTEM TEST A method of obtaining a sample of fluid from a formation using a "formationtester tool" attached to the drillstem. drilling unit the acreage allocated to a well when a regulatory agency grants a well . and in some instances provides crow quarters. permit. the bit is attached to the drillstem or drift column which rotates to "dig" the hole. The tool consists of a packer (q. carrying all of the supplies and equipment needed to drill and complete a well. A drillship is self-contained. INFILL DRILLSHIP See Infill Drilling. 1539. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 202 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1541. In rotary drifting. offshore drilling platform. cement. a ship equipped with a derrick amidships for drilling wells in deep water. spare parts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1538. DRILLING TENDER A barge-like vessel that acts as a supply ship for a small. A self-propelled vessel. 1543.mzhelu@gmail. fluid flows into the tester up the drillpipe to the surface. Z.v. 1544. DRILLSTEM The drillpipe.) to isolate the section to be tested and a chamber to collect a sample of fluid.

com . drive bushing a special device to fit the rotary bushing and transmit torque to the kelly and simultaneously to permit vertical movement of the kelly to make hole. when a well is drilled into the reservoir it is as if a valve were opened to vent the pressure. 1549. solution gas. Z.) in a field gas line. A reservoir is very much like a pressure vessel. drip accumulator DRIP GASOLINE (See accumulator. DRIP OILER DRIVE See Wick Oiler.v. The drive bushing may be square or hexagonal to fit the rotary opening or have pins for transmitting torque. gasoline recovered from a drip (q. DRIP A small in-line tank or condensing chamber in a pipeline to collect the liquids that condense out of the gas stream.). The energy or force present in an oil reservoir which causes the fluid to move toward the wells borehole and up to the surface when the reservoir is penetrated by the drill.v. and artificial drives (q.mzhelu@gmail. Drips are installed in low places in the line and must be "blown" or emptied periodically. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1547. 1550. water. 1548. 203 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1545. 1546. casinghead gasoline. There are several kinds of reservoir drives gas cap. Also called the kelly bushing.) Natural gasoline recovered at the surface of a well as the result of the separation of certain of the liquid hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas in the formation.

Their staves are held together with steel rods equipped with turnbuckles for keeping the tank watertight. drive-in unit a type of portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled. Metal bands like those on a wooden barrel held the staves together. Once a year or so. El-Helu E-Mail: . DRIVE THE HOOPS To tighten the staves of a wooden stock tank by driving the metal bands or hoops down evenly around the circumference of the tank.) 1554. using power from the hoisting engines.mzhelu@gmail. 1553. the hoops had to be driven to tighten the seams between the staves to prevent leaks. first used in an oil well by Colonel Drake. DROWNING A colloquial term for the encroachment of water at the well bore into a formation that once produced oil but now produces more and more water. Ale driver's cab and steering wheel are mounted on the same end as the mast support. 204 Petroleum Engineer: M. was the forerunner of the modern 'conductor or surface pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1551. See Casing. DRIVE PIPE A metal casing driven into the borehole of a well to prevent caving of the walls and to shut off surface water. Today wooden tanks are used on leases to handle salt water and other corrosive liquids. The drive pipe. Early-day lease tanks were made of redwood in the shape of a truncated cone (nearly cylindrical). thus the unit can be driven straight ahead to reach the wellhead. Z. 1552. (See carrier rig.

) 1557. the wellbore. Such vapors tend not to liquefy under the temperatures and pressures usually encountered in the reservoir or at the wellhead.mzhelu@gmail.S. but not enough to justify production. 1560. 1559. 2. gas. dry hole any well that does not produce oil or gas in commercial quantities. dry gas a natural gas comprised primarily of light hydrocarbon vapors. A dry hole may flow water. or even . 1558. dry well (See dry hole. dry oil an oil that has been treated so that only small quantities of water and other extraneous materials remain in it.) 205 Petroleum Engineer: M. dry string the drill pipe from which drilling mud has been emptied as it is pulled out of 1561. gal (200 liters) used to ship refined products. However. the fluid is usually circulated into the well to cool the bit. dry drilling a drilling operation in which no fluid is circulated back up to the surface (often resulting in lost circulation). 1556. Z. gas from which water has been removed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1555. 2. (See blind drilling. drum 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a cylindrical steel container of 50 to 55 U. a cylinder around which wire rope is wound before being attached to the drawworks.

Wells sometimes are completed in three or even four 206 Petroleum Engineer: M. DST Drill Stem Test. A downhole test of the productive capacity of a well through drill pipe up to the surface to obtain samples of gases and fluids and determine their rate of sustained flow. 1568. each at different depths. 1564. The well whether successful or dry serves to "prove their land. 1566. 1567. 1565. dry-bed dehydrator a collection of devices for removing water from gas in which two or more beds of desiccant are used." from contaminating other formations." one installed on the sea bed or under water. the operator solicits dry hole "contributions" and in return for financial assistance agrees to furnish certain information to the contributors.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1563.mzhelu@gmail. This treatment prevents salt water. See Plugging a Well." providing useful information. Before the well is drilled. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: . DUAL COMPLETION The completion of a well In two separate producing formations. often encountered in "dry holes. The wet gas is sent through one bed for drying while the other is prepared for later use. DRYTREE A Christmas tree installed on land or above water as distinguished from a "wet tree. DRY-HOLE PLUG A plug inserted in a well that is dry to seal off the formations that were penetrated by the borehole. DRY-HOLE MONEY Money paid by one or more interested parties (those owning land or a lease nearby) to an operator who drills a well that is a dry hole.

207 Petroleum Engineer: . the engine is switched to natural gas automatically.v. and was almost as popular as the Burton still which was developed for Standard Oil Company of Indiana. 1 1570. The tanks have no bottoms and rest on the sea floor supported on their rims. Z. Stationary engines in the field have modifications made to their carburetors that permit them to operate either on gasoline or natural gas. CARBON PETROLEUM Mr.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering separate formations with four strings of tubing inserted in the casing. DUBAI STORAGE TANKS A specially designed. DUAL DISCOVERY A well drilled into two commercial pay zones. DUBBS. two separate producing formations. Oil from fields on shore is pumped into the top of the tanks under pressure forcing the sea water out the bottom.mzhelu@gmail. DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Engines equipped to run on liquid as well as gaseous fuel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1571. underwater storage tank the shape of an inverted funnel. when the gasoline supply is used up. 1573.) that seal off all formations except the one to be produced by a particular string of tubing. 1572. a petroleum chemist developed a cracking process that found wide acceptance in the 1920s. In some installations. built by Chicago Bridge & iron for Dubai Petroleum Company. The offshore tanks which are more than 100 feet tall also serve as single-point moorings for tankers taking on crude. This is accomplished with packers (q. Dubbs. each at a different depth.

The water from the aquifer (q.mzhelu@gmail. DUMP GAS Gas delivered under a dump gets contract. 1576. The weight of the hydrostatic column (water column) produces the necessary force for it to penetrate the oil formation.. DULLS DUMP Drill bits badly worn or have lost Inserts or have broken teeth. 208 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. DUMP FLOODING An unusual secondary recovery technique that uses water from a shallow water bed above the producing pay to I food the oil-producing interval. a gas purchase and delivery contract that does not call for the delivery of a specified amount of gas but which does call for delivery of surplus gas after meeting the terms of a firm gas contract.v.e.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1574. Any small pumping device used on construction jobs or other temporary 1577. pushing the oil ahead of it to the producing wells in the field. used to place or spot material (as cement slurry) at the bottom of the well. usually of the disk or flapper type. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . dump bailer a bailing device with a release valve. i. DUCK'S NEST Colloquial term for a standby drilling mud tank or pit used to hold extra mud. or as an overflow in the event of a gas "kick" (q. 1575.v.) enters the injection string by its own pressure. operations. 1578.

duplex pump a reciprocating pump having two pistons or plungers. 2. 209 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 1584. The end of the bailer is lowered into the box which pushes the dart upwards. a well that encounters neither gas nor liquid at total depth. 1582. mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. unseating the ball valve and permitting the water. It is usually a motor valve. treaters. 1586. but may be a liquid-level controller as well. a tool-joint pin broken off in the drill-pipe box or drill collar box. and rock cuttings to empty into the box and slush-pit launder (q. DUMPBOX A heavy wooden or metal box where the contents of a cable-tool well's bailer are emptied. used extensively as a mud pump on drilling rigs. also called a measuring tank. . dump meter a liquid-measuring device consisting of a small tank with narrowed sections at top and bottom that automatically fills and empties itself and records the number of dumps. 1585. 1. the portion of a stud or screw that remains in place after the head has inadvertently been twisted off. and so on. dump tank a calibrated metering tank designed to automatically release an accurate volume of liquid. dump valve the discharge valve through which oil and water are discharged from separators. DUSTER dutchman A dry hole.).v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1580. 1581.

Generally. 2.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1587. over the hole dying drilling operations where the water is too deep for the use of anchors. dynamic positioning a method by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained in position over an offshore well location. a downhole motor driven by drilling fluid that imparts rotary motion to a drilling bit connected to the tool. The Dyna-Drill. a device used to measure the brake horsepower of a prime mover. 1591. the dynamometer indicates a variation in 210 Petroleum Engineer: M. dynamometer 1. 1589. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1588.mzhelu@gmail. The device that causes the tool to be deflected can be caught and retrieved with a wireline. . dwt Dyna-Drill deadweight ton. A computer to which the system feeds signals then directs the thrusters to maintain the rig on location. several motors called thrusters are located on the hull(s) of the structure and are actuated by a sensing system. DYNAMIC STATIONING A method of keeping a drill ship or semisubmersible drilling platform on target. is used in straight and directional drilling. As applied to a sucker-rod pumping. a trade name. Dynaflex tool the trade name for a directional drilling tool that deflects the drilling assembly off vertical without having to be pulled from the hole. 1592. 1590. thus eliminating the need to turn the entire drill stem to make hole.) activated by underwater sensing devices that signal when the vessel has moved a few degrees off its drilling station. This is accomplished by the use of thrusters (q.

the study of living things and their relation to their environment. 1597.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering load on the polished rod as the rod string reciprocates.mzhelu@gmail. 211 Petroleum Engineer: M. EASY DIGGING Ecology ECONOMIC DEPLETION A soft . 1594. hand money. Edge well a well on the outer fringes of a productive subsurface formation. E9M3 EARNEST MONEY Billion cubic metres. Z.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1598. an assignment of work that can be handled without much exertion. LUBRICANTS Extreme pressure lubricating oils and greases which contain substances added to prevent metal to metal contact in highly loaded gears and turntables. 1599. A continuous record of the result of forces acting along the axis of the polished rod is provided on a dynamometer card. from which an analysis is made of the performance of the well-pumping equipment.P. 1596. Easement a right that one individual or company has on anther's land.) by removing or producing 1600. the minerals. 1593. A sum of money paid to bind a financial transaction prior to the signing of a contract. In the petroleum industry. it usually refers to the permission given by a landowner for a pipeline or access road to be laid across his property. The reduction in the value of a wasting asset (q. E. 1595.

Effective porosity the percentage of the bulk volume of a rock sample that is composed of interconnected pore spaces that allow the passage of fluids through the sample. Elastomers are highly resistant to chemical decomposition (hydrolysis) in the presence of hydrocarbons which make them desirable for use in the petroleum industry. out fall. The petrochemical industry has produced many types of elastomers that are used for gasket material. EFFLUENT The discharge or outflow from a manufacturing or processing plant. 1 1603. the permeability of a rock to a fluid when the saturation of the fluid is less than 100 percent. (See . log electric log. usually 90' or 45'.mzhelu@gmail. (See electric well log. guides. drainage.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1601. 1604. 1608. Z. valve seats. Elbow a fitting that allows two pipes to be joined together at an angle of less than 180'. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1606.) 212 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1607. ELASTOMER Any of various elastic materials or substances resembling rubber. machinery vibrationabsorber mounts. much more so than natural rubber. swab cups. Elec. etc.) 1605. Edgewater Effective permeability the water that touches the edge of the oil in the lower horizon of a formation.

ELECTRIC (WELL) LOG An electrical survey of a well's borehole before it is cased.) 1613. which reflects the degree of resistance of the rock strata to electric current. Electric dehydration Electric drive Electric rig (See emulsion breaker.mzhelu@gmail.) a drilling rig on which the energy from the power source is distributed to the various rig components through electrical conductors as opposed to distribution by mechanical transmission. From the results of the survey. 1612. It is also called an electric log or electric survey. ELECTRIC WELL LOGGING The procedure of lowering electrical instruments into the well bore to lest the density and other characteristics of rock formations penetrated. ELECTRIC TRACING Electric well log See Heat Tracing. and estimate their depth. Such a rig has an electric drive. 213 Petroleum Engineer: M.) (See electric rig. 1614.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1609. made to identify the formations. determine the nature and amount of fluids they contain. a record of certain electrical characteristics of formations traversed by the borehole. geologists are able to determine the nature of the rock penetrated by the drill and some indication of its permeability. 1615. Electric survey (ES) (See electric well log. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 1610. .

. 2. dissociates into positive and negative ions. Corroding action of stray currents is caused by electrolysis. Electromotive force (emf) 1. Electrolyte a chemical that. If two metals widely separated in the list (e.) 1619. iron. Electromotive series a list of elements arranged in order of activity (tendency to lose electrons). brought about by the passage of an electrical current through the compound or through the solution containing the compound. 1620. by using heat. nickel. water. chromium. silver. (See corrosion. Electrostatic treater a vessel that receives emulsion flows and resolves the emulsion to . Z. and gold. tin. and a high-voltage electric field. beryllium. (See corrosion.g. Electrochemical treater Electrolysis (See electrostatic treater. the voltage or electric pressure that causes an electric current to flow along a conductor.) 1618.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1616. when dissolved in water. (See dissociation. magnesium and iron) are placed in an electrolyte and connected by a metallic conductor. chemicals. This field. 1617. copper. The following metals are so arranged magnesium. aluminum. produced by grids placed perpendicular to the flow of fluids in the 214 Petroleum Engineer: M. cadmium.) the decomposition of a chemical compound. and usually gas. the force that drives electrons and thus produces an electric current. an electromotive force is produced. thus increasing its electrical conductivity. zinc.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 1621.

1626. Elev. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Reserves. the linkage between the elevator and traveling block. a vessel above a datum line (usually ground level). Geological Survey (USGS). For example. oil reserve in 1909 by President Taft upon recommendation of the U. Element one of more than 100 simple substances that consist of atoms of only one kind and that either singly or in combination make up all matter. 215 Petroleum Engineer: M. of casing. used in drilling reports.) The electrostatic treater is also called the Chemelectric or electrochemical treater. Elevated tank Elevator balls Elevator links Elevators elevation. a device that connects the tubing elevators and traveling block. and one of the most abundant elements is carbon. the simplest element is hydrogen. Elk Hills is a major part of the U. (See emulsion treating. Elk Hills was set aside as a U. 1628.mzhelu@gmail. Teapot Dome in Wyoming and the North Slope in Alaska are two other large Naval . 1622. 1627. or column. ELK HILLS Located in the lower end of the San Joaquin Valley of California. drill pipe. so that the stand can be raised or lowered into the hole.S. Some elements such as radium and uranium are radioactive. 1624. 1625. and is classed as one of the world's giant petroleum fields.S. aids in breaking the emulsion. tubing. Naval Petroleum Reserves. a set of clamps that grip a stand. or sucker rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering treater. Z.S. 1623.

thus achieving separation by lowering the viscosity of the emulsion and allowing the water to settle out. thus uniting all the drops. Elliptical tank EMBAYMENT Emf EMINENT DOMAIN a tank that has an elliptical cross section. water-oil emulsion also is used as a drilling fluid. In an oil-water emulsion. Emulsion breakers may be (1) devices to heat the emulsion. 1630. A typical product of oil wells. the oil is the dispersed phase and the water the dispersion medium. called the continuous phase or dispersion medium. 1631. (2) chemical compounds.) 1633.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1629. Z. the reverse holds. or process used for breaking down an emulsion and rendering it into two or more easily separated compounds (as water and oil). 1634. (3) mechanical devices such 216 Petroleum Engineer: M. electromotive force. in a water-oil emulsion.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Emulsion breaker a system.mzhelu@gmail. A large identation of a coastline. Compare free water. termed the dispersed phase. device. Emulsion a mixture in which one liquid. a bay. 1632. Emulsified water water so thoroughly combined with oil that special treating methods must be applied to separate it from the oil. is uniformly distributed (usually as minute globules) in another . which destroy weaken the film around each globule of water. An embayed coastline. The right of a government body or public utility (common carrier) to take private property for public use by condemnation proceedings (q. 1 1636.

cannot settle to the bottom of the tank until. 1639. the surface tension of the film of oil is reduced sufficiently to free the water droplets.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as settling tanks and wash tanks. 1637. Emulsion test a procedure carried out to determine the proportions of sediment and dispersed compounds in an .mzhelu@gmail. Treating plants may use a single process or a combination of processes to effect demulsification. The water. depending upon what emulsion is being treated. 1 1641. When this occurs the small droplets join others to form larger ones which have enough mass or weight to settle to the bottom. Emulsion treating the process of breaking down emulsions to separate oil from water or other contaminants. This is also called electric dehydration. Such tests may range from elaborate distillation conducted in laboratories to simple and expedient practices used in the field. Z. or (4) electrostatic treaters. 1638. Emulsion treaters have a gas-fired furnace at the bottom of the vessel to heat 'he stream of oil piped through from the well to the stock tanks. CRUDE OIL-WATER Very small droplets of water suspended in a volume of crude oil. a type of oil heater for "breaking down" oil-water emulsions with heat and the addition of certain chemicals. which use an electric field to cause coalescence of the water globules. although heavier than oil. EMULSION. 217 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. EMULSION TREATER A tall cylindrical vessel. each droplet surrounded or encased in a film of oil. a heater-treater. through the application of heat or mixing with a chemical.

1643. substances. the end point is the temperature at which the liquid ceases to distill over. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tides. solar. Ultimate use. coal. 218 Petroleum Engineer: M. In the analysis of liquids such as gasoline. nuclear. End points are of value in predicting certain performance characteristics of gasoline. Exothermic is the reverse a process or reaction that once begun gives off beat. ENDOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep it going. Z. 1645.).v.v. consumption of a product by a commercial or industrial 1646. END-O The command given by one worker to another or to a group to lift together and move an object forward. END PRODUCTS END USE Material. hydropower. synthetic fuels (q.mzhelu@gmail. a signal to "put out" in a big lift.) The point indicating the end of an operation or the point at which a certain definite change is observed. customer. geothermal (q. goods for consumer use finished products. .). ENERGY SOURCES Petroleum.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1642. Encroachment END POINT (See water encroachment. 1648. 1647. wind.

6. (See secondary recovery and tertiary recovery. After an oil well has reached depletion. Z. Some fields require the application of one of the above methods even for initial recovery of crude oil.6. HOT-PLUG Engler distillation See Hot-plug Engine. C02. 110.031 wet gas.3. 6. ENGINE HOUSE On a cable.3. 1. kerosene.) 219 Petroleum Engineer: M. 6.8. which enhanced recovery is targeted to produce. 5.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1649.mzhelu@gmail. 1652. BTU per cubic foot dry natural gas.6 distillate fuel .v. and steam soak. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Sophisticated recovery methods for crude oil which go beyond the more conventional secondary recovery techniques of pressure maintenance and water-flooding. 1653. 5. EOR methods are not restricted to secondary or oven tertiary projects. 1651. Attached to the engine house was the belt hall which housed the wide. Enhanced recovery a method or methods applied to depleted reservoirs to make them productive once again. steam drive. 1654. ENERGY VALUE OF PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS Million BTU per barrel crude oil.). a certain amount of oil remains in the reservoir. a test that determines the volatility of a gasoline by measuring the percentage of the gasoline that can be distilled at various temperatures. miscible hydrocarbon. Enhanced recovery methods now being used include micellar surfactant (q. fabric belt which transmitted power from the engine to the band wheel. 1. polymer.0. 5. ENGINE. gasoline. 1650. and asphalt. residual fuel oil.tool rig the engine house held the steam-powered drilling engine. 5.7 petroleum coke. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Enthalpy the heat content of fuel. it is the sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its pressure multiplied by its volume (i. Gulf.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1655.. advantage to some refiners. or pentane on the surface or in the well bore as the gas is injected. . 1657. ENRICHED-GAS INJECTION A secondary recovery method involving the injection of gas rich in intermediate hydrocarbons or enriched by addition of propane. 1656. Z. For example. would pay to Bradford Refining a certain amount of money for each barrel of uncontrolled crude oil it had to buy in the world market 220 Petroleum Engineer: M. H = U + pV). the traditional supplier. The reasoning was that disproportionate access to inexpensive domestic crude would cave an unfair. ENTITLEMENTS PROGRAM A program instituted in 1974 by the federal government to equalize the access to domestic crude by all U. and Gulf had available a larger percent of Pricecontrolled oil than the national average and Bradford had Tees than the average.mzhelu@gmail.. refiners-crude oil which was price controlled substantially below world price. The program's aim was to make available Controlled to each refiner the same fraction of low-priced oil. In effect. Refiners With more price controlled oil than a calculated national average were required to buy entitlements.S. A thermodynamic property. those with a large supply of price oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. if Gulf oil were the traditional supplier of crude oil to Bradford Refining Co. Bradford could se11 its entitlement for crude-cost equalization to Gulf and Gulf would be required to buy them.e. The buying and selling of entitlement was between traditional slippers and purchasers. Refiners with a lower than average amount of price controlled oil could sell entitlement.

The cost of equity crude is calculated according to the price. as opposed to buy-back (participation) crude. 221 Petroleum Engineer: . 1664. 1659. Environments of deposition EOR EPA EQUITY CRUDE (See depositional environment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or physical. 1660. ENTRY POSITION A starting job with a company usually sought by young man or man and woman just out of school who wishes to get into the business at whatever level with the expectation of president in due time.v. Z. 1662. but as a relatively small percentage of total flow.lie oil company is known as equity crude. chemical.). In cases where a concession is owned jointly by a host government and an oil company.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1658. The complex concept of entropy carries implications of the randomness of any system. Special separators are used to remove the liquid from the gas stream.mzhelu@gmail. the crude produced which belongs to . Environmental Protection Agency. Entropy a measure of the amount of energy used internally in a system and unavailable to do mechanical work. 1661. 1663. mechanical. See Buyback Crude Oil.) Enhanced oil recovery (q. ENTRAINED OIL Oil occurring as part of the gas steam.

1670. 1669. 1667. See Suspense Money. ESCROW MONEY . they fall outward. made plural and used colloquially by oil men.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1665. They consist of counterweighted arms supporting a buoyant hold. The workers then slide down a lifeline to the floating head. used in drilling reports. 1671. (See electric well log. Z. Escarpment a cliff or relatively steep slope that separates level or gently sloping areas of land. And others. When the arms are snapped loose from the platform. estimated. Sometimes sand or steel shot is added to the drilling fluid to increase its erosive capabilities. Et. the head descending to the water. et al. 1666.mzhelu@gmail. unnamed participants or interest holders in a deal or a contract. ES ESCAPE BOOMS electric survey. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Devices used on offshore drilling or production platforms for emergency escape of personnel in the event of a fire or explosion.als. Erosion the process by which material (as rock or soil) is worn away or removed (as by wind or water). Erosion drilling the high-velocity ejection of a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzles of a jet bit to remove rock encountered during drilling. 222 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1668.

Great amounts of salt water are produced with crude oil in some oil fields.). 1676. 1674. when there is no heel to either side.mzhelu@gmail. found in natural gas. Evaporate a sedimentary rock (as gypsum or salt) that originates from the evaporation of seawater in enclosed basins. that is.) Evening tour 223 Petroleum Engineer: M. EVAPORATION PIT An excavation dug to contain oil field salt water or brine which is disposed of by evaporation. It is a gas at atmospheric conditions. Even keel on a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. usually while the fractions are in storage or in process. particularly older ones. ETHANOL Ethylene glycol Alcohol. Ethane a light hydrocarbon.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1672. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See vaporization.) 1675. 1678. (See glycol . Ethane is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions. Evaporation loss a loss to the atmosphere of petroleum fractions through evaporation. 1673. Z. (See tour.) 1677. 1679. C2H6. the balance when the plane of flotation is parallel to the design waterline. one component oil gasohol (q. a colorless liquid used as antifreeze and as a dehydration medium in removing water from gas. A simple hydrocarbon associated with petroleum.v.

Excelsior a fibrous material used as a filtering element in the hay section of heaters or heater-treaters. Expanded perlite a siliceous volcanic rock that is finely ground and subjected to extreme heat. a process or reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep ft going. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1682. Petroleum Engineer: M. 1683.mzhelu@gmail. Exhaust manifold a piping arrangement. The resulting release of water leaves the rock particles considerably expanded and thus more porous.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1680. Expanded perlite is sometimes used in cement to increase its yield without changing its properties. that collects burned gases from the engine and channels them to the exhaust pipe. EXPANSION FIT 224 See Shrink Fit. 1686. immediately adjacent to the engine. Exchanger a piping arrangement that permits certain properties of one fluid to be transferred to another fluid as they travel counter current to one another. Endothermic is the reverse. cooling the oil and heating the well fluid. . heat from the outgoing clean oil is transferred to the incoming well fluid. 1685. Exhaust valve the cam-operated mechanism through which burned gases are ejected from an engine cylinder. In the heat exchanger of an emulsion-treating unit. EXOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that gives off heat. 1681. Z.

As the vapor above the crude oil or volatile product expands with the heat of the . into which are placed shaped charges. debris created by the exploded 225 Petroleum Engineer: M. Expendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metal strip upon which are mounted shaped charges in special capsules. Expendable. (See gun-perforate.v.) with a root made like a slip joint. Z. A circular loop (360" bend) put in a Pipeline to absorb expansion and contraction caused by heating and cooling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. plat hookups where there are severe temperature changes. Specially fabricated. Upon detonation. The telescoping roof as it moves up and down. Expansion loop a full loop built into a pipeline to allow for expansion and contraction of the line. maintains a gastight seal with the inner wall of the tank.) 1691.mzhelu@gmail. accordion-like fittings are used as expansion joints in certain in. cylindrical carrier. A section of piping constructed in such a way as to allow for expansion and contraction of the pipe connections without damaging the joints. nothing remains of the gun but debris.retrievable gun a perforating gun that consists of a hollow. 1690. EXPANSION ROOF TANK A storage or working tank (q. the roof-and-apron section of the tank gas to expand without any loss to the atmosphere. without exerting a strain on Pipe or valve connections. After firing. Expansion joint a device used to connect long lines of pipe to allow the pipe joints to expand or contract as the temperature rises or falls. 1688.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1687. 1689.

Z. 1696. geological studies. a well drilled in an area proven to be Productive. including aerial and geophysical surveys. geological studies. EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES The search for oil and gas. geophysical surveying. sophisticated research ship equipped with seismic gravit. the gun cannot be reused. Exploration the search for reservoirs of oil and gas. 1697. Exploitation EXPLOITATION WELL the development of a reservoir to extract its oil. and drilling of wildcat wells. 226 Petroleum Engineer: M. and the drilling of wildcats. A development well. however. vessels of this type there are onboard Processing and interpretation capabilities for the information gathered as the vessel cruises on the waters of the Outer Continental Shelf around the world. EXPLORATION VESSEL A seagoing. Exploration well Exploratory Well 1698. coring. Exploration activities include aerial surveying. On the more advances .mzhelu@gmail. a wildcat. core testing. (See gun-perforate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1695.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering charges falls into the carrier and is retrieved when the gun is pulled out of the hole. a well drilled to permit more effective extraction of oil from a reservoir. See Infill Drilling. and magnetic systems for gathering data on undersea geologic structures.) 1692. A well in an area where petroleum has not been previously found or one targeted for formations above or below known reservoirs. . It is sometimes called a development well. 1693.

Extender a substance put in drilling mud to increase viscosity without adding clay or other thickening . 227 Petroleum Engineer: M. Cooling is by conduction through the frame and housing. See Well Shooter. EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING Using an explosive charge in the bottom of the well to fracture the formation to increase the flow of oil or gas. 1702. is more desirable than fusion welding in which both pieces of metal must be heated to a high temperature. 1704. This welding technique creates little heat which.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1699. Z. The shaped charge is inserted into the end of the pipe over which the sleeve is placed. When the charge is detonated the force expands the pipe's outer circumference forcibly to the sleeves inner circumference making a secure. 1701. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. EXPLOSIVE WELDING A method of welding is which a shaped explosive charge is used to "fastexpand" the end of a section of pipe into the bore of a special steel sleeve to form a solid bond. EXTENSION TEST See Outpost Well. for certain jobs. pressure-tight bond. an enclosed brushless motor. 1703. Explosimeter an instrument used to measure the concentration of combustible gases in the air. 1700. It also is called a gas sniffer. EXPLOSION-PROOF MOTORS A totally enclosed electric motor with no outside air in contact with the motor windings.

External cutter a fishing tool containing metal-cutting knives that is lowered into the hole and over the outside of a length of pipe to cut it. EXTERNAL CASING PACKER A device used on the outside of a well's casing to seal off formations or to protect certain zones. The severed portion of the pipe can then be brought to the surface. 1711. it may be expanded against the wall of the borehole hydraulically or by fluid pressure from the well. Extrusive rocks EYEBALL igneous rocks formed when lava poured out on the earth's surface. gas. The packer is run on casing and when at the proper depth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Often used downhole in conjunction with cementing. Externally upset pipe does not have a uniform diameter throughout its length but is enlarged at each end. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 1706. External phase External upset (See continuous phase) an extra-thick wall at the threaded end of drill pipe or tubing. to inspect carefully. set. 1709. 1708. Extraction plant a plant equipped to remove liquid constituents from casinghead gas or wet 1710. Compare internal up.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1705. To align pipe connections or a temporary construction with the eye only. 228 Petroleum Engineer: . 1707.

Fahrenheit scale a temperature scale devised by Gabriel Fahrenheit. in the event of failure or malfunction of any part of the system. Z. devices are automatically activated to stabilize or secure the safety of the operation. in which 321 represents the freezing point and 212" the boiling point of water at standard sea-level .mzhelu@gmail. The chuck is held in alignment against the pipe end by a Hydraulically actuated mandrel inserted into the pipe similar to internal line-up clamps used to align pipe for welding.32) 1717. 1714. Fahrenheit degrees may be converted to centigrade degrees by using the following formula 'C = 5/9 ('F .) A type of valve or other fitting that is built and welded together from wrought iron and forged steel pieces to make a particularly strong high-pressure valve. bonnets and packing glands cast separately and assembled. The facing machine is transported and brought into position by a modified boomcat. F degree Fahrenheit. The facing machine essentially is a revolving disc-chuck holding a number of cutting tools. FAIL-SAFE Said of equipment or a system so constructed that. 1713. facies part of a bed of sedimentary rock that differs significantly from other parts of 1715.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1712. PIPE A device for beveling or putting a machined face on the ends of large diameter line pipe. FACING MACHINE. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 229 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1716. the bed. FABRICATED VALVE (See Fahrenheit scale. Most valves are steel Castings with bodies.

by some authorities. fairleader a fitting or device used to maintain or alter the direction of a rope or chain so that it leads directly to a sheave or drum without causing undue friction. Z. FAIRLEAD A guide for ropes or lines on a ship to prevent chafing. 1721. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Fanning the bottom.S. as reduced weight on the bif causes more tension on the drill. is considered detrimental to the drillstring. area. 1719.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1718. a sheave supported by a bracket protruding from the cellar deck of a semisubmersible drilling platform over which an anchor cable . 1722. resulting in pipe and collar fatigue.mzhelu@gmail. 1723. pipe. Coast Guard in Federal offshore waters. 1720. however. FANNING THE BOTTOM (OF THE BOREHOLE) Drilling with very weight on the drill bit in the hope of preventing the bit from drifting from the vertical and drilling a crooked hole. farm boss an oil company supervisor who controls production activities within a limited 230 Petroleum Engineer: M. Permanent structures such as drilling and production platforms are prohibited in a fairway which significantly curtails oil activity in some offshore areas. Fann V-G meter a device used to record and measure at different speeds the flow properties of plastic fluids (as the viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids). Some large floating platforms have anchor lines made up of lengths of chain and cable. FAIRWAY A shipping lane established by the U.

regardless of the results of exploratory wells. fast line the end of the drilling line that is affixed to the drum or reel of the drawworks.v. See Farm-out Agreement." 1729. Z. FARM-OUT FARM-OUTAGREEMENT The name applied to a leasehold held under a farm-out agreement (q. 1726.mzhelu@gmail. FARM-IN An arrangement whereby one oil operator "buys in" or acquires an interest in a lease or concession owned by another operator on which oil or gas has been discovered or is being produced. The assignor may or may not retain an interest (royalty or production payment) in the . usually one-eighth of the produced oil free of any expense to the landowner. Often farm-ins are negotiated to assist the original owner with development costs and to secure for the buyer a source of crude or natural gas. 1728. FARMER'S SAND A colloquial term for "the elusive oil-bearing stratum which many landowners believe lies beneath their land. 1725.). 231 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FARMER'S OIL An expression meaning the landowner's share of the oil from a well drifted on his property royalty. A form of agreement between oil operators whereby the owner of a lease who is not interested in drilling at the time agrees to assign the lease or a portion of it to another operator who wishes to drill the acreage. 1727.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1724. so called because it travels with greater velocity than any other portion of the line.

1734. fault a break in subsurface strata. Z. 232 Petroleum Engineer: M. downward. 1731. 1732.83 m. fault plane fault trap a surface along which faulting has occurred a subsurface hydrocarbon trap created by faulting. 1733. 1736. equal to 6 ft or 1.mzhelu@gmail. fatigue the tendency of a metal under repeated cyclic loading to break at a stress considerably less than its tensile strength as indicated in a static test. After absorbing the gasoline fractions. or laterally) relative to their original positions. FEA FEDERALLEASE Federal Energy Agency An oil or gas lease on Federal land issued under the Act of February 25.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1730. FAT OIL The absorbent oil enriched by gasoline fractions in an absorption plant. fathom a measure of ocean depth in countries using the English system of measurement. 1737. the gasoline is removed by distillation ' leaving the oil "lean" and ready for further use to absorb more gasoline fractions from the natural gas stream. Often strata on one side of the fault line have been displaced (upward. which causes an impermeable rock layer to be moved opposite the reservoir bed. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1920. and subsequent legislation.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. landowner's royally. 1739.mzhelu@gmail. FEE ROYALTY FEE SIMPLE feed off The lessor's share of oil and gas production. 233 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1740. A pipe. to lower the bit continuously or intermittently by allowing the brake to disengage and the drum to turn. 1744. a lathering fine lied into a trunk line. 1747. FEEDER LINE FEMALE CONNECTION FERC FHACJOB fibrous material A pipeline. 1741. 1743. 1742.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1738. stringy material of threadlike structure used to prevent loss of circulation or to restore circulation in porous or fractured formations. short for "owned in fee. 1745. See Hydraulic Fracturing. Z. Land or an estate held by a person in his own right without restrictions. The feed-off rate is the speed with which the cable is unwound from the drum." The owner of the fee holds title to the land. rod. 1746. FEE The title or owner ship of land. any . or tubing coupling with the threads on the inside. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FEED OR FEEDSTOCK Crude oil other hydrocarbons that are the basic materials for a refining or manufacturing process.

Z. Rocky Mountain and Permian Basin. 234 Petroleum Engineer: M. and removal of liquid hydrocarbons. Some of the early prolific fields were. FIELD The area encompassing a group of producing oil and gas wells. 1751. FIELD BUTANES A raw mix of natural gas ids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1748. and have wells producing from several different formations at different depths. Raw mix streams are sent to fractionating plants where the various components-butane. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In order to establish a field allowable for prorationing purposes by a state regulatory commission. Seminole. Appalachian MidContinent. An oil field may include one or more pools. Oklahoma City. and others-are separated. Some refineries are capable of using field butanes as 10 to 15 percent of charge stock. The producing capacity of a field during a 24-hour period. and West Texas. including separation of oil and gas. FIELD COMPRESSION TEST FIELD POTENTIAL A test to determine the gasoline content of casing-head or wet gas. Cushing. 1750. the product of gas processing plants in the field. separation of water from oil and from gas. propane. Large areas that used to be designated as fields are now identified as districts. 1749. A roughly contiguous grouping of wells in an identified area. Gulf . field processing the processing of oil and gas in the field before delivery to a major refinery or gas plant. hexane. East Texas. a pool. 1752.g. e. a field it was necessary to set equitable production levels.mzhelu@gmail.

235 Petroleum Engineer: M. Filling the hole lessens the danger of blowout or of caving of the wall of the wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1754. 1756. 1758. 1761. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FIELDTANKS FIH fill the hole Stock tanks (q. fluid in . filter loss the amount of fluid that can be delivered through a permeable filter medium after being subjected to a differential pressure for a specified time. 1755.). The buildup of "cake" can cause serious drilling problems including the sticking of the drillpipe. used in drilling reports. See Differential-pressure Sticking. Z. filler material filter a material added to a cement or cement slurry to increase its yield. FILTER CAKE A plaster-like coating on the borehole resulting from the solids in the drilling fluid adhering and building up on the wall of the hole.mzhelu@gmail. 1760. 1757. 1759. a porous medium through which a fluid is passed to separate it from material suspended in it. field Pump a pump installed in a field to transfer oil from a lease tank to a central gathering station near a main pipeline. to pump drilling fluid into the wellbore while the pipe is being withdrawn in order to ensure that the wellbore remains full of fluid even though the pipe is withdrawn.

FINGER BOARD A rack high in the derrick made to support. 1 1765. A drilling-mud quality measured by putting a water-base mud through a filter cell. FINES Minute particles of a solid substance rock.) in the derrick.) and is a measure of the water-loss quality of the drilling mud. 1 . 1772. the process of filtering a fluid. 236 Petroleum Engineer: M. or catalytic material-too small to be used or handled efficiently. a fragment or particle of rock or mineral that is too minute to be treated as ordinary coarse material. Mud mixtures with low water loss are desirable for most drilling operations. Z. 1773.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1762.v.mzhelu@gmail. 1766. final squeeze pressure fine the fluid pressure at the completion of a squeeze-comenting operation. in orderly fashion. 1771. coat. The mud solids deposited on the filter is filter cake (q. the escape of the liquid part of a drilling mud into permeable formations.v.) a fluid that has been passed through a filter. 1763. 1 1768. filter press filtrate filtration filtration loss FILTRATION-LOSS QUALITYOF MUD a device used in the testing of physical properties of drilling mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See mud. and that must be removed by screening. the upper ends of the tubing stands that are pulled from the well and set back (q.

fire wall a structure erected to contain petroleum or a petroleum-fed fire in case a storage vessel ruptures or collapses. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 1 1778. See In Situ Combustion. 1779. fire fire flood FIRE FLOODING fire point to start and maintain the Fire in a boiler or heater. Z. 1 1776.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1774. 1781. (See flash point.) 1783.mzhelu@gmail. fingerboard FINGERING a rack that supports stands of pipe being stacked in a derrick or mast. 1780. Usually a dike is built around a petroleum storage tank and a steel or stone wall put up between the prime movers and the oil pumps in a pipeline pumping . or as the result of taking oil in excess of maximum efficiency rates (MER) (q. the temperature at which a petroleum product burns continuously after being ignited. 237 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Channel.). in situ combustion. 1782. FINGER PIER A jetty or bridge-type structure extending from the shore out into a body of water to permit access to tankers and other vessels where water depth is not sufficient to allow docking at the shore. Rivulet-like infiltration of water or gas into an oil-bearing formation as a result of failure to maintain reservoir pressure.

FIRE-WATER SUPPLY fireman A pond or tank containing water used exclusively for fire-fighting. FIRM GAS Gas required to be delivered and taken under the terms of a firm gas purchase contract. FIRE-TRIMMED (VALVES AND FLANGES) A designation for valves. when subjected to fire from whatever cause. tack welded in position. Compare motorman." there may be some preparatory or alignment welding. and then a root run or first pass or course of metal is laid on by a welder. FIRING LINE In pipeline construction. At the front end the pipe is lined up end-to-end by sideboom tractors. Fire-trimmed valves. 1785.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1784. . will not be damaged to the extent that they will leak and thereby add to the emergency. The firing line is where two or more filler Passes and the final or cap pass are made. flanges. the part of the project where the welding is being done. Ahead of the firing line or the "front end. 238 Petroleum Engineer: M. Such valves and flanges have metal gaskets and staffing boxes with specially formulated fire resistant packing or are fitted with metal-to-metal seals. 1789. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the member of the crew on a steam-powered rig who is responsible for care and operation of the boilers. and other fitting's made to withstand an accidental fire in a plant or process unit. Firm gas is priced higher than dump gas (q. 1786. Fish An object lost (or stuck) in the wellbore obstructing operations. This is true for extra-large diameter pipe.). 1788.mzhelu@gmail. brought into perfect alignment by internal line-up clamps. 1787.

1793. Many special and ingeniously designed fishing fools are used to recover objects lost downhole. Special instrument used in recovering objects lost in a well. harpoon-like tools which are forced into the end of a section of tubing. 1794. The effort to recover tools. small slips. Z. nondrillable objects. or other objects from the well bore which may have become detached while in the well or been dropped accidentally into the hole. 239 Petroleum Engineer: M. and other steel. and junk baskets for retrieving smaller objects such as lost drill bit cones. tall into the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also called a drag . 1792. FISHPROOF Describes an item of equipment used in or over the well's borehole without parts-screws. pipe. it is still useful in drilling soft formations. casing or drill-pipe. some are specially designed to retrieve particular objects. wedges or dogs-that can come loose.mzhelu@gmail. cable. and have to be fished out. There a variety of spears. First used when the rotary system of drilling was developed about 1900. fishtail bit a drilling bit with cutting edge's of hard alloys. Although there are scores of standard tools used in fishing jobs. there are overshots with internal lugs or teeth which are forced over the end of lost pipe. 1791. See Captured Bolt 1 1796.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1790. fishing tool FISHING TOOLS a tool designed to recover equipment lost in the well. Fishing FISHING JOB Operations to recover a fish. lugs.

1. CATALYST A catalyst in a reactor vessel through which the liquid being treated drips or percolates through the bed of catalyst material. . a layout similar to a five-of-spades playing card. swages used to make up a system of piping. the catalyst is mixed thoroughly with the feed stock as it is pumped into the reactor vessel. flowed or flowing. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1 1800. or nylon strand used to mark the wireline when swabbing or bailing. In other methods. tees. elbows. 2. 1802. an indicator of wind direction used when drilling or performing a workover where hydrogen sulfide (sour) gas may be encountered. to attach a piece of cloth to the wire rope to enable the operator to estimate the position of the swab or bailer in the well. 1805. couplings. fissure FITTINGS a crack or fracture in a subsurface formation. The water from the tour injection wells moves through the formation flooding the oil toward the production well.mzhelu@gmail. 2. FIXED-BEP. FITTINGS. 240 Petroleum Engineer: M. fl flag abbr.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1798. 1803. rope. TRANSITION FIVE-SPOT WATERFLOOD PROGRAM See Transition Fittings. 1801. in swabbing or bailing. a piece of cloth. Small pipes (nipples). 1804. A secondary recovery operation where four input or injection wells are located in a square pattern with the production well in the center. used in drillingreports. 1. to signal or attract attention.

com . Flame arrestors have a "membrane" of fine-mesh screen across the vent opening. Just as the old-fashioned miners lamps. FLAME ARRESTOR A safety device on a vent line of a storage or stock tank that. 241 Petroleum Engineer: M. will prevent the flame from to the vapor inside the tank. Z. The use of flambeau lights is now regulated under state conservation laws. 1807.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1806. 1 1810. could be used in a gassy mine. FLAME SNUFFER An attachment to a tank's vent line that can be manually operated to snuff out a flame at the mouth of the vent line a metal clapper-like valve that may be closed by pulling on an attached fine. the tank flame arrestor is effective for the same reason the fine screen "breaks up" and cools the flame at the surface of the screen preventing the ignition of the vapor behind the screen. with their open flames encased in a finemesh screen. FLAG THE LINE To lie pieces of cloth on the swab line at measured intervals to be able to tell how much fine is in the hole when coming out with the line.mzhelu@gmail. FLAMBEAU LIGHT A torch used in the field for the disposal of casing-head gas produced with oil when the gas is without a market or is of such small quantity as to make it impractical to gather for commercial use. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1808. in the event of lightning or other ignition of the venting vapor. The vapor venting from the tank may be ignited but the flame will not flash through the fine screen into the tank.

The use of the word "inflammable" which means flammable but thought by some people to mean nonflammable has fallen into disuse because of the confusion and the potential hazard of someone mistaking the prefix "in" for "non. (2) A rim extending out from an object to provide strength or for attaching another .) of 80. Each half is screwed or welded to a length of pipe and the two halves are then bolted together joining the two lengths of pipe. Z. 1815. to use. 242 Petroleum Engineer: M. flanges to make final connections on a piping system. FLAME-JET DRILLING fling technique that uses rocket fuel to burn a hole through rock strata. FLANGE (1)A type of pipe coupling made in two halves.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1811. This leaves a ceramic-like sheath on the walls of the borehole. flange up 1. eliminating the need for casing." 1813. FLAMMABLE (INFLAMMABLE) Term describing material which can easily be ignited. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. flange union a device in which two matching flanges are used tojoin the ends of two sections of pipe.'F." 1 1817. flanged orifice fitting a two-piece orifice fitting with flanged faces that are bolted together. (slang) to complete any operation as. 2. or lower are classed as flammable. 1814. Petroleum products with a flash point (q. 1812.mzhelu@gmail. "They flanged up the meeting and went home.

flare gas FLARE.) (2) The f lame from a flare. Z. 243 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1825. A refinery vessel into which a process stream is charged or pumped and where lighter products flash off or vaporize and are drawn off at the top. By accommodating lateral movement of a mobile offshore drilling rig. FLASH OFF flash point To vaporize from heated charge stock.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1818. 1819. to distill. SMOKELESS FLASH CHAMBER gas or vapor that is flared.mzhelu@gmail. 1824. The remaining heavier fractions are drawn off at the bottom of the vessel. a device that provides a flexible connection between the riser pipe and the subsea blowout preventers. Compare fire point. El-Helu E-Mail: . the pipe or the stack itself. the flaring of natural gas is illegal. flash set flex joint a premature thickening or setting of cement slurry that makes it unpumpable. See Smokeless Flare. 1822. (Under conservation laws. FLARE (1)To burn unwanted gas through a pipe or stack. 1823. flex joints help to prevent a buildup of abnormal bending load pressure. 1 1821. 1 1827. the temperature at which a petroleum product ignites momentarily but does not burn continuously.

Flexible couplings dampen vibration and provide a way to make quick hook ups of engines and pumps which is useful in field operations. float switch a switch in a circuit that is opened or closed by the action of a j7oat and that maintains a predetermined level of liquid in a vessel. The float collar also prevents a backflow of cement during the cementing operation. (2) The buoyant element of a fluid-level shut off or control apparatus. inserted one or two joints above the bottom of the casing string. It contains a check valve and functions similarly to the float collar but also serves as a guide shoe for the casing. attached to the bottom of the casing string. 1 1831. FLOAT (1)A long. Z.mzhelu@gmail. actuating other devices as the liquid level rises and falls. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . that contains a check valve to permit fluid to pass downward but not upward through the casing. Floats are used in the oil fields for transporting long. FLEXIBLE COUPLING A connecting link between two shafts that allows for a certain amount of misalignment between the driving and driven shaft without damage to bearings. 1833. float collar a special coupling device. heavy. 244 Petroleum Engineer: M. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom. flat-bed trailer the front end of which rests on a truck. allowing the casing to float during its descent and also decreasing the load on the derrick. float shoe a short. 1832. heavy equipment. The float collar prevents drilling mud from entering the casing while it is being lowered.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1828. the rear end on two dual-wheel axles. An airtight canister or sphere that floats on liquids and is attached to an arm that moves up and down.

1835. floating tank a tank with its main gate valve open to the main line at a station. (1) A barge-like drilling platform used in relatively shallow offshore work. semisubmersibles Drill ships. Drill barges. Z. The roof rests on a series of pontoons whose buoyancy supports the roof proper. float valve FLOATER a drill-pipe float.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1834.mzhelu@gmail. e.) floating offshore drilling rig floating roof 1837. The buoyant effect of the hollow column 245 Petroleum Engineer: . 1840. (See floater.(2) Any offshore drilling p14tform without a fixed base. 1839. FLOATING ROOF TANK A storage tank with a flat roof that floats on the surface of the Oil thus reducing evaporation to a minimum. Use of a floating roof eliminates vapor space above the liquid in the tank and conserves light fractions of the liquid. In floating the hole is filled with fluid and the casing is plugged before being lowered into the hole. Oil may thus enter or leave the tank as pumping rates in the main line vary. 1838.g. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a floater. FLOATING THE CASING A method of lowering casing into very deep boreholes when there exists the danger of the casing joints because of the extreme weight or tension on the upper joints. 1836. a tank covering that rests on the surface of a hydrocarbon liquid in the tank and rises and falls as the liquid level rises and falls.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of casing displacing the fluid reduces the weight and the tension on the upper joints. a drilling crew member whose work station is on the derrick floor. flood 1. to drive oil from a reservoir into a well by injecting water under pressure into the reservoir formation. FLOODING The use of water injected into a production formation or resevoir to increase oil recovery. 1847. Micellar-surfactant Flooding. the plug is drilled out. 1846. there are at least two floormen on each crew. Z. See Secondary Recovery.mzhelu@gmail. but three or more are used on most rigs. 1845. (See water J7ood. floodable length the length of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig that may be flooded without its sinking below its safety or margin line. On rotary drilling rigs. DUMP FLOOR MEN. 246 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1842. flocculation a property of contaminants or special additives to a drilling fluid that causes the solids to coagulate. Members-of the drilling crew (usually two) who work on the derrick floor.) 2. Tertiary Recovory. . When the casing is in place. 1844. 1841. to drown out a well with water. 1843. usually a few inches below the freeboard deck. floorman See Dump Flooding.

g. 1 1853.. It is usual to report a new well's production as a flow of a certain number of barrels per day through a choke of a certain size.mzhelu@gmail.. Flow Line Subsea pipeline connecting satellite wells and/or platforms to a central production platform. etc. flow by heads FLOW CHART to produce intermittently. 1850. A drilled plug in the flow line at the wellhead that controls the oil flow to desired rate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1849. Z. usually a device such as a bubble tower is installed in the cell to permit the introduction of gas into the water. 1851. FLOW NIPPLE A choke. a heavy steel nipple put in the production string of tubing that restricts the flow of oil to the size of the orifice in the nipple. Flow beans are drilled with different-sized holes for different flow rates. 247 Petroleum Engineer: . 1856. 9/64 in. cylindrical tank in which water that is slightly oil-contaminated is circulated to be cleaned before it is disposed of overboard or in a disposal well. Since oil droplets cling to rapidly rising gas. flow FLOW BEAN a current or stream of fluid. 16/64 in. 1854. paper chart on which flow rates are recorded by an actuated arm and pen of a flow meter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. e. flotation cell a large. A replaceable. 1855. a flow plug.

capital string.he pump cylinders are located. 1863. FLOW STRING The string of casing or tubing through which oil from a well flows to the surface. Z. A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude. Inserting smaller liners and pistons permits pumping at higher pressure but at a reduced volume. FLOW. 1862.mzhelu@gmail. pay string. production string. FLOW SHEET A diagrammatic drawing showing the sequence of refining or manufacturing operations in a plant. also Turbulent Flow. and an oil and water treater. Also Oil string. PLASTIC FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING UNIT See Plastic Flow. an oil heater. FLOW TANK A single unit that acts as an oil and gas separator. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The cylinders or liners in most pumps are removable and can be changed for others with larger or smaller internal diameters. 1861. 1858. FLUID END (OF A PUMP) The end of the pump body where the valves (suction and discharge) and . 248 Petroleum Engineer: M. it provides a motor spirit of 10-15 octane numbers higher than that of the thermally cracked product. naphthas or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. The fluid end of a reciprocating pump is accessible by removing the cylinder heads which exposes the pistons or pump plungers. The process is also more effective in producing isoparaffins and aromatics which are of high antiknock value. Catalytic cracking is regarded as the successor to thermal cracking as it produces less gas and highly volatile material.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . 1 1860.

This buildup of mud solids can result in stuck pipe. FLUSH PRODUCTION FLUSHING OILS The high rate of I low of a good well immediately after it is brought in. fusing point. decomposed matter. FLUID LOSS A condition downhole in which a water-base drilling mud loses water in a highly permeable zone causing the solids in the drilling fluid to build up on the wall of the borehole. and actuate. 1867. FLUIDICS Pertains to the use of fluids (and air) in instrumentation. 1868. metal cuttings. Fluidics is defined as "engineering science pertaining to the use of fluid-dynamic phenomena to sense. 1866. FLUXING To soften a substance with heat so that it will flow.mzhelu@gmail. FLUID LEVEL The distance between the wellhead and the point to which the fluid rises in 1865. Oils or compounds formulated for the purpose of removing used oil. and sludge from lubricating passages and engine parts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1864. the well. which often arises when the hydrostatic head or mud pressure is consider ably higher than the formation pressure." Fluidics provide a reliable system far less expensive than explosion-proof installations required with electrical instrumentation on offshore rigs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. process information. Z. control. 1869. to lower a substance's 249 Petroleum Engineer: .

) used on the "fool" or lower end of a suction pipe riser to maintain the column of liquid in the riser when the liquid is being drawn upward by a pump. FOOT-POUND A unit of energy or work equal to the work done in raising one pound the height of one foot against the force of gravity. wars. 1876. FORCE MAJEURE CLAUSE A lease clause providing that cessation or failure of production shall not cause automatic termination of the leasehold. Such clauses usually list acts of God. and that the performance of lessee's covenants shall be excused when the failure of production or performance of covenants is owing to causes set forth in the clause. 1875. state. strikes. or municipal . compliance with federal. FORCED DRAFT BURNER Crude oil disposal equipment on offshore platforms. earth's crust. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 250 Petroleum Engineer: M. The burner. FOLDING Buckling or other deformation of rock strata caused by movement of the 1871. Sometimes the price per foot changes as the well progresses and different formations are encountered. burns crude oil during testing operations. FOOT VALVE A type of check valve (q.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1870. FOOTAGE CONTRACT A contract for the drilling of a well in which the drilling contractor is paid on a footage basis as the well is taken down. adverse weather. mounted on a boom or an extension of the deck. Z. 1 1873.mzhelu@gmail. 1874. and other contingencies over which the lessee has no control.

attached to a fulcrum at the base of the pump. according to the Internal Revenue Service. not taxes creditable in the U.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Gas. pumping out sump pits. or transferring oil or water from one small tank to . company with a foreign government or one of its agencies represents oil royalty payments.S.S. one-cylinder pump for moving limited amounts of liquid. the handle. 1 1883. fore and aft FOREIGN TAX CREDIT the lengthwise measurement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. 1881. Taxes paid a foreign government by a U. FORMATION A sedimentary bed or series of beds sufficiently alike or distinctive to form an identifiable geological unit.S. hand-operated. The pump has one horizontal barrel and a plunger attached to a vertical handle. formation boundary the horizontal limits of a formation. company on its overseas oil operations that are creditable against taxes owed the U. air and water manifolded with the test-crude stream result in complete combustion of the oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FORCEPUMP A barrel pump a portable. 1 1878. 1885. government. or intermediates are processed. 251 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1884. Production sharing by a U. FOREIGN TRADE ZONE An area in the United States where imported oil.mzhelu@gmail.S. When moved back and forth. reduced crude. Z. actuates the plunger 1 1880.

252 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. or similar materials are carried in suspension by the fluid into the fractures. alcohol. A fluid (as water. a method of stimulating production by increasing the permeability of the producing formation. When the pressure is released at the surface. 1891. formation damage the reduction of permeability in a reservoir rock caused by the invasion of drilling fluid and treating fluids to the section adjacent to the wellbore. Under extremely high hydraulic pressure. It is also called reservoir pressure or shut-in bottomhole pressure. leaving channels for oil to flow through them to the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and the fractures partially close on the proppants. or foam) is pumped downward through tubing or drill pipe and forced into the perforations in the casing. recorded in the hole at the level of the formation with the well shut in. This process is often called a frac job. Z. 1890. 1888. It is often called skin. Formation Density Log formation dip formation fracturing a trade name for density log. oil. the fracturing fluid returns to the well. aluminum pellets. 1889. formation pressure the pressure exerted by fluids in a formation. glass beads. The fluid enters the formation and parts or fractures it. the angle at which a formation bed inclines away from the horizontal. These are called propping agents or proppants.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1887. dilute hydrochloric acid. liquefied petroleum gas. Sand .

where the well fluids may be sampled and inspected. (See acidize. FORMULATION The product of a formula. 1894.) a simple organic acid used for acidizing oil wells.mzhelu@gmail. It is usually used for high-temperature wells. The conventional method is the drill stem test. gradually exposing the formation to atmospheric pressure and allowing the well to produce to the surface. A port on the tool is opened to allow the trapped pressure below the packer to bleed off into the drill pipe. blended oils. formation strike the horizontal direction of a formation bed as measured at a right angle to the dip of the bed. a plastic. a number of facts about the formation may be inferred.e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The tool is lowered to bottom on a string of drill pipe and the packer set. and a pressure-recording device. 1895. isolating the formation to be tested from the formations above and supporting the fluid column above the packer.) . stronger than acetic acid but much less corrosive than hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. Z. i. (See connate water. 1893. Incorporated in the drill-stem testing tool are a packer.. formation water formic acid the water originally in place in a formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1892. gasolines any material with two or more components or ingredients. From a record of the pressure readings. valves or ports that may be opened and closed from the surface. formation testing the gathering of data on a formation to determine its potential productivity before installing casing in a well. 253 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1897. 1 1899. and coal were derived from organisms living in eons past. FOSSIL ENERGY Energy derived from crude oil. natural gas. FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE An internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four strokesintake.. FOSSIL FUEL foundation pile See Fossil Energy. power. 1 1905. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1901. the remains or impressions of a plant or animal of past geological ages that have been preserved in or as rock. 1900. (See big and fishtail . also shale oil and oil recovered from tar sands. Z. compression. four-way drag bit a drag bit with four blades. It prevents sloughing of the ocean-floor formations and is a structural support for the permanent guide base and blowout preventers.mzhelu@gmail. four-stroke cycle engine. and coal.) 254 Petroleum Engineer: M. Fossil energy by implication is the energy derived from sedimentary beds containing the fossilized remains of marine plants and animals. 1902. 1903. the first casing or conductor string (generally with a diameter of 30 to 36 in. and exhaust-for each complete cycle. and thus oil. The Ottocycle engine.) set when drilling a well from an offshore drilling rig. forward ad fossil in the direction of the bow on offshore drilling rigs. gas.

casing. together. frac frac job fraction fractured.mzhelu@gmail. (See double board and thribble board. an agency of the Federal government. 255 Petroleum Engineer: M. or tubing consisting of four joints screwed . Federal Power Commission. (See formation fracturing. fourble board the working platform of the derrickman (the monkeyboard) when it is located at a height on the derrick approximately equal to four lengths of pipe joined together. 1912. As of 1977 the FPC has been superceded by the FERC. Methane is the predominant fraction in natural gas. 1909. the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission which has taken over the duties and responsibilities of Federal Power Commission along with other agencies in the field of energy. FP FPC flowing pressure.) 1908. used in drilling reports. fourble a section of drill pipe.) one component of a mixture of hydrocarbons.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1906. Z. a regulatory body having to do with oil and gas matters such as pricing and trade practices. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1913. 1 1911.

fractionate to separate single fractions from a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids. FRACTIONATOR A tall.) (See formation fracturing. The frasch process opened the market for sour crude from Ohio and Canada just when it was thought the production from Pennsylvania 256 Petroleum Engineer: M.) fractionating column a vessel or tower in a gas plant in which fractionation occurs.) A Canadian chemist who developed a process for the use of sour crude for making kerosene.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1919.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1915. 1918. a procedure by which acid is forced into a formation under pressure high enough to cause the formation to crack. Compare matrix acidizing. 1921. Z. (See . fractionate. either natural or induced. The acid acts on certain kinds of rocks. 1920. cylindrical refining vessel where liquid feedstocks are separated into various components or fractions. HERMAN (See formation fracturing. usually carbonates. to increase the permeability of the formation. fracture fracture acidizing a crack or crevice in a formation. usually by 1916. fracturing fracturing FRASCH. 1922. distillation.

1923. free water the water produced with oil. 1928.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and West Virginia fields had peaked and the country was running low on sweet crude for kerosene and gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. free-water knockout (FWKO) a vertical or horizontal vessel into which oil or emulsion is run in order to allow any water not emulsified with the oil (free water) to drop out. The free point indicator is lowered into the well on a conducting . Each end of a strain gauge element is anchored to the pipe wall by friction springs or magnets. or floating off shore drilling rig. It usually settles out within rive minutes when the well fluids become stationary in a settling space within a vessel. 1925. 1926. and.mzhelu@gmail. 257 Petroleum Engineer: M. Price. world prices. an accurate measurement of its stretch is transmitted to the surface. as increasing strain is put on the pipe. Compare emulsified water. Z. FREE MARKET PRICE Oil prices not subject to controls by the government. a royalty interest. freeboard the vertical distance between the waterline and the freeboard deck on a ship. The stretch measurements indicate the depth at which the pipe is stuck. boat. FREE RIDE An interest in a well's oil and gas production free of any expense of that production. See Posted 1924. 1927. free-point Indicator a tool designed to measure the amount of stretch in a string of stuck pipe and to indicate the deepest point at which the pipe is free.

) fresh water freshwater mud FRESNO SLIP water that has little or no salt dissolved in it. FREON A trademark applied to a group of halogenated hydrocarbons. earth-moving or cutting scoop with curved runners or supports on the sides.mzhelu@gmail. 1934. 1931. and a single long handle used to guide the scoop blade into the earth or material being moved. 1936. 1935. freeboard deck the uppermost continuous deck on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig equipped with a permanent means of closing all openings to the water. When friction is present. 1932. friction resistance to movement created when two surfaces are in contact. 1930. 1933. A type. a refrigerant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. friction between the 258 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . of horse-drawn. The freeze box or frost box surrounding the pips is filled with sawdust manure or other insulating materia1. Z. friction loss a reduction in the pressure of a fluid caused by its motion against an enclosed surface (as a pipe). having one or more florine atoms in the molecule. FREEZE BOX An enclosure or a water pipe riser that is exposed to the weather. (See mud. heat is produced. As the fluid moves through the pipe.

causes moisture in the atmosphere to condense and freeze on the pipes. 1 1942. ft ft-lb ft/min ft/s ft2 ft3 ft3-lb ft3/bbl ft3/d 1940. 259 Petroleum Engineer: M. cubic feet per barrel. cubic feet per day. the greater the losses are. 1947. as pressure is reduced. The cooling effect of the expanding . feet per second. foot. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The faster the fluid moves. 1949. 1948.mzhelu@gmail. foot-pound. 1937. FROSTUP Icing of pipes and flow equipment at the wellhead of a high-pressure gas well. Z. feet per minute. square foot. 1943. 11946. 1944.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid and the pipe wall creates a pressure loss. cubic foot. cubic feet per pound. 1 1939.

1958. 1959. used extensively in diesel engines and to some extent in spark-ignition engines. Z. a mechanical device that sprays fuel into a cylinder of an engine. 1955. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ran or other fitting whose opening is as large in cross section as the pipe. 1 1953. full-gauge bit full-gauge hole full-load displacement a bit that has maintained its original diameter. cubic feet per minute. 1957. FUELOIL Any liquid or liquefiable petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace. a wellbore drilled with a full-gauge . FULL BORE Designation for a valve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1950.mzhelu@gmail. or for the generation of power in an engine. 260 Petroleum Engineer: M. exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100"F 1956. ft3/s ftl/min fuel injector cubic feet per second. 1951. FUEL-AIR RATIO The ratio of fuel to air by weight in an explosive mixture which is controlled by the carburetor in an internal combustion engine. casing or tubing it is mounted on. 1954. the displacement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship when floating at its deepest design draft.

261 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Integrated Oil Company. 1966. transportation. production. based on the number of seconds it takes for 1. 1967. a plug in a service line equipped with a seal that will melt at a predetermined temperature releasing pressure that actuates shut. a liquid aldehyde. i.mzhelu@gmail. a meltable plug. 1 1963.000 cm' of drilling fluid to flow through the . 1961. distillate fuel. used extensively in refining a wide range of lubricating oils and diesel fuels.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1960. FULLER'S EARTH FULLY INTEGRATED A fine. Two oil. 1965. down devices. FUSIBLE PLUG A fail-safe device. 2 heating oil. FWKO free-water knockout. marketing. Said of a company engaged in all phases of the oil business. refining. clay-like substance used in certain types of oil filters. 1968.. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1964. FURFURAL An extractive solvent of extremely pungent odor. FURNACE OIL No. Z. light gas oil that can be used as diesel fuel and for residential heating.e. funnel viscosity viscosity as measured by the Marsh funnel. or commingled. fungible relating or pertaining to petroleum products with characteristics so similar that they can be mixed together.

is equal to approximately 1.34 lb at 60 F.000 cubic feet of natural gas produced. Geological Society of America.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1969. 1977. used in Great Britain. as a shaft journal. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.S . P. 1976. gallon (gal) a unit of measure of liquid capacity that equals 3. G . g G&OCM and oil-cut mud. by moving contact with a bearing without sufficient lubrication. 1972. gal. To damage or destroy a finished metal .S. 262 Petroleum Engineer: M. M. gas- 1971. The imperial gallon.mzhelu@gmail. 1975. To chafe by friction and heat as two pieces of metal are forcibly rubbed together in the absence of lubrication. variation of gauge. gallon. gallons per minute.785 liters and has a volume of 231 in. 1 1974. gram. 1978. 1970.A . Z. used in drilling reports.2 U. gage gal gal/min GALL Gallons of gasoline per 1. G.3' A gallon of water weighs 8.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1979. The measurement of gamma particles (sometimes called gamma rays) is the basis for a number of radioactivity welllogging methods. 1981. 1980. A well-logging technique wherein a well's borehole is bombarded with gamma rays from a gamma ray emitting device to induce output signals that are then recorded and transmitted to the surface. GAMMA RAY LOGGING GAMMA RAY-GAMMA RAY LOGGING See Natural Gamma Ray Logging. . 1985. and which indicate the relative densities of the surrounding rock. gamma particle a short. 1982. Subsurface rock formations emit radiation quantum that can be detected by well-logging devices.mzhelu@gmail. highly penetrating X ray emitted by radioactive substances during their spontaneous disintegration. a device that is capable of sensing and measuring the amount of gamma particles emitted by certain radioactive substances. GAMMA RAY Minute quantities of radiation emitted by substances that are radioactive. 1983. 1984. The gamma ray signals thus picked up indicate to the geologist the relative density of the rock formation penetrated by the well bore at different levels. gamma-ray log (See radioactivity well logging. Gamma-Gamma Density Log gamma-ray detector a trade name for a density log.) 263 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

perforated device attached to the bottom of a sucker-rod pump that helps to prevent gas lock. the gas breaks out of the fluid and exits the anchor through perforations near the top. 1987. As well fluids enter the anchor. rises. GANG TRUCK A light or medium-sized flat-bed truck carrying a portable doghouse or man rack where the pipeline repair crew rides to and from the job. being lighter than oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. The gas anchor (a length of tubing about 5 feet long) is inside a barrier pipe with perforations at the upper end. It is attached to the standing valve and used to pull the valve out of its scat when repairs are needed. The device works on the principle that gas. which has an opening near the . Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1986. The pipeliners toots are carried in compartments beneath the bed of the truck. 1990. all or most of the gas escapes before the fluids enter the pump. gas oil contact the point or plane in a reservoir at which the bottom of a gas sand is in contact with the top of an oil sand. or garbutt rod a short rod on the lower end of the traveling valve of a rod pump. device for the bottom-hole separation of oil and gas in a pumping well. Oil in the annulus between the well's casing and tubing enters 264 Petroleum Engineer: M. GANG PUSHER A pipeline foreman. In this way. 1988. 1989. garbutt ROD garbot. The remaining fluids enter the pump through a mosquito bill (a tube within the anchor). gas anchor a tubular. gang pusher the supervisor of a roustabout crew or a foreman in charge of a pipeline crew. the man who runs a pipeline or a connection gang a pusher.

) the use of the energy that arises from gas compressed in a reservoir to move crude oil to a wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the perforations and is picked up by the pump. a surge chamber on the mud-flow line where entrained gas breaks out and is vented to a flare line. RETROGRADE GAS DISTILLATE GAS DRILLING gas drive See Retrograde Gas Condensate. 1997. GAS BOTTLES The cylindrical containers of oxygen and acetylene used in oxyacetylene welding. El-Helu E-Mail: . the gas-free mud is returned to the mud tanks or mud pits. See Air Drilling. GAS BUSTER A drilling mud/gas separator.mzhelu@gmail. See Distillate. Z. Gas drive is also used in a form of secondary recovery. 1994. GAS CONDENSATE. acetylene bottles are shorter and somewhat larger in diameter. The use of gas as a drilling fluid. 265 Petroleum Engineer: M. GAS CONDENSATE Liquid hydrocarbons present in casinghead gas that condense upon being brought to the surface formerly distillate. in which gas is injected into input wells to sweep remaining oil to a producing well. 1992. the gas goes out through the casing to the wellhead. gas drilling (See air drilling. 1991. now condensate. Also casinghead gasoline. 1993. white oil. 1 1996. 1998. Oxygen bottles are tall and slender with a tapered top.

com . or recycling operation. 2 2002. the higher formation pressure forces the fluid out of the wellbore.mzhelu@gmail. attended by lease pumpers who not only are practical machanics but are experienced production men as well. As the gas expands. 266 Petroleum Engineer: M. Hundred of thousands of stripper wells are pumped by small gas engine. Z. GAS INJECTION Natural gas injected under high pressure into a producing reservoir through an input or injection well as part of a pressure maintenance. GAS KICK GAS LIFT 2004.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1999. Before the electrification of oil fields. gas lift the process of raising or lifting fluid from a well by injecting gas down the well through tubing or through the tubing-casing annulus. consequently. See Kick. A method of lifting oil from the bottom of a well to the surface by the use of compressed gas. The gas is pumped into the hole and at the lower end of the tubing it becomes a part of the fluid in the well. Gas may be injected continuously or intermittently. GAS INJECTION WELL A well through which gas under high pressure. all pumping wells and small pipeline booster stations were powered by stationary gas engines. 2003. is injected into a producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure. it lifts the oil to the surface. GAS ENGINE A two or four-cycle internal combustion engine that runs on natures gas a stationary field engine. Injected gas aerates the fluid to make it exert less pressure than the formation does. 2000. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. secondary recovery.

released from solution during the upstroke of the plunger. The standard pressure is 14. Using the conversion table. when elevated sections of the line are filled with gas. effectively blocks the gravity flow of oil. GAS LOCK a condition sometimes encountered in a pumping well when dissolved gas. MASS-FLOW See Mass-flow Gas Meter. the standard temperature is 60'F One standard cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14. If the gas pressure is sufficient. STANDARD A method of measuring volumes of natural gas by the use of conversion factors of standard pressure and temperature. because of its compressibility and penchant for collecting in high places in the line.65 pounds per square inch.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering depending on the producing characteristics of the well and the arrangement of the gas-lift . GAS LIQUIDS See LPG. consequently. 2006. no fluid enters the tubing. 2007. Z. appears as free gas between the valves. the standing valve is "locked" shut and. sold and transported. natural gain. GAS METER. The gas. Gas lock can also occur in suction chambers of reciprocating pumps. 2005. The gas prevents the oil from flowing into chambers and must be vented or bled off. condition that can exist in an oil pipeline. 267 Petroleum Engineer: M. GAS MEASUREMENT.65 psia at a temperature of 60 F. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. at any temperature and pressure can be converted to standard cubic feet. the measurement by which gas is usually bought.

mzhelu@gmail. gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed to prepare it for sale to consumers. Gas Reservoir A rock stratum that forms a trap for the accumulation of crude oil and natural 2012. 2 2014.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2008. 2011.) Petroleum Engineer: . a predetermined pressure. permits more or less gas to flow through a pipeline and thus controls the pressure. A gas plant separates desirable hydrocarbon components from the impurities in natural gas. gas turbine 268 (See compressor. 2 2010. stone from which natural gas is obtained. gas. zone. gas sand gas show a stratum of sand or porous sand. 2016. gas regulator an automatically operated valve that. GAS SNIFFER A colloquial term for a sensitive electronic device that detects the presence of gas or other hydrocarbons in the stream of drilling mud returning from downhole. Z. by opening and closing in response to pressure. indicating the presence of a gas 2015. fluid returns. For example a regulator can be adjusted to permit a flow of gas at a pressure of 8 or 10 ounces per square inch from a gas main carrying 100 pounds per square inch. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the gas that appears in drilling. A pressure-reducing device on gas take-off piping that can be set to deliver a supply of gas a.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2017.mzhelu@gmail. 2021. The shutting in of the gas-cap producer preserves the reservoir pressure which is essential to good production practice. 2022. Z. INTERRUPTIBLE GAS. 2023. See Unassociated Gas. See Oxyacetylene Welding. . GAS-CAP DRIVE The energy derived from the expansion of gas in a free state above the oil zone which is used in the production of oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Wells drilled into the oil zone cause a release of pressure which allows the compressed gas in the cap to expand and move downward forcing the oil into the well bores of the producing wells. 2019. The allowable is transferable to another lease in the same field. See Unconventional Natural Gas. also Associated Gas. gas-cap drive drive energy supplied naturally (as a reservoir 269 Petroleum Engineer: M. UNASSOCIATED GAS. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS-CAP ALLOWABLE a well that primarily produces gas. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS. GAS WELDING Welding with oxygen and acetylene or with oxygen and another gas. 2024. 2018. A production allowable granted an operator who shuts in a well producing from a gas cap of an oil-producing reservoir. See Interruptible See Liquefied Petroleum Gas. gas well GAS.

When wells are drilled to lower points on the structure. sometimes causing loss of circulation. 2026. This is necessary for oil and gas royalty purposes. And because it is a "working gas" as opposed to commercial gas.mzhelu@gmail. so when the combined gas is stripped of petroleum liquids only the formation gas is credited with the recovered liquids. gas-cut mud often must be treated to lessen the chance of a blowout. Gas lift and commercial gas commingle when produced. its cost per thousand cubic feet (MCF) is considerably less. Because a large amount of gas in mud lowers its density. the gas will expand forcing the oil down-dip and into the well bores. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Lift gas is usually first stripped of liquid hydrocarbons before it is injected into the well. GAS-LIFT GAS Natural gas used in a gas-lift program of oil .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is produced) by the expansion of gas in a cap overlying the oil in the reservoir. Drilling mud aerated or charged with gas from formations downhole. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. gas-cut mud a drilling mud having entrained formation gas that gives the mud a characteristically fluffy texture. GAS-CAP FIELD A gas-expansion reservoir in which some of the gas occurs as free gas rather than in solution. Z. 2027. 270 Petroleum Engineer: M. gas-input well a well into which gas is injected for the purpose of maintaining or supplementing pressure in an oil reservoir. 2028. The gas forms bubbles in the drilling fluid seriously affecting drilling operations. The free gas will occupy the highest portion of the reservoir.) 2025.

eliminating the need to pull the tubing to repair or replace the valve. gas-transmission system the central or trunk pipeline system by means of which dry natural gas is transported from field gathering stations or processing plants to the industrial or domestic fuel market. to replace or repair the valve. gas-lift mandrel a device installed in the tubing string of a gas-lift well onto which or into which a gas-lift valve is fitted. which in turn is put on the tubing string of a gas-lift well. GAS-OIL RATIO The number of cubic feet of natural gas produced with a barrel of oil. 2033. In the sidepocket mandrel. a great percentage of the oil may not be recoverable. A high gas-to-oil ratio is extremely undesirable because the pressure in a reservoir. is being depleted. 2032. whatever the volume of gas measured at the well that is produced per barrel of oil.mzhelu@gmail. Z. except by a costly secondary recovery program. Tubing and casing pressures cause the valve to open and close thus allowing gas to be injected into the fluid in the tubing to cause the fluid to rise to the surface. the tubing string must be pulled. There are two common types of mandrels. Well pressure is supplemented at intervals along the 271 Petroleum Engineer: M. expressed in cubic feet per barrel or cubic meters per metric ton. In the conventional gas-lift . gas-oil ratio (GOR) is a measure of the volume of gas produced with oil. 2031. And with the reservoir pressure gone. however. Thus. The ratio is expressed 5001 or 10001. the gas-lift valve is installed as the tubing is placed in the well. gas-lift valve a device installed on a gas-lift mandrel. the valve is installed and removed by wireline while the mandrel is still in the well. the propulsive force to move the oil in the formation to the boreholes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2030. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

or rubber) used to seal two essentially stationary surfaces. asbestos. Ready-made gaskets are sheathed in very thin. gas in a free state above an oil . Drilling Mud. gas cap a free-gas phase overlying an oil zone and occurring within the same producing formation as the oil. See Degassing 2035.' a motor fuel. fibrous material used to make the union of two metal parts pressure tight. Z. thin.mzhelu@gmail.) 2036. or of specially formulated rubber. gasket a material (as paper. GASOHOL A mixture of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent alcohol. 2034. GASC AP The portion of an oil-producing reservoir occupied by free gas. soft metal. 272 Petroleum Engineer: M. cork. the manufacture of synthetic gas from other hydrocarbons See Synthetic Gas. 2038. (See reservoir. Gasohol was first marketed in the late 1970s as a way to stretch available gasoline stocks by using surplus agricultural products to make ethanol or grain alcohol. converting a solid hydrocarbon such as coal or oil shale to commercial gas. 2037. GASIFICATION Converting a solid or a liquid to gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering transmission line by compressors to maintain a strong enough flow to move the gas to its destination. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GASBOX Colloquial term for a mud-gas separator at a drilling well. or they may be made exclusively of metal.

The untreated gasoline cut from the distillation of crude oil natural gasoline. Z. 2046. flammable liquid hydrocarbon refined from crude oils and used universally as a fuel for internal. gasoline a volatile. GASSER GASTURBINE A commercial. diesel fuel. natural-gas well. causing rotation of the spindle furnishing power to an attached pump or compressor. often used as 2040. RAW See Marine White gasoline. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE. 2045. A rotary engine whose power is derived from the thrust of expanding gases on blades or vanes on a spindle within the body of the engine. 2043. GATE Short for gate valve. 2044. 2 2048. As natural gas enters the combustion chamber it is ignited. and as it instantaneously expands. common term for all pipeline . it creates a powerful thrust that is directed against the vanes of the turbine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. spark-ignition engines. 2 2042. GASOLINE PLANT A compressor plant where natural gas is stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons usually present in wellhead gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2039.a well that produces natural-gas.mzhelu@gmail. combustion. GASOIL A refined fraction of crude oil somewhat heavier than kerosene. a gasoline similar to motor fuel but lower in octane and highly unstable. GASOLINE. 273 Petroleum Engineer: M.

e. Other valves have a rising stem (q. GATE VALVE A pipeline valve made with a wedge-shaped disk or "tongue" which is moved from open to closed (up to down) by a threaded valve stem.v. raising the disk and opening the valve. or both from wells to a central point-the gathering station-where there is the accessory equipment required to deliver a clean and salable product to the market or to 274 Petroleum Engineer: M. or a trunk pipeline. fluid can flow in one direction only. fluid can flow in the opposite direction. GATE. gathering system the pipelines and other equipment needed to transport oil. a tank farm. raising the disk to open position. gas. When the clapper is closed (resting on its seat in a normal position). 2051. i.. gathering line a pipeline. Z. 2052. when open (raised from its seat by the handle). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which remain in the valve bonnet (do not rise) and when they are rotated by the valve wheel screw into the disk.) which firmly attached to the wedge. . Some valves have stems. The valve stem is threaded and when the threaded valve wheel is turned the stem rises through the wheel.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2049. used in gathering crude oil from the field to a main pipeline. usually of small diameter. BACKFLOW A type of swing-check valve made so the clapper's position may be changed from open to closed by an externally mounted handle. 2050. The handle is attached to the clapper's fulcrum shaft which protrudes through the side of the valve body. GATHERING FACILITIES Pipelines and pumping units used to bring oil or gas from production leases by separate lines to a central point.mzhelu@gmail.

See Gathering Facilities.). 2058.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering another pipeline. with a bob attached. gauge pressure the amount of pressure exerted on the interior walls of a vessel by the fluid contained in it (as indicated by a pressure gauge). fitted with a hinged lid. innage gauge. 2060. emulsion treaters. abbreviated as psig (pounds per square inch gauge). 2. To prevent striking sparks.) 2056. sparking material or sheathed in a durable plastic. See Hitch. Gauge pressure.). A gas-gathering system includes regulators. A reel of steel measuring tape. the bob is made of brass or other non.mzhelu@gmail. held in a frame equipped with handle and winding crank used in gauging the liquid level in tanks. and associated equipment. 2 2055.v. through which the tank may be gauged and oil simples taken. outage gauge.v. 275 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See undergauge bit. 2059. to use a bit gauge to check the size of the bit. compressors. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2057. GAUGE. to measure the quantity of oil in a . dehydrators. GAUGE HATCH An opening in the roof of a stock or storage tank. GAUGE HOLE GAUGE LINE A gauge hatch (q. and similar equipment. plus atmospheric pressure equals absolute pressure. Z. An oil-gathering system includes oil and gas separators. TICKET A run ticket (q. The tip of the bob is point zero on the gauge column. gathering tanks. gauge 1.

checks the sediment content. makes out a run ticket. gas cut. 276 Petroleum Engineer: M. FIELD A person who measures the oil in a stock or lease tank.v. gauging tape GC a metal tape used to measure the depth of liquid in a tank. 2069. and uses a calibrated. "buys" the tank of oil for his company. the opening in a tank or other vessel through which measuring and sampling are performed. GAUGETANK GAUGETAPP gauging hatch A tank in which the production from a well or a lease is measured. Gauge line (q. Z. 2065. gauger a pipeline representative for the sale or transfer of crude oil from the producer to the pipeline. records the temperature. in effect. used in drilling reports. A gasger the pipeline company's agent and.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 . flexible-steel tape with a plumb bob at the end to measure the oil in the tank. He samples and tests the crude oil to determine quantity and quality. 'They are sometimes called strapping tables. 2063. GAUGER. 2064.). 2067. gauging tables tables prepared by engineers to show the calculated number of barrels for any given depth of liquid in a tank. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See strap.mzhelu@gmail. and turns the oil into the pipeline. 2066.) 2068.

Z. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2070. Gelling agents are mixed with water or light oil to form an emulsion that will carry a quantity of sand for various well workover procedures. (See gel. based on its resistance to shear. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 2074. or shear strength. and thixotrophy. Gear. (See gel strength and thixotrophy. GC M GEARBOX gas-cut mud. bentonite. shearometer. Sometimes bentonite and other colloidal clays are added to drilling fluid to increase its gel strength.) 277 Petroleum Engineer: M. The gel strength. A viscous substance. gel strength a measure of the ability of a colloidal dispersion to develop and retain a gel form. of a drilling mud determines its ability to hold solids in . the gel converts to a fluid state. GEARPUMP GEL See Pump. a jelly-like material used in well stimulation and formation fracturing to suspend sand or other proppants in the fracturing medium.mzhelu@gmail. 2072. The enclosure or case containing a gear train or assembly of reduction gears. gel cement a cement or cement slurry that has been modified by the addition of 2 2076. 2073. When agitated. jellylike state assumed by some colloidal dispersions at rest. the case containing a pump's pinion and ring gears. a semisolid. 2071.

v. GEOCHEMISTRY The science of chemistry applied to oil and gas exploration. Pennsylvanian and Permian. Dividing these eras are periods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2077. all 278 Petroleum Engineer: M. GEOLOGIC COLUMN The vertical range of sedimentary rock from the basement rock (q. 2083. has rocks from the present to 75 million years old. Z. GEOCHEMICAL PROSPECTING Exploratory methods that involve the chemical analysis of rocks and subsurface water for the presence of organic matter associated with oil and gas deposits 2078. 2079. According to authorities in the study of the earth. Devonian.mzhelu@gmail. 2 2081. Beginning with the they are Cambrian. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . 2084.) to the 2082. GEOLOGIC ERAS GEOLOGIC PERIODS GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE See Geologic Time Scale. the Cenozoic. GEODESY The branch of science concerned with the determination of the size and shape of the earth and the precise location of points on the earths surface. See Geologic Time Scale. the Paleozoic Era represents the oldest rocks whose ages are 225 to 600 million years old the next title next era is the Mesozoic with rocks 75 to 225 million years old. Ordovician. surface. Mississippian. the most recent era. By analyzing the contents of subsurface water for presence of organic matter associated with oil deposits. geochemistry has proved to be an important adjunct to geology and geophysics in exploratory work.

His work involves analysis of the test data. Z. which are subdivided into periods and epochs. 2085. and running tests. is primarily concerned with sedimentary rocks where most of the world oil has been found. HYDRODYNAMICS A geologist specializing in the study of the mechanics of fluids in underground formations. In contrast to a hard-rock geologist. Folding. 2087. it is assigned a place in the scale and thereafter referred to as Mesozoic rock of the Triassic period and so on. fracturing faulting (the place where the strata have fractured and slipped by one another) are geological structures that often form structural traps that are logical places to find accumulations of oil and gas . A petroleum geologist. and Precambrian). Geologists have divided the Quarternary Period. In the youngest era Cenozoic are the Tertiary and Quaternary. Geologic time scale the long periods of time dealt with and identified by geology. In general the work of a petroleum geologist consists in searching for structural traps favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas. When the age of a type of rock is determined.a person trained in the study of the earth's crust. In the Mesozoic Era are the Triassic. In addition to deciding on location to drill he may supervise the drilling. the interpretation of 279 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE Layers of sedimentary rocks which have been displaced from their normal horizontal position by the forces of . Geologic time is divided into eras (Cenozoic. 2086. identifying the earlier epoch of the Quarternary Period as Pleistocene. Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. logging. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. geologist a scientist who procures and interprets data pertaining to the strata of the earth's crust. Mesozoic.and water. Cambrian.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering in the Paleozoic Era. GEOLOGIST. particularly with regard to coring.

and fossils. and development of the earth and its inhabitants as revealed in the study of rocks.) Geophones are often called jugs.sensitive sound detecting instruments used in conducting seismic surveys. In addition to providing living quarters and a store of 280 Petroleum Engineer: M. GEOMETRY OF A RESERVOIR A phrase used by petroleum and reservoir engineers meaning the shape of reservoir of oil or gas. 2 2092. 2088. Z. the rocks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid pressure from drilling wells and well . GEOLOGRAPH A device on a drilling rig to record the drilling rate or rate of penetration during each 8-hour tour. 2089. used in conjunction with seismography. GEOPHYSICAL CAMP Temporary headquarters Established in the field for geophysical teams working the area. GEOLOGY The science that deals with the history of the earth and its life as recorded in 2090.mzhelu@gmail. Geolograph a trade name for a patented device that automatically records the rate of penetration and depth during drilling. history. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. formations. the reflected sound waves created by explosions set off in the course of seismic exploration work. and applying his findings to the solution of problems associated with oil and gas well exploration and development. origin. to an amplifier-recording system. 2093. A series of geophones are placed on the ground at intervals to detect and transmit. geology the science that relates to the study of the structure. geophone an instrument that detects vibrations passing through the earth's crust. (See seismograph.

GEOPHYSICS The application of certain familiar physical principles-magnetic attraction. Their work consists of drilling shot holes. 2094. seismic) to locate probable reservoir structures capable of producing commercial quantities of natural gas and/or crude oil. 2097. speed of sound waves. setting out or stringing geophones. Geophysical Survey Searching and mapping the subsurface structure of the earth's crust using geophysical methods (e. and reading and interpreting the results of the seismic shocks set off by the explosive charges. Z. placing explosive charges. 2096. the higher the pressure it exerts on a wellbore drilled into it.mzhelu@gmail. detonating shot charges. 2098. The deeper the formation lies. geothermal gradient the increase in the temperature of the earth that follows increasing distance from the surface. gravitational pull. It averages about 1 F per 60 ft but may be considerably 281 Petroleum Engineer: M. Thousands of feet of sedimentary and volcanic rock were formed in it over millions of . the behavior of electric currents-to the science of geology. 2099.g. geosyncline a part of the earth's surface that sank over a long period of time. GEOPHYSICAL TEAM A group of specialists working together to gather geophysical data. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering supplies. geopressure abnormally high pressure exerted by some subsurface formations. forming a trough hundreds of miles long and tens of miles wide. 2095. the camp has facilities for processing geophysical data gathered on the field trips.

natural heat sources. i. Z. and coke. per mile of hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. turn to steam at the surface. to generate steam to power turboelectric generators. 2102. a subsurface layer of rock containing steam or hot water that is trapped in the layer by overlying impermeable rocks. 2101. a subsurface layer of rock that is hot but contains little or no water. 282 Petroleum Engineer: M. superheated water from deep in the earth. geronimo Gilsonite (See safety slide. 2 2104. a black.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering higher.mzhelu@gmail. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION The use of underground. 2. Geothermal reservoirs are a potential source of energy. the bottom-hole temperature is so hot (400 to SOO'F) that special drilling mud formulations must be used. geothermal reservoir 1.) a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon belonging to the asphalt group. when treated and refined. uintaite. The rate of increase in geothermal temperature is approximately one degree Fahrenheit for each 55 feet of depth or more than 1OO'F. fuel . In very deep wells. Plain water cannot be used because the water in the returning drilling mud would vaporize.A solid hydrocarbon with the general appearance of coal. A granular form of Gilsonite is sometimes used as a cement additive to prevent lost ciruculation.The increase in temperature of the earth the deeper a hole is drilled. 2100. Found in deposits in Utah.e. yields gasoline. lustrous form of asphalt that..

a supporting member. (3) A mast (q. spanning the crown block. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2107. 2111. girt none of the horizontal braces between the legs of a derrick.v. a device used to form a seal around a reciprocating or rotating rod (as in a pump) to prev6nt fluid leakage. 2110. 2108. 283 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2106. Gimbals are often used offshore to counteract undesirable wave motion. gin-pole truck a truck equipped with hoisting equipment and a pole or arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy . GIN POLE (1) An A-frame made of sections of pipe mounted on the rear of a truck bed that is used as a support or fixed point for the trucks winch line when lifting or hoisting.mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2105. B B GIRBITOL PROCESS A process used to "sweeten" sour gas by removing the hydrogen sulfide 2109. gimbal a mechanical frame that permits an object mounted into it to remain in a stationary or near stationary position regardless of movement of the frame.). GIRT One of the braces between the legs of a derrick. Z. GL gland ground level. (H2S). (2) A vertical frame on the top of the derrick. providing a support for hoisting.

2118. Also a missile dropped into the well bore to detonate an explosive charge or to jar a downhole tool into operation. usually through the drill pipe or . and a reboiler.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2112. moves a mating part downward onto a ground seat that is integral to the valve body. plug-like device equipped with scraper blades. the go-devil is pushed along by the oil pressure. a cylindrical. Z. 2. glycol dehydrator a processing unit used to remove all or most of the water from gas. 2113. 284 Petroleum Engineer: M. to drop or pump a device down a borehole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A pipeline scraper. 2 2115. 2 2117. ethylene glycol.a scraper with self-adjusting spring blades that is pumped through a pipeline to clear away accumulations and deposits. and water. globe valve (See valve.A facility for removing minute particles of water from natural gas not removed by the separator. any of the large class of dihydroxy alcohols (as propylene glycol).)A type of pipeline valve that shuts off as the stem. which heats the wet glycol to remove the water from it so it can be recycled. sand. in which the wet gas is put into contact with glycol to remove the water. glycol 1. and wire brushes used to clean the inside of a pipeline of accumulations of wax. When inserted in the line. rotated by the hand wheel. rollers. Usually a glycol unit includes a tower. go in the hole GO-DEVIL to lower the drill stem into the wellbore. rust.

gray.). GOOSING GRASS Cutting grass and weeds around the lease or tank farm. the opposite of a horst. GOOSENECK A nipple in the shape of an inverted U attached to the top of the swivel (q.v. gallons per minute. 285 Petroleum Engineer: M. a block of the earth's crust that has slid downward between two faults. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2121. 2 2123..mzhelu@gmail. shaving the grass off the ground with a sharp hoe-like tool.g.the curved connection between the rotary hose and swivel. . used in drilling reports. "the well has gone to water"). 2 2125. 2127. any device that limits or controls the speed of an engine. gone to water pertaining to a well in which production of oil has decreased and production of water has increased (e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2119. 2128. A well in which the production of oil has decreased and the production of water has increased to the point where the well is no longer profitable to operate. 2126. 2120. leaving the ground clean.) and to which the mud hose is attached. GOR governor gpm gr graben Gas-oil ratio (q.v.

000 kg and nearly equal to 1 cm' of water at its maximum density. 2130. 2135. gram molecular weight granite (See molecular . most powerful gear on a truck. The low profile of the pumping unit makes it ideal for use in populated areas. the rate of regular or graded ascent or descent. GRANNYHOLE GRANNYKNOT The lowest. and mica. 2131. 2132. 286 Petroleum Engineer: M.) an igneous rock composed primarily of feldspar. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2136. and to protect the beauty of the landscape. The unit raises and lowers the pumping rods by winding and unwinding cable on a drum or spoof. 2134. drum-and-cable pumping unit that can be installed in a wellhead cellar. ·hatchet knot. quartz. A knot tied in such a way as to defy untying an improperly tied square knot. GRABLE OIL WELL PUMP A patented.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2129.mzhelu@gmail. gram (g)a unit of metric measure of mass and weight equal to 1/1. 2133. GRASS ROOTS Said of a refinery or other installation built from the ground up as contrasted to a plant merely enlarged or modernised. GRADIENTS (TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE) The rates of increase or decrease of temperature or pressure are defined as gradients. It usually does not contain petroleum.

2142.mzhelu@gmail. grass-roots refinery a refinery built from the ground up as opposed to an addition or modification of an existing one.m.m. graveyard tour the shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts at or about midnight. gravel pack gravel packing a mass of very fine gravel placed around a slotted liner in a well. are constructed to make a foundation area from which to drill exploratory wells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2137. (See tour. Gravel is dredged from the sea bottom or transported from a nearby liver or delta and dumped into holes cut in the ice. 2138. a method of well completion in which a slotted or perforated liner is placed in the well and surrounded by small sized gravel. In pipeline operations. 40 to 50 in diameter. the graveyard shift is customarily from 11 p. GRAVEYARD SHIFT A tour of work beginning at midnight and ending at 8 a. The well is enlarged by underreaming at the point where the gravel is packed. Z. to 7 a.Using gravel to fill the cavity created around a well bore as it passes through the producing zone to prevent caving or the incursion of sand and to facilitate the flow of oil into the well bore. 2141.) 287 Petroleum Engineer: M.m. El-Helu E-Mail: . also 1ce Platform. 2140. 2139. See Drilling Island. The mass of gravel excludes sand from intruding in the well but allows continued rapid production. GRAVEL ISLAND In some locations (in shallow water near shore) in the Arctic gravel is lands. Hoot-owl shift.

the weight of a body. Z. the ship is left high and dry for repairs. these variations indicate certain facts about subsurface formations. It is also called segregation drive. gravimeter an instrument used to detect and measure minute differences in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations to obtain data about subsurface formations. To the geophysicist. GRAVITY DRIVE A natural drive occurring where a well is drilled at a point lower than surrounding areas of producing formations causing the oil to drain downhill into the well bore. If the reservoir rock is highly permeable and dips sharply toward the well there is usually good oil recovery. GRAVING DOCK A dry dock. to be pulled by the force of gravity. a dock that can accept ships into an enclosure. gravity drainage is an important source of energy to produce oil. gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir toward a wellbore resulting from the force of gravity. GRAVITY (1)The attraction of the earth's mass for bodies or objects at or near the surface. (2) Short for specific gravity.) 2147. When the water is pumped out.the attraction exerted by the earth's mass on objects at its surface. 2 2146. 2144.(See API gravity and specific gravity. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (3) To flow through a pipeline without the aid of a pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2143. geophysical instrument used to measure the minute variations in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations. API gravity.mzhelu@gmail. . In the absence of water drive or effective gas drive. 288 Petroleum Engineer: M.

GRAVITY MAPS Results of reconnaissance gravity surveys display of gravity measurements taken in an area. GRAVITY LINE A pipeline that carries oil from a lease tank to pumping station without the use of mechanical . either in the producing zone or by gravity in the separators after production. 2152. The tube oils may be very light or heavy cylinder oils. The base is 450 feet in diameter. 289 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2150. GRAVITY SEGREGATION The separation of water from oil.mzhelu@gmail. GRAVITY STRUCTURE An offshore drilling and production platform made of concrete and of such tremendous weight that it is held securely on the ocean bottom without the need for piling or anchors. 2151. Its general configuration is that of a column mounted on a large circular base which has storage for 1 million barrels of crude. (2) Colloquial for crude oil. See Gravimeter. the column is 180 feet in diameter and the overall height of the structure is about 550 feet. GREASE (1) A lubricating substance (solid or semisolid) made from lubricating oil and a thickening agent. 2153. Z. the stratification of gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a line that transports liquid from one elevation to a lower elevation by the force of gravity alone. and water according to their densities. One of the world's largest gravity structures is located off the Scottish coast in the North Sea.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2149. the thickening agent (usually soaps) may be any material that when mixed with oil will produce a grease structure. oil. or heavy from lighter hydrocarbons by the force of gravity.

and silicate.). grind out to test for the presence of water in oil by use of a centrifuge. liquid for suspended material-water. grn gross production green. GREEN OIL A paraffin-base crude oil. thousands or millions of cubic feet of gas or tons of coal. a tax usually imposed by a state. GROSS PRODUCTION TAX A severance tax (q. 2160. the total production of oil from a well or lease during a specified period of 2161. Grief stems are heavy. black oil. GRIND OUT Colloquial for centrifuge. iron. time. Asphalt-base crudes are sometimes referred to as 2155. As the rotary table is turned by the drilling engines. a greenish mineral composed of potassium. the top joint of the rotary drill string that works through the square hole in the rotary table. the grief stem and the drillpipe are rotated. 2156.v. to test samples of crude oil or othe. grief stem (obsolete) kelly. sulphur. and gravel). at a certain sum per unit of mineral removed (barrels of oil. 290 Petroleum Engineer: M. greensand a sand that contains considerable quantities of glauconite. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Kelly joint. 2159. emulsion. sand. thick-walled tubular pieces with squared shoulders that are made to fit into the hole in the rotary table. which gives the sand its color and name.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2154. kelly joint. sand-by use of a centrifuge machine. . used in drilling reports. 2 2158.

GROUPSHOT Geophysical expiration performed for several individuals or companies on a cost-sharing basis. GROUND-SEAT UNION A pipe coupling made in two parts. 2168. ground block a wireline sheave.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 force sealing material into a soil. or rock formation to stabilize it. the sealing material used in grouting. one half is convex. and booth ground to fit. 2167.mzhelu@gmail. caissons. El-Helu E-Mail: . or pulley. The companies share the information as well as the cost. (2) To stabilize and make permanent Grout is usually a thin mixture that can be worked into crevices and beneath and around structural forms.) 2165. pressuretight Used on small-diameter piping. heavy machinery beds. 2164. A threaded ring holds the halves together. GROWLERBOARD See Lazy Board. This type arrangement is usually for offshore seismic surveys in which several companies are planning to submit bids for offshore Leases offered in a government lease sale. gross tonnage the entire interior capacity of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig expressed in tons equal to 100 ft2. GROUT (1)A concrete mixture used to fill in around piling. Z. fastened to the ground anchor that changes a horizontal pull on a wireline to a vertical pull (as when swabbing with a derrick over a well). 2166. (See block. and foundation work. the other had concave in shape. sand. 291 Petroleum Engineer: M.

292 Petroleum Engineer: M. flywheels and drive shafts. guide shoe a short. 2171. A 2174.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2169. This type of agreement is common for solid minerals but is not often used in oil prospecting. It prevents the casing from snagging on irregularities in the borehole as it is lowered. GRUB STAKE AGREEMENT An agreement whereby one person undertakes to prospect for oil and agrees to hand over to the person who furnishes the money or supplies a certain proportionate interest in the oil discovered. guide base guide fossil (See temporary guide base and permanent guide base.) the petrified remains of plants or animals. usually four. power-transmission chains. filled with concrete and rounded at the bottom and placed at the end of the casing string. 2170.In the oil field. guards are used on equipment such as belts. useful for correlation and age determination of the rock in which they were fount. guard a metal shield placed around moving parts of machinery to lessen or avoid the chance of injury to personnel. 2172. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 2173. A hole in the center of the shoe allows drilling fluid to pass up into the casing while it is being lowered and cement to pass out during cementing operations. attached to the temporary guide base and permanent guide base that help to accurately position equipment (as blowout preventers) on the seafloor when a well is drilled offshore. guidelines lines. . Z. cylindrical steel section. heavy.

Gully. 2176. the A major submarine canyon indenting the seaward edge of the Scotian Shelf. (Casing is perforated to permit the oil from the formation to enter the well.) 2180.mzhelu@gmail. After emulsified oil is heated and treated with chemicals.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2175. The formation fluids flow out of 293 Petroleum Engineer: M. A common method of completing a well is to set casing through the oil-bearing formation and cement it. which separates Banquereau and Sable Island Banks. gun-perforate to create holes in casing and cement set through a productive formation. Z. A . Gun barrels have largely been replaced by unified heater-treater equipment but are still common. 2178. GUN PERFORATION A method of putting holes in a well's casing downhole in which explosive charges lowered into the hole propel steel projectiles through the casing wall. 2177. gun barrel a settling tank used to separate oil and water in the field. GUM BOOTS GUMBO Rubber boots. it is pumped into the gun barrel. especially in older fields. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A perforating gun is then lowered into the hole and fired to detonate high-powered jets or shoot steel projectiles (bullets) through the casing and cement and into the pay zone. sticky mud formed downhole by certain shales when they become wet from the drilling fluid. where the water settles out and is drawn off and the clean oil flows out to storage.any relatively sticky formation (as clay) encountered in drilling. the kind you pull on like a cowboy boot. 2179.

2182.v. Z. mill scale. See Blowout.) 2181. especially the use of drilling mud to control downhole pressures. gushers are rare today. the lines attached to ground anchors for lateral support are wind guys. The stiff.). a gusher is a blowout and is extremely wasteful of reservoir fluids and drive energy.A well that comes in with such great pressure that the oil blows out of the wellhead and up into the derrick.mzhelu@gmail. gusher an oil well that has come in with such great pressure that the oil jets out of the well like a geyser. guy line a wireline attached to a mast or derrick to stabilize it. and many times were the only indications that a large reservoir of oil and gas had been struck. In reality.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the reservoir through the perforations and into the wellbore. puttylike material is squeezed into lost-circulation zones to isolate them from the wellbore. 2 2186. GUY WIRE A cable or heavy wire used to hold a pole or mast upright. rust. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. paraffin. With improved drilling technology. The lines that provide the main support for the structure are load guys. (See . 294 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2184. GUNK The collection of dirt. The end of the guy wire is attached to a stake or a deadman (q. and other debris that is cleaned out of a pipeline when a scraper or a pig is put through the line. gunk squeeze a bentonite and diesel-oil mixture that is pumped down the drill pipe to mix with drilling mud being pumped up the annulus. oil. gushers were common. In the early days of the oil industry. like a geyser. 2 2188.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2189. Pipe and vessels handling hard water become gypped up as the minerals form a hard.) Boiler scale. Unlike a magnetic surveying . Z. gypsum a naturally occurring crystalline form of hydrous calcium sulfate.) 2192. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. rock-like layer on the inner surfaces Gypsum. 2191. guy-line anchor GYP a buried weight or anchor to which a guy line is attached. (See directional survey and directional drilling. (See calcium sulfate and anhydrite. a gyroscopic instrument obtains direction and is not affected by magnetic irregularities that may be caused by casing or other ferrous metals.) 295 Petroleum Engineer: M." water with high concentrations of minerals. gyroscopic surveying instrument a device used to determine direction in and angle at which a wellbore is drifting off the vertical. a residue or deposit from "hard water. (See dead-man. 2190.

Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2194. hour." The primary term in this case is 5 years. half-life the amount of time needed for half of a quantity of radioactive substance to decay or transmute into a nonradioactive substance. 2 2200. delivers high-frequency percussion blows to the rotating bit. HALF SOLE A metal patch for a corroded section of pipeline. "it is agreed that this lease shall remain in force for a term of five years from this date and for as long thereafter as oil or gas. Half-lives range from fractions of seconds to millions of years. Half solos can be from six to 12 feet in length and are placed over the pitted or corroded section of the pipe and welded in place with a bead around the entire perimeter of the half sole. 2196. . h H2S HABENDUM CLAUSE 2195. The patch is cut from a length of pipe of the same diameter as the one to be repaired.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The clause in a lease setting forth the duration of the lessee's interest in the property. Hammer drilling 296 Petroleum Engineer: M. An habendum clause might read. of whatever kind.v.mzhelu@gmail. Hydrogen sulfide (q. 2197. hammer drill a drilling tool that. when placed in the drill stem just above a rollercone bit. See Primary Term. or either of them is produced or drilling operations are continued as hereinafter provided.

2 . HANDY HANG A WELL OFF Hand-tight.mzhelu@gmail. bit rotation and percussion). hang rods to suspend sucker rods in a derrick or mast on rod hangers rather than place them horizontally on a rack. 2204.e. 2205. the pumper knows each well and how long it should be pumped. 297 Petroleum Engineer: M. Strippers which make 10 barrels or less of oil a day rarely are pumped 24 hours a day. Z. others after 12 hours or so. hand HAND MONEY handrail a worker in the oil industry.v.). guard.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combines the basic features of rotary and cable-tool drilling (i. 2 2203. a pipe connection or nut that can be unscrewed by hand.. When struck. 2207. On a lease with a number of stripper wells. As a result he may "hang a well off" after six hours of pumping. To disconnect the pull-rod line from a pumping jack or pumping unit being operated from a central power (q. hammer test a method of locating thick-walled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to use such a tool. a railing or pipe along a passageway or stair that serves as a support or 2206. corroded sections of pipe by striking the pipe with a hammer. a corroded section resounds differently than a noncorroded section. 2201. especially one in the field. See Earnest Money.

hard banding hard facing 2 2216. i. On portable pulling units. 2214. usually crushed tungsten carbide. 2212. that is applied to the outside surfaces of tool joints. the rods are hung outside the derrick. A colloquial expression for the job of Assembling a high-pressure. HANGER.e. and bolted to their mating piece. hard facing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2211. aligned. . layed out horizontal on a rack. stabilizers. and other rotary drilling tools to minimize wear when they are in contact with the wall of the hole. If this is the case. Z. HANG THE RODS To pull the pump rods out of the well and hang them in the derrick on rod hangers. drill collars. they may be pulled from the well by a simple pulling unit consisting only of a guyed mast. 2217. On shallow wells with short strings of rods. duty blowout preventer stack or production tree.mzhelu@gmail. an extremely hard material. the rods are pulled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hard hat a metal or hard plastic helmet worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger of being injured by falling objects.. Some of the valve assemblies weigh thousands of pounds or more so they must be hoisted into place. ROD HANGING IRON See Rod Hanger. 298 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2213. unscrewed and layed down.

Putting a hard surface on a softer metal by welding or other metallurgical process. storage drums. scanners. Hat-type foundations are used for small pumps and engines or other installations not requiring solid.g. 299 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1/2 inch. HAT-TYPE FOUNDATION A metal base or foundation i@. 2225. computers. tools. the shape of an inverted. 1/4. Where it may be impractical or prohibited by structural constraints to manufacture a part from the harder metal. etc. permanent foundations.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2218. 2224. 2222. (2) Mechanical equipment. e. Z. (1) Electronic and mechanical components of a computer system. hard water water that contains dissolved compounds of calcium. 2223. 2221. parts. HARDBANDING Laying on a coating or surface of super-hard metal on a softer metal part at a point or on an area of severe wear or abrasion. rectangular cake pan. printers.g. e. HARDFACING HARDWARE See Hardbanding. The holes are square. Also called hardfacing. HARDWIRE (TELEMETRY) Describes a system of communication or information transmission using electric wire from point to point instead of electronic or wireless transmission. El-Helu E-Mail: . 1/8. 2 2220. a coaching or hard-surfacing of the part is a practical solution. or both. HARDWARECLOTH A type of galvanized metal screen that can be bought in hole sizes. magnesium. Compare soft water.

an object or condition. hydraulic head. site. hayrack hazard (obsolete) a rack used to hold pipe on a derrick. that presents or causes a risk of accident or fire. or securing a ship 2232. an opening in the roof of a tank through which a gauging line may be lowered to measure its contents. 2236. HATCHET KNOT HAULASS HAWSER A knot that defies untying and so must be cut. 2227. hatch 1. hay section a section of a heater or a heater-treater that is filled with fibrous material through which oil and water emulsions are filtered. 2235. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a fingerboard. related to equipment. -the opening from the deck into the cargo space of ships. A large-diameter hemp or nylon rope for towing.mzhelu@gmail. 2 2231. Z. 2. Such a well lacks sufficient gas pressure to flow steadily and 300 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2234. 2 2229. mooring. or barge. split. HEAD WELL A well that makes its best production by being pumped or flowed intermittently. 2237. or envirorlment. An inelegant term meaning to leave a place with all haste. . head a quantity of fluid that flows out of a well intermittently rather than continuously.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2226. a granny knot.

HEADING headgate the gate valve nearest the pump or compressor on oil or gas lines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering must wait for the tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil up the tubing and out to the tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). a collection point for oil or gas gathering lines. a sot under the walking beam to prevent it from failing on the drilling crew when it is disconnected from the crank and pitman ( . If the well cannot accumulate enough gas pressure to overcome the hydrostatic head.mzhelu@gmail. Z. An Intermittent or unsteady flow of oil from a well. crew chief. 2242. 301 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2238. This type of flow is often caused by a lack of gas to produce a steady flow thus allowing the well's tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil out. HEADACHEI A warning cry given by a fellow worker when anything is accidentally dropped or fails from overhead toward another worker. See Hydrostatic Head. the well must be pumped.v. See Manifold. HEADER A large-diameter pipe into which a number of smaller pipes are perpendicularly welded or screwed. HEADACHE POST A frame over a truck cab that prevents pipe or other material being hauled from failing on the cab. 2241. head well puller HEAD. 2240. HYDROSTATIC 2239. represented by the column of oil in the tubing.

Oil or process liquids are pumped through the exchanger tubes to use the waste heal. Finned tube exchangers cool by giving up heat from the surface of the fins to the atmosphere in a manner similar to an automobile radiator. 2244. PLATE A relatively low-pressure heat exchanger that uses thin-walled plates as its heat transfer elements. because of their less-sturdy construction there are pressure limits to their use. In some plants finned tube exchangers are built in ductwork through which the exhaust gas of a turbine flows at 800'F. SHELL AND TUBE A common type of industrial heat exchanger with a "bundle" of smalldiameter pipes (tubes) inside a long. HEAT EXCHANGER.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2243. plate exchangers exhibit a much higher heat transfer coefficient thin tie more Conventional Shell and tube exchangers. . FINNED TUBE (See exchanger.mzhelu@gmail. HEAT EXCHANGER. HAIRPIN A type of shell and tube exchanger with tubes inside a 12 to 18-inch diameter shell which may extend 20 to 30 feet and then doubles back the same distance like a hairpin. 2247. cylindrical steel shell. Because of its thin walls. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to heat the process stream or to make steam. 2246. 2245. Hairpin exchangers may have bare or finned tubes inside the shelf.) Small-diameter pipe or tubing with thin metal fins attached to the outer circumference for cooling water and other liquids or gases. Heat exchangers are not only for cooling but for heat recovery systems as well. The tubes (50 to 302 Petroleum Engineer: M. HEAT EXCHANGER. heat exchanger HEAT EXCHANGER. Z.

cause. Heat exchangers act not only as a cooling apparatus but are often used as a waste heat recovery system.mzhelu@gmail. naturalconvection heat transfer loop. equidistant. thousands of heat pipes were installed along the big line to maintain the frozen soil around the vertical support members. by perforated steel end plates. or acetone. Heat taken in or absorbed at the lower end of the boat pipe. glycerine. Heat normally lost to a cooling medium can be used to heat a stream 2248. The heat tape is held in direct contact with the piping by a covering of insulation. the end in contact with the heat . 2249. The shell also contains a quantity of working liquid which may be anhydrous ammonia. The liquid to he cooled is pumped through the tubes. the liquid to evaporate and move up the pipe as a vapor. 303 Petroleum Engineer: M. liquid metals. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The dissipation of the heat at the upper end condenses the vapor which. several hundred in larger ones) run parallel to the shell and are supported. as a liquid. The space inside the shell not filled with tubes carries the cooling water or other liquid. HEAT TAPE An electrical heating element made in the form of an insulated wire or tape used as a tracer line to provice heat to a pipeline or instrument piping. the atmosphere in most cases. moves back down the pipe in the wick by gravity or capillary action. On the trans-Alaska pipeline. In its basic form a heat pipe consists of a closed tube (the shell) two to six inches in diameter and as long as need be. The shell has a porous wick made of fine metal mesh in the inside circumference extending from top to bottom. GRAVITY RETURN A type of passive heat exchanger (requiring no external energy source) that draws heal from a heat source and gives up heat to a heat sink. methanol. HEAT PIPE. The continuous cycle of vaporization and condenation within the closed pipe makes the heat pipe an efficient..Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 100 in small units. Z.

2 2253. lines with small-diameter steam piping or electrical heat tape to keep the fines from freezing or to warm the product or instrument fluid sufficiently to keep them flowing freely. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. (2) A refinery furnace. whether steam or electrical . Heat tracing lines. product or heavy crude oil. heave heave compensator the vertical motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. PIPELINE An installation fitted with heating coils or tubes for heating certain crude oil to keep it "thin" enough to be pumped through a pipeline. are attached parallel to the host piping and both are covered with insulation. HEATER (1)An installation used to heat the stream from high-pressure gas and condensate wells (especially in winter) to prevent the formation of hydrates. and oil and gas separator. 2 2256. 2251. a residue which interferes with the operation of the separator. Crudes with high pour points (congealing at ordinary temperatures) must be heated before they can be moved by pipeline. HEAT TRACING The paralleling of instrumentation. HEATER. a device that moves with the heave of a floating offshore drilling rig to prevent the bit from being lifted off the bottom of the hole and then dropped 304 Petroleum Engineer: M. heater-treater a vessel that heats an emulsion and removes water and gas from the oil to raise it to a quality acceptable for pipeline transmission. free-water knockout. 2 2258. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2250. 2254. A heater-treater is a combination of a heater.

it and other types of oil are eligible for free market or world prices. which require special production techniques.. with less deviation from the vertical. heavy ends are the heavier fractions of refined oil fuel oils. and are used to stablize the bit and to force it to make a straighter hole.e. wax. 2264. It is used with devices such as bumper subs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HEAVY ENDS In refinery parlance.residue left over from the refining process after all lighter fractions are off. HEAVY METAL Spent uranium or tungsten. notably steam injection or steam soak. 2 2261. to extract them from the underground formations. Z. HEAVY CRUDE OIL Crude oil of 20' API gravity or less. and distillate fuelshave been extracted from the crude. and asphalt-remaining after the lighter fractions have been distilled off. to maintain constant weight on the bit). HEAVY BOTTOMS A thick. back . See Light Ends. 2263. lubricating oils.) 2259. paraffin. Heavy metal is used to make drill tools to add weight to the drill assembly. Drill collars made of heavy metal weigh twice as much as those made of steel. There are perhaps billions of barrels of heavy oil still in place in the U. residual fuel oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering back down ( . The product remaining after the lighter fractions-gasoline. HEAVY FUEL OIL A residue of crude oil refining processes. 305 Petroleum Engineer: M. Because heavy crude oil is more costly to produce.S. kerosene. Heavy bottoms are used for residual fuel and/or asphalt. tubes.mzhelu@gmail. 2262. (See motion Compensator.

Z. causing the highly viscous oil to separate from the sand and flow into the laterals after the steam injection is halted. Abbreviation . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Perforated pipe is inserted in the drilled holes to carry steam. HEAVY OIL PROCESS (HOP) A steam injection process developed by a subsidiary of Barber Oil Corporation in which steam is injected through horizontal lines into subsurface oil sands containing heavy oil.mzhelu@gmail. Heavy-wall is sometimes used in the drillstring to reduce the number of larger diameter and stiffer drill collars. After it is cased. heavy weight drillpipe drill pipe having thicker walls and longer tool-joints than usual as well as an integral wear pad in the middle. workman construct a concrete cavern 25 feet in diameter and 20 feet high. injected under pressure. lateral holes are drilled several hundred feet in all directions. soaks the formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2265. HECTARE A metric unit of land measurement equal to 1 0. From this work area. 2 2269. The steam. 306 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2266. Several joints of this pipe may be placed in the drill stem between drill collars and regular drill pipe to reduce the chances of drill pipe fatigue or failure. HEAVY-WALL DRILLPIPE Drillpipe with thicker walls than regular drilipipe.ha. In the horizontal method. Some of the advantages of heavy-wall pipe over drill collars are Heavy-wall can be handled at the rig floor by regular drillpipe elevators and slips and can be racked in the rig like regular .47 acres. This is true in directional drilling and even in straight holes in certain areas of the country. oil of 20" API gravity or less. 2267. Conventional steamflooding employs vertical holes through which steam is injected.000 square meters or 2. a seven-loot diameter shaft is drilled into the relatively shallow formation.

HGOR HHP high gas-oil ratio. HEXANE A hydrocarbon traction of the paraffin series. 2273.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2271. At ordinary atmospheric conditions hexane is a liquid but often occurs in small amounts in natural gas. 2277. Helideck HEPTANE A landing area for helicopters. it is sometimes present in small amounts in natural gas.mzhelu@gmail. hexane a saturated hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. Hydraulic horsepower a designation for a type of very-high-pressure plunger pump used in downhole operations such as cementing. Although heptane is a liquid at ordinary atmospheric conditions. 2278. hydrofracturing. and acidizing. one of the heavy m& in a hydrocarbon mixture. 2272. A liquid hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. 307 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2275. Z. used in drilling reports. hertz a unit of frequency measurement equal to one cycle per second. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. heel the inclination of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig to one side caused by . waves. or shifting weights on board. 2276.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2279. HI-BOY A skid-mounted or wheeled tank with a hand-operated pump mounted on top used to dispense kerosene. traps and domes. As oil and gas tend to accumulate at the top of underground structures. HIGH A geological term for the uppermost part of an inclined structure where the likelihood of finding oil is considered to be the greatest. 2281. 2280. the higher up on the structure a well is drilled the better the chances of encountering oil and avoiding the underlying water. See Solution Gas. HIDE THE THREADS To make up (tighten) a joint of screw pipe until all the threads on the end of the joint are screwed into the collar. When this condition occurs the operator (lease pumper) must have the tank cleaned before the pipeline company will run the tank of oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HIGH BOTTOM A condition in a field stock tank when BS&W (basic sediment and water) has accumulated at the bottom of the tank to a depth making it impossible to draw out the crude oil without taking some of the BS with it into the pipeline. HIGH-PRESSURE GAS INJECTION Introduction of gas into a reservoir in quantities exceeding the volumes produced in order to maintain reservoir pressure high enough to achieve mixing between the gas an 1 reservoir oil. gasoline. or lubricating oil to small shops and garages. . Z. hiding the threads and making a leakproof connection. 2282. 308 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.

hook. (See squeeze cementing. and traveling block on a rotary drilling rig. hoisting cable the cable that supports the drill pipe. completion. size and amount of casing. the distortion of the hull of an offshore drilling rig when the bow and stern are lower than the middle caused by wave action or unbalanced or heavy loads. 2 2292. HISTORY OF A WELL A written account of all aspects of the drilling.) 2286. any difficulties. high-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry into a well at the points to be sealed with a final pressure equal to or greater than the formation breakdown pressure. the drawworks. hoist an arrangement of pulleys and wire rope or chain used for lifting heavy objects. used in drilling reports. and operation of a well. Draw Works. etc. a winch or similar device. 2 . depths. Z. HOCM hogging heavily oil-cut mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2293. mud program.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2285. (Well history is required in some states. coring record. cementing and perforating.mzhelu@gmail. swivel. See 309 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2290. HOISTING DRUM A powered reel holding rope or cable for hoisting and pulling a winch. 2287.) Well histories include formations encountered.

The special tool is equipped with cutter arms that are expanded against the wall of the hole and by rotary action reams a larger diameter hole. 2295. The devices are timbers or lengths of pipe hinged to a deadman or overhead support at one end. hoisting plug a plug with extended shoulder surfaces screwed into the ends pf drill collars to permit a safe lifting with elevators. hole HOLE OPENER the . (See also mousehole and rathole. also called a lifting sub or lifting nipple. in coatings on pipelines and equipment. 2 2301. or holiday. 2298.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2294. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. A sucker-rod pump may use a mechanical hold-down for attachment to a seating nipple. holiday holiday detector a gap or void in coating on a pipeline or in paint on a metal surface. 2297. the other end attached to and supposing the moving rod line.mzhelu@gmail. HOLD DOWN/HOLD UP Oscillating anchoring devices or supports for a shackle-rod line to hold the rod line to the contour of the land it traverses. 310 Petroleum Engineer: M. an electrical device used to locate a weak place. 2299. hold-down a mechanical arrangement that prevents the upward movement of certain pieces of equipment installed in a well.) A type of reamer used to increase the diameter of the well bore below the casing. 2296.

homocline honeycomb formation a series of beds dipping in the same direction. 2305. 2304. Holidays are detected by electronic testing devices as the pipe is being laid. a stratum of rock that contains large void spaces. cylindrical metal tube into which are loaded shaped charges or bullets. See Jeeping. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. debris caused by the exploding charges falls into the carrier to be retrieved with the reusable gun.). HOOK The hook attached to the frame of the rig's traveling block ( . Z. HOOK BLOCK A pulley or shrive mounted in wooden or metal frame to which a hook is attached. When detected. usually calculated by an API formula. formation. 311 Petroleum Engineer: M. the breaks are manually coated. a cavernous or vugular 2306. 2303. A hook block may have more than one sheave mounted in the frame a traveling block (q. 2308. 2307.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2302. hollow carrier gun a perforating gun consisting of a hollow.) and which engages the bail of the swivel in drilling operations. HOLIDAYS Breaks or I laws in the protective coating of a joint of line pipe. See Hook-load Capacity.v. hook load capacity the nominal rated load capacity of a portable hoist and mast arrangement.mzhelu@gmail. Upon detonation.

HORIZON A zone of a particular formation. 2315. HOOKS Pipe-laying tongs named for the shape of the pipe-gripping head of the scissors-like wrench. hook-wall packer a packer equipped with friction blocks or drag springs and slips and designed so that rotation of the pipe unlatches the slips.v. flanges. or a well. HORIZONTAL ASSIGNMENT The assignment of an interest in oil or gas above or below a certain depth in a well. canal. or ship channel. 2312. pump. This type of directional 312 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2313. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The friction springs pre. and so on. 2314. It is also called a wall-hook packer. The arrangement of pipes. HOOKUP To make a pipeline connection to a tank. vent the slips and hook from turning with the pipe and assist in advancing the slips up a tapered sleeve to engage the wall of the outside pipe as weight is put on the packer. and valves in such a connection. that part of a formation of sufficient porosity and permeability to form a petroleum reservoir.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2309.) at an angle from the horizontal beneath a stream.mzhelu@gmail. 2311. or an assignment can specify a particular formation. The hopper is used to mix cement slurry. nipples. combine clay and oil or water to make drilling . HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Drilling with a specially designed slant rig (q. hopper a large funnel through which solid materials may be passed and n-mixed with a liquid injected through a connection at the bottom. 2310. Z.

000 foot-pounds a minute or 745.7 watts of . besides oil and gas holdings. HORSEPOWER A unit of power equivalent to 33." 2 2321. horse head the curved section on the oil-well end of the walking beam of a beampumping unit from which the bridle is suspended. 2316.mzhelu@gmail. Expenses that needed to be masked in anonymity were simply listed "horse feed. an oil company is said to be horizontally integrated when. a block of the earth's crust that has been raised up between two faults. See Vertical Integration. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION Refers to the condition in which a diversified company has resources or investments other than its principal business. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. is into nuclear energy. and from which it makes a profit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering drilling has been perfected and is used to make pipeline crossings where dredging a trench across a waterway is too costly or too disruptive of ship traffic and a bridge or A-frame supported line is prohibited by the authorities. 2 2318. 313 Petroleum Engineer: M. it owns coal deposits. electricity. HORSEFEED An old oil field term for unexplainable expense account items in the days of the teamster and line rider who were given an allowance for horse feed. Specifically. oil shale and geothermal energy. the opposite of a graben. 2323. 2319. INDICATED AND BRAKE horst See Indicated and Brake Horsepower. HORSEPOWER.

HOT OIL (FORIEGN) A term applied to oil produced by a host country after the host country confiscates the assets of a foreign oil company. 2325. It usually indicates worn threads on the pipe and in the coupling. resembling somewhat a tangerine in shape. HOT PASS A term describing a "bead" or course of molten metal laid down in welding a pipeline. of volatile petroleum products. a flattened spherical tank. See Hot-fluid Injection. the tanks designed to hold liquid or gases under pressure are made spherical or nearly so to handle internal pressures of several hundred pounds per square inch safely. 2328. without distortion and undue stress. which is the first course in welding a pipeline. HOT FOOTING Installing a heater at the bottom of an input well to increase the flow of heavy crude oil from the production wells. and LP-gases. As vessels subjected to high internal pressures tend to take the shape of a . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HORTONSPHERE A spherical steel tank for the storage. Z. hot spot an abnormally hot place on a casing coupling when a joint is making up. 314 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2329. 2330. gasoline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2324. See Pipeline Welding. under pressure. 2 2327. The hot pass is the course laid down on top of the stringer bead.g. e.mzhelu@gmail. hot oil oil produced in violation of state regulations or transported interstate in violation of federal regulations. also Hortonspheroid.

Although there are several cracking processes in use today. HOT TAPPING Making repairs or modifications on a tank.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2331. 2332. was a World War 1 hero and auto racer.mzhelu@gmail.). 2333." the treatment of a producing well with heated oil to melt accumulated paraffin in the tubing and annulus. 2335. Houdry's work is credited with ushering in the era of catalytic cracking.v. HOUDRY. gas. 2334. at "semidiesel. See Hydrocracking. Afterwards the plug remains hot. helping to provide heat for ignition. HOT-FLUID INJECTION A method of thermal oil . 315 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is said his interest in cars fed him to experiment with more efficient methods of refining and to work with various catalysts until he perfected the catalytic cracking process that bears his name. The hot plug assists in the initial ignition of the diesel fuel until engine reaches operating speed and temperature. EUGENE J. Houdry. hot-tube engine hot head See Somidiesel. Z. Pipeline. or steam) is injected into a formation to increase the flow of low-gravity crude to production wells. HOT-HEAD ENGINE hot-oil treatment A hot-plug engine (q. A pioneer in developing the use of catalysts in cracking crude oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a wealthy Frenchman. or other installation without shutting down operations. HOT-PLUG ENGINE A stationary diesel-cycle engine that is started by first heating an alloy-metal plug in the cylinder head that protrudes into the firing chamber. in which hot fluid (water. 2336. See Tapping and Plugging Machine.

316 316 Petroleum Engineer: M. horsepower-hour. run by two or three men. 2 2339. With three sets of tongs on the joint being screwed in. an expression used by the tong crew of a pipeline gang. each large tong. The tong crews on large-diameter screw pipelines (up to about 12-inch pipe) hit the hooks in perfect rhythms.v. 2344. the framework of a vessel including all decks. DR." to tighten the joint the final and most difficult round. 2347.E. plating. Burton in developing the first commercially successful petroleum cracking process using heat-and pressure. 2346. Then the three tongs.) until the joint was nearly screwed in. 2 . 2 2343. hit together to "hide the threads.W. horsepower. and so on but excluding machinery. with all six t)r nine men. HUMPHREYS. Working on a pipeline. made a stroke every third beat of the collar pecker's hammer (q. huff-and-puff injection hull (slang) cyclic steam injects.mzhelu@gmail. A petroleum chemist who worked with Dr.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2337. 2345. Z. columns. screwing in joints of pipe using pipe tongs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.R. a gasoline bearing the company's name.M. See Air Cushion Transport. HOUSE BRAND (GASOLINE) HOVERCRAFT hp hp-h HRMNG THE HOOKS An oil company's regular gasoline.

and offshore storage facilities-is that they be built to withstand winds of 125 miles an hour and "hundred-year storm conditions". El-Helu E-Mail: . 2354. Z. to enlarge by taking water on or in. hunting a surge of engine speed to a higher number of revolutions per minute (rpm) followed by a drop to normal speed without manual movement of the throttle. hydrate a hydrocarbon and water compound that is formed under reduced temperature and pressure in gathering.v. 2 2351. It is often caused by a faulty or improperly adjusted governor. compression. Hydrafrac the copyrighted name of a method of hydraulic fracturing to increase 2353. B B 317 Petroleum Engineer: M. Hydrates often accumulate in troublesome amounts and impede fluid flow. productivity. They resemble snow or ice. a dry powder obtained by treating quicklime with enough water to satisfy its chemical affinity for water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2348. the biggest blow on record. moorings. This enabled the driller to perform the job of letting out the drilling line easily and rapidly.mzhelu@gmail. and transmission facilities for gas. HURRY-UP STICK The name given to the length of board with a hole in one end which the cable-toot driller used to turn the T-screw at the end of the temper screw (q. hydrated lime calcium hydroxide. 2349. HUNDRED-YEAR STORM CONDITIONS A specification for certain types of offshore installations-production and drilling platforms.) when the walking beam was in motion. Chemical symbol is Ca(OH)2. 2352.

(See hydraulic 318 Petroleum Engineer: M. Usually two pods.) hydraulic pump a device that lifts oil from wells without the use of sucker rods. it is used to express the pressure resulting from the weight of a body of liquid since the weight is directly proportional to the height. Z. 2357. hydraulic control pod a device used on offshore drilling rigs to provide a way to actuate and control subsea blowout preventers from the rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2355. pressure to the face of the formation. Various Patented techniques. painted different colors. using the same principle. hydraulic head the pressure caused by tne weight of a column of liquid upon a unit area expressed by the height or distance of the liquid above the point at which the pressure is measured. each to safeguard and back up the other. forcing the strata apart. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A method of stimulating production from a formation of low permeability by inducing fractures and fissures in the formation by applying very high fluid.mzhelu@gmail. through which fluid is sent toward the preventers. 2356. Although head refers to distance or height. 2358. 2 2361. hydraulic fluid a liquid of low viscosity (as light oil) that is used in systems actuated by liquid (as the brake system in a modern passenger car).com . pumping. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hydraulic coupling a fluid connection between a prime mover and the machine it drives that uses the action of liquid moving against blades to drive the machine. Hydraulic lines from the rig enter the pods. 2359. are used. are employed by oil field service companies.

000 ft. which is seated in the string. and a mixture of power oil and produced fluid is returned through the casingtubing annulus. or for closing a blowout preventer against pressure. 2364. Subsurface hydraulic pumps consist of two reciprocating pumps coupled and placed in the well. HYDRAULIC WORKOVER UNIT A type of workover unit that is used on high-pressure wells where it may be necessary to snub the pipe out of the hole and back in the hole when the workover is completed. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or pulling. Hydril the registered trademark of a prominent manufacturer of oil-field equipment. If two parallel strings are used. especially the annular blowout preventer. power oil is pumped down the tubing string to the pump. The hydraulic pump may be used to pump several wells from a central source and has been used to lift oil from depths of more than . lifting.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2363. See Snubbing. one supplies the power oil to the pump while the other returns the exhaust and produced oil to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. 2366. hydraulic pumping a method of pumping oil from wells by using a downhole pump without sucker rods. 319 Petroleum Engineer: M. for leveling a production rig at an uneven location. The downhole engine is operated by clean crude oil under pressure (power oil) that is drawn from a power-oil or settling tank by a triplex plunger pump. Surface power is supplied from a standard engine-driven pump. 2365. One pump functions as an engine and drives the other pump (the production pump). hydraulic ram a cylinder and piston device that uses hydraulic pressure for pushing. If a single string of tubing is used. It is commonly used to raise portable masts from a horizontal to a vertical position.

hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for itself. Hydrocarbon An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. hydrocione HYDROCRACKATE (See desander.) The main product from the hydrocracking process (q. and freezing points increase as their molecular weights . either the joint of tubing.). hydro-test to apply hydraulic pressure to check for leaks in tubing or tubing couplings. 2369. jet fuel and/or high-grade fuel oil.v. Hydrocarbons often occur in petroleum products. whose densities. boiling points. prepared by mixing hydrogen chloride gas in water. Although composed only of two elements.mzhelu@gmail. or both are replaced. natural gas. It is also known as muriatic acid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually as the tubing is being run in the well. If water leaks from any place in the tubing. Z. hydrochloric acid a compound commonly used to acidize carbonate rocks. 2372. the coupling. hydrocarbons organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon. 320 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2368. reformer charge stock. gasoline blending 2373. 2370.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2367. Ale smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous. the largest are solids. and coals. HYDROCRACKING A refining process for converting middle-boiling or residual material to highoctane gasoline. 2371. components. Chemical symbol is HCI.

relatively low-temperature process using hydrogen and a catalyst.mzhelu@gmail. 2379.) a gaseous compound. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. of sulfur and hydrogen commonly found in petroleum. Z. which causes the foul smell of sour petroleum fractions. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) An odorous and noxious compound of sulfur found in "sour" gas. It is extremely poisonous and . See Sour 2 2381. The braking is achieved by a runner or impeller turning in a housing filled with water. The process is considered by some refiners as a supplement to the basic catalytic cracking process. Gas. a device mounted on the end of the drawworks shaft of a drilling rig that serves as an auxiliary to the mechanical brake when pipe is lowered into the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Hydrocracking is an efficient. 2377. 2378. hydrocyclone HYDRODYNAMICS (See desander. 2382. 321 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2375.H2S. 2376.) A branch of science that deals with the cause and effect of regional subsurface migration of fluids. hydrofluoric-hydrochloric acid hydrogen sulfide (See mud acid. hydromatic hydromatic brake hydromatic brake.

Those of other liquids may be determined by comparing their gravities with the gravity of water. hydrophilic hydrophobic HYDROPHONES instruments used in underwater seismic exploration a substance that tends to adsorb water. . (See pressure gradient.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2383.433 per foot of height. a substance that tends to repel water. Sound waves generated by blasts from an air gun reflect from formations below the seabottom and are picked up by the hydrophones and transmitted to the mother ship.) 2390. The hydrostatic head of fresh water is 0. The API gravity of a liquid is read on a graduated stem at the point intersected by the liquid. Water is used for testing because it is noncompressible so if the pipe or tank does rupture there 322 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Hydrophones are attached to a cable towed by the seismic vessel. its ability to hoir. 2 2389. the pressure exerted by a body of water at rest. HYDROSTATIC TESTING Filling a pipeline or tank with water under pressure to test for tensile strength.mzhelu@gmail. 2385. Sound-detecting activities. Z. 2384. a certain pressure without rupturing. HYDROMETER An instrument designed to measure the specific gravity of liquids. 2386. a glass tube with a weighted lower tip that causes the tube to float partially submerged. Hydropressure hydrostatic head The pressure on any rock at a given depth based on a hydrostatic head.

Power lines and life-support umbilicals are connected to the box. 2 2393. box-like enclosure is placed in the center of the frame over the pipe. The sea water is displaced with breathing-gas mixtures for the diver-welders permitting them to do their work in the dry but high-pressure atmosphere.P IADC ICC 2 2395. Z. 323 Petroleum Engineer: M. Indicated horsepower. Interstate Commerce Commission. HYPERBARIC WELDING (EXCESSIVE-PRESSURF WELDING) Welding on the sea bottom "in the dry" but under many atmospheres of pressure (compression).mzhelu@gmail. a large frame is lowered into the water and clamped to the pipeline. hertz. HZ I-ES I .C . International Association of Drilling Contractors. Then an openbottomed. 2399. 2 . a federal board that has jurisdiction over interstate pipelines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is no potentially dangerous expansion of the water as would be the case if a gas under very high pressure were used. I. induction survey. In hyperbaric welding of undersea pipelines. 2391. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the Interstate Commerce Commission. 2396.C .M. 2 2398.

the driving gear by directly meshing with the driven 324 Petroleum Engineer: M. The platform is built up a few inches at a time with successive pumpings and freezing of the water until the ice is calculated to be thick enough to support drilling operations with a 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.g. 2 2405. outside diameter. Ice platform technology was pioneered by Panarctic Oil Ltd. 2411. 31/2-inch ID also CD. IDIOT STICK A shovel or other digging tool not requiring a great deal of training to 2 2408. 2 2410. transmitting the power from one to the other. ID Inside diameter of a pipe or . ICE PLATFORM A man-made. a pulley or sprocket used with belt or chain drives on machinery to maintain desired tension on the belt or chain.000 to 1. idle idler to operate an engine without applying a load to it. 2406.g. e. temperatures. IDLER GEAR OR WHEEL A gear so called because it is usually located between a driving gear and a driven gear. where it freezes in the minus 30' to 40'C. initials used in specifying pipe sizes. operate. a company with a great deal of experience in Arctic exploration.. itself quite thick. e.500-ton drillrig and auxiliary equipment. 5-inch OD.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2403.mzhelu@gmail. Sea water is pumped onto the normal ocean ice. It also transmits the direction of rotation of the driving to the driven gear. thick platform of ice for drilling in the high Arctic. Without the idler or the intermediate gear.

A magneto is geared to the engine and. 2417. A small version of 325 Petroleum Engineer: M. ignorant end ilmenite (slang) the heavier end of any device (as a length of pipe or a wrench). wrenches and sledgehammers in tightening and loosening large nuts. 2 2423. 2 2419. in the field. an iron-black mineral of composition FeTiO3 or FeO TiO2 with a specific gravity of about 4. 2 2413. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. immiscible IMPACT WRENCH not capable of mixing or being mixed (as oil and water). Granite is an igneous rock.mzhelu@gmail. IGNITION MAGNETO An electric current generator used on stationary engines. 2 2416. 2414. (See igneous rock. the magneto continues to supply electric current for the ignition system. and pumps.) a rock mass formed by the solidification of material poured (when molten) into the earth's crust or out on its surface. An air-operated wrench for use on nuts and bolts of large engines. valves. Impact wrenches have taken the place of heavy end. Z. 2 . once the engine is started either by hand cranking or by a battery starter. Current is produced by an armature rotating in a magnetic field created by permanent magnets. used in drilling reports.67. Idler wheels or pulleys are also fined for tightening belts or chains or to maintain a uniform tension on them. sometimes used for increasing the density of oil-well cement slurries.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gear reverses the direction of rotation. ig igneous rock igneous.

heat exchanges integral to a process or processing chain. 326 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2426. in the line. which is made up on drill pipe or tubing at the surface.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the impact wrench is the air-operated automobile lugwrench used at modern service stations and garages. IN-LINE EQUIPMENT Pumps. and allowed to rest on a tool or other object that has been lost in the well. not auxiliary or only supporting. impending blowout impermeable early manifestation or indication of a blowout. Z. usually preheated at the sand face of the well by a downhole heater. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and position of the fish are obtained from the examination of the impression left in the lead. 2428. The oil in the formation is then ignited. run into a well.mzhelu@gmail. shape. and an appropriate fishing tool may be selected. impression block a block with lead or another relatively soft material on the bottom of it. 2424. Air is continually injected. in situ combustion a method of enhanced recovery in which thermal energy is used to channel crude oil to the producing wellbore. preventing the passage of . (See permeability. creating a burning front that moves outward radially. Air is introduced into the reservoir through an injection well to support combustion. When the block is retrieved.) 2427. the size. A formation may be porous yet impermeable if there is an absence of connecting passages between the voids within it. combining with some hydrocarbons in the formation to maintain combustion as well as supply thermal energy for the process. separators. 2429.

the distance from the center of the disk the hole was punched by the free-swinging plumb bob indicates the degree of drift or deviation from the vertical hole is being drilled. gas found at great depths.) may receive incentive pricing if it qualifies under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regulations. 327 Petroleum Engineer: M. geopressurized gas. coalseam gas (q. 2434. another is a plumb bob encased in a small steel tube which on signal punches a hole in a paper disk. incipient blowout INCLINOMETER (See ironing blowout. inch. 2433. 2436.). Pricing above the going market price for a product that may be more costly to produce.mzhelu@gmail.v. Incentive pricing is often the difference between producing a natural resource and not producing because of the high cost of production.v. 2435. a drift indicator. El-Helu E-Mail: . cubic inch.) An instrument used downhole to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of a well bore at different depths. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2430. When the instrument is retrieved. There are several types of drift indicators. For example. one is the acid bottle inclinometer (q. inches per second. in in/sec in3 INCENTIVE PRICING 2 2432.

or patents. stroke. and marketing. and the number of cylinders. bonds. Once discoveries are made it is the large oil companies that do most of the development work. An engine's horsepower is calculated by using the bore. Z. Independent operators and small producing companies are credited with finding most of the new oil fields. See Brake Horsepower. (2) An oil-country entrepreneur who secures financial backing and drills his own well an independent operator. independent a nonintegrated oil company whose operations are in the field of petroleum production only excluding transportation. independent wire-rope center (IWRC) a type of construction of steel drilling lines or wire rope that provides a separate wire rope to serve as a core for the drilling line and prevent it from being . INDEPENDENT PRODUCER (1) A person or corporation that produces oil for the market. refining. Rights that have no physical existence but that authorize certain activities or interests. 2 2442. having no pipeline system or refinery. 2439. land either overlooked by the majors or thought not worth fooling with until a discovery is made. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. revolutions per minute. Said of casements. 2440. INCORPOREAL RIGHTS Having no material body or form.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2437. Independents often lease and drill on small parcels of land. INDICATED HORSEPOWER Calculated horsepower. 2438. the power developed within the cylinder of an engine which is greater than the power delivered at the drive shaft by the amount of mechanical friction which must be overcome. 328 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Eddy currents are induced in the formations by a transmitter coil through which an alternating current circulates. GASOLINE A viscous material applied to a steel gauge line or gauge pole that changes color when it comes in contact with gasoline. INDICATOR PASTE.v. 2450. 2449. 329 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is usually conducted in conjunction with a regular electric survey (ES). making it easy for the gauger to read the height of gasoline in the tank. INDUSTRIAL GAS inertia INFILL DRILLING Gas purchased for resale to industrial users. Because oil-bearing formations are less conductive to electricity than water-bearing formations. when compared with resistivity readings. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an induction survey. the tendency of an object having mass to resist a change in velocity. WATER A paste material applied to a steel gauge line or wooden gauge pole that changes color when immersed in water. 2 2448. The current sets up magnetic fields that induce voltages in a receiver coil.). It is used to detect the presence of water in a tank of oil. induction survey (I-ES) an electrical well log in which the conductivity of the formation rather than the resistivity is measured. INDICATOR PASTE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2443. Wells drilled to fill in between established producing wells on a ]erase a drilling program to reduce the spacing between wells in order to increase production from the lease. The voltages are amplified and recorded on the .mzhelu@gmail. interruptible gas (q. 2 2445. and thus is shortened to I-ES. Z. 2446. can aid in determination of oil and water zones.

com . 2455. DRILLER a well drilled between known producing wells to better exploit the reservoir. 2 2461. 330 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. to keep the driller informed of all aspects of the drilling operation. INGAA inhibited acid Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. mud pressure. See Effluent. 2454. (See acidize. engine speed. an acid that has been chemically treated before acidizing. mud pump speed. The flow of liquids or gas into a vessel or equipment. to lubricating oils to stop color change.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2451. Salt is a mud inhibitor. infilling well INFLUENT INFORMATION CONSOLE. Z. inhibited mud a drilling fluid to which chemicals have been added to prevent it from causing clay particles in a formation to swell and thus impair the permeability of a productive zone. added in small quantity to gasolines to prevent oxidation and gum formation. and to corrosive environments to decrease corrosive action.) 2 2459. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2 2453. A bank of indicators. and display dials showing weight of the drillstring.. etc. 2 2457. a well to lessen its corrosive effect on the tubular goods and yet maintain its effectiveness. or acid fracturing. weight on the drill bit. counters. inhibitor an additive used to retard undesirable chemical action in a product.

Injection The process of pumping gas or water into an oil-producing reservoir to provide a driving mechanism for increased oil production. injected gas a high-pressure gas injected into a formation to maintain or restore reservoir pressure. heel. El-Helu E-Mail: . Z. 2471. or set up. 2 2466. 2470. and is no longer pumpable. maximizing oil recovery and conserving resources. initial set the point at which a cement slurry begins to harden.mzhelu@gmail. An inhibitor's role is the reverse of a catalyst's.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2462. Injecting Injecting water or gas into the reservoir for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure. 331 Petroleum Engineer: M. initial stability the stability of an offshore drilling rig when upright or with a small angle of 2469. 2 2468. 2 2464. INHIBITORS A substance that slows down a chemical reaction. recorded after testing operations and recovery of load oil and used as an indicator of the maximum ability of a well to produce on completion without subsequent reservoir damage. initial potential (IP) the early production of an oil well. Inhibitors are sometimes used to interfere with a chemical reaction somewhere along the process train. gas injected in gas-lift operations.

five . Common injection patterns include line drive. type of offset operations used. nine spot. 2 2478.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2472. Operating power may be derived from electric motors or gas-driven. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and cost of drilling new wells. at a rate proportional to that of the flow of the well fluid. 332 Petroleum Engineer: M. injection well a well in which fluids have been injected into an underground stratum to increase reservoir pressure. See Outage Gauge. injection pump a chemical feed pump that injects chemical reagents into a flow-line system. injection pattern the spacing and pattern of wells in a secondary recovery or pressuremaintenance project determined from the location of existing wells. Z. In addition to all necessary drilling equipment. 2 2474. 2 2480. such barges have crew quarters. seven spot. reservoir size and shape.mzhelu@gmail. INLAND BARGE RIG A drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel for use in shallow water or swampy locations. the most common method of gauging a tank. to treat emulsions. 2 2476. diaphragm-operated motors or by linkage with the walking beam of a pumping well. INNAGE GAUGE A measure of the quantity of oil in a tank calculated on the basis of the depth of oil in the tank. and peripheral. Barge rigs are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by a towboat.

com . temperature. multicylinder engines. On large. inside cutter INSPECTION PLATE (See internal cutter.) A flat metal plate fitted with a gasket and bolted over an opening in the gearbox of a pump or the crankcase of an engine. 2485. INPUT WELL A well used for injecting water or gas into a formation in a secondary recovery or pressure main 2483.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2481. Flow is thus possible only downward. to indicate these phenomena with visible or audible signals. instrumentation a device or assembly of devices designed for one or more of the following functions to measure operating variables (as pressure. See Overriding Royalty. rate of flow. speed of rotation. 2482. allowing mud to be pumped in but preventing any flow back up the stem. to record them.mzhelu@gmail. 2486. By removing the plate an inspection of the gears or crank and connecting-rod bearings can be made. to control them within a predetermined 333 Petroleum Engineer: M.). inside blowout presenter a valve installed in the drill stem to prevent a blowout inside the stem. tenance operation. 2484. etc. inspection windows are large enough to permit a mechanic to enter the crankcase to inspect or "change out" a bearing. INNOVATOR'S ROYALTY A type of overriding royalty paid to the person instrumental in bringing a company to a concession from a foreign government British a fixer's royalty. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.

buildings. INTANGIBLES INTEGRATED OIL COMPANY Short for intangible drilling costs (q. thus preventing the inflow of electric current. Intangible costs include also the construction of derricks. pipelines on the lease. i. and marketing. repairs. 2487. and preparation of the drillsite. The rule of thumb . refining.mzhelu@gmail. INTANGIBLE DRILLING COSTS Expenditures made by an operator for labor. A company engaged in all phases of the oil business. In a completely automatic system. and supplies used in drilling and completing a well for production. but do not include the material or equipment. 2489. transportation. intake valve the cam-operated mechanism on an engine through which air and sometimes fuel are admitted to the cylinder.). tanks. 2488. hauling. fuel. and to stop operations if the control fails. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. do the items for which expenditures were made have salvage value? If not they qualify under the tax laws as intangible drilling costs. temperature. and so on is predetermined and preset. 2490. Insulating flanges are often used in cathodic protection systems to prevent electrolytic corrosion and are sometimes installed when a flowline is being attached to a wellhead. production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering range. insulating flange a flange equipped with plastic pieces to separate its metal parts..e. Z. 2491. the desired range of pressure. 334 Petroleum Engineer: M. a company that handles its own oil from wellhead to gasoline pump.v. Simple instrumentation might consist of an indicating pressure gauge only.

The products are continuously totaled and shown on a counter index. Intermittent gas lift (See gas lift. The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in. one behind the other. In a packed or fullline pumping under pressure the integrity of the interface is well maintained. When the product total is multiplied by the orifice flow .) 335 Petroleum Engineer: M. INTEGRATION. intermitter a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. also Working Interest. 2497. 2495. See Operating Interest. The string is sometimes called protection casing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is constructed so that the product of the square roots of each of the differential and static pressures is recorded on the chart. intermediate casing string the string of casing set in a well after the surface casing to keep the hole from caving. Sometimes the blowout preventers can be attached to it. this means that there is surprisingly little mixing of the two batches of produc 2496. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 2493. The point or are a where two dissimilar products or grades of crude oil meet in a pipeline as they are pumped.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2492. HORIZONTAL INTEREST IN AN OIL OR GAS WELL INTERFACE See Horizontal Integratio also Vertical Integration. In simple English. 2494. the rate of flow is directly determined. integrating orifice meter an orifice meter with an automatic integrating device.

Unlike conventional drill pipe. . internal-combustion engine a heat engine in which the pressure necessary to produce motion of the mechanism results from the ignition or burning of a fuel-air mixture within the engine cylinder. 2503. containing metal-cutting knives. an extra-thick inside wall on the end of tubing or drill pipe at the point where it is threaded to compensate for the metal removed in threading. 2500. drill pipe with intermal upset has a uniform. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. that is lowered into the inside of a length of pipe stuck in the hole to cut the pipe. 2504. INTERMEDIATE STRING intermitter 2499. Compare external upset. The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in. a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. 2501. The severed portion of the pipe can then be returned to the surface. See Casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2498. internal cutter a fishing tool. which has the extra thickness on the outside. Compare continuous phase. straight wall outside. internal phase the fluid droplets or solids that are dispersed throughout another liquid in an emulsion.mzhelu@gmail. internal preventer internal upset an inside blowout preventer. 2502. 336 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Upset casing is normally run at the top of long strings in deep operations. INTERSTATE OIL COMPACT A compact between oil-producing states negotiated and approved by Congress in 1935. that can be curtailed or interrupted during emergencies or supply shortages in order to maintain service to domestic customers.S. the purpose of which is the conservation of oil and gas by the prevention of waste. 2506. In reservoir engineering. international SI metric system a system of measure based on the metric system and described and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures. It provides an international standard of measurement to be followed when certain customary units.mzhelu@gmail. both U. 337 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2509. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and metric. Z. Originally. internal-upset pipe tubular goods in which the pipe walls at the threaded end are thickened (upset) on the inside to provide extra strength in the tool joints. 2510. 2507. today. Thus the outer wall of the pipe is the same diameter throughout its length. there were six states as . TINTERRUPTIBLE GAS A gas supply. there are nearly 30. water contained in the interstices of a reservoir rock. usually to industrial plants and large commercial firms. interstice interstitial water a pore space in a reservoir rock. 2508. eventually are phased out of international trade operations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2505. it is synonymous with connate water. The Compact provides no power to coerce but relies on voluntary agreement to accomplish its objectives.

2514. asphaltic materials. invaded zone an area within a permeable rock adjacent to a wellbore into which a filtrate (usually water) from the drilling mud has passed. io a hydrogen atom or a molecule of other compounds that is either charged positively (a action) or negatively (an anion). made up of soaps.mzhelu@gmail. the water is dispersed as droplets throughout the oil). while . IP 1. intrusive rock an igneous rock that. 2516. the water is dispersed throughout the oil in small droplets to form a tight emulsion. 338 Petroleum Engineer: M. invert emulsion an emulsion of water in oil (i. lignite.e.used in drilling reports. 2512. Sometimes it is called an invert-emulsion mud or an invert-oil-emulsion mud.) 2515. 2513. In the resulting fluid..Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2511.. Compare reverse emulsion. 2517. I occ IOSA Interstate Oil Compact Commission. invert-oil mud an oil mud used for drilling or workover. International Oil Scouts Association. penetrated into or between other rocks and solidified. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. initial potential. with consequent partial or total displacement of the fluids originally present in the zone. and 10 to 50 percent water. (See oil mud and oil-base mud. initial production. 2.

isooctane.mzhelu@gmail. irnpeller a set of mounted blades (as the rotor of a centrifugal pump) used to impart motion to a fluid. for . a group that sets standards for instruments made and used in the U. isopentane. ISA the Instrument Society of America.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2518. 2523. In petroleum fractions there are many substances that are similar. and many other isomers. Irreducible Water Saturation In a sufficiently thick and homogenous hydrocarbon reservoir this represents the minimum possible water saturation.S. appear in two. 2521. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. isobutane. This variation. three. Many organic substances. which may range from 0 to 30 or more degrees either east or west 339 Petroleum Engineer: M. although composed of the same number of the same atoms. ISO A prefix denoting similarity. 2520. isogonic line an imaginary line on a map that joins places on the earth's surface at which the variation of a magnetic compass needle from true north is the same. Its work is chiefly concerned with the relationships between the oil industry and the public and government 2519. differing only in specific gravity. IPAA the Independent Petroleum Association of America. or more varieties or isomers which differ widely in physical and chemical properties. Okla. an organization of independent oil and gas producers headquartered in Tulsa. 2522.

ISOMERS Compounds having the same composition and the same molecular weight but differing in . 2527. 2524. It is widely used in calculating reserves and in planning secondary-recovery projects. Z. 2528. Petroleum Engineer: M. ISOPACHOUS MAP A geological map a that shows the thickness and conformation of underground formations. 2529. must be compensated for to obtain an accurate reading of direction.mzhelu@gmail. used in determining underground oil and gas reserves. IWRC 340 inclement wire-rope center. i. isopach map a geological map of subsurface strata showing the various thicknesses of a given formation underlying an area. 2530. rearranging the structure of the molecules without changing their size or chemical composition.e. ISOMERIZATION A refinery process for converting chemical compounds into their isomers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ISOPENTANE ISOTHERMAL A high-octane blending stock for automotive gasoline. 2525. At constant temperature. the expansion or compression is isothermal. Heat must be added to expanding gas and removed from compressing gas to keep it isothermal. When a gas is expanded or compressed at a constant temperature.. 2526.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of true north.

mzhelu@gmail. The releasing procedure is called "unjaying the tool. When the male element is lowered and turned relative to the sleeve. or rod line from a central power. J-4 FUEL J-tool A designation for highly refined kerosene used as fuel for jet engines. JAC K An oil well pumping unit powered by a gasoline engine.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2531. It is sometimes referred to as a stabbing jack. electric motor. a device used to support the end of a length of pipe while another length is being screwed onto the pipe. the pins slide in the slot towards the long side of the J. JACK BOARD A wood or metal prop used to support a joint of line pipe while another joint is being screwed into it. 2532. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a sleeve receptacle with a fitted. Petroleum Engineer: M. 2535. releasing weight that may be supported by the sleeve." 2533. Z. JACK RABBIT A device that is put through casing or tubing before it is run to make certain it is the proper size inside and outside. The short sides of the J-slots provide a shoulder for supporting weight on the pins of the male . which is open-ended. jack-up a jack-up drilling rig. a drift mandrel. The pumping jack's walking beam provides the up and down motion to the well's pump rods. The pins may thus be raised out. 2536. Jack boards have metal spikes inserted at intervals to support the pipe at different levels. male element that has pins that fit into milled J-shaped slots on the sleeve. 2534.

opensided tower raised vertically by special lifting tackle attached to the traveling block. floating platform with legs at each corner that can be lowered to the sea bottom to raise or "jack up" the platform above the water.) 2542. it is lowered or laid down intact and transported by truck. jackknife rig a drilling rig that has jack-knife mast instead of a standard derrick. a structural-steel. When positioned over the drilling site. JACK-UP RIG A barge-like. (See mast.mzhelu@gmail. the deck and hull height are adjusted and leveled.A masttype derrick whose supporting legs are hinged at the base. 2540.OFFSHORE PLATFORM jackknife mast See Platform Jacket. the legs are run down hydraulically or by individual electric motors. Z. 2538. Once the legs are firmly positioned on the bottom. sticking up high above the platform. 342 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2539. 2541. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the legs of the jack-up rig are in a raised position. jack-up drilling rig an offshore drilling structure with tubular or derrick legs that support the deck and . A jack-up rig is towed or propelled to a location with its legs up. Towed to location offshore. the bottoms of the legs rest on the seafloor. Jacket Offshore platform consisting of a framework of tubular members with a deck (or decks) on top and piles driven through the framework to fix the structure to the sea bed. When the rig is to be moved. JACKET. When on location.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2537.

Jack shafts usually are relatively short and often are splined. Z. the jar being controlled at the surface. jars are used to free objects stuck in the hole or to loosen tubing or drill pipe that is hung up. Cable-tool jars (part of the drillstring) are essentially a pair of elongated. jar a percussion tool operated mechanically or hydraulically to deliver a heavy hammer blow to objects in the borehole. When the line is suddenly tightened the upper link moves upward engaging the lower link with great force that usually frees the stuck bit. JAM NUT A nut used to jam and lock another nut securely in place. especially when the bit becomes stuck in the hole.mzhelu@gmail. the upper link of the jars moves down into the lower . JARS A tool for producing a jarring impact in cable-toot drilling. 343 Petroleum Engineer: M.An intermediate. 2545. jar accelerator a hydraulic tool used in conjunction with a jar and made up on the fishing string above it to increase the power of the hammer blow 2547. haft in the power train. jackshaft a short shaft that is usually set between two machines to provide increased or decreased flexibility and speed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2543. See Bumper Sub. Blows may be delivered downward or upward. After the first nut is threaded and tightened on a stud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Fishing. the second and locking nut on a stud bolt. to apply a heavy blow to the frill stem by use of a jar. a second nut is tightened down on the first nut to prevent it from working loose. 2544. interlocking steel links with a couple of feet of "play" between the links. 2546. When the drilling line is slacked off.

the drilling fine is jerked (pulled up and released suddenly) providing an up and down motion to the spudding tools on a cable tool rig. jet 1.) in the protective coating a signal is transmitted through the indicator ring to an alarm. an electric charge. fast-moving stream of exploded particles that cuts a hole in the casing. a hydraulic device operated by pump pressure to clean mud pits and tanks in rotary drilling and to mix mud components. 2550. JEEPING Refers to the operation of inspecting pipe coating with the aid of electronic equipment. in a perforating gun using shaped charges. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The force of the 344 Petroleum Engineer: M. As the crank revolves. If there is a break or holiday (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2548. and formation. cement. JERKER A line connects the bandwheel crank to the drilling cable. The explosive is lowered into the pipe to the desired depth and detonated. . jerk line a short rope used on the cathead of the drilling rig to tighten pipe-joints by pulling on the makeup longs. jet bit a drilling bit having nozzles through which drilling fluid is directed in a highvelocity stream to improve the efficiency of the bit at the bottom of the hole. a highly penetrating. 2551. 2553.mzhelu@gmail. An indicator ring is passed over the pipe which caries.v. jet cutoff a procedure for severing pipe stuck in a well by detonating special shapedcharge explosives similar to those used in jet perforating. Z. 2. 2549.

Formation fluids then flow into the wellbore through the perforations. Z. slush pit. water. (See jet-perforate. or other fluid that imparts motion and subsequent pressure to a fluid medium. Sacks of cement are opened and dumped one at a time into the hopper. and so forth. 2557. 2555. mixing with the dry cement to form a slurry for pumping downhole to cement the casing in a well or for a squeeze job. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. including a carrier and shaped charges. an assembly. See Squeeze a . The high-pressure water is jetted through the lower part of the hopper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering explosion makes radiating horizontal cuts around the pipe. 2559. that is used in jet perforating.) 345 Petroleum Engineer: M. Once detonated. (See bullet perforator and gunperforate. The loaded charges are lowered into the hole to the desired depth.mzhelu@gmail. JET FUEL jet gun A specially refined grade of kerosene used in jet propulsion engines. jet-perforate to burn a hole through the casing with a shaped charge of high explosives instead of a gun that fires projectiles. (See jet-perforate. JET MIXER (CEMENT) A device consisting of a hopper to which a water supply under pressure is connected.) 2556.) 2554. penetrating jets of high-pressure gases that cut holes in the casing and cement and some distance into the formation. a pump that operates by means of a jet of steam. and the severed portion of the pipe is retrieved. the charges emit short. 2558. jet out jet pump to use a jet to clean out the cellar.

Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2560. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the cutting from the bottom of the working pit in 346 Petroleum Engineer: M. along with the rock which has been pulverized. This is done with a suction hose that derives its partial vacuum from a jet nozzle . JETTED-PARTICLE DRILLING A method of drilling in hard rock formations using steel pellets forced at high velocity from openings in the bottom of the drill bit.) through which "clean" drilling mud is pumped at high pressure and velocity. 2563. The small steel pellets after striking and chipping the rock are returned to the surface by the force of the returning drilling air. 2561. creating enough vacuum to draw in. through an attached hose. 2562.1. The jetted water. drilled rock fragments from the bottom of the working mud pits. At the waist of the venturi the stream's velocity is increased even more and the pressure at this point is substantially reduced. a type of venturi (q. The jetted particles are used with air drilling. The power is supplied by a series of high-pressure pumps aboard an accompanying jet barge.mzhelu@gmail.200 psi.v. JETSLED An underwater trenching machine for burying a pipeline below the sea floor. JETTING THE PITS A method of removing cuttings. is directed ahead and below the fine and literally cuts a ditch in the sea floor into which the line is laid. Jetted particle drilling has been used more or less experimentally and has not had wide acceptance. JETTING Injecting gas into a subsurface formation for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure. at . The patented jet sled straddles the pipeline and scours out the seabed material ahead and beneath the line with a sears of high-pressure jets of sea water.

a single length (30 ft) of drill pipe or of drill collar. or tubing usually from 20 to 30 feet long. joint tariff a rate sheet issued jointly by two or more companies setting forth charges for moving oil over the facilities of each. (See double. tubing. they are usually pulled two. A pier (q. they are discharged in the reserve pits. the shipment of a tender of oil through the facilities of one or more pipeline 2569. when pulled out of the hole and stacked in the rig. An experienced and proficient driver of largo trucks or earth-moving 2566.mzhelu@gmail. JOINT A length of pipe. companies. equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2568. JETTY JOCKEY . or rod that has threaded connections at both ends. three. 2564. Several joints screwed together constitute a stand of pipe. On drilling rigs. or four at a time depending upon the height of the derrick. and fourble. casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the manner of a vacuum cleaner. As the chips are drawn Into the hose.casing. These multiple-joint sections are called stands (q. JOINT ADVENTURE joint movement See Joint Venture.). drillpipe and tubing are run the first time (lowered into the hole) a joint at a time. 347 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.v.) 2567.). thribble.v.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. JOURNAL That part of a rotating shaft that rests and turns in the bearing.) (slang) the member of a seismograph crew who places the . JOURNALBOX jug jug hustler A metal housing that supports and protects a journal bearing. Geophones are strung along the ground over an area where seismic shots are to be made by jug hustlers. 2575. Z. When oil is burned the air and water jets are turned on which results in the complete 348 Petroleum Engineer: M. is equipped with air and water jets around the perimeter of the burner nozzle. 2572. JOINT VENTURE A business or enterprise entered into by two or more partners. The big burner. Out on the water there is no place to put the oil during a test or when a well is allowed to blow to clean the hole so the oil has to be burned. mounted on a boom or an extension of the platform deck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2570. Joint venture 1easing is a common practice. 2574. the weight bearing segment of the shaft. See Journal. 2571. JUMBO BURNER A flare used for burning waste gas produced with oil when there is no ready market or the supply of gas is too small or temporary to warrant a pipeline. 2573. Usually the partner with the largest interest in the venture will be the operator. See Consortium.mzhelu@gmail. A special kind of jumbo burner is used on offshore drilling platforms to burn oil and gas when a well is being tested or in the event of an emergency. (See geophone.One who carries and places geophones in seismic work.

JUMBOIZING A technique used to enlarge an oil tanker's carrying capacity by cutting the vessel in two amidships and inserting a section between the halves. After the junk has been ground or broken up 349 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. junior orifice fitting junk a one-piece orifice fitting without flanges. metal debris lost in a hole.a device made up on the bottom tom of the drill stem to cut a core into the bottom of the hole on which junk rests. 2578. 2577. Without the high-pressure air and water jets to aerate and supply oxygen the oil would not burn completely. the junk enters a barrel in the tool and is held by metal projections. Jumbo burner or forced-draft burner. junk may be a lost . rough cutting to grind and pulverize downhole "junk" material or nonretrievable tools or equipment such as millable packers and the like. to abandon (as a nonproductive well). drilling cones off the bit. As the core is cut.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combustion of the of oil. the junk is removed with the core. some of the oil would fall to the water below and present a real hazard. 2579. etc. When the basket is brought back to the surface. tools.mzhelu@gmail. Z. JUNK BASKET A type of fishing tool used to retrieve small objects lost is in the borehole or down the casing. The basket is lowered into the hole and by the turbulence set up by pumping of the drilling mud the lost object is washed into the basket. 2580. or catchers. such objects as small slipe. wrenches. milled pieces of pipe. 2576. or any relatively small object that impedes drilling and must be fished out of the hole. pieces of a bit. JUNK MILLS Drill bits with specially hardened.

junk sub a tool run just above the bit or mill in the drill stem to catch small.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering into small pieces. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 350 Petroleum Engineer: M. the pieces can be circulated the surface by the drilling mud or bypassed by the regular drillstring. . non drillable objects circulating in the annulus. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

2587. e. When a high-pressure backflow begins inside the drill stem. 25K to 60K. kelly bushing a device fitted to the rotary table. used in drilling reports.) 2583. 2584. (See &kelvin temperature scale. the valve is closed to keep pressure off the swivel and rotary hose. kelly cock a valve installed between the swivel and the kelly. . forming the backbone of the structure.or sixsided. To the ad writer this is scientific shorthand meant to catch the eye of the no-nonsense engineer or technical person.g. Petroleum Engineer: M. K The abbreviation for kilo. Z. In certain employment ads. A kelly cock is also inserted in the string below the kelly joint in some instances. one thousand. Also called the drive bushing. through which the kelly passes and by means of which the torque of the rotary table is transmitted to the kelly and to the drill stem. four. the letter K is used instead of three zeros in giving salary ranges.. Kelly the heavy steel member. a centerline strength member running fore and aft along the bottom of a floating offshore drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or vice versa. degree Kelvin.mzhelu@gmail. suspended from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns.$60K. KB keel kelly bushing. It has a bored passageway that permits fluid to be circulated into the drill stem and up the annulus.A blowout preventer built inside a three-foot section of sleet tubing inserted in the drillstring above the kelly. notably petroleum industry ads.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2582. 2585. also $25K .

Lower. KELLY SPINNER A mechanism attached to the swivel that spins the kelly joint in and out of the first joint of drillpipe after the kelly has been broken out. . causes the kelly to turn or spin. KELLY SAFETY VALVE KELLY SAVER SUB See Kelly Cock. rotated rapidly in order to make up the kelly or pipe in another joint of pipe.) are the swivel and mud hose. Attached to the top of the kelly or grief stem (q. the thick-walled. i.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2588. See Kelly Valve. The threads of the drill pipe mate with those of the saver.. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when actuated. 2590. The spinner saves time in unscrewing and again in screwing in when a joint of drillpipe must be added to the string.v. 2589. e. LOWER An automatic valve attached to the lower end of the kelly joint that opens and closes by mud pump pressure. hollow steel forging with two flat sides and two rounded sides that fit into a square hole in the rotary table which rotates the kelly joint and the drill column. minimizing wear on the kelly.a saver sub that fits in the drill stem between the kelly and drill pipe. 2591. It is useful when the kelly or a joint of pipe attached to it must be spun up.a pneumatically-operated device mounted on top of the kelly that. The purpose of the valve is to prevent the 352 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. KELLY VALVE. KELLY HOSE KELLY JOINT See Mud Hose. The first and the sturdiest joint of the drill column. unloosened. 2592. Z.

On the Kelvin scale. RAW Kerosene-cut from the distillation of crude oil. 2594. but "kerosine" is preferred by the API to parallel "gasoline". keeps the rig floor dry. Kerogen is identified as a pyrobitumen. KEROGEN SHALES Commonly called oil shales. the pumps are started and the mud pressure opens the kelly valve and drilling resumes. 2597. The automatic valve saves valuable . KEROGEN A bituminous material occurring in certain shales which yield a type of oil when heated. not treated or "doctor tested" to improve odor and color. the kelly valve automatically closes. kerosine a light. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. flammable hydrocarbon fuel or solvent.) 2 2596.mzhelu@gmail. Z. and speeds up the job of making a connection. After a joint of drillpipe is added to the String and the kelly is made up tight. See Kerogen Shales.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering mud in the kelly joint from pouring out on the derrick floor each time the kelly is disconnected from the drillpipe. water freezes at 273' and boils at 373'. Kelvin temperature scale a temperature scale with the degree interval of the centigrade scale and the zero point at absolute zero. 2598. It is also spelled kerosene. When the mud pump is stopped. Small amounts of petroleum are usually associated with kerogen shales but the bulk of the oil is derived from heating the shale to about 660'F. (See absolute temperature scale. 2599. kerogen shales contain material neither petroleum nor coal but an intermediate bitumen material with some of the properties of both. KEROSENE. 353 Petroleum Engineer: M.

KEYSEAT A section of the well bore deviating abruptly from the vertical causing drilling tools to hang up. particularly a dogleg which is an abrupt deviation from the vertical or the general direction of the hole being drilled. a groove cut in a shaft or pulley bore parallel to the axis. 2605. 2601.mzhelu@gmail. one to hold back-up and the other to break out and unscrew the rod. (2) A slender metal piece used to fasten a pulley wheel or gear onto a shaft. KEYSEATING A condition downhole when the drill collar or another part of the drillstring becomes wedged in a section of crooked hole. a shoulder in the borehole. If as it is hoped. Z.v. 354 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). KEY (1) A tool used in pulling or running sucker rods of a pumping oil well. 1. Rod wrenches are used in pairs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2600. a hook-shaped wrench that fits the square shoulder of the rod connection. KEYBED The stratum chosen for contouring or making tin isopachous . 2. then an accurate contouring of the key bed well indicate the subsurface strata. KEYWAY kg A groove or slot in a shaft or wheel to hold a key (q. Key seating results from the dragging of pipe on a sharp bend in the hole. 2603. 2602. kilogram. The key fits into slots (keyways) cut in both the hub of the wheel and the shaft. a channel or groove cut in the side of the hole parallel to the axis of the hole. 2604. other strata conform to the key bed.

3. 2609. If the gas pressure is not controlled by Increasing the mud weight. 2608. 2610. to swab a well to restore it to production. oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2606. to deviate a wellbore from the vertical. gas. 355 Petroleum Engineer: M. to bring a well into production. KICK. or other formation fluid into the wellbore. kick an entry of water.Pressure from downhole in excess of that exerted by the weight of the drilling mud. Kh This symbol is used in petrophysical and reserves calculations to represent the maximum permeability of a rock formation.mzhelu@gmail. kick off 1. If prompt action is not taken to control the kick or kill the well. A primitive method of drilling a shallow well using manpower (leg power). 2607. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a kick can violently expel the column of drifting mud resulting in a blowout. The green sapling would spring back. It occurs because the pressure exerted by the column of drilling fluid is not great enough to overcome the pressure exerted by the fluids in the formation drilled. in workover operations. causing loss of circulation. In oil's very early days. . WATERFLOOD KICKING DOWN A WELL See Waterflood Kick. Z. lifting the bit ready for another "kick" by the driller.usually by injecting gas. a pole made from a small tree was used to support the drilling line and bit in the hole. a blowout will occur. The driller with his foot in a stirrup to the line would kick downward causing the pole to bend and the bit to hit the bottom of the hole.

usually greater than that required to maintain the well in . In the early 1850s. in production. a Philadelphia chemist who designed a crude. With the assistance of J. there were nearly a hundred small. 2614. kickoff point (KOP) the depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started. under certain conditions. to stop a well from producing oil and gas so that reconditioning of the well can proceed. 356 Petroleum Engineer: M. Pa. coal-fired still. Usually the conditions concern pricing or market availability. a medicinal cure-all Soon he had more oil than he could peddle in bottles so he became interested in refining. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2613. KICKOUT CLAUSE In some purchase contracts for oil and gas a clause that permits the purchaser.. KIER.mzhelu@gmail. circulate the kick out. one-vessel refineries around the country making kerosene for use in a new lamp that had been invented. and selling it as Kier Rock Oil. in drilling. to renegotiate the contract.C.. kill 1. SAMUAL M. Booth. Kier was skimming crude oil from the water of his salt wells in Pittsburgh.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2611. By 1859 and the advent of Drake's well. 2612. kickoff pressure the gas pressure required to kick off a well. 2615. Z. to prevent a threatened blowout by taking suitable preventive measures (e. and increase the weight of the drilling mud). 2. Kier began refining kerosene.g. used in directional drilling. to shut in the well with the blowout preventers.

kill sheet a printed form that contains blank spaces for recording information about killing an impending blowout. 2620. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. kill line a high-pressure line that connects the mud pump and the well and through which heavy drilling fluid can be pumped into the well to control a threatened blowout. It gas pressure threatens to cause loss of circulation or a blowout. 2617. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2616. 2619. to bring under control a well that is threatening to blow out. kinematic Viscosity the absolute viscosity of a fluid divided by the density of the fluid at the temperature of the viscosity measurement. to circulate water and mud into a completed well before starting well-servicing operations. See Kick. provided to remind personnel of the necessary steps to take to kill a well. drilling mud is made heavier (heavied-up) by the addition of special clays or other material. 357 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. Wells that have blown out and caught fire are often brought under control in this manner it other means tail. 2618. One important function of drilling mud is to maintain control over any downhole gas pressures that may be encountered. kill a well 1. To overcome downhole pressure in a drilling well by the use of drilling mud or .mzhelu@gmail. KILLER WELL A directional well drilled near an out-of-control well to "kill" it by flooding the formation with water or mud.

causes permanent distortion of the wire . kink a loop in a wire rope that. 2623. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2622. 2625. When the well is to be hung off (shut down). per hour.20 feet. 2626. knowledge box (slang) the cupboard or desk in which the driller keeps the various records pertaining to a drilling operation. having been pulled tight. KNUCKLE BUSTER A wrench so worn or of such poor quality that it will not hold when under the strain of heavy work. KNOCKOUT A tank or separator vessel used to separate or "knock out" water from a 2624. It is also equal to about I'A statute miles per hour. smart box. a block is inserted between the rodline hook and the knock-off post which interrupts the line's forward movement putting slack in the line so that the hook may be disengaged.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2621. or 6. 358 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.mzhelu@gmail. stream of oil. a unit of speed equal to 1 nautical mile. 2627. KNOCK-OFF POST A post through which a rod line moves as it operates a pumping jack. The drilling crew's name for the place the driller keeps his orders and reports. knockout drops knot (slang) a slugging compound.

A type of ship's propeller that rotates within a cylindrical cowling which concentrates the thrust of the propeller. 2630. A knuckle joint is useful in fishing operations because it allows the fishing tool to be deflected to the side of the hole where a fish may have come to rest. KO KOP KORT NOZZLE kicked off. kilovolt. a type of early drilling tool hinged on a movable joint so that the drill could be deflected at an angle from the vertical. 2629.(See kick off. used in directional drilling. kilowatt. kV kW kwh 2633. KWH.) 2631.mzhelu@gmail. 2632. kickoff point. used in drilling reports. 359 Petroleum Engineer: M. KNUCKLE JOINT A universal joint (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2628. a deflection tool. 2634. Z. Kort nozzles are installed on some tugboats and drilling-tender vessels to increase their maneuverability and response.v. kw-h kilowatt-hour. with a ball and socket arrangement that allows the tool to be deflected at an angle. This produces a nozzle effect as the water is jetted from the cowling.). placed above the drill bit in the drill .


LANDING CASING Lowering a string of casing into the hole and setting it on a shoulder of rock at a point where the diameter of the borehole has been reduced. A LACT unit is an automated system for measuring and transferring oil from a leasegathering system into a pipeline. 2639. the area of a partly machined surface (as with grooves or indentations) that is left smooth. 2638. land 1. The beginning of the smaller diameter hole forms the shoulder on which the casing is landed. the area between the grooves into which the rings fit on a piston. 2642. land casing to install casing so it is supported in the casinghead by slips. LACT unit laminar flow (See lease automatic custody transfer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2635. 2641. 2637. port.S. landed.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: . LACT lease automatic custody transfer. LANDED COST (OF OIL) The cost of a barrel of imported oil off loaded at a U. landing depth the depth to which the lower end of casing extends in the hole when casing is Petroleum Engineer: M. Landed cost includes all foreign taxes and royalties plus cost of transportation. Z. The casing is usually landed in the casinghead at exactly the position in which it was hanging when the cement plug reached its lowest point. 2636. and LACT. 2. 2640.) a smooth flow of fluid in which no cross flow of fluid particles occurs between adjacent stream lines.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



a person in the petroleum industry who negotiates with landowners for land options, oil-drilling leases, and royalties and with producers for the pooling of production in the Field; also called leasernan.



A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on t property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production.



an interval in the cased hole where the top of a liner overlaps the bottom of a string of casing.



Line pipe or casing made from a sheet of steel which is formed on a mandrel. The two edges, tapered to half normal thickness, are 1a,oped over and welded. See Seamless Pipe.


lastengaged thread

the last pipe thread that is actually screwed into the coupling thread in making up a joint of drill pipe, drill collars, tubing, or casing. If the pipe makes up perfectly, it is also the last thread cut on the pipe.

2648. 2649.

latch on LATER

to attach elevators to a section of pipe to pull it out of or run it into the hole.

A metric unit of volume 1.057 U.S. quarts; 61.02 cubic inches. 362

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Pipelines that tie into a trunk line; laterals are of smaller diameter and are laid as part of a gathering system or a distribution system. In an oil field, laterals bring oil or gas from individual leases or tank batteries to the booster station and the trunk line.


latex cement

an oil-well cement composed of latex, cement, a surfactant, and water and characterized by its high-strength bond with other materials and its resistance to contamination by oil or drilling mud.


lay barge

a barge used in the construction and placement of underwater pipelines. joints of pipe are welded together and then lowered off the stern of the barge as it moves ahead.


lay down pipe

to pull drill pipe or tubing from the hole and place it in a horizontal position on a pipe rack. Compare set back.

2654. 2655.


See Pipe Tongs.

A storage area for tubing and drillpipe that are removed from a well and laid down rather than set back and racked vertically in the derrick.



To pull the tubing from the well, a joint at a time, and remove it from the derrick floor to a nearby horizontal pipe rack. As each joint is unscrewed from 363

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the string, the lower end of the joint is placed on a low cart and pulled out to the rack as the driller lowers the pipe which is held up by the elevators.

2657. 2658. 2659.

layer laying down LAZY BENCH

a bed, or stratum, of rock.

(See lay down pipe.)

A bench on which workers, when not working, may rest. A perch from which a work operation may be observed by workers or loafers.



A stout board with a handle used to support the end of a pipeline while another length of pipe is screwed into it. On small lines. the man operating the lazy board or "granny" board usually handles the back-up wrench which holds one joint of pipe firm while another joint is being screwed in.


lb lb/ft3 LB/LB

2662. 2663.

pounds per cubic foot.

Pound per pound. In a refining process, the ratio of ingredients to be mixed or introduced to the process.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Pounds of water per million standard cubic feet (MMSCF) of natural gas. The designation of water content for large volumes of gas. See PPM/VVT.



Large crude-carrying vessels tankers from 100,000 to 500,000 dead. weight tons capable of transporting 2.5 to 3.5 million barrels of oil in one trip. Cruising speed of LCCVs is 12 to 18 knots overall length, about 1,200 feet; draft when fully loaded, more than 80 feet.

on the lease.

lead line

the pipe through which oil or gas flows from the well to additional equipment



Lines through which production from individual wells is run to a tease tank


lead tongs

(pronounced "leed") the pipe tongs suspended in the derrick and operated by a wireline connected to the breakout cathead. They are also called breakout tongs.

2669. 2670.

lead-tong man leak-off test

the crew member who operates lead tongs during hoisting of the drill pipe.

a gradual pressurizing of the casing after the blowout preventers have been installed to permit estimation of the casing burst point. 365

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2671. 2672.

LEAN GAS lean oil

Natural gas containing little or no liquefiable hydrocarbons. See Wet Gas.

a hydrocarbon liquid usually lighter in weight than kerosine and heavier than paint thinner. In a gas-processing plant, lean oil is used in an absorber to remove heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas.



(1) The legal instrument by which a leasehold is created in minerals. A contract that. for a stipulated sum, conveys to an operator the right to drill for oil or gas. The oil lease is not to be confused with the usual lease of land or a building. The interests created by an oil-country lease are quite different from a realty lease. (2) The location of production activity; oil installations and facilities; location of oil field office, tool house, garages.


lease automatic custody transfer

(LACT) automatic measurement and transfer of oil from a producer's tanks to a connected pipeline, which circumvents the need for personnel to be present at the site.



A person whose business is securing leases for later sale in the hope of profit. Lease brokers operate in areas where survey or exploration work is being done.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Liquid hydrocarbons produced with natural gas and separated from the gas at the well or on the lease. See Condensate.



Colloquial term for a person whose job is securing oil and gas leases from landowners for himself or a company for which he works. See Landman.



Gathering lines on a lease; usually small-diameter (2 to 4-inch) pipelines that carry production from the lease wells to a central tank battery; lead fines.


lease metering site

the point on a lease where the volume of oil produced from the lease is measured, usually automatically.

2680. 2681. 2682.

lease operator lease tank LEASE TANKS

(See pumper.)

(See production tank.)

A battery of two or more 100 to 500-barreitanks on a lease that receive the. production from the wells on the lease. Pipeline connections are made to the lease tanks for transporting the oil to the trunk line and thence to the refinery.



(See landman.) 367

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2684. 2685.


(nautical) downwind.

A pipe or bolt thread cut to be turned counterclockwise in tightening. Most threads are right-hand, cut to be tightened by turning clockwise. Nipples with one kind of thread on one end, another on the other end, are referred to as "bastard (q.v.) nipples."

2686. 2687. 2688.


Forty acres; one-sixteenth of a section (square mile).

The tour corner-members of the rig, held together by sway braces and girts.

1. a porous, permeable, irregularly shaped sedimentary deposit surrounded by impervious rock. 2. a lenticular sedimentary bed that pinches out, or comes to an end, in all directions.

gas well.


The person or company entitled, under a lease, to drill and operate an oil or



the conveyer of a lease (as an oil and gas lease).


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



1. the height or depth at which the top of a column of fluid is located (as the level of fluid in a well). 2. a horizontally even surface. 3. a device used to determine if a surface is horizontal.



Last in first out; first in first out; first in fast out. Acronyms that designate the sequence of movement in and out or the handling of crude oil and products in inventory or held in storage.


lifter-roof tank

a tank whose roof rises and falls with the changes of pressure in the tank but does not float on the product stored in it.



(1) Refers to tankers and barges taking on cargoes of oil or refined product at a terminal or transshipment point. (2) Producing an oil well by mechanical means; pump, compressed air, or gas.

2695. 2696.

LIFTING COSTS lifting nipple

The costs of producing oil from a well or a lease,

a short piece of pipe with a pronounced upset, or shoulder, on the upper end, screwed into drill pipe, drill collars, or casing to provide a positive grip for the elevators. It also is called a lifting sub or a hoisting plug.


lifting sub

(See hoisting plug and lifting nipple.)

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Crude oil that flows freely at atmospheric temperatures and has an API gravity in the high 30s and 40s; a light-colored crude oil. See Heavy Crude Oil.

2699. 2700.

light crude oil light displacement

a crude oil of relatively high API gravity (usually 40' or higher).

on mobile offshore drilling rigs, the weight of the rig with all permanently attached equipment but without fuel, supplies, crew, ballast, drill pipe, and so forth.



The more volatile products of petroleum refining e.g. butane, propane,



An early-day term for an installation on a lease or at a company camp (q.v.) that provided electricity for fighting and small appliances. The light plant often was simply a belt-driven D. C. generator run off one of the engines at a pipeline pumping station or a pumping well's engine. The lights "surged" with the power strokes of the engines and went out when an engine "went down," but the lights were far better than gas lights or none at all.


lightening hole

a hole cut into a strengthening member that reduces its weight but does not affect its strength significantly. 370

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


lightweight cement

a cement or cement system that handles stable scurries having densities of less than the optimum weight of neat cement.



an organic drilling fluid additive derived from by-products of a papermaking process using sulfite; added to drilling mud to minimize fluid loss and to reduce the viscosity of the mud.


limber hole

a hole cut in a structural member of a ship or offshore drilling rig, usually in a tank, to allow water to pass through freely.

2707. 2708.

LIME lime mud

Colloquial for limestone.

a drilling mud that is treated with lime to provide a source of soluble calcium in the filtrate in order to obtain desirable mud properties when drilling in shale or clay formations.



a sedimentary rock rich in calcium carbonate that sometimes serves as a reservoir rock for petroleum.



1. any length of pipe through which liquid or gas flows. 2. rope or wire rope. 3. electrical wire.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


line drive

in water-flooding, a pattern of injection wells designed to advance water to the producing wells in the form of a frontal movement. (See waterflood.)



Line fill The amount of gas or oil or product required to fill a new line before deliveries can be made at take-off I points or the end of the fine. Line pack The volume of gas or barrels or oil maintained in a trunk pipeline at all times in order to maintain pressure and provide uninterrupted flow of gas or oil. There are millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas in the country's pipelines at ad times.



Instructions to the pipeline construction crews building a line across the land of many property owners. The instructions list all owners, the length of line across each property, and include any special restrictions such as "keep all gates closed and in good repair" and "avoid at all costs damaging large trees." The right-of-way man leaps make up the line list,


line pipe

a steel or plastic pipe used in pipelines, gathering systems, flow lines, and so

(See pig.)

line scraper


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Merchantable natural-gas line from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying gas that has had water and other impurities removed; a line carrying pipeline gas (q.v.).



Merchantable crude-oil fine from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying oil that has had water and other impurities removed; a line transporting pipeline oil, (q.v.).



Gas maintained in a gas transmission line at all times to maintain pressure and effect uninterrupted flow of gas to customers at take-off points.



In drilling, a length of casing used downhole to shut off a water or gas formation so drilling can proceed. Liners are also used to case a "thief zone" (q.v.) where drilling fluid is being lost in a porous formation. A finer is also a removable cylinder used in reciprocating pumps and certain types of internalcombustion engines; a sleeve.


liner barrel

a pump barrel used for either tubing pumps or rod (insert) pumps. A fullcylinder liner barrel consists of a steel jacket inside of which is a full-length tube of cast iron or special alloy. The inner surface of the barrel is polished to a mirrorlike finish to permit a fluid-tight seal between it and the plunger. In a sectional liner barrel, the tube placed inside the steel jacket consists of a


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

series of sections placed end to end and held firmly in place by means of threaded collars on the ends of the steel jacket.


liner completion

a well completion in which a screen liner is used to obtain communication between the reservoir and the wellbore.

2722. 2723. 2724.

liner hanger liner lap LINEUP CLAMPS

a slip device that attaches the liner to the casing.

the distance that a liner extends into the bottom of a string of casing.

A device that holds the ends of two joints of pipe together and in perfect alignment for welding. Lineup clamps operate on the outside of the pipe and are used on smaller diameter line pipe. Large-diameter pipe-20 to 36-inch and over-are aligned by internal, hydraulically operated mandrel-like devices.



A term used to describe an arrangement of interconnecting parts-rods, lovers, springs, joints, couplings, pins-that transmit motion, power, or exert control.


liquefied natural gas

(LNG) a liquid composed chiefly of natural gas (i.e., mostly methane). Natural gas is liquefied to make it easier to transport if a pipeline is not feasible (as across a body of water). Not as easily liquefied as LPG, LNG must be put under low temperature and high pressure to become liquefied.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Natural gas that has been liquefied by severe cooling (-160'C.) for the purpose of shipment and storage in high-pressure cryogenic tanks. To transform the liquid to a useable gas, the pressure is reduced and the liquid is warmed.


liquefied natural-gas carrier

(LNGC) a tank ship that is specifically designed to transport liquefied natural

liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) a mixture of heavier, gaseous, paraffinic hydrocarbons, principally butane and propane. These gases, easily liquefied at moderate pressures, may be transported as liquids but converted to gases on release of the pressure. Thus, liquefied petroleum gas is a portable source of thermal energy that finds wide application in areas where it is impracticable to distribute natural gas. It is also used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines and has many industrial and domestic uses. Principal sources are natural and refinery gas, from which the liquefied petroleum gases are separated by fractionation.



a state of matter in which the shape of the given mass depends on the containing vessel, but the volume of the mass is independent of the vessel. A liquid is a practically incompressible fluid. liquid-level controller any device used to control the liquid level in a tank by actuating electric or pneumatic switches that open and close the discharge valve or the intake valve, thus maintaining the liquid at the desired level. 375

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

and so forth. . lithology lithology the conversion of unconsolidated deposits into solid rock. 2734. Z. 376 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2730.mzhelu@gmail. liter a unit of metric measure of capacity equal to the volume occupied by 1 kg of water at 4 C and at the standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mm. lithification Lithologic. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2731. liquid-level gauge any device that indicates the level or quantity of liquid in a container. the study of rocks. usually macroscopic. Also. liquid-level Indicator a device connected to a vessel and coupled with either a float in the vessel or directly with the fluid therein and calibrated to give a visual indication of the liquid level in the tank. LIQUID HYDROCARBONS Petroleum components that are liquid at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressure. 2733. The physical character of a rock. or supplies. list the position of a ship or offshore drilling rig that heels to one side because of a shift in cargo. 2732. the individual character of a rock in terms of mineral composition. machinery. 2735. 2736.

load binder a chain or cable with a latching device. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. See Liquefied Natural Gas. It is also called boomer. LIVE OIL Crude oil which contains dissolved natural gas when produced. 2738. liquefied natural-gas carrier. Compare idle. as it is the gas pressure which pushes the oil out of the porous formation to the well bore and up to the surface. in mechanics. 2739. the line was sold to a private gas transmission company. used to secure loads (usually of pipe) on trucks. the weight or pressure placed on an object. See weight on the bit. 2743. 2742. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. The load on a bit refers to the amount of the weight of the drill collars allowed to rest on the bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2737. Pumping wells may produce oil with a small amount of gas entrained in the production. A flowing well always has dissolved gas. to engage an engine so it works. After the war. lm LNG LNGC load lime. . 377 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2741. LITTLE BIG INCH PIPELINE A 20-inch products pipeline built from East Texas to the Fact Coast during World War 11 to solve the problem caused by tanker losses as the resume of submarine warfare.

so there are always some location damages to be paid. e. shooting. See 2749. Drainage. location. 2747. LOCATION DAMAGES Compensation paid by an operator to the owner of the land for damages to the surface or to crops during the drilling of a well. Z. LOCATION The well site the place where a well is to be drilled or has been drilled. 378 Petroleum Engineer: M. used in drilling reports.g. 2745. e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng..g. loading rack loc LOCAL DRAINAGE the equipment used for transferring crude oil into tank .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2744. The movement of oil or gas toward the well bore of a producing well.. a well spacing unit. 2748. "Two locations south of the discovery well. Mud pits must be dug.) Oil of any kind put back into a well for any purpose." 2750. a surface leveled for tanks and rig. load guy LOAD OIL (See guy line. 2746. hydraulic fracturing. and access roads built. or swabbing.

2756. dispatchers. log a well to run any of the various logs used to ascertain downhole information about a 2753. 379 Petroleum Engineer: M. Many different logs are run in wells being produced or drilled to obtain various characteristics of downhole formations. 2752. LOG. at the Logging surface. and station engineers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2751. a book used by station engineers and gaugers to keep notes of current operating conditions and other useful information. LOG ROAD log sheet See Cord .mzhelu@gmail. mud log. 2757. 2755. electrical well log. well. Z. or radioactivity log. 2754. and electrical and radioactive logs obtained from The systematic recording of data obtained from the driller's log and mud log instrumentation lowered into and retrieved from the drill hole after drilling. as from the driller's log. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. log a systematic recording of data. SAMPLE logbook See Sample Log. a daily report sheet on which operating data is entered by gaugers.

with the new section tied into the original line. 2763. doubling a pipeline over part of its length. or coarsely permeable beds. loose-valve . 2761. LOSE RETURNS Refers to a condition in which less drilling mud is being returned from downhole than is being pumped in at the top. loss of circulation lost circulation (See lost circulation. 2764.e. usually in cavernous. 2759. LOOSE-VALVE TREE The designation for a Christmas tree or production tree nippled up or made up with individual valves as contrasted to solid-block tree valves. This indicates that mud is being lost in porous formations. LONG STRING LOOPING A LINE See Production String. LOGGING UNIT Well service wireline equipment for downhole well surveys. The spoof on which the wire is wound is powered by a small engine to reel in the thousands of feet of wire lowered into the hole with the logging tool. to increase the throughput capacity of the system.) the loss of quantities of whole mud to a formation. evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole.mzhelu@gmail. Z. crevices. 2762. two or more valves made in one compact steel block. The construction of a pipeline parallel to an existing line. 380 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2760. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually in the same right-of-way. Fissured. A stacked.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2758. or a cavern. i..

low-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement into the points in a well to be squeezed at a pressure not exceeding the formation-breakdown pressure.) and is used in rotary drilling when possible because it can provide fast drilling rates.) 2769. lost hole a well that cannot be further drilled or produced because of a blowout. a fish.) a substance added to cement slurries or drilling muds to prevent the loss of cement or mud to the formation. and so forth.mzhelu@gmail. 2770. 2765. 2767. necessitating its removal before normal operations can proceed. or casing that has become separated from the part of the pipe reaching the surface. drill collars. reduce the efficiency of the drilling operation. Z. unsuccessful fishing job. lost pipe drill pipe. LOWBOY A low-profile. etc. in general. (See bridging material. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 2768. tubing. silt. (See squeeze cementing. low-solids mud a drilling mud that contains a minimum amount of solid material (as sand. lost returns lost-circulation material (See lost circulation. flat-bed trailer with multiple axles (6 to 10) for transporting extra-heavy loads over relatively short distances. It is also called lost returns. . The many wheels and axles serve to spread the weight of the trailer and its load over a large area to 381 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Lost circulation can lead to a blowout and.

The low bed makes it easier to load and unload the heavy equipment it was designed to move. When the valve on the "bottle" or small tank of butane. LP-gas. See Tertiary Recovery. Liquid butane and propane or a mixture of the two are used extensively in areas where there is no natural gas service. Z. 2774. used in drilling reports. liquefied petroleum gases revert to the gaseous state. 2771. This is done with side-boom tractors that lift the pipe in slings and carefully lower it into the ditch. for example. a small quantity of liquid "boils" or turns to a gas and can then be used just as natural gas for cooking or heating.v. is opened.mzhelu@gmail. butane. "bottled gas". releasing the pressure on the liquid. ls limestone. propane and other fight ends (q. 2773. At atmospheric pressure. 382 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: . The slings are made of layers of heavy canvas or rubber-impregnated fabric so as not to scuff or break the anticorrosion pipe coating which is applied to all buried pipelines. LOWER IN To put a completed pipeline in the ditch. LPG Liquefied petroleum gas. LP-GAS DRIVE The injection of high-pressure enriched gas or an LPG slug to effect the miscible displacement of oil. 2772.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering avoid damaging streets and highways.) separated from natural gasoline or crude oil by fractionation or other refining processes.

The crankcase of a pump.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Also tube and tubes. 10-30 SAE. Short for lubricating oil or lubricant.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2775. LUBRICATION SYSTEM. and in the heat of engine operation. as through a lubricator. heavy drilling mud into the well bore to control gas pressure. lse LUBE OIL LUBRICATING OIL. 2776. As the crankshaft 2779. . against pressure. Specially formulated lubricating oil that flows freely in cold weather. Z. MULTIGRADE lease. Through one or two joints of large-diameter casing attached atop the wellhead. used in drilling reports. lubricator a specially fabricated length of casing or tubing usually placed temporarily above a valve on top of the casing or tubing head. for example. LUBRICATOR. contains the tube oil. 2780.g. maintains sufficient viscosity or "body" to properly lubricate the engine e. GRAVITY SPLASH A type of lubrication system for relatively slow-moving machinery. It is used to run tools or substances into a producing well without having to kill the well and affords a method of sealing off pressure while allowing a device such as a wireline to pass into the well. MUD A temporary hookup of pipes and valves for introducing additional. the heavy mud is fed into the well bore. 2777. 383 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Galey and James M.000 bbls/day) that ushered in the modern oil age of large oil companies. Germany. Texas. Guffey owned the Spindletop gusher located near Beaumont. John H. It was Capt. Z. Lucas' Spindletop gusher in 1901 (75. ANTHONY F. LURGI PROCESS A process for the commercial gasification of coal which originated in 2783. LUCAS. .mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2781. 384 Petroleum Engineer: M. CAPT. LXT UNIT A low-temperature separator. a mechanical separator which uses refrigeration obtained by expansion of gas from high pressure to low pressure to increase recovery of gas-entrained liquids.

2786. fluid matter within the earth's crust.) 2791. square meter. a string of tubing of very small diameter.mzhelu@gmail. m m2 m3 mA macaroni string magma 2785. 2788. magnetic surveying instrument a device used to determine the direction and drift of a deviated wellbore. 2789. Petroleum Engineer: M. 2787. MAGNETO See Ignition Magneto. and a powder or paste of magnetic particles is applied. the hot. a magnetic compass. and photographic or mechanical equipment to determine and record directional information. capable of intrusion or extrusion. . revealing defects. It uses a plumb bob. A magnetic field is set up in the part to be inspected. The particles arrange themselves around discontinuities in the metal. 2790. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2784. Magnaflux a trade name for the equipment and processes used for detecting cracks and other surface discontinuities in iron or steel. milliampere. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cubic meter. that produces igneous rocks when cooled. (See directional survey and directional drilling.

com . 2794. make a hand make a trip (slang) to become a good worker. 2797. taking a core. main line make a connection a large-diameter pipeline between distant points. in instrument used by geophysicists in oil exploration work. and so forth. to attach a joint of drill pipe onto the drill stem suspended in the wellbore to permit deepening of the wellbore. 2796. main deck the principal deck extending from front to back of a ship or offshore drilling rig. 386 Petroleum Engineer: M. Used to detect rock formations below the surface. 2799. Z.mzhelu@gmail. make hole MAKE IT UP to deepen the hole made by the bit. to drill ahead. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2793. MAGNETOMETER An instrument for measuring the relative intensity of the earth's magnetic effect. and then to return the drill stem to the wellbore. a trunk line. 2798. 2795. To screw a pipe or threaded connection tight by the use of a wrench. to hoist the drill stem out of the wellbore to perform one of a number of operations such as changing bits. the Texas deck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2792.

The power necessary to screw a joint of pipe into another sufficiently tight to hold and not loosen under working conditions. male connection a pipe. makeup intend to be added to a system (as makeup water used in mixing mud). Z. 2802. 2804. 3. to screw together two threaded pieces. 2805. or tool that has threads on the outside so it can be joined to a female connection. 2801. to assemble and join parts to form a complete unit (as to make up a string of casing). 2803. make up a joint MAKE-UP TORQUE to screw a length of pipe into another length of . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. coupling. A pipe. makeup cathead the cathead used as a power source for screwing together joints of pipe. rod.mzhelu@gmail. MAN RACK A portable "doghouse" or cab mounted on a flat-bed truck for transporting pipeline workers to and from the job.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2800. or coupling with threads on the outside circumference. 387 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2806. literally. to mix or prepare (as to make up a tank of mud). 2. make up 1. 4. MAKING HOLE MALE CONNECTION Progress in drilling a well. to compensate for (as to make up for lost time).

mandrel a cylindrical bar.mzhelu@gmail. 2811. 2810. usually in inches or millimeters. manifold an accessory system of piping to a main piping system (or another conductor) that serves to divide a flow into several parts. 388 Petroleum Engineer: M.A hole in the side of a tank or other vessel through which a man can enter. or shaft around which other parts are arranged or attached or that fits inside a cylinder or tube. the liquid level in one arm rises while the level in the other drops. A set of calibrated markings beside one of the arms permits a pressure reading to be taken. 2809. manometer a U-shaped piece of glass tubing containing a liquid (usually water or mercury) that is used to measure the pressure of gases or liquids. Manholes have fitted covers with gaskets that are kept bolted in place when the tank is in use. to combine several flows into one. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. MANIFEST A document issued by a shipper invoicing oil or products transported by a ship.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2807. a bill of lading. When pressure is applied. or to reroute a flow to any one of several possible destinations. spindle. manhole a hole in the top or side of a tank through which a person can enter. MANIFOLD An area where pipelines entering and leaving a pumping station or tank farm converge and that contains all valves for controlling the incoming and outgoing . 2808.

and major cities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 389 Petroleum Engineer: M. MAP. lakes. MARINE OIL Petroleum found by wells offshore or on the continental shelf. MARGINAL WELL A low-producing well. 2816. 2813.. roads.. a well that is approaching depletion of its natural resource to the extent that any profit from continued production is doubtful. MARGINAL STRIKE A discovery well on the border line between what is considered a commercial and a noncommercial well. streams. . 2814. usually not subject to allowable regulations. MAP.mzhelu@gmail. including rivers. land and political boundaries. lakes. a step-out well that may have over-reached the pool boundary. RELIEF A model of an area in which variation in the surface is shown in relief. 2815. latitude and longitude lines. A map which shows in detail the physical features of an area of land.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2812. TOPOGRAPHIC A map containing geologic information of the surface and/or the subsurface. 2818. SURVEY MAP. BASE A map that contain. a three-dimensional model of a surface area. Z. 2817. MAP.

marine riser connector a fitting on top of the subsea blowout preventers to which the riser pipe is 2820. marker bed a distinctive. easily identified rock stratum. Z. or sand. The riser is made up of several sections including flexible joints and a telescoping joint to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action. drilling. The great.)string of specially designed steel pipes that extends down from drillShip or floating platform to the subsea wellhead. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE Gasoline made for camp stoves. A tractor-like vehicle whose wheels are fitted with extra-large rubber tires inflated with air for use in . especially one used as a guide for 2822. boat Motors. marl MARSH BUGGY a semisolid or unconsolidated clay. Marine risers are used to provide a return fluid-flow conductor between the well bore and the drill vessel and to guide the drillstring to the wellhead on the ocean floor. marine riser system (See riser pipe. connected.mzhelu@gmail. 2823. silt. Marine white contains no tetraethyl lead or other additives that could clog the needle vales of gasoline appliances. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. lanterns blow torches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2819. balloon-like tires are 10 or 12 feet high and two or three feet wide providing buoyancy as well as traction in 390 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2821.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2824. MAST A simple derrick made of timbers or pipe held upright by guywires. Z. MASS-FLOW GAS METER A gas meter that registers the quantity of gas in pounds which is then converted to cubic feet. 2826. which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit. for example. a gin pole. tapered slips are then inserted around the drillpipe to hold it securely while another joint is added to the drilistring. Mass-flow meter. It may be split in two pieces or may be a solid ring. are used in many refineries where large volumes of gas are consumed. Marsh funnel a calibrated funnel used in field tests to determine the viscosity of drilling 2825.mzhelu@gmail. master bushing an adapter used to reduce the size of the opening through the rotary table and to fit the slips. 2827. the mast can be divided into two or more sections to avoid excessive length extending from truckbeds on the highway.a portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit. When kelly bushing is lifted out of the master . The marsh buggy is indispensable in exploration work in swampy terrain. a sturdy A frame used for drilling shallow wells or for workover. Also called the rotary bushing. 391 Petroleum Engineer: M. For transporting by land. The large bushing that fits into the rotary table of a drilling rig into which the ke1ly bushing fits. mud. as distinguished from a standard derrick. which are somewhat more accurate than orifice meters.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering marshland.

2834. master valve (1). 2833. matrix acidizing the procedure by which acid flow is confined to the natural permeability and porosity of the formation. The head has two sharpened steel blades. 2831. the blind or blank rams of a blowout preventer. 392 Petroleum Engineer: M.g. one is in the shape of a pick. MATTOCK A toot for digging in hard earth or . pump plungers and liners or sucker rod box and pin. MATSTRUCTURE The steel Platform placed on the sea floor as a rigid foundation to support the legs of a jack-up drilling platform. piston and cylinder. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM A self-elevating (jack-up) offshore drilling platform whose legs are attached to a metal mat or substructure that rests on the sea floor when the legs are extended. 2830. the other the shape of a heavy adz.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2828. MATING PARTS Two or more machine or equipment parts made to fit and/or work together. MASTER GATE A large valve on the wellhead used to shut In a well if it should become 2829. e. (2). necessary. Z. 2832.mzhelu@gmail. as opposed to fracture aridizing. a large valve on the Christmas tree used to control the flow of oil and gas from the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2835. 2841. (Thousand Cubic Feet) Mcf stands for one thousand cubic feet. maximum capacity the maximum output of a system or unit (as a refinery. 393 Petroleum Engineer: M.) in the derrick of an oil well. 2839. millidarcy.) Short for monoethanolamine.mzhelu@gmail. Mcf/d md MEA 1000 ft' of gas per day.v. MAY RAKE Mcf Another name for the finger board (q. maximum allowable pressure the greatest pressure that may safely be applied to a structure or . maximum water in oil-well cementing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an organic base used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases in process streams. 2837. 2838. the maximum ratio of water to cement that does not cause the water to separate from the slurry on standing. 2842. Also DEA. pumping unit. another common organic base. Z. (See darcy. 2836. It is a unit of measure that is more commonly used in the low volume sectors of the gas industry such as stripper well production. Pressure in excess of this amount leads to failure or explosion. or producing well). 2840. gasoline plant. diethanolamine.

2849. Chemical compound. It is also called a power rig. or similar devices. and shafts). by means of weirs. UNITS OF measuring tank 2846. float switches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2843. MER MERCAPTAN maximum efficiency rate. measure out to measure drill pipe or tubing as it is pulled from the hole. Measuring tanks are used in LACT systems and may also be referred to as metering tanks or dump tanks. pressure switches. sprockets. 2848. Z.mzhelu@gmail.). present in certain refined products that Impart objectionable odor to the . mercaptan a chemical 394 Petroleum Engineer: M. measure in to obtain an accurate measurement of the depth reached in a well by measuring the drill pipe or tubing as it is run into the well. mechanical rig a drilling rig in which the source of power is one or more internal-combustion engines and in which the power is distributed to rig components through mechanical devices (as chains. 2844. 2845. clutches. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. automatically measures the volume of liquid run in and then released. LENGTH MEASURE. 2847. a calibrated tank that. containing sulfur.(of production) (q. usually to determine the depth of the well or the depth to which the pipe or tubing was run.

com . Z. 2852. making it salable. and structural alterations caused by processes within the earth's crust.mzhelu@gmail. When the hull inclines slightly to a new position. level) and then another (e. metamorphic rock a rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical. Mercury is mixed with a sample and shaken.g. inclined). Location of the metacenter is important because it affects the stability of floating vessels (as mobile offshore drilling rigs).. and the degree of discoloration in the sample is compared with a standard to determine the mercury number.(crude) of a quality as to be acceptable by a pipeline system or other purchaser.v. MERCURY NUMBER A measure of the free sulfur in a sample of naphtha.. If a second line is drawn vertically through the new center of buoyancy. 2850. Marble is a metamorphic rock. Many mercaptans have an offensive odor and are used as odor and in natural gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compound similar to alcohol in which sulfur replaces the oxygen. merchantable oil a crude oil in which the BS& W content is not in excess of that allowed by the purchase. 2853. 2851. crude oil containing no more than one percent BS&W (q.g. it intersects the first line at a point called the metacenter. the center of buoyancy of the hull also moves to a new position. metacenter a point located somewhere on a line drawn vertically through the crater of buoyancy of the hull of a floating vessel with the hull in one position (e. 395 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). chemical.

. El-Helu E-Mail: . that is lowered into a tank containing a known volume of fluid. or rates of flow of gases. an inked pen traces the variations in pressure or volume. adjustment of a meter so that its readings conform to a standard 2857. 2. equal to 3. 2855. meter calibration 1. As the bell is lowered. or 100 cm. Meters are proved by passing a known volume of fluid through them at a known rate and comparing this volume with a standard. it displaces the fluid and forces it through the meter to be tested. meter chart a circular chart of special paper that shows the range of differential pressure and static pressure and that is marked by the recording pens of a flow meter. 39. and the action of water that results in a more compact and highly crystalline condition. meter (m) 1. heat.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2854. 2856.A replaceable paper chart for recording pressure or flow for a 24-hour period. meter prover a device used to check the accuracy of a meter. 2. METAMORPHISM Changes in rock induced by pressure. quantities. or piston. A typical prover used for checking meters is the bell prover. which consists essentially of a bell. the operation by which meter readings are compared with an accepted standard. 2858. to measure quantities or properties of a substance. liquids. a device used to measure and often record volumes. The rate at which the 396 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Z.37 in.28 ft. or electric currents. As the chart revolves on its spindle. the fundamental unit of length in the metric system.

displacing the fluid in the tube and forcing it through the meter. It has a calibrated tube containing a known volume of fluid. The reading is then compared with the standard (the volume in the tube). the volume passing through the meter is recorded. 2862. As the piston advances. methane a light. CH. that is the chief component of natural gas and an important basic hydrocarbon for petrochemical manufacture. metering tank METHANE (See measuring .5% Pentane plus 3.. one of the main constituents of illuminating gas. and gas.. The piston prover is extensively used in LACT systems.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bell drops is controlled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. natural gas may contain appreciable quantities of 397 Petroleum Engineer: M. Twophase units separate oil and gas and meter the oil. meter run point the point in a gas-gathering system at which a field measuring meter and accessories are situated. gaseous. metering separator a complete separator and volume meter integrated into a single vessel.mzhelu@gmail. Methane 80. and meter the oil and water. a colorless flammable gas.5% Butane 2. 2861.0% In addition to these gases. 2863. water.0% Isobutane 1. 2860. and thus the rate of flow through the meter can be controlled. with a boiling point of -258 F. flammable paraffin hydrocarbon.) The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. 2859. three-phase units separate oil.0% Propane 6.0% Ethane 7. Z.

carbon dioxide.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering nitrogen. Centimeters x 0.061 = cu. feet Cu. gas).0254 = meters Feet X 0. Although gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures.2642 = gallons Gallons X 3. flammable liquid derived from methane (natural 2867. the gram as the unit of weight. and the square meter as the unit of area. METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION Inches X 0. 2866.mzhelu@gmail. inches Sq.00 = meters Miles X 1.621 = miles Sq. metric system a decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter as the unit of length.305 = meters Miles X 1609.764 = sq.78 = liters 398 Petroleum Engineer: M. Meters X 10. the cubic meter as the unit of volume. methane series METHANE-RICH GAS PROCESS METHANOL the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. Z.155 = sq.609 = kilometers Millimeters X 0. the liter as the unit of capacity. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a colorless. 2864. certain of the gases comprising the mixture that is natural gas are variable in form and may be found either as gases or as liquids under suitable conditions of temperature and . inches Liters X 0. 2865. and contaminants (as hydrogen sulfide and water vapor).03937 = inches Centimeters X 0.3937 = inches Meters X 39.37 = inches Meters X 3. See MRG Process. 2868.281 = feet Kilometers X 0. Centimeters x 0. helium. Methyl alcohol.

a method of recovering additional crude oil from a field depleted by conventional means including repressuring and waterflooding. they spread across the surface forming a dense layer that is effective in reducing evaporation. mg mica 2870. 2872. When poured in sufficient quantity on top of crude oil or refined products in a tank. MICROBALLOONS A foam blanket that floats on the liquid in storage tanks to reduce losses from evaporation. petroleum sulfonate. Biotite is ferromagnesian black mica.mzhelu@gmail. The chemical Solution reduces the surface tension of the oil clinging or adhering to the porous rock thus "setting the oil free" to be pumped out with the flooding solution.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2869. micellarpolymer. milligram. The blanket is composed of billions of hollow. MICELLAR-POLYMER FLOODING MICELLAR-SURFACTANT FLOODING See Micellar-Surfactant Flooding.g. micellar. e. and muscovite is potassic white mica. a silicate mineral characterized by sheet cleavage. Such a project may have various names. Sometimes mica is used as a lost-circulation material in drilling. A tertiary recovery technique. soluble-oil. 2873. balloon like plastic spheres containing a sealed-in gas-usually nitrogen. Z. Micellar-surfactant drive or flooding involves injecting water mixed with certain chemicals @into the producing formation. 2871. 399 Petroleum Engineer: M. The spheres are almost microscopic in size. El-Helu E-Mail: .

a metric unit of measure of length equal to 0. 2878.mzhelu@gmail. light diesel oil.) and other low-gravity solids in drilling mud are described as being so many microns in size (10 microns.v. 2880. used in drilling reports. micron one-millionth of a meter.A unit of measure equal to one-thousandth of a millimeter. Oklahoma. 2876.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . The term applied to hydrocarbons in the so-called middle range of refinery distillatio e. 2875. Z. 2877. and North Texas. 400 Petroleum Engineer: M. MIDNIGHT REQUISITION Obtaining material without proper authority borrowing unbeknown to the "lender". and heavy diesel oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. kerosene. MICT MID-CONTINENT CRUDE MIDDLE DISTILLATES moving in cable tools. heating oil. for example) and must be removed from the circulating mud by the use of a desilting device.g. 2879. Fines (q.001 MM. swiping 'or a "good" cause. Oil produced principally in Kansas. migration the movement of oil from the area in which it formed to a reservoir rock where it can accumulate. Microlog a trade name for a special electric-survey method in which three closely spaced electrodes are pressed against the wall of the borehole to obtain a measurement of formation characteristics next to the wall of the hole.

Pipelines must be cleaned of mill scale before being put in service carrying crude oil. remove stuck portions of drill stem or sections of casing for sidetracking. This is done by running steel-bristle pigs and scrapers. packers. MILL To grind up to pulverize with a milling tool (q.e. 2882. milliliter (mi) one-thousandth of a liter. Z. and ream out tight spots in the casing. 2886.mzhelu@gmail. Mills are run on drill pipe or tubing to grind up debris in the hole. and plugs. a downhole tool with rough. "soft" enough to be bored out or pulverized with milling . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.. reaming mills. MILLING 401 Petroleum Engineer: M. depending on what use they have. MILLIDARCY A unit of permeability of a rock formation.v. See 2885. MILL SCALE A thin layer or incrustation of oxide which forms on the surface of iron and steel when it is heated during processing. extremely hard cutting surfaces for removing metal by grinding or cutting. and so forth. They are also called junk mills. MILLABLE Said of material used downhole. gas or products. bridges.). 2884. A quart equals 964 ml. one-thousandth of a darcy. sharp. 2883. Darcy. In analyzing drilling mud. this term is used interchangeably with cubic centimeter (cm3). i. P to use a mill to cut or grind metal objects that must be removed from a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2881.

oil. the rights of ownership. diameter.S.) A grinding or cutting fool used on the end of the drill column to pulverize a piece of downhole equipment or to cut the casing. miniaturized completion a well completion in which the production casing is less than 4.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Cutting a "window" in a well's casing with a tool lowered into the hole on the drillstring. and other minerals beneath the surface of the earth. conveyed by deed. minute. in 402 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2888. 2891. millisec min mineral rights 2890. those used for dry cleaning and paint 2893. .. In the U. thinners. 2887. MINERAL SPIRITS Common term for naphthas (solvents). 2892. milling shoe MILLING TOOL (See burn shoe and rotary shoe. of gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2889.mzhelu@gmail. Z. mineral rights are the property of the surface owner unless disposed of separately.5 in.

Such gas must be treated to remove the water before it will be accepted by a gas transmission pipeline.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. one behind the other. MINIMUM TENDER The smallest amount of oil or products a pipeline will accept for . natural gas. used in drilling reports. MINISEMI A scaled-down semisubmersible drilling platform built for service in relatively shallow water. Regulations set minimum tender amounts a common carrier pipeline is required to take into its system and pump to destination. C02 May be injected into the formation followed by waterflooding. almost microscopic droplets of water entrained in natural gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2894. LPG. 2895. For example. MIST Small. Z. 2899. MIR miscible drive moving in rig. See Tertiary Recovery. a method of enhanced recovery in which various hydrocarbon solvents or gases (as propane. 2897. 2896. carbon dioxide or a mixture thereof) are injected into the reservoir to reduce interfacial forces between oil and water in the pore channels and thus displace oil from the reservoir rock. 403 Petroleum Engineer: M. MISCIBLE FLOOD A secondary or tertiary oil recover method in which two or more formation flooding fluids are used. 2898.

and the liquid is removed from the separator along with other separated liquids. mixed string mixing tank a combination string. etc. 2902. chemicals. to which a foaming agent has been added as a circulation medium. mist extractor a metal member used to remove moisture or condensable hydrocarbons from a gas stream in an oil and gas separator.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 404 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2904.) any tank or vessel used to mix components of a substance (as in the mixing of additives with drilling mud). The moisture condenses on the metal surface. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2901. square millimeter. ml mm mm2 2906. milliliter. (See casing string.). 2907. millimeter. weighting materials.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2900. mist drilling a drilling technique that uses air or gas. mix mud to prepare drilling fluids from a mixture of water or other fluids and one or more of the various dry mud-making materials (as . 2905. 2903.

com . 2913. 2911.7 psi) of pressure but varies from state to state. MMscf/d MMsct million standard cubic feet per day. rating used for large industrial heaters and other large thermal installations such as furnaces and boilers. 2910. million standard cubic feet. MMcf MMOTU. and jack up drilling rig are all mobile rigs. 2914.$ million cubic feet.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2908. semisubmersible drilling rig. used in drilling reports.S. 2912. a common unit of measurement for large quantities of gas. mm3 MMBTUIHR cubic millimeter. It may or may not float once drilling begins. a drilling rig used exclusively to drill offshore wells that floats upon the surface of the water when being moved from one location to another. Z. The drill ship. Million BTU (British thermal units) per hour. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. So many dollars per million BTU. 405 Petroleum Engineer: M. a pricing formula in some gas purchase contracts which is tied directly to formulas involving prices paid to No. 2 fuel oil at specific locations in the U. a platform rig is not. 2915. The standard referred to is usually 60 F and 1 atmosphere (14. 2909. MO mobile offshore drilling rig moving out.

MOCK-UP A full-sized structural model built accurately to scale for study and testing of an installation to be used or operated commercially.) that is functional as a unit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and can be joined with other units for increasing or enlarging the . 2919. MODULE An assembly (q. for example. an electronic or hydraulic module.mzhelu@gmail. offshore drilling platform with the means for self propulsion. offshore work mock-ups are made to simulate conditions in subsea well-head chambers and sea-floor work areas. mole. 2 2918.v. a gas compressor module.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2916. 2921. modified cement a cement whose proper . the quantity of a substance whose unit weight is numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. one mole of water (H*O) is 406 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. For deep-water.ties. MOBILE PLATFORM A self-contained. chemical or physical. additives. Some of the larger semisubmersible drilling platforms are capable of moving in the open sea at five to seven knots. For example. have been altered by 2920. mol mole 2922.

consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen) or that are alike (e. molecule the smallest part of a substance that can exist on its own. F. the weight of which is 16 units). the molecular weight of water. tons. the product of a force and a distance to a particular axis or point. moment a turning effect created by a force.. 2923.. whether or not it will knock or ping in an engine with a given compression 407 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 18 weight units (pounds. acting at a perpendicular distance. Ha. 2926. For example. . each of which is 1 unit. mole percent the ratio of the number of moles of one substance to the total number of moles in a mixture of substances multiplied by 100 (to put the number on a percentage basis). one atom of oxygen. MON Motor Octane Number. etc. grams. 2927. 2925. HzO. the measure of a gasoline's antiknock qualities. H*O.) because the molecular weight of water is 18 (two atoms of hydrogen. Z.g. is 18 because the atomic weight of each of the hydrogen molecules is 1 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16. in which each molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen). S. hydrogen. from the center of rotation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. molecular weight the sum of the atomic weights in a molecule. 2924.g. It usually consists of a group of atoms that are either different (e.

Monel steel a nickel-base alloy also containing copper. which may be as high as 90 ft in the derrick or mast. (See double board. 2928.000. Motor Octane number of a gasoline is determined by test engines run under simulated conditions of load and speed. MONKEY BOARD A colloquial and humorous reference to the tubing board (q. 2929. For example. manganese.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and fourble board. For example high bid.) high in the derrick. As pipe or tubing is run into or out of the hole. Z. 2931.000.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ratio. silicon.000. $1. the derrickman must handle the top end of the pipe. second-highest bid. money left on the table. Nontnagnetic drill collars are often made of this material. $750. a BS& W monitor provides a mechanical means of preventing contaminated oil from entering the pipeline by detecting the presence of excessive water and actuating valves to divert the flow back to dehydration facilities.) 408 Petroleum Engineer: M. MONEY LEFT ON THE TABLE A phrase referring to the difference between the high and the second highest bid made by operators or companies when bidding an Federal or state oil leases. monitor an instrument that reports the performance of a control device or signals if unusual conditions appear in a . The monkeyboard provides a small platform to raise him to the proper height to be able to handle the top of the pipe.v. thribble board.000. iron. See Octane Rating. S250. and carbon. 2930. the derrickman's working platform.

MONOCLINE A geological term for rock strata that dip in one direction. 2933. The design of the monopod makes it effective in Arctic regions where thick. MOONPOOL The opening in a drillship through which drilling operations are carried on. 2935. completed.v. supporting leg. MONOPOD DRILLING PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform with a single.) 2936. (See bentonite. montmorillonite a clay mineral often used as an additive to a drilling mud. 2934. or abandoned from the drill ship. with the derrick rising above. moving bodies of ice present serious problems for more conventional platforms. and whose head can be used as a hammer a crude wrench suitable for mechanical work of the roughest . MONKEY WRENCH An adjustable.) is eroded away. It is a hydrous aluminum silicate capable of reacting with such substances as magnesium and calcium. a partial cross section of the strata making up the fold is exposed at the earth's surface and the undisturbed lower flanks form what are called monoclines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.a walled. round hole or well in the hull of a drill ship (usually in the center) through which the drilling assembly and other assemblies pass while a well is being drilled. the moonpool of drillwell is usually located amidship.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2932. square-jawed wrench whose adjusting screw collar is located on the handle. When the crest of an anticline (q. 409 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. Z.

com . used on pipeline construction as an adjunct to the jack board and in lowering the pipeline into the ditch. by law. Z. A humorous and somewhat sarcastic term for conservation (Environmental Protection Agency) people who. 2938. MOORING SYSTEM. 2939. 2942.mzhelu@gmail. buoys. 2940. etc. can shut down a drilling well or a construction project to allow a rare or endangered species of bird to incubate her eggs unmolested or migrating or mating moose to go about their important business without being disturbed. MORMON BOARD A broad. 2941.) by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained on location at the drilling site. MOPE POLE A lever. MULTIBUOY MOOSE AND GOOSE MEN See Multibuoy Mooring System also SBM Single-buoy Mooring. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. MORNING REPORT The report the tool pusher or drilling supervisor makes each morning after assembling the drifting reports of the drillers under his supervision. The report includes depths reached at the end of each tour. Used to backfill a pipeline ditch using a team of horses or a tractor pulling the board forward and a workman pulling it back into position for another bite. mooring system equipment (as anchors. 410 Petroleum Engineer: M. chain. wireline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2937. reinforced sled-like board with eye bolts on each end and a handle in the center. a pry pole usually made by cutting a small tree. footage drilled.

cylindrical device placed around a joint of pipe as it is being broken out during a trip out of the hole.e. 2945. It is also called a mud saver or a splash box. hydraulic. motion compensator any device (as a bumper sub or heave compensator) that serves to maintain constant weight on the bit in spite of vertical motion of a floating offshore drilling rig. 2943. rotary speeds. an ingredient of motor 2948. MOTOR SPIRIT A highly volatile fraction in petroleum refining. mechanical).) morning tour mosquito bill . gasoline.. bit weights. Z. cores the taken.mzhelu@gmail. mother hubbard (slang) a hinged. metal. motor valve a valve operated by power other than manual (i. (See tour. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pump speeds and pressures. or 411 Petroleum Engineer: M. and of the information of past 24 hours of operation. It keeps mud from splashing beyond the immediate area. a tube mounted at the bottom of a sucker-rod pump and inside a gas anchor to provide a conduit for well fluids (that contain little or no gas) into the pump. 2946. electric. 2947.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formations penetrated.

When this joint is pulled out and screwed onto the drilistring. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2952. The length to be added is placed in the mousehole. motorman the crew member on a rotary drilling rig responsible for the care and operation of drilling engines. See Rat Hole. usually lined with pipe. 2950. hole drilled to the side of the well bore to hold the next joint of drillpipe to be used. 2955. 2951. pulled out of the mousehole. megapascal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . made up to the kelly. into which a length of drill pipe is placed temporarily for later connection to the drill string. 412 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 2953. another joint of drillpipe is made ready and slipped into the mouse hole to await its turn. 2954. mousehole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. and subsequently made up into the string. mousetrap MPa mph a fishing tool used to recover a parted string of sucker rods from a well. miles per hour. motor-generator rig a drilling rig driven by electric motors with current supplied by engine-driven generators at the rig. mousehole an opening through the rig floor.mzhelu@gmail.

and fed to distribution lines. mud analysis examination and testing of drilling mud to determine its physical and chemical 413 Petroleum Engineer: M. see "Drilling Fluid" a mixture of hydrofluoric acids and surfactants used to effect mud removal from the wellbore. The resulting gas mixture is methanated. dried.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2956. 2957. 2960. thousand standard cubic feet per day. 2959. scrubbed to remove C02. ms Mscf/D Mud mud acid 2958. microsecond. Z. MRG is a patented process (Japan Gasoline .) to make synthetic natural gas from propane. Liquid propane is hydrodesulfurized and gasified with steam at temperatures between 900' and 1000'F. 2961. MRG PROCESS Methane Rich Gas Process. properties. mud additive any material added to drilling fluid to change some of its characteristics or 2962. cooled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. properties.

Z. mud circulation the act of pumping mud downward to the bit and back up to the surface by normal circulation or reverse circulation. MUD BARREL A small bailer used to retrieve cuttings from the bottom of a cable tool drilling 2965. the addition of water. 2964. viscosity.mzhelu@gmail. the removal of sand and other solids. 2967. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mud balance a beam balance consisting of a cup and a graduated arm carrying a sliding weight and resting on a fulcrum. mud conditioning the treatment and control of drilling mud to ensure that it has the proper gel strength. . and other measures to prepare the mud for conditions encountered in a specific well. mud box mud cake (See mother hubbard. 2968.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2963. Conditioning may include the use of additives.) the sheath of mud solids that forms on the wall of the hole when the liquid from the mud filters into the formation. and so forth. the removal of gas. used to determine the density or weight of drilling mud. 414 Petroleum Engineer: M. also called well cake or filter cake. 2966.See Filter Cake. well.

Cooling also reduces the thermal stress on the drill string.mzhelu@gmail. Mud Filtrate mud gun The fluid component of drilling mud which penetrates into a . 2974. engineering.. preparation of the drilling mud.) 415 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2973. mud hopper (See hopper. tests the physical and chemical propertied of the slurry. mud engineer a specialist in drilling fluids. 2970. 2972. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. MUD COOLING TOWER In drilling in or near a geothermal reservoir. who combines knowledge of chemistry. MUD CUP A device for measuring drilling mud density or weight. 2971. and the behavior of drilling fluids. MUD ENGINEER One who supervises the. Z. against time. a funnel-shaped cup into which a measured quantity of mud is poured and allowed to run through.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2969. a pipe that shoots a jet of drilling mud under high pressure into the mud pit to mix additives with the mud. A drilling fluid specialist. the drilling mud becomes superheated and must be cooled to avoid flashing or vaporizing of the liquid (water or oil) in the mud stream at the surface. and prepares reports detailing the mud weight and additives used.

The flexible. He runs tests on the mud to ensure that it performs as it should. 2976. MUD LINE mud logger mud logging The sea or lake bottom. rubber hose connecting the mud pump with the swivel and kelly joint on a drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail. and suggests changes that may be made in the mud system to make the drilling more efficient. A portion of the mud is diverted through a gas-detecting device and examined under ultraviolet light to detect the presence of oil or gas. a mud engineer. 2979. also called the rotary hose. an employee of a mud-logging company who keeps the mud log. flexible rubber tube through which drilling mud flows from the standpipe to the gooseneck. steelreinforced.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . 2980. advises the operator on what types of mud to use. mud motor (See Dyna-Drill and turbodrill) 416 Petroleum Engineer: M. the interface between a body of water and the earth. Mud is pumped through the mud hose to the swivel and down through the kelly joint and drillpipe to the bottom of the well. 2978. mud hose a reinforced. the recording of information derived from examination and analysis of formation cuttings made by the bit and mud circulated out of the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2977. Z. Mud logging is often carried out in a portable laboratory set up at the well. mud man an employee of the company that supplies drilling mud to a drilling rig.

mud off 1. MUD PITS Excavations near the rig into which drilling mud is circulated. usually made of steel plates. A typical mud pump is a double. and suction pits. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.or three-cylinder piston pump whose pistons travel in replaceable liners and are driven by a crankshaft actuated by an engine. mud pump a large. See Reserve Pit.mzhelu@gmail. to seal the hole against formation fluids by allowing the buildup of wall cake. As the mud moves to the suction line.a reservoir or tank. reciprocating pump that circulates drilling mud in rotary drilling. 2982. two. through which the drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and fine sediments to settle out.or tripleacting. to block off the flow of oil into the wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2981. settling pits. The duplex (two-cylinder) or triplex (three-cylinder) pump draws mud from the suction mud pit and pumps the slurry downhole through the drillpipe and bit and back up the borehole to the mud settling pits. . the cuttings drop out leaving the mud "clean" and ready for another trip to the bottom of the borehole. depending on their main purpose. reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud on a drilling rig. Mud pits are also called shaker pits. A mud pump also is called a slush pump. In rotary drilling there are at 417 Petroleum Engineer: M. Mud pumps withdraw the mud from one end of a pit as the circulated mud. After the rock cuttings drop out in the settling pit. Z. the clean mud gravitates into the suction pit where it is picked up by the pump's suction line. and the fluid is temporarily stored there before being pumped back into the well.A large. flows in at the other end. bearing rock chips from the borehole. 2. Additives are mixed with mud in the pit.

mud report a special form filled out by the mud man that records the properties of the drilling mud used while a well is being drilled. In case of a breakdown or other necessary stoppages. Mud tanks are used where it is impractical to dig mud pits (q. mud weight a measure of the density of a drilling fluid expressed as pounds per gallon (ppg). Portable metal banks to hold drilling mud.) at the well site. AUTOMATIC See Kelly Valve. 2987. 2989. Lower.v. Mud-Kil a trade name for a chemical additive for Portland cement that reduces the effect of contamination of cementing slurries by organic chemicals commonly found in drilling muds. Z. or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). pounds per cubic foot (ib/ft').com . 2986. MUD VALVE. 2985. 418 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering least twin mud pumps.mzhelu@gmail.) a shale shaker. mud saver mud screen MUD TANKS (See mother hubbard. another pump can be immediately put on line. 2988. 2984. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. sometimes more. Mud weight is directly related to the amount of pressure the column of drilling mud exerts at the bottom of the hole.

mud-weight recorder an instrument installed in the mud pits that has a recorder mounted on the rig floor to provide a continuous reading of the mud weight. The mudscow is pulled by a crawler-type tractor which would not bog down as would a wheeled vehicle. 2994. 419 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . MUDHOG MUDLOG A mud pump. A progressive analysis of the well-bore cuttings washed up from the bore hole by the drilling mud. Rock chips are retrieved with the aid of the shale shaker (q. 2992. through which drilling mud flows upon its return to the surface from down the hole.) 2995. a record of information derived from examination of drilling fluid and drillbit cuttings. (See mud logging. 2991. a conveyance.v. Z. MUDSCOW A portable drilling-mud tank in the shape of a small barge or scow used in cable-tool drilling when relatively small amounts of mud wore needed or in a location when a mud pit was not practical.) and examined by the geologist. a kind of large sled for transporting pipe and equipment into a marshy location. a trough or pipe placed between the surface connections at the wellbore and the shale shaker. slush pump.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2990. MUD-MOTOR DRILLING mud-return line See Turbo drilling. Also. a pump to circulate drilling mud in rotary drilling.

The "skinner" got his name from the ability to skin the hair off a mule s rump with a crack of the long reins he used. MULE SKINNER Forerunner to the truck driver. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Mudding up occurs also in pumping wells. to add solid materials (as bentonite or other clay) to a drilling fluid composed mainly of clear water to obtain certain desirable properties. 2998. 420 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2999.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2996. Unhitched from the wagon. the team was used to pull. of rotary drilling and before the advent of accurate well logging produciole formations could be mudded up (plastered over)by the sheer weight of the column of drilling mud. so said the cable tool men who were skeptical of the newfangled drilling method.) Humorous and patronizing reference to an investor with money to put into the drilling of an oil well with the expectation of getting rich. a person who knows nothing about the oil business or the operator with whom he proposes to .mzhelu@gmail.v.). MUDUP In the early day. from sections of uncased hole. Z. hoist and do eathwork with a slip or Fresno (q. The mud may be from shaley portions of the producing formation. a driver of a team or span of horses or mules hitched to an oil field wagon. appropriately called butt lines. a sucker. 2997. or the residue of drilling mud. mule-head hanger MULLET (See horse head.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3000.mzhelu@gmail. however. MULTIBUOY MOORING SYSTEM A tanker loading facility with five or seven mooring buoys to which the vessel is moored as it takes on cargo or bunkers (q.) from submerged hoses that are lifted from the sea bottom. From there the oil may be piped to separate . Each reservoir is then produced through its own tubing string. A pump is placed at every well. The completion of a well in more than one producing formation. Each production zone will have its own tubing installed. Z. an arrangement for producing a well in which one wellbore penetrate two or more petroleum-bearing formations that lie one over the other. A beam 421 Petroleum Engineer: M. MULTIPLIER A device or linkage for increasing (or decreasing) the length of the stroke or travel of a rod line furnishing power for pumping wells on a lease. MULTIPAY WELL MULTIPLE COMPLETION See Multiple Completion. 3001. 3002.v. each a different length and each packed off to prevent the commingling of different reservoir fluids. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The tubing strings are suspended side by side in the production casing string. See Dual Completion. multiple well-pumping system a method of lifting oil out of several wells in a field. all the pumps are powered by a single prime mover (as an engine or motor) instead of each pump being powered individually. Submarine pipelines connect the pipelineended manifold to the shore. 3003. 3004. extending up to the Christmas tree.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which oscillates on a fulcrum and bearing to which is attached the rod line from the power source (central power. 3006. the travel of the well's rod line can be lengthened or shortened to match the stroke of the well's pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3007. By varying the distance from the fulcrum of the two rod-line connections. 422 Petroleum Engineer: M.) muriatic acid hydrochloric acid.mzhelu@gmail. . multishot survey MV MWD (See directional survey. 3005. A technique to determine the real-time position of the drill bit in a directionally drilled well during the drilling process using instrumentation placed near the bit.v.) and a rod line to the pumping well. Measurement While Drilling. Z. q.

National Association of Corrosion Engineers.P.A. 423 Petroleum Engineer: M. successor to the Natural Gasoline Association of America. nameplate ratings are always heeded. 3009..mzhelu@gmail. engines. El-Helu E-Mail: . voltage requirement. N . working pressure. etc. N. compressors. Z. N. type of fuel. etc. NAC E NAMEPLATE RATING National Petroleum Refiners Association. printed or stamped on the makers nameplates attached to pumps.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3008. To ensure proper and lasting performance of machines and equipment. fittings.A.P.G . 3015. 3010. The manufacturers ratings as to speed (rpm). NAMING A WELL See Well Naming. An Act of Congress that empowers the Federal Power Commission to set prices and regulates the transportation of natural gas. pumps. or electric motors. N STAMP Designates equipment qualified for use in nuclear installations pipe. 3 3012. 3013. Natural Gas Processors Association. Natural Gas Act.A . valves.G. 3014.R. horsepower.

com . A radiation detector is lowered into the hole and picks up gamma rays emitted by the 424 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is often called asphalt-base oil because the residue from its distillation contains asphaltic materials but little or no paraffin wax. naphthene series the saturated hydrocarbon compounds of the general formula CnH2n.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3016. Z. 3021.) 3019. NATIVE GAS Gas originally in place in an underground formation as opposed to gas injected into the structure. 3020.mzhelu@gmail. NAPHT HENE-BASE CRUDE OIL naphtha Asphalt-base crude (q. flammable liquid hydrocarbon distilled from petroleum and used as a solvent or fuel. cut through by the wells borehole. (See hydrocarbons. (as ethylene or ethene.v. NATURAL GAMMA RAY LOGGING A procedure in which gamma rays naturally given off or emitted by rock formations. are measured. a volatile. 3022.). naphthene-base oil a crude oil that is characterized by a low API gravity and a low yield of lubricating oils having a low pour point and a low viscosity index (compared to paraffin-base oils). NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE-ALASKA An area west of Prudhoe Bay field and south of Point Barrow containing millions of acres set aside and held in reserve for national security purposes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. C2H4). See Naval Petroleum Reserves. 3018. 3017.

Wyoming and on the North Slope in Alaska. butane. NATURAL GAS. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. estimated to contain billions of barrels of crude oil. Areas containing proven oil reserves which were set aside for national defense purposes by Congress in 1923. propane. See Gamma Ray Logging. Natural gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed for recovery of natural gas liquids. Z.mzhelu@gmail. California Teapot Dome. and condensate. the heavier hydrocarbon components of natural gas. UNCONVENTIONAL Natural gasoline NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES See Unconventional Natural Gas. Neat cement 425 a cement with no additives other than water. 3024. The signals are transmitted to a recording device at the surface. 3025. including liquefied petroleum gases such as butane and propane. the liquid hydrocarbons recovered from wet natural gas. The Reserves. 3027.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rock. propane. butanes. casinghead gasoline. 3026. gas produced from a gas well. NATURAL GAS Gaseous forms of petroleum consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors. and hexane. including ethane. are located in Elk Hills and Buena Vista. ethane. Petroleum Engineer: M. pentane. the more important of which are methane. Natural Gas Liquids Liquids obtained during natural gas . 3028. 3023. 3029.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The "tongue" of the valve is a rod that tapers to a point and fits into a seat which permits fine adjustments as when used with pressure gauges. Net Pay Cutoffs Specified limits of porosity. W. and J. NEOPRENE A rubber-like product derived from petroleum and compounded with natural rubber to produce a substance highly resistant to chemicals and oils. permeability. Net Pay Refers to the sum of the productive intervals of a reservoir and is determined by the application of cutoffs. (See bottleneck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3030. Collins. 3036. A. NEEDLE VALVE A valve A valve used on small.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 3033. 3035. 3031. high-pressure piping where accurate control of small amounts of liquid or gas is desired. water saturation and shale volume below which a formation would be unable to achieve or sustain commercial production. Net Pay Map 426 A contour map depicting net thickness' of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. Petroleum Engineer: M. lra . 3034. Kirby of the DuPont research laboratory discovered neoprene first called polychloroprene. NEB Necking National Energy Board the tendency of a metal bar or pipe to taper to a reduced diameter at some point when subjected to excessive longitudinal stress. Carothers.) 3032.

NET PROFITS INTEREST A share of gross production from a property. the net oil produced by all of its wells multiplied by the company's working interest in the wells). Sometimes referred to as net royalty. Net production is also called working-interest oil (i. measured by the net profits from the operation of the property. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.. Z. 427 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3038. net production the amount of oil produced by a well or lease. expressed in tons equal to 100 ft3. .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3037. have been paid. 3039. exclusive of its BS& W content. Such an interest is carved out of the working interest and represents an economic interest in the oil and gas produced from the property. One advantage of a net-oil computer is that the water and oil do not have to be separated for it to measure the volume of the oil. net-oil computer a system of electronic and mechanical devices that automatically determines the amount of oil in a water and oil emulsion. including taxes. nor liable for. NET REVENUE INTEREST A fractional share of the working interest not required to contribute to. any part of the expense of drilling and completing the first well on the property or lease. and other assessments.e. Net revenue is income from a property after all costs. net tonnage the gross tonnage of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig less all spaces that are not or cannot be used for carrying cargo. royalties. 3040.

(See radioactivity logging. all-subsequent production from a property producing in 1972. Newtonian fluid a fluid in which the viscosity remains constant for all rates of shear if constant conditions of temperature and pressure are maintained. (See radioactivity logging.) 3044. 3047.) to make good tube oil one of the many fractions of crude oil that. neutrons can be emitted from a substance when its nucleus is penetrated by gamma particles from a highly radioactive source.) For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Neutron Lifetime Log neutron log NEW OIL (NCL) a trade name for a pulsed-neutron survey. Most drilling fluids behave as non-Newtonian fluids as their viscosity is not constant but varies with the rate of shear. neutron a part of the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen. 3043. Under certain conditions. new oil is the production from a property in excess of production in . owing to special properties.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3042. See Old Oil. 3046. Z.v. This property is used in neutron logging.mzhelu@gmail. 3045. 428 Petroleum Engineer: M. NEUTRAL STOCK Lubricating oil stock that has been dewaxed and impurities removed and can be blended with bright stock (q. is ideal as a blending stock for making high-quality tube oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

nipple up to bolt together various valves or fittings (as to nipple up the blowout preventers or the Christmas tree). Noise Log A sound detection system inside a logging tool designed to pick up vibrations caused by flowing liquid or gas downhole. a tubular pipe fitting threaded on both ends and less than 12 . 3053.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3048.v. The device is used to check the effectiveness of a squeeze job (q. NGPA nipple nipple chaser Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Sand and gravel are usually placed above the explosive charge to improve the efficiency of the shot. Nitroglycerine is placed in a well and exploded to fracture the rock. Today nitro shooting has been largely replaced by formation fracturing. 3049. 3054. to estimate the gas flow from perforated formations. 3052. Z. 429 Petroleum Engineer: M. Noble Metal (Catalyst) A metal used in petroleum refining processes that is chemically inactive with respect to oxygen. long. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3050. (slang) a crew member who procures and delivers tools and equipment for a 3051. etc.mzhelu@gmail.). drilling rig. Nitro shooting a formation stimulation process first used about a hundred years ago in Pennsylvania.

production from beneath the property requires that any drilling be done on other land. nonferrous tools. 3058. bronze.5 F (at 14..g. or tungsten. or rods are made of other metal or combination of metals. valves. C9H20. Z. Non-drilling leases are usually granted where surface installations or activities make the drilling of a well impractical or incompatible. that is liquid at atmospheric conditions. e. (2) Information given to the proper agency of the Federal government or a state relative to tracts of offshore acreage a person or company would like to see put up for bid at a lease sale. with the aid of a straightedge. copper. Nonferrous Containing no iron. Its boiling point is about 303. 3057. usually brass or 430 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: . Nominations (1)The amount of oil a purchaser expects to take from afield as reported to a regulatory agency that has to do with state proration. Non Drilling Lease A lease that grants lessee the customary rights relative to oil and gas under the acreage but provides that a well shall not be drilled on the property. spent uranium. Nomograph A device used by engineers and scientists for making rapid calculations. to find the value of a dependent variable when the values of two or more independent variables are given. 3056.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3055.mzhelu@gmail. Nonane a paraffin hydrocarbon. a graph that enables one. Nonsparking tools are made of nonferrous metals.7 psi). brass. Under such circumstances.

mzhelu@gmail. out the bit.v. 3061. because they are softer and will not give off sparks when struck against another piece of metal. a "silent" working-interest owner. back to the surface. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). uninterrupted circulation of drilling fluid down the drill stem.) 3060. Nonmagnetic drill collar a drill collar made of an alloy (Monel) that does not affect the readings of a magnetic compass placed within it to obtain subsurface indications of the direction of a deviated wellbore. 3059. 3062. (See directional drilling. Nonoperator The working interest owner or owners other than the one designated as operator of the property. Hand tools made of bronze or other nonferrous alloys for use in areas where flammable oil or gas vapors may be present. (See mud circulation and reverse circulation. having no pores. normal circulation the . 3063. 3064. Nonporous Nonsparking Tools containing no interstices. the landowner's interest. Nonoperating Interest (In a Well) An interest in an oil or gas well bearing no cost of development or operation. and up the annular space between the pipe and the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bronze. landowner's royalty (q. Z.) 431 Petroleum Engineer: M.

000 ft.650 psi at 10. 3073. it is considered normal. 3072. no show. If the formation pressure is 4. 3070. 3067. 3069. 3066. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also Two oil. 3068. DOWN TO THE Naval Petroleum Reserves (q. 3071.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3065.).com . a "this is it" situation. distillate fuel.465 psi per foot of depth from the surface. 432 Petroleum Engineer: M. National pipe thread. denotes standard pipe thread. used in drilling reports. The crucial point the vital move or decision. Normalizing a heat treatment applied to metal tubular goods to ensure uniformity of the grain structure of the metal. NPR NPR-A NPSH NPT NS NUMBER 2 FUEL NUT CUTTING. Furnace oil.Alaska Net positive suction head. National Petroleum Reserve . normal formation pressure formation fluid pressure equivalent to 0.mzhelu@gmail. Z.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . Nutating meter a flow meter that operates on the principle of the positive displacement of fluid by incorporating the wobbling motion of a piston or disk. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Z.) 433 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See positive displacement meter.


).g. used in drilling reports. 3076. A circular rubber gasket used in flanges. and other equipment for making a joint pressure tight. valves. 3080.500 feet or the Skinner sand. "to 5. 3077. 0-rings in cross section are circular and solid." 3082. 3079.and gas-cut mud. 3078. oil and salt water.v.. OAPEC OBJECTIVE DEPTH (OF A WELL) Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. the objective depth. Z. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3075. used in drilling reports. OBO VESSEL A specially designed vessel for carrying ore and crude. whichever comes first. . O&G O&GCM O&S O&SW O-RING oil and gas. Drilling contracts often state that the hole shall be drilled to a specified depth or to a certain identifiable formation. oil. The first oil and bulk ore tanker/carrier was launched in 1966 and used in handling relatively small cargoes of oil and ore. 3081. The depth to which a well is to be drilled. Over and short (q. 435 Petroleum Engineer: M. both in bulk form.

. OCM OCS octane oil-cut mud. Z. OCTANE RATING A performance rating of gasoline In terms of antiknock . C&Hlg. 3087. The higher the octane number the greater the antiknock quality. 8 5/8-inch 10. 3090. a labor organization representing a large number of the industry's refinery and other hourly workers. OD Outside diameter of pipe. used in drilling reports.g. 3089. government that establishes and enforces safety standards for industry employees. Its boiling point is 258 F (at 14. e. Oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3083. used in drilling reports. 3088. outer continental shelf a paraffin hydrocarbon.7 psi). 4 1/2-inch OD. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) an agency of the U. that is a liquid at atmospheric conditions. 94 octane gasoline is superior in antiknock qualities to a gasoline of 84 octane. 3085. CD and ID (inside diameter) are initials used in specifying pipe sizes.mzhelu@gmail. 3084.S. e. Chemical and Atomic Workers Union.. OC OCAW oil cut. 436 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3086. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

off-production OFFLOADING shut in or temporarily unable to produce (of a well). 3094. Odorants are used also in liquids or gases being stored or transported to detect leaks.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 437 Petroleum Engineer: M. offloading refers more specifically to liquid cargo crude oil and refined products. Another name for unloading. 3095. used in drilling reports. Refers also to techniques and procedures that have been perfected and. ODORANT A chemical compound added to natural gas to produce a detectable. Said of products or equipment that are ready and waiting at a supplier's warehouse and can be taken "off the shelf" and shipped immediately. (2) A well drilled on one tract of land to prevent the Drainage of oil or gas to an adjoining tract where a well is being drilled or is already producing. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . OF OFF THE SHELF open flow. are ready to be employed on some job. OFFSET WELL (1) A well drilled on the next location to the original well. The distance from the first well to the offset well depends upon spacing regulations and whether the original well produces oil or gas. 3096. unpleasant odor to alert householders should they have even a small leak in the house piping. 3093. 3092.

In general.mzhelu@gmail. based on the analysis of well information. 1947. 3099.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3097. or a permanent structure used as a production platform when drilling is completed. while development wells are drilled from platforms. 3098. Louisiana. 1" The fist offshore well (out of sight of land) was drilled on November 14. a semisubmersible or submersible base. OFFSHORE "WELL NO. OGIP Original Gas In Place. in the Gulf of Mexico. By 1979. 3101. The total quantity of trapped gas believed to exist in a geologic feature or structure. OH OIC open hole.000 wells had been drilled offshore. Oil Information Committee of the American Petroleum Institute (API). Z. offshore drilling drilling for oil in an ocean or large lake. 438 Petroleum Engineer: M. A drilling unit for offshore operations may be a mobile floating vessel with a ship or barge hull. 43 miles south of Morgan City. 3100. geological. Offshore Area The area offshore Nova Scotia under the Board's jurisdiction as defined in Schedule 1 of the Accord Implementation Acts. a self-propelled or towed structure with jacking legs (jack-up drilling rig). geophysical and petrophysical data. wildcat wells are drilled from mobile floating vessels (as semisubmersible rigs and drill ships) or from . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3102. more than 20. used in drilling reports.

3107. The landowner's royalty traditionally is 439 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. Oil Based Mud OIL BONUS Drilling mud in which mineral oil is the continuous phase. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3103. The cash bonus is the money paid by the lessee to the landowner (the lessor) for the granting of an oil and gas lease. Separators are vertical or horizontal and are cylindrical or spherical in shape. Separation is accomplished principally by gravity. the heavier liquids falling to the bottom and the gas rising to the top. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This information is important on leases where the production of individual wells (perhaps with different royalty owners) is to be commingled in the lease tanks or the pipeline gathering system. 3106. OIL Crude petroleum (nil) and other hydrocarbons produced at the wellhead in liquid . NET A well testing installation that separates the oil flow and water content of individual wells on a lease.) reserved by the lessor (usually the landowner) in addition to the cash bonus and royalty payment he is entitled to receive. OIL ANALYZER. The analyzer automatically der net oil and not water in a liquid stream. includes distillates or condensate recovered or extracted from natural gas.mzhelu@gmail. An oil payment (q. A float valve or other liquid-level control regulates the level of oil in the bottom of the separator. 3105. 3104. oil and gas separator an item of production equipment used to separate liquid components of the well stream from the gaseous elements.

and production equipment as well. independent producer and small refiner. Just as readily. OIL BROKER One who acts as a go-between in the domestic or international crude oil market. 3109. the surface area overlying an oil reservoir or reservoirs. Commonly. For his . geologists maintain that they do net find oil but instead locate or identify formations that in their opinion are favorable to the accumulation of oil. he will come up with oil for someone who wishes to buy. However. 3111. OIL IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to refiners to buy certain amounts of crude oil shipped in from abroad.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 440 Petroleum Engineer: M. He is the unobtrusive link between buyer and seller. tubing. drillpipe. drill collars. It takes the drill to find oil. Brokers perform a useful function in the oil business by being knowledgeable about the industry's supply and demand situation. OIL FINDER A wry reference to a petroleum geologist. the broker receives either a flat fee or a percentage of the deal he helps consummate. A broker will find a market for a quantity of crude or product not committed by long-term contract. the term includes not only the surface area but may include the reservoir. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering one-eighth of the gross production from the well or the lease. OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR GOODS oil field Well casing. the wells. 3108. if there is more than one well. and line pipe. 3110. 3112.

quarterly. and pipelining. 441 Petroleum Engineer: M. to areas of exploration. and is free of any costs or assessments for operating the well or lease. or annually.mzhelu@gmail. Z. producing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3113. OIL PATCH A form referring broadly to the oil field. 3115. for example the owner of the seven-eighths working interest. selling. Oil-base mud and invertoil mud are types of oil .v. OIL PAYMENT A share of the oil produced from a well or a lease. 3117. Compare oilemulsion mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. They are useful in drilling certain formations that may be difficult or costly to drill with water-base mud. It may be granted to a bank to pay off a loan.) may be conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest. monthly. oil mud a drilling mud in which oil is the continuous phase. production. free of the costs of production. or to someone else for other considerations. 3114. An oil payment or overriding royalty (q. petroleum. An oil payment is in fact a slice of the royalty from the well and comes to the owner of the royalty at specified times. oil in place the amount of crude oil that is estimated to exist in a reservoir and that has not been produced. or refining 3116. oil operator an individual or company engaged in finding.

oil sand OIL SANDS BITUMEN 1. 3119. petroleum-like substance extracted from oil sands. (2) In pipeline parlance. In some instances. 2. An oil field may contain one or more pools. As the ring slowly rotates through the well of oil. 3123. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3122.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3118. The customary 1/9 royalty can be paid in money or in oil. 3121. 442 Petroleum Engineer: M. A pool is a single separate reservoir with its own pressure system so that wells drilled in any part of the pool affect the reservoir pressure throughout the pool. A heavy. OIL RING A metal ring that runs on a horizontal line shaft in the bearing well which has a supply of tube oil. it deposits oil on the shaft. Bitumen is defined as "any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons together with their nonmetallic derivatives". OIL ROYALTY The lessor's or landowner's share of oil produced on his land. 3120. (by extension) any reservoir that yields oil. Oil rings are generally made of brass and are used on relatively slow-moving . sandstone that yields oil. Z. a tank of oil gauged. and put on the line. OIL RUN (1) The production of oil during a specified period of time. tested. See Run Ticket. OIL POOL An underground reservoir or trap containing oil. a pipeline run. another fraction of production is specified as royalty. asphalts and tars..

3128. 3125. See Grable Oil Well Pump. 443 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 3131. A mishap that permits oil to escape from a tank. 3130. or a pipeline. It is operated either mechanically or hydraulically. an offshore well. OIL SHALE oil slick OIL SPILL Kerogen shale (q. oil saver a gland arrangement that seals by pressure and is used to prevent leakage and waste of gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3124. oil scout a representative of an oil company who gathers data on new oil and gas wells and other industry developments.mzhelu@gmail. considered a pollutant. 3129. GRABLE See Production String.). oil. or water around a wireline (as when swabbing a well). having permeated from its subsurface boundaries and accumulating in small pools. oil seep a surface location where oil appears. a film of oil floating on water. .v. OIL STRING OIL WELL PUMP. 3126. an oil tanker. Oil spill has come to mean oil on a body of water where even small amounts of oil spread and become highly visible.

The water is spread out. oil zone a formation or horizon of a well from which oil may be produced. the use of an oil-emulsion mud increases the drilling rate and ensures better hole conditions than other muds. or dispersed. which are tightly emulsified so that they do not settle out. 3133. oil-emulsion mud a water-base mud in which water is the continuous phase and oil is the dispersed phase. An oil-mist system is economical in its use of lubricant and efficient on many types of antifriction applications. The oil zone is usually immediately under the gas zone and on top of the water zone if all three fluids are present and segregated. oil-base mud an oil mud that contains from less than 2 percent up to 5 percent water.) 3134.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3132. The oil is spread out.mzhelu@gmail. in the water in small droplets. (See oil mud and invert-oil mud. in the oil as small droplets. El-Helu E-Mail: . oil-cut containing oil (describes a liquid. test). or dispersed. as oil-cut mud recovered in a drill-stem 3135. Because of its lubricating abilities. Z. 444 Petroleum Engineer: M. Compare oil mud 3136. OIL-MIST SYSTEM A lubricating system which pneumatically conveys droplets of a special oil from a central source to the points of application.

oil-wet rock OILER (See wettability. terface. the oil-water in. or 3142. oil-water emulsion oil-well cement (See reverse emulsion and emulsion.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3138. Z. OIL-SPILL BOOM Any of various devices or contraptions to contain and prevent the further spread of oil spilled on water until it can be picked up. 3141. the telegraph 445 Petroleum Engineer: M. gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. surface or subsurface. (See sucker-rod pumping and hydraulic pumping. The curtain is weighted on the bottom edge to hold it a foot or two below the surface and has floats on the upper edge to hold the curtain a foot or more above the surface. that is used to lift fluids from the reservoir to the surface.) cement or a mixture of cement and other materials for use in oil. water wells. oil-well pump any pump. 3144. Once surrounded.mzhelu@gmail.) The third man at a pumping station in the old days. the oil is sucked up by a vacuum cleaner-like suction pump. oil-water contact the point or plane where the bottom of an oil sand contacts the top of a water sand in a reservoir. A curtain-like device deployed around or across the path of a drifting oil spill. 3140. 3139. The normal shift-crew on a large gathering or mainline station was the station .) 3143.

3149. Gas processing plant located on or near a gas transmission line which takes gas from the trunk line for processing-stripping. Any production in excess of this amount from a property is new oil (q. open to pump suction. Petroleum Engineer: M. keeping the wick oilers full and dripping properly and cleaning mopping the station floors. on-deck ON-LINE PLANT (GAS) present on a ship or rig deck and exposed to weather. 3146. 3148. 3150. a refinery or a pumping station that is operating. 3147. being emptied into a pipeline. on-suction on-the-line 446 of a tank. old oil is production from a property up to the 1972 level of production. . OP0rItod by a walking beam instead of a Pumping jack. dry gas to the line. drying-and returns the clean.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering operator-assistant engineer and the oiler whose job included feeling the engine and pump bearings. To bring on stream is to start up a plant or an operation. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). 3145. OLD OIL For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973.v. 3151. of a tank. ON STREAM Term used for a processing plant.mzhelu@gmail. ON THE BEAM Refers to a well on the Pump.

Z. OP-DRILLING SERVICE Optimization drilling. 3156. An Investor who agrees to a one-third for one-fourth deal will pay one-third of the cost of the well to casing point and receive one-fourth of the well's net production. drill speed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3152. bits. Included is advice on mud programs. OOG OOIP oolite Office of Oil and Gas. 3154. a consulting service first developed by American Oil Company that makes available to operators of drilling rigs technical. used in drilling reports. 001 oolitic. on-the-pump ONE of a well.) THIRD FOR ONE-QUARTER A term used by independent oil operators who are selling interests in a well they propose to drill. and engineering information gathered from wells drilled in the same area. as well as consultation with drilling experts. being pumped.mzhelu@gmail. a spherical or ellipsoidal particle of sand with concentric or radial structure that is formed by the replacement or accretion of concentric layers of lime around a quartz grain. 3157. 447 Petroleum Engineer: M. OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 3155. geological. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Original oil in place. (See oolite. pressures. 3158. Rock characterized by oolites is called oolitic.

OPERATING INTEREST An interest in oil and gas that bears the costs of development and operation of the property. open-hole completion a method of preparing a well for production in which no production casing or liner is set opposite the producing formation. 3161. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. open OPEN FLOW of a wellbore. 3165. 3163. the mineral interest less the royally.mzhelu@gmail. Good production practice nowadays is to produce a well under maximum efficiency rate conditions (q. Reservoir fluids flow unrestricted into the open wellbore. 3162.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3159. An open-hole completion has limited use in certain situations. The production of oil or gas under wide-open conditions. 448 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. having no casing. a test made to determine the volume of gas that will flow from a well during a given time span when all surface control valves are wide open. See Working interest. any wellbore in which casing has not been set. 3164. the flow of production from a well without any restrictions (valves or chokes) on the rate of flow.).com . open formation open hole open-flow test a petroleum-bearing rock with good porosity and permeability. Open flow is permitted only for testing or clean-out. 3160.

forfeit the lease. 3167." In an or lease. the other is the unless lease (q.). an operator was a telegrapher at a pumping station who sent reports on pumping rates.mzhelu@gmail. OPERATOR. PLANT OR STATION A worker who is responsible for the operation of a small plant or a unit of a larger plant during his working shift. .v. optimum water the amount of water used to give a cement slurry the best properties for its particular application.v. tank gauges. The delay rental clause (q. and line pressures to the dispatcher (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3166. Both types of leases are granted for a primary term. or this grant is surrendered as stipulated herein. 3168. In the old days. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) of an or lease is often written as follows "Lessee agrees to begin a well on said premises within one year of date hereof or thereafter pay lessor as rental $------each year in advance to the end of this term or until said well is commenced. OPERATOR An actuating device a mechanism for the remote operation and/or control of units of a processing plant.). OR LEASE One of the two most common forms of oil and gas leases. Their main use is for opening and closing stops and valves. 3169. etc. and "so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced." 449 Petroleum Engineer: M. five years for example.v. the lessee promises to drill on or before the first anniversary date or do something else pay rental. Operators usually are air or hydraulically actuated.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


organic rock

rock materials produced by plant or animal life (as coal, petroleum, limestone,



A material that is or has been part of a living organism. Oil, although classified as a mineral, is an organic substance derived from living organisms.


organic theory

an explanation of the origin of petroleum, which holds that both the hydrogen and carbon that make up petroleum come from plants and animals of the land and sea. This organic material is theorized further to have come more from sea and swamp life and very tiny creatures rather than land life and larger creatures.


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

(OPEC) pl the countries of the Middle East, Africa, and South America that produce oil and export it and that have organized to negotiate and regulate oil prices.



the process of positioning a deflection tool so it faces in the direction necessary to achieve the desired direction and drift angle of a directional hole. (See directional drilling.)


oriented core

a core sample whose location in the reservoir has been pinpointed.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


oriented drill pipe

a drill pipe run in a well in a definite position, often a requisite in directional



a device with an opening in it whose diameter is smaller than that of the pipe or fitting into which it is placed to partially restrict the flow through the pipe. The difference in pressure on the two sides of an orifice plate, as determined by an orifice meter, can be used to measure the volume of flow through the pipe.


orifice fitting

a device placed in a gas line to hold an orifice plate. (See flanged orifice fitting, junior orifice fitting, and senior orifice fitting.)



A measuring instrument that records the flow rate of gas, enabling the volume of gas delivered or produced to be computed.

orifice pipe tap
a tap for pressure connections made at points two-and-a-half pipe diameters upstream and downstream from the orifice; a full-flow connection.


orifice plate

a sheet of metal, usually circular, in which a hole of specific size is made for use in an orifice fitting. (See orifice.)


orifice pressure drop

the pressure differential that occurs across an orifice plate.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


orifice well tester

a device used to test the gas flow of a well, including orifice plates, a hose, and a siphon gauge. It is used primarily to estimate the amount of gas flowing on a drill-stem test when a high degree of accuracy is not required.


orifice-flange tap

a tap for pressure connections made close to the orifice and through the



An unsuccessful well; a well drilled to a certain depth without finding oil; a "duster" (q.v.).

3185. 3186.


the Occupational Health and Safety Administration.

A four-stroke cycle gas engine the conventional automobile engine is an Ottocycle engine, invented in 1862 by Beau de Rochas and applied by Dr.Otto in 1877 as the first commercially successful internal combustion engine. The four strokes of the Otto cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

3187. 3188.

out-of-gauge bit outage

a bit that is no longer of the proper diameter.

a quantity of oil that is lost while in storage or being transported.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A measure of the oil in a tank by finding the distance between the top of the oil and the top of the tank and subtracting this measurement from the tank height. Outage gauging is used on large storage tanks in which there may be several feet of heavy sediment in the bottom preventing the plumb bob on the gauge line from touching bottom. By measuring the distance from the top of the tank whose height is known, the height of the oil from the bottom can be easily arrived at. See lnnage Gauge.

3190. 3191.
(as a rock).

outboard outcrop

away from the center of the hull or toward the side of an offshore drilling rig.

the exposed portion of a buried layer of rock. to appear on the earth's surface



A subsurface rock layer or formation that, owing to geological conditions, appears on the surface in certain locations. That part of a strata of rock that COMES to the surface.



"All submerged land (1) which lies seaward and outside the area of lands beneath the navigable waters as defined in the Submerged Lands Act (67 Stat. 29) and (2) of which the subsoil and scabed appertain to the U,S. and are subject to its jurisdiction and control."


outer continental shelf orders

(See OCS orders.) 453

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3195. 3196. 3197. 3198.

outpost well outside cutter outside diameter OVER AND SHORT (0 & S)

a well located outside the established limits of a reservoir; a step-out well.

(See external cutter.)

(See diameter.)

In a pipeline gathering system O&S refers to the perennial imbalance between calculated oil on hand and the actual oil on hand. This is owing to contraction, evaporation, improper measuring of lease tanks, and losses through undetected locks. Oil is paid for on the basis of the amount shown in the lease tanks. By the time this oil is received at the central gathering station, the amounts invariably are short which represent a loss to the pipeline system.


over and short station

a pump station where one or more tanks are floating on the line. (See floating



an excess quantity of fluid used to push acid out of the tubing or casing when an acid mixture is displaced into a well, thus directing the acid to the desired place in the well.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Doping and wrapping fine pipe above the ditch just before it is lowered in. Most fine pipe is coated and wrapped in the pipe yard and then transported to the right-of-way and strung. Over-the-ditch coating has the advantage of minimizing scuffing or other damage to the coating suffered through moving and handling.

3202. 3203. 3204.

overburden overburden pressure overflow pipe

the strata of rock that lie above the stratum of interest in drilling.

the pressure exerted by the overburden on the formation targeted for drilling.

a pipe installed at the top of a tank to enable the liquid within it to be discharged to another vessel when the tank is filled to capacity.



A product or products taken from a processing unit in the form of a vapor or ·gas; a product of a distillation column.

3206. 3207.

Overpressure OVERRIDE

Formation pressure in excess of hydropressure.

See Overriding Royalty.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A backup system; controls that take over should the primary system of controls fait or be taken out for adjustment or repair; a redundancy built in for safety and operational efficiency.



An interest in oil and gas produced at the surface tree of any cost of productio royalty in addition to the usual landowner's royalty reserved to the lessor. A 1/16 override is not unusual.



a fishing tool that is attached to tubing or drill pipe and lowered over the outside wall of pipe or sucker rods lost or stuck in the wellbore. A friction device in the overshot, usually either a basket or a spiral grapple, firmly grips the pipe, allowing the lost fish to be pulled from the hole.



The use of a mixture of oxygen and acetylene in heating and joining two pieces of metal. When the weld edges of the two pieces are molten, metal from a welding rod is melted onto the molten puddle as the welder holds the tip of the rod in the flame of the torch. Oxygen and acetylene are used also in cutting through metal. The intense heat generated it the tip of the cutting torch (about 3,500"F) literally melts away the metal in the area touched by the flame See Welding Torch.



Ounce, unit of weight equal to 1/16 of a pound, 28.35 grammes


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3213. 3214.

P&A p-low

plugged and abandoned. (See plug and abandon.)

a notation of the amount of pressure generated on the drill stem when the mud pumps are run at some speed slower than the speed used when drilling ahead. A p-low or several p-lows are established for use when a kick is being circulated out of the wellbore.



Pounds per square inch absolute; pressure measurement which includes atmospheric pressure.

3216. 3217.

P.S.I.G. Pa pack off

Pounds per square inch gauge (as observed on a gauge).


to place a packer in the wellbore and activate it so it forms a seal between the tubing and casing.



A facility at a refinery where various refined products are put in cartons and boxes ready for shipment. Waxes, greases, and small-volume specialty oils are boxed in a package, plant.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


packed-hole assembly

a drill stem that consists of stabilizers and special drill collars and is used to maintain the proper angle and course of the hole. This assembly is often necessary in crooked-hole country.



a piece of downhole equipment, consisting of a sealing device, a holding or setting device, and an inside passage for fluids, used to block the flow of fluids through the annular space between the tubing and the wall of the wellbore by sealing off the space between them. It is usually made up in the tubing string some distance above the producing zone. A sealing element expands to prevent fluid flow except through the inside bore of the packer and into the tubing. Packers are classified according to configuration, use, and method of setting and whether or not they are retrievable (i.e., whether they can be removed when necessary, or whether they must be milled or drilled out and thus destroyed).


packer fluid

a liquid, usually mud but sometimes salt water or oil, used in a well when a packer is between the tubing and casing. Packer fluid must be heavy enough to shut off the pressure of the formation being produced, must not stiffen or settle out of suspension over long periods of time, and must be noncorrosive.



Any tough, pliable material-rubber or fiber-used to fill a chamber or "gland" around a moving rod or valve stem to prevent the escape of gas or liquid; any yielding material used to effect a pressure tight joint. Packing is held in place 458

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

and compressed against a moving part by a "follower," an adjustable element of the packing gland.

3224. 3225.

packing gland PALYNOLOGY

the metal part that compresses and holds packing in place in a stuffing box.

The science that deals with the study of five and fossil spores and with pollen grains and other microscopic plant structures. As palynology concerns oil prospecting, particularly stratigraphic problems, the science involves age dating rocks and determining the environment when sedimentary formations were laid down. This can be observed from well borehole cuttings, cores, and surface outcrop samples; also microscopic analysis of source rock samples and other basic geochemical studies.



a hydrocarbon having the formula CnH2n + 2 (methane, CH4; ethane, C2H6; etc.) Heavier paraffin hydrocarbons (i.e., those of C18H38 and heavier) form a waxlike substance that is called paraffin. Heavier paraffins often accumulate on the walls of tubing and other production equipment, restricting or stopping the flow of desirable lighter paraffins.

3227. 3228.

paraffin hydrocarbon paraffin inhibitor

(See paraffin.)

a chemical that, when injected -into the wellbore, prevents or minimizes paraffin deposition.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3229. 3230.
a solid

paraffin scraper paraffin wax
substance resembling beeswax but composed entirely of

any tool used to remove paraffin from inside tubular goods.

hydrocarbons. It is obtained from the crude wax that results from the solvent dewaxing or cold pressing of light paraffin distillates. The refined product is of relatively large crystalline structure, is white and brittle, and has little taste or odor.



Crude oil containing little or no asphalt materials; a good source of paraffin, quality motor lubricating oil, and high-grade kerosene; usually has lower nonhydrocarbon content than an asphalt-base crude.


paraffin-base oil

a crude oil characterized by a high API gravity, a high yield of lowoctane gasoline, and a high yield of lubricating oil with a high pour point and a high viscosity index. Popularly, and according to an early classification system, a paraffin-base oil is a crude oil containing little or no asphalt and whose residue from distillation contains paraffin wax. (Compare naphthene-base oil.)


paraffin-deposition interval

(PDI) the in. terval in the production tubing string where heavy paraffin hydrocarbons are deposited on the inside walls of the tubing. The interval is dependent on temperature; below or above certain temperatures, paraffin will not form.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



Relatively conformable depositional units bounded by surfaces of marine flooding, surfaces that separate older strata from younger and show an increase in water depth in successively younger strata. Parasequences are usually too thin to discern on seismic data, but when added together, they form sets called parasequence sets that are visible on seismic data. See Also depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy, stratum


parted rods

sucker rods that have been broken and separated in a pumping well because of corrosion, improper loading, damaged rods, and so forth.



A type of joint venture between a host country and an international oil company holding concession rights in that country. Participation may be voluntary on the part of the oil company or as the result of coercion by the host country.

3237. 3238. 3239.


See Buy-back Crude Oil.

Minute particles of solid matter-cinders and fly ash-contained in stack gases.

Pa) an international system (SI) metric unit of pressure measurement. One pound per square inch (psi) of pressure equals approximately 6,894.757 pascals, and 1 kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm') of pressure equals approximately 98,066.5 Pa, or 98.07 kilopascals (kPa). 461

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



a material used to cover, fill up, or mend a hole or weak spot. A metal piece extending" halfway around a pipe and wriddd



The subsurface, geological formation where a deposit of oil or gas is found in commercial quantities.



The recovery from production of the costs of drilling, completion, and equipping a well. Sometimes included in the costs is a prorata share of lease costs.

3243. 3244. 3245. 3246.

pay string PAY ZONE PB Pcf PCV PDI

the Production casing.

See Pay Horizon.

abbr plugged back; used in drilling reports.(see plug back)

3247. 3248.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (q.v.),

paraffin-deposition interval.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A liquefied natural gas plant that supplies gas to a gas pipeline system during peak-use periods. During slack periods the liquefied gas is stored. With the need for additional gas, the liquid product is gasified and fed into the gas pipeline.

3250. 3251.
rope fittings.

PEAPICKER Pelican hook

An inexperienced worker a green hand; boil weevil.

(nautical)a device releasable under tension that engages chain links and wire-

3252. 3253.

PEMEX pendant line

Petroleos Mexicanos, the state-owned Mexican oil company.

(nautical) a wire rope attached to an anchor and sometimes to the anchor chain and used to pull and lower the anchor. The ends of the pendant not on the anchor are attached to buoys on the surface of the Water.



A heavily weighted drill assembly using long drill collars and stabilizers to help control the drift from the vertical of the drill bit. The rationale for the weighted drill assembly is that. like a pendulum at rest, it will resist being moved from the vertical and will tend to drill a straighter hole.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

3259. 3256. 3260.) perforated. 3257. 3261. percussion drilling tool perf perforate (See hammer drill. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3255. Per Percussion drilling Permeability. to pierce the casing wall and cement to provide holes through which formation fluids may enter or to provide holes in the casing so that materials may be introduced into the annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. eastern Ohio. Z. perforate under-balanced to perforate the well with a column of fluid in the . or perforator. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 464 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1 cable-tool drilling. and southern New York state. PENNSYLVANIA-GRADE CRUDE OIL Oil with characteristics similar to the crude oil Produced in Pennsylvania from which superior quality lubricating oils are made. that fires electrically detonated bullets or shaped charges from the surface. used in drilling reports. Similar-grade crude oil is also found in West Virginia. 3258.mzhelu@gmail.rotary drilling in which a special tool called a hammer drill is used in combination with a roller-cone bit. Perforating is accomplished by lowering into the well a perforating gun.

Z. has steel projectiles placed at intervals over its outer circumference. PERFORATING GUN A special tool used downhole for shooting holes in the well's casing opposite the producting formation. 465 Petroleum Engineer: M. perforated completion a well completion in which the production casing or liner is punctured to allow passage between the wellbore and the producing formation. the sections of pipe (as casing liners. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3264. When lowered into the well's casing on a wire line opposite the formation to be produced. 3265. The . perpendicular to the gun's long axis. the gun is fired electrically. Perforations are usually made with bullet. Perforate/Perforating Piercing the casing and cement using shaped explosive charges to provide a flow path for formation fluids. perforated liner perforated pipe a liner that has had holes shot in it by a perforating gun. (See gun-perforate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3262.or jet-perforating guns. PERFORATING To make holes through the casing opposite the producing formation to allow the oil or gas to flow into the well.) 3263. tail pipes. 3266.) in which holes or slots have been cut before setting. Shooting steel bullets through the casing walls with a special downhole "gun" is a common method of perforating. a steel tube of various lengths. shooting numerous holes in the casing which permit the oil or gas to flow into the casing.mzhelu@gmail. etc.

3270. permanent completion a well completion in which production. 466 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3269. and re-completion operations can be performed without removing the wellhead. SHAPED-CHARGE period Of Pitch See Shaped-charge Perforation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PERFORATIONS. and return to its lowest position. 3273. 3271. the time required for the bow or stern of a floating offshore drilling rig to start at its lowest Position. Also. guidelines are attached to it so that equipment (as the blowout preventers) may be guided into place on the wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3267. Z. PERMAFROST The permanently frozen layer of earth occurring at variable depths in the Arctic and other frigid regions. It is seated in the temporary guide base and serves as a wellhead . workover. rise with the waves. permanent guide base a structure attached to and installed with the foundation pile when a well is drilled from an offshore drilling rig. 3272. Permeability The measure of a formation's ability to transmit fluids and/or gases. 3268.mzhelu@gmail. period of roll the time required for a floating offshore drilling rig to roll from one side to the other and back.

It is usually rigged to a crane. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. chemicals. or 2. feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of plastics and synthetic rubber. 3280. 3275. 3279.mzhelu@gmail. PETROCHEMICALS Chemicals derived from petroleum. PETROCHEMISTRY A word derived from petroleum and chemistry.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3274. PERSUADER An oversized toot for a small job.080 hours. the science of synthesizing substances derived from crude oil. This 467 Petroleum Engineer: M. natural gas. on which personnel ride when being transferred from boat to rig on offshore locations. 3277. PESA petrochemical Petroleum Equipment Suppliers' Association. and natural gas liquids. and sand is pumped under high pressure into an oil-bearing formation penetrated by the well bore. a chemical manufactured from petroleum and natural gas or from raw materials derived from petroleum and natural gas. PETROFRACTURING A process In which a mixture of oil. 3281. 3278. a net attached to a floatable ring. Person-years personnel net The equivalent of one person working a full . an extension added to the handle of a wrench to increase the leverage. 3276.

3285. limestone. and other porous rock formations where accumulations of oil and gas may be found. referred to as synthetic crude. STRATEGIC PETROLEUM ROCK See Naval Petroleum Reserves. 3287. petroleum means crude oil.mzhelu@gmail. solid and semisolid bitumen. dolomite. and solid. See Hydraulic Fracturing. PETROLEUM SULFONATE FLOODING See Micellar-surfactant Flooding. . 3286. the term embraces the whole spectrum of hydrocarbons-gaseous. 468 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sandstone. In its broadest sense. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. shale. petrol PETROLEUM (British) gasoline. PETROLEUM TAR SANDS Native asphalt. See Strategic Petroleum Reserves. petroliferous containing petroleum (of rocks). Processes have been developed for extracting the oil. 3282. 3284. including oil-impregnated rock or sand from which oil is recoverable by special treatment. Z. liquid. In the popular sense. PETROLEUM RESERVES NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering produces cracks and fissures in the formation to improve the flow of oil. 3283.

structure. increasing alkalinity. occurrence. acid solutions are less than 7. 3290. a geologist who studies the origin. Similarly. 3291. 3293. . history. basic. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pH value a unit of measure of the acid or alkaline condition of a substance. and chemical composition of sedimentary rocks. or alkaline solutions are above 7. a substance with a pH of 9 is much more than twice as alkaline as a substance with a pH of 8. greater than 7. increasing acidity. Petrophysics Study of reservoir properties based on the data obtained from various logging tools and methods.mzhelu@gmail. a substance with a pH of 4 is more than twice as acid as a substance with a pH of 5. history. structure. numbers less than 7. chemical composition. occurrence. with 7 representing neutrality. and classification of rocks. and from drill cores. A neutral solution (as pure water) has a pH of 7. SEDPAIENTARY A specialist in petrology. also a specialist in the acoustical properties of rocks who often works with geophysicists in determining the presence of oil and gas in sedimentary formations. 469 Petroleum Engineer: M. PETROLOGIST. Z. PH (pH) A symbol used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from 0 to 14.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3289. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. PETROLOGY The science that deals with the origin.

is homogeneous throughout. production.mzhelu@gmail. and steam (gas). or variation has advanced. through the use of electronic linkage. PHYSICAL DEPLETION The exhausting of a mineral deposit or a petroleum reservoir by extraction or 3297. oscillation. 3295. a jetty. The three phases of HgO. 3296. Petroleum Engineer: .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3294. any portion of a nonhomogeneous system that is bounded by a surface. PIER A walkway-like structure built on piling out from shore. 3299. piercement dome 470 a mass of material. usually salt. for example. in physics. a cylindrical or spherical device that is affixed to the end of a wireline just above the hook to keep the line straight and provide weight. 2. water (liquid). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. automatically sounds a warning or effects changes in the stack emissions when they exceed predetermined levels. a distance over the water for use 4 s a landing place or to tie up boats. 3300. and may be mechanically separated from the other phases. used in drilling reports. the stage or point in a cycle to which a rotation. Z. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYZER A device for detecting and analyzing the changes in properties and quantities of a plant's stack gases. phase 1. that rises and penetrates rock formations. pi pickle pipeline. 3298. are ice (solid). The analyzer.

pig iron PIG TRAP piggyback (slang) a piece of oil-filed equipment made of iron or steel. Pigs or scrapers (q. Drilied-in piling 471 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some platforms of this type have oil storage facilities within the base of the structure." the pressure of the oil stream behind it pushes the pig along the line.mzhelu@gmail. also Tension-leg Platform. In this operation the piles are cemented in to achieve more .v. (nautical) to install anchors behind each other in tandem on the same 3305. PILING. or other foreign matter.). DRILLED-IN Piling that is inserted into holes drilled by special large-diameter bits.v. When insertec in the line at a "trap. mooring line. 3302. 3303. 3304. PILELESS PLATFORM A concrete offshore drilling platform of sufficient weight to hold the structure firmly in position on the sea bottom. PIG A cylindrical device (three to seven feet long) inserted in a pipeline for the purpose of sweeping the line clean of water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3301. Z. See Gravity Structure. A scraper trap (q. Referred to as a "gravity structure. pliable discs that fit the internal diameter of the pipe.) are made with tough. 3306. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. thus forming a tight seal as they move along cleaning the pipe wails. rust." the platform is constructed on shore and then floated and towed to location where it is "sunk" by flooding its compartments.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. smaller in diameter than the mill. are now in service at remote locations to store diesel fuel. 3307. used to develop and test processes and operating techniques before investing in a full-scale plant. gasoline. synthetic rubber and fabric fuel "tanks" that look like giant pillows.) Petroleum Engineer: M.) with a tapered confer projection below the cutting surface of the bit to guide or pilot the bit into the open end of a piece of junk or a toot to be milled out downhole. Pillow tanks. The pilot.v. and tube oil until steel tankage can be erected. 3311. 3310. Easily . A type of junk mill (q. PILOTMILL. Z. p. (See illustration. pin pin packer 472 (See tool joint. 3312. is designed to go inside drill pipe or tubing that is lost in the hole.mzhelu@gmail. PILOT PLANT A small model of a future processing plant. See Drilling and Boiling Tool. the rubber pillows can be filled by tank truck or air shuttle. tubular extension below it called a pilot or stinger. thus preventing the mill from bypassing the pipe. folded up and taken to another location. pilot mill a special mill that has a heavy. It guides the mill to the top of and centers it over the pipe. 155) 3308. and when no longer needed they may be emptied. first used by the military to store fuel. PILLOW TANKS Pliable. 3309.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is often used to secure platform jackets to the ocean floor.

shearing the pins and allowing the element to fold and pack off. pinch-out a geological structure that forms a trap for oil and gas when a porous and permeable rock ends at or stops against an impervious formation. 3316.through which fluids are conducted. hollow cylinder. pinch in to decrease the size of the opening of an adjustable choke when a kick is being circulated out of a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a packer in which the packing element is held in position by brass or steel pins. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually steel. and drill pipe are designated by external-diameter. . 3314. 3315. Z. Thus. Because lengths of pipe are joined by external-diameter couplings threaded by standard tools. PINCHING A VALVE Closing a valve part way to reduce the flow of liquid or gas through a pipeline. See Cracking a Valve. 3313. tubing. pin tap a short. Once the pin tap is engaged. Oilfield tubular goods are casing (including liners). the lost pipe can be retrieved. When weight is put on the packer. pipe a long. the external diameter is the same for 473 Petroleum Engineer: M. tubing. drill pipe. threaded device made up on the bottom of drill pipe or tubing and used to screw into the box of a stand of drill pipe or drill collars lost in the hole. an increase in the wall thickness can only be obtained by decreasing the internal diameter. or line pipe.mzhelu@gmail. Casing. two metal sleeves telescope.

3318. 3323. tees. pipe hanger 1. etc. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pipe fittings the auxiliary parts (as couplings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering all weights of the same size pipe. 3321. PIPE LAY BARGE PIPE MILL. 3322. crosses. Grading depends on the yield strength of the steel. a circular device with a frictional gripping arrangement used to suspend casing and tubing in the well. pipe jack a hand tool used to lift and move a stand of pipe that is set back in the derrick. 474 Petroleum Engineer: M.) used for connecting lengths of pipe. Z. a device used to support a pipeline. PORTABLE See Lay Barge. . An "oil patch plumber" according to pipeliners who traditionally work with large-diameter pipe 3320.mzhelu@gmail. 2. It has a handle on one end and two semicircular pieces on the other end that are designed to fit under the shoulder of a joint of pipe and avoid damage as the pipe is lifted with the tool. 3319. One who installs and repairs piping. See Portable Pipe Mill. elbows. pipe dolly PIPE FITTER any device equipped with rollers and used to move drill pipe or collars. usually of small diameter. Weight is expressed in pounds per foot.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3328. pipeyard press equipped with hydraulically powered mandrels for taking the kinks and bends out of pipe.It eliminates the need to stand pipe in the derrick while it is out of the hole. pipe rack pipe racker a horizontal support for tubular goods. Fabric slings are used to prevent scarring or damaging the pipelines protective coating. outlet. (obsolete) 1. 3331. a worker who places pipe to one side in the derrick. either picks up pipe from a rack and lifts it into the derrick or takes pipe from out of the derrick and places it on the rack. pipe rams a sealing component for a blowout preventer that closes the annular space between the pipe and the blowout preventer or wellhead. a pneumatic or hydraulic device often used on drill ships that.mzhelu@gmail. a fitting made in parts to clamp onto a pipe to stop a leak or provide an 3330. upon command from an operator.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3325. 3326. PIPE STRAIGHTENER A heavy. The replaceable mandrels come in all size 2" to 12". handling. 2. Z. 3329. and lowering in of pipe. 475 Petroleum Engineer: M. pipe repair clamp pipe saddle a clamp used to make a temporary repair of a leak in a pipeline. . PIPE SLING A stirrup-like sling made of heavy belting material used on the winch line of boom cats for lifting.

PIPELINE CAT A tough." held in a slot in the head. 3336.1 disappears-until the next pipeline job. 3334. Delumpers are used for the most part on coal slurry pipelines. pipe wiper a disk-shaped device with a hole in the center through which drill pipe or tubing passes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pipeline a system of connected lengths of pipe. 3333. a boomer. A hard-working. experienced pipeline construction worker who stays on the job until is flanged up and the. or other liquid from the pipe as the pipe is pulled from the hole. Z. PIPE TONGS Long-handled wrenches that grip the pipe with a scissors-like action. 3335. 3337. impermanent construction hand. PIPELINE DELUMPER A motor-driven chopping machine that is flanged Into a pipeline to break up any solid material that may have found its way into the fluid stream. used to wipe off mud. usually buried in the earth or laid on the seafloor.mzhelu@gmail. used in laying a screw pipeline. pipeline connection the outlet from a well or tank by which oil or gas is transferred to a pipeline for transportation away from the field. that is used for transporting petroleum and natural .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3332. The head (called the butt) is shaped like a parrot's beak and uses one corner of a square "tong key. to bite into the surface of the pipe in turning it. The electric motor furnishes power for the chopper blades. 476 Petroleum Engineer: M. oil.

pipeline oil a crude oil whose BS& W content is low enough to make the oil acceptable for pipeline shipment. PIPELINE GAS Gas under sufficient pressure to enter the high-pressure gas lines of a purchaser. A manned bathysphere for inspection of offshore pipelines or to investigate the underwater terrain. to check the route of a pipeline for leaks or other abnormal conditions. PIPELINE PRORATIONING The refusal by a purchasing company or a pipeline to take more oil than 4 needs from the producer by limiting pipeline runs from the producer's lease an informal practice in the days of overproduction when market conditions 477 Petroleum Engineer: M. butane. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . 3339. 3342. 3341. pipeline patrol a watch. PIPELINE GAUGER PIPELINE INSPECTION SPHERE 3340. The diving sphere is lowered to the sea floor by a boom and tackle extending from the deck of a work boat or diving tender equipped with support systems. for a proposed route for laying a pipeline. gas sufficiently dry so that liquid hydrocarbons-natural gasoline. and other gas liquids-usually present in natural gas will not condense or drop out in the transmission lines. See Gauger. usually maintained from an airplane. 3343. the sea floor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3338.

the bevelled ends of two joints are brought together and aligned by clamps. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. anyone who is involved in the building. cat drivers. piston a cylindrical sliding piece that is moved by or moves against fluid pressure within a confining cylindrical vessel. patrol using light planes or. 3348. usually metal. The line rider has been replaced by the pipeline. See Spread. piston ring a yielding ring. that surrounds a piston and maintains a tight fit inside a cylinder. connection men. for short local lines. One who does pipeline construction or repair work welders. maintenance. . Z. by the pickup truck and the man on foot. In pipeline welding. and (5) final or capping pass. (4) filler pass. (3) third pass or hot fill (for heavy-wall pipe). 3345. 3347. ditching machine operators. 478 Petroleum Engineer: M. PIPELINE SPREAD PIPELINE WELDING 3346. and operation of a pipeline system. 3344. Also referred to as purchaser prorationing.mzhelu@gmail. PIPELINE RIDER One who covers a pipeline by horseback looking for leaks in the line or washed-out sections of the right of way. Welders then lay on courses of weld metal called passes or beads designated as (1) stringer bead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering were unsatisfactory or when the pipeline system lacked storage space. (2) hot pass. costing and wrapping operators.

2. If the mud level in the pits drops too low or rises too high. a metal shaft that joins the piston to the crankshaft in an engine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cast-iron cream pitcher. 3350. PVTs usually consist of float devices in the mud pits that sense mud-level data and transmit the data to a recording and alarm device mounted near the driller's position on the rig floor. a dark brown to black bituminous material found in natural beds. Pit Volume Totalizer (PVT)a trade name for a series of devices that continuously monitor the level of the drilling mud in the mud pits.) (See Pit Volume Totalizer. pit-level indicator pit-level recorder PITCH (See Pit Volume Totalizer. 3352. the alarm sounds to warn the driller that action may be necessary to prevent a blowout.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3349. 3351. the pitcher pump is built on the order of the "old 479 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.mzhelu@gmail. PITCHER PUMP A small hand pump for very shallow water wells. See Brea.) Asphalt. PIT LINERS Specially formulated plastic sheeting for lining earthen or leaking concrete pits to prevent seepage of oil or water into the ground. also produced as a black. piston rod 1. one end of which is connected to the piston and the other to the pony rod. 3354. 3355. 3353. a metal shaft in a mud pump. Looking much like a large. heavy residue in oil .

used in drilling reports. The difference between the pressure on the Pitot tube and the static pressure is the velocity head of the flow. also Rectifier Bed. used in measuring the velocity head of a flowing medium. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. packer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Pitot tube an open-ended tube arranged to face against the current of a stream of fluid. pk pkr pink. 3356. The pitcher pump's handle. 3359. 3361.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering town pump" with one exception. pitman the arm that connects the crank to the walking beam on a pumping unit by means of which rotary motion is converted to reciprocating motion. working on a fulcrum. See Anode. Water is pumped by the suction created by a leather cup and valve arrangement in the throat or lower body of the pump together with a foot valve 20 feet or so down in the tubing. 3360. does not have a string of pump rods attached. Pitot-tube meter a meter that uses a Pitot tube and a manometer or other differential-pressure mechanism to measure flowing fluids. 480 Petroleum Engineer: M. crater-like holes or pits. A simple and elegantly fundamental pumping machine. . PITTING (OF PIPE) Line pipe corroded in such a manner as to cause the surface to be covered with minute. which is directly related to the rate of flow. Z. 3358.

Z. 3363. 3364. (See sand consolidation. See Turbulent Flow. The resinous material is hardened by the addition of special chemicals which creates a porous mass that permits oil to flow into the well but holds back the sand at the same time. PLANT OPERATOR An employee who runs plant equipment. . As the point on a tracing arm is passed along the outline of a figure. plastic viscosity an absolute flow property indicating the flow resistance of certain types of fluids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3362. plasticity the ability of a substance to be deformed without rupturing. flowing as a river with the center of the stream moving at a greater rate than the edges which are retarded by the friction of the banks (or pipe wall).) 3366. Plastic viscosity is a measure of shearing stress. planimeter an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3367. a graduated wheel and disk indicate the area encompassed. PLASTIC FLOW The flow of liquid (through a pipeline) in which the liquid moves as a column. makes minor adjustments and repairs. and keeps the necessary operating records. 481 Petroleum Engineer: M. plastic squeezing the procedure by which a quantity of resinous material is squeezed into a sandy formation to consolidate the sand and prevent its flowing into the well.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3368. township. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. PLAT BOOK A book containing maps of land plots arranged according to Township and Range for counties within a state.v. through which wells are produced. PLATFORM TREE A production Christmas tree (q. a grid-like representation of land areas showing their relationship to other areas in a state or county. used on offshore platforms.). produced. .v. and range. commonly known as a platformer (q. 3373. or both. an assembly of control and production valves. 3369. 3371. 482 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. See Plat. a support that is firmly secured to the ocean floor and to which the legs of a platform are anchored. platform an immobile offshore structure constructed on pilings from which wells are drilled. PLAT A map of land plots laid out according to surveys made by a Government Land Office showing section. 3370. PLATFORMATE High-octane gasoline blending stock produced in a catalytic reforming unit. PLATFORM BURNER platform jacket See Forced-draft Burner.) on an offshore platform. 3374.

Central control rooms at refineries are usually kept at pressures of a few ounces above the surrounding atmosphere to prevent potentially explosive gases from seeping into the building and being ignited by electrical equipment. 3379. 3376. Some offshore drilling and production platforms are provided with plenums as a safety measure.v. El-Helu E-Mail: . PLATFORMER A catalytic reforming unit which converts low-quality straight-chain paraffins or naphthenes to low-boiling. Z. branched-chain paraffins or aromatics of higher octane. See Acoustic Plenum. PLENUM A room or enclosed area where the atmosphere is maintained at a pres. Pipeline-end manifold.mzhelu@gmail. play PLEM the extent of a petroleum-bearing formation. 3377. submerged manifold connected to the shore by-pipelines that serve a tanker loading station of the multibuoy mooring type (q. 3380. Plimsoll mark a mark placed on the side of a floating offshore drilling rig or ship denoting the maximum depth to which it may be loaded or ballasted. PLUG 483 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3375. an offshore. The line is set in accordance with local and international rules for safety of life at sea.). 3378. a refinery unit that produces high-octane blending stock for manufacture of gasoline. sure greater than the outside air.

A type of quick-opening pipeline valve constructed with a central core or "plug. tubing. a stop. . gas. In the industry's early years. 3385. Plugging back also can be accomplished by a mechanical plug set by wireline. sidetrack." The valve can be opened or closed with one-quarter turn of the plug.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering To fill a well's borehole with cement or other Impervious material to prevent the flow of water. 3381. Z.) a fluid moving as a unit in which all shear stress occurs at the pipe wall. 484 Petroleum Engineer: M. plug container plug flow PLUG VALVE (See cementing head. wells were often improperly plugged or left open. 3384. 3382. PLUGGING A WELL To fill up the borehole of an abandoned well with mud and cement to prevent the flow of water or oil from one to another or to the surface. to place cement in or near the bottom of a well to exclude bottom water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3383. or oil from one strata to another when a well is abandoned to screw a metal plug into a pipeline to shut off drainage or to divert the stream of oil to a connecting line. plug and abandon plug back (P&A) to place a cement plug into a dry hole and abandon it. to stop the flow of oil or gas. or drill pipe. or produce from a formation already drilled through.

3390. as a valve closes.) A plan for financing oil and gas exploration developed for off shore exploration. p od POGO PLAN 3392. 3393. moving forward and backward or up and down in cylinders. 3391. Z. draw in a volume of liquid and. 3389. etc. pneumatic control a control valve that is actuated by air. Plugging material a substance used to temporarily or permanently block off zones while treating or working on other portions of the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Modern practice requires that an abandoned well be properly and securely plugged. 485 Petroleum Engineer: M. the investors receiving shares of stock in the corporation and other securities. Several pneumatic controls are used on drilling rigs to actuate rig components (as clutches. (See hydraulic control pod. hoists.) A reciprocating pump in which plungers or pistons.). plunger PLUNGER PUMP (See sucker-rod pump. pumps. 3387. push the fluid out into a discharge line.mzhelu@gmail. . The form of the plan is usually corporate. 3388. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Air injection pneumatic hoist.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . usually of two different sizes. 3397. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (p) the viscosity of a liquid in which a force of 1 dyne (a unit of measurement of small amounts of force) exerted tangentially on a surface of 1 cm' of either of two parallel planes 1 cm apart will move one plane at the rate of 1 cm per second in reference to the other plane with the space between the two planes filled with the liquid. polar compound a compound (as water) with a molecule that behaves as a small bar magnet with a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other. Z. A pole mast may be a single pole. Double-pole masts give added strength and stability.mzhelu@gmail. POINT MAN The member of a pipeline tong crew who handles the tips (the points) of heavy pipe-laying tongs. 486 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3398. point-reaction force poise a force that counteracts another force at a single point. 3395. that is telescoped together to be moved or extended and locked to obtain maximum height above a well. pole mast a portable mast constructed of tubular members. 3396. He is the "brains" of the crew as he keeps his men pulling and "hitting" in unison and In time with the other tong crews working on the same joint of screw pipe.

487 Petroleum Engineer: M. POLYMERIZATION A refining process of combining two or more molecules to form a single heavier . The main ingredient of polyethylene is the petrochemical gas ethylene. 3402. 3404. a sucker rod less than 25 ft long. (2). to increase the viscosity of the mud. 3403. PONTOONS The elements of a floating roof tank that provide buoyance. Z. It has a uniform diameter and is smoothly polished to effectively seal pressure in the stuffing box attached to the top of a well. the rod joined to the connecting rod and piston rod in a mud pump. metal tanks that float on the fluid and support the moveable deck structure of the roof. plastic house wares. 3400. used for lifting fluid by the rodpumping method. 3401. polymerization is used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stock from cracked gases. POLYETHYLENE A petroleum-derived plastic material used for packaging.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3399. the union of light olefins to form hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight.mzhelu@gmail. a chemical that consists of large molecules that were formed from small molecules in repeating structural units. airtight. and toys. pony rod (1). polymer mud a drilling mud to which has been added a polymer. polished rod the topmost portion of a string of sucker rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

PONYRODS Sucker rod made in short lengths of 2' to 8' for use in making up a string of pumping rods of the correct length to connect Vie polished rod of the pumping jack. Unitization describes a joint of all or some significant. 3411.v. 3406. POOL POOLING 3407. (See put on the pump. Z. to make do. putting on the pump. Pooling is often erroneously used for unitization (q. homemade. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3410. resulting in a parcel of "land large enough for the granting of a well permit under applicable spacing regulations. It is used as a safety device on pressurized vessels and other equipment to prevent damage from excessive pressure. SALT-DOME/SALT-PLUG poor boy POP pop valve See Salt-dome Pools. 3408.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3405. The bringing together of small. portion of a producing reservoir. See Oil . Pony rods are screwed Into the top of the string just below the polished rod (q. POOLS. used in drilling reports. contiguous tracts.mzhelu@gmail.). It also is called a relief valve or a safety valve.). to do something on a shoestring. 3409.v.) a spring-loaded safety valve that opens automatically when pressure exceeds the limits for which the valve is set. 488 Petroleum Engineer: M.

a super. 3417. (See pore. pipe-cleaning pig for swabbing a sediment-laden pipeline. or all three). gas. 3413. unsafe.) A cylindrical steel drum with steel bristles protruding from the surface. usually small and often filled with some fluid (as water. A type of check valve installed in a riser or a downhole packer to prevent fluid from rising vertically in the pipe or the well bore. a common practice in the 1920s and . POPPING The discharge of natural gas into the atmosphere. pore an opening or space within a rock or mass of rock. 3415. used in drilling reports. Pressure from below moving upward is blocked by the valve's clapper held shut by spring tension. 3414. Z. After the liquid hydrocarbons were extracted. 3418. the gas was "wasted" as there was no ready market for it. p or PORCUPINE porosity or pores. oil. Compare vug. POP-OFF VALVE popcorn POPPET VALVE See Relief Valve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or cheap. substandard. 489 Petroleum Engineer: M. especially with respect to sour gas and casinghead gas. A spring-loaded vertical valve that permits downward flow as fluid pressure opens the valve.mzhelu@gmail. 3416.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3412.

PORTABLE PIPE MILL Avery large. a well penetrating the formation should be a producer. and strung out behind the machine as it moves forward.) any system or method by which surveillance is maintained on the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead. the volume of the pore space expressed as a percent of the total volume of the rock mass. and lays fine pipe in end continuous operation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. portland cement position-reference system (See cement. 3424. POROSITY The state or quality of being porous.v. tested. self-propelled "factory on wheels" that . the rig should always be directly over the wellhead to minimize wear on subsea 490 Petroleum Engineer: M. electric welded. 3423. an important property of oil-bearing formations. The pipe is made from rolls of sheet steel (skelp) shaped into a cylindrical form. 3421. welds.) 3422. a mast mounted on a truck and capable of being erected as a single unit. And with good permeability (q. 3420.mzhelu@gmail. Ideally. Good porosity indicates an ability to hold large amounts of oil in the rock. the quality of a rock that allows liquids to flow through it readily.). port portable mast (nautical) the left side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3419. Z. (See telescoping derrick.

positive choke a choke in which the orifice size must be changed to change the rate of flow through the choke. The emissions-oil and unburned gasoline vapors. 3427. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a plunger or rotary pump.mzhelu@gmail. by rotating vanes or buckets. fluid-measuring device that measures by filling and emptying chambers of a specific .are directed into the intake manifold and from there they mix with the gasoline to be burned. 3426. a metal box under a truck bed that holds pipeline repair tools. or by using tanks or other vessels that automatically fill and empty. Z. The flow of mud comes into the bottom of the device and travels over baffles to control mud flow over the shale shaker. by nutating disks. a receiving tank situated at the end of the mud-return line.) 3425. positive-displacement meter a mechanical. 2. (See acoustic position reference and taut-line position-reference system. POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP A pump that or moves a measured volume of liquid on each stroke or revolution a pump with no significant slippage. The displacement of a fixed volume of fluid may be accomplished by reciprocating or oscillating pistons.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering equipment and facilitate operations involved with the equipment. 491 Petroleum Engineer: M. POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM A system installed on automobiles manufactured after 1968 to reduce emissions from the engine's crankcase. 3428. also known as a volume meter or voltmeter. possum belly 1.

posthole digger posthole well potential (slang) a small or makeshift drilling rig. POSSUM BELLY A metal box built underneath a truck bed to hold pipeline repair tools shove's.) 3434. square. chains. and wrenches. POTS (PUMP VALVE) pounds per cubic foot pounds per gallon pounds per square inch See Valve Pots. (psi) an English measure of the amount of pressure on an area that is 1 in. 3431. tongs. the maximum volume of oil or gas that a well is capable of producing. (See potential. 3430. 3435. 3436. 3437. POSTED PRICE The price an oil purchaser would pay for crude oil of a certain API gravity and from a particular field or area. (lb/ft'. 492 Petroleum Engineer: M. lblgal) a measure of the density of a fluid (as drilling mud).mzhelu@gmail. (ppg. Z. pcf) a measure of the density or weight of drilling fluid. 3432. Once literally posted in the field. (slang) a relatively shallow well. . 3433. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3429. potential test a test of the rate at which a well can produce oil or gas.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3438. 493 Petroleum Engineer: M. POWER SYSTEMS. exerts for every foot of length at the bottom of the column. 3444.mzhelu@gmail. Electric.) power slips (See slips. pour point a temperature 5 F above that temperature at which an oil is solid. 3440.. so that a column of 10-ppg mud that is 1. (See mechanical rig. 3445. or casing in a well in lieu of a rotary. 10-ppg mud exerts 0. 3441. Mechanical. See Central Power. also Drilling Rig. (See pressure gradient.) 3439. a measure of the amount of pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. the lowest temperature at which an oil will flow. POUR-POINT DEPRESSANT POWER power rig power sub A chemical agent added to oil to keep it flowing at low temperatures. as drilling mud. pounds per square inch per foot (psi/ft) n. 3443. For example.000 ft long exerts 520 psi at the bottom of the column. tubing. (PTO) a gearbox or other device serving to relay the power of a prime mover to auxiliary .) a hydraulically powered device used to turn the drill pipe. DRILLING RIG power takeoff See Drilling Rig. 3442. that a column of fluid. in pounds per square inch.52 psi/ft.

3448. power-driven mud pump a reciprocating pump for circulating drilling fluids. 494 Petroleum Engineer: M. the power tongs are latched onto the pipe which is screwed in and tightened to a predetermined torque. Conventional tongs are operated by a mechanical pull provided by a jerk line connected to a cathead. ultimate strength. Most mud pumps have double-acting pistons.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3446. 3447. Added to oil-well cements. Z. or casing to which the torque is provided by air or fluid pressure. but some have single-acting pistons that function. operated through cranks and connecting rods by power supplied to its crankshaft from an electric motor or internal-combustion engine. power tongs a wrench that is used to make up or break out drill . pozzolan-cement mixture a mixture of pozzolan and cement. 3449. as plungers. POWERTONGS An air or hydraulically powered mechanism for making up and breaking out joints of drillpipe. and watertightness. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tubing. casing or tubinq. pozzolan a natural or artificial siliceous material commonly added to portland cement mixtures to impart certain desirable properties. pozzolans reduce slurry weight and viscosity. 3450. After a joint is stabbed. It is usually a duplex (with two cylinders) but may be triplex (with three cylinders). and influence factors such as pumping time. increase resistance to sulfate attack.mzhelu@gmail.

) which is very small. 3454. used to express water content in a small amount of gas.v. the reaction between a pozzolan and any other material used to form a cementation product. 2. a pozzolan-lime reaction. a "distillation system" (q. 3453. parts per million. etc. temporary refinery (200 to 1. forming a cementitious material primarily composed of hydrated calcium silicates. PRAIRIE-DOG PLANT A small. ppg ppm PPM/VOL PPM/WT pounds per gallon. basic refinery located in a remote area. 3456. See also LBS-H2O/MMSCF 3457.mzhelu@gmail.000 barrels a day) set up at a remote drilling site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment such as a light-plant engine . pozzolan-lime reaction the reaction between pozzolans and lime in the presence of water. welding unit. Parts per million (of water) in a given weight of gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3451. 3452. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pozzolanic reaction 1. Z. . Parts per million (of water)LBS-H20/MMSCF. 495 Petroleum Engineer: M.

. pressure drop a loss of pressure as a fluid passes from an area of small volume to an area of larger volume. a diaphragm.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3458. a Bourdon tube. 3459. 3461. pressure the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface (as that exerted against the inner wall of a container or piping system by a fluid or that exerted on a wellhead by a column of gas in the well). the pressure gradient of a column 496 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3463. or other pressuresensitive device). Compare overflush. pressure is usually expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). a weighted piston. 3460. pressure gradient a scale of pressure differences in which there is a uniform variation of pressure from point to point. In the . 3462.mzhelu@gmail. Z. preignition a condition in an internal-combustion engine characterized by a knocking sound and caused by the fuel-air mixture having been ignited too soon because of an abnormal condition. resulting from friction. pressure gauge an instrument for measuring ]fluid pressure that usually registers the difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the fluid by indicating the effect of such pressures on a measuring element (as a column of liquid. For example. sometimes called spearhead. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.S. Pre-flush the quantity of fluid used ahead of the acid solution pumped into a well in an acid-stimulation treatment.

v. earth lifting. 3467.. pressure loss 1. It is sometimes called breaking or cracking the formation.51 kPa/m).465 psi/ft or 10. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). or other fluids into the reservoir before reservoir pressure has dropped appreciably.e. Pressure losses occur as the fluid is circulated. a reduction in the amount of force a fluid exerts against a surface. 3466.mzhelu@gmail. 3465.433 psi/ft of vertical elevation (9. or formation fracturing. water. 0. PRESSURE SNUBBER A pulsation dampener (q.79 kPa/m). to reduce or eliminate a decline in pressure. The normal pressure gradient in a well is equivalent to the pressure exerted at any given depth by a column of 10 percent salt water extending from that depth to the surface (i. usually occurring because the fluid is moving against the surface. the amount of pressure indicated by a drill-pipe pressure gauge when drilling fluid is being circulated by the mud pump. 2. usually early in the life of the field.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of water is about 0. 3464. 497 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. pressure parting a phenomenon in which a rock formation is caused to be broken apart along bedding planes or in which natural cracks are widened by the application of hydraulic pressure. pressure maintenance a method for increasing ultimate oil recovery by injecting .

primary cementing the cementing operation that takes place immediately after the casing has been run into the hole. and temperatures to determine the characteristics and behavior of the fluid. volume. safety valve. and has a concave or convex top. has a wall thickness greater than that of the usual storage tank. pressure-relief valve a valve that opens at a preset pressure to relieve excessive pressures within a vessel or line. Such a tank is often spherical. volumes. and temperature (PVT) an examination of reservoir fluids in a laboratory under various pressures. analysis pressure. or pop valve. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3468. 3469. 3470. pressure vessel any container designed to contain fluids at a pressure substantially greater than atmospheric. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pressure storage tank a storage tank constructed to withstand pressure generated by the vapors inside.) a system of conducting regular checks and testing of equipment to permit replacement or repair of weakened or faulty parts before failure of the equipment results. 3473. 3474. also called a relief valve. 3471.mzhelu@gmail. used to provide a protective sheath around the 498 Petroleum Engineer: M. preventer preventive maintenance (See blowout preventer. .

and to prevent the migration of undesirable fluids. PRIVATE BRAND DEALER A gasoline dealer who does not buy gasoline from a "major" supplier. .) 3475. 3477. but retails under the t>rand name of an independent supplier or his own brand name. the lease must be renewed. to segregate the producing formation. When a lease's primary term expires. Prime mover is also applied to large four-wheel-drive trucks or tractors. in the oil field it refers to engines and electric motors. primary recovery oil production in which only existing natural energy sources in the reservoir provide for movement of the well fluids to the wellbore.) Steam produced in a refinery's or chemical plant's boilers to heat a process stream or for use in a refining process. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. if possible. PRIME MOVER The term describes any source of motion. PRIMARY TERM The period of time an oil and gas lease is to run or be valid. 3476. See Or Lease. a large 499 Petroleum Engineer: M. Of the energy used in the U. Z.S. 3478. (See secondary cementing and squeeze cementing. PROCESSING PLATFORM PROCESSS TEAM A production platform (q. also Delay Rental. or the interest in the property reverts automatically to the lessor or landowner. 3480.v.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering casing. the power source..

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in offshore operations. as many as 60 wells are drilled from a singer large platform by slanting the hole P. natural gas. producing zone Producing/Production PRODUCT GAS the zone or formation from which oil or gas is produced.mzhelu@gmail.) Flowing oil and/or gas from a well to the production systems. When water and oil are mixed in the production stream they go into a gun barrel or other type of oil/water separator. the drilling equipment is removed and the platform is given over to operation of the producing wells. 3484. 3481. The oil goes to the lease tanks. End product gas gas resulting from a special manufacturing process. Petrochemical plants are important users of . 3482. 3483. (See pay sand. high-pressure steam.! an angle from the vertical away from the platform. When the wells are completed. where there are large volumes of water. synthetic 500 Petroleum Engineer: M. PRODUCING PLATFORM An offshore structure with a platform raised above the water to support a number of producing wells. 3485. it is pumped into a salt water disposal well. the water to an evaporation pit or. PRODUCED WATER Salt water produced from the oil from a well. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering percentage is consumed in the production of process steam.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3486. (See oil string and long string. 3490. jet fuel and kerosene. and otherwise preparing the product for the pipeline.3%. 9. handles only clean liquids. 49. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PRODUCT IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to a refiner or marketer to import products from abroad..mzhelu@gmail. Product lubricated equipment.2%. various kinds of oils with lubricating qualities. inside of which is usually suspended the tubing string. other products. i. Z. the amount of oil or gas produced in a given period. lubricating oils. the phase of the petroleum industry that deals with bringing the well fluids to the surface and separating them and with storing. 6. PRODUCT YIELD (AVERAGE) From a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil the average yield is as follows gasoline. gauging. 7. production 1. gas oil and distillates. PRODUCT LUBRICATED Describes a pump whose bearings are lubricated by the liquid it is pumping. production casing the last string of casing or liner that is set in a well. .0%.6%.6%. residual fuel oil.3%. needless to say. 3488. these product percentages can be changed depending upon market demand.e. 21. The pump is constructed with channels and wells that I ill with product and in which the bearings or other moving parts run. With modern-day refining methods. 3487. 2. 6.) 501 Petroleum Engineer: M.

The production packer is ran as part of the packer is mechanically or hydraulically expanded and "set" firmly against the casing wall isolating the production formation from the upper casing while permitting the oil or gas to flow up the tubing. Z. a spinner survey. Production islands are constructed in shallow water. Also. 3493. This overriding royalty conveyed to the bank or other lender is free and clear of any costs of production or maintenance. . PRODUCTION PAYMENT LOAN A loan that is to be repaid out of the production of a well or a lease. an island can be landscaped to hide the pumping wells and other equipment from view. production log a well-logging method that measures and records the flow of fluid past an indicating device placed at varying depths in a producing or injection well. And with a lower profile. 502 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3494. close to shore. also Overriding Royalty. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3491.mzhelu@gmail. PRODUCTION ISLAND An island made by dredging up material from the bottom of a lake or the ocean bottom to support one or more producing wells. See Carved-Out Interest. PRODUCTION PACKER An expandable plug-like device for sealing off the annular space between the well's tubing and the caning. and are usually cheaper to build than steel production platforms. To pay off the loan the operator "carves out" a royalty payment to the lending institution from his seveneighths working interest. It is a common practice in the oil country to borrow money on a producing well to finance further Development of a lease. the islands are less offensive to the esthetic eye. . plus a substructure with rotary. PRODUCTION SKID A prefabricated oil and gas production unit assembled on a base or skid on the shore and transported to an offshore platform by one or more derrick barges. A workover rig is basically the same. pits. After the skid has been lifted into position and secured to the platform it is connected to the flow lines of the offshore wells it is to serve. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PRODUCTION PLATFORM An offshore structure built for the purpose of providing a central receiving point for oil produced in an area of the offshore. The production platform supports receiving tanks. production rig a portable servicing or workover outfit. It reaches from the pay zone to the surface. 3497. See Production Platform. storing. treaters. treating. pump. 3496. usually mounted on wheels and selfpropelled. The production string is the longest and smallest diameter casing run in a well. separators. PRODUCTION STRING The casing set just above or through the producing zone of a well.mzhelu@gmail. and pumping the oil and gas to shore stations. and begins its function of receiving. and other auxiliaries to permit handling and working a drill string.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3495. 503 Petroleum Engineer: M. A well-servicing unit consists of a hoist and engine mounted on a wheeled chassis with a self-erecting mast. and pumping units for moving the oil to shore through a submarine pipeline. 3498.

3500. It may be expressed as PI= __Q_______ 3504. An arrangement of heavy duty valves and fittings installed on the wellhead to control flow from the well and/or to facilitate injection operations. production tank a tank used in the Field to receive crude oil as it comes from the well. Z. products line PROFIT-SHARING BIDS a pipeline used to ship refined products. Production Well A well drilled and completed for the purpose of producing crude oil or natural . 3502. In some 504 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3501. products cycle the sequence or order in which a number of different products are batched through a pipeline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3499.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3506. 3505. productivity index (PI) a well-test measurement indicative of the amount of oil or gas a well is capable of producing. PRODUCTION TAX Production Tree See Gross Production Tax. also referred to as a flow tank or lease tank. gas. A type of bidding for federal and sometimes state oil leases in which a relatively small cash bonus is paid for the lease acreage plus a share in the net profits should the lease prove to be commercially productive.

v. Imperial Oil Resources Limited and Nova Scotia Resources Limited. C&Ha. This type of bidding substantially reduces the front-end cost for an operator but extends the payout time for his wells.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. proppant PROPPANTS (See propping agent. or other miniature pellets suspended in the fracturing fluid that are forced into the formation and remain to prop open the cracks and crevices permitting the oil to flow more freely. Joint Operator. Lead Operator. the sand grains. Project Sands The Proponents term for those reservoir zones that they recognize as having sufficient gas volumes and producibility to form the basis of the production forecast.) Material used in hydraulic fracturing (q. Z. specifically. It is a constituent of . Shell Canada Limited. that is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. 3508. 3509. propane a parafrin hydrocarbon. Proponents The parties proposing to carry out SOEP. 505 Petroleum Engineer: M. beads.) for holding open the cracks made in the formation by the extremely high pressure applied in the treatment. 3511. 3510.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering instances bidders have offered a 75 to 90 percent share in net profits for an especially promising parcel. Mobil Oil Canada Properties. 3507.

propping agent a granular substance (as sand grains. 3514. land and offshore reconnaissance surveys from seismic.) 506 Petroleum Engineer: M. and gravity studies that are privately owned. and then allocated to individual wells. Z. and from fields to leases.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3512. 3513. walnut shells. usually on the basis of market demand. PROPRIETARY DATA Information on subsurface. inter mediate casing. or other material) carried in suspension by the fracturing fluid that serves to keep the cracks open when the fracturing fluid is withdrawn after a fracture treatment. Prorationing involves allowables which are assigned to fields. protection casing a string of casing set to protect a section of the hole and to permit drilling to continue to a greater depth. PRORATIONING Restriction of oil and gas production by a state regulatory commission. (See intermediate casing string. geological formations gathered or purchased from a supplier of such data by an operator and kept secret.mzhelu@gmail. . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. proration a system enforced by a state or federal agency or by agreement between operators that limits the amount of petroleum that can be produced from a well or field within a given period. 3515.

pounds per square inch absolute. 3522. Psig is the pressure in a vessel or container as registered on a pressure gauge attached to the container. a calibration tank. 507 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3520. 3519. is the static bottomhole pressure (psi). 3524. Q is the rate of production (b/d). PROTECTIVE STRING A string of casing used in very deep wells and run on the inside of the outermost casing to protect against the collapsing of the outer string from high gas pressure encountered.mzhelu@gmail. Psia is equal to the gauge pressure plus the pressure of the atmosphere at that point. .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3517. 3518. 3523. where PI is the productivity index (b/d per psi of pressure differential).Pf to determine the accuracy of a petroleum measurement meter. psi Psi/ft psia pounds per square inch. P. and Pf is flowing bottom-hole pressure (psi). Z. prove prover tank Ps . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pounds per square inch per foot. psig pounds per square inch gauge. a small. mobile tank used to check the accuracy of meters.

v. 3526. To pull a drill bit from the hole before it is worn out to pull a bit before it is 3531. to remove casing from a . 3532. 2.mzhelu@gmail. pull out PULL ROD PULLEDTHREADS (See come out of the hole. 3533. the reciprocation or rotation of the casing during or after a primary cementing operation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3525. 508 Petroleum Engineer: M. pull a well pull casing pull it green PULL ONE GREEN In to collapse a derrick. 3528. to pull a bit from the hole for replacement before it is greatly worn. Z. 3529.). 3530.) Shackle rod (q. necessary. 3527. threads on pipe or tubing damaged beyond use by too much torque or force used in making up the joint. Stripped threads. 1. the agitation of cement slurry in molds with a rod to remove trapped air bubbles. in cement evaluation work. in field practice. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PTO puddling power takeoff.

It exerts a strong upward pull on the fish by hydraulic power derived from fluid that is pumped down the fishing string. PULLING MACHINE PULLING RODS A pulling unit (q. 3538. The rods above the break are pulled in a normal manner.v. PULLING TOOLS Taking the drillpipe and bit out of the hole.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3534. 3539. pulling tool a hydraulically operated tool that is run in above the fishing tool and anchored to the casing by slips. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rods must also be pulled when they have parted downhole. Often part of the string must be cut off and left in the hole. 3536. 3537. Z.mzhelu@gmail. The operation of removing the pumping or sucker rods from a well in the course of bringing up the bottom-hole pump for repairs or replacement. 3535. Prior to plugging the well with mud and cement. If the tools are to be run again (put back in the hole).com . It is rare that all the casing can be removed from the hole. as much of the casing as can be pulled is retrieved. (See production rig. See Doubles.) 509 Petroleum Engineer: M. the lower section must first be reprieved with a "fishing tool" (q. pulling unit a well-servicing outfit used in pulling rods and tubing from the well.). the drillpipe is unscrewed in two or three-joint sections (stands) and stacked in the derrick. PULLING THE CASING Removing the casing from the hole after abandoning the well.v.

residual oil saturation. mud pump. (See sucker-rod pump and working barrel.v. rhythmic surges in pressure that occur when fluid is pumped by reciprocating pumps. any gas. 3545. centrifugal pump. and bottom-hole pump. 3541.or liquid-charged. 3542. Z. PULSPATION DAMPENER Various devices for absorbing the transient. On such pumps air chambers (q. sucker-rod pump.) are installed on discharge instrument from the incessant pounding fine-mesh sleve-like disks are placed in the small tubing or piping to which the gauge is attached this arrangement "filters out" much of the surging which can damage delicate gauges. pulsed-neutron survey a special. jet pump. pump a device that increases the pressure on a fluid or raises it to a higher level.mzhelu@gmail. rotary pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casedhole logging method that uses radioactivity reaction time to obtain measurements of water saturation. and fluid contacts in the formation outside the casing of an oil . 3544.) 510 Petroleum Engineer: M. PULLIROD LINE pulsation dampener See Shackle Rod.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3540. pump barrel the cylinder or liner in which the plunger of a sucker-rod pump reciprocates. submersible pump. 3543. hydraulic pump. chambered device that minimizes periodic increases and decreases in pressure (as from a mud pump). Various types of pumps include the reciprocating pump. . pump house a building that houses the pumps. and in some pumps they provide a method of conveniently changing the displacement and capacity of the pumps. pump liner a cylindrical. and control panels at a pipeline gathering station or trunk station. 3550. A pump with 511 Petroleum Engineer: M. engines. pump manifold an arrangement of valves and piping that permits a choice in the direction of routing of suction and discharge fluids between two or more pumps. Usually several pump jacks are operated by pull rods or cables from one central power source. 3552. 3548. To prevent pumping off. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3549. accurately machined. pump off to pump (a well) so that the fluid level drops below the standing valve of the pump and it stops working.mzhelu@gmail. metallic section that forms the working barrel of some reciprocating pumps. a pump must be installed at the proper depth in the fluid. Liners are an inexpensive means of replacing worn cylinder surfaces. pump jack a surface unit similar to a pumping unit but having no individual power plant. pump pressure PUMP SPECIFICATIONS fluid pressure arising from the action of a pump A plunger pump designated as 6 x 12 duplex is a two-cylinder pump whose cylinders are 6 inches in diameter with a stroke of 12 inches. 3547. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3546.

) on top or bottom of the pump barrel provides packoff or seal between the pump and the wall of the casing at any desired depth.) 3555. 3553. Z. DUPLEX A two-cylinder reciprocating plunger pump. DOUBLE-DISPLACEMENT See Double-Acting Pump.v. 3556. PUMP.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering replaceable liners (cylinders) may carry a specifications plate that reads 4. pumps. 3554. 512 Petroleum Engineer: M. DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP. 3557. and other equipment to route and maintain the flow of oil. 3558. (See standing valve and traveling valve. This pump can be fitted with liners and pistons from 4 inches to 6 inches in diameter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. its stroke is 10 inches. A type of downhole rod pump which has plungers placed In tandem and operated simultaneously by the pump rods.mzhelu@gmail. PUMP. pump valve any of the valves on a reciprocating pump (as the suction and discharge valves) or on a sucker-rod pump (as a ball-and-scat valve). Oil is discharged from the pump into the casing and out the wellhead. PUMP. pump station an installation built at intervals along an oil pipeline to contain storage . a packer (q.6 x 10. CASING A sucker-rod pump designed to pump oil up through the casing instead of the more common method of pumping through tubing. A casing pump is run into the well on the sucker rods.

and standing valve are assembled and lowered into the well through the tubing.. 3562. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel. The pumping element is an Archimedes screw housed in a sturdy. GEAR A type of rotary pump made with two sets of meshing gears. SCREW An oil well pump operated by a shackle-rod line. When lowered to its pumping position. fluid is taken in the suction port and forced out the discharge port. often of high viscosity. Z. 3563. As the gears rotate. PUMP. rotary pump for handling viscous or abrasive liquids. efficiently handle small volumes of fluid. and powered by an electric motor. Gear pumps. and consists either of cups or a mechanical. When rotated on their shafts in the pump housing. they mesh in a rolling action like an old-fashioned clothes wringer. The locking device is a hold-down. at high pressures.mzhelu@gmail. PUMP. PUMP. metal-to-metal seal. A small-volume. 513 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3561. cylindrical body. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3559. See Rocker. a pumping jack. like other rotary pumps. plunger. ROD-LINE PUMP. ROD See Positive-displacement Pump. 3560. the pump is locked to the tubing to permit relative motion between plunger and . POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP.

PUMP. PUMP. SIMPLEX A one-cylinder steam pump used in refineries and processing plants where extra or excess steam is available. operate below the fluid level in the well. pumped. The barrel is installed on the bottom of the string of tubing and is run into the well on the tubing string. pumpability the physical characteristic of a cement slurry that determines its ability to be 514 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3565. operated by rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3564. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3566. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel of the pump is an integral part of the tubing string. in which the barrel moves up and down over the plunger. TUBING See Triplex Pump. as the name implies. SUBMERSIBLJ A bottom-hole pump for use in an oil well when a large volume of fluid is to be lifted. Z. 3569. PUMP. Submersible pumps are run by electricity and. 3567.mzhelu@gmail. directacting pumps with the steam piston connected directly to the pump's fluid plunger. Simplex pumps are . The plunger assembly is lowered into the pump barrel on the string of pump rods. PUMP. TRIPLEX PUMP. TRAVELING-BARREL A downhole pump. instead of the plunger reciprocating in the barrel as in more conventional pumping devices. 3568.

the walking beam on this type unit is short and is not used as a balancing member. Pumped fluid is discharged through the side opening of the tee. . The polished rod works through a stuffing box on top of the tee and in the run of the tee to operate a sucker-rod pump in the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. He supervises any number of wells. CRANK-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its counterweights on the two cranks that flank the unit's gear box. 3574. preparing reports. He is also called a switcher or lease operator. The string of pump rods is balanced by adding sufficient extra iron weights to the heavy cranks. PUMPING UNIT. Z. 3572. gauging. 515 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually a beam arrangement driven by a crank attached to a speed reducer. 3573. and so forth. BEAM-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its well-balancing weights on the walking beam on the end opposite the pump rods. testing. The weights are usually in the form of heavy iron plates added to the walking beam until they balance the pull or weight of the string of pumping rods. ensuring steady production. pumping unit the machine that imparts reciprocating motion to a string of sucker rods extending to the positive-displacement pump at the bottom of a well. T-shaped pipe fitting that is screwed or flanged to the top of a pumping well. pumping tee a heavy-duty steel.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3570. pumper the oil company employee who attends to producing wells.mzhelu@gmail. PUMPING UNIT.

A single-barrel.) See Tool Pusher. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BACKSIDE An arrangement that permits one prime mover (electric or engine) to operate two pumping wells. 3580. Made at the pipe mill under controlled conditions. 3579. tubing. TOOL 516 (See tool pusher. 3577. Petroleum Engineer: M. PURCHASER PRORATIONING PURIP.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3575. PUMPING. Short sections of well tubing made to American Petroleum Institute standards. or casing shorter than 30 ft. 3576. pup joint PUP JOINTS. small-volume plunger pump actuated by the to-and-fro motion of a shackle-rod line and an attached counterweight.mzhelu@gmail. from the bottom of the well to the tubing hanger in the wellhead. it takes in fluid (the suction stroke) as the counterweight pulls the plunger back from the pumping stroke. The hook up is such that the load on one well counterbalances. See also Central Power. pusher PUSHER. 3581. the upstroke load of the other well. Pup joints come in different lengths to make up a string of tubing of the proper length. JERKER See Pipeline . also Gang Pusher. API a length of drill pipe. Jerkers pump small volumes but can buck high pressure. Z. 3578. The jerker pumps on the pull stroke of the rod fine. the short joints are of the same quality as the rest of the tubing.

sucker rods. and bottomhole pump in . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a tough. 3587. petroleum-derived plastic that can be extruded or molded and is used for pipe. especially above the range of mercury thermometers (e. and temperature analysts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3582. Pit Volume Totalizer. pressure. and temperature analysis). and temperature. a well. PVC is highly resistant to salt water and chemicals. 3583. durable. (See pressure. 517 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3588. light structural members.. See Kerogen and Kerogen Shales. PVT analysis PYROBITUMEN pyrometer pressure. 3585. to install a pump jack or pumping unit. the exhaust temperature of an engine). PVT 1. PVC Polyvinylchloride.mzhelu@gmail. 3586. 2. volume. an instrument for measuring temperatures. volume. put a well on put on the pump to start a well flowing or pumping.volume.g. Z. fittings.


3591. 3592. 3593. ball valve. a common component in igneous metamorphic. Short for quadrillio 1. A butterfly valve with its disk that rotates on a shaft or trunion in the valve body also is opened and closed with a quarter turn of the handle. Turn of the handle.mzhelu@gmail. Qtz Qtze Quad Quarter-tjrnvalve quartz. 3590.000 trillion. quartzite. and sedimentary rocks. A plug valve. Quench to rapidly cool heat-treated metal by immersion in an oil or water bath. Quartz a hard mineral composed of silicon dioxide. 3594. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . A valve made with a plug or Sphere with a full-bore opening on the horizontal axis that can be opened or Closed with a quarter or 90'c. 519 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3595. or butterfly valve. used in drilling reports. which is used as a thinning agent for drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3589. Quebracho a south american tree that is a source of tannin extract. used in drilling reports.

com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3596. An instrument or document releasing a certain interest in land owned by a grantor at the time the agreement takes effect.mzhelu@gmail. . The key phrase of a quitclaim is " . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng." 520 Petroleum Engineer: M. To release. .) Used in steel mills to cool 3597. 3598.v. Quicklime Quitclaim unslaked lime (calcium oxide). and forever quitclaim all right. and interest in the following described land. remise. hot metal. Quench oil A specially refined oil with a high flash point (q. Z. Chemical symbol is cao. title.

Rack pipe 1. Racking board A platform high in the . Rack pricing Selling to petroleum jobbers or other resellers at f. To place pipe withdrawn from the hole on a pipe rack. Rabbit A plug put through lease flow fines for the purpose of clearing the lines of foreign matter. 3600. R R&d degrees rankine.) Research and development. 3602. (see rankine temperature scale. Z. 3601. See pilot plant. See pig. cash and carry at the refinery's loading dock.o. Radial flow the flow of fluids into a wellbore from the surrounding drainage area. with the customer picking up pipeline or other transportation charges. where the derrick man Stands when racking tubing being pulled from the well. The price of petroleum products at the refinery loading rack. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3605. To stand pipe on the derrick floor when coming out of the hole. water and to test for obstructions. At the refinery.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3599. See also tubing board. 2. 3604. 521 Petroleum Engineer: M. on well-service rigs. often used to denote a function up to the stage where the commercial potential of a process or technology can be Evaluated. 3603.

or thorium) of releasing alpha panicles. or gamma particles as the substance spontaneously disintegrates. Radioactivity the property possessed by some substances (as radium. also known as a radiation log. 3609. A radioactivity . 522 Petroleum Engineer: M. Radioactive Radioactive tracer exhibiting radioactivity. 3607. beta particles.mzhelu@gmail. Z. a radioactive material (often carnotite) put into a well to allow observation of fluid or gas movements by means of a tracer survey. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The two logs may be run simultaneously in conjunction with a collar locator in a cased or uncased hole. Both indicate the types of rocks in the formation and the types of fluids contained in the rocks. 3610. Radioactivity well logging the recording of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3606. Radioactivity log a record of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations. normally consists of two recorded curves a gamma-ray curve and a neutron curve. Radiation logging Radiator (see radioactivity well log gang.) 3612. 3611. uranium. 3608. (see radioactivity well logging.) an arrangement of pipes containing a circulating fluid used for heating an external object or cooling an internal substance by radiation.

pipe rams. Z. raffinate is that portion of the oil being treated that remains undissolved and is not removed by the selective solvent. 3614.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3613. or shear-may be installed in several preventers mounted in a stack on top of the wellbore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. pipe. greens. Ram preventer Ram. Ram the closing and scaling component on a blowout preventer. seal around the pipe. 3618. and reds) imparted to the surface of water by a thin film of crude oil. 3617. shear rams cut through drill pipe and then form a seal. It is also called a ram preventer. One -of three type-sblind. 523 Petroleum Engineer: M. Raffinate In solvent-refining ." 3615. permitting the upper section to be removed from the bop stack. Blind rams. A closure mechanism on well's blowout preventer stack fitted with chisel like jaws that are hydraulically operated. Rainbow (1) the irridescence (blues. when closed. (2) the only evidence of oil from an unsuccessful well. 3616.shear ram blowout periventer. when closed. When the ram is closed on the Pipe the jaws or blades cut the pipe."just a rainbow on a bucket of water. form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it. Ram blowout preventer a blowout preventer that uses rams to seal off pressure on a hole that is with or without pipe.

60' and boils at 671. water freezes at 491. before running the fishing tool.) 3622. Rat hole (1) a slanted hole drilled near the well's borehole to hold the kelly joint when not in use.v. Ratable take (1) production of oil and/or gas in such quantities that each landowner whose property overlies a producing formation will be able to recover an equitable share of the oil and/or gas originally in place beneath his land. On the rankine scale. 3621. a temperature scale with the degree interval of the fahrenheit scale and the zero point at absolute zero. 3623. Range oil Rankine temperature scale Kerosene-type product used in old kerosene stoves or cooking ranges.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3619. The kelly is unscrewed from the drillstring and lowered into the rat hole as a pistol into a scabbard. Range length a grouping of pipe lengths. (see absolute temperature scale. (2) production in accordance with allowables set by a state regulatory commission. 3624.69'. to reduce the size of the box or collar on the lost tool. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (3) in 524 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.). (2) the section of the borehole that is purposely deviated from the vertical by the use of a whipstock (q. Rasp a mill used in fishing operations. Api designation of range lengths are as follows- Range of stability the maximum angle to which a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig may be inclined and still be returned to its original upright . 3620.

and made up into the string. . The length to be added is placed in the rathole.v. Rathole 1. Rathole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. 3629. Gas straight from the well before the extraction of the liquefied hydrocarbons (gasoline. Rate of penetration (ROP) a measure of the speed at which the bit drills into formations. Z. usually expressed in feet per hour. lined with casing that projects above the floor.mzhelu@gmail. 2.) And common purchasers of gas and oil are prohibited from discriminating in favor of one supplier over another. 3627.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering some states. Raw gasoline gasoline extracted from wet natural gas. pulled out of the rathole. 3630. A hole in the rig floor 30 to 35 ft deep. made up to the kelly. to reduce the size of the wellbore and drill ahead. 3628. wet gas. 525 Petroleum Engineer: M. butane). common carriers (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3626. A hole of a diameter smaller than the main hole that is drilled in the bottom of the main hole. Raw crude Raw gas a crude oil before it is refined. into which the kelly and swivel are placed when hoisting operations are in progress.

) Reclaimed oil (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the product of gas processing plants that is sent on to fractionating plants for the separation of the various components. Rdx Re-refined oil Ream (see cyclonite. 3636.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3631.). propane. Reamers are run on the drillstring and are built with cutting blades or wheels that can be expanded against the walls of the hole. 3633. See field butanes. 526 Petroleum Engineer: M. Raw mix A stream of mixed components . a milling tool used to cut the casing downhole. a wellbore will cave in). 3634. 3637. hexane. to enlarge the wellbore by drilling it again with a special bit. and others. Reboiling is a process of reworking a part of the charge in a distilling column to ensure more complete fractionating. Often a rathole is reamed or opened to the same size as the main wellbore.mzhelu@gmail. Reaming An operation to restore a wellbore to its original diameter (occasionally. 3635.v. 3632. Z. Reboiler A refinery heater that reheats or reboils a part of a process stream drawn off a distilling column and then is reintroduced to the column as a vapor. Reamer A toot used to enlarge or straighten a borehole.

They handle relatively small volumes but do so at high pressures. and sold for reuse. is collected.v. 3640. Reciprocation a back-and-forth movement (as the movement of a piston in an engine or 3642. re-refined. pump). a positive displacement compressor. 3641. 3639.). The pistons or plungers move forward and backward alternately drawing in fluid into the cylinders through the suction valves and discharging the liquid through discharge valves into a pipeline. after a period of service. used in drilling reports.v. 527 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Reciprocating compressors are used extensively in the transmission of natural gas through . Rec Reciprocating compressor recovered. Reciprocating pumps are used extensively in the field and at refineries for moving crude oil and products. a type of compressor that has a mechanism functioning as a check valve to separate the high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction. Large volumes of oils as are moved in trunk or main lines are pumped with large high-speed centrifugal pumps (q. Reciprocating pump A pump with cylinders and pistons or plungers for moving liquids through a pipeline a plunger pump (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3638. Reclaimed oil Lubricating oil which.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.).

Hibited. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rectifier bed A source of electric current for protection against corrosion of pipelines. Metal corrosion is a chemical action which produces minute quantities of current that normally flows away from the metal into the ground. It is driven by a clockwork . 3647. Recovery factor the percentage of oil or gas in place in a reservoir that ultimately can be withdrawn by primary and/or secondary techniques. Using a source of ac electric current. 3646.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3643. Z. and other metal installations buried or in contract with the earth. vacuum. produced. Recoverable Reserves That part of the hydrocarbon volumes in a reservoir that can be economically 3645. the corrosion is in. Recovery the total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated to be produced from a well or field. voltage) on a paper form.mzhelu@gmail. the percentage of the oil or gas in place (expressed in stock-tank barrels or in thousands of cubic feet) that will ultimately be recovered. By reversing the flow of electric current. tanks. the rectifier installation converts the ac to dc (direct current) and allows the dc to flow into the metal to be protected. 3644. Recording gauge a device that provides a chronological record of gauge indications (as by tracing values of pressure. 528 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3656. water-base mud containing caustic soda and tannates to which lime has been added. Red bed a layer of sedimentary rock that is predominantly red.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3648. Z. Red-lime mud a clay. Reducing flange Reducing nipple a flange fitting used to join pipes of different diameters. a pipe fitting that is threaded on both ends and decreases in diameter from one end to the other. Reduced crude oil Crude oil that has undergone at least one distillation process to separate some of the lighter hydrocarbons. 3 3652. 3655. 529 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3649. 3650.mzhelu@gmail. Recycling (gas) Injecting gas back into a formation to maintain reservoir pressure so as to produce a larger percentage of oil from the formation. especially one of the permian or triassic age. 3654. Reducing elbow a fitting that makes an angle between two joints of pipe and that decreases in diameter from one end to the other. Reducing tee a t-shaped pipe fitting with openings of two different . 3653. Reducing crude towers its api gravity.

A notable example of reentering was that of the deep Sea drilling program by the scripps institution of oceanography when the crew of 530 Petroleum Engineer: M. run through straightening mandrels inspected. Redwood viscosity a unit of viscosity measurement obtained when using a redwood viscometer. Reeled tubing A well-service tool used in well workovers. Reentry To reestablish contact with the well's borehole in offshore waters. usually limestone.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3658. 3661. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 3659. The one-inch or so flexible tubing is carried on a larger spool mounted on a specially equipped truck. It is the standard of viscosity measurement in great britain. it is unspooled. Reel barge A pipe-laying barge equipped with a gigantic reel on which fine pipe up to 12 inches in diameter is spooled at a shore station. The tubing is inserted in the well through the wellhead valves and is used basically for i rushing out the well and reestablishing a circulating path. 3660. made up of the skeletal remains of animals. To lay the pipe. requiring pressure maintenance techniques to sustain production. 3662. Z. after having moved off location because of weather or other reasons halting Drilling operations. Reef reservoirs are often characterized by high initial production which falls off rapidly. expressed in seconds. and paid out over the stern of the barge in the manner of a . Reef A type of reservoir trap composed of rocks.

Reeve to pass (as the end of a rope) through a hole or opening in a block or similar 3664. 3669. 3667. 3668.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the drillship glomar challenger reentered the hole nine times while drilling in 14. the physical plant and attendant equipment used in the process of refining. but it consists essentially of the same paraffin hydrocarbons as natural gas plus olefins (as propylene. the gas produced from certain petroleum refinery operations (as cracking or reforming). Reeving a line To string up a tubing or other line in preparation for hoisting.mzhelu@gmail. A marketer of gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See acoustic reentry. 3663. 3665. The composition of refinery gas varies in accordance with the process by which it is produced. Z. Refine Refiner-marketer Refinery Refinery gas to manufacture petroleum products from crude oil.000 feet of water in the atlantic. 531 Petroleum Engineer: M. Reeve the line to string a wire-rope drilling line through the sheaves of the traveling and crown blocks to the hoisting drum. to run a fine from the winch up and over a sheave in the crown block and down to the derrick floor 3666. . and ethylene) not found in natural gas. device. and/or heating oils who operates his own refinery.

com . basic r(@fining unit that is transportable by lowboy trailer to locations where low-grade or straight-run gasoline and diesel fuel are needed and a source of crude oil is available. Regenerator A refinery vessel into which inactive or spent catalyst is pumped to egenerate it. Regular cement (see common cement. Reforming processes The use of heat and catalysts to effect the rearrangement of certain of the hydrocarbon molecules without altering their composition appreciably. to burn off the coating of carbon or coke. Air at a temperature of 1. Is mixed with the spent catalyst. the conversion of low-octane gasoline fractions into higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished gasoline also the conversion of naphthas to obtain more volatile product or higher octane number. skid-mounted A small. 3672. 3674. Z. Refinery. causing the oxidation of the carbon leaving the catalyst clean and regenerated.) 532 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3670.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.100 f. For example. 3671. such a midget "distillation system" can be trucked to a remote drilling site and can supply fuel for diesel drilling engines and gasoline for auxiliary equipment. Registered breadth the width of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig or a ship measured at its points of greatest width and used to determine its registered tonnage. 3673.

.) Petroleum Engineer: M.v. 3676. the specific designation. 3677. is named after the man who designed the test apparatus for measuring vapor pressure (q. relative permeability is used to express the permeability of the rock to each fluid. Released oil Under the emergency petroleum allocation act of 1973. Relative permeability the effective permeability divided by the absolute permeability. When a rock is saturated with more than one fluid. Release a statement filed by the lessee of an oil and gas lease indicating that the lease has been relinquished. At absolute humidity) at a given temperature and pressure. Relative humidity the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount it would contain if completely saturated (i. Reid vapor pressure A measure of volatility of a fuel.e. Relief valve 533 (see pressure-relief valve. 3679. released oil could be sold at free market prices.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3675.mzhelu@gmail. its ability to vaporize. Unlike old oil. 3680. released oil is old oil production equal to any volume of new oil produced. 3681. 3678. Z. Regulator a device that reduces the pressure or volume of a fluid flowing in a line and maintains the pressure or volume at a specified rate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Reid vapor .

com . a well drilled as close as possible or prudent to an out-of-control well and into the same formation in order to vent off or relieve the flowing pressure of the blowout so that the wild well may be brought under control. 3685. Z.mzhelu@gmail.v. A killer well (q. placed some distance away from the rig so that they can be operated without personnel present on the rig floor. and so forth at a point distant from where the indications are actually taken. Remote reading gauge an instrument that provides indications of pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Remote bop panel a set of controls used to open and close the blowout preventers.). This procedure is necessary when a kick is being circulated out of a well. 534 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3686. vacuum. delay Payment of a sum of money by lessee to the lessor to delay the drilling of a 3687. Remote choke panel a set of controls. 3684. Repeater station An electronic installation. Part of a surveillance and control system for offshore or other remote production operations. voltage. Rental. usually placed on the rig floor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3682. that is manipulated to control the amount of drilling fluid being circulated out through the choke manifold. Relief well A directional well drilled near an out-of-control or burning well to kill the well by flooding the formation with water or drilling mud. well. 3683. In some instances more than one relief well is drilled to reduce the flow of the blowing well.

Repressure gas Gas purchased for injection into an underground formation. See recycling (gas). for maintaining reservoir . a standby pit containing already-mixed drilling mud for use in an emergency when extra mud is needed. 3689. 3693. 3690. This secondary recovery technique used to increase the reservoir pressure in order to recover additional quantities of oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3688. or water) to effect greater ultimate recovery. waves.mzhelu@gmail. See service well. Repressure to increase or maintain reservoir pressure by injecting a pressurized fluid (as air. and other forces of nature or when the vessel is subjected to accidental flooding. gas. Reserve pit An excavation connected to the working mud pits of a drilling well to hold excess or reserve drilling mud. 3691. currents. a reservoir. Reserve buoyancy the buoyancy above the waterline that keeps a floating vessel upright or seaworthy when the vessel is subjected to wind. Reserves pl the unproduced but recoverable oil or gas in place in a formation that has been proved by production. 3692. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 535 Petroleum Engineer: M. Repressuring operation The injection of fluid into a reservoir whose pressure has been largely depleted by producing wells in the field.

gas and water encroachment. thermal recovery of oil. By various means. Reservoir A porous. simulates petroleum reservoirs. 3697. and rock samples. one who advises production people on matters relating to petroleum reservoirs estimating and determining effects of reservoir pressure drops. for example. 3695. and feasibility of secondary and tertiary recovery programs.mzhelu@gmail.v. Reservoir engineer A petroleum engineer. permeable sedimentary rock formation containing quantities of oil and/or gas enclosed or surrounded by layers of less permeable or impervious rock.000 feet high.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is equal to the shut in pressure (at the wellhead) plus the weight in pounds of the column of oil in the hole. The hydrostatic pressure exerted by a column of oil 5. It is necessary also in projects such as water-flooding.). Using data from wells in the area. Z. In a 536 Petroleum Engineer: M. Reservoir modeler A reservoir engineer or geologist who. This is accomplished with inferences based on an assumed continuity of the data in hand. test-hole findings. would be several thousand pounds.).com . rates of production. The work of the reservoir modeler is important in producing a field at the maximum efficient rate (mer) (q. a stratigraphic trip (q. a structural trap. and hydraulic fracturing. the modeler projects and expands his information beyond what is known and provable into 'he realm of the conjectural. seismic information. changes in gas-oil ratios. Reservoir pressure The pressure at the face of the producing formation when the well is shut in.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3694. 3696. cores.

Reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3700. migrated and accumulated in reservoirs. See tail gas. the natural energy by which reservoir fluids are caused to flow out of the reservoir rock and into a wellbore. 3698. Residue gas Gas that remains after processing in a separator or a plant to remove liquids contained in the gas when produced. 3699. water-drive Reservoir-drive mechanism See water-drive reservoir. limestone and other permeable formations into which petroleum.mzhelu@gmail. allowing the gas to expand and provide the driving energy. Z. 3703. the reservoir pressure would be sufficient to overcome the pressure of the hydrostatic head. 3702. formed cons ago. pressure is reduced. Reservoir rocks Sandstone. Water-drive reservoirs depend on water pressure to force the hydrocarbons out of the reservoir and into the wellbore. Resid market Residual fuel Residuals The market for residual oils black oils market. as the reservoir is produced. Gas drives depend on the fact that. 3704. heavy black oils used in ships boilers and in heating plants.) A term used to describe oils that are "leftovers" in various refining processes. (see residuals. 537 Petroleum Engineer: . 3701.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering flowing well.

and portland cement that provides an improved cement bond. It is used to close off the annular space between tubing or drill pipe and casing to allow the placement of cement or fluid through the tubing or drill pipe at any predetermined point behind the casing or liner. tar-like substance remaining after all useable fractions have been distilled off.) That is used to prolong the thickening. (see cementing materials. The "bottom of the barrel. because its high cost prohibits its use for routine cementing of casing. conductivity. around the shoe. a heavy. Residuum What is left after crude oil been refined to extinction.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3705. setting. lime. 3709. etc. It is mainly used in remedial operations. 3706. 3707. Retarder a chemical compound (as gypsum. Retainer a cast-iron or magnesium drillable tool consisting of a packing assembly and a back-pressure valve. sodium . Retarded cement a cement in which the thickening time is extended by adding a chemical 3710. or hardening time of oil-well cements. Z. or into the open hole around the shoe. Resin cement an oil-well cement composed of resins.mzhelu@gmail. water. black.) 538 Petroleum Engineer: M. Resistivity the electrical resistance offered to the passage of current." literally. retarder. the opposite of 3708. the opposite of an accelerator. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

the gas condenses to form a liquid instead of the usual pattern of liquid changing to gas.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3711. . the formation of liquid droplets in a gas as the well is produced and the pressure drops." As liquefaction occurs. item of equipment. Retractable bit a bit that can be changed by wireline operations without withdrawing the drill string. . or operating plant something new for the sake of efficiency. as a result. Lewis gas plant was retrofitted with automation . instead of expanding to form a gas. the formation rock is "wet" by the condensate which is then not as recoverable as when it was in a gaseous state. 3712. Z. e. or increased safety. 3714. when pressure is decreased. To retro (go back) and i it or make a change or refinement in the original item of equipment or plant.g. 539 Petroleum Engineer: M. Hence the term "retrograde gas condensate. Field tests have indicated its economic feasibility. El-Helu E-Mail: . As the pressure is reduced. Retrofitting To modify or add to an engine." After years of hand operation the plant was modernized and made more efficient. but its practicability is undetermined. "the ft. Some hydrocarbons exist naturally above their critical temperature in the reservoir. better performance. they condense to form a liquid. 3713. . Retrograde condensation in reservoir mechanics. Retrograde gas condensate A liquid hydrocarbon (condensate) formed in deep formations as the reservoir pressure is reduced through production of natural gas..

Return bend a u-shaped section of piping that connects two other pipes parallel to each 3716. the solvent (water) diffuses through the manmade membrane leaving the salt and other contaminants behind. other. Reverse osmosis A process used in the industry for removing salt and other contaminants from water. A ball is then pumped down to cause the drilling fluid 540 Petroleum Engineer: M. A junk basket (q. washing the junk back up into the junk basket. . Reverse emulsion a relatively rare oil-field emulsion composed of globules of oil dispersed in water.) Is lowered into the hole. In reverse osmosis. just above the junk to be retrieved. 3719. A technique used in fishing for "junk" in the bottom of the well's borehole.v. 3720. the diffusion through a semipermeable membrane of a solvent leaving behind the solute or dissolved substance. Returns Reverse circulation pl the mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3715. Z. cuttings. and so forth that circulate up the hole to the surface. The process uses the phenomenon of osmosis.mzhelu@gmail. and through ports in the sides of the basket the drilling mud is jetted to the bottom of the hole and back into the open end of the tool. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Reverse-circulation junk basket a special junk basket that is lowered into the hole to a position over the junk with normal circulation. Most oil-field emulsions consist of water dispersed in oil. 3718.

is detonated in the bottom of the hole. See doodle bug. Z. 3724. if conditions warrant.v. Casinghead gasoline. 3723.e. A small charge of nitroglycerine. 3725. the study of the flow of gases and liquids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to exit through nozzles in the tool so that reverse circulation occurs and creates a vacuum inside the tool so that the junk is sucked into it. 541 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 3722. Rich gas Natural gas containing significant amounts of liquefiable hydrocarbons. RFT Repeat Formation Tester.). of special importance to mud . i. And switches. wands. the well may be hydraulically fractured to open new cracks and fissures in the formation. cleaning out an accumulation of sand and silt from the bottom of the well.. In addition to removing or washing out sand and silt accumulations.) To restore production where it has fallen off substantially or ceased altogether. Reverse-pressure perforating Reworking a well (see perforate under-balanced. butane. oil and/or other fluids over a reservoir interval.. a squib shot (q. A high resolution down hole logging tool which records reservoir pressures at multiple points in a well and may on occasion be configured to obtain several small samples of gas. 3721. Wet gas. Propane. engineers. Or. etc. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rhaboomacy Rheology The "science" of divination by rods.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3727. 3731.). bolts. 3730. a person who built derricks on the spot out of rig timbers and lumber on which he used crosscut saws. (1) a drilling rig (q. Large semisubmersibles anchored miles at sea with hundreds of workers.mzhelu@gmail. and the adz to fit the wood to his pattern. and sand lines) used in the construction of the standard cable-tool rig. Z. (2) a large tractor-trailer. Steel derricks are erected by bolting parts together. axes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3732. guy wires. the area immediately above the substructure on which the drawworks. Rig floor the area immediately around the rotary table and extending to each corner of the derrick or mast. (2) originally. 3729. are much 542 Petroleum Engineer: M. (rod) a vessel used in gas-processing plants to remove methane from rich . 3728. 3733.v. rotary table. One who Rig manager supervises all aspects of offshore rig operation. and so forth rest. augers. Rich oil Rich-oil demethanizer Rig a lean oil that has absorbed heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas. Rig irons pl the metal parts (with the exceptions of nails. Rig builder (1) a person whose job is to build or (in a modern context) to assemble a derrick. hammers.

The register. equipment. roughcut timbers used in the trade by rig builders when derricks were built rather than assembled. A second joint is then added and the rotary is raised to the top to turn and push down on the second joint. drilling engines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. As the drillpipe and bit are rotated. Rig. Z. 3736.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering like a small town engaged in drilling a well in hundreds of feet of water. but the rig is practical only for drilling holes 10 about 3.500 feet in relatively soft formations. tenders and drilling barges-deployed around the world. push-down A drilling rig which is a modification of rigs used by the mining industry and for drilling water wells. The rig manager is the resident boss of this floating microcosm. whether self-propelled or towed. 3734. with the rotary and its pipe-turning mechanism on top of the first joint of drillpipe 30 feet or so up in the a-frame. the pipe is pushed downward hydraulically until the first joint is in the hole and the rotary is at floor level. a modern jane's fighting ships as it . The drillpipe is supported within an a-frame. was introduced by the petroleum engineer magazine. drillships. A push-down rig has a conventional mud system. and other pertinent information. somisubmersibles. Rig register A roster of offshore drilling equipment-jackups. platforms. Rig superintendent Rig timbers a tool pusher. 543 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 3737. Large-dimension wooden beams used to support the derrick. heavy. 3735. or other heavy equipment. It is kept current and lists the vessel's or platform's depth capability.

and other obstructions from the right Of way.mzhelu@gmail. municipal authorities. 3739. to disassemble the mud system. 3740. 3741. fill the mud pits. to get all equipment in place ready to make hole dig the cellar and mud pits. government agency representatives for permission to lay a pipeline through their property or 544 Petroleum Engineer: M. The crew also installs access gates in fenced property. Valves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Right-of-way gang A work crew that clears brush. Rig. To prepare to move the drilling rig and associated tools and equipment to another location or to storage. set up the . See dress up crew. and fittings on hand. lay the derrick down (a jackknife or other portable rig). Right-of-way a strip of land usually 50 to 80 ft wide on which permission has been granted by the landowner to construct a pipeline. Also have necessary bits. ss class 2000 Rig-down See ss class 2000 rig. connect the lines of the mud system and set auxiliary equipment. Z. Rig-up To make preparations to drill. to stack the tools. and load up the pipe and fittings and other equipment ready for transport to another well site. rams.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3738. set engines and pumps. timber. 3742. Right-of-way man A person who contacts landowners. 3743. reeve the lines. tubular goods. disconnect the engines.

Ring Ringworm corrosion (see piston ring. 3747. Z. Riser (1) a pipe through which liquid or gas flows upward.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the political subdivision. jackup. See marine riser system. fixed platform. 3 3745. It is also called marine riser. 3746.) a form of corrosion sometimes found in the tubing of condensate wells. Cause of ringworm corrosion his been traced to the upsetting process. 3748. a riser is the casing extending from the drilling platform through the water to the sea bed through which drilling is done. Riser pipe the pipe and special fittings used on floating offshore drilling rigs to establish a seal between the top of the wellbore. or drillship. and highways from the proper authorities. (2) in offshore drilling by . The riser consists of several sections of pipe and includes special devices to compensate for any movement of the drilling rig caused by waves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 545 Petroleum Engineer: M. which is on the ocean floor. It occurs in a ring a few inches from the upset. He also arranges for permits to cross navigable waterways.mzhelu@gmail. railroads. located above the surface of the water. and the drilling equipment. in which heat required in upsetting causes the heated end to have a different grain structure from the rest of the pipe. A riser pipe serves as a guide for the drill stem from the drilling vessel to the wellhead and as a conductor of drilling fluid from the well to the vessel. Normalizing prevents this condition.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3749. River clamps Heavy steel weights made in two halves bolted on screw pipe at each collar to strengthen the joints and keep the line lying securely on the river bottom or in a dredged trench. an aggregate of different minerals. movement. Rivet buster An air-operated (pneumatic) chisel-like tool for cutting off rivet heads. 3754. used in drilling reports. a small angle should be maintained on the flex joint to minimize drill-pipe fatigue and wear and damage to the blowout preventers and to maximize the case with which tools may be run.) running. metamorphic. 3755. used in drilling reports. Rocks are divided into three groups on the basis of their mode of origi igneous. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Usually. 3753.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 546 Petroleum Engineer: M. and sedimentary. Riser tensioner line a cable that supports the marine riser while compensating for vessel 3750.(see ream. Used by tankies when tearing down an old tank or other vessel put together With . 3751. 3752. Rmg Rng Rock reaming. Riser-angle indicator an acoustic or electronic device used to monitor the angle of the flex joint on a floating offshore drilling rig.

3759. An early-day term for a well's shutin or wellhead pressure when all valves are closed and the pressure is observed at the surface. a so-called secondary rock which consists of particles that are fragments of preexisting rocks. 547 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.mzhelu@gmail. metamorphic Rocks formed by the metamorphosis of other rocks. limestone becomes marble.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3756. their character and appearance are changed. Cal action. These factors act to cause recrystallization of the minerals of the rock. When either igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to enough heat. conglomerate. Rock a well to initiate flow by alternatively bleeding pressure from and closing off the casing and tubing of a well that is loaded up. 3761. shales become slates. Rock bit Rock hound Rock pressure (see roller-cone bit. Granite may become Gneisses or schists. Rock. pressure. Rock. 3760. They may range in size from "blocks the size of boxcars down to colloids so fine as to remain in suspension almost indefinitely." The three classes of clastic sedimentary rocks are sandstone.) (slang) a geologist. sandstones become . 3757. clastic One of the categories of sedimentary rock. 3758. and chemi. and shale and mud-stone. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

so on the return stroke the line is kept taut by a counterbalance. Rock. Rod lines can only pull. Z. they can form volcanic cones or spread out in flows or sheets. (2) a sucker rod. a piston rod.mzhelu@gmail. the unit of measure used in buying certain types of pipeline right of way. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pluto. One edge of the box is attached to a fulcrum bearing on which it moves back and forth like a rocking chair. 548 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3764. Rockhound A geologist. operating a pumping . Those rocks that hive reached the surface while still molten are called lavas. 3763. to pull the rod line back after its power stroke. Rod (1) sixteen and one-half feet. from the greek god of the lower regions.igneous Rocks that have solidified from a molten state deep in the earth. a humorous but affectionate colloquialism for a person who Assiduously pursues rock specimens in a search for evidence of oil and gas deposits. 3765.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3762. or they can fill crevices and then solidify as "dikes." Rocks that have solidified deep beneath the earth's crust are referred to as plutonic. Rockers often are in the shape of a box or crate filled with rocks. an engine's connecting rod. Rockers A counterbalance installed on a shackle-rod line. they can be forcibly thrust up between beds of other kinds of rocks in what are called sills. Granite is an example of plutonic rock.

). automatic latch to close the hook opening when weight is suspended from the hook. It has a bail attached to the rod hook to pull or run sucker rods. 3771. swivel hook having a fast-operating.) 549 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see sucker rod. Rod back-off wheel a device used to unscrew rods when the pump is stuck or sanded up and the well has to be stripped out. (see sucker rod. Rod elevator a device used to pull sucker rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Rod hanger a device used to hang the sucker rods on the mast or in the derrick. (see sucker-rod .) a ratchet mechanism actuated by a fixed rod or chain connection with the walking beam of a pumping unit that provides a slow rate of rotation to the rod string. 3772. Rod blowout preventer a ram device used to close the annular space around the polished rod or sucker rod in a pumping well. (see sucker rod. distributing the wear uniformly on both rods and tubing. 3767. 3769.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3766. Z. Rod line Rod pump Rod rotor See shackle-rod line. 3768. Rod hook a small. 3770.

Rodjob Rodpump See pulling rods. Rod stripper a device used when rods are coated with heavy oil or when the well may flow through the tubing while the rods are being pulled. 3780. 3778.mzhelu@gmail. 3776. Rodhanger A rack with finger-like projections on which rods are hung when pulled from the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3773. See pump. Rod-line pump Roddagefee See pump. 550 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3774. whiplike motion of the rods in a sucker-rod pumping system caused by vibration of the rod string. 3777. Rod wax Rod whip a paraffin wax that forms on the sucker-rod string. the rapid. a vertical rack for hanging lengths of pumping rods. . It is a form of blowout preventer. rod. The fee paid to a landowner for the easement of a pipeline right of way across his property. 3779. See right of way. jek er. 3775. Right of way is measured in rods (16 1/2 feet) hence the term roddage fee.

Roll atank To agitate a trank of crude oil with air or gas for the purpose of mixing small quantities of chemical with the oil to break up emulsions or to settle out impurities. to roll in the cost of new supplies and facilities for the purpose of arriving at a new rate structure. that are mounted on extremely rugged bearings. They are also called rock bits. Roller bit The rock-cutting tool on the bottom of the drillstring made with three or four shanks welded together to form a tapered body. 3783. 3782. Roll in To include the cost of new facilities. 3786. or cutters.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3781. 551 Petroleum Engineer: M. Roller-cone bit a drilling bit made of three cones. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Roll the angular motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig as its sides move up and down. service. Each shank supports a conelike wheel with case-hardened teeth that rotate on steel bearings. The surface of each cone is made up of rows of steel teeth or rows of tungsten carbide inserts. 3785. . Roll-dampening tanks pl the compartments on a floating offshore drilling rig that are filled with water to offset the tendency of the rig to roll.mzhelu@gmail. and supply as part of the overall cost of operating a company for the benefit of all customers served by a pipeline or other common carrier. 3784.

motor octane number. a measure of a gasoline's antiknock quality determined by tests made on engines running under moderate conditions of speed and load. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3788. The tool is forced into the damaged pipe and. casing and tubing A steel tubular device for opening up and reconditioning buckled. 552 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3790. as it is pushed down and rotated by the drillstring. is a measure of gasoline's antiknock characteristics determined by tests under more severe conditions of load and speed. See octane rating. the series of refers forces the damaged pipe open and restores it to its original diameter and roundness. steel tool with a tapered end has a series of rollers. This procedure was used on larger diameter line pipe-10 and 12-inch-to make up the connection rapidly before the tongs were put on the pipe for the final tightening. 3791. Rolling pipe Turning a joint of screw pipe into the coupling of the preceding joint by the use of a rope looped once around the pipe and pulled by a rope crew. Z. Ron Research octane number. The long.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3787.). or collapsed casing and tubing in the hole. Rootrun The first course of metal laid on by a welder in joining two lengths of pipe or other elements of constructio the stringer bead (q. dented.v. 3789. Roofrock A layer of impervious rock above a porous and permeable rock formation that contains oil and gas. Mon. .mzhelu@gmail.

com . Rotary the machine used to impart rotational power to the drill stem while permitting vertical movement of the pipe for rotary drilling. The bit is fastened to and rotated by the drill stem.) 3794. hook or chain. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and through which the kelly joint moves downward ass drilling Procedes. which permits vertical movement of the kelly while the stem is turning. A device for securing the end of a steel cable into a connecting piece-a clevis. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3792. Rotary helper (see roughneck. A metal cup or socket (like a whip socket) into which The cable end is inserted and which then is feted with molten lead or babbitt. (p. Rotary bushing The metal casting that fits into the master bushing of the rotary table on a drilling well. bushing is turned by the rotary table and the bushing rotates the kelly and drillstring. which also provides a passageway through which the drilling fluid is circulated. the rotary bushing. Additional joints of drill pipe are added as drilling progresses. 3796. Rotary drilling a drilling method in which a hole is drillid by a rotating bit to which a downward force is applied. 3795. The kelly. 3793. v. to turn the kelly bushing. Modern rotary machines have a special component. 3797. Rop Rope socket rate of penetration.mzhelu@gmail.) 553 Petroleum Engineer: M.

also called the mud hose or the kelly hose. The geared rotary pump uses oppositely rotating. maintaining full diameter. pipe. 3802. 554 Petroleum Engineer: M.. Rotary pump a pump that moves fluid by positive displacement. Often in drilling deep. The following reamer trims the hole wall. Rotary rig A derrick equipped with rotary drilling equipment. Z. or tubing to mill away the obstruction.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3798. i. meshing gears or lobes.e. mud pumps. . 3800. or lobes. a modern Drilling unit capable of drilling a borehole with a bit attached to a rotating column of steel pipe. rotary table. hardrock formations the bit will become worn or distorted.mzhelu@gmail. Rotary reamer A rock-cutting tool inserted in the drill column just above the drill bit for the purpose of keeping the hole cut to full diameter. 3799. Draw works. Rotary hose the hose on a rotary drilling rig that conducts the drilling fluid from the mud pump and standpipe to the swivel and kelly. using a system of rotating vanes. Drilling engines. thus cutting less than a full hole. 3801. and auxiliary equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The vaned pump has vanes extending radially from a rotating element mounted in the casing. Rotary shoe a length of pipe whose bottom edge is serrated or dressed with a hard cutting material that is run into the wellbore around the outside of stuck casing.

3805. .mzhelu@gmail.) Rotary slips Rotary table 3804. pl (see slips. closed system that does not require the introduction of additional gas from an 555 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is used mainly in the drilling of formations that have low-pressure. usually installed above the main blowout preventers. effecting a continuous. Z. Rotary tongs Rotating blowout presenter Rotating head pl (see tongs. Rotation gas lift a gas-lift system in which the gas that is injected and subsequently produced is recompressed and reinjected into the well. The rate of penetration through such formations is usually rapid. 3806.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3803. or rotary machine. the head prevents the well from blowing out. high-volume fluids.) a sealing device used to close off the annular space around the kelly when drilling with pressure at the surface. the principal component of a rotary. 3807. A rotating head makes it possible to drill ahead even when there is pressure in the annulus that the weight of the drilling fluid is not overcoming. It has a beveled-gear arrangement to create the rotational motion and an opening into which bushings are fitted to drive and support the drilling assembly. used to turn the drill stem and support the drilling assembly. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) (see rotating head.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. three 8-hour shifts. 3814. Round trip Pulling the drillpipe from the hole to change the bit and running the drillpipe and new bit back in the hole. 3813. and on "trips" operate the pipe tongs breaking out or unscrewing the stands of drillpipe. Roughneck a worker on a drilling or workover rig. Roustabout a worker who assists the foreman in the general work around producing oil wells. floorman. 3811. A roustabout may also be a 556 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3809. subordinate to the driller. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering extraneous source for operation.mzhelu@gmail. It is also called tripping the pipe. On deep wells. standard equipment for digging ditches by hand. the driller's assistants who work on the derrick floor. 3812. Roughnecks Members of the drilling crew. except that needed to make up losses in the system. Roundtrip the action of pulling out and subsequently running back into the hole a string of drill pipe or tubing. up in the derrick racking pipe." as it is more commonly called. A long-handled shovel. may take 24 hours. tend the drilling engines and mud Pumps. or rig crewman. usually on the property of the oil company. 3810. round trips or "a trip. sometimes called a rotary . Round-point shovel A digging tool whose blade is rounded and tapers to a point in the center of The cutting edge.

the right or prerequisite of the king to receive a percentage of the gold or silver taken from the mines of his realm. Today. 557 Petroleum Engineer: M. This is the basic form of royalty. Originally. Z. 3816. the 1andowner usually any consideration received or to a lessor on the execution of a lease in excess of the customary one-eighth royalty is called a bonus or royalty bonus. the company is out only the cost of the well and any seismic or other exploratory expenses. Royalty A share of the minerals (oil and gas) produced from a property by the owner of the property. But as you will note there are variations and "refinements" to the concept of what belongs to the king. Royalty interests as high as 70 and 80 percent of gross production have been offered. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. of front money. Royalty bidding An uncommon practice of bidding on federal leases by offering a high royalty interest to the government on any production discovered on the tract in lieu of the traditional cash . 3817. the sovereign is the landowner who traditionally receives 12 1/2 percent or oneeighth of the oil and gas produced from his land.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering helper on a well-servicing unit or one who does utility work on an offshore drilling rig. In case the lease is unproductive. The advantages to a company bidding royalty interests instead of cash could be a savings in millions of dollar. See landowners royalty. 3815. Royalty bonus Describes an overriding royalty or oil payment reserves by the lessor.

Z. Royalty. 3820. The minimum amount of royalty income a royalty owner is to receive under the lease agreement. fee The lessor's share of oil and gas production. fixed-rate Royalty calculated on the basis of a fixed rate per unit of production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . regardless of his share of actual proceeds from the sale of the lease's production. Royalty. also oil on land owned by a state or a municipality is royally oil. federal. innovator's 558 See innovator's royalty. Royalty oil Oil owned by the government. Royalty. term A royally not in perpetuity but for a definite period of time. 3821. landowner's royalty traditionally one-eighth of gross production free of any cost. Royalty interest. 3819. compensatory Payments to royalty owners as compensation for loss of income which they may suffer due to the failure of the operator to develop a lease properly. 3824. Oil on the outer continental shelf and on federal land is royalty oil. Petroleum Engineer: M. 3822. slate or local. But there are such interests that run only for a specified. Most royally interests are created for a fixed period and so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3823. Royalty.mzhelu@gmail. fixed length of time with no qualifying 'thereafter" clause. without regard for the actual proceeds from the sale of the production. Royalty. guaranteed.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Royalty. 3827. 3831. rotary table. revolutions per minute. used in drilling . used in drilling reports. 3826. 3828. used in drilling reports. which varies from the normal 16@ percent up to 110 percent of the value of the production. 559 Petroleum Engineer: M. shot-in Payment to royalty owners under the terms of a mineral lease which allows the operator or lessee to defer production from a well which is shut in for lack of a market or pipeline connection. landowner's A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on a property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production. Rp Rpm Rt Ruct rock pressure. Z. Royalty. As the value of production increases the percentage of royally also increases to a maximum of 50 percent.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3825. Royalty. 3829. rigging up and cable tools. usually offshore.mzhelu@gmail. 3830. sliding-scale Royalty paid to the federal government on oil and gas production from a government lease.

560 Petroleum Engineer: M. Run A transfer of crude oil from a stock tank on a production lease to a pipeline gathering system for transportation to the buyer's facilities. and so forth. to lower a string of casing into the hole. 3 3835.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3832. 3839. into the hole in preparation for 3840. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rupture disk A thin. a record of the oil transferred from the producer's storage tank to the pipeline. Z. It is the basic legal instrument by which the lease operator is paid for oil produced and sold. drill pipe. with the bit attached. Run a tank Run in Run pipe Run ticket to transfer oil from a stock tank into a pipeline. to go into the hole with tubing. See soft plug. a safety plug.mzhelu@gmail. metal plug or membrane in a fitting on a pressure line made so as to blow out or rupture when the pressure exceeds a predetermined level. drilling. . Run-around Running the tools a platform encircling the top of the derrick Putting the drillpipe. 3836. 3838. running oil from a tank into a pipeline for delivery to a purchaser. 3833.

mzhelu@gmail. 561 Petroleum Engineer: . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3841. Rur Rw rigging up rotary rig. Z. used in drilling reports. This symbol is used in petrophysical calculations to represent the electrical resistivity of formation water. 3842.


S S. 3 3846. (sx) a container for cement. Z. heavy bearing located on top of the samson post to support the walking beam on a circle tool drilling rig or an oil @veil pumping jack 3850. 3844. caustic. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Saddle bearing A broad.mzhelu@gmail. Sacks (bags) contain the following amounts 3848.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3843. a devise for making temporary repairs to a line. ilmenite. barite. 563 Petroleum Engineer: M. bentonite. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. a professional organization of geophysicists engaged in exploration for oil and gas. 3847. The society of exploration geophysicists.E. for stopping the flow of oil or gas from holes or spies in a pipeline. 3849. fitted with a gasket. Ps. Saddle A clamp. S/t Sack sample to . used in drilling . and so forth.G. The clamp conforms to the curve of the pipe and is held in place by u-bolts that fit around the pipe and extend through the clamp. second.

Safety goggles a protective eye covering worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger to the eyes of being struck by flying objects or harmed by corrosive substances. part of the safety joint as well as the tool attached to the @isa remain in the hole and become part of the fish. Safety clamp a device used to suspend a rod string after the pump has been spaced or when the weight of the rod string must be taken off the pumping equipment. 30. 3852.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sae 20. 564 Petroleum Engineer: . Thus. the safety joint permits easy disengagement of the string of pipe above the safety joint.) an accessory to the fishing tool.mzhelu@gmail.v. Sae number A classification of lubricating oils in terms of viscosity only. Safety hat Safety joint (see hard hat. multiviscosity lubricating oil (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3851. He also wears a safety harness (attached to the mast or derrick) to prevent him from failing. If the tool cannot be disengaged from the fish. placed above it. Safety latch a latch provided on a hook or swivel to prevent it from becoming detached 3857. 3855. Z. 3853. 3856. prematurely. Safety platform the monkeyboard or platform on a derrick or mast on which the derrickman works. 3854. sae 1ow. A standard established by the society of automotive engineers.

3863. logs provide an estimate of the relative amounts of oil. 565 Petroleum Engineer: M. Safety valve Sagging See relief valve. pools formed by the intrusion of underlying salt formations into overlying Porous and permeable sedimentary layers creating traps favorable to the presence of oil and gas.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. corrosion-resistant soles worn by oilfield workers to minimize falls and injury to their feet. Safety slide a device normally mounted near the safety platform to afford the derrickman a means of quick exit to the surface in case an emergency arises. Salt dome/salt-plug pool Structural or stratigraphic traps (q.mzhelu@gmail. 3859. the opposite of hogging. 3861. To exit by the safety slide. 3862.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3858. It is usually affixed to a wireline. the distortion of the hull of a vessel when the middle is lower than either end because of excessively heavy or unbalanced loads. Also called a geronimo. Salinity log a special radioactivity well log that is electronically adjusted to reflect gammaray emissions resulting from the collision of neutrons with chlorine atoms in the formations. Z. gas. or chlorine. Safety shoes metal-toed shoes or boots with nonskid.) Associated with rock-salt intrusions. Salinity. or salt water in a formation. the derrickman grasps a handle on it and rides it down to the ground. . one end of which is attached to the derrick and the other end to the surface.

A typical system is composed of collection centers (in which salt water from several wells is gathered). the method and system for the disposal of salt water produced with crude oil. Salt-brine cement Salt-dome storage a cementing slurry whose liquid phase contains sodium chloride.g. propane. leaving them truncated. Healing oils. Z. Saltplug Saltwater disposal See salt dome.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3864. forming traps for petroleum. 3867. brine. Formations above the salt plug are usually arched so that they dip in all directions away from the center of the dome. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and other lp-gases. e. A piercement salt dome is one that has pushed up so it penetrates the overlying sediments. Salt water Salt-bed storage a water that contains a large quantity of salt. Thick formations or underground layers of salt in which cavities are mined or leached out with super-heated water for the storage of petroleum products. 3870. 3866. .mzhelu@gmail.. butane. 3868. Cavities leached out of underground salt formations by the use of superheated water for the storage of petroleum products. a central treating plant (in which salt water is 566 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3869. Especially lp gases. Salt dome a dome that is formed by the intrusion of rock salt into overlying sediments.

especially in cable-tool drilling. Sample log A record of rock cuttings as a well is being drilled. the type of rock being drilled. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3872. Sample bag A small cotton bag with a drawstring to hold rock cutting samples. brought to the surface by the bailer.or corrosion-forming substances).com . Sample Cuttings of a rock formation broken up by the drill bit and brought to the surface by the drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering conditioned to remove scale.mzhelu@gmail. Treated salt waste is injected into a suitable formation). lease. This record shows the characteristics of various strata drilled through. 3873. 567 Petroleum Engineer: M.) And examined by the geologist to identity the formation. location. and disposal wells (in which. Rock samples are collected from the shale shaker (q. etc. Sampler a device attached to a flow line to permit continuous sampling of the oil or gas flowing in the line. Z. The cuttings.v. 3874. Saltwater mud a drilling mud in which the water has appreciable amounts of salt (usually sodium chloride) dissolved in it. 3871. well name. are saved and the depth where obtained is recorded. Each bag with its sample is tagged with identifying information. depth at which cuttings were taken. 3875.

and bs&w content 3878. Sampling the taking of a representative sample of fluid from a tank to measure its temperature. On a cable-tool rig. a geologic trap favorable to the accumulation of oil and . specific gravity. the geologist determines the type of rock and the type of formation being drilled and estimates oil and gas content. 2. In informal usage. Sandstone formation. 3877. The walking beam rests on the samson post on a broad paddle bearing and moves up and down like a child's teeter-totter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. sometimes in the shape of a lens.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3876. vertical limber that supports the well's walking beam (q. 568 Petroleum Engineer: M. The well cuttings obtained at designated footage intervals during drilling. Samson post A heavy. From an examination of these cuttings. the samson post is located just ahead of the band wheel. Other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. one of the more prolific sedimentary rock formations. Samples n pi 1. Sand Short for sandstone.mzhelu@gmail. Small quantities of well fluids obtained for analysis.).v. Sand body A sand or sandstone formation defined by upper and lower layers of impervious rock." 3880. sandwiched between two impervious layers of rock. 3879. Z.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In diameter and several thousand feet long. unconsolidated grains of a producing formation are made to adhere to prevent a well from producing sand but permit it to produce oil and gas. 3885. Sand out to plug a well inadvertently with proppants during formation fracturing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3881.mzhelu@gmail. See gravel packing. or screening effect. 3886. a wire rope used on well-servicing rigs to operate a swab or bailer. Z. . 3882. It is also called screening out. Sand consolidation any one of several methods by which the loose. 569 Petroleum Engineer: M. that allows the proppants to become separated from the fluid instead of being carried away from the wellbore. It is usually 9/16 in. Sand control A technique for coping with sand from unconsolidated (loose.) Sand fill Sand lens Sand line a column of sand that has entered and accumulated in the wellbore. Sanding out is usually the result of a slowed fracture-fluid velocity. 3884. (see lens. unpacked) formations that migrate (drift or wash) into downhole pumping equipment or into the borehole.

3888. sedimentary rock composed of individual grains of sand (commonly quartz) that are cemented together by silica. Sand separator A device for removing "drilled solids. wound. Sandstone is a common rock in which petroleum and water accumulate. Of a .) And by removing most of the abrasive material reduces wear on mud pumps and bits. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. Sand reel a metal drum on a drilling rig or workover unit around which the sand line is 3889." 3892. (oil is also found in limestone. and other porous rock.mzhelu@gmail. shales." pulverized rock and sand. 3890.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3887. sand. iron oxide. and so forth. Impeded or hindered. Sands Common terminology for oil-bearing sandstone formations. Sandstone a detrital. Sanded-up 1. Z. The sand separator is used in addition to the shale shaker (q. from drilling mud. 3891. 2.) In informal or loose usage. Shell pump. More effective than a simple bailer. especially because of sand accumulation. 570 Petroleum Engineer: M. and water from the bottom of the well bore. sludger. other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. under restricted production because of sand accumulation in the wellbore. dolomite. Sand pump A cylinder with a plunger and valve arrangement used for sucking up the pulverized rock. calcium carbonate.

3898. 571 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sat Satellite plant saturated or saturation. a plant that derives its feed stock or raw material from the main processing ." These gas streams are further refined in a facility called by refinery engineers the sats gas plant.v.v.v. Sats gas plant A refiner's term for the part of the refinery that processes gas streams carrying saturates (q. (2) the extent to which gas is dissolved in the liquid hydrocarbons in a formation. 3897. Saturation (1) the extent to which the pore space in a formation contains hydrocarbons or connate water (q. propane. Subsea wells located remote from the production facility and connected to the facility by flowlines. Satellite platform Satellite Wells Production platform (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) To be stripped out of the gases. and others. 3896. used in drilling reports.).). Z. Saturates is a synonym for hydrocarbons whose carbon atoms are "saturated with hydrogen atoms. 3895.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3893. A facility that supports the main processing plant. 3894. butanes. 3899. Saturates Components of refinery-process gas streams methane. ethane.mzhelu@gmail.

and 210 f). . bubble point. 3904.v. consisting basically of a container with a hole or jet of a standard size in the bottom. The time required for the flow of a specific volume of fluid is recorded in seconds at three different temperatures (100 f. Saturation pressure The pressure at which gas begins to be released from solution in oil. 572 Petroleum Engineer: M. the main ingredients of which are derived from petroleum. 3903. Sbm system Sbr Single-buoy mooring system (q. other heavy-duty products. also seconds saybolt universal. 3906. Initials for synthetic butadiene rubber. Saver sub a device made up in the drill stem to absorb much of the wear between frequently broken joints (as the kelly and drill pipe. Scantlings pi (nautical) the dimensions of the structural members in the hull.). Sbr is used in the manufacture of tires. Z.mzhelu@gmail. shoes. Saybolt seconds Saybolt viscometer See seconds saybolt furol.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3900. 130 f. hose.) 3902. See 3901. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.-it is referred to as the saybolt viscosity and written as saybolt second universal (ssu). an instrument used to measure the viscosity of fluids.

Today. 3908.mzhelu@gmail. and spools of welding wire along the pipe being welded. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. keeping batches separated and making arrangements for product input and downstream deliveries. Schlumberger one of the pioneer companies in electric well logging. Scat (welding) rig A rack that carries welding generators. 3913. many companies provide logging services of all kinds. 3912. . 573 Petroleum Engineer: M. pronounced "slumberjay". gas bottles (c02). Automatic welding heads ("bugs") are moved ahead on the pipe as the joints are welded. Z. named for the french scientists who first developed the method. A person in an oil-dispatching office who plans the future movement of batches of crude oil or product in a pipeline system. 3910. Scour Erosion of the seabed caused by the action of waves and currents.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3907. S cop e the ratio of the total length of a mooring line (as on a mobile offshore drilling rig) to the depth of the water. 3909. S cf Scf/d Scheduler standard cubic feet of gas. standard cubic feet of gas per day. See dispatcher. The rig is powered by a small diesel engine.

Z. Scout A person hired by an operator or a company to seek out information about activities of drilling wells in an area. and well potentials. 3918. survey data. Formations encountered.mzhelu@gmail. Scraper trap a specially designed piece of equipment that is installed in a pipeline to launch or receive a pipeline scraper. leasing. or flow lines. Excessive scouring causes spanning. Scraper any device (as a line scraper) that is used to remove deposits (as scale or paraffin) from tubing. 3915. well . Sea lines. 3916. and geophysical reports. If allowed to go uncorrected the Pipeline welds crack or the pipe ruptures from its unsupported weight. Scouting a well Gathering information. rods. 574 Petroleum Engineer: M. about a competitor's well the depth. by all available means. drilling rates and depths. drilling rates. casing. the hanging of a section of the line one to several feet off bottom. 3917.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3914. Scouring The erosion or washing away of the sand/clay covering of a buried subsea pipeline. Subsea lines are inspected for scouring and spanning by side-scan sonar devices or by diver inspection. Scouring caused by sea currents is a serious problem for under. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

plug-like device equipped with scraper blades. pipeline A pig. Scratcher a device fastened to the outside of casing that removes the mud cake from the wall of the hole to condition the hole for cementing. Screen out Screen pipe (see sand out. formed of stiff wire.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3919. a cylindrical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and Other foreign matter from pipelines. Scraper. the scratchier.) a perforated pipe with a straining or filtering device (usually closely wound coils of wire wrapped around the pipe) to allow the flow of well fluids but exclude sand. By rotating or moving the casing string up and down as it is being run into the hole. a screen liner. 575 Petroleum Engineer: M. and toothed rollers used to clean accumulations of wax. wire Brushes. 3920. 3923. The scraper is inserted in the fine at a "trap" (q. removes the cake so that the cement can bond solidly to the formation. It is also called a screen pipe.mzhelu@gmail.v. 3922. rust.) And is pushed along by the pressure of the moving column of Oil. 3921. Z. Screen liner a liner that is perforated and arranged with a wire wrapping to act as a sieve to prevent or minimize the entry of sand particles into the .

and chemical plants to handle highly viscous fluids and as transfer pumps for small volumes of liquid at high . also the Removal of entrained water. etc. Screw packer a packer in which the packing element is expanded by rotating the pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3924. sulfur. matter. traces of other gases and microscopic droplets of water. Screw conveyor A mechanism for moving dry. the screws closely mesh and take in fluid at the suction end of the pump and force it out the discharge port in a continuous stream. solid material pelletized plastics.mzhelu@gmail. Screw pump A rotary pump made with one. Screw pumps and other types of rotary pumps are used in refineries. 3926. 3925. Screw pumps.-from one location to another by means of a helix or screw rotating in a cylindrical conduit. used when it is not desirable to put tubing weight on the packer. Natural gas when it is produced or when it Flows from the well under pressure usually contains impurities. Scrubbing Purifying a gas by putting it. Archimedes thought of it first. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cement. or three screws or spiral members. When rotated on their shafts. 3927. which are small. through a water or chemical wash. 576 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually are driven by electric motors but can be hooked up to gas engines. two. as well as liquid hydrocarbons. Scrubber a vessel through which fluids are passed to remove dirt and other foreign 3928.

scrubbed and dried out. 3935. the penetration of a drilling fluid into a potentially productive formation'. Sd Sdo Sdy Seal Seal-off sand or sandstone.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Before it can be accepted by a gas transmission line. 3933. The metal strip has a locking snap on one end 577 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sealines Submarine pipelines lines laid on the ocean floor from offshore wells to a production platform and to receiving stations onshore. Scrubbing plant A facility for purifying or treating natural gas for the removal of hydrogen sulfide or other impurities. 3932. 3931. 3929. to close off or secure against a flow of fluid.mzhelu@gmail. 3936. thus restricting or preventing the formation from producing. shut down for orders. used in drilling reports. 3934. the gas must be stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons. imprinted with serial numbers. Seals Thin strips of metal. used in drilling reports. used to "seal" a valve in an open or closed posit on. 3930. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. sandy. a trunk . Z. used in drilling reports.

in which a plug of cement is positioned at a specific point in the well and allowed to . Sec Secondary cementing section. having machined contours to fit a matching plug with locking pawls.mzhelu@gmail. Wells are plugged to shut off bottom water or to reduce the depth of the well for other reasons. Seals are used on Tanks in a battery to prevent the undetected opening or closing of a valve. shallow-draft vessels. or permit installation of a flow regulator. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. 3942.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Into which the free end is inserted. Secondary cementing includes a plug-back job. Seamless pipe Pipe made without an axial seam. any cementing operation after the primary cementing operation. locking it securely. Seating nipple a special tube installed in a string of tubing. An offshore loading or unloading facility for large. The terminal is served by filling lines from shore or by smaller. 3938. Seat Seaterminal the point in the wellbore at which casing is set. 3939. See lap-welded pipe. It is used to regulate or shut off flow. anchor a pump. 3940.) 578 Petroleum Engineer: M. pipe made from a billet or solid cylinder of hot steel and "hot-worked" on a mandrel into a tubular piece without a seam. deep-draft tankers. 3941. (see squeeze cementing. Z. 3937.

The mill is attached to the end of the drillstring and lowered into the hole to the point where the casing is to be cut. As the drillpipe is rotated. and other methods to recover additional amounts of oil. its viscosity. The number of seconds required for the flow through is the oil's ssu number. See also seconds saybolt . The Cutter arms are then expanded. Sixty cubic centimeters of an oil are put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through a standardized orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3943. Seconds saybolt universal (ssu) A measurement of the viscosity of a light oil. gas injection. Section mill A downhole cutting tool made with expendable arms used to cut sections out of the casing in the hole. Secondary recovery The extraction of oil from a field beyond what can be recovered by normal methods of flowing or pumping the use of put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through an orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. against the casing wall. A measured quantity of oil usually 60 cubic centimeters. The seconds required to flow through is the oil's viscosity its ssf number. 3946. 3944. 3945. the cutters do their work.mzhelu@gmail. Seconds saybolt furol (ssf) A measurement of the viscosity of a heavy oil. either hydraulically or mechanically. 579 Petroleum Engineer: M.

and so forth. 3951. where much of the rock is sedimentary (as opposed to igneous or metamorphic) and therefore likely to contain hydrocarbons. (1).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3947. 3949. Section of land Sed Sediment One square mile 640 acres. is actually removed by cutting with a mill. Sedimentary Basin A geographical area. and limestone are sedimentary rocks. Seep the natural surface appearance of oil or gas that results when a reservoir rock becomes exposed to the surface. used in drilling reports. sediment. 3953. 3950. usually casing. shale. (2). 580 Petroleum Engineer: M. In geology. basic sediment. Z. Sandstone. such as Scotian Basin. also called tank bottoms. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. sixteen 40-acre . Section milling the process by which a portion of pipe.mzhelu@gmail. 3952. buried layers of sedimentary rock. thus allowing oil or gas to flow out of fissures in the rock. Sedimentary rock a rock composed of materials that were transported to their present position by wind or water. The matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid. 3948.

v. See geophone. 3955. trailed from a geophysical vessel. a seismograph records shock waves set off by explosions detonated in shot holes (q. Segregation drive Seis Seismic sea streamer (see gravity drainage. Vibrations are created by discharging explosives in 581 Petroleum Engineer: M. Seismic shot hole Seismic thuiwper Seismogram See shot hole.) seismograph. used in drilling reports. sound-detecting hydrophones. 3957. a device that detects vibrations in the . harmless electronic or air detonations are set off which are reflected from rock formations beneath the sea floor and picked up by the sensitive. 3960. used in prospecting for probable oil-bearing structures. As used in the exploration for oil and gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3954. 3 3962.) And picked up by geophones (q. See vibrator vehicle. As the vessel moves slowly ahead. A device that records vibrations from the earth. Z. 3959. Seismogrami Seismograph The record produced by a seismographic survey. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.).mzhelu@gmail. 3958. towing a series of hydrophones along the sea floor recording seismic "signals" from underwater detonations. 3956. A cable.v.

com . Seize To stick together. 582 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually with a large hull.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shallow boreholes or by striking the surface with a heavy blow. 3963. a seismograph which measures the movements of the ground. The type and velocity of the vibrations (as recorded by the seismograph) indicate the general characteristics of the section of earth through which the vibrations pass. 3964. The investigation of underground strata by recording and analyzing shock waves artificially produced and reflected from subsurface bodies of rock. Self-elevating drilling unit an offshore drilling rig. as a button to a cylinder from heat and pressure. 3965. It has a mat or legs that are lowered to the seafloor and a main deck that is raised above the surface of the water to a distance where it will not be affected by the waves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as two pieces of metal that have become hot from excesive friction as one piece moves relative to the other.v. to bond or adhere. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Seismometer A device for receiving and recording shock waves setoff by an explosion or other seismic sources and reflected by underground rock formations. 3966.). Seismographic survey Geophysical information on subsurface rock formations gathered by means of a seismograph (q. a jack-up drilling rig.

a small. more correctly. Semisubmersible Semisubmersible drilling rig (see semisubmersible drilling rig. 3969. Also referred to as a spontaneous potential. are equipped with a plug that extends into the firing chamber healed by a torch or by electricity to assist in the ignition of the diesel fuel until the engine is running and up to operating temperature. Z. low-compression diesel hot-plug engine. Living quarters. Semidiesel A misnomer for a diesel-cycle engine whose compression is not highEnough to create sufficient heat to ignite the injected fuel when starting cold. the strip is retrieved.mzhelu@gmail. Semisubmersible rigs are either self-propelled or towed to a drilling site and either anchored or dynamically positioned over the 583 Petroleum Engineer: M. . Semiexpendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metallic strip on which encapsulated shaped charges are mounted. storage space.) a floating offshore drilling structure that has hulls submerged in the water but not resting on the seafloor. Semidiesels or. it is one of the basic curves obtained by an electrical well log. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and so forth are assembled on the deck. hot-head or hot-plug diesels. 3968. (see gun-perforate. After the gun is fired. Self-potential (sp) one of the natural electrical characteristics exhibited by a formation as measured by a logging tool lowered into the wellbore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3967.) 3970.

3978. 3 3976. such as found in corrosion products on casing. Hydrocarbons may be associated with serpentine. 584 Petroleum Engineer: M. which form when the acid contacts scales or iron salts and oxides. Z. a chemical used with an acid in a well treatment to inhibit the precipitation of insoluble iron hydroxides. 3979. (see oil and gas separator. (see dynamic positioning. low-temperature (gas) Separator.) 3974. See lxt unit. See sand . 3973. Serpentine an igneous rock composed in part of hydrated magnesium silicate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering site or both. Separator gas Separator.) 3972. Separator a cylindrical or spherical vessel used to isolate the components in mixed streams of fluids. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3977. but this is unusual. sand Sequestering agent Natural gas separated out of the oil by a separator at the well. Semisubmersibles are more stable than drill ships and are used extensively to drill wildcat wells in rough waters such as the north sea.mzhelu@gmail.-also decanting centrifuge. Senior orifice fitting a one-piece orifice fitting that allows the orifice plate in it to be changed without the flow of gas in the line being disturbed.

sampling. Any small force on the steering wheel activates a hydraulically powered mechanism that does the teal work of turning the wheels. Service well A non-producing well used for injecting water or gas into the reservoir or producing formation in pressure maintenance or secondary recovery programs also a salt-water disposal well. acidizing and shooting are some of the service tools and procedures provided by the numerous service companies that perform specialized work in the oil field. so-called wireline tools such as logging.v. fracturing. An automatic device for controlling large amounts of power with a small amount of force an example of a servomechanism is the power-steering on an automobile.6nism Short for servomechanism (q. 3984. completion. See servomechanism. 3983. Set back to place stands of drill pipe and drill collars in a vertical position to one side of the rotary table in the derrick or mast of the drilling or workover rig.). 3981. 585 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3980. Servomotor A power-driven mechanism that supplements a primary control operated by a comparatively small force. and workover of oil and gas wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Temperature and pressure gauging fishing.mzhelu@gmail. Servo . Service tools A variety of downhole equipment used in drilling. 3985. 3982.

Often auxiliary equipment (as desanders) must be installed to speed this process. the production of a well that has ceased flowing and has been put on the pump. Set casing Set pipe Set up Setback to run and cement casing at a certain depth in the wellbore. setbacks are outside the derrick proper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3986. Settling pit the mud pit into which mud flows and in which heavy solids are allowed to settle out. 3991. Settled production The lower average production rate of a well after the initial flush production (q.) Tapers . to set pipe. mast-type derricks used on land. 3988.) to harden (as cement). 3989.v. On transportable. 3992. 3990. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (see set casing.mzhelu@gmail. The space on the derrick floor where stands of drillpipe or tubing are "set back" and racked in the derrick. Z. 586 Petroleum Engineer: M. Settling the separation of substances because of different sizes and specific gravities of components in the substances. 3987. Offshore drilling platforms often list the stand capacity of their setbacks as an indication of their pipe-handling capability and capacity.

v. used in drilling reports. 3994. 3998. Severancetax A tax levied by some states on each barrel of oil or each thousand cubic feet of gas produced. Seven sisters A term applied to the seven large international oil companies exxon. and mobile of the u. Z. used in drilling reports. texaco. Shackle-rod lines are supported on metal posts (usually made of 2-inch line pipe) topped with wooden guide blocks which are lubricated with a heavy grease. shale. used to connect a central power (q.. 3997. approximately 25 feet long and 3/4 to 1 inch in . 587 Petroleum Engineer: M. standard of califonia. Sg Sh Shackle rod show of gas. The term was first used by enrico mattei then head of the italian government oil company ente nazionale ldrocarburi.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3993. The two overseas sisters. 3995.s.) With a well's pumping unit or pumping jack. Jointed steel rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Sewage-treatment plant a system on offshore locations used to render human and other wastes biologically inert before the wastes are discharged overboard. and british petroleum and royal dutch shell. It is slid that these seven companies control a major portion of production and refinery runs in the free world. 3996. Production tax. gulf.

com . Z. When the shale is heated the resulting vapors are condensed and then treated in an involved process to form what is called shale oil or synthetic oil. 4003.mzhelu@gmail. usually the first pit into which the mud flows after returning from the hole. 4000. 4002. 4001. 4004. Shake out To force the sediment in a sample of oil to the bottom of a test tube by whirling the sample at high speed in a centrifuge machine. Shale A type of sedimentary rock composed of fine particles of older rock laid down as deposits in the water of takes and seas. It is also called a shaker. The size of the openings in the sieve is carefully selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling fluid and the anticipated size of cuttings. Shale oil Oil obtained by treating the hydrocarbon kerogen found in certain kinds of shale deposits. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 588 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3999. After the sample has been whirled for three to five minutes. the percent of bs&w (sediment and water) is read on the graduated test tube. Most shales are compacted mud and consequently do not contain oil or gas in commercial quantities.) the mud pit adjacent to the shale shaker. Shaker Shaker pit (see shale shaker. Shale shaker a series of trays with sieves that vibrate to remove cuttings from the circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations.

v. high-velocity stream of particles (a jet) that penetrates the casing. Sharpshooters are one of the pipeliner's digging tools used for squaring up a ditch or the sides of a bell hole (q.) Term for his mules.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4005. A vibrating screen for sifting out rock cuttings from drilling mud. square-ended shovel used in digging.-and formation. (see gunperforate. cement.). Drilling mud returning from downhole carrying rock chips in suspension flows over and through the mesh of the shale shaker leaving the small fragments of rocks which are collected and examined by the geologist for information on the formation being drilled. 4009. Shales. Upon detonation.) 4008. Quantities of explosives are made in special configurations and detonated at the bottom of the hole against the casing wall to make the perforations. 4010. the charge releases a small. 4007. 4006. 589 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sharpshooter A spade. Shaped-charge perforation A perforation technique using shaped explosive charges instead of steel projectiles to make holes in casing.mzhelu@gmail. a narrow. Shaped charge a relatively small container of high explosive that is loaded into a perforating gun. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. . Shave-tails A skinner's (q.v. kerogen Shaleshaker See kerogen shales.

4015. 4014. A common use for a shear pin is to secure a propeller to a shaft. In other applications. Shear rams are used in mobile offshore drilling operations to provide a quick method of moving the rig away from the hole when there is no time to trip the drill stem out of the hole. Shear pin A retaining pin or bolt or screw designed to shear or give way before damage can be done to the item of equipment it is holding in place. Shear action or stress that results from applied forces and that causes or tends to cause two adjoining parts of a body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. through drill pipe and form a seal against well pressure. (see gel) 590 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4013. 4012. preventing damage to the shaft or other parts of the power train. permitting an element of the tool to assume a predetermined attitude. Should the propeller strike an obstruction. the pin or screw shears. or gel strength.) an instrument used to determine the shear strength. Then when thrust or torque is applied. shear pins or screws are used in downhole tools or equipment to hold a part in position until the tool is landed or in place.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4011. Shear strength Shearometer (see gel strength.mzhelu@gmail. of a drilling fluid. Z. the pin will . Shear rams pl the components in a blowout preventer that cut. or shear. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

4022. Z. 4017.mzhelu@gmail. 4019. Sheave Shell Shepard's canes (pronounced "shiv") a grooved pulley. Shoestring sand a long. thus acquiring the name. usually a buried sandbar or filled channel. the body of a tank. 4018. Shock sub a trade name for a device positioned in the drill stem between the bit and drill collars that absorbs impact loads and vibration from the up-and-down motion of the drill stem. narrow sand deposit. 591 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4016. 4021. the part of a drilling bit on which the cone is anchored. an earth-resistivity meter used to measure the resistance of soil to the passage of electrical . Shipshape drilling rig Shirttail 4020. Shirttails extend below the threaded pin of the bit and are usually rounded on bottom. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Shock subs are designed to transmit torque while absorbing reciprocative loads that decrease the efficiency of the drill bit. drill ship.

(see directional survey. now largely replaced by formation fracturing. detonated in a well to shatter the formation and expedite the recovery of oil. To explode nitroglycerine or other high explosives in a hole to shatter the rock and increase the flow of oil. 4027.v. Short trips may be necessary to raise the drill up into the protective string of casing to avoid having the Drillstring stuck in the hole by a cave-in or sloughing of the wall of the borehole below the protective casing. 4025. Z.mzhelu@gmail. (2). Shot 1. (see seismograph. usually drilled with a portable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4023. Shoot (1).) 2. (see shoot and nitro shooting. usually nitroglycerine. Shot point The shot hole (q. In seismographic work. A charge of high explosive. Short trip Pulling the drillstring partway out of the hole.). Truck-mounted drill. to discharge explosives to create vibrations in the earth's crust. The point at which a detonation is to be made in a geophysical survey.) 4024. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4026. Shot hole A small -diameter . 592 Petroleum Engineer: M. Shooting has been almost completely replaced by formation fracturing and acid treatments. A point at which a photograph is made in a single-shot survey. for "planting" explosive charges in seismic operations.

Z. for example) to extremely low temperature with "dry ice and placing the part in position. samples. a tight "expansion fit" will result. As the oil and water are pumped into the tall column. an expansion fit may be made by cooling a part (a valve-seat insert. Conversely. a shri fit results. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drilling well. Shrink fit An extremely tight fit as the result of "shrinking" one metal part around another. the shotgun serves as a water and sediment knockout vessel. Show of oil A small amount of oil in a well or a rock sample. On a small-production or stripper lease. Show the appearance of oil or gas in cuttings. and as the heated part cools. the water and sediment settles to the bottom. Shotgun tank A tall. A heated part is placed around a companion piece. 4032. or cores. 4029. the oil frees itself from most of the water and floats on top of the water where it gravitates through a take-off line into the stock tanks. The water is drawn off through a "syphon" which may be adjusted to take off only the .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4028. 593 Petroleum Engineer: M. slender tank for separating water and sediment from crude oil. Shrinkage a decrease in oil volume caused by the evaporation of solution gas or by lowered temperature.mzhelu@gmail. 4031. a show of oil usually signifies the well will not be a commercial producer. As it returns to normal temperature. and so forth of a 4030.

A well is shut in when its wellhead valves are closed. There is a great difference between a shut down and a shut in. Shut down Shut down-shut in well to stop work temporarily or to stop a machine or operation temporarily.mzhelu@gmail. shut-in pressure should be zero. 4034. waiting on cement. however. . A shut in well often wit! Be waiting on tankage or a pipeline connection. A well is shut down when drilling ceases. because the pressure exerted by the drilling fluid should be equal to or greater than the pressure exerted by the formations through which the wellbore passes. Z. When drilling is in progress. shut-in pressure should be above zero. which can happen for many reasons failure of equipment waiting on pipe. also describes a well on which the valves have been closed. Shut-in pressure the pressure when the well is completely shut in. Water-producing interval. as noted on a gauge installed on the surface control valves. On a flowing. 594 Petroleum Engineer: M. shutting off production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4033. 4037. producing well. Shut off to stop or decrease the production of water in an oil well by cementing or mudding off the. waiting on orders from the operator etc. Shut in To close the valves at the wellhead so that the well stops flowing or producing. 4035. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

4040. 4044. the well is shut in for 24 hours or even longer. Shutin royalty Payments made when a gas well. 4043.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4038.mzhelu@gmail.) 4042. used in drilling reports. Si (1). See reservoir pressure. Shut in. 595 Petroleum Engineer: M. This type of royalty or some form of rental is usually required to prevent termination of the lease. Shutin pressure Pressure as recorded at the wellhead when the valves p re closed and the well is shut in. (2).com . Systeme internationale. This permits the gas to move out of the formation toward the borehole and build its head of pressure. shut-in casin Sibhp Sicp Side bootacats shut-in bottom-hole pressure.Used in drilling reports. 4041. (see international si metric system. capable of producing in paying quantities. Shutdown rate a rate provision usually contained in a drilling contract that specifies the compensation to the independent drilling contractor when drilling is suspended at the request of the operator. See boomcats. 4039. is shut in for lack of market for the gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To allow the pressure to buildup to its peak. Z.

Lost tools. A method of drilling past obstructions in a well. 4048. Side-door elevators Casing or tubing elevators (q.) With a hinged latch that opens on one side to permit it to be fastened around the pipe and secured for .) 4047.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4045.) Sidetrack to drill around broken drill pipe or casing that has become lodged permanently in the hole by the use of a whip-stock.) Side-pocket mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel. Side-door mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel.v. This can be done with the use of a whipstock (q. (see directional drilling. A hollow bullet is fired into the formation wall to capture the core and then retrieved on a flexible steel cable. the new hole %mil bypass the obstruction and may be taken on down to the pay zone. In diameter and from 3/4 to 1 in. In. pipe or other material blocking the hole. Core samples of this type usually range from 3/4. In length. Sidetracking Drilling of another well beside a non-producing well and using the upper part of the non-producer. By beginning the deviation of the hole several hundred feet above the junk in the original hole. turbodrill. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. i. 4046. Z. a coring technique especially useful in soft rock areas in which @ore samples are obtained from a zone that has already been drilled. A downhole tool which forces the drill bit to drill at a slight angle from the vertical. to 1 3/16. Sidewall core/sample Sidewall coring A sample of rock taken from the wall of the well's borehole. 596 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4049. or other mud motor.e.mzhelu@gmail.).v.

used in drilling reports. Z. Sidewalltap or cock A small-diameter valve inserted in the wall of a tank or other vessel for drawing samples or bleeding off pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sigma Silica flour Society of independent gasoline marketers of america. the attendant opened the valve on the filling hose which permitted the gasoline to gravitate into the vehicle's tank. Sidpp Sieve analysis shut-in drill-pipe pressure. 597 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4050. 4 4053. Sight glass A glass tube in which the height of a liquid in a tank or pressure vessel may be observed. . ground to a fineness equal to that of portland cement. a silica. 4056. 4057. 4055. Gravity pump. sio2. The glass tube is supported by fittings that extend through the vessel wall thus allowing the fluid in the tank to assume a corresponding level in the glass. 4054. When the glass cylinder had been pumped full.mzhelu@gmail. the determination of the percentage of particles that pass through several screens of graduated fineness. Sight pump An "antique" gasoline dispensing system in which the gasoline was pumped by hand into a ten-gallon glass tank atop the pump in plain sight of the customer.

It provides weight so that the tool can be lowered into the well properly. Tungsten carbide inserts are often bonded to the cones of button bits by sintering when the bits are being manufactured. Single Single-buoy mooring system a joint of drill pipe. Z. Single-point mooring Single-shot survey Sinker bar Single-buoy mooring (q. used in drilling .) a heavy weight or bar placed on or near a lightweight wireline tool. 4063.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4058. 4061. 4064.v. thribble. 4060. 4059. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (see directional survey. The sbm system is anchored in deep water thus permitting large tankers to off load or "lift" cargo in areas where it is impractical to build a loading jetty or the close-in water is too shallow for deep-draft vessels. 4062. 598 Petroleum Engineer: M. An offshore floating platform (20 to 35 feet in diameter) connected to Pipelines from the shore for loading or unloading tankers. and fourble. Compare double.). Sinter to bond pieces of metal into a mass of metallic powder by heating them. Sip shut-in pressure.

" a very good well. Packers.g. Sizing scraper A cylindrical. Can be pulled or carried on a truck. and other interested parties who literally sit waiting for the wells drill to bore into what is expected to be the producing formation. Skid the rig to move a rig with a standard derrick from the location of a lost or completed hole preparatory to starting a new hole. on small or marginal wells. 4069.mzhelu@gmail. first rising to a higher level than that of the tube of pipe inlet and then flowing downward and through. Z. 599 Petroleum Engineer: M. There are a number of downhole tools which must be run. 4067. roundness is very . On a "big well. everyone knows when the pay is reached. Sitting on a well The vigil of the geologist.. In casing and tubing which is to be run in a well. 4068. etc. 4066. the geologist may be the only one who recognizes it. Siphon a bent tube of pipe through which a liquid flows. out-of-round pipe is more vulnerable to collapsing pressures encountered in the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4065. Also. The geologist examines the cuttings brought up by the drilling mud to ascertain just when the pay zone is penetrated. plug-like toot that is pushed or pulled through a length of pipe to lost for roundness. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Skidding the rig allows the move to be accomplished with little or no dismantling of equipment. swabs. e. the operator. And if the pipe were out of round the tools and equipment would not go down. pumps. Skid tank A product-dispensing tank mounted on skids or runners.

v. 4 4074. 4075.). Z. (heavy timbers).com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The skimmer is mounted on a skiff or small boat. Skidding the rig Moving the derrick from one location to another without dismantling the structure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4070. and the water is disposed of. into which water with small amounts of oil is pumped. The use of skids. and pumps it into a tank on board.v. Skim pit an earthen pit.) An engine and suction pump on board takes the oil off the top of the water much like a vacuum cleaner. they are folded down to a horizontal position and moved on a large. Skimming plant (1) a topping plant (q. 600 Petroleum Engineer: M. Transportable folding or jackknife rigs are seldom skidded. often lined with concrete. flatbed truck.mzhelu@gmail. Skid-mounted units are usually readily movable by pulling as a sled or by hoisting onto a truck. transporting the rig from a completed well to another location nearby. Skimmer A type of oil-spill clean-up device propelled over the water that sucks or paddles oil into a tank. rollers. and a truck or tractor. Skid-mounted Refers to a pumping unit or other oil field equipment that has no permanent or fixed foundation but is welded or bolted to metal runners or timber skids. The minute quantities of oil are skimmed off the top of the water in the pit. 4072. 4071. As the boat is maneuvered to where the oil has been corralled by an oil-spill boom (q.

mzhelu@gmail. The area of the formation that is damaged because of the invasion of foreign substances into the exposed section of the formation adjacent to the wellbore during drilling and completion. 4077. 4080. was turned into @reeks or accidentally discharged from lease tanks or from broken pipelines. 2. in the early days in some fields. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) a facility built alongside a creek or small stream to catch and skim off oil that. (see skin. The slant rig. The pressure drop from the outer limits of drainage to the wellbore caused by the relatively thin veneer (or skin) of the affected formation. A driller will slack off to put additional weight on the bit. a positive value denotes formation damage and a negative value indicates improvement. 4076. Slack off to lower a load or ease up on a line. 4079. Z.) Skin effect Skinner Slab patch 4078. Skin is expressed in dimensionless units. See half sole. Skin 1. Slant rig A drilling derrick designed to drill from offshore platforms at angles of 20 to 35 degrees from the vertical. 4081. has a 601 Petroleum Engineer: M. canted from the . See mule skinner. A metal patch made out of a section of pipe welded over a pitted or corroded section of pipeline.

and kelly joint-moves up and down on rails which are an integral part of the derrick. particularly in relatively shallow water. Sleeve fitting A collar or nipple that is slipped over a length of pipe to repair a leak caused by a split or corrosion.) 602 Petroleum Engineer: M. When the sleeve is in place. than with a conventional rig using directional drilling techniques. beneath a water-supply lake. Slant holes are drilled to reach a formation or reservoir under land that can not be drilled on. Slick line (see solid wireline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. With a slant rig it is possible to reach farther out from a drill platform. Z. . a cemetery or industrial property where direct. Slant holes also are drilled to flood a formation with water or mud to kill a wild or burning well. See killer well. A procedure for drilling at an angle from the vertical by means of special downhole drilling tools to guide the drill assembly in the desired direction. swivel. such as a town site. on-site drilling would be impractical or unsafe. 4083. The rigs traveling equipment-block.mzhelu@gmail. Slant well Slant-hole technique Directional well. 4082. the ends are welded to the pipe beyond the damaged section. 4085.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering companion structure for racking the drillpipe vertically when coming out of the hole on a trip. hook.

4090. at the end of the boom cat's hoisting lines.) 603 Petroleum Engineer: M. are used to minimize scuffing or damaging the pipelines anticorrosion coating. rubber and fabric sling for lowering-in or handling coated and wrapped pipe. box-like valves for flues and stacks. 4087. a load of earth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. thereby lessening the cost of completion. Sliding-sleeve nipple a special device placed in a string of tubing and operated by a wireline tool to open or close orifices. Slim-hole drilling drilling in which the size of the hole is smaller than the conventional hole diameter for a given depth. the valves are mechanically or hydraulically operated. 4091. Z. thus permitting circulation between the tubing and annulus. pipeline A wide. Slide valves Very large. The slings. (set miniaturized . A full slip would hold about one-half cubic yard. earth-moving scoop. Sling. or to open or shut off production from alternate intervals in a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4086.mzhelu@gmail. Slip A horse -drawn. This decrease in hole size enables the operator to run smaller casing. Slip joint (see telescoping joint. The slip has two handles by which the teamster guides the metal scoop into the ground at a slight angle to skim oil. 4088.) 4089. Teams and slips were used to dig slush pits and build tank dikes before the days of the bulldozer. Made from street steel.

the traveling block and the hook will be lifting hundreds of thousands of pounds. But when one stand is above the rotary table and is being unscrewed to be set back into the derrick's pipe rack. When making a trip. Z. a log-log rule. Slips pl wedge-shaped pieces of metal with teeth or other gripping elements that are used to prevent pipe from slipping down into the hole or to hold pipe in place. Power slips are pneumatically or hydraulically actuated devices that allow the crew to dispense with the manual handling of slips when making a connection. This is a slip load. Slip stick An engineer's slide rule.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a tank where off-specification products or interface 604 Petroleum Engineer: M. coming out of the hole with drillstring 10. 4094. Rotary slips fit around the drill pipe and wedge against the master bushing to support the pipe.v. Packers and other downhole equipment are secured in position by slips that engage the pipe by action directed at the surface. mix is . Sloptank (1) on a products pipeline.000 feet long.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4092. for example. the full weight of the remaining string of pipe is held by the slips. and quite a load it is. an instrument consisting of a ruler and a medial slide graduated with logarithmic scales used for rapid calculations.). Slip load The weight of the string of drillpipe. tubing or casing suspended in the drillhole by the slips (q. 4093. 4 4096.

mzhelu@gmail. 4097. A measured amount of liquid injected into a pipeline. 4101. or other deposits. a batch. . 4100. SLOWING A WELL Opening a well to let it blow for a short period to free the well tubing or casing of accumulations of water. and oxidized oil. sand. grit. Api classes n. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A pipeline scraper or pig. (3) any vessel used for retaining contaminated oil or water until it can be properly disposed of. and f are slow-set cements. 4099. d. see caving) a manufactured cement in which the thickening time is extended by the use of a coarser grind. Sludge An oleo-like substance caused by the oxidation of oil or by contamination with other material a thick.. 4098. 4102. carbon. Z. and the addition of a chemical retarder. heavy emulsion containing water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) at a marine terminal. Sludger Slug See sand pump. Sloughing Slow-set cement (pronounced "sluffing". the elimination of the rapid hydrating components in its composition. A tank for holding the oil water mix from a vessel that has washed down its compartments. 605 Petroleum Engineer: M.

com . 4105. the drilling fluid has been emptied out of it so that the crew members and the rig floor are not contaminated with the fluid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4103. 4104. 4107. When gas and oil are pumped in the same line. thus. A pipeline is the cheapest and most efficient 606 Petroleum Engineer: M. Slurry a plastic mixture of cement and water that is pumped into a well to harden. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Slugging (1) intermittent flow in a pipeline. there it supports the casing and provides a seal in the wellbore to prevent migration of underground fluids. that causes the level of the fluid in the pipe to fall. (2) a small slug of acid pumped into a pumping well to open up the formation as part of a well workover operation. The common use of the term refers to a pipeline carrying pulverized coal in water. it is desirable (if possible) to pump into its top section a quantity of heavy mud. Slugging compound a special chemical demulsifier that is often added to the emulsion samples to determine the total amount of sediment and water in the samples. Slurry pipeline A pipeline whose primary service is carrying a mixture of crushed solids in a water or oil medium. Slug the pipe to pump a quantity of heavy mud into the drill pipe. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 4106. Before hoisting drill pipe. or a slug. when a stand of pipe is unscrewed. the oil will accumulate in low places until sufficient gas pressure builds behind it to push it out forcibly as a slug. also called knockout drops.

kilograms per liter (kg/liter). Z. and mud agitators. notably coil in water. Slurry viscosity Slurry volume Slurry weight the consistency of a slurry. the sum of the absolute volumes of solids and liquids that constitute a slurry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4109. 4113.) 607 Petroleum Engineer: M. measured in poise. 4110. usually fabricated steel tanks fitted with built-in piping. Slush pit the Mud pit in which rotary drilling cuttings are separated from the mud stream or in which mud is treated with additives or temporarily stored before being pumped back into the well.mzhelu@gmail. etc. . expressed in pounds per gallon (ppg). the density of a cement slurry.). Modern rotary drilling rigs are generally provided with three or more pits. pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3). has gained favor with shippers who are attracted by the pipeline's economics and safety. In recent years the pumping of smallparticle solids. 4111. Slush pump (see mud pump. as well as environmental acceptance. valves. Slurry yield the volume of slurry obtained when one sack of cement is mixed with the desired amount of water and additives (as accelerators. fluid-loss control agents. 4112.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering form of transportation for liquids. etc.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Slush-pit launder

A wooden or metal square-sided conduit or sluice box where the bailer is dumped, the water, mud, and rock chips flushing down the launder into the slush pit. This device, a cousin to the launder used in washing ore from a mine, is part of a cable-tool drilling scene.

4115. 4116.

Slushpump Smoke point

Mud pump (q.v.).

One of the specifications on jet-engine fuel. Kerosene or jet fuel with a low smoke point is not as desirable as fuel with a high smoke point. Hydrotreating the fuel reduces the smoke or gives it a higher smoke point. This is not a contradiction, as it appears. The high and low smoke points indicate the high and low points on the wick of a testing device made like an old fashioned kerosene lamp. The higher the wick can be turned up while burning the sample of jet fuel without producing smoke, the cleaner burning it is; thus the high smoke point.


Smokeless flare

A specially constructed vertical pipe or stack for the safe disposal of hydrocarbon vapors or, in an emergency, process feed that must be disposed of. Smokeless flares are equipped with steam jets at the mouth of the stack to promote the complete combustion of the vented gases. The jets of steam induce greater air i low and cool the flame resulting in complete combustion without smoke or ash.


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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering



A member of a work gang who manages to find easy jobs to keep himself busy while the heavy work is being done by his companions. A fully occupied loafer.

4119. 4120.

Snatch block Sng

a block that can be opened up to put a line over a roller or sheave.

Synthetic natural gas; gas manufactured by various processes from coal, tar sands, or kerogen shales (q.v.). Substitute natural gas.

4121. 4122.

Sniffer Snow-bank digging

(see explosimeter.)

Colloquial expression for the relatively soft, easy drilling in sand, shales, or



To check a running line by taking a turn around a post or fixed object; to take up and hold fast the slack in a line to secure or hold on object from moving with an attached rope turned around an anchoring piece.



An ingenious rig-up of lines and blocks to push down on joints of pipe that must be put into the well through the blowout preventer stack against very high well pressure. With a special hookup, the upward pull of the rig's traveling block and hook is transmitted to lines and a yoke that push down on a joint of drillpipe, forcing it by the packing of the rams in the bop stack while 609

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the rams are holding the well pressure leak-light. After a number of joints of pipe are forced in (the joints are screwed together), their weight equals the up thrust of the well's pressure so the snubbers may be removed and the remainder of the pipe



A procedure for servicing wells that are under pressure. Tubing, packers, and other downhole tools are withdrawn from the well through a stack of rams (valve-like devices that close around pipe or tubing being withdrawn and seal off the well pressure). As each joint of tubing is withdrawn, it is unscrewed.



a tank safety device that seals the vapor vent manually and prevents vapor from escaping into a fire, thus snuffing out the flame.

4127. 4128. 4129. 4130.

So S o &g S o &w Socket

show of oil; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and gas; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and water; used in drilling reports.

(1). A hollow object or open device that fits or holds an object. (2). Any of several fishing tools used to grip the outside of a lost tool or a joint of pipe.


Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

(see carboxymethyl cellulose.)

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering


Sodium chloride

common table salt; sometimes used in cement slurries as an accelerator or a retarder, depending on the concentration. Chemical symbol is NaCl.

4133. 4134.

SOEP Soft rope

Sable Offshore Energy Project

Rope made of hemp, sisal. Jute, or nylon, as distinguished from wire rope which is a steel cable.

4135. 4136.

Soft water Softplug

(see hard water.)

A safety plug in a steam boiler, soft enough to give way or blow before the boiler does from excessive high pressure; the plug in an engine block that will be pushed out in case the cooling water in the block should freeze, thus preventing the ice from cracking the block.



The collection of programs used in a particular application for use in a computer. Tapes, cards, disk packs containing programs designed for a process or series of processes.



An electrical unit consisting of a coil of wire in the shape of a hollow cylinder and a moveable core. When energized by an electric current, the coil acts as a bar magnet, instantly drawing in the moveable core, a solenoid on an 611

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automobile's starting mechanism causes the starter-motor gear to engage the toothed ring on



a uniform mixture of two or more substances. The dissolved substance is the solute; the substance in which the solute is dissolved is the solvent.


Solution gas

Natural gas dissolved and held under pressure in crude oil in a reservoir.See solution-gas field.

4141. 4142.

Solution gas-oil ratio Solution-gas drive

(see gas-oil ratio.)

a source of natural reservoir energy, in which the solution gas coming out of the oil expands to force the oil into the wellbore.


Solution-gas field

An oil reservoir deriving its energy for production from the expansion of the natural gas in solution in the oil. As wells are drilled into the reservoir. The gas in solution drives the oil into the well bore and up to the surface.



A liquid capable of absorbing another liquid, gas, or solid to form a homogeneous mixture a liquid used to dilute or thin a solution.



a logging tool assembly, especially the device in the logging assembly that senses and transmits formation data. 612

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Sonic interface-detector

A pipeline sensing "probe" for detecting the approach of a product interface by identifying the change in sound velocities between the two products being pumped. The electronic device has a probe inserted through the wall of the pipeline. Protruding into the fluid stream. The probe picks up the variations in sound velocities, and through the proper linkage proper give an audible alarm or actuate valves when the interface arrives.


Sonic logging

the recording of the time required for a sound wave to travel a specific distance through a formation. Difference in observed travel times is largely caused by variations in porosities of the medium, an important determination. The sonic log, which may be run simultaneously with a spontaneous potential log or a gamma-ray log, is useful for correlation and often is used in conjunction with other logging services for substantiation of porosities. It is run in an uncased hole.



Nitroglycerine used in "shooting" a well. Nitro in its pure form is a heavy, colorless, oily liquid made by treating glycerin with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. It is usually mixed with absorbents for easier handling. Nitro, when used in well shooting, is put in tin "torpedos," 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and lowered into the well on a line. The bottom of each torpedo can is made to nest in the top of the preceding one, so as many cans as necessary for the shot can be lowered in and stacked up, nitro is measured in quarts the size of the shot depends upon the thickness and hardness of the formation to be fractured. 613

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containing hydrogen sulfide or caused by hydrogen sulfur or another sulfur


Sour corrosion

embrittlement and subsequent wearing away of metal, caused by contact of the metal with hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

4151. 4152. 4153. 4154.

Sour crude Sour crude oil Sour gas Sour products

sour crude oil.

oil containing hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide.

Gasolines, naphthas, and refined oils which contain hydrogen sulfide (h2s) or other sulfur compounds. Sourness is directly connected with odor.


Sour-service trim

A designation by manufacturers of oil field fittings and equipment that their products have finishes resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide (h2s) and other corrosive a agents in "sour" oil and gas. See sour gas.


Source rocks

Sedimentary formations where nearly all the world's petroleum has been found. Nearly 60 percent of the world's petroleum reserves are in sandstone the other 40 percent are in limestone, dolomite, et al. 614

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Source station

a pump station at a pipeline junction by which oil is pumped from a main line into a branch or lateral line.

4158. 4159.

Sp Spacers and washes

self-potential or spontaneous potential.

Specially formulated fluids for removing drilling mud from a well's borehole just ahead of the cement in a downhole cementing job. It is essential to a good cement job that the mud be removed and the wall of the hole be clean to ensure a good bond between cement and the wall. Spacers are thick fluids which displace the drilling mud ahead of the cement in a slug or piston-like manner, owing to the fluid's high viscosity and weight differential. Washes are much thinner fluids which separate the drilling mud from the cement being purred downhole and simultaneously remove the coating of mud left on the formations. This is accomplished through a combination of turbulent and surfactant action.

4160. 4161.

Spacing Spacing clamp

(see well spacing.)

a clamp used to hold the rod string in pumping position when the well is in the final stages of being put back on the pump.


Spacing pattern

Geographic subdivision established by government authority, usually state, defining the number of acres to be allotted to each well drilled in a reservoir. 615

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This is a conservation measure for it is generally agreed that increased recovery from a reservoir is not a function of the number of wells drilled. One oil well on 40 acres is a general rule, in some states. But there are many exceptions. Gas wells, one or two to a section (640 acres), depending upon well depth, producing formation, and other factors.

4163. 4164. 4165.

Spaghetti Spd Spe

tubing or pipe with a very small diameter.

spudded; used in drilling reports.

society of petroleum engineers. (see aime.) a fishing tool used to retrieve pipe lost in a well. The spear is lowered down the hole and into the lost pipe, and, when weight, torque, or both are applied to the string to which the spear is attached, the slips in the spear expand and tightly grip the inside of the wall of the lost pipe. Then the string, spear, and lost pipe are pulled to the surface.

4166. 4167.

Spearhead Spears

(see preflush.)

Fishing tools for retrieving pipe or cable lost in the borehole. Some spears resemble harpoons with fixed spurs, others have retractable or releasing type spurs.


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Specific gravity

the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance at the same temperature. For example, if 1 in3 of water at 39 f weighs 1 unit and 1 in.' of another solid or liquid at 39 f weighs 0.95 unit, then the specific gravity of the substance is 0.95. In determining the specific gravity of gases, the comparison is made with the standard of air or hydrogen. (see gravity.)


Specific heat

the amount of heat required to cause a unit increase in temperature in a unit mass of a substance, expressed as numerically equal to the number of calories needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 c.


Speed droop

the number of revolutions per minute that an engine slows down from running at maximum, no-load speed to running at maximum, full-load speed. Usually expressed as a percentage, speed droop should not exceed 7 percent.



of a substance whose strength or merit has been exhausted in a process. For example, after a well has been acidized, any acid that remains in the well is said to be a spent acid because its strength has been used up in the acidizing process.


Spherical blowout preventer

A large, barrel-shaped well closure mechanism attached to the top of the well's casing. Its purpose is to close around the drillpipe in the event of a severe gas kick or threatened blowout. When the preventer's closing 617

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mechanism is hydraulically actuated, pressure is applied to a piston which moves upward, forcing the packing element to extend into the well bore and around the drillpipe in a pressure-tight seal. Should the spherical preventer be damaged or for some reason not hold pressure, rams in the bop stack below can also be closed on the pipe to hold the pressure until the well is killed (the pressure is equalized) by the injection of heavier drilling mud.



As it applies to the industry, a spheroid is a steel storage tank in the shape of a sphere flattened at both "poles," designed to store petroleum products, mainly lp-gases, under pressure. See hortonsphere.



a circular steel device that holds slips supporting a suspended string of drill pipe, casing, or tubing.



The hinged, latching device attached to the elevators (the hoisting arms that lift pipe and casing in the derrick). An elevator spider is a unit attached to the travelling-block hook for hoisting pipe, casing, and tubing out of the hole and lowered in. The spider is manually locked around a length of tubing just below the tool joint. Some advanced types of elevator spiders are air operated.



To screw one stand of drillpipe or tubing rapidly into another with a spinning Chain (q.v.). After making up the joint in this manner, the heavy pipe tongs are applied to make the joint fight. 618

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The name of the gusher brought in by capt. Anthony lucas, near beaumont, texas, in 1902. The well, the first important producer ever drilled with Rotary tools, blew in (literary) and produced, at the rate of 75.000 to 100,0000 barrels day.


Spinner survey

a production-logging method that uses a small propeller turned by fluid movement. By use of a recording arrangement, the number of turns of the propeller can be related to the fluid quantity flowing past the instrument to obtain a production log.


Spinning cathead

a spooling attachment on the makeup cathead to permit use of a spinning chain to spin up or make up drill pipe.


Spinning chain

a y-shaped chain used to spin up (tighten) one joint of drill pipe into another. In use, one end of the chain is attached to the tongs, another end to the spinning cathead, and the third end is free. The free end is wrapped around the tool-joint and the cathead pulls the chain off the joint, causing the joint to spin (turn) rapidly and tighten up. After the chain is pulled off the joint, the tongs are secured in the same spot, and continued pull on the chain (and thus on the tongs) by the cathead makes the joint up to final tightness.


Spinning tongs

See spinning wrench.


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Spinning wrench

An air-operated drillpipe or tubing wrench used in place of the spinning chain (q.v.) And the winch-powered tongs. After the joint of pipe is stabbed into the toot joint or collar, the air wrench is latched on and spins the pipe in and applies a measured or fixed amount of torque, thus ensuring the equal tightening of all joints.


Spirally grooved drill collar

a drill collar with a round cross section that has a long continuous groove or flute machined helically into its outer surface. The spiraled groove provides space between the wall of the hole and the body of the collar, minimizing the area of contact between the hole wall and collar; thus the possibility of differential pressure sticking is reduced.

4184. 4185.

Splash box Splash zone

(see mother hubbard.)

the area on an offshore structure that is regularly wetted by seawater but is not continuously submerged. Metal in the splash zone must be well-protected from the corrosive action of seawater and air.



to join two parts of a rope or wireline by interweaving individual strands of the line together. Unlike a knot, a splice does not significantly increase the diameter of the line at the point where the parts are joined.


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Split sleeve

A type of pipeline repair clamp made in two halves that bolt together to form a pressure tight seal over a hole or split in the pipe. Split sleeves also are made to enclose leaking valves and flanges until they can be permanently repaired.

4188. 4189.

Split-level drilling rig Spm

See drilling rig, split- level

Strokes per minute; indicates the speed or pumping rate of reciprocating


Sponge oil

A type of lean oil (q.v.) Used in refinery absorber columns to absorb light petroleum fractions or a fighter lean oil that has vaporized in an upstream process.



An air chamber along the sides of a barge or small ship to increase buoyancy and stability. Sponsons are used on crane barges for additional buoyancy and to minimize listing when heavy, off-side lifts are being made with the crane.


Spontaneous potential

(sp) one of the basic electric-logging curves obtained by measuring natural earth currents; also called self-potential but referred to as 'sp'.


Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail:

to wind or roll onto a spool or drum. S p ot to pump a designated quantity of a substance (as acid or cement) into a specific interval in the . A cylindrical device with a rim at each end on which wireline is wound. Spools act as spacers for the valves in the blowout preventer. used in christmas tree assemblies to separate and support the various valves iii the stack. Difficult-to-reach places. Spool pieces may either be a simple nipple with the ends cut a. or two undersea lines. 2. 622 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4195. S p ool 1. Z. In undersea work. Spool pieces are difficult to measure and cut because of the pitch and yaw angle of the pipes to be joined. Spool piece A short section of piping specially cut to join the ends of two pipelines lying at unusual attitudes to each other in tight. casing and tubing Short-length castings. the proper angles or they may include a valve or other fittings. spoof pieces are used to connect a seabed i low line to a platform riser. 4194. a drum. A flanged joint placed between two blowout preventers to provide a space for a tool joint.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4193.mzhelu@gmail. For example. flanged on both ends. Spools. 4196. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 10 bbl of diesel oil may be spotted around an area in the hole in which drill collars are stuck against the wall of the hole in an effort to free the collars.

Spot market sales (1) the term applied to sales of crude oil or products on one time basis and usually at prices above the going rite or world prices. 4198. Spot charter rates fluctuate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4197. Spread boss The person in charge of men and equipment on a large pipeline or other construction project. These spot sales usually are intermittent and often at prices somewhat below the posted prices. the stud duck. Spot charter tanker rates The cost per ton to move crude oil product by tanker from one port to another on a one-time basis.mzhelu@gmail. 623 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Who can obtain certain quantities of oil for a price and for a one-time sale. or other jobs. Spread A contractor's men and equipment assembled to do a major construction job. widely with demand and availability of tonnage. 4199. As the men and equipment are strung out along the right of way for several miles. (2) sales of domestic crude oil by major produces to independent refiners from the majors temporary over production or surplus.v. a "spread' may be literal. as compared to long-term charter rates. Often these sales are arranged by an oil broker ( . Z. the spread is a concentration of the equipment for the work. 4200. On well workover.

When compressed. a machine's working part to assume its original position after being acted upon for a split instant by a larger force.automobile's exhaust and intake valves after being opened by the engine's push rods and rocker arms. to start the hole. machinery. (see spud in. sticky formations. chain. Careless execution of this operation creates pressure surges that can cause a formation to break down.) 4204. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 624 Petroleum Engineer: M. The instantaneous closing of an .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4201. (spiral. Spud bit a special kind of drilling bit with sharp blades. Spring loaded Refers to an item of equipment. This stored-up energy of the. It is sometimes used for drilling soft.g. Spud in to begin drilling. exerts a pressure or force against whatever is compressing it equal to the compressive force. rather than teeth.mzhelu@gmail. which results in lost circulation. coil. Spud to move the drill stem up and down in the hole over a short distance without rotation. or leaf) which. 4205. A spring . . 4202. or valve incorporating one or more springs to effect an action or motion.. e. 4203. compressed spring is to close a valve after being opened by a momentary greater force (a pop-off or relief valve). or combination of the two attached to anchors on the ocean floor and winches on the structure to keep a floating vessel near a fixed location on the sea surface. Spread mooring system a system of rope.

4212.Square but with rounded edges. a special drill collar. Sq Sqeeze 4209. a cementing operation in which cement is pumped behind the casing under high pressure to recement channeled areas or to block off an uncemented zone. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports. used to control the straightness or direction of the hole. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4206. often part of a packed-hole assembly. sometimes mounted on a truck or trailer. 4211. forcing cement to the bottom of the casing 625 Petroleum Engineer: M. Spudder Spur line a portable cable-tool drilling . 4207. Squ Square drill collar squeeze. 4210. 4208.mzhelu@gmail. on each side. Squeeze a well A technique to seal off with cement a section of the well bore where a leak or incursion of water or gas occurs. an oil pipeline that picks up oil from the gathering lines of several oil fields and delivers it to a main line or trunk line. Square meter (m2)a unit of metric measure of an area equal to a square that measures 1 m 4213. square.

Ss sand or sandstone. a small explosive charge may be set of. used in drilling reports. squeeze job. repair casing leaks. and so forth." 4217. freeing the producing interval of sand and silt. It is a secondary-cementing method. seal off water. sometimes used on offshore drilling rigs.) 4215. Squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry by pressure to specified points in a well to cause seals at the points of . used to isolate a producing formation. Squnch joint a special threadless tool joint for large-diameter pipe. 4214. A small charge of nitroglycerin set off in the bottom of a well as part of a workover operation after cleaning out a well. 626 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. When the box is brought down over the pin and weight is applied. their use can save time when the conductor pipe is being run. 4218. Because no rotation is required to make up these joints. Squeeze job Squib shot See squeeze a will. 4216. Z. (see cementing.' to 'wake up the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and up the annular space between the casing and the will of the borehole to seal off a formation or plug a leak in the casinghead a. especially conductor pipe. a locking device is actuated to seat the joints.

000ton deck-load capacity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4219. and reaches the surface.v. 4221. filling the annular space. This displaces the cement to the bottom of the tubing. The drilipipe is landed in a special casing shoe at the bottom of the casing. Z. pumping of the cement downhole begins. cement pumping is stopped and water and drilling mud are started down the pipe behind the cement. to guide the end of a pipe into a coupling or tool joint when making up a 4225. Stab-in cementing (of a well) A method of cementing large-diameter casing in the borehole in which cement is pumped down through the drillpipe. used in drillingReports.) Seconds saybolf universal and seconds saybolt furol (q. connection. 4223. 2. 4220.000 feet of water. .2000 The designation for the class of semisubmersible drilling platforms (the largest built to date 1979) which are of 18.000-ton displacement. 4222. When the cement works its way up the outside of the casing. subsea test tree. When the drillpipe is locked into the casing shoe. Stab-in cementing uses less cement than 627 Petroleum Engineer: M.).mzhelu@gmail. saybolt seconds universal. Sso Sstt Ssu Ssu & ssf Stab slight show of oil. (see saybolt viscometer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4224. and capable of drilling in 2.

the pipeline stabber worked only half a day because of the exhausting nature of his work. The floorman (roughneck) centers the joint of pipe being lowered into the tool joint (q. 4227. Before the days of the welded line. Z.mzhelu@gmail. (2) on a pipe-welding crew.). 628 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 4229.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering pumping down the casing and minimizes contamination at the cement/drilling mud interface. Stabber (1) a pipeline worker who holds one end of a joint of pipe and aligns it so that it may be screwed into the collar of the preceding joint. Stabbing jack Stability (see jack board. The derrickman or another crew member works on the board while casing is being run in a well. the stabber works the line-up clamps or line-up mandrel.) the ability of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig to return to an upright position when it has rolled to either side by an external force (as waves).com . The board may be wooden or fabricated of steel girders floored with antiskid material and powered electrically to raise or lower it to the desired level. 4228. 4226. A stabbing board serves the same purpose as a monkeyboard or safety platform but is temporary instead of permanent. Stabbing board a temporary platform erected in the derrick or mast 20 to 40 ft above the derrick floor. (3) on a drilling rig.

(the lugs protrude from the body of the sleeve. Stack the tools Pulling the drillpipe and laying it down (stacking outside the derrick) in preparation for skidding or dismantling the derrick. 4233.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4230. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4235. it is folded down and made ready to .) (2).) to store a drilling rig on completion of a job when the rig is to be withdrawn from operation for a time.) 4232. stabilizers are used to maintain correct hole angle. A vessel in which hydrocarbon vapors are separated from liquids. to hold the bit on course. (see packed-hole assembly. Conversely.) (see blowout premier. 629 Petroleum Engineer: M. The bushing or sleeve can be the fixed or rotating type with permanent or replaceable wings or lugs. 4231. Stabilizer (1). Stable emulsion Stack Stack a rig (see emulsion. If the rig is transportable.mzhelu@gmail. 4234. A tool placed near the bit and often above it in the drilling assembly and used to change the deviation angle in a well by controlling the location of the contact point between the hole and drill collars. Z. Stabilizer sleeve A bushing the size of the borehole inserted in the drill column to help maintain a vertical hole. making contact with the wall of the hole.

After exploration techniques have revealed the possibility of the existence of a subsurface hydrocarbon-bearing formation. or drillpipe. Stage separation an operation in which well fluids. 4237. treating systems. Stage separation is an efficient process in that a high percentage of the light ends of the fluid are conserved. A section of drillpipe or tubing (one. 4239. 4240. Stake a well to precisely locate on the surface the point at which a well is to be drilled. 4238. a certified and registered land surveyor drives a stake into the ground to mark the spot where the well is to be drilled. tubing.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4236. or three-sometimes four joints) unscrewed from the string as a unit and racked in the derrick. two. in a series with another unit or units of like design to improve operating efficiency and results. pumps. 4241. The height of 630 Petroleum Engineer: M. are separated into liquid and gaseous components by passing consecutively through two or more separators. Z. The operating pressure of each succeeding separator is lower than the one preceding it. and so forth. Staging the placement of . usually under pressure.) Colloquialism for joints of line pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cooling systems. Staked lime Stalks Stand of pipe (see hydrated lime.

Standard pressure the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high.mzhelu@gmail. 4244. Standard temperature a predetermined temperature used as a basic measurement. 4247. which is pre-assembled. Volumes of gas re bought and sold corrected to the standard pressure and temperature. 14. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng." See doubles.65 pounds per square inch absolute and a temperature of 60'f. Portable workover rigs are usually fitted with a mast that holds stands about 60 ft long (doubles). 4242. 5 c) as its standard temperature during measurement 631 Petroleum Engineer: M. Standard derricks have been replaced almost totally by jackknife masts. Standard derrick a derrick that is built piece by piece at the drilling location as opposed to a jackknife mast.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the derrick determines the number of joints that can be unscrewed in one "stand of pipe. equivalent to 4246. . 4245. The petroleum industry uses 60 f (1 5. Standard pumping rig A conventional pumping unit consisting of an engine or electric motor operating a walking beam which raises and lowers the sucker rods in an up and down pumping action. Standard cubic foot of gas The volume of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14. 4243. Stand tubing to support tubing in the derrick or mast when it is out of the well rather than laying it on a rack.7 psia.

Standard tools Standby rig time See cable tools. 4248. Standpipe The pipe that conveys the drilling mud form the mud pump to the swivel (q. On a rig.mzhelu@gmail. the distance a jet or bullet must travel in the wellbore before encountering the wall of the hole.) The standpipe extends part way up the derrick and connects to the mud hose which is connected to he gooseneck (a curved pipe) of the swivel. 4249. 4251. 4253. Compare double and fourble. 632 Petroleum Engineer: M. Standoff in perforating. 4252. Standing valve a fixed ball and scat valve at the lower end of the working barrel of a suckerrod pump. The standing valve and its cage do not move as does the traveling valve. the usual stand is 90 ft long (three lengths of pipe screwed together) or a thribble. Stands the connected joints of pipe racked in the derrick or mast when making a trip. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Payment made during the period of time when the drilling rig is shut down awaiting a decision from the lease owner and other interested parties whether or not drilling is to continue. Conversion is aided by the use of api conversion tables. Z. The volume of a quantity of oil at its actual temperature (assuming it is not 60 f) is converted to the volume the oil would occupy at 60 . 4250.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of oil.

4257. Starboard Starch (nautical) the right side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow).v. which can cause cavitation (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4254.v. a complex carbohydrate sometimes added to drilling fluids to reduce filtration 4256.). (3) a guy wire. (2) a line used to actuate part of a device or mechanism when the line is . rig. Starve a pump To have insufficient suction head at the pump's intake connection. A pump whose capacity or pumping rate is greater in volume of fluid being fed into it is being "starved". as the static line which is attached to jumper's parachute and to the plane to open the chute. one end anchored to a deadman (q. or a-frame. 4255. 4258. See suction head. Static line (1) a wire line to drain off or ground static electricity that may have built up from friction in a vehicle or its content. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. any wire or line. an anchored line for stabilizing a pole. Z. 633 Petroleum Engineer: M. the other end attacted to an upright construction for support. Static fluid level the level to which fluid rises in a well when the well is shut in. net positive. Static pressure the force exerted by a fluid that is at rest and confined within a tank or line as measured by a gauge. a grounding line for gasoline transports to prevent arcing or static charges when unloading.) Particularly in rotary and centrifugal pumps.mzhelu@gmail. loss.

Steam is piped into the pump's steam chest an from there it is admitted to the power cylinder where it arts upon the pump's power pistons. stands. to reduce its viscosity so it will separate from the oil sand and drain into the well bore. stock tank barrel. 4264. 4261. Station keeping S tb Stb/d S td S td s Steam Steam flooding See dynamic stationing. water in its gaseous state. standard. stock tank barrels per day. The water from the coded and condensed steam is pumped out of the well with the oil and separated at e surface. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. see heavy oil process(hop). 4265. used in drilling reports. 4263. Z. 4260. Steam pump A reciprocating pump that receives its poweer from big -pressure steam. Pressure steam is injected into an oil formation to heat the oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4259. driving them 634 Petroleum Engineer: . 4262. 4266.mzhelu@gmail. A secondary or tertiary oil recovery method in which superheated high.

Steel storag Refers to the storage of crude oil and products in above-ground steel Tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Steel reef Refers to the artificial "reels" fromed by the substructures of offshore drilling and production platforms that attract a variety of marine life from barnacles and algae to many kinds of fish.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to and fro as the steam valves open and close. 4269. 4272. 4268. Steam soak Steam trap See steam flooding. 4267. 4273.mzhelu@gmail. Steaming plant Steel See treating plant. Steam rig a rotary drilling rig on which steam engines operate as prime movers. Highpressure steam is furnished by a boiler plant located near the rig. In the 1920s and 30s vast tank firms of sleet tankage were filled with crude 635 Petroleum Engineer: M. a malleable alloy of iron and carbon that also contains appreciable amounts of manganese and other elements. A device on a steam line designed to trap air and water condensate and automatically bleed the air and drain the water from the system with a minimum loss of steam pressure. Steam rigs have been replaced almost totally by mechanical or electric rigs. 4271. . Z. The fluid end of the pump is driven by the steam pistons. see pump simplex.

4276.and store it in 55. Stile Steps made for walking up and over a fence or other obstruction. 636 Petroleum Engineer: M. came into effect sharply reducing the amount of oil stored on tank farms. the oil stayed in the ground until the market could handle it. stiles are used on farms and fenced leases to get to the other side without going through a gate. Z. however. prorationing. Made in the shape of the letter a. See gas welding. which was the going size in those days. Still any vessel in which hydrocarbon distillation is effected.000-barrel tanks. The market could not absorb all of the country's production but oil still flowed from the wells as each operator or company tried to produce as much oil as .mzhelu@gmail. 4275.) a well drilled adjacent to or near a proven well to ascertain the limits of the reservoir.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering oil. the restriction of production by state regulatory bodies. an outpost well. See cattle guard. Stick-electrode welding Electric-arc welding in which the welding rod or electrode is hand-held as compared to automatic to automatic. In a few years. 4278. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4277. 4274. Steel-tooth bit Step-out well (see roller-cone bit. where it was set afire by lightning and suffered great losses through evaporation. Under prorationing.

The hot oil is piped to a bubble tower or fractionation tower where the oil flashes or vaporizes.g. The vapors are then condensed into a liquid . Still. Stinger The pipe guide at the laying-end of a lay barge (q.mzhelu@gmail. S tn stain. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stimulation any process undertaken to enlarge old channels or create new ones in the producing formation of a well (e.v. pipe A type of distillation unit in which oil to be heated passes through pipes or tubes in the form of a flat coil. formation fracturing. There are two main chambers in a pipe still one where the oil is preheated by flue gases (the convection chamber). shell The oldest and simplest form of a distillation sti11 a closed vessel in which crude oil is heated and the resulting vapors conducted away to be condensed into a liquid product. Still. Acidizing. the other. similar to certain kinds of heat exchangers. Z. the stinger controls the conformation of the pipe as it leaves the barge. used in drilling reports. the radiant-heat chamber where oil is raised to the required temperature. On a reel-type lay barge where the coiled pipe is straightened before being laid over the end of the barge. or nitro shooting). 4281. 4283. No distillation or fractionation takes place in the still proper. (see acidize. 4280.. 637 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 4282.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4279.).

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4284. 4287. 4288. When the valve is turned a quarter turn to shut it off. cutting away excess metal. Stock and dies A device for making threads on the end of a joint of pipe or length of rod. Stock tank Stock-tank oil a crude oil storage tank. a small port or hole in the valve body is . 638 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4286. an adjustable frame holding a set of steel dies or cutting teeth that is clamped over the end of the pipe to be threaded. Permitting water above the valve to drain out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4289. 4285. S to p c o c k A type of plug valve usually installed on a small-diameter piping pet cock. Stop-and-waste valves are used mainly on small-diameter water piping. S to p A common term for a type of plug valve used on lease tanks an d lowpressure gravity systems.mzhelu@gmail. Stock-tank oil lacks much of the dissolved gas present at reservoir pressure and temperatures. preventing a freeze up in cold weather. leaving course of threads. When properly aligned the dies are Rotated clockwise in the flame. oil as it exists at atmospheric conditions in a stock tank. Stop-and-waste valve A type of plug valve that when in a closed position drains the piping above or beyond it. Z.

for example. 4292. It disintegrates and will end up either in a storage tank or at a scraper trap. an inflatable rubber sphere is inserted in the cut line and inflated with compressed . Storage Facilities Facilities used for storing natural gas. Stopcocking Shutting in wells periodically to permit a buildup of gas pressure in the formations and then opening the wells for production at intervals.). The sphere effectively fills the line and makes a good dam. In making a pipeline repair. 4293. when the line is repaired the pump is started and the mud plug is pushed along inside the line. Petroleum Engineer: M. To block this drainage a stoppel or plug is put in. On largediameter lines.v. They generally come in two forms gaseous storage facilities and liquified natural gas (LNG) storage facilities. Stoppel A plug inserted in a pipeline to stop the flow of oil while repairs are being made a specially designed plug inserted in a pipeline through the use of a tapping machine (q. cutting out a short section of the pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4290. the pump is shut down and the line is drained as completely as possible. When the repair is made. Z.v. On small-diameter lines. pumping is resumed and the inflated sphere is pushed ahead to take-off point just as a batching sphere (q. But when the pipe is cut some oil may still be draining from a higher level of the line. Gaseous storage facilities are usually salt caverns or depleted natural gas or crude oil reservoirs. Storage gas 639 gas that is stored in an underground reservoir. 4291.).mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 12-inch or smaller mud is packed in the end of the line to dim up the drainage.

Storage tank Storage. Or town site locations. salt-bed Storelease a tank in which oil is stored pending transfer to a pipeline or purchase. 4298. hundred-year See hundred-year storm conditions. bay. Should the flow valves be damaged or be torn away by a storm or other cause. Storage jug The name applied to underground salt cavities for the storage of lp-gases and other petroleum products. See salt-bed storage. 640 Petroleum Engineer: . See salt-bed storage. 4299. Z. Flowing full stream. Storm choke A safety valve installed in the wells tubing below the surface to shut the well in when the flow of oil reaches a predetermined rate. It is at this moment that the high-pressure stream activates the storm choke. 4295. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the resulting underground caverns. are ideal storage wells for petroleum products. shutting the well in completely. A preprinted lease form (bought at the store) with blanks to be filled in by the parties to the lease. Storm conditions. Jug-shaped cavities are leached or washed out of salt beds using super-heated water under pressure.mzhelu@gmail. 4297. 4296. the well is wide open. Primarily used on offshore. some are 100 feet in diameter and 900 feet deep. the tubing valve acts as an automatic shut-off in the event there is damage to the control valve or the christmas tree.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4294.

) And onto the sea floor. 641 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see packer.mzhelu@gmail.v.) May be of short duration as in the north sea or in the extremely hostile environment of arctic waters. Straddle plant Straddle test See on-line plant. Adding one joint at a time (as in building a stovepipe) in laying an offshore pipeline from a weld-and-lay barge. 4304.) 4303. Straddle packer two packers separated by a spacer of variable length. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In contrast. This capability is very important where "weather windows" (q. Z. one above and one below the zone being tested.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4300. A reel barge can lay as much pipe in an hour or so as can be welded and laid from a conventional lay barge in a day. selective testing of an interval or formation by the use of two packers.v. A straddle packer may be used to isolate sections of open hole to be treated or tested or to isolate certain areas of perforated casing from the rest of the perforated section. On some of the largest reel barges . 4301. reel-barge pipe laying is done by unreeling a spool of pipe over the stern of the reel barge.000 feet of 10-inch pipe can be carried on the massive reel and payed out like a giant hawser as the barge moves through the water at about a mile an hour. 4302. over the stinger (q. Stove oil Stovepipe method (laying pipe) A fight fuel oil or kerosene used in certain kinds of wickless-burner stoves.

without the use of pressure or catalysts. (see gauging tables.mzhelu@gmail. 4308. . Strainer. Strain Strain gauge to effect a change of form or size as a result of the application of a stress. a refinery. Straight hole a hole that is drilled vertically or nearly vertically so that no part of the hole is more than 3 degrees off the vertical per 100 ft of hole. 642 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4306. Z. Straight run Refers to a petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil. an instrument used to measure minute distortions caused by stress forces in mechanical components. Strap to measure and record the dimensions of oil tanks to prepare a tank table to determine accurately the volume of oil in a tank at any measured depth. or processing plants. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The strainer is flanged and is bolted into a pipeline. 4309. Strap in to measure a length of pipe as it is run into the hole. 4307. the simple vaporization and condensation of a petroleum fraction. pot An inline strainer used to catch and hold debris being pumped through a pipeline in a products line.) 4311.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4305.

Tank tables (q. (see strata.v. height. Strapping Measuring a tank with the use of a steel tape to arrive at its volume Strapping involves measuring the circumference at intervals. Strat test a well that is drilled primarily to obtain geological information and that is usually not completed even if commercial quantities of petroleum are found. and computing deadwood (q. 4313. Crude oil stored in underground formations and scaled caverns as a fuel reserve in the event of a national emergency or a prolonged oil embargo by foreign suppliers. Strata Strategic Petroleum reserves distinct. An individual bed is a stratum. The caches of crude are located in various areas across the country.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4312.) Are made from these.). Z.) 643 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually parallel beds of rock. Stratigpaphic test hole A hole drilled to gather information about a stratigraphic formation. the general character of the rocks.mzhelu@gmail.) 4317.measurements. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stratification natural layering or lamination characteristic of sediments and sedimentary rocks. and permeability. top to . Stratigraphic test (see strat test. 4316. steel thickness. 4314. their porosity.v. 4315. 4318.

Strike (see formation strike. Stress a force that. formed by a change in the characteristics of the formation-loss of porosity and permeability. Stream day An operating day on a process unit as opposed to a calendar day. when applied to an object. composition. (see strata. or to have an interest in a well in a producing field.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4319. calendar days would include lime not on the line and therefore give a distorted result. distorts or deforms it.mzhelu@gmail.v. and succession of rock strata. Stratigraphy Geology that deals with the origin. Stratigraphic trap A type of reservoir (q. 4320.) 644 Petroleum Engineer: M. ignoring regular downtime for turnarounds or for other reasons. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Capable of holding oil or gas. 4323. Stream day computations include only days the plant was on stream. 4321. distribution. Stream day includes an allowance for regular downtime. To have a well in a producing reservoir. Z. or a break in its continuity--which forms the trap or .) Stratum Straw in the cider barrel 4322. 4324. In computing a plant's throughput on a daily basis.

String the entire length of casing. See pipeline welding. tubing. 4331. a textile-covered fuse with a core of very high explosive. the casing string. 4326. String shot an explosive device that uses primacord.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4325. 4327. a hit. Strike (1) the angle of inclination from the horizontal of an exposed strata of rock.mzhelu@gmail. 4328. (2) a good well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. One end of the line is secured to the hoisting drum and the other to the derrick substructure. String up to thread the drilling line through the sheaves of the crown block and traveling block. Compare drill string and drill stem. 645 Petroleum Engineer: M. String-shot back-off Stringer bead (see string . to create an explosive jar inside stuck pipe or tubing to back off the pipe at the joint immediately above the stuck point.) 4329.) A welding term that refers to the first bead or course of molten metal put on by the welder as two joints of line pipe are welded together. to make a strike is to find oil in commercial quantities. Strike plate an extra piece of metal placed on the bottom of an oil storage tank to protect it from the repeated striking of the plumb bob at the end of the gauger's tape. or drill pipe run into a hole. (see shot. 4330.

Strip a well to pull rods and tubing from a well at the same time. 4334. to dismantle for the purpose of inspection and repair. the speed at which the long chart moves through the meter is adjustable so the recording of fluctuations in gas flow may be spread out. Tubing must be stripped over the rods a joint at a time. Strip charts are sometimes used. Strip chart In lieu of the circular chart for recording gas flow through an orifice meter. On large-diameter pipelines two joints are welded together in a "doubling yard" (q.). Screwing or welding the joints together to form a pipeline. Stringing pipe Placing joints of pipe end to end along a pipeline right of way in preparation for laying. See also stripping the pipe. Strip To disassemble.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4332. as long as 35 to 40 feet. permitting more accurate readings. to remove liquid components from a gas stream. 4335. Strip charts. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. coated and wrapped and two joints welded together. 646 Petroleum Engineer: M. Also. need not be changed more than once a month it the operator . Z. An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project Where the pipe is unloaded from railway flatcars. i. and the exposed sucker rod is then backed off and removed.mzhelu@gmail..e. 4333. After "doubling" the sections of pipe are hauled to the job and strung along the right of way.v.

s. 4339.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4336. sour-water A refinery vessel.mzhelu@gmail.) 4341. and 647 Petroleum Engineer: M. condensates from accumulators. Most stripper wells are pumped only a few hours a day. To remove the drill stem from the hole while the blowout preventers are (2). 4337. The pressure-sealing element of a stripper blowout preventer. (see stripper head. To pull the drill stem and the washover pipe out of the hole at the same time. a tower for the physical removal of contaminants from “sour water. Stripper rubber (1). (2). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.” water from knockout drums. 4338. Stripper head a blowout prevention device consisting of a gland and packing arrangement bolted to the wellhead. In 1978 there were nearly 400. A rubber disk surrounding drill pipe or tubing that removes mud as the pipe is brought out of hole. Z. Stripped gas Stripper a processed gas from which liquefied hydrocarbons have been removed. a well producing less than 10 barrels a day. closed. An oil well in the final stages of production.000 stripper wells in the u. It is often used to seal the annular space between tubing and casing. producing 20 percent of the country's . 4340. Strip pipe (1). Stripper tower.

The pipe is “stripped” by withdrawing it. a joint at a time. The tubing must be “stripped” over the rods. 4342. while maintaining control of the well. 4344. 4345. The job of removing drillpipe or tubing from a well under pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering other processing units. 4346. through a wellhead plug equipped with a hydraulic closure mechanism (ram) that maintains pressure contact with the pipe being withdrawn. 4348. 4343.mzhelu@gmail. (see jackknife mart. Strks Structural mast streaks. before it undergoes biological treatment or is discharged in the plant’s waste-water system. Z.) 648 Petroleum Engineer: M. Stripper wheel A hand wheel which is attached to the upper rod in a string of sucker rods in the well to unscrew them. Stripping the well To pull the rods and tubing from the well at the same time. used in drilling . a portable mast constructed of angular as opposed to tubular steel members. 4347. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stripping plant Stripping the pipe See gasol no plant. Stripping job the simultaneous pulling of rods and tubing when the sucker-rod pump or rods are frozen in the tubing string. a stand” at a time.

casing. Structural trap A type of reservoir containing oil and/or gas formed by movements of the earth’s crust which seal off the oil and gas accumulation in the reservoir forming a trap. or tubing that has inadvertently become lodged immovably in the hole. the other end of 649 Petroleum Engineer: M. a wrench-like device attached to one threaded end of a stud bolt without damaging the threads. Anticlines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. See stratigraphic trap. or casing is stuck. Structure Subsurface folds or fractures of rock layers which may form a reservoir capable of holding oil or gas. Stuck pipe drill pipe. It may occur when drilling is in progress. or when the drill pipe is being hoisted. 4353. when casing is being run in the hole. When torque is applied. A mechanical device for driving or screwing stud bolts into a bored and threaded hole. and faulting of different kinds form structural traps. 4355. .mzhelu@gmail. tubing. drill collars. Stuck point Stud driver the depth in the hole at which the drill stem.) Or by welding on a nipple or other fitting.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4349. 4352. An auxiliary fine attached to an existing fine by use of a tap saddle (q. 4350. 4351. salt domes. Structure contour map Stub line See contour map.v.

(nautical) an anchor chain on which each link has a bar. A threaded device made up in the drill stem that serves some special purpose. lifting nipple. Sub (1). A short.) 4361. and kelly saver sub. Studin To attach a line (usually of smaller diameter) to an existing line.) 650 Petroleum Engineer: M. or stud. Stuffing box A packing gland a chamber or “box” to hold packing material compressed around a moving pump rod or valve stem by a “follower” to prevent the escape or gas or liquid. 4360. (see junk sub. Stud duck Stud-link chain Top man.). manifold or vessel and make the connection by cutting a hole in the existing installation and welding on a nipple or other fitting. (2). threaded piece of pipe used to adapt parts of the drill stem that otherwise cannot be screwed together because of differences in thread size or design. bent sub.v. 4357. across the shorter dimension of the link to prevent kinking and deformation under load. saver sub. Submersible (see submersible drilling rig. Z. But for large jobs they can be adaoted for impact wrenches (q. Simple stud drivers are hand held. Drill-press or air motors. 4359. . 4358. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. bumper sub.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the bolt screws into the hole. the big boss.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Submersible drilling rig an offshore drilling structure that has several compartments that are flooded to cause the structure to submerge and rest on the ocean floor. most submersible rigs are used only in shallow waters. submersible. (see formation testing. the vessels hull is submerged by flooding its compartments leaving the derrick and its equipment well above the water line. Men work in a dry. 4364.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4362. 4366. When on location. Subsea test tree (sstt) a device designed to be landed in a subsea wellhead or blowoutpreventer stack to provide a means of closing in the well on the ocean floor so that a drill-stem test of an offshore well can be obtained.mzhelu@gmail. .) 651 Petroleum Engineer: M. repair. 4363. Wellhead cellar. Of necessity. Normal atmosphere. Submersible barge platform A type of drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel used in shallow coastal Waters. or adjust wellhead connections. A self-contained unit resembling a bathysphere to carry men to the ocean bottom to install. One type of modular unit is lowered from a tender and fastened to a special steel. Submersible pump Subsea completion system See pump. In cooperation with shell oil company. 4365. The underwater wellhead system was developed by lockheed petroleum services ltd.

Sucker rods are threaded on each end and manufactured to exact dimension standards and metal specifications set by api. 652 Petroleum Engineer: M. Subsurface Subsurface geology Subsurface safety valve Subsurface sampling below the surface of the earth (as subsurface rocks). Z. several rods screwed together make up the mechanical link from beam-pumping unit on the surface to the sucker-rod pump at the bottom of a well. the foundations on which the derrick or mast and (sometimes) engines sit. 4369. 4370. Lengths are 25 or 30 ft. the study of rocks that lie beneath the surface of the earth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Tests run on this sample help to obtain an accurate knowledge of the physical properties of the reservoir fluid under actual conditions. Substitute natural gas Substructure (sng) see synthetic (substitute) natural gas.mzhelu@gmail. 4371. diameter varies from 1/2 to 1 'a in. 4373. 4372.) a procedure in which a bottom-hole sampler is lowered into the well and filled with a sample that is representative of the reservoir conditions and that contains all the constituents of the fluid in their true proportions.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4367. 4368. containing space for storage and well control equipment. Sucker rod a special steel rod. (see tubing safety .

The rods are attached to the cage or pull tube (traveling barrel). Sucker-rod coupling Sucker-rod guides an internally threaded fitting used to join sucker rods. 4378. pump. 4377. Z. Two types of sucker-rod pumps are the tubing pump. 4376. slim-hole pumping. or . valves. hollow sucker rods are used. and the rod. and hold-down. The weight of the rod string and fluid is counterbalanced by weights attached to a reciprocating beam or to the crank 653 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sucker-rod pump the downhole assembly used to lift fluid to the surface by the reciprocating action of the sucker-rod string. Sucker rods. serving the dual purpose of rod and production tubing in the same string. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4374. 4375. hollow In certain applications.mzhelu@gmail. Small washer-like devices attached to a pumping well's sucker rods to confer the rods in the tubing as the rods move up and down. the pump is installed in the seating nipple or a packer-type pump anchor is used. Traveling-barrel pumps are most often used with hollow-rod pumping. plunger. which is run into the well as a complete unit. in which the barrel is attached to the tubing. The guides prevent excessive wear of the tubing and the rods as well. Basic components are the barrel. Sucker-rod pumping a method of articifical lift in which a subsurface pump located at or near the bottom of the well and connected to a string of sucker rods is used to lift the well fluid to the surface.

As the rods move up and . the perforated disks (several to each rod) scrape off the paraffin attempting to coat and then build up on the tubing. 4379. hitting the hooks (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. also called the loading line. Suction line the line that carries a product out of a tank to the suction side of the pumps. The hydrostatic head.mzhelu@gmail.v. 4382. 654 Petroleum Engineer: M. the height of the column of liquid required to ensure that the liquid its above its bubble point (q. 4380. pumping rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering member of a beam-pumping unit or by air pressure in a cylinder attached to the beam. net positive Working in a pipeline gang laying screw pipe.) Pressure at the impeller eye of a centrifugal pump.v. then the minimum liquid level above the pumps immediate intake connection should be 12 feet. Sucker-rod scrapers Perforated disks attached to the string of sucker rods of a pumping well to prevent the build up of paraffin on the inside of the tubing. reducing the amount of oil that can be pumped from the well.). Suckerrod Steel rods that are screwed together to form a "string" that connects the pump inside a well's tubing downhole to the pumping jack on the surface. SUCKING THE TONGS Suction head. The additional two feet of liquid level are needed to overcome the friction of connecting piping. 4383. Z. if a pump requires 1 0 foot of not positive suction head to fill properly and prevent cavitation. 4381.

Sul wtr Sulfate resistance Sulfate-reducing bacteria sulfur water. a nipple-like fitting. used in drilling reports. which combines with iron to form iron sulfide. 4389. bacteria that digest sulfate present in water. one end threaded. When such a formation is encountered. A suction pit Sump pit 655 Petroleum Engineer: M. the name. the other end closed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Suitcase sand a formation found to be nonproductive. 4386. 4387.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4384. Suction pit the mud pit from which mud is picked up by the suction of the mud pumps. 4388. SULL NOSE A screw-end pipeline plug a pipeline fitting one end of which is closed and tapered to resemble a bull's nose. the ability of a cement to resist deterioration by sulfate ions. a troublesome . 4391. and the crews pack their suitcases and move to another job. operations are suspended. hence. causing the release of hydrogen sulfide. 4385. 4390. also called a sump pit. Sump a low place in a vessel or tank used to accumulate settlings that are later removed through an opening in the bottom of the vessel. Z.

See supercharger.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sur survey. Superchargers are operated or powered by an exhaust-gas turbine in the engine's exhaust . 4396. Supercharge To supply air to an engine's intake or suction valves at a pressure higher than the surrounding atmosphere. Loading fines are supported by the yoke which is hinged to the boat allowing free articulation to accommodate any kind of sea condition during loading. 4397. The leg of the mooring system is equipped with a universal joint and is able to rotate as the ship weathervanes. Supercharger A mechanism such as a blower or compressor for increasing the volume of air charge to an engine over that which can normally be drawn into the cylinders through the action of the pistons on the suction strokes. Supertanker Supply-boat mooring system (ssms) The largest crude oil carrier yet designed. 4394. A type of sea terminal for tinkers and supply boats featuring a single log securely fixed to the ocean floor with a truss-like yoke which attaches to the bow of the vessel being loaded. 656 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4393. Superport A terminal or oil-handling facility located offshore in water deep enough to accommodate the largest. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4392. deep-draft oil tankers. used in drilling reports. 4395.

The probe sends to the surface continuous 657 Petroleum Engineer: M. Surface waste waste incurred by line leaks.) Surface drilling unit an offshore drilling rig that is either a drill ship or a drilling barge. 4401. Some states require a minimum length to protect fresh-water sands. Surface pressure Surface safety valve the formation pressure measured at the wellhead.mzhelu@gmail. 4399. 4402. an electronic device in which a probe is inserted into the drill stem near a directional-drilling deflection tool. Surface-active agent (see surfactant. a valve mounted in the christmas tree assembly that stops the flow of fluids from the well if damage occurs to the assembly. and so forth.) the first string of casing set in a well after the conductor pipe. so called because the rig floats on the surface of the water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4403. Surface-motion compensator Surface-readout device a heave compensator. Compare conductor pipe. inexpedient storage. Usually such waste is regulated by federal or state agencies.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering . seepage. 4400. Surface casing Surface pipe (see surface pipe. 4404. 4405. varying in length from a few hundred feet to several thousand. Z.

) Extend their applicability. Z. 4408. 4407.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering signals that show the direction and angle at which the bit is drilling. 658 Petroleum Engineer: M. . These muds were originally designed for use in deep. a drilling mud prepared by adding a surfactant to a water-base mud to change the colloidal state of the clay from that of complete dispersion to one of controlled flocculation.mzhelu@gmail. Readout devices greatly simplify the accurate orientation of the drilling assembly so that numerous directional surveys can be eliminated. Surfactant flooding Surfactant mud See micellar-surfactant flooding. high-temperature wells. especially the front-to-back motion of the rig when it is moored in a seaway. lower plastic viscosity. but their many advantages (high chemical and thermal stability. Surge the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a direction in line with the centerline of the rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4406. Surfactants are useful in that their use can ensure that the surface of one substance or object is in thorough contact with the surface of another substance. etc. Surfactant a substance that affects the properties of the surface of a liquid or solid by concentrating on the surface layer. (see directional drilling. minimum swelling effect on clay-bearing zones.

4411. 4412.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4410. 659 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Owing to entrained gas. 4414. The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. Line company after filing a rate increase. which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. .mzhelu@gmail. Surge tanks often are used on systems where fluids flow by heads (q. controlling such increases. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. Surge effect a rapid increase in pressure downhole that occurs when the drill stem is lowered rapidly or when the mud pump is rapidly brought up to speed after starting. Surgetank A vessel on a flow line whose function is to receive and neutralize sudden. fails to approve the increase.v. transient rises or surges in the stream of liquid. 4413. Escrow money. Surge tank a tank or vessel through which liquids or gases are passed to steady flow and eliminate pressure surges. 4415. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. survey Survey Suspension/Suspend (see directional).

com . Suspended discovery An oil or gas field that has been identified by a discovery well but is yet to be 4420. Escrow money. controlling such increases. the route of a pipeline.92 inches. for measuring horizontal as well as vertical angles. developed. each link equaling 7. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. Surveyor's chain Surveyor's transit A measuring instrument. 4421. Survey stakes may bear notations indicating elevation or location. on a tripod. 4417. A telescope mounted on a calibrated base.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4416. used in drilling reports. a chain of 100 links. or a well location. 4419. which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. A transit is commonly used by surveyors for running levels.mzhelu@gmail. Suspension/Suspend Sw The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. 660 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Survey stakes Wooden markers driven into the earth by a survey crew identifying the boundaries of a right of way. salt water. 4418. a theodolite. 4422. fails to approve the increase. Line company after filing a rate increase.

Swamper Sway (slang) a helper on a truck. steel tool. 4425. A check valve that opens upward on the lower end provides a way to remove the fluid from the well when pressure is insufficient to support flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2-inch to 3-inch 2-inch to 4-inch. 4426. Along with the horizontal girts. tapered at one end. Swage nipple An adapter. to operate a swab on a wireline to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally.mzhelu@gmail. e. 661 Petroleum Engineer: M. the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a linear direction from side to side or perpendicular to a line through the centerline of the rig. especially. a short pipe fitting. a nipple. the side-to-side motion when the rig is moored in a seaway. Swaybraces The diagonal support braces on a rig structure. Swab a hollow. tractor. that is a different size on each end. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4423. Swabbing is a temporary operation to determine whether or not the well can be m 4424. or other machine. used to force open casing that has collapsed downhole in a well. 4427. rubber-faced cylinder mounted on a hollow mandrel with a pin joint on the upper end to connect to the swab .g. 4428. sway braces hold the legs (the corner members) of the rig in place. Swage A heavy.

4431. to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from gas or oil. 4433. 4430. Having a good odor a product testing negative to the "doctor test"-free of sulfur compounds. oil containing little or no sulfur and especially little or no hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas free of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) when 4435. produced. El-Helu E-Mail: . 4436. 662 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Sweet gas a natural gas containing little or no hydrogen sulfide. Sweet crude Sweet crude oil Sweet gas sweet crude oil. 4434.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4429. Crude oil containing very little sulfur and having a good odor. Swbd Sweet swabbed. used in drilling reports. 4437. Sweet corrosion the deterioration (‫ )ﻓﺴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬of metal caused by contact with carbon dioxide and acids. 4432. Sweet Oil and Gas Sweetcrude Sweeten Petroleum containing little or no hydrogen sulphide.

Swing shift Swingcheck See swing . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4438. flanges. It reduces stratification by allowing an operator to withdraw product from varying heights in the tank. 4441. Z. and a swing shift. In a refinery or pump station operating 24 hours a day. 663 Petroleum Engineer: M. and one graveyard or hoot-owl shift. In oil and gas exploration. and valves. 4440. The other graveyard shift is worked either by another swing man or another plant worker who is not a regular shift worker.mzhelu@gmail. Swing joint A combination of pipe fittings that permits a limited amount of movement in the connection without straining the lines. 4443. swept-frequency explosions are a vibration or shock source in conducting seismographic surveys. Swept-frequency explosion A type of controlled explosion used in seismic work in which a string of small detonations are set off in sequence instead of the more conventional single. two evening shifts. Swing man One whose job is working in place of other employee son their days off. large explosion. The swing shift covers the days off of the other so the swing man works two day shifts.). 4439. A swing line may be used in place of a mixing nozzle or other circulating system.v. there are three shifts of workers. 4442. A check valve (q. Swing line an extension of the suction line that pivots vertically inside an oil tank.

Switicher Swivel (obsolete) a pumper or lease operator. a rotary tool that is hung from the rotary hook and trailing block to suspend and permit free rotation of the drill stem. Synfuel Synthane plant Short for synthetic gas or oil (q.mzhelu@gmail. the reverse of an anticline. 4448. 4447. Switcher A person who works on an oil lease overseeing the filling of lease stock tanks. A switches works on a lease with flowing production. designated as synthane. When a tank is full he switches . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. he would be called a pumper. 664 Petroleum Engineer: M. Designed to produce 1. used in drilling and mud reports. Sx Syncline sacks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4444.v. trough-shaped configuration of folded. 4450. a downwarped. turning the production into other tanks.2 mmcfd of pipeline gas. 4449. It also provides a connection for the rotary hose and passageway for the flow of drilling fluid into the drill stem. stratified rocks.). synthetic methane. 4445. If the lease had only pumping wells. A coal-to-gas pilot plant operated by the energy research and development administration in Pennsylvania. 4446. Z.

Synthetic (substitute) natural gas (sng) A gas that is obtained either by heating coal or by refining heavier . Synthetic oil A term applied to oil recovered from coat. Z. 4452.). and tar sands (q. 665 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. See gasification. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. oil shales.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4451.v. 4453. Hydrogen must be added to the product to make up for deficiencies in the original hydrocarbon source. Synthetic gas Commercial gas made by the reduction or gasification of solid hydrocarbons coal. oil shale and tar sand.

Said of a well drilled to the depth intended. 4458. 666 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4461. to extricate a vehicle from a ditch or mud. used in drilling reports. Spot weld temporarily joining two joints of pipe to hold them in position for complete welding. temporarily abandoned.mzhelu@gmail. 4462. 4455. TA tachometer TACK WELD top of.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4454. TAIL TAIL CHAIN To carry the light end of a load. Total depth. 4456. on the end of a winch line. 4459. an instrument that measures the speed of an engine. T T. tag to touch an object downhole with the drill stem as to tag bottom (of the hole) or to tag the top of the fish. tag line a utility rope or cable that is attached to unwieldy loads being hoisted by a crane to allow a load handler better control of the movement of the load. 4460. 4457. Z. abbreviated tach. with a hook attached. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The short length of chain. .

mzhelu@gmail. a worker takes the free end and. For example. tail out rods to pull the bottom end of a sucker rod away from a well when laying rods 4465. tail ends are the overlapping ends of the distillation curves of two products. he "walks" the rod to a rack where it is laid down. 4466. In a distillation column at a refinery. Z. 4469. 4467. but the initial boiling point of kerosene is about 305'F. any gas from a processing unittreated as residue. As a rod is unscrewed. TAIL GAS Residue gas from a sulfur recovery unit. when naphtha and kerosene are being distilled. tail pipe tail roller a pipe run in a well below a packer. kerosene has begun to boil or vaporize. 4468.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4463.) of naphtha is about 325'F. refuse material separated as residue. So before naphtha reaches its end point. TAILING-OUT RODS Unscrewing and stacking rods horizontally outside the derrick. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the end point (q. over which pendant lines travel when an anchor is being brought in or dropped. 4464. This unavoidable overlap 667 Petroleum Engineer: M. a large roller located across the stern of an anchor-handling . as the elevator holding the other end is stacked off. TAILINGS TAILS ENDS Leftovers from a refining process.v. down.

or tubing that is to be 4472. knows to the foot where the bottom of the casing is downhole. sometimes forming a slope of chips and larger fragments one-fourth to one-third the way up the face of the disintegrating rock cliff. TALLYING THE PIPE In setting pipe.mzhelu@gmail. the latter are. casing a well. by counting the number of joints run. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 668 Petroleum Engineer: M. in general. tank a metal. 4475. TALUS Rock fragments at the base of a cliff. plastic. casing. or wooden container used to store a . flat-bed truck with two closely coupled pairs of axles in the rear. a ten-wheeler. to measure and record the total length of pipe. Two types include production tanks and storage tanks. 4473. 4474. 4471. 4470. So before lowering a joint it is carefully tallied (measured) so the operator. run in a well. the high end of one product and low end of a closely related product. take out tally to remove a joint or stand of pipe from the drill stem. it is important to keep tab on the footage of pipe run in the hole. larger and of stronger construction. TANDEM A heavy-duty.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering results in tail ends. Z.

4 4483. or the tank running over. TANK BATTEIIY tank battery tank bottoms 4478. See Battery. tank barge a large. a group of production tanks located in the field that store crude oil.) 4480. TANK MIXER Motor-driven propeller installed on the shell of a storage tank to stir up and mix tank sediments with the crude. tank farm a group of large tanks maintained by a pipeline used to store oil after it has been transferred from the production tanks before transportation to the refinery. protrudes through the 669 Petroleum Engineer: M. tank car TANK DIKE a railroad car used to transport petroleum or petroleum products. 4479. A mound of earth surrounding an oil tank to contain the oil in the event of a rupture in the tank. a fire. 4481. The propeller shaft. (See basic sediment and water and bottoms.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4476. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pl the settlings in the bottom of a storage tank. 4484.mzhelu@gmail. Z. flat-bottomed vessel divided into compartments and used to carry crude or fuel . 4477.

TANK TABLES A printed table showing the capacity in barrels for each one-eighth inch or one-quarter inch of tank height.v. TANK TRAIN A new concept in the rail shipment of crude oil.) tank ship tank strapper 4486. Amos. hold. and vapors from the filing operation can be more easily contained. Turbulence created by the prop thrust causes the BS&W to remain suspended in the oil as it is pumped out. tank table a table giving the barrels of fluid contained in a storage tank corresponding to the linear measurement on a gauge line. Z. 4485.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 670 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. and other liquids developed by General American Transportation (GATX).) . the person who measures a tank at various levels to see how much it will 4487. products. with the motor mounted on the outside. See Strapping. from bottom to the top gauge point of the tank. 4489.mzhelu@gmail. Tank tables are prepared from tank strapping measurements. (See tanker. "Tank Train" tank cars are interconnected which permits loading and unloading of the entire train of cars from one track connection. (See strap. Tank tables are made from dimensions furnished by tank strappings (q.). This arrangement does away with the need for the conventional loading rack (q. See Densmore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shell.

2" to 10". El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BULLET tankage tanker a truck designed to transport petroleum or petroleum products. Z. for tapping larger lines. 4492.) is used. nipples are welded to the pipe and a tapping machine (q. 4494. a hole or opening in a line or vessel in which a gauge or valve may be inserted and screwed tight. See Sea Terminal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4490. or SNG. 4497. See Bullet Tanks. 4496. LPG. LNG.000 deadweight tons or more are supertankers.v. the total capacity of a number of tanks in a field. TANKER RATES. A jetty or pier equipped to load and unload oil tankers. 4493. Tankers whose capacity is 100. a ship designed to transport oil. TAP SADDLE A type of pipeline clamp with a threaded hole in one of the two halves of the bolt-on clamp for use when a pipeline is to be tapped. SPOT CHARTER TANKER TERMINAL tap See Spot Charter Tanker Rates. 4495.mzhelu@gmail. to have a hole made in it for drawing off gas or liquid. tank truck TANK. either very large crude carriers or ultralarge crude carriers. Tap saddles are used on field lines. also called a tank ship. 671 Petroleum Engineer: M. .

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. tapered string drill pipe. sucker rods. A nipple. A connection can then be made to the pipeline at the valve. screwed. 4 4503. is welded to the line. 672 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 4499. tapered grinding and pulverizing bit (tapered from several inches to one or two inches in diameter) whose surface had been hard-faced with super-hard. the valve is closed. tubing. durable cutting material. an elongated. 4501.). The tapping machine is screwed onto the valve and. working through the open valve.v. Tapped is an internally threaded (female) connection into which an externally threaded piece may be. TAPPED OR FLANGED CONNECTIONS Indicates the two types of pump or process unit connections available from suppliers. TAPPING AND PLUGGING MACHINE A device used for cutting a hole in a pipeline under pressure. The tapping drill is withdraw. 4500. a flanged connection is one furnished with a screw or weld flange. with a full-opening valve attached.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4498. taper tap a fishing tool that is run into a hollow fish (as a drill collar) and rotated to cut sufficient threads to provide a firm grip. TAPER MILL A type of junk mill ( . and the tapping machine is unscrewed from the valve. bores a hole in the line. and so forth with a diameter larger near the top of the well than that below. permitting the fish to be pulled and recovered.

2 million barrels a day. any angle in the lines indicates that the rig has moved. and. TARIFF A schedule of rates or charges permitted a common carrier or utility pipeline tariffs.000 acres and is one of the world's largest. are the charges made by common carrier pipelines for moving crude oil or products. The . 4506. Its designed throughput is 1. 4505. a large-diameter pipeline built from the oil rich North Slope of Alaska to the warm-water port of Valdez on the state's south shore. The system's weakness is that the taut line can be distorted by currents and thus give inaccurate readings.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4504. 673 Petroleum Engineer: M. An inclinometer measures the slope of the line at the rig. Z. taut-line reference system a system for monitoring the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead by stretching a taut steel line from the rig to the ocean floor. tar sand a sandstone that contains mostly very heavy. The terminal has four loading berths for tankers up to 200.mzhelu@gmail. because the line is assumed to be straight from the rig to the ocean floor. thus it is costly to obtain usable hydrocarbons from them.000 deadweight tons displacement. 800-mile pipeline was completed in the summer of 1977. 4507. The Valdez crude oil terminal covers 1. Tar sands are difficult to produce by ordinary methods. TAPS Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. tarlike hydrocarbons. Compare acoustic past reference and position-reference system. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Z. A person who furnished teams of horses and mules and oil field wagons for construction and earth work in the oil fields. 674 Petroleum Engineer: M. and 4509. 4514. batteries. 4511. Tcfld TD TDC TEAMING CONTRACTOR trillion cubic feet of gas per day. accessories. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the horse and wagon was the most dependable mode of transportation. TBA stands for tires.200 horse and mules).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4508. 4512. Some large teaming contractors in the early days kept stables with 600 teams (1. approximately equivalent to one Quad. top dead center.mzhelu@gmail. 4513. T BA Among marketing department people. TEAMSTER See Mule Skinner. T cf (Trillium Cubic Feet) A volume measurement of natural gas. In the days of drt roads in the booming oil . 4510. total depth.

TEG TELEGRAPH triethylene glycol. the driller regulated the speed of the engine by opening or closing the steam valve. The magnets draw down a small bar on the telegraph sounder. 4517. By turning his wheel. the other mounted on the steam valve of the engine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tear down to dismantle a rig at the completion of a well and prepare it to be moved to the next location. When the lever is depressed. 4520. the brass lever or key makes contact with a fixed terminal. one at the drillers stand. 4519. TEAPOT DOME Part of the Naval Petroleum Reserves set aside by Congress in 1923. 4518. making a dot or a dash sound depending upon the length of time 675 Petroleum Engineer: M. Teapot Dome in Wyoming was the center of controversy and scandal in the 19205 during the presidency of Warren G. TELEGRAPH KEY A Morse code sending instrument made with a spring loaded lever on a fulcrum. The "telegraph" consisted of a wire or a small cable running between the pulleys. TECTONIC MAP A geological map structural map showing the folding and faulting of subsurface formations. Harding. closing the electric circuit which energizes two small coils into magnets.mzhelu@gmail. . 4516. A device for the remote control of a steam drilling engine on a cable-tool rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4515.

(See riser pipe. telescoping derrick a portable mast that is capable of being erected as a unit. A popular. patented bug is the Vibroplex which has a beetle on the . and pole mart. telemetry data that is gathered by electronic or other sensing devices and is transmitted to points remote from the place where the data was collected. dashes are made one at a time with the forefinger. g. telescoping Joint a device used in the marine riser system of a mobile offshore drilling rig to compensate for the vertical motion of the rig caused by wind. TELEGRAPHER'S BUG An automatic Morse code sending machine operated by pressure from the telegrapher's thumb and forefinger. Dots are short. 4522. 4521. hence the name.) 676 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually by a tackle that hoists the wireline or by hydraulic pistons. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. waves. portable mast. dashes are slightly longer.mzhelu@gmail. (See production n . Generally the upper section of a telescoping derrick is nested (telescoped) inside the lower section of the structure and raised to full height either by the wireline or hydraulically. or weather. The advantage of the bug is that it makes dots in rapid succession by a slight pressure on the thumb lever.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (split seconds) contact is made by the telegrapher. It consists of an inner barrel attached beneath the rig floor and an outer barrel attached to the riser pipe and is an integrated part of the riser system. 4523.) 4524.

mzhelu@gmail. 4526. fluid spurts out of the telltale hole with each stroke of the piston. El-Helu E-Mail: . telltale hole a hole drilled into the space between rings of packing material used with a liner in a mud pump. TEMPERATURE BOMB A device used downhole to measure bottom-hole and circulating temperatures on a drilling well.v.) 4528. ('C. 4527. expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or centigrade. 677 Petroleum Engineer: M. The latter is the standard used in countries on the metric system. One technique involves attaining a temperature sensitive probe in a Protective sleeve attached to a carrier mounted on the drillpipe.hat permits the driller to adjust tension on the drilling fine. 4529.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4525. When the liner packing fails. = 9/5 ('C. indicating that the packing must be renewed. temperature a measure of heat or the absence of heat.32').)+ 32'. = 5/9 ('F . TEMPER SCREW A device on the cable of a string of cable fools . 4530. Attached to the walking beam. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ('F. it controls the feed rate of the drilling tools. A temper screw is made in the general form of a turnbuckle" (q. temper or temple screw a part on a cable-tool rig used to regulate the force of the blow delivered to the drill bit.) 'C. to 'F) 'F. Z. to 'C.

TEMPERATURE LOG Recording temperature variations downhole by the use of an electrode containing a length of platinum wire that readily assumes the temperature of drilling mud. gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. it is used to determine the height of cement behind the casing and to locate the source of water influx into the wellbore. the rate of change of temperature with displacement in a given direction. temporarily abandoned temporarily shut in but not plugged. is taken out to location by a crane barge where it is into the frame. shore. 4537.) An offshore platform whose supporting legs fit into a frame previously constructed and anchored to the sea floor. temperature gradient 1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 4532. The curing or hardening cement gives off heat which alters the flow of electric current observable at the surface. 4534. Z. 4 4536. In addition. The platform. 678 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4533. constructed on. template TEMPLATE PLATFORM (See temporary guide base. 2. One important use of the logging device is to determine the location of cement in the annular space between casing and well bore after a cement job. 4538. the increase in temperature of a well as its depth increases. or water leaking into the . temperature survey an operation to determine temperatures at various depths in the wellbore.mzhelu@gmail.

It serves as an anchor for the guidelines and as a foundation for the permanent guide base and has an opening in the center through which the bit passes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. storage space. tender 1. 2. 679 Petroleum Engineer: M. From two positions on a section of the cable a sensitive gauge measures the stretch and twist of the cable under load. (See yield point. Regulations set the minimum amount of oil that will be accepted for transportation. a shipment of oil presented by a shipper to a pipeline for movement. It is also called a template. 4540. Tensile strength is greater than yield strength. the barge anchored alongside a relatively small offshore drilling platform.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4539. and the mud system. Z. temporary guide base the initial piece of equipment lowered to the ocean floor once a mobile offshore drilling rig has been positioned on location. TENSIOMETER A gauge attached to a cable or wire rope to detect the tension being applied. usually containing living quarters. 4541.) 4543.mzhelu@gmail. tensile strength a measure of the load required to part metal. TENDERS A quantity of crude oil or refined product delivered to a pipeline for transportation. . indicating the tension on a scale a strain gauge.

and a separate tensioner system is provided for them. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tensioner system devices installed on a floating offshore drilling rig to maintain a constant tension on the riser pipe despite any vertical motion the rig makes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4544. 4546. 4547. Two types of systems are used the deadweight system and the pneumatic system. Secondary recovery usually involves re-pressuring or 680 Petroleum Engineer: M. conditions that affect conventional semisubmersibles. It usually includes a tank farm and may include tanker-loading facilities.). pitch. and roll caused by wave action. TENSION-LEG PLATFORM A semisubumersible drilling platform held in position by multiple cables anchored to the ocean floor. TENSIONER SYSTEMS Tensioner systems are installed on deep water floating drilling platforms to maintain a constant tension on the marine riser (q. terminal a point to which oil is transported through-pipelines. The constant tension of the cables makes the platform immune to . Tensioning systems serve the dual purpose of compensating for the vertical motion of the drilling vessel or platform and maintaining a constant tension or lifting force on the riser. The guidelines must also be tensioned. 4545. TERTIARY RECOVERY The third major phase of crude oil recovery.v.mzhelu@gmail. The primary phase is flowing and finally pumping down the reservoir until it is "depleted" or no longer economical to operate. 4548.

mzhelu@gmail. plastics and ceramicswhich are subjected to heat. 681 Petroleum Engineer: M. . TEST COUPONS Small samples of materials-metals. The test includes a hand-cranked telephone instrument whose lead wires are clipped to the phone lines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. test well a wildcat well. TESTING. The third or tertiary phase employs more sophisticated techniques of altering one or more of the properties of crude oil. This is accomplished by flooding the formation with water mixed with certain chemicals that "free" the oil adhering to the porous rock so it may be taken into solution and pumped to the surface. alloys. pressure. 4552. 4550. TEST SET (TELEPHONE) A lineman's portable equipment for testing the circuit on a telephone line. coatings. test separator an oil and gas separator that is used to separate relatively small quantities of oil and gas. e. reducing surface tension. HYDROSTATIC See Hydrostatic Testing. humidity and other conditions of stress to test durability and performance under simulated operating conditions.g. which are diverted through the testing devices on a lease. 4549.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering simple water-flooding. See Micellarsurfactant Flooding. Z.. when the lineman wants to call in to the switchboard. 4551.

Thermal Decay Time THERMAL OXIDIZERS (TDT) Log a proprietary name for a type of pulsed-neutron survey. 4559. Thermal cracking is used to increase the yield of gasoline obtainable from crude oil. rearrange. TETRAETHYL LEAD A lead compound added. 4555. a petrochemical gas. . THEODOLITE THERMAL CRACKING (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ A surveyor's transit (q.mzhelu@gmail.). TEXAS DECK The top deck of a large semisubmersible drilling platform. with refractory lining and banks of burners at various levels. hence the name. in small amounts. or combine hydrocarbon molecules. A refining process in which heat and pressure are used to break down. 4557. 682 Petroleum Engineer: M. cylindrical furnace.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4553. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. v. 4556. Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is manufactured from ethyl chloride which is derived from ethylene. to gasoline to improve itsantiknock quality. 4554. A large. TEXAS TOWER A radar or microwave platform supported on caissons anchored to the ocean floor. The upper deck of any offshore drilling rig that has two or more platform levels. for burning refinery gases before they are vented to the I la re tower (q. The tower resembles an offshore drilling platform in the Texas Gulf.). Z.

or the galvanic effect of dissimilar metals in contact. known as the "cold junction." When the hot junction is heated. the change in electrical resistance of metals. 683 Petroleum Engineer: M. the millivolts can be measured on a temperature scale. THERMOCOUPLE A pyrometer.v. The most common thermometer is the mercury-filled glass tube that indicates temperature by the expansion of the liquid mercury. Thermometers provide a way to characteristics (as a gas that expands when heated). The two free ends are carried through leads to the electromotive force detector. 4562. THERMOMETRIC HYDROMETER A hydrometer (q. Various types of thermometers measure temperature by measuring the change in pressure of a gas kept at a constant volume. 4561. The thermocouple is based upon the principle that a small electric current will flow through two dissimilar wires properly welded together at the ends. The welded ends are known as the "hot junction" which is placed where the temperature is to be measured. a temperature-measuring device used extensively in refining.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4560. This is of first importance as the density or API gravity varies with the temperature. Z.) which has a thermometer as an integral part of the instrument to show the temperature of the liquid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when one junction is at a higher temperature than the . Hydrometers used by pipeline gaugers are thermometric hydrometers. estimate thermometer temperature from its effect on a substance with known an instrument that measures temperature.mzhelu@gmail.

4566. thief formation a formation that absorbs drilling fluid as the fluid is circulated in the well. 4568. 684 Petroleum Engineer: M. also called pumping time. Z. thickening time the length of time a slurry is pumpable. up to 1 00 poise as measured on the consistometer. (See pumpability. which also include crevices and caverns. THIEF HATCH An opening in the top-of a tank large enough to admit a thief and other oil. must be sealed off with a liner or plugged with special cements or fibrous clogging agents before drilling can . or to the bottom of the tank to take a column of heavy sediment. 4567. 4565. The thief is lowered into the tank on a line that when jerked will trip the spring valve enabling the operator to obtain a sample at any desired level. also called a thief sand or a thief zone. THIEF A metal or glass cylinder with a spring-actuated closing device that is lowered into a tank to obtain a sample of oil.) 4564.Thief zones.mzhelu@gmail. thief sand THIEF ZONE (See thief formation.) A very porous formation downhole into which drilling mud is lost.sampling equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Lost circulation is caused by a thief formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4563.

This procedure may be repeated until the predetermined setting time of the cement is reached. THIEFING ATANK Taking samples of oil from different levels in a tank of crude oil and from the bottom to determine the presence of sediment and water with the use of a thief (q. But when force is again applied (pumping is resumed) the cement again becomes a pumpable slurry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4574." become rigid when pumping ceases. less sophisticated models or prototypes. thin to add a substance such as water or a chemical to drilling mud to reduce its 4571. 4573.). 4570. THIXOTROPIC The property of certain specially formulated cement slurries-used in cementing jobs downhole-that causes them to " . viscosity.mzhelu@gmail.v. Z. thinning agent a special chemical or combination of chemicals that. gelled state when at rest. thixotrophy the property exhibited by a fluid that is in a liquid state when flowing and in a semisolid. Most drilling fluids must be thixotrophic so that the cuttings in the fluid will remain in suspension when circulation is stopped. THIRD-GENERATION HARDWARE Equipment developed from earlier.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4569. 685 Petroleum Engineer: M. when added to a drilling mud. reduces its viscosity. the latest in the evolution of specialized equipment. 4572.

mzhelu@gmail. 4578. the monkeyboard when it is located at a height in the derrick equal to the length of three lengths of pipe joined together. Throttling is usually caused by improper lift of the valve. throttling the choking or failing that occurs when a mud pump fails to deliver a full amount of fluid through one or more of its valves. casing. 4577. Compare double board and fourble board. THROWING THE CHAIN Wrapping the spinning chain (q. Crew members become proficient at throwing the chain in such a way as to put several wraps on the pipe with one deft motion.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4575. thribble thribble board a stand of pipe made up of three joints and handled as a unit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) around the drillpipe in preparation for running the pipe up or backing it out. And tubing) to protect the threads from damage as the pipe is being handled. 686 Petroleum Engineer: M. throw the chain to flip the spinning chain up from a tool-joint box so that the chain wraps around the tool-joint pin after it is stabbed into the box. THREAD PROTECTOR A threaded cap or lightweight collar screwed onto the ends of tubular goods ( . Z. 4581. 4576. 4 4580.v. The stand or joint of drill pipe to be made up is turned or spun by a pull on the spinning chain from the cathead on the drawworks.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4582. 4586. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. TIE-IN An operation in pipeline construction in which two sections of line are connected a loop lied into the main line a lateral line to a trunk line. thruster THRUSTERS (See dynamic positioning. permeability. The Federal government now has the right to produce oil and gas from this area of the continental shelf. and deep water drilling platforms that provide a means to move the vessel sideways-at right angles to the ship's normal line of travel-when docking or in maintaining position in water too deep for conventional anchors. 4585. tight formation a petroleum. 4583.) Jets or propellers on large tinkers. See Dynamic Stationing. the anchoring device for the deadline of a hoisting-block arrangement. 4587. The term also refers to that portion of the continental shelf between the shore and the boundaries claimed by . tie-down a device to which a guy wire or brace may be attached. driliships. 4584. Land submerged during high tide. Z. THUMPER TIDELANDS See Vibrator Vehicle. 4 4589.or waterbearing formation of relatively low porosity and 687 Petroleum Engineer: M.

TIGHT HOLE A drilling well about which all information-depth. 4591. The production of tight gas is more costly and therefore less attractive to producers owing to the need for fracturing. such g as has been given an incentive price of 150 percent of the price of gas from new. and other expensive treatments to free the gas from the relatively impermeable formations. an 688 Petroleum Engineer: M. derby-like. T I N HA T The metal. TO LAY OFF AN INTEREST To sell off a portion of one's interest in a well to another person to reduce the financial loss should the well be noncommercial or dry. tight spot a section of a borehole in which excessive wall cake has built up. In view of these constraints. 4594. safety hat worn by all workers in the oil . TIGHT GAS Nat