Dictionary Of Petroleum Engineering

The Author Parmanand Thakur Creation Date: 9th, November, 2000.

Prepared By: Petroleum Engineer: Mohammed Zouhry El-Helu. E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
1. A (‫)ﺭﻤﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺒﻴﺭ‬

Ampere, a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.

2.
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A-FRAME

A two-legged (with two legs), metal or wooden support in the form of the letter "A" for hoisting or exerting a vertical pull with block and tackle or block and winch line, the block fastened to the 3pex of the A-frame, Such a frame fixed to move off location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing of the location by electronic means.

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A-h (‫)ﺃﻤﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬
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Ampere-hour.

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A-mast (‫)ﺭﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺼﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬

An A-shaped arrangement of upright poles, usually steel, used for lifting heavy loads.
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5 6.
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AAODC (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors.

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AAPG (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬
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American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

8.
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Abandon (‫)ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬

To cease producing oil or gas from a well when it becomes unprofitable. A wildcat (‫ )ﺒﺌﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬may be abandoned after it has been proven nonproductive. Usually, before a well is abandoned, some of the casing is

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
removed and salvaged (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬،‫ )ﻴﻨﻘﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ‬and one or more cement plugs placed in the borehole to prevent migration of fluids between the various formations. In many states, abandonment must be approved by an official regulatory agency before being undertaken.
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9.
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ABANDONED OIL ((‫ﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﻭﻙ )ﺍﻟﻤ‬

Oil permitted to escape from storage tanks or pipeline by an operator. If the operator makes no effort to recover the oil, the land owner (‫ )ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬on whose property the oil has run may trap the oil for his own use.
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10. Abandoned Well (‫)ﺒﺌﺭ ﻤﻬﺠﻭﺭﺓ‬
Converting a drilled well to a condition that can be left indefinitely
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(‫ )ﻷﺠل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﻤﻰ‬without further attention and which will not damage fresh water supplies or potential petroleum reservoirs.
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11. Abd (‫)ﺇﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
Or abdn, abbr abandoned; used in drilling reports.

12. Abnormal pressure (‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬
Pressure exerted by a formation and exceeding or falling below the normal pressure to be expected at a given depth. Normal pressure increases approximately (0.465 psi) per foot of depth. Thus, normal pressure at 10,000 ft is 4,650 psi; abnormal pressure is higher than or lower than 4,650 psi. Formations with abnormally high pressure (‫ )ﻀﻐﻁ ﻁﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺸﺎﺫ‬must be controlled to prevent a blowout. (See pressure gradient.).

13. Aboard (‫)ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺘﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬
adon or in a ship or offshore drilling rig.
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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
14. ABS (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻔﻥ( )ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
(1) Abbr, the American Bureau (‫ )ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬of Shipping; an organization that sets standards and specifications for ships and ship equipment manufactured in the U.S. (2) Absolute permeability (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻭﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬, the case with which a fluid flows through a formation that is 100 percent saturated with that fluid.

15. ABSOLUTE alcohol ((‫ﻁﻠﻕ )ﺼﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫)ﻜﺤﻭل ﻤ‬
One hundred percent ethyl alcohol.
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16. Absolute porosity (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬
Of the total bulk volume of a rock sample, the percentage that is composed of pore spaces or voids (‫)ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬. (See porosity.)
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17. Absolute pressure (‫ﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
The pressure reckoned (‫ُﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬from absolute zero pressure, or gauge pressure (‫ )ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱ‬plus the pressure of the atmosphere. It is expressed in units of force per unit of area, as pounds per square inch absolute (psia).
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18. Absolute temperature scale
A measure of temperature in which zero degrees is absolute zero. The Rankine absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees Fahrenheit, in which water freezes at 491.691 and boils at 671.691. The Kelvin absolute temperature scale corresponds to degrees centigrade, in which water freezes at 2731 and boils at 373
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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
19. Absolute zero (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬
A hypothetical temperature (‫ )ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ‬at which there is a total absence of heat.

20. Absorb (‫)ﻴﻤﺘﺹ‬
To recover liquid hydrocarbons from natural or refinery gas in a gasabsorption plant. The wet gas enters the absorber (‫ )ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬at the bottom and rises to the top, encountering a stream of a absorption oil (a light oil or similar fraction) traveling downward over bubble-cap trays (‫)ﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺅﺅﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺎﻗﻴﻊ‬. The lighter fraction removes, or absorbs, the heavier liquid hydrocarbons from the wet gas.
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21. Absorber (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
A vertical, cylindrical vessel that recovers heavier hydrocarbons from a mixture of predominantly (‫ )ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬lighter hydrocarbons. (See absorb.)

22. Absorption gasoline (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
The gasoline extracted from natural gas by putting the gas in contact with an oil in a vessel and subsequently (‫ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‬،‫ )ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ‬distilling the gasoline from the heavier oil.

23. ABSORPTION OIL (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil with a high affinity for light hydrocarbons but containing few if any of the light compound, composing gasoline or natural gas. The oil used in an absorption plant (q.v.).
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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
24. ABSORPTION PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
An oil field facility that removes liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas, especially casinghead gas (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬. The gas is run through oil of a proper character which absorbs the liquid components of the gas. The liquids are then recovered from the oil by distillation.
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25. Absorption tower (‫)ﺒﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬
(See absorber.)
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26. Abyssal (‫)ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬
of or relating to the bottom waters of the ocean.
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27. AC (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺩﺩ‬
Abbr of Alternating Aurrent.

28. ACCELERATED AGING TEST
A procedure whereby an oil product is subjected to intensified but controlled
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conditions of heat, pressure, radiation, or other variables to produce, in a short time, the effects of long-time storage or use under normal conditions.
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29. Accelerator (‫)ﻤﺴﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﻟﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
A chemical additive that reduces the setting time of cement. (See cementing materials.)

30. Accelerator jar (‫ﻉ )ﻤﺯﻭﺩ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ( ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺭ‬  ‫ﻤ‬ )
(See jar accelerator.)
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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
31. Accord Implementation Acts
The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act, S.C. 1988, c.28 and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act, S.N.S. 1987, c.3. The federal and provincial "mirror" legislation implements the provisions of the 1986 Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord and governs all petroleum activities that take place in the offshore area.
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32. Accumulate (‫)ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ‬
To amass (‫ﱢﺱ‬ ‫ )ﻴﻜﺩ‬or collect. When oil and gas migrate into porous formations, the quantity collected is called an accumulation.
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33. Accumulator ((‫ﺭﺍﻜﻡ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻤ‬
(1). a vessel or tank that receives and temporarily stores a liquid used in a continuous process in a gas plant. (2). On a drilling rig, an accumulator stores the nitrogen-pressurized hydraulic fluid used in closing the blowout preventers. (See blowout presenter control unit.). (3). A drip accumulator (‫ )ﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﻁﺭ‬collects the liquid hydrocarbons that condense out of a wet gas traveling through a pipeline.

34. ACCUMULATOR SYSTEM (‫)ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
A hydraulic system designed to provide power to all closure elements (‫ )ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ‬of the rig's blowout preventer stack (‫)ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬. Hydraulic oil is forced into one or more vessels by a high-pressure, smallvolume pump and Its charge of Inert gas, usually nitrogen. The gas is compressed and stores potential energy. When the system is actuated, the oil 6

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
under high pressure is released and opens or closes the valves on the BOP stack.

35. acetic acid ((‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﻴﻙ )ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻙ‬
An organic acid compound sometimes used to acidize oil wells. It is not as corrosive as other acids used in well treatments. Its chemical formula is C2H4O2, or CH3COOH.

36. ACETONE (‫)ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻭﻥ‬
A flammable (‫)ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻼﺸﺘﻌﺎل‬, liquid compound used widely in industry as a solvent for many organic substances.

37. ACETYLENE (‫)ﺃﺴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A colorless (‫)ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ‬, highly flammable gas with a sweetish odor (‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ;)ﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ ﺤﻠﻭﺓ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬used with oxygen In oxyacetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﻴﺘﻠﻴﻥ‬. It is produced synthetically by incomplete combustion (‫ )ﺇﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬of coal gas and also by the action of water on calcium carbide (CaC2). Also can be made from natural gas.
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3 39. acetylene welding (‫)ﻟﺤﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻴﺘﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬
A method of joining steel components, in which acetylene gas and oxygen are mixed in a torch (‫ ﻤﺸﻌل‬،‫َﻕ‬ ‫ِﺤﺭ‬ ‫ )ﻤ‬to attain the high temperatures needed to weld.
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40. Acid (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ‬
Any chemical compound, one element of which is hydrogen, that dissociates (‫ )ﻴﺘﻔﻜﻙ‬in solution to produce free-hydrogen ions. (See ion.) For example, hydrochloric acid, HCI, dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+, and 7

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
chloride ions, Cl-. This reaction is expressed chemically as HC@-H + + Cl-(See dissociation.).
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4 42. ACID BOTTLE INCLINATOR (‫)ﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
A device used in a well to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of the well bore. The acid is used to etch a horizontal line on the container, and from the angle the line makes with the wall of the container, the angle of the well's course can be arrived at.
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4 44. Acid fracture (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻀﻲ‬
To open cracks in productive hard-limestone formations by using a combination of oil and acid (or water and acid) under high pressure. (See formation fracturing)
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45. ACID-RECOVERY PLANT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ‬
An auxiliary facility at some refineries where sludge acid (‫ )ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬is separated into acid oil, tar, and weak sulfuric acid (‫)ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ‬. The sulfuric acid is then re-concentrated.

46. Recovery (‫)ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬
The total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated (‫ُﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ )ﻴ‬to be produced from a well or field.
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47. ACID SLUDGE (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺤل‬
The residue left after treating petroleum with sulfuric acid for the removal of Impurities (‫)ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺌﺏ‬. The sludge is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and the impurities which the acid has removed from the oil.
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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
48. ACID TREATMENT
A refining process in which unfinished petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuels, and lubricating stocks are treated with sulfuric acid to improve color, odor, and other properties.

49. Acidity (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ‬
The relative acid strengths of liquids as measured by pH; a pH value below 7. (See pH value.)
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50. Acidize (‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ )
To treat oil-bearing limestone or other formations, using a chemical reaction with acid, to increase production. Hydrochloric or other acid is injected into the formation under pressure. The acid etches the rock, enlarging the pore spaces and passages (‫ )ﻤﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬through which the reservoir fluids flow. The acid is then pumped out and the well swabbed (‫ )ﻴﻨﻅﻑ‬and put back into production (‫ُﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫)ﻴ‬. Chemical inhibitors combined with the acid prevent corrosion of the pipe.

51. ACIDIZING A WELL (‫)ﺘﺤﻤﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺭ‬
A technique for increasing the flow of oil from a well by the use of a quantity of acid pumped downhole and into the rock formation. Hydrochloric acid is pumped or forced under high pressure into a limestone formation which dissolves the limestone, enlarging the cavity and increasing the surface area of the hole opposite the producing formation. The high pressure of the treatment also forces the acid into cracks and fissures (‫ )ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ‬enlarging them and resulting in an increased flow of oil into the well bore.
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52. ACOUSTIC PLENUM (‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬،‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺠﻴﺞ‬
A sound-proof room; an off Ice or "sanctuary (‫ ")ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺠﺄ‬aboard an
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offshore drilling platform protected from the noise of drilling engines and pipe handling.
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53. acoustic position reference (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A system consisting of: a beacon (‫ )ﻤﻨﺎﺭﺓ‬positioned on the seafloor to transmit an acoustic signal (‫)ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬, a set of three or four hydrophones mounted on the hull of a floating offshore drilling vessel to receive the signal, and a position display unit (‫ )ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬to track (‫ )ﻴﺘﻌﻘﺏ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻤﺎ‬the relative positions of the rig and the drill site. Monitoring of the display unit ensures accurate positioning of the rig over the site.

54. ACOUSTIC REENTRY (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﺔ‬
A method used In offshore operations, particularly in deep water for repositioning a drillship or semisubmersible drilling platform over a hole previously drilled and cased. The technique employs acoustic signals emitted (‫ﹸﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﹸﺭﺴل ﺃﻭ ﺘ‬ ‫ )ﺘ‬by equipment on board the ship which are "bounced off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﹸﺒﺘﺕ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬ ‫ ")ﺜ‬the submerged wellhead indicating to receivers the location of the hole. In hostile environments (‫ )ﺃﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﻋﺩﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‬such as a severe storm or encroaching ice, a drillship may be forced to move off (‫ﺍ‬ ‫ )ﻴﺤﺭﻙ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ‬location before the well is completed. And although the operators of the drilling vessel know the approximate location of the temporarily abandoned well, to be able to reenter the hole without diver assistance, which often is not possible, requires the pinpointing (‫ )ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬of the location by electronic means.
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55. Acoustic survey (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ )ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ( ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬
A well logging method that measures the time required for sound impulses (‫ )ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ‬to travel through a given length of rock to permit estimation of the rock porosity of a given formation and of the type of fluid contained in the rock. This process is also called sonic logging.

56. Acre-foot (‫)ﺃﻜﺭ )ﻓﺩﺍﻥ( ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬
A unit of volume often used in oil-reservoir analysis, equivalent to the volume (as of oil or water) necessary to cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot.

57. ACRE-FOOT OF SAND
A unit of measurement applied to petroleum reserves; an acre of producing formation one foot thick.

58. Acre-ft
acre-foot.
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5 60. Across (‫)ﺨﻼل‬
over. The term usually describes conditions of flow on one side of a piece of equipment as compared with conditions on the opposite side where a fluid is flowing (e.g., a pressure drop across a separator).
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61. ACS (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﻴﻥ‬
American Chemical Society.
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62. AC T
Automatic custody transfer, more commonly called LACT, lease automatic custody transfer.

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63. SYSTEM
Automatic Custody Transfer System (q.v.),
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64. Activated charcoal (‫)ﻓﺤﻡ )ﻤﻨﺸﻁ( ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
A form of carbon characterized by a high absorptive and adsorptive capacity for gases, vapors, and colloidal solids.

65. ACTUATOR
See Operator.

66. ACV (‫)ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ )ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ( ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬
Air cushion vehicle.
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See

Air

Cushion

Transport

((‫)ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬.

67. ADA MUD (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬
A material which may be added to drilling mud to condition it in order to obtain satisfactory core samples.

68. ADAPTER (‫)ﻤﺤﻭل ﻭﺼل ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ‬
A device to provide a connection between two dissimilar parts or between similar parts of different sizes. See Swage.
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69. ADDITIVE (‫)ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain
T

characteristics or to give them other desirable properties. additive a substance or compound added in small amounts to a larger volume of another substance to change some characteristic of the latter. In the oil industry, additives are used in lubricating oil, fuel, drilling mud, and cement for cementing casing.
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Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
70. ADDMVE
A chemical added to oil, gasoline, or other products to enhance certain characteristics or to give them other desirable properties.
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71. adhere (‫)ﻴﻠﺼﻕ‬
To stick or bond to (as paint to a metallic surface).

72. adiabatic change (‫)ﺘﺤﻭل ﻜﻅﻭﻡ‬
A change in the temperature of a gas, caused specifically by a change in the pressure of the gas.
T

73. adjustable choke ((‫)ﺇﺨﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻗﺎﺒل ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺩﻴل )ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬
A choke in which a conical needle and seat vary the rate of flow. adsorption the adhesion of a thin film (‫ )ﻓﻴﻠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺭﻗﻴﻕ‬of a gas or liquid to the surface of a solid. Liquid hydrocarbons are recovered from natural gas by passing the gas through activated charcoal, which extracts the heavier hydrocarbons. Steam treatment of the charcoal removes the adsorbed hydrocarbons, which are then collected and recondensed.
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74. ADSORPTION (‫)ﺍﻹﻤﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact.
T

75. ADVANCE PAYMENT AGREEMENT (‫)ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﻕ‬
A transaction (‫ )ﺼﻔﻘﺔ‬in which one operator advances a sum of money (‫ )ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬or credit to another operator to assist In developing an oil or gas field. The agreement provides an option to the "lender" to buy a portion or all of the production resulting from the development work.
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Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

AEC (‫)ﻭﻜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬ Atomic Energy Commission.com .mzhelu@gmail. T 79. T T 82. gasify. Z. air is injected into drilling fluid to reduce the density of the fluid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 77. AGA (‫)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ American Gas Association. 85. title to oil installations 14 Petroleum Engineer: M. age (‫)ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬ to allow cement to mature. For example. T 78. AGENCY CONTRACT A type of agreement which in many cases has replaced the concession (q. AERIFY (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻭﻴﺯ‬ To change Into a gaseous form.) as the form of petroleum development agreement in the Middle East and with OPEC countries elsewhere. aft toward or near the stern of a ship or offshore drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 84. or reach a stage harder than that of immediate setting. to infuse with or force air into. AFRA (‫)ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺃﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬ Average freight rate assessment (for tankers). T 83. This process is sometimes called curing. aeration ((‫ﻼ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ )ﻟﻤﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺭ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ The technique of injecting air or gas into a fluid. atmospheric oxygen for normal activity. aerobic (‫)ﻫﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ requiring free. T 81. 80. Under an agency contract.

mzhelu@gmail.) 91.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and oil produced arc held by the host government. headquartered (‫ )ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬in Dallas. exclusive right to exploit the minerals as is the case under a concession agreement. AIMME American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. but !he government bears none of the costs of initial exploration. 15 Petroleum Engineer: M. The device is attached to the well end of the walking beam and. T 88.com .. publishes the Journal of Petroleum Technology. does away with (‫( )ﻴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ‬eliminate) the need for counterweights on the rear end of the walking beam. AIR-BALANCED BEAM PUMPING UNIT (‫)ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ An oil well pumping jack equipped with a piston and rod that works in an air chamber to balance the weight of the string of sucker rods. Air balanced beam-pumping unit (See sucker-rod pumping. the foreign company does not have a long-term. Metallurgical. AIME the American Institute of Mining. acting as a shock absorber. Also. Tex. T T 8 90. and Petroleum Engineers. The SPE. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. New T York City-based parent group of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. T T 87. Z. 86. AIChE (‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ‬ American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

AIR BOTTLE A steel cylinder of oxygen for oxyacetylene welding. 93. fires engine fires and begins running. AIR-COOLED ENGINE An engine in which heat from the combustion chamber and friction is T dissipated to the atmosphere through metal tins integral to the engine's cylinder head and block assemblies. This pushes the piston as on a power stroke. The compressed air at a pressure of 200 pounds or so per square inch is piped from the tank to the engine's cylinderhead. Then the valve is opened for another shot of air. AIR BURSTS A geophysical technique used in marine seismic work in which bursts of compressed air from an air gun towed by the seismographic vessel are used to produce sound waves. T 94. Air bursts do not destroy marine life as did explosive charges.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 92. To start the engine a hand-operated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. quick-opening and closing valve is instantly opened admitting the high pressure air into the firing chamber.v. After a burst of air.).mzhelu@gmail. the valve is shut off until the piston moves back on another compression stroke. T 95. Z. By this time the engine is rolling so the fuel (gas) valve is opened. an air chamber (q. AIR CHAMBER A small tank or "bottle" connected to a reciprocating pump's discharge T chamber or fine to absorb and dampen the surges in pressure from the rhythmic pumping action. The heat generated flows though the 16 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . a "bottle" or welded steel tank with air under pressure for use in starting certain types of gas engines on leases or at pumping stations. Air chambers are charged with sufficient air pressure to provide an air cushion that minimizes the pounding and vibration associated with the pumping of fluids with plunger pumps.

In certain types of formations. Air-cut having inadvertent mechanical incorporation of air into a fluid system.com . A small. a mud system must be on standby to avert possible trouble. T 96. AIR CUSHION TRANSPORT A vehicle employing the hover craft principle of down-thrusting air stream T support. drilling rates are higher. air drilling is T considered a better medium than conventional drilling mud. and bit life is longer. since the entry of water into the system reduces its efficiency. a principal problem in air drilling is the penetration of formations containing water. in addition. T 17 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. penetration is faster. However. Although air does a good job of cooling the bit and bringing out the pulverized rock. This method of removing cuttings from the wellbore is as efficient or more efficient than the traditional methods using water or drilling mud. air drilling a method of rotary drilling that uses compressed air as its circulation medium. it has severe limitations. T 97. or conventional radiator. water in the subsurface formations and downhole gas pressure cannot be controlled. When drilling in an area where these two types of intrusions may occur. It is more economical (mud is expensive and the preparation of the slurry and maintaining its condition is time consuming). water pump. T 98. The air cushion protects the tundra from being cut by the wheels or treads of conventional vehicles. two-cycle engine without water jacketing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering engine head and cylinder walls and into the fins by conductance and is given off by the fins acting as radiators. Z. developed to transport equipment and supplies in the arctic regions. With air drilling. of penetration is increased considerably when air drilling is used. AIR DRILLING The use of air as a drilling fluid.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 99. Butylene.t. ALIPHATICS One of the two classes of organic petrochemicals the other is the aromatics T (q. ALKYLATION A refining process that. the most important aliphatics are the gases. T 104. the air must be bled off and vented to the atmosphere through a bleeder line or by loosening the suction valve covers to permit the escape of the air. acetylene and propylene. T 105. AIR-INJECTION METHOD A type of secondary recovery Ii production by forcing the oil from the T reservoir into the well bore. is the reverse of cracking. Before the pump will operate efficiently. To a refining engineer. Air gap the distance from the normal level of the sea surface to the bottom of the hull T or base of an offshore drilling platform. simply stated. Z.v. a mechanism for lifting operated by a compressed air motor. T 100.com . ethylene. this method is not a common practice except in areas where there is insufficient gas for repressuring. of the dangers inherent in the use of air.mzhelu@gmail. The T alkylation process starts with small molecules and ends up with larger ones. T 102.c-3u-. AIR HOIST A hoist. AIR WRENCH See Impact Wrench.). AIRED UP Refers to a condition in a plunger pump when the suction chamber is full of T air or gas blocking the intake of oil into the chamber. Cc-. T 103. T T 101. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. alkylation is the reaction of butylene or propylene with 18 Petroleum Engineer: M.

T 1 111. heating oil-made from coal.com . alkylate.mzhelu@gmail. Z. T 106. oil shales. Under a lease allowable. Also the silt laid down by a tributary stream as it joins the mainstream T 109. or tar sands by T various methods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering isobutane to form an isoparaffin. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ALLOWABLE The amount of oil or gas a well or leasehold is permitted to produce under T proration order of a state regulatory body. sand. for example and one of eight is unable to make its production for some reason the other seven wells can increase their flow to make up the loss of the ailing well. the lease is considered producing unit. gasoline. T 107. ALLUVIAL FAN Pertains to the silt. alpha particle one of the extremely small particles of an atom that is ejected from a T radioactive substance (as radium or uranium) as it 'disintegrates. In a state using proration. this figure is established monthly by its conservation agency. a superior gasoline blending component. a T close nipple. ALL-THREAD NIPPLE A short piece of small-diameter pipe with threads over its entire length. clay. T 108. ALTERNATE FIELDS Fuels-gas. In some instances if a lease has eight wells. Alternate fuels may also include steam from geothermal 19 Petroleum Engineer: M. Alpha particles have a positive charge. allowable the amount of oil or gas produced from a well per unit of time. and other sediment deposited by a stream as it T spreads out on a plain or overflows its banks and then recedes.

T C02) occurring in process streams. AMINE UNIT A natural gas treatment unit for removing contaminants-H-S. AMMONIUM SULFATE A salt having commercial value which is obtained in the distillation of shale T oils. T 1 113.1 so they can be moved to the site of new gas production.v. Diamonds are many times harder than @ hardest 20 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Amine units are often f. 1 115.. COS. AMERIPOL The trade name for products made from a type of synthetic rubber.kid-motinter. 120. Two common T amines are monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). COS. 118. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 119.). T 117. AMINE Organic bases used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases (H2S. T CO@th6'us-o of amines (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wells where super-heated water deep in the earth is used to generate steam for electric power generation. ambient temperature the temperature of the medium by which an object is surrounded. T 116. Gas containing H2S and other impurities must be cleaned up before it is acceptable to gas transmission pipelines.com . AMOND DRILL BIT Drill bit with many small industrial (man-made) diamonds set in the nose or cutting surface of the bit.mzhelu@gmail. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE A chemical used as a catalytic agent in oil refining and for the removal of odor T and color from cracked gasoline.

ampere a unit of electrical current equivalent to the steady current produced by 1 volt T applied across a resistance of 1 ohm.Bigelow and B. T 1 124. T 1 131. T 1 127. Richardson in the year 1865. T 1 129. Under certain conditions. Z. floating drilling vessels are sometimes secured over drill sites by large metal anchors like those used on ships. ANCHOR BOLT A stud bolt. The return of a debt. anchor any device that secures or fastens equipment. In downhole equipment. In offshore drilling. amortization 1. T 132.com . T 1 122. a large bolt for securing an engine or other item of equipment to T its foundation. the T term often refers to the tail pipe. ampere hour a unit of electricity equal to the amount produced in 1 hour by a flow of 1 T ampere. T 21 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 125. so a diamond bit makes possible longer bit runs before round trip is necessary to change bits.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering steel. anaerobic bacteria can cause scale to form in water-handling facilities in oil fields. AMYL HYDRIDE This fraction in the distillation of petroleum was used as an anesthetic by T J. principal. T the return of invested principal in a sinking fund. anaerobic bacteria any of several types of bacteria that do not require free oxygen to live or are T not destroyed by its absence.mzhelu@gmail. 2. and interest in equal annual installments. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

com .) T 139. angle of deviation (See deviation. T 137. It provides a way to perform a washover and retrieve a stuck fish off the bottom in one round trip. 1 136. Z. T T 138.mzhelu@gmail. angle of drift (See deviation. Angular unconformity an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides are not parallel. angle of deflection in directional drilling. Tangle sub (See bent sub. ANEMOMETER An instrument for measuring and indicating the force or speed of the wind. angle-azimuth indicator (See riser-angle indicator.) T 1 143. anchor buoy a floating marker used in a spread mooring system to position each anchor of T a semisubmersible rig or drill ship.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 134. anchor wash pipe spear a fishing tool attached to washover pipe by means of slips and T released from the pipe once the fish is engaged by the tool. the angle at which a well is deflected from the vertical T by a whipstock or other deflecting tool. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T T 22 Petroleum Engineer: M.) T T 141.) T 1 145. T 140.

2. T 149. the space surrounding a cylindrical object within a cylinder. which forms a seal T in the annular space between the pipe and wellbore or. Anhydrite formations are sometimes encountered during drilling T 147. Generally. the space around a pipe in a wellbore. aniline point the lowest temperature at which the chemical aniline and a solvent (such as T the oil in oil-base muds) will mix completely. if no pipe is present. the outer wall of which may be the wall of either the borehole or the casing. usually installed above the ram preventers. defined by wall of the borehole. sometimes termed the annulus. The ring of T space surrounding the well's casing. T 1 153. anhydrous without water.) T 150.) T T 23 Petroleum Engineer: M. the oil of oil-base muds should have an aniline point of at least 150 F to obtain maximum service life from the rubber components in the mud system. ANNULAR SPACE (‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﻲ‬ The space between the well's casing and the wall of the borehole.com . sometimes called gypsum or T gyp. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. anion (See ion. CaSO4. Annular Blowout Preventer ((‫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬،‫)ﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﺇﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﺤﻠﻘﻲ )ﺸﻤﻭل‬ a large valve. Annulus (See annular space. on the wellbore itself T 151. See Annulus of a Well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 146. anhydrite the common name for calcium sulfate.mzhelu@gmail. Z. T 148.

the negative terminal of which is grounded to the steel structure. TANTICLINAL FOLD T A subsurface formation resembling an anticline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 154." T 1 156. The weak current is supplied by a transformer-rectifier. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 158. See also Rectifier Bed. Annular and annulus are often used interchangeably as both derive from the Latin stem word annularis which means "relating to or forming a ring. ANNULUS OF A WELL The space between the surface casing or conductor casing and the producing T or well-bore casing. Z. T T 157. T T 24 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 1 161. ANODE. This the completion of the circuit from rectifier to anode to structure is through the sea water. ANS I American National Standards Institute.com .mzhelu@gmail. The weak current moving from anode to the structure reverses the flow of current associated with the corrosion of metal. BUOYANT A source of electric current (DC) for protecting offshore plat forms and other T steel structures resting on the sea floor against corrosion. 1 5 9 . the term indicates an abnormality T such as a fault or dome in a sedimentary bed. anode the positive element of any electrical device from which electricity flows. The anode is anchored to the se t floor a few hundred feet away from the structure but is held off bottom by is buoyancy. The anode is connected to a source of DC current on the platform by an insulated cable. In geology. anomaly a deviation from the norm.

thus giving the piston a "push" instead of a sudden explosive blow. The compounds contribute also to smoother performance. Tex. specifically. The addition of small amounts of these chemicals has the effect of slowing down the explosion or burning of the air-gasoline vapor mixture in the combustion chamber. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. anticline an arched.mzhelu@gmail. internal combustion engines. T T 164. ANTIKNOCK COMPOUNDS Certain chemicals which are added to automotive gasolines to improve their T performance. antifreeze a chemical compound that prevents the water in the cooling system of an T engine from freezing. of the engine and more mile. T 165. AOSC the Association of Oil Well Servicing Contractors. principles. inverted-trough configuration of folded and stratified rocks..Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 163. 166. ethylene glycol. antiknock compound any substance added to the fuel of an internal-combustion engine to prevent detonation of the fuel. and policies of oil-well servicing contractors.com . anticlinal trap a hydrocarbon trap in which petroleum accumulates in the top of an anticline. per gallon of fuel. Tetraethyl lead is one well-known compound. tetraethyl lead. based in Dallas. the T opposite of a syncline. which T sets some standards. T 25 Petroleum Engineer: M. Antiknock compounds effectively raise the octane rating of a fuel so that the fuel burns properly in the combustion chamber of the engine. T 167. Z. to reduce 'ping" or knock in high-compression.

4. depth or formation to be drilled into. It maintains departments of transportation. (slang) when used sarcastically.C..Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 169. and a department of production in Dallas. T through its research and engineering work. D. The form is submitted to drilling contractors in the area of the proposed well. and marketing in Washington. Founded in 1920. 2. indicative of substandard performance that is predictable or usual (as. TAPI T American Petroleum Institute the oil industry's trade association. establishes operating and safety standards for all segments of the petroleum industry. etc. and furnishes statistical and other information to government agencies having to do with the industry. "His work is strictly API"). 26 Petroleum Engineer: M. make. (slang) indicative of a job being properly or thoroughly (as. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. then they arrive at rates and other matters. and other information. issues specifications for manufacture of pipe. drill-pipe. 3. Z. The API.com . capacity. TAPI BID SHEETAND WELL SPECIFICATIONS T A form many operators use in soliciting bids on a well to be drifted and T completed. degrees API.mzhelu@gmail. T 1 171. the American Petroleum Institute. When a drilling contractor submits a bid. commencement date. this national oil trade organization' is the leading standardizing organization on oil-filed drilling and producing equipment. pressure vessels. The operator asking for bids fills out the part of the form giving the name and location of the well. used to designate API gravity. "It's API for that engine to be broken down"). refining. The bid sheet brings operator and contractor together. slush pumps. and other equipment. tool joints. he lists the rig and equipment to be furnished by him draw works. derrick or mast size. as it were.

API gravity bears a relationship to true specific gravity but is more convenient to work with than the decimal fractions which would result if petroleum were expressed in specific gravity. T 27 Petroleum Engineer: M. APPRAISAL DRILLING Wells drilled in the vicinity of a discovery or wildcat well in order to evaluate T the extent and the importance of the find.mzhelu@gmail. AQUIFER A water-bearing rock strata. T 177. TAPI GRAVITY T Gravity (weight per unit of volume) of crude oil or other liquid hydrocarbons T as measured by a system recommended by the API. leaving much of the oil behind. the part of a water-drive reservoir that contains the water.com . a rock that contains water. also Water Coning. defined in API Specification 10A. When wells are drilled in the reservoir. derived from specific gravity in accordance with the following equatio T 1 176. the water pushes the oil toward the wells boreholes. In a water-drive field the aquifer is the water T zone of a reservoir. aquifer 1. See Channeling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. If the wells are produced at an excessive rate the water may bypass the oil and break into the well bore. T T 178. API cement class a classification system for oil-well cements. underlying the oil zone. Z. T 1 174.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 172. 2. T 179. AQUAGEL A specially prepared bentonite (clay) widely used as a conditioning material in T drilling mud. cylindrical tank. APRON RING The bottom most ring of steel plates in the wall of an upright. API gravity the measure of gravity of liquid petroleum products on the North American continent.

Z. AREAL GEOLOGY The branch of geology that pertains to the distribution. position. PRODUCT (PETROLEUM) The buying. (2) A person who uses such a machine in making electric welds. T T 28 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. ARBITRAGE. arenaceous shale). The flow of electricity jumping the gap produces the heal to melt the rod onto the moiten area of the metal. The arc is a discharge of electric current across an air gap. TARC WELDER (1) An electric welding unit consisting of a gasoline direct connected to a DC T generator. The term arc welding derives from the arc of electricity which spans the gap between the tip of the welding rod (the electrode) and the piece of metal being welded. which T serves as an electrode. and form of T the areas of the earth's surface occupied by different types of rocks or geologic formations. T 181. A sophisticated method of trading in world petroleum markets. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or trading of petroleum or products in various markets to T make a profit from short-term differences in prices in one market as compared to those in another. the making of maps of such areas. 1 186. also. and a metal object.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 180. In the field the welding unit is usually skid mounted. The high temperature generated by the arc melts both the electrode and the metal. T 1 183. selling. arenaceous pertaining to sand or sandy rocks (as. T 184. which fuse.com . arc weld to join metals by utilizing the arc created between the welding rod.

a hydrometer T (q. toluene. hydraulic pumps. AREOMETER An instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 187.mzhelu@gmail.-are not present or have been depleted. Sucker-rod pumps. and gas lift are the most common methods of artificial lift. 190. Waterflood. T 1 189. etc. T 1 192. ARGON An inert. odorless gaseous element sometimes and in some T locations produced with natural gas. T solution gas. Benzene. after reservoir T pressure has declined to the point at which the well no longer produces by means of natural energy.).).v. artificial lift any method used to raise oil to the surface through a well. repessuring or recycling.com .v. T argillaccous sand). ARTIFICIAL DRIVES Methods of producing oil from a reservoir when natural drives-gas-cap. The name aromatics derives from their rather pleasant odor. Z. The unique ring structure of their carbon atoms makes it possible to transform aromatics into an almost endless number of chemicals. T 193. colorless. argillaceous pertaining to a nonproductive formation that consists of clay or shale (as. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and xylene are the principal aromatics and are commonly referred to as the BTX group (q. submersible pumps. water drive. T 29 Petroleum Engineer: M. T 194. and in situ combustion are examples of artificial drives. AROMATICS A group of hydrocarbon fractions that forms the basis of most organic T chemicals so far synthesized.

clay.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 ‫ ﻟﺒ‬،‫)ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ 196. compensating for drift. and wave action. Combined with a subsequent wrapping of asbestos felt. a New York City-based organization whose equipment standards are sometimes used by the oil industry. or talc and applied while hot. consisting of asbestos T saturated with asphalt. 200. asbestos felt (‫ﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺴﺘﻭﺱ‬ a wrapping material that protects pipeline coatings. The asphalt is combined with finely ground mica.mzhelu@gmail. ASPHALT A solid hydrocarbon found as a natural deposit. current. See Dynamic Stationing. ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 30 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Brea. 197. this coating protects the buried pipe from corrosion. asphalt enamel an asphalt-base enamel applied as a coating to pipe that is to be buried.com . 199. The thrusters fore and aft reposition the ship. T 198. the name applied to a sophisticated T drillship positioning technique consisting of subsurface acoustical equipment linked to shipboard computers that control ship's thrusters. Z. ASK SYSTEM Automatic station-keeping system. Its official publication is Mechanical Engineering. Asphalt is dark brown or black in color and at normal temperatures is a solid. the American Society of T Mechanical Engineers. soapstone. wind drag. Crude of high asphaltic content when subjected to distillation to remove the lighter fractions such as naphtha and kerosene leave asphalt as a residue.

and nitrogen are often relatively high. Sulfur. ASPHALTIC SANDS Natural mixtures of asphalts with varying proportions of loose sand. T 31 Petroleum Engineer: M. lubricating oil. composed of T complex molecules. liquid. asphalt material one of a group of solid. and asphalt. See Paraffin-base Crude. Asphaltenes are polyaromatic compounds with high carbon-hydrogen ratios in their molecules from which asphalt is made.) 2 205.mzhelu@gmail. T 2 207. It maintains national offices in Chicago. 203. Z. ASPHALTIC PETROLEUM Petroleum which contains sufficient amounts of asphalt in solution to make T recovery commercially practical by merely distilling off the solvent oils. The T quantity of bituminous cementing material extracted from the sand may run as high as 12 percent.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 201. which establishes safety practices T for several industries. This bitumen is composed of soft asphalt. T 2 209. asphalt-base oil (See naphthalene-base oil. or semisolid materials that are predominantly mixtures of hydrocarbons and their nonmetallic derivatives and are obtained either from natural bituminous deposits or from the residues of petroleum refining. ASPHALT-BASE CRUDE Crude oil containing very little paraffin wax and a residue primarily asphaltic.com . oxygen. ASPHALTENES At the very bottom of the crude oil barrel are the asphaltenes. T 2 211. ASSE the American Society of Safety Engineers. This type crude is particularly suitable for making high-quality gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 202.

e. T 221. etc. ASSEMBLY A term to describe a number of special pieces of equipment fitted together to T perform a particular function.g. either as free gas or in solution.com . T 2 218. damping subs. the liquid is collected in a graduate. a transferee. a drill assembly may include other pieces of downhole equipment besides the drill bit. the vapors pass through a tube where they are cooled and condensed. based in Philadelphia. ASTM DISTILLATION A test of an oil's distillation properties standardized by the American Society T for Testing and Materials. A sample of oil is heated in a flask. WASTING See Wasting Asset. ASSET. astern in the rear of. 220. Z. T 219. or abaft. Gas occurring alone T in a reservoir is unassociated gas. T T 2 216. in oil and gas usage. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. ASSOCIATED GAS Gas that occurs with oil. T 2 214. ASSIGNEE A recipient of an interest in property or a contract.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 212. such as drill collars. moving T backwards. stabilizers. The test is continued until all 32 Petroleum Engineer: M. the stern of an offshore drilling rig. which T sets guidelines for the use of equipment and materials for oil fields. the T recipient of an oil or gas lease. When the first drop of "distillate" is obtained the temperature at which this "initial boiling point" of the oil. ASTM the American Society for Testing and Materials..

atmospheric pressure cure the aging of specimens for test purposes at normal atmospheric pressure for T a designated period of time under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. 14. At sea level. T 2 232.7 psi. ATMOSPHERIC STILL A refining vessel in which crude oil is heated and product is distilled off at the T pressure of one atmosphere. ATMOSPHERE. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 2 230.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering distillable fractions over and have been measured and their properties examined. athwart reaching from one side to the other side of an offshore drilling rig. atom the smallest quantity of an element capable of either entering into a chemical T combination or existing alone. T Air at sea level. atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted over the surface of the earth by the weight of the T atmosphere. this pressure is approximately 14. Z. 2 234. T 33 Petroleum Engineer: M. atm atmosphere.69 pounds per square inch. 29 92 inches of mercury or 33. ONE The pressure of the ambient air at sea level. T 2 226.90 feet T 2 228.com . T T 2 224. T 222.

T 2 244. Authigenic Refers to rocks/minerals which were formed or were generated in place. ATOMIZER. (See instrumentation. is used as the basis. FUEL OIL A nozzle or spraying device used to break up fuel oil into a fine spray so the T oil may be brought into more intimate contact with the air in the combustion chamber. atomic weight the average. used principally in T saltwater-base drilling muds.mzhelu@gmail. T 2 246. attapulgite a fibrous clay mineral that is a viscosity-building substance. with a weight of 12. T 2 237. relative weight of an element as compared to another element T taken as a standard. causing it to break into tiny T droplets and mix thoroughly with the surrounding air. AUSTRALIAN OFFSET A humorous reference to a well drilled miles away from proven production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 235.) 34 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . T 242. Z. T 2 239. pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. T 2 241. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. See Ultrasonic Atomizer. Every element is assigned an atomic weight. or T temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. Usually carbon. atomize to spray a liquid through a restricted opening.

or temperature) of a system without supervision or operation by personnel. Automatic drillers free the driller from the sometimes tedious task of manipulating the drawworks brake in order to maintain correct weight on the bit. automatic. control unit.) 2 249.com . T 2 251. T 2 256.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 247. receiving into tankage. and turning into a pipeline the crude produced on a lease. automatic control A device that regulates various factors (as flow rate. 2 258. Z. T 2 254.mzhelu@gmail. (See lease automatic custody transfer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See instrumentation. automatic custody transfer A system for automatically measuring and sampling oil or products at points T of receipt or delivery.) A system of oil handling on a lease. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside. pressure.drilling-control unit a mechanism used to regulate the amount of weight on the bit and not T requiring attendance by personnel. automatic driller (See automatic drilling. T 35 Petroleum Engineer: M. automatic pumping station an automatically operated station installed on a pipeline to increase line T pressure when a fluid is being transported. measuring.) T 252. automatic gauge an instrument installed at eye level on the outside of a tank to permit T observation of the depth of the liquid inside. testing. Such automatic handling of oil is usually confined to leases with settled production.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. automatic slips an air. AUTOMATIC TANK BATTERY A lease tank battery (two or more tanks) equipped with automatic measuring. T 261. Automatic slips. automation automatic self-regulating control of equipment. or processes. and recording devices. eliminate the need for roughnecks to set and take out slips manually. systems. auxiliary equipment equipment subsidiary or supplementary to the main equipment used in an T operation. (See T instrumentation. (See slips. automatic wire-welding T machines are used to put on the filler beads. T 2 264.com . 2 269.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 260. T switching (full tank to empty and full tank into the pipeline). 2 266.) T 262. or trip. See Automatic Custody Transfer. AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINE After two joints of pipe are joined by tack welds. Z. is being made). avg verage. automatic shutdown a system in which certain instruments are used to control or maintain the T operating conditions of a process.or hydraulic-fluid-operated device that fits into the opening in the T rotary table when the drill stem must be suspended in the wellbore (as when a connection. also called power slips.) T 267. A 36 Petroleum Engineer: M. If conditions become abnormal. this system automatically stops the process and notifies the operator of the problem.

azimuth in directional drilling. A mixture T of an azeotrophic liquid and another liquid or liquids boils at a temperature either higher or lower than that of its components. Z. T See Grease. hydrated lime. T 273.mzhelu@gmail. AXLE GREASE A cold-setting grease made of rosin oil. T 272.com . and petroleum oils. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 37 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 271. azeotrope a liquid mixture that exhibits a maximum or minimum boiling point. the direction of the face of the deviation tool with T respect to magnetic north as recorded bra deviation instrument.

BACK OFF To raise the drill bit off the bottom of the hole. back-in unit a portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled. used in drilling reports. B. an alloy containing tin. Z. into a specified individual working interest (q. silver-colored metal alloy of relatively low melting point used for engine and pump bearing. at a later date.mzhelu@gmail. BA BBI T T A soft. Brake horsepower (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2 282. B bottom of. BACK-IN FARM-OUT A farm-out agreement (q. 280. (See carrier rig. 283.).). Because the driver's cab is mounted on the end opposite the mast support.com . using the hoisting engines for motive power. B/D barrels per day.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering T 274. T 2 276. the unit must be backed up to the wellhead.P. BACK-IN PROVISION A term used to describe a provision in a farm-out agreement whereby the person granting the farm-out (the farmer) retains an option to exchange a retained override for a share of the working interest.v. T 2 7 9 . to slack of 1 on a cable or winch line.v. copper and antimony. to unscrew. T T 2 278.) in which a retained nonoperating interest of the lessor may be converted. 38 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.H.) 284.

Z. back-off joint a section of pipe with left-hand threads on one end and conventional righthand threads on the other.). BACK PRESSURE The pressure against the face of the reservoir rock caused by the control valves at the wellhead. a back-off joint is attached to it so that the drill pipe may be disengaged from the liner by conventional righthand rotation.v. 290. 287. hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. Chokes and piping. This results in the expenditure of smaller volumes of gas from the reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BACK-PRESSURE VALVE A check valve (q. 286. and ensures the recovery of more oil. Maintenance of backpressure reduces the pressure differential between the formation and the borehole so that oil moves into the well with a smaller pressure loss. A backup wrench is any wrench used to hold a pipe or bolt to prevent its turning while another length of pipe or a nut is being tightened or loosened. 39 Petroleum Engineer: M. back up to hold one section of an object (as pipe) while another is being screwed into or out of it. 288. In setting a liner.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 285. 289. BACK-UP MAN The person who holds (with a wrench) one length of pipe while another length is being screwed into or out of it. improves the gas-oil ratio.com .mzhelu@gmail. BACK-OFF WHEEL See Stripper Wheel.

40 Petroleum Engineer: M. Backside. BACKHOE A self-propelled ditching machine with a hydraulically operated arm equipped with a toothed shovel that scoops earth as the shovel is pulled back toward the machine.com . gravity filters. 292. 2 296. widely distributed group of typically one-celled microorganisms. also. 3 303. Back washing is done on closed system filters and on open-bed.) 3 301. 2 294. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 291. (See anaerobic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria.v. bactericide anything that destroys bacteria. BAD OIL Cut oil (q. bacteria a large. BACKWASHING Reversing the fluid flow through a filter to clean out sediment that has clogged the filter or reduced its efficiency. backup tongs the tongs used to back up the drill pipe as it is being made up or taken out of the drill stem.) 2 298. BACKFILL To replace the earth dug from a ditch or trench. BACKSIDE PUMPING See Pumping. 299. (See make up and tongs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. the earth removed from an excavation.).

BA I L To evacuate the liquid contents of a drill hole with the use of a long. or promote mixing within a tank or vessel.mzhelu@gmail. it is thrust upward opening the valve to admit the mud-water Slurry. passed over a sheave at the top of the derrick. 308. placed to change the direction. 306. When the dart reaches the bottom of the hole. or oil from a well. bailed-up bit (See ball up. generally a plate. mud. bailer a long cylindrical container. and spooled on the reel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bailing line the cable attached to the bailer.) 311. fitted with a valve at its lower end. BAIL DOWN To reduce the level of liquid in a well bore by bailing. sand. BAILER DART The protruding "tongue" of the valve on the bottom of a bailer. baffle plate a partial restriction. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 305. 313. used to remove water. 41 Petroleum Engineer: M. guide the flow. BAFFLES Plates or obstructions built into a tank or other vessel that change the direction of the flow of fluids or gases. 3 0 7 . bailing 312. 3 310. cylindrical bucket (bailer).com .

ball joint (See flex joint. The condition frequently is a result of inadequate pump pressure or insufficient drilling fluid. which by rising or falling shuts or opens the valve. etc. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bails. 320.mzhelu@gmail. tool joints. consisting of a valve connected with a hollow floating ball. 42 Petroleum Engineer: M. increase its draft. 316. BALL AND SEAT A type of valve used in a plunger pump. 317. ball up to collect a mass of sticky consolidated material. and used to shut off perforations through which excessive fluid is lost. drill collars. 319. on drill pipe. to recover bottomhole fluids. Z. and retrieving it. 321. or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel called a bailer to the bottom of a well. or sink it to the seafloor. Ballast is usually seawater. BAIT BOX A pipeliner's lunch pail.) ball sealers balls made of nylon. 318. A bit with such material attached to it is termed a bailed-up bit.com . hard rubber. usually drill cuttings. ball cock a device for regulating the level of fluid in a tank. ballast weight added to make a mobile offshore drilling rig more seaworthy. samples.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 315. or both. but sometimes concrete or iron is used additionally to lower the rig's center of gravity permanently. filling it.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
322. ballast tanks
vessels that contain ballast water.

323. ballasted Condition
the condition of a floating offshore drilling rig when ballast has been added

324. BALLING OF THE BIT
The fouling of a rotary drilling bit in sticky, gumbo-like shale which causes a serious drag on the bit and loss of circulation.

325. balling up
the failure of an anchor to hold in a soft bottom, instead pulling out with a large ball of mud on it.

326. BALL VALVE
A type of quick opening valve with a spherical core, a ball with a full-bore port, that fits and turns in a mating cavity in the valve body. Drilling engine to the crank and pitman assembly that actuates the working beam. Used in former years in drilling with cable tools. Old pumping wells still use a band wheel.

3 328. BAREFOOT CHARTER
A contract or charter agreement between the owner of a drilling rig, semisubmersible, or drillship and a second party in which the owner rents or leases his equipment (usually short-term) barefoot, i.e., without the owner or his representative taking any part in the operation or maintenance of the equipment. The lessee agrees to man or stiff the equipment and operate it without assistance from or responsibility by the owner. Also bareboat charter for boats or ships.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
329. BAREFOOT COMPLETION
Wells completed in firm sandstone or limestone that show no indication of caving or disintegrating may be finished "barefoot," i.e., without casing through the producing interval.

3 331. barge
any one of many types of flat-decked, shallow-draft vessels usually towed by a boat. In cargo service, barges are used widely to transport crude oil and refined products on rivers and other inland waters. A complete drilling rig may be assembled on a barge, which usually is submersible; that is, it has a submersible hull or base that is flooded with water at the drilling site. Drilling equipment, crew quarters, etc., are mounted on a superstructure above the water level.

332. BARGE, REEL
See Reel Barge.

333. barite
barium sulfate, BaSO4,,; a mineral used to increase the weight of drilling mud. Its specific gravity is 4.2 (i.e., it is 4.2 times heavier than water). (See mud.)

3 335. barium sulfate
1. a chemical combination of barium, sulfur, and oxygen; barite. 2. a tenacious scale that is very difficult to remove.

336. BARKER
A whistle-like device attached to the exhaust pipe of a one cylindered oil field engine so that the lease pumper can tell from a whether or not the engine is running. The noise the device makes resembles the back of a hoarse fox.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
337. BAROID
A specially processed barite (barium sulfate) to which Aquagel has been added, used as a conditioning material in drilling mud in order to obtain satisfactory cores and formation samples.

338. barrel
(bbl) a measure of volume for petroleum products. One barrel (1 bbl) is the equivalent of 42 U.S. gal or 158.97 liters. One cubic meter (1 m') equals 6.2897 bbl.

339. barrel compressor
a special type of centrifugal compressor with a barrel-shaped housing.

3 341. barrel-mile
a unit of measure for pipeline shipment of oil that signifies 1 bbl moved 1 mile.

342. BARRELHOUSE
A building on the refinecy grounds where barrels are filled with various grades of lubricating and other oils, sealed, and made ready for shipment oil house. See Drum.

343. barrels per day
(BPD, bpd, BID, b/d) a measure of the rate of flow of a well;. the total amount of oil produced or processed per day.

3 345. basalt
an igneous rock that is dense, fine-grained, and dark gray or black.

346. base
a substance capable of combining with charged hydrogen atoms (ions) to form a salt. A typical base is sodium hydroxide (caustic), with the chemical 45

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
symbol NAOH. For example, sodium hydroxide combines with hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride (a salt) and water; this reaction is written chemically as NAOH + HCI NACI + H2O4.

347. basement rock
either igneous or metamorphic rock, usually not containing petroleum. Ordinarily it lies below sedimentary rock. When it is encountered in drilling, the well usually is abandoned.

3 349. BASIC SEDIMENT
Impurities and foreign matter contained in a tank of crude oil, e.g., water sand, oil-water emulsions. When produced, crude oil may contain one, or more of these impurities. In the lease tank the impurities settle to the bottom of the tank, with the relatively clean oil on top. After repeated filling andemptying of the tank, the sediment builds up to the pipeline connection and must be removed. This is done by unbolting the plate from the clean out box on the back of the tank and shoveling out the heavy, accumulated sediment.

3 351. basic sediment and water (BS&W)
she water and other extraneous material present in crude oil. Usually, the BS&W con. tent must be quite low before a pipeline will accept the oil for delivery to a refinery. The amount acceptable depends on a number of factors but usually runs from less than 5 percent to a small fraction of 1 percent.

3 5 2 . BA S I N
A synclinal structure in the subsurface, once the bed of a prehistoric sea. Basins. composed of sedimentary rock, are regarded as good prospects for oil exploration.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 354. basket sub
a fishing accessory run above a bit or mill to recover small pieces of metal or junk in a well.

3 356. BASTARD
(1) Any nonstandard piece of equipment. (2) A kind of file. (3) A word used in grudging admiration, or as a term of opprobrium.

3 5 7 . BA T C H
A measured amount of oil or refined product in a pipeline or a tank. a shipment of oil or product by pipeline.

358. BATCH INTERFACE
See Interface.

3 360. batch treating
the process by which a single quantity of crude oil emulsion is broken into oil and water. The emulsion is gathered and stored in a tank or container prior to treating. Compare with flow-line treating.

361. batching sphere
a large rubber ball placed in a pipeline to separate batches.

362. BATHOLITH
A great mass of intruded igneous of metamorphosed rock found at or near the surface of the earth. The presence of a batholith, often referred to as a shield, usually precludes drilling for oil or gas as there are no sedimentary formations above it. The largest batholith in the U.S. is in Idaho, underlying nearly two-thirds of the state.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
363. BATTERY
Two or more lease or stock tanks connected together to receive oil production from a well or a producing lease; a tank battery. The lease tank batter y is the starting point for crude oil on its way to the refinery-via gathering line, pump station, and trunk line to the refinery tank farm. It is at the tank battery where the pipeline gauger measures and tests the oil, and after making out a run ticket (q.v.) opens the tank valve, turning the oil into the pipeline system. A battery is two or more units of equipment linked together in the performance of a function, e.g., separator battery; heater battery; filter batters., and tank battery.

3 365. BATTERY, TRICKLE-CHARGED
See Trickle-charged Battery.

366. Baume gravity
specific gravity as measured by the Baum6 scale. Two arbitrary scales are employed one for liquids lighter than water and the other for liquids heavier than water. This scale also is used to describe the density of acid solutions.

367. BAUME, ANTOINE
The French chemist who devised a simple method to measure the relative weights of liquids using the hydrometer (q.v.).

3 369. bbl
barrel.

370. bbl/d
barrels per day.

3 372. BCD
Barrels per calendar day. See Stream Day. 48

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
3 7 3 . Bcf
billion cubic feet of gas.

3 375. Bcf (Billion Cubic Feet)
A volume measurement of natural gas measured in billions of cubic feet.

3 377. Bcf/d
billion cubic feet of gas per day.

3 379. BDC
bottom dead center.

3 381. BEAD
A course of molten metal laid down by a welder (electric or oxyacetylene) in joining two pieces of metal. See Pipeline Welding.

382. BEAKER SAMPLER
A metal or glass container with a small opening fitted with a stopper that is lowered into a tank of oil to obtain a sample of oil.

383. beam
the extreme width of the hull of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig.

384. beam counterbalance
the weights installed on the end of the walking beam, which is opposite from the end over the well. The counterbalance offsets, or balances, the weight of sucker rods and other downhole equipment installed in the well. (See suckerrod pumping.)

385. beam-pumping unit
a machine designed specifically for sucker-rod pumping, using a horizontal member (walking beam) that is worked up and down by a rotating crank to produce reciprocating motion. bean (See choke.) 49

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
386. BEAM WELL
A well whose fluid is being lifted by rods and pump actuated by a walking beam (q.v.).

3 388. BEAN
A choke used to regulate the flow of fluid from a well.

389. BEAN JOINT
In early pipeline parlance, the joint of line pipe laid just before the break for lunch. When the bean joint was bucked in (q.v.) the pipe liners grabbed lunch buckets from the gang truck and found a comfortable place to cat.

390. BEARING, BALL
A type of revolving bearing. The other type is the roller bearing (q v.),

391. BEARING, INSERT
Thin, bimetal, half-round bearings that fit in the journal box around a shaft to provide a smooth, hard surface. One-half of the insert (in cross section, a semicircle) fits into the journal box, the other half into the journal box cap. Insert bearings era designated bimetal because although the bearing surface is made of babbitt (q.v.) it is backed with a layer of bronze, brass, or steel. There are also trimetal insert bearings. They are made with steel backing, a "soft" alloy middle layer, and a babbitt outer layer. Babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, copper, and antimony. was invented by Isaac Babbitt in 1862.

392. BEARING, OUTBOARD
A shaft-supporting bearing outside the body or frame of a pump's gear box or engine's crankcase; a bearing on a pump's pinion shaft outside the gear box; a line-shaft bearing.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
393. BEARING, ROLLER
A type of cylindrical. Revolting bearing. The other type is the ball bearing (q.v.).

3 395. BEARING, SADDLE
See Saddle Bearing.

396. BEARING, STIRRUP
A bearing and its frame in the shape of a saddle stirrup; e.g. the bearing connecting the pitman and the walking beam on an early-day cable tool drilling or pumping well.

397. BEARING, THRUST
A bearing to support the endwise or downward thrust or weight of a machinery part against another. Thrust bearings can be constructed of ball bearings or cylindrical roller bearings held in a circular frame or housing that fits over a shaft

398. bed
a specific layer of earth or rock in contrast to other layers of different material lying above, below, or adjacent to it.

399. bedding plane
the surface that separates each successive layer of a stratified rock from its preceding layer.

400. BEHIND THE PIPE
Refers to oil and gas reservoirs penetrated or passed through by wells but never tapped or produced. Behind the pipe refers usually to tight formations of low permeability which, although recognized, were passed through because they were uneconomical to produce at the time. Today, however, 51

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
with the growing scarcity of oil and high prices, many of these passedthrough formations are getting a second look by producers.

401. BELL AND SPIGOT JOINT
A threaded pipe joint; the spigot or male end is threaded and screwed into the bell or female coupling. The female end of a coupling has threads on the inside circumference.

402. BELL HOLE
An excavation dug beneath a pipeline to provide room for the use of tools by workers; a hole larger in diameter at the bottom than at the top.

403. BELL-HOLE WELDER
A welder who can do oxyacetylene or electric welding in a bell hole. This requires a great deal of skill as the molten metal from the welding rod is being laid on upside down and tends to tall away from the weld; a skilled welder.

404. BELL NIPPLE
A large swage nipple for attaching casinghead fittings to the well's casing above the ground or at the surface. The bell nipple is threaded on the casing end and has a plain or weld end to take the casinghead valves.

4 406. bellows meter
(See orifice meter.)

4 408. belt
a flexible band or cord connecting and passing about each of two or more pulleys to transmit power or impart motion.

409. belt guard
a protective grill or cover for a belt and pulleys. 52

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
4 411. BELT HALL
A wooden shed built to protect the wide belt that runs from the engine to the band wheel on a cable tool rig or an old beam pumping well. The belt hall extends from the engine house to the derrick.

412. BENCH-SCA-LETEST
Testing of methods or materials on so small a scale that it can be carried out on a laboratory table or specially constructed bench.

4 414. bent sub
a short cylindrical device installed in the drill stem between the bottommost drill collar and a downhole mud motor. The purpose of the bent sub is to deflect the mud motor off vertical to drill a directional hole.

415. bentonite
a colloidal clay, composed of montmorillonite, which swells when wet. Because of its gel-forming properties, ben-tonite is a major component of drilling muds. (See gel and mud.)

416. BENZINE
An old term for light petroleum distillates in the gasoline and naphtha range.

4 418. BENZOL
The general term which refers to commercial benzene which may contain other aromatic hydrocarbons.

419. beta particle
one of the extremely small particles, sometimes called rays, emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive substance such as radium or uranium as it disintegrates. Beta particles have a negative charge.

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
420. BEVELING MACHINE
An oxyacetylene pipe-cutting machine. A device that holds an acetylene cutting torch so that the ends of joints of pipe may be trimmed off It an angle to the pipe's long axis. Line pipe is beveled in preparation for welding joints together

421. BFPH
barrels of fluid per hour; used in drilling reports.

422. BHP
bottomhole pressure.

4 424. BHT
bottomhole temperature.

4 426. BIG INCH PIPELINE
A 24-inch pipeline from Longview, Texas, to Norris City, Illinois, built during World War 11 to meet the problem caused by tanker losses at sea as a result of submarine attacks. Later during the war the pipeline was extended to Pennsylvania. Following the war the line was sold to a private company and converted to a gas line.

4 428. BIG SPROCKET, ON THE
Said of a person who is moving in influential circles or has suddenly gone from a small job to one of considerably larger responsibility; a big operator. often used pejoratively.

429. BIJRTON, WILLIAM M.
The petroleum chemist who developed the first profitable means of cracking low-value middle distillates into lighter fractions (gasolines) by the use of heat and pressure. 54

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
430. BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION
The use of bacteria to separate kerogen from oil shale. Certain bacteria Will biodegrade the minerals in oil shale, releasing the kerogen from the shale in liquid or semiliquid form. (From studies made by Dr. Ten Fu Yen and Dr. Milo D. Appleman. University of Southern California, Professors of Bacteriology.)

431. bioherm
a reef or mound built by small organisms such as coral or oysters. Buried bioherms, formed in the geologic past, sometimes yield petroleum.

4 433. BIOMASS
Wood and other plant materials used to make methanol as a supplement to petroleum.

434. BIRD CAGE
(1) To flatten and spread the strands of a cable or wire rope. (2) The sharted or mesh-enclosed cage used to hoist workmen from crew boats to offshore platforms.

435. BIRD DOG
To pay close attention to a job or to follow a person closely with the intent to learn or to help; to follow up on a job until finished.

436. birdcage
to flatten and spread the strands of a wire rope. a wire rope in such a condition.

4 438. bit
the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. Most bits used in rotary drilling are roller-cone bits. The bit consists of the cutting element and the circulating element. The circulating element permits the passage of drilling fluid and utilizes the hydraulic force of the fluid stream to improve 55

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering
drilling rates. In rotary drilling, several drill collars are joined to the bottom end of the drill-pipe column. The bit is attached to the end of the drill collar.

4 440. bit breaker
a device used in rotary drilling to unscrew, or break out, the bit from the drill stem. It is usually placed in the rotary table.

4 442. bit cone
(See roller-cone bit.)

443. bit dresser
1. a member of a cable-tool drilling crew who repairs bits. 2. a machine used to repair, sharpen, and gauge bits.

444. bit gauge
a circular ring used to determine whether a bit is of the correct outside diameter. Often bit gauges are used to determine if the bit has been worn down to a diameter smaller than specifications allow; such a bit is termed undergauge.

445. bit record
a report on each bit used in an operation, listing its type, the amount of footage it drilled, and the nature of the formation penetrated.

446. BIT, INSERT
A bit with super-hard metal lugs or cutting points inserted in the bit's cutting cones; a rock bit with cutting elements added that are harder art more durable than the teeth of a mill-tooth bit (q.v.).

447. Bitumen
Petroleum in semi-solid or solid forms.

56

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

bitumens mixtures of hydrocarbons. The extraction process is complicated. Z. a mixture of asphalt and loose sand which. BITUMEN. may yield as much as 12 percent asphalt. slow-moving machinery where the use of higher-grade lubes would be impractical. The oil is floated off and undergoes treatment before it is piped to a refinery. 450. 4 452. Black Magic a proprietary name for a basic concentrate of oil-base mud.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. but basically it involves the heating of the oil sands to separate the oil. when processed.com . BLACK OILS (1) A term denoting residual oil used in ships' boilers or in large heating or generating plants bunkers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 448. 459. 4 458. BITUMINOUS SAND Tar sand. used in drilling reports.) 4 454. (2) Black-colored oil used or lubricating heavy. bl black. bituminous shale (See oil shale. 4 456. OIL SANDS A heavy petroleum-like substance found in certain consolidated sand formations at the surface of the earth or at relatively shallow depths where it can be surface mined after the removal of a few feet of overburden. blank casing a casing without perforations 57 Petroleum Engineer: M. 449.

to seep out. or bleed off. usually casing. sample valve.. means to slowly release pressure from a well or from pressurized equipment. 461. 4 470. bleed (‫)ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺱ‬ to drain off liquid or gas. 58 Petroleum Engineer: M. BLEEDING CORE A core sample of rock highly saturated and of such good permeability that oil drips from the pore. BLEEDER VALVE A small valve on a pipeline. 462. To bleed down. a companion flange. 468. blank off to close off (as with a blank flange or bull plug). 471. as oil from a grease. blank pipe a pipe. BLEEDING The tendency of a liquid component to separate from a lubricant. 4 465. bld bailed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or close off. blank flange a solid disk used to dead-end.mzhelu@gmail. 4 467. 463.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 460. BLEED LINE A line on the wellhead or blowout preventer stack through which gas pressure can be bled to prevent a threatened blowout. used in drilling reports. Z. or tank from which samples are drawn or to vent air or oil. with no perforations. blank liner a liner with no perforations. generally slowly through a valve called a bleeder.

4 481. (2) To prevent the flow of liquid or gas in a line. 478. BLOCK (1) A pulley or sheave in a rigid frame. blind drilling a drilling operation in which the drilling fluid is not returned to the surface. serving as the closing element.) 479.mzhelu@gmail. 59 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See ram. Sometimes blind-drilling techniques are resorted to when lost circulation occurs. 474. BLIND FLANGE A companion flange with a disc bolted to one end to seal off a section of pipe. are also blended to obtain desired properties. notably gasolines. blind to close a line to prevent flow. Its ends do not fit around the drill pipe but seal against each other and shut off the space below completely. Z. Other products. Certain classes of tube oils are blended to a specified viscosity. 4 477. The process of mixing two or more oils having different properties to obtain a lubricating oil of intermediate or desired properties.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 475.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 473. blind ram an integral part of a blowout preventer. (3) A chock. BLENDING. BLM Bureau of Land Management.

Block grease is used on large.com . BLOCK TREE A type of well-completion Christmas tree in which a number of control and production valves are made as a unit in one block of steel. When the block valve is closed. sometimes. separate leases executed by owners of individual tracts which provide that drilling of one or more test wells within the combined area or block will satisfy the conditions of the lease as to each of the tracts in the block. 483.mzhelu@gmail. 485. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. slow-moving machinery. BLOCK GREASE A grease of high melting point that can be handled in block or stick form.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 482. Block trees are often used on multiwell offshore platforms to conserve space. on axles and crude bearings. BLOCK AND TACKLE An arrangement of ropes and blocks (pulleys) used to hoist or pull. Valve pockets for the special valve assembly are bored in the steel forging which mites the valve assembly a strong. BLOCK LEASE A lease executed by owners of separate tracts or. 60 Petroleum Engineer: M. 484. 4 487. BLOCK AND BLEED VALVE A heavy-duty mainline valve made to hold " bubbletight" against high pressure. Z. the grease melts slowly lubricating the bearing. its effectiveness may be checked by opening the bleeder valve for evidence of any leakage from the upstream or high-pressure side. The valve is made with a small bleeder line and valve which are tapped into the block valve's bonnet. In contact with a hot journal bearing. rigid unit integral to the forging.

the well must be mudded up.g.. BLOCKING Pumping measured amounts of crude oil or product through a pipeline in batches or blocks. 489. it too is vented to the burn pit.com . The blooie pipe. the pulverized rock from the action of the bit is brought up from the bottom of the hole by compressed air and blown through the blooie pipe into the burn pit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 488. In a packed or full line pumping under high pressure. the point in the line where the two are in contact. For example when moving different grades or types of crude. Should the well need to be controlled because of oil or gas in quantity and under high pressure. which conducts the air or gas used for circulation away from the rig to reduce the danger of fire and to transport the cuttings a suitable distance from the well. vents the returns during air or gas drilling. e. one behind the other. And when each arrives at destination. Should gas or oil be encountered.mzhelu@gmail. it is switched into separate tankage. blooey line the discharge pipe from a well being drilled by air drilling. BLOCK VALVE A large. named for the noise. heavy-duly valve on a crude oil or products trunk line placed on each side of a pipeline river crossing to isolate possible crossing. 490. In air drilling no mud is used. makes. Z. very little mixing of the two types of crude occurs at the interface. Drilling mud is pumped into the hole and circulated as in conventional rotary drilling. the two are not mixed but are blocked through the line. 4 492. 61 Petroleum Engineer: M. sweet or sour. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BLOOIE PIPE A horizontal vent pipe extending from the wellhead a couple of feet from the rig floor to a burn pit.

Z. blow case a pumping device capable of transferring liquid. to suddenly expel oil-well fluids from the borehole with great velocity.com . 497. BLOWING THE DRIP To open the valve on a drip (q. 496. 2. the material thus discarded. BLOWDOWN STACK A vent or stack into which the contents of a processing unit are emptied when an emergency arises. BLOWBY The escape of combustion or unburned fuel past the engine's piston and piston rings into the crankcase.) to drain off the "drip gasoline" and to allow the natural gas to "blow" fort moment to clear the line and drip of all liquid. BLOOM The irridescent cast of color in lubricating oil. 500.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 62 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4 499.v. Blowby occurs during the power stroke but unburned fuel can also escape during the compression stroke on sparkignition engines. to expel a portion of water and steam from a boiler to limit its concentration of minerals. 2. 495. 5 502. used to transfer crude oil and water mixtures if pump agitation would create unwanted emulsions. blowdown the emptying or depressurizing of a material from a vessel.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 494. Steam is injected into the stack to prevent ignition of volatile material o a water quench is sometimes used. blow out 1.

513. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. blowout preventer control unit a device that stores hydraulic fluid under pressure in special containers and provides a method to open and close the blowout preventers quickly and reliably. BLOWPIPE (WELDINQAND CUTTING) See Welding Torch. (See annular blowout proventer and ram blowout preventer. 5 510. that is manipulated to open and close the blowout preventers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 503. SPHERICAL See Spherical Blowout Preventer. usually located near the driller's position on the rig floor. 5 507. tap. or stop valve. Usually compressed air and hydraulic pressure provide the opening and closing force in the unit. 5 512. blowout preventer (BOP) equipment installed at the wellhead at surface level on land rigs and on the seafloor of floating offshore rigs to prevent the escape of pressure either in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe or in an open hole during drilling and completion operations. 63 Petroleum Engineer: M. faucet. BLOWOUT Out of control gas and/or oil pressure erupting from a well being drilled. blowout preventer control (BOP) panel a set of controls. uncontrolled eruption of gas and oil from a well. a wild well. BLOWOUT PREVENTER. a dangerous. blowoff cock a device which permits or arrests a flow of liquid from a receptacle or through a pipe. Z.mzhelu@gmail.) 508.com . 5 505.

BOBTAIL PLANT A gas plant which extracts liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas but does not break down the liquid product into its separate components. BLPD barrels of liquid per day. 64 Petroleum Engineer: M. Board The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. usually used in reference to total production of oil and water from a well. The term usually is restricted to state statutes. 5 1 8 . The corresponding federal statutes and regulations are the Federal Securities Act and the Securities and Exchange (SEC) regulations. 5 516. States differ in subjecting the sale of property interests in oil and gas to Blue Sky regulations. 520. 519. BO barrels of oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Z.mzhelu@gmail. BLUESKYLAW A statute which regulates the issuance and sale of securities.). BOBTAIL A short-bodied truck. BODY Colloquial term for the viscosity of oil. used in drilling reports. BNOC British National oil Corporation (q. 517. 522. The liquid instead is pump ?d to a fractionator plant where it is separated into various components or fractions in fractionator towers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 514. 521.v.

5 525.mzhelu@gmail.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 523. to fake a report. boil weevil (slang) an inexperienced rig or oil-filed worker. sturdy frame or small platform with multiple wheels (4 to 8) for moving heavy objects short distances. oil. BOGIES Colloquial term for small transport dollies. or gas and is used to generate steam from water." 527. A low. boil-weevil corner (slang. Boiloff occurs when the holding vessel's insulation fails to maintain the low temperature required to keep the gas in liquid form. Z. (2) To make a report without doing the work. obsolete) the work station of an inexerienced rotary helper. 5 532. 526. boiler a closed pressure vessel that has a furnace equipped to burn coal. Boiloff is a problem for shippers of LNG in the specially built ocean carriers. 65 Petroleum Engineer: M. boil-weevil hanger a tubing hanger. on the opposite side of the rotary from the pipe rocker. 5 529. BOILER HOUSE (1) A lightly constructed building to house steam boilers. BOIL OFF The vaporization or gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other gases liquefied by applying high pressure and severe cooling. 530. sometimes shortened to "weevil.

The boiling point of water is 212 F or 100 C at atmospheric pressure (14. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. used to hold samples of oil or gas under pressure. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 538.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 533. 5 535. INITIAL The temperature at which a product being distilled comes to a boiling point. BOLLWEEVIL An inexperienced worker or "green hand" on a drilling crew. bomb a thick-walled container. 539.) 540. (See bottomhole pressure. the beginning of the distillation of a particular product. bomb a thick-walled container. (See bottomhole pressure. BOILING POINT. BONNET The upper part of a gate valve that encloses the packing gland and supports the valve stem. The heavy wooden or metal] beam rests on a pin that allows the forward end of the load to pivot as truck turns a corner. the temperature at which this occurs.7 psig). usually steel. boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. 5 537. 66 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 541. usually steel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. BOLSTER A support on a truck bed used for hauling pipe.com .

See Royalty Bidding. 544. boom a movable arm of tubular or bar steel. Another form is called an oil or royalty bonus. 5 547. boom Stop the steel projections on a crane that the boom strikes if raised too high or lowered too far. BOOK VALUE The worth of an oil company.com . BONUS Usually. 543. This may be in the form of an overriding royalty reserved to the landowner in addition to the usual one-eighth royalty.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 542. 67 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used on some types of cranes or derricks to support the hoisting lines that carry the load. BONUS BIDDING Competitive bidding for oil and gas leases in which the lease providing for a fixed royally is offered to the prospective lessee offering to pay the largest bonus to the lessor. It is also called a boom ratchet. 5 549. the bonus is the money paid by the lessee for the execution of an oil and gas lease by the landowner. less depreciation 545.) 550. boom dog a ratchet device on a crane that prevents the boom of the crane from being lowered but still permits it to be raised..mzhelu@gmail. Z. boom ratchet (See boom dog. properties and all facilities.

553.mzhelu@gmail. 552.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 551. (slang) an oil-field worker who moves from one center of activity to another. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2.v. BOP STACK Blowout preventer stack (q.com . BOOMCATS Caterpillar tractors equipped with side booms and winches used in pipeline construction to lift joints of pipe and to lower sections of the line into the ditch.) 557. A device used to tighten chains on a load of pipe or other equipment on a truck to make it secure. boot a tubular device placed vertically inside or outside a larger vessel. BOP blowout preventer. boomer 1.) boot sub (See Junk sub.) 68 Petroleum Engineer: M. BOOSTER STATION A pipeline pumping station usually on a main fine or trunk fine an intermediate station. Z. through which well fluids are conducted before entering the larger vessel. it helps to separate gas from wet oil. 556. a field station that pumps into a tank farm or main station. 5 559. boot basket (See junk sub. Also called a flume or conductor pipe. 5 555. a floater or transient.

BOPD barrels of oil per day.mzhelu@gmail. 564. 565.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 5 561. 563. and canals for the purpose of installing casing or steel conduits to hold a pipeline. BOREHOLE The hole in the earth made by the drill. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.an assembly of heavy-duty valves attached to the wellhead to control well pressure and prevent a blowout. the uncased drill hole from the surface to the bottom of the we If. railroads. 568. bottle test a test in which varying amounts of a chemical are added to bottled samples of an emulsion to determine how much of the chemical is needed to break the emulsion into oil and water. 562. 5 567. Z.com . BORING MACHINE A power-driven. bottled gas liquefied petroleum gas placed in small containers for sale to domestic customers. large-diameter auger used to bore under roads. bore the diameter of the cylinder of an engine. BORE AND STROKE See Pump Specifications. BOP/BOP Stack Blowout preventers/blowout preventer stack . 69 Petroleum Engineer: M. 5 570.

mzhelu@gmail.v. in the string. Z. bottom-hole pertaining to the lowest or deepest part of a well. 574. the "bottom of the barrel" in petroleum distillation. When in addition to drill collars and reamers there are two or three stabilizers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 70 Petroleum Engineer: M. The main purpose of a hole assembly is to keep the bit drilling as straight down as possible. 576. Such an assembly may also include a bottom-hole reamer above the bit or above the first drill collar. bottom hold-down a mechanism for anchoring a bottom-hole pump in the well. A bottleneck may result if the downward motion of the drill pipe is stopped with the slips instead of the brake. BOTTOM-HOLE ASSEMBLY (BHA) A drilling string comprised of a drillbit and several drill collars is a simple bottom-hole assembly. It is often marked on the engine flywheel. 575. bottleneck an area of reduced diameter in pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 571. 578. 577. 5 573. BOTTLENECKING The deformation of the ends of the casing or tubing in the hanger resulting from excessive weight of the string of pipe and the squeezing action of the slips.com . brought about by excessive longitudinal strain or by a combination of longitudinal strain and the swagging action of a body. bottom dead center (BDC) the position of the piston at the lowest point possible in the cylinder of an engine. it is referred to as packed-hole assembly (q.). BOTTOM FRACTION The last cut.

583. 584. the former requires payment upon completion of the well whether it produces or not. bottom-hole plug a bridge plug or cement plug placed near the bottom of the hole to shut off a depleted.) 5 581. secures the promise from another to contribute to the cost of the well. bottom-hole choke a device with a restricted opening placed in the lower end of the tubing to control the rate of flow. or unproductive zone. BOTTOM-HOLE HEATER Equipment used in the bottom of the well bore to increase bottom-hole temperature in an effort to increase the recovery of low gravity or heavy oil. Z. In contrast to a dry-hole letter. 71 Petroleum Engineer: M. BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE The reservoir or formation pressure at the bottom of the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bottom-hole packer a device that blocks passage through the annular space between two strings of pipe and is installed near the bottom of the hole. readings are usually taken at different rates of I low in order to arrive at a maximum productivity rate. A decline in pressure indicates the amount of depletion from the reservoir. A bottom-hole letter is often used by the operator as security for obtaining a loan to finance the drilling of the well. planning to drill a well on his own land. 587. (See choke.mzhelu@gmail.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 579. BOTTOM-HOLE LETTER An agreement by which an operator. water-producing. (See packer. bottom-hole contract a contract providing for the payment of money or other considerations upon the completion of a well to a specified depth. 582.) 5 586. If measured under flowing conditions.

which tends to straighten under pressure.mzhelu@gmail. BOTTOM OUT To reach total depth. 594. Z. 595. bottoms-up a complete trip from the bottom of the wellbore to the top. 592. a Bourdon tube indicates the pressure applied to it. bottom-hole separator a device used to separate oil and gas at the bottom of wells to increase the volumetric efficiency of the pumping equipment. 596. bottoms 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 588. bottom water water found below oil and gas in a producing formation. the liquids and residue that collect in the bottom of a vessel (such as tank bottoms) or that remain in the bottom of a storage tank after a period of service. 72 Petroleum Engineer: M. high-volume units driven by an electric motor or hydraulically operated. Bourdon tube a flattened metal tube bent in a curve. the residual fractions remaining at the bottom of a fractionating tower after lighter components have been distilled off as vapors. to drill to a specified depth. bottom-loading pressure the pressure exerted on the bottom hull of a column-stabilized. 2. By the movements of an indicator over a circular scale.com . semisubmersible drilling rig when the rig is submerged. BOTTOM-HOLE PUMP A pump located in the bottom of the well and not operated by sucker rods and surface power units. Bottom-hole pumps are compact. 5 591. 593. 589.

73 Petroleum Engineer: M. bowline knot a knot primarily used in lifting heavy equipment with the catline.com . don tube flexes (attempts to straighten) and this movement through roper linkage. box (See tool joint. box and pin (See tool Joint. BOWLINE A knot used to form a loop in a rope which will neither slip nor jan. With increases in gas pressure the Bourdon. BOWL A device that fits in the rotary table and holds the wedges or slips that support a string of tubing or casing. 601. actuates recording instruments. bow lines n pl the lines running from the bow of a mobile offshore drilling rig. crescent-shaped tube closed at one end. used in pressure recording devices or in pilot operated control mechanisms. since it can be readily tied and untied. especially the forward mooring lines. 602.mzhelu@gmail.] source of gas pressure at the other. BOUROON TUBE A small. BOX AND PIN JOINT A type Of screw coupling used to connect sucker rods and drill pipe.) 607. connected to. The box is a thick-walled collar with threads on the inside the pin is threaded on the outer circumference and is screwed into the box. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 6 604. regardless of the weight of the load on it. 598.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 597. 5 600. Z.) 6 606.

that grips a drum when tightened.) The bradenhead. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bradenhead (obsolete) casinghead. (See squeeze. used in drilling reports. 615. bradenhead squeezing the process by which hydraulic pressure is applied to a well to force fluid or cement outside the wellbore. brake band a part of the brake mechanism. Brackish water is saltier than fresh water but not as salty as salt water. 617. On a drilling 74 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 608. bradenhead flange a flanged connection at the top of the oil-well casing. 611. brackish water water that contains relatively low concentrations of any soluble salts.com . bpd barrels per day. is closed to shut off the annulus when making a bradenhead squeeze. 616. BPH barrels per hour. 6 619. Although this term is still used. consisting of a flexible steel band lined with asbestos or a similar material. BOYLE'S LAW "The volume of any weight of gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure. 6 614. BRADENHEAD GAS Casinghead gas. Z. Bradenhead was an early-day name for the wellhead or casinghead. 612. provided the temperature remains constant. the term "bradenhead" is obsolete." 6 610.mzhelu@gmail. or casinghead.

BRAKE HORSEPOWER (S. or tubing. the brake band acts on the flanges of the drum on the drawworks to control the lowering of the travelt'ng block and its load of drill pipe.H.). usually a pipe. 620.) The power developed by an engine as measured at the drive shaft.) 628. 626.v. 6 625. brass running nipple a device used in the flow cross of the Christmas tree as a thread protector while the rods are being run. casting. tar-like substand. 75 Petroleum Engineer: M. joined to and diverging from another line. branch line a line. Because it is brass. asphaltic material formed at oil see pages when the fighter fractions of the oil have evaporated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Until the 1940s or so. much of the communication from oil patch to division and head offices was by telegraph. 621.v. drum. it prevents friction sparks. or reel where the brake is applied to control the movement of the unit. especially one who uses a telegraph key (q. the actual or delivered horsepower as contrasted to "indicated horsepower" (q. BRASSPOUNDER A telegrapher. 6 623.P.). BREA A viscous. leaving the black. (The editor was once an oilfield telegrapher.mzhelu@gmail. brake flange the surface on a winch. See Telegrapher's Bug. Z. brake rider (slang) a driller who is said to rely too heavily on the drawworks brake.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rig. 627.

BREAK OUT (1) To isolate pertinent figures from a mass of data. break to begin or start (as to break circulation or break tour). 634. Moving the rig and rigging up are usually carried on during daylight. When the rig is ready for operation on a new location. pertaining to the amount of pressure needed at the wellhead to rupture the formation in a fracture treatment or squeeze job (as formation breakdown pressure). BREAK CIRCULATION To resume the movement of drilling fluid down the drill pipes through the .com . breadth the greatest overall dimension measured perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig.. to retrieve relevant information from a comprehensive report. (2) To loosen a threaded pipe joint. breakdown a failure of equipment. 631. Z. 6 638. crews break tour and start operating 24 hours a day. 632. 635. BREAK-OUT TANKAGE Tankage at a take-off point or delivery point on a large crude oil or products pipeline. 76 Petroleum Engineer: M. 636. and upward through the annulus to the surface 633.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 630. eyes" of the bit.mzhelu@gmail. BREAKING DOWN THE PI1PE Unscrewing stands of drillpipe in one-joint lengths usually in preparation for stacking and moving to another well location. break tour to begin operating 24 hours a day. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

breakout cathead (See cathead. 77 Petroleum Engineer: M. breakout block a heavy plate that fits in the rotary table and holds the drill bit while it is being unscrewed from the drill collar. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually caused by the caving in of the wall of the borehole or by the intrusion of a large boulder. bridge 1. For example. a tank of crude oil expands because of the rise in temperature during the day and contracts as it cools at night. breathe to move with a slight. Breathing occurs in tanks of vessels when vapors are expelled and air is taken in. an obstruction in the borehole. Tubing breathes when it moves up and down in sequence with a sucker-rod pump. drilled out.com . Z.) 644. 641. 6 648.mzhelu@gmail.) 642. breakout tongs (See tongs and break out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 640. regular rhythm. 6 646. 2.) 643. a tool placed in the hole to retain cement or other material that may later be removed. expelling vapors as it expands and taking in air as it contracts. breaking strength the load under which a chain breaks. or left permanently. BREATHING The movement of oil vapors and air in and out of a storage tank owing to the alternate heating by day and cooling by night of the vapors above the oil in the tank. (See bit breaker.

brine water that has a large quantity of salt. used for blending with lower viscosity oils. looped over the horse head and connected to the carrier bar to support the polished-rod clamp. bridging material the fibrous. 650. BRIDGE OVER The collapse of the walls of the borehole around the drill column. BRIGHT STOCKS High-viscosity. 656. and dewaxed lubricating oils. bright appearance of the dewaxed tubes. (See sucker-rod pumping. a plug mandrel. that is run and set in casing to isolate a lower zone while testing an upper section. salt water.mzhelu@gmail.) 652. 78 Petroleum Engineer: M. fully refined. especially sodium chloride. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 6 654. dissolved in it. 651. bridge plug a downhole tool. 655. flaky. BRIGHT SPOTS White areas on seismographic recording strips which may signal to the geologist or trained observer the presence of hydrocarbons. composed primarily of slips. bridle a cable on a pumping unit.com . or granular material added to a cement slurry or drilling fluid to aid in scaling formations in which lost circulation has occurred.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 649. (See lost-circulation material. and a rubber sealing element. The name originated from the clear.

S. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. British thermal unit (Btu) a measure of heat energy equivalent to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1 F. to begin a new job after being promoted. do not get hung up in the fine. brkn broken. 79 Petroleum Engineer: M.K. oil companies and others.com . 659. BRISTLE PIG A type of pipeline pig or scraper made of tough plastic covered with flamehardened steel bristles. used in drilling reports. 6 662. 664. the "corporation" through which Britain assumes ownership of he U. 660. and are easy to "catch. 658.v. Z.mzhelu@gmail." They are usually run in newly constructed lines to remove rust and mill scale (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 657. BROKEOUT To be promoted. BRING BOTTOMS UP To wash rock cuttings from the bottom of the hole to the surface by maintaining circulation after halting the drilling operation. BRITISH NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION The United Kingdom government agency that "participates" in drilling and production activities in the British sectors of the North Sea with U. bring in a well to complete a well and put it in producing status.'s share of the North Sea oil. 663.). Bristle or foam pigs are easy to run. This allows time for closer inspection of the cuttings and for a decision as to how to proceed when encountering a certain formation. "He broke out as a driller at Midland".

any newly promoted oil field worker whose performance is still untried. BRUCKER SURVIVAL CAPSULE A patented.com . Z. BSD Barrels per stream day. 671. of spheroid shape.3 persons. is self-propelled and is equipped with first-aid and life-support systems. Bscf/d billion standard cubic feet of gas per day. Brownian movement the random movement exhibited by microscopic particles when suspended in liquids or gases. B S &W Short for basic sediment and water often found in crude oil. See Whitaker System. 6 6 9 .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 666. See Stream Day. 6 673. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a new tool pusher up from driller. BRONC A new driller promoted from helper. sef-contained survival vessel that can be lowered from an offshore drilling platform or semisubmersible in the event of a fire or other emergency. caused by the impact of molecules of fluid surrounding the particle. 80 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some models can accommodate 2. BS&W monitor a device used in LACT systems to measure and record automatically the amount of water and other contaminants in oil being transferred to a pipeline and to divert contaminated oil to treatment facilities. The vessel. 667.mzhelu@gmail. 668. 670.

The hot vapors bubbling through the liquid keep the liquid charge heated. and chemical intermediates. BUBBLE-CAPTRAYS Shelves or horizontal baffles inside a fractionating tower or column that are perforated to allow the fluid charge to run down to the bottom of the column and the vapors to rise through the trays to the top where they are drawn off.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 7 4 .mzhelu@gmail. 678. Bubble caps and trays are arranged in bubble towers.com . BUBBLE POINT The pressure at which gas. The initials are used by refinery men in designating a unit of the refinery. breaks out of solution as free gas saturation pressure. bubble cap a metal cap that has openings allowing vapor bubbles in a gas-processing tower to contact cool liquids. The perforations in the trays are made with small umbrella-like caps called bubble caps whose purpose is to force the rising vapors to bubble through the several inches of liquid standing on each tray before the vapors move upward to the next tray. synthetic ruber. 679. held in solution in crude oil. 81 Petroleum Engineer: M. causing some of the vapor to condense to liquid. BTX Benzene-toluene-xylene. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. agricultural chemicals. Z. cylindrical vessels set vertically in rows. bubble-cap tray a perforated steel tray on which bubble caps are mounted. basic aromatics used in the manufacture of paints. 6 676. 680. BT U British thermal unit. 677. the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

BUG BLOWERS Large fans used on or near the floor of the drilling rig to keep mosquitoes and other flying insects off the rig crew. in effect. the effective drainage radius or the presence of permeability barriers or other production deterrents surrounding the wellbore can be estimated. When the saturation pressure is reached. BUBBLE POINT PUMP A type of downhole oil pump very sensitive to gas.) buck up to tighten up a screwed connection. Z. 687.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 681. From this data and from knowledge of pressures in a nearby well. 6 684. BUCK UP To tighten pipe joints with a wrench. buildup test a test in which a well is shut in for a prescribed period of time and a bottomhole pressure bomb run in the well to record increases or decreases in pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This type of pump regulates. - 682. bug blower (slang) a large fan installed on a drilling rig to blow insects away from the work area.mzhelu@gmail. any type of fan.com . bubble tower a vertical. oil production from a reservoir with a gas drive. gas is released which gas-locks the pump until pressure is again built up by the oil I lowing into the well bore. 6 686. 82 Petroleum Engineer: M. 688. cylindrical vessel in which bubble caps and bubble-cap trays are arranged. bubble tray (See bubble-cap tray. 6 690.

BULL GANG Common laborers who do the ditching and other heavy work on a pipeline construction job. bulkhead deck the highest deck to which watertight bulkheads extend on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig. bull gear the large. closed end. 6 696. 702. 693. A bulk plant usually has tank carunloading facilitiese and warehousing for products sold in packages or in barrels. BULK PLANT A distribution point for petroleum products. 83 Petroleum Engineer: M. 694. circular gear in a mud pump that is driven by the prime mover and in turn drives the connecting rods. 6 700. BULLDOGGED Said of a fishing toot lowered into the well bore that has latched onto lost pipe or another object being fished out and won't unlatch or cannot be disengaged. 6 698.com . used to stop up a hole or close off the end of a line. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bulkhead an interior wall that subdivides a mobile offshore drilling rig into compartments. owing to a malfunction of the tool.mzhelu@gmail. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 6 692. bull plug a threaded nipple with a rounded.

Bullet tanks ire for storing gasoline or butane under pressure. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 703. 712. BULLWHEEL On a cable-tool rig.).v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and so on. 708.) are stored In Hortonsphores or spheroids that can withstand higher pressures per square inch. BULLET TANKS Colloquial term for horizontal pressure tanks made in the shape of a very fat bullet. so that the pump hits bottom on the downstroke. Other liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) with higher vapor pressure (q. earth.mzhelu@gmail. bullet perforator a tubular device that. fires bullets through the casing to provide holes through which the well fluids may enter. 84 Petroleum Engineer: M. 705. bulldozer a powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving rocks. See Calf Wheel. bump a well to have too long a sucker-rod string on a pumping unit. 706. the large wheels and axle located on one side of the derrick floor used to hold the drilling line.) 710.v. 713. (See gun-perforate. bullets n pl the devices loaded into perforating guns to penetrate into casing and cement and some distance into the formation when the guns are fired. BULLWAGON A casing wagon (q. when lowered to a selected depth within a well.com .

BUMPER SUB (FISHING) A hydraulically actuated tool installed in the fishing string above the fishing tool to produce a jarring action. but used in the normal drilling stem to compensate for vertical movement of the stem. the bumper sub imparts a jarring action to help free the "fish. When the fishing tool has a firm hold on the lost drillpipe or tubing. 717. 719. 715. bumper jar (See jar. " when the plug strikes the float collar.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 714. BUMP OFF A WELL To disconnect a rod-line well from a central power unit. bumped aoj in cementing operations. but to a lesser extent than a jar. especially in offshore drilling. pertaining to a cement plug which comes to rest on the float collar. BUMPER SUB A slip joint that is part of the string of drillpipe used in drilling from a drillship to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action. which may also be stuck fast in the hole. 721. 85 Petroleum Engineer: M. bump off a well to disconnect a pull-rod line from a central power unit. BUNKER "C" FUEL OIL A heavy.com . A cementing operator might say. It also provides jarring action. Z." 720. 716. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.) bumper sub a device similar to ajar. residual fuel oil used in ships' boilers and large heating and generating plants. The slip joint is inserted above the heavy drill collars in order to maintain the weight of the collars on the drill bit as the drillpipe above the slip joint up and down with the motion of the ship. "I have a bumped plug.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 736. usually a portable building used on remote well location to house the drilling crew and for supplies. buoyancy the apparent loss of weight of an object immersed in a fluid. burning point the lowest temperature at which an oil or fuel will burn when an open flame is held near its surface. the immersed portion displaces a volume of fluid the weight of which is equal to the weight of the object. BUNKHOUSE Crew quarters. Z.com . the loading of bunker fuel on board ship for use by the ship's boilers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 723.mzhelu@gmail. burn shoe a type of rotary shoe designed to mill away metal tubular goods (such as casing. 734. If the object is floating. BURN PIT An excavation in which waste oil and other material are burned 732. See Ultrasonic Atomizer. 730. 86 Petroleum Engineer: M. 728. and so on) causing stuck pipe. 726. BURNER A device for the efficient combustion of a mixture of fuel and air. bunker oil (See residuals. drill pipe. BUNKERING To supply fuel to vessels for use in the ships 'boilers.) 724. used in fishing operations. quarters for Single 011 field workers in the days when transportation to a nearby town was unavailable.

7 4 5 . butane a paraffin hydrocarbon. button bit a drilling bit with tungsten carbide inserts that resemble buttons. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.mzhelu@gmail. BUTT-WELDED PIPE Pipe made from a rectangular sheet of steel which is formed on mandrels. 742. 741. a pipe fitting of which the external thread is larger than its internal thread to allow two pipes of different sizes to be connected together. resist wear or corrosion.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 738. BUTTERFLY VALVE A type of quick-opening valve whose orifice is opened and closed by a disk that pivots on a shaft in the throat of the valve. BW barrels of water. This occurs when the host government has no market for its share of oil received under the joint-interest or participation agreement.com . a constituent of LPG. used in drilling reports. (See rollercone bit. The two edges of the sheet are butted together and welded automatically. that is a gas in atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. buy-back oil is the host government's share of "participation crude" it permits the company holding the concession (the producer) to buy back. 2. bushing 1. BUY-RACK CRUDE OIL In foreign countries. C4H10. 739. or serve as a guide. a removable lining or sleeve inserted or screwed into an opening to limit its size. 87 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 744.

used in drilling reports. 88 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. BWPD barrels of water per day. installed to permit passage of fluid through the line while adjustments or repairs are being made on the control.mzhelu@gmail. 750. BYPASS VALVE A valve by which the flow of liquid or gas in a system may be shunted pasta part of the system through which it normally flows. 749. bypass a pipe connection around a valve or other control mechanism.com . BWPH barrels of water per hour.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 746. a valve that controls an alternate route for liquid or gas. 747. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

CABLE. over and over. A heavy metal bar. (See cement Ceisius. hemp. C. 758. picked up and dropped. called a bit. C degrees centigrade or Celsius. The drilling tool.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 751. as the hole is drilled. comes in a variety of cutting-edge configurations. 756.com . 89 Petroleum Engineer: M. cable tool drilling a drilling method in which the hole is drilled by dropping a sharply pointed bit on the bottom of the hole. 757. C02-SHIELDED WELDING See Welding. Z. cake thickness the thickness of the filter cake. C02-Shielded. 754. PLUG A cast-iron plug. The bit is attached to a cable and the cable is picked up and dropped. a flat plug used to close the end of a pipe or a valve.mzhelu@gmail. sharpened to a chisel-like point on the lower end is attached to a drilling rope or wire line (cable) which is fastened to a walking beam above the rig floor that provides an up and down motion to the line and the metal drilling tools. made of strands of steel wire. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DRILLING A heavy cable.) 753. cable a rope of wire. 755.I. CABLE TOOLS The equipment necessary for cable tool drilling of a well. 1 to 2 inches in diameter. 759. or other strong fibers.1 scale.

766. sulfur. thus facilitating drilling. and oxygen.mzhelu@gmail.v. It sometimes contaminates drilling fluids but may be added to provide certain properties. or desiccant. and heated to drive off any remaining liquid hydrocarbons and water. Z. calcium-treated mud a freshwater drilling mud using calcium oxide (lime) or calcium sulfate (gyp) to retard the hydrating qualities of shale and clay formations. calcium chloride a moisture-absorbing chemical. Like calcium carbonate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 764. (See anhydrite and gypsum. used as an accelerator in cements and as a drying agent.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 760. CALCINING (OF COKE) Calcining is the heating of a substance to drive off moisture and other gaseous impurities or to make it more friable or crushable. and oxygen. calcium sulfate (CaSO4) forms a hard-to-remove scale in some water-handling facilities. It forms a tenacious scale in water-handling facilities and is a cause of water hardness. 762. but may require further treatment to prevent gelation (solidification) under the high temperatures of deep wells. Its symbol is CaCl2. Petroleum coke is calcined.com . crushed. The casing is usually run with the use of the calf wheels 90 Petroleum Engineer: M. carbon.) 765. CALF WHEEL The spool or winch located across the derrick floor from the bull wheels (q.) on a (able tool rig. Calcium-treated muds resist salt and anhydrite contamination. Chemical symbol is CaCO2. calcium carbonate a chemical combination of calcium. calcium sulfate a chemical combination of calcium. B B 763. the main constituent of limestone.

CALIPER LOG A tool for checking casing downhole for any bending or flattening or other deformation prior to running and setting a packer or other casing hardware. and put in cases. Modern canning lines are fully automated. COMPANY A small community of oil field workers. loading racks. A line from the call wheels runs to the crown block and down to the rig floor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. calorie (Calory) the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C. Z. In the early days. See Drift Mandrel. calibration tank (See proven tank. 769.v. Carter Camp. Cam an eccentrically shaped disk that varies in distance from its center to various points on its circumference and that is mounted on a camshaft and serves to open the engine valves.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which are powered by the band wheel (q. and water free or at a nominal charge to employees working on the lease and at nearby company installations pumping stations. CANNING LINE A facility at refinery where cans are filled with lubricating oil. and Tom Butler.g. oil companies furnished housing. tank farms. 771. lights. It is the metric equivalent of the British thermal unit. Gulf Wolf Camp. CAMP.) 768. a settlement of oil company employees living on a lease in company housing. 91 Petroleum Engineer: M. 770. gasoline plants. etc. gas.mzhelu@gmail. Camps were known by company lease or simply the lease name.). 772. e. 767.com .

mzhelu@gmail. when wired in. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. canted leg pertaining to an independent leg jackup rig designed so that the legs may be slanted outward to increase support against lateral stresses when the unit is on the seafloor. capacitor an electrical device that. the Canadian counterpart of the IADC. 774. 779. canvas packer (obsolete) a device for sealing the annular space between the top of a liner and the existing casing string.the line of an electrical circuit. 2.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 773. It also is called a condenser. cap a well to control a blowout by placing a very strong valve on the wellhead. stores a charge of electricity and returns the charge to the line when certain electrical conditions occur. impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas reservoir that tends to prevent migration of fluids from the reservoir. capacitance probe a device used in most net-oil computers that senses the different dielectric constants of oil and water in an water-in-oil emulsion. CAODC the Canadian Association of Oil-Well Drilling Contractors. Z. cap rock 1. 776. 777. 778. 781. the porous and permeable strata overlying salt domes that may serve as the reservoir rock.com . 92 Petroleum Engineer: M.

In the oil industry. permitting the oil to drain out of the pores of the rock.com . CAPITAL EXPENDITURES Nondeductible expenditures which must be recovered through depletion or depreciation. 786. 785. property used in the taxpayers' trade or business and are not capital assets. CAPITAL ASSETS Assets acquired for investment and not for sale and requiring no personal services or management duties.mzhelu@gmail. these items illustrate expenditures that must be capitalized geophysical and geologic costs. is usually considered a capital asset. In Federal income tax law. 93 Petroleum Engineer: M. oil and gas leases are. CAPBEAD The final bead or course of metal laid on a pipeline weld. if held for investment. Royalty. Flooding the formation with certain chemicals the capillary attraction. See Tertiary Recovery. Capillary Pressure A type of pressure data used to determine water saturation in a reservoir. Z. ordinarily. 784.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 782. 783. Well equipment and lease bonuses paid by lessee. the surface tension. CAPILLARY ATTRACTION The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid. Capillary attraction or capillarity adversely affects the recovery of crude oil from a porous formation because a portion of the oil clings to the surface of each pore in the rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The cap bead goes on top of the hot passes or filler beads to finish the weld.

com . 788.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 787. 792. Captured bolts are in reality a part of an adjustable piece and are so made to preclude the chance of being removed and dropped or because of limited space and accessibility in an item of equipment. the increasing need for investment capital coupled with diminishing results in terms of oil and gas discovered spending more to find less oil. CAPPING Closing in a well to prevent the escape of gas or oil. 94 Petroleum Engineer: M. The bolt can be tightened or loosened but cannot be removed completely because of a shoulder at the end of the bolt. Z. below the threads. CAPSCREW A bolt made with an integral. hexagonal head.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). 790. CAPTURED BOLT A bolt held in place by a fixed nut or threaded piece. 789. 791. CAPITAL STRING Another name for the production string (q. cap screws are commonly used to fasten water jackets and other auxiliary pieces to an engine or pump. CAPITAL-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY Said of the oil industry because of the great amounts of investment capital required to search for and establish petroleum reserves. and have slightly pointed ends. to aid in getting the "screw" into the tapped hole and started straight.v. CAPITAL-GAP DILEMMA The growing disproportion of capital investment to oil reserves discovered.

bulky carbon obtained as soot by burning natural gas in large horizontal "ovens" with insufficient air. 8 801. 799. most often a lease. fermenting cellulose product used in drilling fluids to combat contamination from anhydrite (gyp) and to lower the water loss of the mud. sometimes makes up petroleum reservoirs.com . Carbon plants are located close to a source of gas and in more or less isolated sections of the country because of the heavy emission of smoke. carbon black very fine particles of almost pure amorphous carbon. the holder of which has no obligation for operating costs. 796. CARBON PLANT A plant for the production of carbon black by burning natural gas in the absence of sufficient air. carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) a non. CARBON BLACK A fine. Carbonate rock a sedimentary rock primarily composed of calcium carbonate (limestone) or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite). These are paid by the owner or owners of the remaining fraction who reimburse themselves out of profits from production. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually produced from gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons by thermal decomposition or by controlled combustion with a restricted air supply. carbonate reef (See reef.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 793. CARRIED INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil or gas property.) 797. The person paying the costs is the carrying party. 95 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. the other person is the carried party. Z. 795.

For other considerations.v. 96 Petroleum Engineer: M. In its simplest form a carried working interest is exempt from all costs of development and operation of the property. i. 1 and drive-in unit. CARRIED WORKING INTEREST A fractional interest in an oil and gas property conveyed or assigned to another party by the operator or owner of the working interest. one-sixteenth." 804. an oil payment or overridinq royalty (q. a working interest. wheeled unit used to service oil and gas wells. the carried interest may specify "to casing point. which he has "sliced off" or carved out of his interest. then the carried Interest may assume the equivalent fractional interest of operating costs upon completion of the well. the details varyinq considerably from arrangement to arrangement. The owner of the working interest in a producing property may grant an oil payment to a bank to pay off a loan.com . carrier rig a self-propelled. There are many different types of carried interests. hoist.e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 803. Modern production rigs are usually carrier units. "The numerous forms this interest is given from time to lime make it apparent the term carried interest dose not define any specific form of agreement but serves only serves only as a guide in preparing and interpreting instruments. Z. engines.) conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest. (See back-in unit . the owner of the larger interest may convey an overriding royalty." or "through well completion.) 805. One authority has observed. having the mast. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.' "to setting of tanks." If the arrangement specifies through well completion.. However. and other auxiliaries needed to service or work over a well mounted on a chassis powered by the engines used for hoisting. for example. CARVED-OUT INTEREST An interest.

Cased hole a wellbore in which casing has been run. casing-burst pressure the amount of pressure that causes the wall of the casing to fail.mzhelu@gmail. It prevents a smaller string of pipe or tools from hanging up on the top of the column when run in the well. 97 Petroleum Engineer: M. Casing Steel pipe set in a well to prevent the hole from sloughing or caving and to enable formations to be isolated (there may be several strings of casing in a well. one inside the other). 8 810. installed on the top of a string of pipe that does not extend to the surface. 8 812. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. exerting more pressure than it did at the bottom of the well. 815. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 806.com . usually beveled. casing centralizer a device secured around the casing at various intervals to center it in the hole and provide a uniform cement sheath around the pipe. This pressure is critically important when a gas kick is being circulated out. 8 814. 807. 808. CASHEONUS See Bonus. Cased pertaining to a wellbore in which casing is run and cemented. because gas on the way to the surface expands. casing adapter a swage nipple.

so that it does not bind or stick to the casing in the hole in the area above the cement. casing cutter a heavy cylindrical body fitted with a set of knives. 817. The mud used is non-solidifying.) 8 821. and the knives are rotated against the inner walls of the pipe to free the casing. casing elevator (See elevator. EXTERNAL See External Casing Packer. Casing packs are used in wells of doubtful or limited production to permit reuse of valuable lengths of casing. the casing can be cut above the cemented section and retrieved. The cutter is run on a string of tubing or drill pipe. casing design chart a list of the various grades and weights of pipe available for the casing string. casing pack a method of cementing casing in a well so that the casing may. 822. Since the mud does not gel. is placed in the well ahead of the cement after the casing has been set.) 819. casing float collar (See float collar. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.com . A special mud. even over long periods of time. casing coupling a tubular section of pipe that is threaded inside and used to connect two joints of casing. be retrieved with minimum difficulty. CASING PACKER.mzhelu@gmail. usually an oil mud. used to free a section of casing in the well. if necessary.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 816. 818. which includes pertinent safety factors such as stress effects to permit selection of the most economical and safest casing for a specific job. 98 Petroleum Engineer: M.

8 826. On a marginal well. threaded nipples screwed into the open end of the coupling and over the threaded end to protect the threads from dirt accumulation damage. On a very good well there is no hesitation the operators and glad to run casing and complete the well.com . casing slips (See slips. decision to set pipe is often difficult. heavy. Also called thread protectors. generally the depth at which the casing shoe rests.) 99 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. and completing the well. CASING POINT A term that designates a time when a decision must be made whether casing is to be run and set or the well abandoned and plugged in a joint operating agreement. hollow. 831. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom that is placed on the end of the casing string to serve as a reinforcing shoe and to aid in cutting off minor projections from the borehole wall as the casing is being lowered. To case a well often costs as much as drilling. 8 828. casing protectors short. casing pressure the pressure built up in a well between the casing and tubing or casing and drill pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 824. and the operator notifies the drilling parties of his recommendation with a respect to setting casing a production string. CASING PRESSURE Pressure between the casing and the well's tubing. 8 830. casing point the depth in a well at which casing is set.mzhelu@gmail. Also called a guide shoe. they are made of steel or plastic. tests made. casing shoe a short. casing point refers to the time when a well has been drilled to objective depth.

838. low cart for moving casing from the pipe rack to the derrick floor. casing spear a fishing tool designed to grab casing from the inside so that when the spear is retrieved. SHALLOW-WELL Small-diameter casing of lighter weight than conventional casing used in deep wells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 832. casing swage a solid. The lighter-weight casing is less costly. CASING. 8 841. easier to handle.com .) 8 835. low-pressure wells.) 839. Two wagons are used.pointed at the bottom and equipped with a tool joint at the top for connection with a jar. casing string Casing is manufactured in lengths of about 30 ft. The forward wagon holds the pipe in a V-shaped cradle the rear wagon is in reality a lever on wheels which raises the end of the casing so it is free to be pulled. CASING WAGON A small. and adequate for certain kinds of shallow. each length or joint being joined to another as casing is run in a well. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 100 Petroleum Engineer: M. The entire length of all the joints of casing is called the casing string. casing tongs (See tongs. the attached casing comes with it. (See combination string.mzhelu@gmail. cylindrical body. used to make an opening in a collapsed casing and drive it back to its original shape. 833. casing spider (See spider.) 8 837.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.com . gasoline or natural gasoline is a highly volatile.) in deviated or crooked holes. CASINGHEAD The top of the casing set in a well. It is also called a spool. 844. SPIRALLED-WALL Well casing made with spiral grooves on the outer circumference of the pipe. The casinghead gas is taken off at the top of the well or at the separator. is said to be less susceptible to wall or differential sticking (q. The pipe with its grooves. 8 846. water white liquid. CASING.v. like screw threads. a trade name.mzhelu@gmail. CASINGHEAD GAS (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬ Gas produced with oil from an oil well as distinguished from gas from a gas well. CASINGHEAD GASOLINE Liquid hydrocarbons separated from casinghead gas by the reduction of pressure at the wellhead or by a separator or absorption plant. casinghead gasoline liquid hydrocarbons that are extracted from casinghead gas. casinghead a heavy.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 842. 843. used often to clear areas in earth-moving operations and in skidding rigs. the part of the casing that protrudes above the surface and to which the control valves and flow pipes are attached.v. flanged steel fitting that connects to the first string of casing and provides a housing for the slips and packing assemblies by which intermediate strings of casing are suspended and the annulus sealed off. cat a tractor designed to move easily over rough terrain. 847. The purpose of the patented axial grooves is to aid in running casing or a liner (q. Casinghead. 101 Petroleum Engineer: M.).It is a shortened form of Caterpillar.

spin in the easing and apply torque to the pipe tongs. 854. and by using a large rope wrapped around it a few turns the drilling crew can do such jobs as make-up and break-out and light hoisting. 853. The other end of the cat shaft has a manual or air-actuated quick-release friction clutch and drum to which the tong jerk fine or spinning chain is attached. accelerates. Z. On a drilling rig. One cat head is a drum. The cat works are used by the driller to make up and break out tool joint connections.com .). 852. Any reaction brought about by a separate agent. 102 Petroleum Engineer: M. the gear and chain linkage that powers the cat heads. See Cat Shaft. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the rope used by the driller to exert a pull on pipe tongs in tightening (making up) or loosening (breaking out) joints of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 849. CAT LINE A hoisting or pulling rope operated from a cat head (q. CAT WORKS A part of the rig's draw works. CATALYSIS The increase or speeding up of a chemical reaction caused by a substance that remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction.mzhelu@gmail. CATALYST A substance which hastens or retards a chemical reaction without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process. 8 851. or instigates chemical reactions without itself being affected.v. CAT SHAFT The shaft on the draw works on which the cat heads are mounted. catalyst a substance that alters.

860. from the bailer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 855.). CATENARY The sag or curve of a cable or chain stretched between two supports. CATHEAD A spool-shaped hub on a winch shaft around which a rope is wound for pulling and hoisting. catalytic cracking the breaking down of large. Cuttings are carefully washed until they are free of foreign matter. and labeled to indicate the depth at which they were obtained. Electricity enters a circuit at the cathode. Z. 861. 858. or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. dried. complex hydrocarbon molecules by applying heat. catenary Curve the shape assumed by a perfectly flexible line hanging under its own weight. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. catch samples to obtain cuttings made by the bit as formations are penetrated for study by geologists. 103 Petroleum Engineer: M. 'Re samples are obtained from drilling fluid as it emerges from the wellbore or. 8 857. cathode (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩ‬ the negative element of any electrical device as opposed to the anode. in cable-tool drilling. and a chemical (the catalyst) to speed the process. pressure.v.com . naphthas. 859.mzhelu@gmail. a power take-off spool used by the driller as he operates the cat line(q. 862. CATCRACKER A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude oil. See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit.

869. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used td maintain an alkaline pH in drilling mud and in petroleum fractions.mzhelu@gmail. used to lift heavy equipment on the rig. 865. 870. trestle-like crossing placed at an opening in a pasture fence to prevent cattle from getting out while permitting vehicles to cross over the metal or wooden open framework. buildings in which weak electric currents are set up to offset the current associated with metal corrosion. 868. CATTLE GUARD A ground-level.com . catline a hoisting or pulling line powered by the cathead. Z. cation (‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻥ‬ (See ion. caustic soda (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ sodium hydroxide.v. Its symbol is NaOH.) buried near the pipeline are connected to the pipe. any elevated walkway. Current flowing from the corroding anode to the metal installation control the corrosion of the installation. CATHODIC PROTECTION (‫)ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺜﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ An anticorrosion technique for metal installations-pipelines.) 8 867. Carbon or nonferrous anodes (q. catwalk the ramp at the side of the drilling rig where pipe is laid out to be lifted to the derrick floor by the catline. CATWALK raised. tanks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 864. narrow walkway between tanks or other installations. 104 Petroleum Engineer: M.

) 872. caving collapse of the walls of the wellbore. 874. cellar a pit in the ground dug to provide additional height between the rig floor and the wellhead to accommodate installation of 105 Petroleum Engineer: M.71. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 876. Cavitation is also by a suction pump drawing in liquid whore there is an insufficient station or hydrostatic head to keep the line supplied. cavernous formation (‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻬﻔﺔ‬ a rock formation that contains large." 873. CD Contract depth the depth of a well called for or specified in contract. also called sloughing. (See tug.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 871. 8 7 5 . CELLAR An excavation dug at the drill site before erecting the derrick to provide working space for the casinghead equipment beneath the derrick floor. 877. cc cubic centimeter. CAVEY FORMATION A formation that trends to cave or slough into the well's borch. In the parlance of cable-tool drillers.mzhelu@gmail. "the hole doesn't stand up. Z. Blowout preventer valves (BOP stack) are also located beneath the derrick floor in the cellar. open spaces. CAVITATION The creation of a partial vacuum or a cavity by a high-speed blade or boat propeller moving in or through a liquid.com . usually resulting from dissolving by formation waters that may still be present.?.

106 Petroleum Engineer: M. When casing is run in a well. 878.) 884. it is set. cement additive a material added to cement during cementing of a well to change its properties. Chemical accelerators. chemical retarders.mzhelu@gmail.) 8 880. semisubmersible drilling platform. rathole. cement bond the adherence of casing to cement and cement to formation. to the formation by means of cement. or bonded. etc. and weight-reduction materials are common additives. cement 94 lb (1 cu ft) bentonite 100 lb ilmenite 100 lb barite 100 lb 883. 885. 882. lime. CELLAR. silica.com . double-decked. poorly bonded casing transmits a signal slowly. Extensively used in the oil industry to bond casing to the walls of the wellbore. mousehole. cement bond survey an acoustic survey or sonic-logging method that records the quality or hardness of the cement in the annulus used to bond the casing and the formation. It also collects drainage water and other fluids for subsequent disposal. 881. (See cementing materials. WELLHEAD See Wellhead Cellar. Casing well-bonded to the formation transmits an acoustic signal quickly. cement a powder consisting of alumina. CELLAR DECK Lower deck on a large. cellar deck the lower deck of a double-decked semisubmersible drilling rig. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering blowout preventers. and other substances which hardens when mixed with water. (See main deck or Texas deck. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

890. thereby forcing it to follow another designated path. used to release small batches of cement in a remedial cementing operation. cement retainer a tool set temporarily in the casing or well to prevent the passage of cement. cement channeling during a cementing operation. cement system a particular slurry containing cement and water with or without additives. cement plug a portion of cement placed at some point in the wellbore to seal it. cement dump bailer a cylindrical container with a valve. the rising of cement between the casing and the borehole wall when the slurry fails to rise uniformly throughout the annulus.mzhelu@gmail. 892. 889. 107 Petroleum Engineer: M. 893. cement casing to fill the annulus between the casing and hole with cement to support the casing and to prevent migration of fluids between permeable zones. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 888. (See cementing. Z. It is used in squeeze Cementing and other remedial cementing jobs.com .) 891.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 8 887. CEMENTATION The filling in of the pore spaces of reservoir rock by the natural concretion of limestone.

cementing the application of a liquid slurry of cement and water to various points inside or outside the casing. cementing materials a slurry of Portland cement and water and sometimes one or more additives.com . retarders (such as gypsum). Z. weighting materials (such as barium sulfate). cementing pump a high-pressure pump used to force cement down the casing and into the annular space between the casing and the wall of the borehole. or slow setting. 899.mzhelu@gmail. sometimes called a metal-petal basket. and a variety of lost-circulation materials (such as mica flakes). 897. secondary Cementing. (See primary cementing. The Portland cement used may be high early strength. common (or standard). 896. Additives include accelerators (such as calcium chloride). and squeeze cementing. cementing head an accessory attached to the top of the casing to facilitate cementing of the casing. 108 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 894. cementing basket a collapsible or folding metal cone that fits against the walls of the wellbore to prevent the passage of cement. They affect either the density of the mixture or its setting time.) 895. 898. cementing barge a barge containing the cementing pumps and other equipment needed for oilwell cementing in water operations. lightweight additives (such as bentonite). It has passages for cement slurry and retainer chambers for cementing wiper plugs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

907. center of flotation the geometric center of the water plane at which a mobile offshore drilling rig floats and about which a rig rotates when acted upon by an external force without a change in displacement. Z. 906. Degrees centigrade are converted to degrees Fahrenheit by the following equation 'F = 9/5 ('C) + 32. 902.com .mzhelu@gmail. 903. center of buoyancy the center of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating body (such as a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig). the center of mass. center of pressure the point on which all wind-pressure forces are concentrated. centigrade (Celsius) scale the metric system of temperature measurement used universally by scientists.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 900. center of gravity the point at which an object can be supported so that it balances and on which all gravitational forces on the body and the weight of the body are concentrated. 109 Petroleum Engineer: M. O' represents the freezing point of water and 100' its boiling point at 760-mm barometric pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 9 905. centerline the middle line of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig from stem to stern as shown in a waterline view. 901. In the centigrade scale. cementing time the total elapsed time needed to complete a cementing operation. centipoise (cp) one-hundredth of a poise.

a more uniform cementing job is assured. 910. where its velocity is slowed and its kinetic energy changed to static pressure. centralizer (See casing centralizer. CENTRALIZERS. CENTRAL POWER A well-pumping installation consisting of an engine powering a large diameter. CEMENTING Cyclindrical. often used to transmit gas through a pipeline. or turbines. from which it is discharged into a diffuser. Centrifugal 110 Petroleum Engineer: M. Centralizers are especially useful in deep or deviated holes. A central power may pump from 10 to 25 wells on a lease.mzhelu@gmail. cage-like devices fitted to a wells casing as it is run to keep the pipe centered in the borehole.) 911. It is a continuous-flow compressor with a low pressure ratio. The band wheel is an excentric and as it revolves on a vertical axle a reciprocating motion is imparted to the shackle rods. 909. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 908. usually by a series of blades. Cementing centralizers are made with two bands that fit the pipe tightly with spring steel ribs that arch out to press against the wall of the borehole. By keeping the pipe centered. thus eliminating the need for individual treating facilities at each lease site.com . centrifugal compressor a compressor in which the flow of gas to be compressed is moved away from the center rapidly. Gas passing through the compressor contacts a rotating impeller. horizontal band wheel with shackle-rod lines attached to its circumference. Z. central oil-treating station a processing network used to treat emulsion produced from several leases. 912.

The liquid is pushed forward by the impellers as they rotate at high speed. because of their high speed. A decanting centrifuge located between the rig and mud pits removes the fine particles of rock from the mud by centrifugal action and discharges the clean mud to the working pits. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A pump made with blades or impellers in a close-fitting case. 913. CENTRIFUGE. also called the shake-out or grind-out machine.com . which breaks out the BS&W. Centrifugal pumps. are able to handle large volumes of liquid.mzhelu@gmail. Certificate of Fitness A certificate issued by a certifying authority stating that a design. A centrifuge is capable of spinning substances at high speeds to obtain high centrifugal forces. often arranged in series on a line to achieve multistage compression. 915. centrifuge a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances of varying densities. DECANTING A large centrifuge machine for separating or removing pulverized rock and fines from drilling mud returning from downhole. The samples are placed in tubes and spun in a centrifuge. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. centrifuge test a test to determine the amount of BS&W in samples of oil or emulsion. 918. 9 917. plan or facility complies with the relevant regulations or requirements. is fit for 111 Petroleum Engineer: M. 914. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compressors are nonpositive-displacement machines.

CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture. or depletion of oil or gas.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. premium is 45-50. Certifying Authorities Organizations designated under the Nova Scotia Offshore Certificate of Fitness Regulations to conduct examinations of designs. the diesel fuel has a cetane number equal to the percent of cetane in the mixture. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. 919. cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil. The higher the cetane number. CETANE NUMBER A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. 922. governmental orders. reworking operations.6 H34) in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl naphthalene. Temporary cessation usually does not affect the lease. 112 Petroleum Engineer: M. and can be operated safely and without posing a threat to the environment. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. the more easily the fuel is ignited. Z. plans and facilities and to issue Certificates of Fitness. The cetane number of diesel fuel corresponds to the percent of cetane (C. premium is 45-50. 920.com . 921. but a permanent shutdown terminates the ordinary oil and gas lease.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering purpose. Regular diesel is 40 -45 cetane. It may be owing to mechanical breakdown. The higher the cetane number. CESSATION OF PRODUCTION The termination of production from a well. When this mixture has the same ignition characteristic in a test engine as the diesel fuel. the more easily the fuel is ignited. Cetane number a measure of the ignition quality of fuel oil.mzhelu@gmail.

mzhelu@gmail. Power transmissions use a roller chain. 924. CFM Cubic feet per minute. Z. 927.com . CFG cubic feet of gas. Such valves have a gate wheel made to accept a chain in the wheel's outer circumference. transverse pins. 113 Petroleum Engineer: M. 929. A double roller chain is made of two connected rows of links. CHAIN WHEELS Some gate valves are operated from a distance either for safety or convenience. consisting of a handle and a releasable chain. and rollers on the pins. chain tongs a tool. 926. The chain is tightened around the pipe or fitting. used for turning pipe or fittings of a diameter larger than that which a pipe wrench would fit. which is then turned by means of the handle. a triple roller chain of three. chain in offshore drilling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 923. a heavy line constructed of iron bars looped together and used for a mooring line. 925. 928. change house a doghouse in which a drilling rig crew changes clothes. and so forth. The chain is reeved or passed over a drum or windlass which the operator turns to open or close the valve from a distance. chain drive a drive system using a chain and chain gears to transmit power. in which each link is made of side bars. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports.

When the size of a drill pipe is changed. which encourage premature water encroachment. 934. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chase pipe to rapidly lower the drill stem a few feet into the hole and then suddenly stop it with the drawworks brake. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size. the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. The natural tendency toward channeling is aggravated by excessive production rates. cement channeling. change rams to take rams out of a blowout preventer and replace them with rams of a different size. the pressure surge may break down a formation. 933. CHARGING STOCK Oil that is to be "charged" or treated in a particular refinery unit. 932. the size of the rams must be changed to ensure that they seal the pipe when closed. Z.mzhelu@gmail. the bypassing of oil in a water-drive field due to erratic or uncontrolled water encroachment. However. A surge of pressure in the mud in the drilling stem and annular space results. 931. causing lost circulation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 930. When the size of a drill pipe is changed. and may help to flush out debris accumulated in or on the pipe. chase threads to clean and deburr the threads of a pipe so that it will make up properly. CHARCOALTEST A test to determine the gasoline content of natural gas.com . 935. 114 Petroleum Engineer: M. channeling 1. 936. or damage the bit if it is near the bottom.

Chatter in a bearing is caused by an improperly fitted bearing or from excessive wear that permits lateral motion.v. CHECK VALVE A valve with a free-swinging tongue or clapper that permits fluid in a pipeline to flow in one direction only. usually for large-diameter pipelines. 940. CHATTER A noisy indication that a mechanical part is behaving erratically and de. 941. check valve a valve that permits flow in one direction only. As the shaft rotates at high speed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 938. A company may be forced to lease land over a wide area before it has completed geological and geophysical studies. TILTING DISC A type of check valve. In the case of a spring-loaded relief valve. anything used to lengthen a handle to increase the applied leverage. CHECKER B0ARD LEASING The acquisition of mineral rights (oil and gas) in a checkerboard pattern. the journal (q. Z. with the disc mounted on trunnions instead of a hinge as in more conventional check valves. the absence of "slam" as in other types of check valves. CHECK VALVE.com . 939. back-pressure valve. CHEATER A length of pipe used to increase the leverage of a wrench. striking against the seat sharply many times a second. 115 Petroleum Engineer: M. Leases then may be taken on one-quarter section (160 acres) in each section of land. structively.) strikes the bearing surface repetitively and rapidly. 9 943. One advantage of the tilting disc is its quiet operation.mzhelu@gmail. chatter is caused by the valve disk opening and closing rapidly and repetitively. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Some chemical treatments are acidizing. 946. chemical cutoff a method of severing steel pipe in a well by applying high-pressure jets of very corrosive substance against the wall of the pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the water will drop out. 947. The chemical is used to break down water/oil emulsions that may be contained in the crude oil stream.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 944. gas oil. square. Chemicals are injected into oil streams to reduce any emulsified oil to free oil and water. Z. chemical treatment any of many processes in the oil industry that involve the use of a chemical to effect an operation. CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMP A small-volume. When the droplets of water are freed of their film of oil.mzhelu@gmail. CHEMICAL FEEDER PUMP A small-volume pump used on oil leases to inject chemicals into flow lines. 948. and can be drawn off. chemical pump an injection pump used to introduce a chemical into a fluid stream or receptacle. settle out of the oil stream. a still to heat crude oil for distilling the products in those days-kerosene. CHEESE BOX An early-day. and lubricating oil. The pump may be located at the wellhead and be actuated by the motion of the pumping jack. high-pressure pump for injecting chemicals into producing wells or pipelines. 949. 950. crude-oil 116 Petroleum Engineer: M. The resulting cut is very smooth. 945. Chemelectric treater a brand name for an electrostatic' treater. box-like refining vessel.

Rocks with low chlorine content are likely to contain gas or oil. 954. when chart is encountered in drilling a well. Chert is very hard and difficult to drill.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering demulsification. cleaning and purging operations. footage rates are no longer applicable and daywork rates become effective. corrosion inhibition. used in drilling reports. 953. 957. paraffin removal. chk choke. scale removal. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and water purification. 117 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . CHILLERS Refinery apparatus in which the temperature of paraffin distillates is lowered preparatory to filtering out the solid wax. 951. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer. refinery and plant processes. water-flood injection. drillingfluid control. chert clause a provision in a drilling contract that stipulates that. Chlorite A commonly occurring clay mineral. chert a quartzitic rock with hardness equal to or harder than flint. chlorine survey a special type of radioactivity-logging survey used inside casing to measure the relative amount of chlorine in the formation outside the casing.mzhelu@gmail. 955. rocks with high chlorine indications usually contain salt water only. 952. 956.

pressure gauges. choke an orifice installed in a line to restrict the flow and control the rate of production. 961. The Christmas tree also contains valves for testing the well and for shutting it In if necessary. (See adjustable choke.com . Christmas tree -the control valves. Surface chokes are part of the Christmas tree and contain a choke nipple. a chunk. 962. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CHOCK A wedge or block to prevent a vehicle or other movable object from shifting position.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 958. with a small-diameter bore that serves to restrict the flow. 959. choke manifold the arrangement of piping and chokes through which drilling mud is circulated when the blowout preventers are closed to control the pressures encountered during a kick. Chokes are also used to control the rate of flow of the drilling mud out of the hole when the well is closed in with the blowout preventer and a kick is being circulated out of the hole. used to direct well fluids from the annulus to the choke manifold. Z. CHRISTMAS TREE An assembly of valves mounted on the casinghead through which a well is produced. bottomhole choke. choke line an extension of pipe from the blowout-preventer assembly.mzhelu@gmail.) 960. 118 Petroleum Engineer: M. or bean. and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and completed. and positive choke.

966. CHURN DRILLING Another name for cable tool drilling because of the up and down. the power) of an automobile engine. The jack 119 Petroleum Engineer: M. above the floor. circ circulated. casing or tubing. The marine tree is installed from the drilling platform it Is lowered into position on guide cables anchored to foundation legs implanted in the ocean floor. a jacking device operated on a toothed or notched metal. Z. The tree is then latched mechanically or hydraulically to the casing-head by remote control. chromatography a method of separating a solution of closely related compounds by allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so that each compound becomes adsorbed in a separate layer.mzhelu@gmail. CHRISTMAS TREE (MARINE) A subsea production system similar to a conventional land tree except it is assembled complete for remote installation on the sea floor with or without diver assistance. the volume "swept out" or evacuated by the pistons of an engine in one working stroke. 967.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 963. circular track placed around the pipe joint protruding from the borehole. churning motion of the drill bit. 965. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . CIRCLE JACK (CABLE-TOOL RIG)A device used on the floor of a cable-tool rig to make up and break out (tighten and loosen) joints of drilling tools. used to describe the size (and by implication. used in drilling reports 968. CID Cubic inch displacement. 964.

CIRCULATE To pump drilling fluid into the borehole through the drill-pipe and back up the annulus between the pipe and the wall of the hole to cease drilling but to maintain circulation for any reason. 974. 972." the flow out of the well is less than the flow into the well. drilling is halted as circulation is continued to "bring bottoms up" (q. and is connected to a wrench which tightens the pipe joint as the jack is advanced.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is operated manually with a handle. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When closer inspection of the formation rock just encountered is desired. Drilling fluid circulates from the suction pit through the drill pipe to the bottom of the well and returns through the annulus. between the pipe and the walls of the borehole.v. Z.com . 971. down through the drill-pipe and up on the outside of the drillpipe. See Lose Returns. circulating pressure the pressure generated by the mud pumps and exerted on the drill stem. 9 970. it is also a rotating head. notch by notch. circulate -to pass from one point throughout a system and back to the starting point. circulating head an accessory attached to the top of the drill pipe or tubing to form a connection with the mud system to permit circulation of the drilling mud. 973. CIRCULATION The round trip made by drilling mud.mzhelu@gmail. If circulation is "lost.). 120 Petroleum Engineer: M. In some cases. C ITY GATE The measuring point at which a gas distributing utility receives gas from a gas transmission company. the mud may be escaping into some porous formation or a cavity downhole.

CLADDING Coating of one material with another. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as in certain valves. CLAMSHELL BUCKET A hinged.3 costly than making them of expensive. For example. 980. CLAPPER The internal moving part. Z. A drag-line bucket. jaw-like digging implement suspended at the end of a cable running down from the boom of an excavating machine. Like a trap door. clamp a mechanical device used to hold an object in place. holds a piece of metal with the same curvature as the pipe over a hole in a line. anticorrosion alloys. See Sour Service Trim.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 975. the "tongue" of a check valve that permits a liquid or gas to I low in one direction only in a pipeline. Cladding of pipe. while a polished-rod clamp attaches the top of the polished rod to the bridle of a pumping unit. In the oil patch cladding or "trimming" steel pipe and valves with corrosion-resistant metal alloy is necessary when H2S (hydrogen sulfide) and other corrosive gases must be handled. When at rest the clapper is a few degrees off the vertical or. 978. to cover one metal with another by bonding the two.com . CLAMPS. valves. 977. 979. A wireline clamp holds the end of a wire rope against the main rope. RIVER See River Clamps. a leakrepair clamp. 121 Petroleum Engineer: M. 976. and fittings is les. completely horizontal. CLAMPS. effecting a temporary seal. PIPELINE LINE-UP See Line-up Clamps. the cheekvalve clapper works on a hinge attached to the body of the valve.mzhelu@gmail. or saddle clamp.

9 986. This condition may be caused by a worn bit. 987.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 981.). 122 Petroleum Engineer: M. clastic rocks pl sedimentary rocks composed of fragments of preexisting rocks.mzhelu@gmail. CLAY The filtering medium. clay. 984. kerosene. gasoline. CLAUS PROCESS A process for the conversion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to plain sulfur developed in 1885 by the German chemist Claus. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.a fine. Sandstone is a clastic rock.v. Z. 988. CLEAN CIRCULATION The circulation of drilling mud free of rock cuttings from the bottom of the borehole. especially Fuller's earth.com . jet fuel-carried by tankers. 982. 983. barges. resulting primarily from the decomposition of feldspathic rocks. CLAY PERCOLATER Refinery filtering equipment employing a type of clay to remove impurities or to change the color of lubricating oils. LEAN OIL Crude oil containing less than one percent sediment and water (BS&W) pipeline oil oil clean enough to be accepted by a pipeline for transmission. crystalline material of hydrous silicates. a substance which tends to adsorb the coloring materials present in oil which passes through it. and tank cars all refined products except bunker fuels and residuals (q. used in refining. circulating to clean the hole or by a broken or parted drill-string. CLEAN CARGO Refined products-distillates.

mzhelu@gmail. Usually a plate near ground level is removed from the side of the tank to make the door. to clean the borehole of cuttings. cleanout tools pi the tools or instruments such as bailers and swabs used to clean out an oil well. rocks. clean out to remove sand. clear to remove brush. 990. clearance volume the amount of space between the traveling and standing valves in a suckerrod pump when the pump is at the bottom of its stroke. Z. The opening is closed with a sheet of metal (a door) bolted in place. 995. cleanout door an opening made to permit removal of sediments from the bottom of a tank. 994. scale. 123 Petroleum Engineer: M. 993. trees. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. CLEAN-UP TRIP Running the drillpipe into the hole for circulation of mud only.com . used as a connecting link for a chain or cable. CLEAN-OUT BOX A square or rectangular opening on the side of a tank or other vessel through which the sediment that has accumulated can be removed. 992. and other obstructions from an area. 991. CLEVIS A U-shaped metal link or shackle with the ends of the U drilled to hold a pin or bolt.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 989. and other deposits from the producing section of the well to restore or increase production. 996.

1006. a life-support system in which the gas is recycled continually while the carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added periodically. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.com . close in 1. closed-in pressure closed system (See formation pressure. clingage the amount of oil that adheres to the wall of a measuring or prover tank after draining. 999. 1 1002. to close the blowout preventers on a well to control a kick. Clinton flake a finely shredded cellophane used as a lost-circulation material for cement. 1000.). 124 Petroleum Engineer: M. CLOSEDIN closing ratio Refers to a well. capable of producing.mzhelu@gmail. 1003.) a water-handling system that air is not allowed to enter to prevent corrosion or scale (such as a saltwater-disposal system). that is shut in (q.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 9 998. a television installation in which the signal is transmitted by wire to a limited number of receivers. 1004. close nipple closed circuit a very short piece of pipe threaded its entire length. 2. 1007. 1005. to temporarily shut in a well that is capable of producing oil or gas. the ratio between the pressure in the hole and the operating-piston pressure needed to close the rams of a blowout preventer. 1. 2.

and the bottom. 1009. square centimeter. cubic centimeter carboxymethyl cellulose. cm cm2 Cm3 CMC CNSOPB CO2 INJECTION 1012. Z. an indication of the amount of producing formation that may be expected. 1014. The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1008. C02 is used in conjunction with water-flooding. A secondary recovery technique in which carbon dioxide is injected into service wells in a field as part of a miscible recovery program. CLOUD POINT The temperature at which paraffin wax begins to crystallize or separate from the solution. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1011. to engage or disengage a clutch. imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil as it is chilled under prescribed conditions. 1013.mzhelu@gmail. 1010. centimeter. closure the vertical distance between the top of an anticline. 1015. clutch a device that allows power to be engaged to and disengaged from a member being driven by a prime mover. or dome. 1016. 125 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .

illuminating and heating o'J'6btdined from the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. 'th a tar-like substance and then spiral-wrapped with chemically impregnated paper.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1017. has 1. Z. 1022.com . natural gas. 1019. COAL-SEAM GAS Methane found in certain coal fields in higher concentrations than is common. An artificial gas produced by pyrolysis (heating in the absence of air) of coal.mzhelu@gmail. the coal is burned in situ and the resulting gases are collected and piped away 91 1021. COALGAS Also referred to as town gas. Coal gas has a BTU content of 450 per cubic foot. more than twice the thermal value. COAL OIL Kerosene made from distilling crude oil in early-day pot stills. Coating and wrapping protects the pipeline from corrosion. Hydrogen atoms in the vapor combine with coal's carbon atoms to produce a hydrocarbon product similar natural gas. A field operation in preparing a pipeline to be put in the ditch Covered in). holes are drilled along the seams to permit the methane to escape and be brought to the surface. coagulation COAL GASIFICATION (See flocculation. In some coal operations in areas where the beds are tilted up 30 to 45' from horizontal.030 BTU per cubic foot. Machines that ride the pipe coat and wrap in one continuous operation. 1020. For 126 Petroleum Engineer: M. COATING & WRAPPING. In other till-bed tiers. on average.) A process for producing "natural gas" from coal. 1018. Coal is heated and brought in contact with steam. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

the drums are in batteries of tour to eight drums.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering large pipeline construction jobs the pipe may be coated and wrapped the mill or in yards set up at central points along the right of way. 1029. COKE. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.. 1024. 1025. In a large refinery that makes a lot of coke. cohesion the attractive force between the same kinds of molecules (i. Any cracked lighter products rise to the top of the drum and are drawn off. 1026. COKE DRUMS Large vertical.e. because it is still very hot. a tube bundle is used instead of a coil. the force that holds the molecules of a substance together). coil an accessory of tubing or pipe for installation in condensers or heat exchangers. cylindrical vessels which receive their charge of residue at very high temperature (10002F. COGENERATION PLANT A coal or gas-fired plant generates both process (commercial) steam and electricity for in-plant use or for sale. In more complex installations. NEEDLE A form of petroleum coke that gets its name from its microscopic elongated crystalline structure-Needle coke is of a higher quality than the more ordinary sponge coke (q.v. The manufacture of needle coke requires special feeds to 127 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.com .).). a solid coal-like substance . The remaining heavier product remains and. COIL CAR (OR TRUCK) A tank car or transport truck equipped with heating coils in order to handle viscous liquids that will not flow at ordinary temperatures 1 1028. cracks or is converted to petroleum coke.mzhelu@gmail. 1023.

COKE. 1032. With the carbon or coke is formed and settles to the bottom of the still. COKING (1) The process of distilling a petroleum. COLLAR CLAMP A device fitted with rubber gaskets bolted around a leaking pipe collar. SPONGE Petroleum coke that looks like a sponge. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the coker and more severe operating conditions. hence the name. See Needle Coke. Severe conditions in refining parlance usually means higher temperatures and pressures in a process 1030. The clamp is effective in stopping small leaks but is used only as a temporary measure until permanent repairs can be made.mzhelu@gmail. The weak physical structure of sponge coke makes it until. PETROLEUM Solid or fixed-carbon that remains in refining processes after distillation of all volatile hydrocarbons. 128 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1035. (2) The undesirable building up of carbon deposits on refinery vessels. product to dry residue. Z. COLLAR A coupling for two lengths of pipe. COLD PINCH To flatten the end of a pipe with a hydraulically powered set of pinchers. Pinching the pipe end is done to make a quick. a pipe fitting with threads on the inside for joining two pieces of threaded pipe of the same size. COKE. black substance remaining after oils and tars have been driven off by distillation. 1031. the hard. 1033.com . Sponge coke is used for electrodes and anodes. 1034. temporary closure in the event a loaded pipeline is accidentally ruptured. for use in blast furnaces and foundry work.

column-stabilized. Z. The purpose is twofold.v. Bentonite is an example of a colloidal clay. 1039. a mechanically or hydraulically operated latching collar connecting the marine riser (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1036. to keep the tong men pulling in unison and to warm up the collar so that a tighter screw joint can be made. 1037. operated mechanically or magnetically to produce a log showing the location of each casing collar or coupling in a well. Such a rig can drill with the lower hull 129 Petroleum Engineer: M. boxlike or tubular in shape. 1041. colloid a liquid mixture or suspension in which the particles of suspended liquid or solid are very fine but not molecular in size. collar locator a logging device for depth-correlation purposes. involving particles so minute they are not visible through optical microscopes. semisubmersible drilling rig a semisubmersible drilling rig that has a large lower hull.) to the blowout preventer stack. It keeps the main hull watertight if a collision occurs. 1040. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. colloidal pertaining to a colloid. COLLAR POUNDER OR PECKER A pipeline worker who beats time with a hammer on the coupling into which a joint of pipe is being screwed by a tong gang. It provides an accurate way to measure depth in a well.com . with several watertight columns extending to an upper deck on which the drilling machinery is located.mzhelu@gmail. 1042. 1038. collision bulkhead the foremost bulkhead that extends from the bottom to the freeboard deck of a drill ship. COLLET CONNECTOR A component of a subsea drilling system.

designed for various depths in a specific well to best withstand the conditions of that well.com . Z.) 1044. high tensile strength is required in the top casing joints to carry the load. 130 Petroleum Engineer: M. average qualities are usually sufficient. In the middle of the casing. and tensile strength. gas-cap drive. In deep wells. and water drive. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1046. combination string a casing string that has joints of various collapse resistance. combination drive the natural energy that forces fluids from a reservoir and into a wellbore. provided by a gas cap above and the water below the oil in the reservoir. used for tightening or pulling a chain. 1045. 1043. whereas high collapse resistance and internal yield strength are needed for the bottom joints. COME-ALOI A lever and lengths of chain with hooks attached to the ends of the chains. It is sometimes used for reconditioning wells.mzhelu@gmail. combination trap a subsurface hydrocarbon trap that has the features of both a structural trap and a stratigraphic trap. 1047. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. Usually the distance between the lower hull and upper deck is Fixed. The most suitable combination of types and weights of pipe helps to insure efficient production at a minimum cost.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering resting on bottom or submerged below the water and floating. The hooks are alternately moved forward on the chain being tightened. internal yield strength. combination rig a light rig that has the essential elements of both rotary and cabletool drilling.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to produce. 1049. to kick. This withdrawal is necessary to change the bit. change from a core barrel to the bit. to pull the drill stem out of the wellbore. production. A well of sufficient net production that it could be expected to pay out in a reasonable time and yield a profit for the operator. come-along come in come out of the hole a manually operated device used to tighten guy wires or move heavy loads.com . and so on. 1 1053. 1051. Commingled Production Production of petroleum from more than one pool through a common wellbore or flowline without separate measurement of the petroleum. run electric logs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1048. commercial quantity COMMERCIAL WELL an amount of oil and gas large enough to justify the expense of producing it. oil and gas production of sufficient quantity to justify keeping a well in 1054. 131 Petroleum Engineer: M. to become profitable.mzhelu@gmail. come to see you commercial production (slang) to blow out. 50-barrel-a. day well in a readily accessible location on shore could be a commercial well whereas such a well in the North Sea or in the Arctic Islands would not be considered commercial. A shallow. A well will "come to see you" if it blows out. prepare for a drill-stem test. Z. run casing. 1050. 1055. 1 1057.

cement.mzhelu@gmail. 1064. See Dual Completion. In effect the single well with two pay zones is treated as two separate wells. and feed lines run from it to each fuel injector. Z. Very often the two or more pay zones have different royalty interests. 1 1060. common carrier any cargo transportation system available for public use.com . (2) Producing two pay zones in the same wellbore. A community lease may result from the execution of a single lease by the 132 Petroleum Engineer: M. COMMUNITY LEASE A single lease covering two or more separately owned parcels of land. When this is true the zones.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1058. Nearly all pipelines are common carriers. an Organization engaged in the movement of petroleum products-oil. common rail a fuel-injection system on a diesel engine in which one line. produced separately. COMMON CARRIER A person or company having state or Federal authority to perform public transportation for hire. refined products-as a public utility and common carrier. gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In some instances products of like specifications are commingled in a product pipeline for efficient and convenient handling. COMMINGLING (1)The intentional mixing of petroleum products having similar specifications. each through its own tubing and into separate tank age on the lease. usually for convenient transportation in a pipeline. or rail. common cement a regular Portland cement classified either as API Class A or ASTM Type 1 1 1063. commingling the mixing together of crude oil products with similar properties. holds fuel at a certain pressure. 1061.

comp COMPANION FLANGE completed or completion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This type flange or "union" is used on small-diameter piping. Well completions vary according to the kind of well. company man an employee of the operator of a well. 1 1069. Z. 1066. and the 133 Petroleum Engineer: M. compartment COMPLETE A WELL a subdivision of space on a floating offshore drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1072. depth. commutator a ring consisting of a number of insulated-copper segments located on the rotating shaft of a generator or motor and used to reverse the direction of an electric current. the other concave.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering owners of separate tracts or by the execution of separate but identical leases by the owners of separate tracts when each lease purports the entire consolidated acreage. and contact and flow valves are installed at the wellhead. After reaching total depth (TD) casing is run and cemented casing is perforated opposite the producing zone. The two halves are held together by nuts and bolts. To finish a well so that it is ready to produce oil or gas. 1067. usually a drilling engineer employed by the oil company engaged in the drilling. used in drilling reports. 1065. interests owned in the entre leased acreage. A two-part connector or coupling one part convex. Usually the result of the execution of community lease is the apportionment of royalties in proportion to the. 1070. tubing is run.com .

It is composed of clutches. 1078.mzhelu@gmail. but also for its properties that minimize formation damage. compound the mechanism used to transmit power from the engines to the pump. COMPRESSION CUP A grease cup a container for grease made either with a screw cap or springloaded cap for forcing the grease onto a shaft bearing. complete a well to finish work on a well and put it on productive status. belts and pulleys. to connect two or more power-producing devices such as engines to run one piece of driven equipment such as the drawworks. chains and sprockets. and a number of shafts. 134 Petroleum Engineer: M. composite stream a flow of oil and gas in one stream.) 1073. and other machinery on a drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formation from which it is to produce. In a crude oil storage tank. Z. a special drilling mud used when a well is being completed. 1075. (See well completion. drawworks. Completion completion fluid The activities necessary to prepare a well for the production of oil or gas. 1076. a composite sample is taken at the top and bottom and in the middle. two or more different liquid hydrocarbons in one stream. composite sample a sample of a substance that is a mixture or solution of several other substances. 1074. 1077. It is selected not only for its ability to control formation pressure.com . both driven and driving.

) a four-cycle engine whose fuel charge is ignited by the heat of compression as the engine's piston comes up on the compression stroke. the compression ratio is 101.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1079. 1082.mzhelu@gmail.com . usually expressed in pounds of force per square inch (psi) of surface affected.'. compression ratio the ratio of the volume of an engine cylinder before compression to its post-compression volume. 1081.v. compression ignition (Cl) an ignition method used in diesel engines by which the air in the cylinder is compressed to such a degree by the piston that ignition occurs upon the injection of fuel. About a I-Ib rise in pressure causes a 2 F increase in temperature. COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE A diesel engine (q. Compressors create a pressure differential to move or compress a vapor or a 135 Petroleum Engineer: M. High compression engines are generally more efficient in fuel utilization than those with lower compression ratios. A cylinder of 10 cubic inch volume at the beginning of the compression stroke and one cubic inch at the top of the stroke indicates a 101 compression ratio.' is compressed into 1 in. 1083. if a cylinder volume of 1 0 in. See Hot-plug Engine. compressive strength the degree of resistance of a material to a force acting along one of its axes in a manner tending to collapse it. Z. compressor a device that raises the pressure of a compressible fluid such as air or gas. 1080. COMPRESSION RATIO The ratio of the volume of an engine's cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke to the volume at the end or the top of the stroke. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. For example.

COMPRESSOR.) or to inject gas into a high-pressure gas trunk line. depending on terrain and other factors.com . more or less. 1086. COMPRESSOR.500 pounds pressure to begin the next leg of its journey to the consumers' gas stoves and furnaces. AXIAL A gas compressor that takes in gas at the inlet and moves '. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.000 rpm. The impeller and its paddle-like blades rotate at speeds of 3. consuming power in the process. 11088.v. COMPRESSOR PLANT A pipeline installation to pump natural gas under pressure from one location to another through a pipeline.) 1 1085. fixed blades.000 cubic feet per minute. The gas stream arrives at a compressor station at a few hundred pounds per square inch and is discharged from the station's multistage compressors at 1. On large interstate gas transmission lines repressuring stations are located every 100 miles.6.he charge axially over the compressor's long axis to the discharge port. They may be positive-displacement compressors-having a check valve to separate high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction-or nonpositive-displacement. This is accomplished by the action of a central impeller shaft studded with hundreds of short. Large compressors move up to 300.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gas.000 to 1. SKID-MOUNTED A "portable" gas compressor and engine module for use in repressuring (q. (See centrifugal compressor and reciprocating compressor. computer a machine capable of processing information or providing data by automatically following preprogrammed directions 136 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 1089. to boost the gas along to its destination. Z.

1091. a liquid phase (condensate) appears. Z. 1097. gauges. condensate reservoir a reservoir in ' which both condensate and gas exist in one homogeneous phase.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1090. liquid hydrocarbons condensed from gas and oil wells. CONDENSATE WATER Water vapor in solution with natural gas in the formation. Condensate The liquid resulting when a vapour is subjected to cooling or application of pressure. valves. computer control a system in which the end devices in the field (switches. etc.) are controlled by a program placed in a computer. for public use and benefit by state or federal government.). a tract of land granted by a government to an individual or company for exploration and exploitation to recover minerals. When fluid is drawn from such a reservoir and the pressure decreases below the critical level. as well as by certain other agencies and utility companies having power of eminent domain (q. 1092.v. See Retrograde Gas Condensate. 1096. Tcomputer program T concession a set of data fed into a computer to be evaluated or to solve a problem. CONDENSATE. alarms.com . 137 Petroleum Engineer: M. When the gas is produced the water vapor condenses into liquid as both pressure and temperature are reduced. CONDEMNATION The taking of land by purchase. LEASE See Lease Condensate. 1094.mzhelu@gmail. 1093. Also. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1095. at fair market value.

to treat drilling mud with additives to give it certain properties. conductivity 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1100. the process by which vapors are converted into liquids. 1101. Z. 138 Petroleum Engineer: M. and shales. prevent the caving or sloughing of the walls of the hole. and so on. 2. clays.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1098. Sometimes the term applies to water used in boilers. CONDUCTOR CASING A well's surface pipe used to seal off near-surface water. 1103. an electricallogging measurement obtained from an induction survey. conductor pipe a short string of large-diameter casing used offshore and in marshy locations to keep the top of the wellbore open and to provide a means of conveying the upflowing drilling fluid from the wellbore to the mud pit. Compare retrograde condensation. drilling operations. unconsolidated shallow layers of sand. the ability to transmit or convey (as heat or electricity). 1102. 1099. chiefly accomplished by cooling the vapors. in which eddy currents produced by an alternating magnetic field induce in a receiver coil a voltage proportionate to the ability of the formation to conduct electricity.com . To condition and circulate mud is to ensure that additives are distributed evenly throughout a system by circulating the mud while it is being conditioned. RETROGRADE GAS condensation See Retrograde Gas Condensate. CONDENSATE.mzhelu@gmail. and as a conductor of the drilling mud through loose. See Casing. CONDENSER condition A water-cooled heat exchanger used for cooling and liquefying vapors. 1104.

used in drilling reports. the same type. congl CONGLOMERATE conglomerate. 1112.) 1106. Z. A type of sedimentary rock compounded of pebbles and rock fragments of various sizes held together by a cementing material. an old-style roof for large crude storage tanks.. cone bit cone-roof tank CONEROOF a roller bit in which the cutters are conical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Conglomerates are a common form of reservoir rock. inverted cone. conformable layered in parallel and unbroken rows of rock.material that holds sandstone together. indicating no disturbance occurred during deposition of the rock. Compare unconformity 1111.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1105. 139 Petroleum Engineer: M.) a tank with a fixed conical roof. but still employed on banks storing less volatile products. See Step-out Well. See Floating Roof. CONFIRMATION WELL A well drilled to "prove" the formation or producing zone encountered by an exploratory or wildcat well.mzhelu@gmail. 1107. (See big. 1110. cone a conical device on which cutting teeth are formed or mounted in a rollercone bat (See big. 1108.com . 1109. A type of tank roof built in the form of a flat.

CONNECTION FOREMAIM CONNECTION GANG The supervisor.v. a gang-truck driver and swamper (helper). a forged-metal shaft that joins the piston of an engine to the crankshaft. CONICAL-TOWER PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform made of reinforced concrete for use in Arctic waters where pack ice prevents the use of conventional platform construction. connecting rod 1. 1119.com . 1114. of a formation from the time the formation was created. The structure is a truncated cone supporting a platform from which the wells are drilled. 1118. 1116.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1113. connects stock tanks to gathering lines. the metal shaft that is joined to the bull gear and crosshead of a mud pump. the boss of a pipeline connection gang (q. A pipeline crew that lays field gathering lines. 2. a place in electrical circuits where wires join together. 140 Petroleum Engineer: M. and repairs pipelines and field pumping units in their district. connate water the original water retained in the pore space.). or interstices. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 3 or 4 pipeliners. coning the encroachment of reservoir water into the oil column and well because of uncontrolled production. Compare interstitial water. 1115. and a connection foreman. Connection gangs also install manifolds and do pipe work in and around pumping stations. connection 1. 1117. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A typical gang of 8 or 10 men has a welder and a helper. a section of pipe or fitting used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to a vessel.

Z. e.g. Many conservation practices. 1121. 1123. conservation preservation.. contaminant a material. usually a mud component. console CONSORTIUM (See driller's console. drill. 1127. that becomes mixed with cement slurry during displacement and affects it adversely. and produce oil. i. to explore.. 1125. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. contactor a vessel or piece of equipment in which two or more substances are brought 1126. 1124.continental shelf a zone adjacent to a continent that extends from the 141 Petroleum Engineer: M.e. economy. avoidance of waste.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1120. It is especially important in the petroleum industry. its ability to deform or its resistance to flow. are used in the industry. consistency the cohesion of the individual particles of a given material. together. since oil and gas are irreplaceable. a zone continental margin that separates emergent continents from the deep sea bottom.com .) An international business association organized to pursue a common objective. 1122. CONSUMER GAS Gas sold by an interstate gas pipeline company to a utility company for resale to consumers. such as the trapping of condensable vapors.mzhelu@gmail.

CONTOUR LINE A line (as on a map) connecting points on a land surface that have the same elevation above or below sea level. 1132. and type of equipment to be used.listing the terms under which services are to be performed. CONTOUR MAP A map showing land surface elevations by the use of contour lines (q. (See gas lift. 1129. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) CONTINENTAL SHELF continuous-flow gas lift continuous phase See Outer Continental Shelf (OCS).). See lsopachous Map. contract depth 142 the depth of the wellbore at which the drilling contract is fulfilled. In a water-in-oil emulsion. oil is the continuous phase.mzhelu@gmail.) 1131. contour map a map that has lines marked to indicate points or areas that are the same elevation above or below sea level. contract an agreement. usually written. Petroleum Engineer: M.v. (See internal phase. sometimes called the external phase. Z. A drilling contract covers such factors as the cost of drilling the well (whether by foot or by day). the liquid in which solids are suspended or droplets of another liquid are dispersed.com . by geologists and geophysicists to depict subsurface conditions or formations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering low waterline to the point at which the seafloor slopes off steeply to 600 feet deep or more. 1134. 1128. the distribution of expenses between operator and contractor. 1130. often used by geologists to depict subsurface features. 1133.

1141.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1135. conventional completion a method for completing a well in which tubing is set inside 4 1/2-inch or larger casing. ELECTRICALLY OPERATED (See hydraulic control pod. 1139. 1136.) A small-diameter valve used in process piping that is opened or closed by a quick-acting solenoid. and other digital or audio signals-for monitoring and controlling a system or process. 1140. Compare miniaturized completion. flowing naturally or capable of being pumped without further processing or dilution. Z.com . 1137. warning lamps. 1142.) A structure in which air contact is used to cool a stream of water that has been heated by circulating through a system. The air flows counter.or crosscurrently to the water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. conventional gas-lift mandrel cooling tower (See gas-lift mandrel. control board a panel on which are grouped-various control devices such as switches and levers along with indicating instruments. Conventional Crude Oil Petroleum found in liquid form. 1138. CONTROLPANEL An assembly of indicators and recording instruments-pressure gauges.mzhelu@gmail. 143 Petroleum Engineer: M. control pod CONTROL VALVE.

permeability. boggy area by laying logs or heavy timbers side by side to make a bumpy but firm surf ace. core analysis laboratory analysis of a core sample to determine porosity. lithology. A passable road made through a swampy. p. 1149. 47) 144 Petroleum Engineer: M. which produces strong air currents through the center of the structure for more rapid cooling. COOLING TOWER A large louvered structure (usually made of wood) over which water flows to cool and aerate it. cordage CORDROAD all of the rope on a ship or offshore drilling rig. 1148. and probable productivity of the formation. 1146. geological age. 1145.com . Usually a conventional core barrel is substituted for the bit and procures a sample as it penetrates the formation. Core A cylindrical sample taken from a formation for geological analysis. open at the bottom and top. CORE BIT A special drill bit for cutting and removing a plug-shaped rock sample from the bottom of the well bore. some are cylindrical. Although most cooling towers are square or rectangular in shape.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. fluid content. core barrel a tubular device from 25 to 60 feet long run at the bottom of the drill pipe in place of a bit to cut a core sample. angle of dip. a log road.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1143. 1144. (See illustration. 1147.

correlate to relate subsurface information obtained from one well to that of others so that the formations may be charted and their depths and thicknesses noted.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1150. small-diameter wells to obtain geological information. See also sidewall coring. radioactivity logs.mzhelu@gmail. usually in the bottom of an existing wellbore. 1152. Z. In design it corresponds to one of the three main types of bit. Cores are also taken in geological studies of an area to determine its oil and gas prospects. character. core drill to drill shallow. CORE SAMPLE A solid column of rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Correlations are made by comparing electrical well logs. taken from the bottom of a well bore as a sample of an underground formation. A continuous sample of the formation is provided from the top to the final depth. (See illustration. and cores from different wells. 1151. a well. and fluid content of cores taken from 1155. 1154. usually from two to four Inches in diameter. the cutting element of the core-barrel assembly. CORE BOAT core catcher core cutterhead A seagoing vessel for drilling core holes in offshore areas. p. the part of the core barrel that holds the formation sample. CORE RECORD A record showing the depth. 145 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 47) 1156. 1153.

In some production-sharing contracts particularly with governments foreign as well as our own. 1158. thus causing it to be a negative element in the circuit. steel tanks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1157. to isolate it from moisture and chemicals and to insulate it from galvanic currents. See Anode.com . 40 percent of 146 Petroleum Engineer: M. in which a galvanic or impressed direct electric current renders a pipeline cathodic. 1160.mzhelu@gmail. and other metal structures is caused by a complex electrochemical action. Z. on offshore wells. These practices can range from simply painting material. that portion of oil produced which is applied to paying off the cost of the well. The rusting and pling of pipelines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to cathodic protection. 1159. corrosion coupon a metal strip inserted into a system to monitor corrosion rate and to indicate corrosion-inhibitor effectiveness. 1161. to the recovery of the costs of drilling. COST CRUDE OIL Crude oil produced from an operator's own wells oil produced at "cost" on a lease or concession acreage as compared to purchased crude. corrosion control the measures used to prevent or reduce the effects of corrosion. The use of chemical inhibitors and closed systems are other examples of corrosion control. CORROSION The eating away of metal by chemical action or an electrochemical action. Also. in another context. completing. and equipping the production. CORRELATIVE RIGHTS. DOCTRINE OF The inherent right of an owner of oil or gas in a field to his share of the reservoir energy" and his right to be protected from wasteful practices by others in the field.

To lengthen the frame of the vehicle. a connection extending longitudinally between a driving shaft and a driven shaft. the remaining 60 percent is "Profit oil" and is divided. in power transmission. according to royalty interests. Most such couplings are flexible and compensate for minor misalignment of the two shafts. 2.) 1167. (see computer control) 147 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .mzhelu@gmail. As the costs are paid off the percent of cost oil is reduced and the percentage of profit oil increases accordingly. The trailer can be made as long as necessary for the load. On pumping units in oil production. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. coupling 1. counterbalance weight a weight applied to compensate for existing weight or force. 1163.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the oil produced is cost oil. a metal collar with internal threads used to join two sections of threaded pipe. 1165. On pipe-carrying oil field trailers. 1164. Z. a pin in the pole can be removed and the rear-axle yoke (which is fastened to the pole by the pin) moved back to another hole. 1162. the coupling pole is a telescoping length of steel tubing. centipoise coupon cp CPC (See corrosion coupon. 1166. in piping. abbr computerized production control. COUPLING POLE The connecting member between the front and rear axles of a wagon or fourwheel trailer. counterweights are used to offset the weight of the column or sucker rods and oil on the upstroke of the pum and the weight of the prods on the downstroke.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1172. lowering. heavier. CRACK A VALVE To open a valve so slightly as to permit a small amount of fluid or gas to 1169.).v. An arm attached at right angles to the end of a shaft or axle for transmitting power to or from a connecting rod or pitman (q. 148 Petroleum Engineer: M. and revolving heavy pieces of equipment.. especially on offshore rigs and platforms.mzhelu@gmail. 1174. CRACKING A VALVE crane Opening a valve very slightly. escape.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1168.com . 1175. Cracking is accomplished by the application of heat and pressure. by the use of a catalytic agent. 1170. a machine for raising.). CRANE BARGE CRANK A derrick barge (q. 1173. CRACKING The refining process of braking down the larger. 1171. Z.v. Cracking is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. n. and in certain advanced techniques. And more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. a rotating shaft to which connecting rods are attached. crankcase crankshaft the housing that encloses the crankshaft of an engine.

crd crew chief cored. 1180. 1178. the speed reached by an engine or rotating system that corresponds to a resonance frequency of the engine or system. critical pressure critical speed the pressure needed to condense a vapor at its critical temperature. (2) To tail or fall apart (colloquial).com . the driller or head well puller in charge on a well-servicing rig employed to pull sucker rods or tubing. 149 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 1179. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 1181. Often.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1176. crg critical point coring. used in drilling reports. in terms of temperature and pressure. 1182. critical speed can cause damaging shock waves. the point at which. a fluid cannot be distinguished as being either a gas or a liquid. in combination with power impulses. CRATER A bowl-shaped depression around a blowout well caused by the caving in and collapse of the surrounding earth structure. 1177. used in drilling reports. the point at which the physical properties of a liquid and a gas are identical.

1188. See Stile. critical temperature the highest temperature at which a fluid can exist as a liquid or vapor. a step-and-platform unit to provide access to a work platform or an elevated crossing. 1187. cross thread to screw together two threaded pieces without the threads of the pieces having been aligned properly. CROSSOVER A stile. cannot be liquefied. used to make a changeover from one thread to another in a string of casing. crooked-hole country a geographical area in which the subsurface formations are so arranged that it is difficult to drill a hole straight through them. 150 Petroleum Engineer: M. crooked hole a wellbore that has deviated from the vertical.) 1186. Z. (See crooked hole. Above this temperature the fluid is a gas and. It usually occurs where there is a section of alternating hard and soft strata steeply inclined from the horizontal.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1183. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. crosshead the block in a mud pump that is guided to move in a straight line and serves as a connection between the pony rod and connecting rod. 1184.com . 1185.mzhelu@gmail. crossover joint a length of casing with one thread on the field end and a different thread in the coupling. 1189. regardless of the amount of pressure applied.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1190.). the crown block or top of a derrick or mast. 1196.v. when struck by the traveling block. and it may have a paraffin. 1191. 2. the sheaves and supporting members to which the lines of the traveling block (q. It ranges in gravity from 9' to 55' API and in color from yellow to black.v. it is called a sour crude. crude oil unrefined liquid petroleum. CROWBAN CONNECTION A humorous reference to an assembly of pipe fittings so far out of alignment that a crowbar is required to force them to fit.mzhelu@gmail. CROWN PLATFORM A platform at the very top of the derrick that permits access to the sheaves of the crown block and provides a safe area for work involving the gin pole (q. conveys air pressure to the air brakes of the drawworks to prevent the traveling block from striking the crown. crown CROWN BLOCK 1. If a crude oil. A stationary pulley system located at the top of the derrick used for raising and lowering the string of drilling tools. Crown-O-Matic a brand name for a special air-relay valve mounted near the crown that. 1194. 1193. or mixed base. it is a sweet crude. 1195.) and hook are attached. crow's nest an elevated walkway where employees work (as the top of a derrick or refinery tower). asphalt. the top of a piston. or crude. 1192. Z. contains a sizable amount of sulfur or sulfur compounds. In 151 Petroleum Engineer: M. if it has little or no sulfur. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .

See Reduced Crude Oil.com . natural gasoline. BUY-BACK CRUDE OIL. bed linen. VOLATILES-LADEN See Buy-back Crude Oil. 1199. 1198. CRUDE STILL A primary refinery unit. a construction camp housekeeper. 1200. 1203. 1202. 1201. crude oils may be referred to as heavy or light according to API gravity. 1197. and soap. cryogenics cu the study of the effects of very low temperatures. CRUMB BOSS A person responsible for cleaning and keeping an oil field bunkhouse supplied with towels. REDUCED CRUDE OIL. CRUDE OIL. cubic. a large vessel in which crude oil is heated and various components are taken off by distillation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and butane. Sometimes it is convenient and economical to move certain natural gas liquids to refineries by injecting them into crude oil pipelines to be pumped with the crude.mzhelu@gmail. 152 Petroleum Engineer: M. also to square up the floor and side of the ditch in preparation for laying of pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering addition. CRUMB OUT To shovel out the loose earth in the bottom of a ditch. A crude oil stream carrying condensate. Z. the lighter oils having the higher gravities.. 1204.

CUBES cubic centimeter Short for cubic inch displacement. 1206. pliable material used on pipeline pigs or scrapers to sweep the line. 1212.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1205. It represents a volume one foot long. 1210. Tcf.061 in. (cm3) a metric measure of volume. adjustable wrench that is of poor quality or worn out. Natural gas is measured in cubic feet. by one foot wide.) but today the term refers to grease having a calcium fatty-acid soap base. See Knuckle Buster.com .). but the measurements are usually expressed in terms of Bcf. 1211. 153 Petroleum Engineer: M. one one-hundredth of a cubic meter.v. by one foot deep. Cubic Foot A unit of measurement for volume. equal to approximately 1. It is approximately equal to 0.3' 1207. cubic meter CULTIVATOR WRENCH (M3) a metric measure of volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cure to age cement under specified conditions of temperature and pressure. a grease used in compression cups (q. See Grease.v.31 yd'. CUP Disc with edges turned at right angles to the body used on plungers in certain kinds of pumps discs of durable plastic or other tough. 1208. or Quads. Mcf. CID (q. Z. CUPGREASE Originally. Any square-jawed. 1209.

cushion (‫)ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ a column of water or drilling fluid placed inside drill pipe or tubing to prevent it from being crushed by the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the annulus of the wellbore. also called wet oil. but in certain operations it is necessary to run the pipe or tubing nearly empty to maintain less pressure inside the pipe than in the annulus. 1214. cannot separate and settle to the bottom of a tank until the mixture is heated or treated with a chemical. the initial boiling point The other cut point is the temperature at which the product is completely vaporized. CUTTING OILS CUTTING TORCH Special oils used to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools. 1 1217. oil and water mixed in such a way as to produce an emulsion in which minute droplets of water are encased in a film of oil. Z. Usually the pipe or tubing is full of fluid. this is the end point. a cushion may be needed to prevent collapse of the pipe. CUT POINTS The temperatures at which various distilling products are separated out of the charge stock. In such cases. 1215.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1213. cut a petroleum fraction. usually in the form of an emulsion. In such case the water. 1218. 1219. One cut point is the temperature at which the product begins to boil or vaporize. See Roll a Tank. A piece of oxyacetylene welding and cutting equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . although heavier.mzhelu@gmail. cut oil an oil that contains water. The gases when 154 Petroleum Engineer: M. a hand-held burner to which the oxygen and acetylene hoses are attached. CUT OIL Crude oil partially emulsified with water.

strips out the gas liquids.(See Sample. Steam is injected in preset cycles into the reservoir. (See jet-perforate. 1222.com . and thus increasing the ultimate recovery of liquids from the reservoir. 1224. 1220.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ignited by the welder's lighter produce a small. intense flame that "cuts" metal by melting it. See Welding Torch. CYCLING (OF GAS) Return to a gas reservoir of gas remaining after extraction of liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of maintaining pressure in the reservoir. Z. cyclic steam injection a method of producing heavy viscous hydrocarbons. Cuttings are important to the geologist who examines them for information concerning the type of rock being drifted. 1223. CUTTINGS Chips and small fragments of rock as the result of drilling that are brought to the surface by the flow of the drilling mud as it is circulated. CYCLING PLANT An oil field installation that processes natural gas from a field.mzhelu@gmail. making them less viscous and able to flow into the wellbore. cyclonite a powerful. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 155 Petroleum Engineer: M. and returns the dry gas to the producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure.) 1225. where it heats the hydrocarbons. high-explosive material (cyclo-trimethylene-trinitramine) used as the main charge in jet perforating guns. cylinder the unit of an internal-combustion engine in which combustion and compression take place.) 1221. also called RDX.

com . 156 Petroleum Engineer: M. cylinder liner a removable. 1227. When the sliding of the piston and rings wears out the liner. CYLINDER STOCK A class of highly viscous oils so called because originally their main use was in preparation of products to be used for steam cylinder lubrication. Z.mzhelu@gmail.OIL Oils used to lubricate the cylinders ad valves of steam engines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1226. it can be replaced without the block having to be replaced. replaceable sleeve that fits into a cylinder. 1228. CYLINDER.

) 157 Petroleum Engineer: M. along with other wells on the offshore lease. in 1856.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1233. D&A DARCY'S LAW dry and abandoned. Henry D'Arcy. used in drilling reports. This law has been extended to describe. as though the platform were simply a land lease.com . with certain limitations. See Directional Drilling. During experimental studies on the flow of water through consolidated sand filter beds. When many wells are producing from a single platform.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1229. D & P PLATFORM A drilling and production platform. Z. Daily drilling report a record made each day of the operations on a working drilling rig. as many as 60 have been drilled from a large platform by the use of directional drilling techniques. 1231. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. D'Arcy's Law states that the velocity of a homogenous fluid in a porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid's viscosity. the oil can be treated (put through oil-water separators). The production from single-well platforms is usually piped. (See driller's report. measured and pumped ashore. 1230. Such an offshore platform is a large structure with room to drill and complete a number of wells. to a production platform for treatment and pumping ashore. formulated a law which boars his name. the movement of other fluids including miscible fluids in consolidated rocks and other porous substances.

1237. 1235. a downhole "shock absorber" for a string of drilling tools. 1239.com . Damping subs are of the same diameter as the drill pipe into which they are screwed to form a part of the drill string. DC direct current. DAMPING SUB Essentially. A porous medium has a permeability of 1 darcy when a pressure of 1 atmosphere on a sample 1 cm long and 1 cm' in cross-section will force a liquid of 1-cp viscosity through the sample at the rate of 1 cm' per second. a 6 to 8foot-long device. darcy a unit of measure of permeability. Z. 1236. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drill collar. DAY-WORK BASIS Refers to a drilling contract in which the work of drilling and completing a well is paid for by the days required for the job instead of by the feet drilled. The compensation for use of the rig at daywork rates is usually included in the drilling contract. used in drilling reports. a part of the drill assembly.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1234. See also Turnkey Contract. that acts to dampen bit vibration and impact loads during drill operations. day tour (pronounced "day tower") a period of 8 to 12 daylight hours worked by a drilling or workover crew when equipment is being run around the clock. 158 Petroleum Engineer: M. logging. daywork rates the basis for payment on drilling contracts when footage rates are suspended (as when the drilling rig is used in taking extra cores.mzhelu@gmail. 1238. or other activities that delay actual drilling). The permeability of reservoir rocks is usually so low that it is measured in millidarcy units.

Electric. 1241. deadline tie-down anchor a device to which the deadline is attached. stacks. Compare fast line. The anchored end of the drilling line that comes down from the crown block through a fixed sheave at ground level. Z. When stringing up the drilling line. 159 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1246. The traveling block is then hoisted into the derrick. the big traveling block is set on the rig floor and the free end of the line is threaded over the crown block and through the traveling block a sufficient number of times to lift the anticipated load with a good margin of safety. 1244. mast. 1245. and onto a storage drum. 1243. the anchored fine. DEAD OIL DEAD WELL deadline Crude oil containing no dissolved gas when it is produced. The other end of the threaded or reeved line is the dead line or. and so on. deadman a buried anchor to which guy wires are tied to steady the derrick.com .mzhelu@gmail. The free end is then attached to the draw works drum which is rotated until one layer of the line is spooled on. the drilling line from the crown-block sheave to the anchor. 1242. so called because it does not move. securely fastened to the mast or derrick substructure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1240. A well that will not flow. DC-DC RIG DEAD LINE See Drill Rig. called a dead-!line anchor. and in order to produce must be put on the pump. See Fast Line. one might say. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

(nautical) floor. braces. 1254. piping.com . deadwood in an oil storage tank. 1253. 1252. 1250. Deck blocks which lie horizontal to the vessel's deck are for horizontal pulls with hawser or cable. DEADMAN CONTROL A device for shutting down an operation should the attendant become incapacitated.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1247.mzhelu@gmail. 1248. the ladders. 1251. Their total volume is deducted from the tank volume when it is being strapped or calibrated. deadweight ton (dwt) a unit of capacity of tank ships equal to the difference in tons between the ship's displacement when unloaded and when loaded. 1249. deep drilling 160 Petroleum Engineer: M. Decanting. and other internal fixtures that reduce the oil capacity of a tank. the operation will automatically come to a halt. When pressure is relaxed owing to some emergency. A pulley or sheave mounted in a steel frame which is securely fixed to the metal deck of a ship or barge. DECANTING CENTRIFUGE deck DECKBLOCK See Centrifuge. decontaminants materials added to cements or cement slurries to counteract the effects of contamination. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. The attendant using such a device must consciously exert pressure on a hold-down handle or lever to work the job.

deflection a change in the angle of a wellbore. deep-well pump deepen a production pump designed for service in a deep well. Deepening is generally a workover operation carried out to produce from a deeper formation or to control excessive gas found in the upper levels of a reservoir. Hook loads on deep rigs often exceed 800 tons. 1258. Z. usually by means of chemical thinners. have massive substructures 25 to 35 feet high to accommodate the large and tall blowout preventer stacks flanged to the wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering any drilling project that is deeper than average for a given area or period in time. DEEP RIG A specially designed drifting derrick built to withstand the extreme hook loads of ultra-deep (20. to increase the depth of a well. 1257. 1256.000-foot) wells. In directional drilling. 1260. 1261. Deep rigs.) 161 Petroleum Engineer: M. defloccutation the dispersion of solids that have stuck together in drilling fluid. DEFICIENCY GAS The difference between a quantity of gas a purchaser is obligated by contract either to take or pay for if not taken and the amount actually taken. 1255.mzhelu@gmail. It presents a number of special problems related to water depth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.600.000 pounds. (See flocculation. 1259.000 to 30. deepwater drilling offshore drilling operations in relatively deep oceans or seas.com . it is measured in degrees from the vertical. in addition to extrastrong structural members. 1.

The total of degree-days for a given period of time can be used to estimate energy requirements such as the amount of fuel oil needed to heat a building. One of the three functions of mud is to provide sufficient hydrostatic head to control a kick when high-pressure oil or gas is encountered. it can become infused with gas to an extent that although the volume of mud may increase the density is severely reduced. degree-day a unit of temperature and time. the bubbles of gas expand and break out of the slurry. Several kinds of equipment get the gas out. 1263. 1265. drilling fluid. 162 Petroleum Engineer: M. the mud is degassed at the surface. When mud of a certain density is circulated. the equipment used to remove unwanted gas from a liquid. buobles that enter the mud as it circulates downhole through gaseous formations. DEGASSING DRILLING MUD An important part of well drilling operations is keep the drilling mud free of entrained gas. A third method directs the mud through a vacuum tank where. equivalent to the difference between a 65 F base and a daily mean temperature (when the latter is less than 65 F). To guard against this dangerous situation occurring. computed per day. but all have one aim in commo to make it possible for the gas bubbles to free themselves.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1262. defoamer degasser any chemical that prevents or lessens frothing or foaming in another agent. under reduced atmospheric pressure. One method flows the mud over wide sheets so the slurry is no more than one-eighth to three eighths thick so the bubbles may come to the surface and escape. especially from 1264.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Another method sprays the mud against a baffle in a spray tank which squeezes out the gas. Z.com .

1272.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1266. Well drilled after a discovery well to determine the areal extent of a reservoir. Dehydration of crude oil is normally accomplished by emulsion treating with emulsion breakers.mzhelu@gmail. Gas must be extremely dry to meet pipeline specifications. triethylene. Gas is led In to the bottom of a trayed or packed column in the presence of the glycol solution. dehydrate to remove water from a substance. degrees API (. 1269.he use of various glycols diethylene. usually made annually in lieu of drilling to keep a lease valid. or gravity. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the boundaries of the productive formation. and tetraethylene. NATURAL GAS A tank or tower through which gas is run to remove entrained water. (See API gravity. Dehydration is accomplished by contact of the wet gas with pure or "lean" glycol solution.) 1 1268.API) a unit of measurement of the American Petroleum Institute that indicates the weight. delay rental Delineation Well DELINEATION WELLS a payment. a typical maximum allowable water-vapor content is 7 LB per Mk. 163 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Development Wells. The water vapor in natural gas must be removed to meet pipeline requirements. it may not contain more than 7 pounds of water per million standard cubic feet. DEHYDRATOR.com . Wells drilled outward from a successful wildcat well to determine the extent of the oil find. the lean glycol absorbs the entrained water. of oil. 1270. A common method of gas dehydration is through . Z. As the gas percolates upward through the solution. and dry gas is taken off at the top of the lower. 1271.

demethanizer DEMULSIFIER (See rich-oil demethanizer. Z. deliveryman a shipper's representative who takes delivery of oil from a pipeline company at a terminal or junction. DEMURRAGE The charge incurred by the shipper for detaining a vessel. 1275. 1279. 1278. 1280.) the weight of a substance per unit of volume. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is a contact log (i.mzhelu@gmail. or 1. or truck. the density of a drilling mud may be 10 ppg. The chemical reduces the surface tension of the film of oil surrounding the droplets of water. (See emulsion treating. freight car. 74.2 kg/liter. into its components.com .8 lb/ftl. Specific gravity or API gravity is also a measure of density.e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1273. Thus freed.) A chemical used to "break dowi" crude oil/water emulsions. 1274.. held against the 164 Petroleum Engineer: M. especially of water and oil.) 1277. the water settles to the bottom of the tank. High loading rates for oil tankers are of utmost importance in order to speed turnaround and minimize demurrage charges. density log a special radioactivity log for open-hole surveying that responds to variations in the specific gravity of formations. demulsity to resolve an emulsion. 1276. Densilog density (See density log. For instance.

1282. 1285. The tanks or tubs holds total of 90 barrels. Densmore's innovation was the forerunner of the "unit train" for hauling oil and products. 1281. DEPLETION ALLOWANCE DEPOSIT depositional environment See Percentage Depletion. An oil and gas reservoir is depleted when most or all recoverable hydrocarbons have been produced. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1283. 1284. Z. and Densilog. Depositional environments are divided into five groups marine (ocean-borne). alluvial (river-borne). aeolian (wind-borne). DENSMORE. It emits neutrons and then measures the secondary gamma radiation that is scattered back to the detector in the instrument. Formation Density Log. Some trade names for it are Gamma-Gamma Density Log. The density log is an excellent porosity-measuring device.mzhelu@gmail.com .v.). and the latest development. An accumulation of oil or gas capable of being produced commercially. In 1865 he mounted two "iron banded" wooden tanks on a railway flatcar. and interdeltaic (between river deltas). AMOS The man who first devised a method of shipping crude oil by rail. deplete to exhaust a supply. 165 Petroleum Engineer: M. deltaic (borne by a river at its delta). especially for shaly sands. Tank Train (q. the conditions under which a series of rock strata were laid down.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering wall of the hole).

1 1288.) a device used to measure the depth of a well or depth at a specific point in a well (as to the top of a 1'ner or to a fish) by counting the turns of a calibrated wheel rolling on a wireline as it is lowered into or pulled out of a well. Z. depreciation decrease in value of property (as a rig) due to normal wear or the passing of time. depth in depth out depthometer the depth of the wellbore when a new bit is run in. (See depth In. natural gas. bedding structures. 1291. is from 1290. 1293.mzhelu@gmail.com . By including a charge for depreciation. Depositional Facies A three dimensional body of rock that is differentiated from others by its unique physical attributes such as rock type(s). stipulated in a drilling contract as contract depth. the distance to which a well is drilled. position in the rock layers. a liquid hydrocarbon. (See depth out. derrick 166 Petroleum Engineer: M. depth 1. the distance from the baseline of a rig or ship to the uppermost continuous deck. 1294. the manner in which it was deposited and the like. 1289. 1292. a contractor can accumulate funds to replace a rig when it is worn out. on offshore drilling rigs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1286. DEPROPANIZER A unit of a processing plant where propane. 2. Total depth is the depth after drilling is finished.) the depth of the wellbore when a bit is pulled out of the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. fossils.

Because the standard derrick must be assembled piece by piece. Z. before the widespread use of portable units for pulling and reconditioning a well. shorter derrick called a pumping derrick or pumping rig. The larger derrick or crane barges are self propelled and are. casingheads. etc. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually of bolted construction.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a large load-bearing structure. which can be lowered and raised without disassembly. 1297. it has largely been replaced by the mart. a helicopter pad.mzhelu@gmail. 167 Petroleum Engineer: M. The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick and provide space to install blowout preventers. the original derrick.com . 1295. in effect. DERRICK. A crane 1296. PUMPING In the early days. DERRICK BARGE A type of work boat on which a large crane is mounted for use offshore or other over-water work. the well also could be pumped by pumping jack or by a walking beam. racking tubing or drillpipe as it is pulled from the well and unscrewed by other crow members on the derrick floor. Well workovers could be done with these rigs. and tools and equipment for various tender work. a boat or ship with full-revolving crane. was often replaced by a smaller. DERRICK FLOOR The platform (usually 10 feet or more above the ground) of a derrick on which drilling oprations are carried o rig floor. DERRICKMAN A member of the drilling crew who works up in derrick on the tubing board. 1298. the standard derrick has four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown block. used for drilling. In drilling.

mzhelu@gmail. A desander usually operates on the principle of a fast-moving stream of fluid being put into a whirling motion inside a cone-shaped vessel. To accomplish this. Some plants use electrostatic precipitation. 1302. or collapse stresses. Sometimes fresh water is injected into the crude stream to dissolve salt for removal by electrostatic treaters. 168 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1304. desiccant-dried air or an inert gas is pumped through the line to absorb the moisture that may be Present even in the ambient air in the line. in certain product pipelines great effort is made to remove all water vapor before putting the line in service. Z. 1303. 1301. others employ chemical processes to remove the salt. desiccant a substance able to remove water from another substance with which it is in contact. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tension. DESALTING PLANT An installation that removes salt water and crystalline salt from crude oil streams. It may be liquid (as triethylene glycol) or solid (as silica gel).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1299. desalt to remove dissolved salt from crude oil. to allow for unusual burst. desander a centrifugal device used to remove fine particles of sand from drilling fluid to prevent abrasion of the pumps. 1300.com . design factor the ratio of the ultimate load a vessel or structure will sustain to the safe permissible load placed on it. Such safety factors are incorporated into the design of casing. for example. DESICCANT DRYING The use of a drying agent to remove moisture from a stream of air or gas.

As of January 1979. there are 103 clubs throughout the United States and Canada. or silt. 1310. and other harmful engine deposits.DESANDER A filtering device on a drifting well's mud system that removes harmful abrasive material from the mud stream.com . Z. The lower the solids content of the mud is. varnishes. desulfurize DETERGENT OILS to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from oil or gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. desilter a centrifugal device. 1308.mzhelu@gmail. Desk and Derrick Club an association of women employed in the petroleum and allied industries. used to remove very fine particles. Membership ranges from secretaries through managers and directors of companies. similar to a desander. The detergents act to keep all products of oxidation and other foreign matter in suspension which permits it to be removed by the engine's filtering system. 2. the deepest water in which an offshore drilling rig can operate. 1307. from drilling fluid to keep the amount of solids in the fluid to the lowest possible level. the faster the rate of penetration. 1306. The principal function of the group is that of providing informational and educational programs for the enlightenment of its members about the industry they serve. 169 Petroleum Engineer: M. DESILTER . 1309. the vertical distance from the ocean bottom to the nominal water level plus the height of astronomical and storm tides.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1305. lubricating oils containing additives that retard the formation of gums. design water depth 1.

1312. a well drilled in proven territory in a field to complete a pattern of production. 1314. DEVELOPMENT WELLS DEVIATED HOLE Wells drilled in an area already proved to be productive. DETRIUS Fragments of disintegrated rock. express clauses specifying the number of development wells to be drilled. Z.com . old car or truck. the knock or ping produced when fuel of too low an octane rating is used in the engine. 1317.mzhelu@gmail. 1313.000-foot hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Talus. 1318. an accumulation of material as the result of the wearing away or erosion of rock. an exploitation well. DEVELOPMENT CLAUSE The drilling and delay-rental clause of a lease also. detonation 1. Compare preignition. In drilling a 15. it is not unusual to have such a deviation that the actual bottom of the hole is 170 Petroleum Engineer: M. some considerably farther off than others. The drilling and bringing into production of wells in addition to the discovery well on a lease. 1316. through many types of hard and soft lions. 2. 2. DETROIT IRON DEVELOPMENT A humorous reference to a large. for example.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1311. The drilling of development wells may be required by the express or implied covenants of a lease. development well 1. an explosion. 1315. All wells are off the vertical. A well bore which is off the vertical either by design or accident.

For example. deviation the inclination of the wellbore from the vertical.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2.000 feet. dew-point recorder a device used by gas transmission companies to determine and record continuously the dew point of the gas. 1320.com . But there are times when drilling at an angle from the vertical serves a useful purpose. to reach a particular formation at 10. may have to be dug several hundred to 1.7psia. In addition to more drilling time it would also mean 1. deviation survey an operation made to determine the angle from which a bit has deviated from the vertical during drilling. and on someone else's lease. (pound per square inch absolute) or at sea level. 171 Petroleum Engineer: M. or drift angle is the angle in degrees that shows the variation from the vertical as revealed by a deviation survey. And the technique for digging such a hole is quite advanced. 1322. angle of drift. The angle of deviation.000 feet or so away from the well location. Deviated or crooked holes as they are commonly referred to are more expensive to drill than a straight hole for several reasons. a crooked hole. DEW POINT The temperature at which water vapor condensed Out of at 14.000 feet farther. the other indicates both the angle and direction of deviation. Z. on a severe Angle from the vertical. or drift survey. instruments one reveals the angle of deviation only.mzhelu@gmail. 1321. There are two basic deviation survey. 1319. See Slant-hole Technique.000 feet more casing and an equal amount of tubing to complete the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This can be litigious business if the other lease owner gets picky about it. Every effort is made to drill a straight hole.

a tong key. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used as an admixture for cement to produce a lowdensity slurry. recrystallization. 1328. dies are cutters for making threads on a bolt or pipe. diatomaceous earth an earthy deposit made up of the siliceous cell walls of one-celled marine algae called diatoms. 1325.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1323. 1324. The die collar is made up on the drill pipe and lowered into the hole until it contacts the lost pipe. hardened steel piece. Rotation of the die collar on top of the pipe cuts 172 Petroleum Engineer: M. the female counterpart of a taper tap. cementation. the chemical and physical changes that sediments undergo (after deposition. an insert for a wrench or set of tongs that bites into the pipe as the toot is closed on the pipe. that is used to retrieve pipe from the well on fishing jobs.mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports. 1327. threaded internally. In the measurement of pipe diameters. the inside diameter is that of the interior circle and the outside diameter that of the exterior circle. The rotation of the extremely hard diamonds cuts the surface of the rock. diameter the distance across a circle measured through its center.com . diamond bit a drilling bit that has a steel body surfaced with industrial diamonds. die collar a collar or coupling of tool steel. compaction. DIE A replaceable. DF diagenesis derrick floor. 1326. Also. 1329. and sometimes replacement) that result in lithification. Z. in the plural.

as the diesel engine has no spark plugs. Combustion takes place within the cylinder above the piston. 1333. and expansion of the combustion products imparts power to the piston. 1 1332.com . Self-ignition is an important property of diesel fuel. See Diesel Engine. of electricity. Z. 1334. In a diesel engine air is drawn into the cylinders and compressed to very high pressures.mzhelu@gmail. The dielectric constant of oil is lower than that for water. the fuel is ignited by the heat of compression within the engine's cylinders. powering drilling rigs. diesel-electric power the power supplied to a drilling rig by diesel engines driving electric generators. a diesel engine internal-combustion engine used extensively for high-compression. 1335. also Cetane Number. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used widely offshore and gaining popularity onshore. A substance that is a good insulator has a high dielectric constant. while a poor insulator has a low one. 1330. DIESEL FUEL A fuel made of the light gas-oil range of refinery products. or nonconductor. providing for a firm attachment. ignition occurs as fuel is injected into the compressed and heated air. and upon this principle a net-oil computer operates. The pipe is then retrieved from the hole. the values of dielectricity assigned to substances. 173 Petroleum Engineer: M. dielectric dielectric constant a substance that is an insulator. Diesel fuel and furnace oil are virtually the same product.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering threads on the outside of the pipe.

differential fill-up shoe a device similar to a differential fill-up collar.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1336. (See differential pressure. 1337. DIESEL. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or between atmospheric pressure at sea level and at 10. 1338. (See differential pressure. differential pressure the difference between two fluid pressures. 1341. RUDOLPH The German mechanical engineer who invented the internal combustion engine that bears his name. for example. This is often caused by improper fuel or carbon deposits in the combustion chamber hot enough to ignite the gasoline sucked into the engine as it makes a few revolutions after being turned off. differential the difference in quantity or degree between two measurements or units. the difference between the pressure in a reservoir and in a wellbore drilled in the reservoir. 1340.com . For example. It is run near the bottom of the casing to automatically admit drilling fluids into the casing as needed so it sinks rather than floats in the well. the pressure differential across a choke is the variation between the pressure on one side and that on the other. except it is run on the bottom of the casing and is incorporated into the guide shoe.000 ft.) 1339. differential fill-up collar a device used in setting casing.) 174 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. DIESELING The tendency of some gasoline engines to continue running after the ignition has been shut off. Z.

i. 1344. spades. are a permeable formation and a pressure differential across a nearly impermeable filter cake and drill stem. DIGGER DIGGING TOOLS DILLPIPE One who digs or drills a well.e. differential-pressure sticking a condition in which the drill stem becomes stuck against the wall of the wellbore because part of the drill stem (usually the drill collars) has become embedded in the filter cake.) a survey of a wellbore with a dip meter. dipmeter survey 175 Petroleum Engineer: M. shovels.. differential-pressure gauge a pressure-measuring device actuated by two or more pressure-sensitive elements that act in opposition to produce an indication of the difference between two pressure sources. dip dip log (See formation dip. 1347. Necessary conditions for differential pressure sticking. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mattocks. Heavy.mzhelu@gmail. or wall sticking. Hand tools used in digging a ditch. 1345. Joints of drillpipe are about 30 feet long. 1349. made to determine the direction-and angle of dip of certain formations exposed to the wellbore. 1348. 1346.com . 1343. picks. a driller. Z. thick-walled steel ripe used in rotary drilling to turn the drill bit and to provide a conduit for the drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1342.

Controlled directional drilling makes it possible to reach subsurface areas laterally remote from the point where the bit enters the earth. or other deflecting tools. e. DIRCTIONAL DRILLING The technique of drilling at an angle from the vertical by deflecting the drill 1 wells are drilled for a number of reasons to develop an offshore lease from one drilling platform. It also provides information about the geologic structure of the formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering an oil-well-surveying method that determines the direction and angle of formation dip in relation to the borehole. to reach a pay zone beneath land where drilling cannot be done. 1351. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. it is sometimes necessary or advantageous to drill at an angle from the vertical.mzhelu@gmail.com . (See directional 176 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Killer Well. direct connection a straightforward connection that makes the speeds of a prime mover and a driven machine identical. drilling. 1353. beneath a railroad. cemetery. Although wellbores are normally drilled vertically. It involves the use of turbodrills.) directional hole a wellbore intentionally drilled at an angle from the vertical. DynaDrills.g. 1350. directional drilling intentional deviation of a wellbore from the vertical. a lake. whipstocks. Z. It records data that permit computation of both the amount and direction of formation dip relative to the axis of the hole. . and to reach the production zone of a burning well to flood the formation. 1352.

1358. A multi shot survey instrument obtains numerous readings in the hole as the device is pulled out of the well. and direction of the drift. Some states allow the operators of a discovery well to produce at the maximum efficiency rate (MER) until the costs of the well have been recovered in oil or gas. A discovery well may also open a new horizon in an established field. (See directional drilling. 1355. DISCOVERY WELL ALLOWABLE An allowable above that of wells in a settled field.mzhelu@gmail. or deviation from the vertical. (See continuous phase and internal phase) An exploratory well that encounters a new and previously untapped petroleum deposit a successful wildcat well. DIRTY CARGO disconformity discontinuous phase DISCOVERY WELL Bunker fuel and other block residual oils. 1359. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. directional survey a logging method that records hole drift.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1354. 1360. an unconformity in which formations on opposite sides of it are parallel.) 1356. usually employed by a company specializing in this service. A single shot directional survey instrument makes a single photograph of a compass reading of the drift direction and the number of degrees the hole is off vertical. Z.com . 1357. directional operator a practical or trained technician who supervises rig operations relating to directional drilling. 177 Petroleum Engineer: M.

usually part of a salwater-disposal 178 Petroleum Engineer: M. displacement fluid in oil-well cementing. 1362. Z. exactly equal to the weight of the body. usually drilling mud or salt water. the fluid. 1367. dispatcher dispersion an employee responsible for scheduling movement of oil through pipelines. 1364. usually at high pressures. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1361. displacement meter a meter in which a piston is actuated by the pressure of a measured volume of liquid and the volume swept by the piston is equal to the volume of the liquid recorded. 1366. a suspension of extremely fine particles in a liquid (such as colloids in a colloidal solution). that is pumped into the well behind the cement to force the cement out of the casing and into the annulus.com . with an action similar to that of a piston but one-sided. 1365. displacement plunger a device used to pump liquids. system. displacement rate a measurement of the speed with which a volume of cement slurry or mud is pumped down the hole. disposal well a well into which salt water is pumped. 1363. 1368. displacement the weight of fluid (as water) displaced by a freely floating body such as an offshore drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail.

1 1371. home heating oil. or form new products. The force of expanding gas dissolved in the crude oil in the formation that drives the oil to the well bore and up to the surface through the production 1373. DISTILLATE FUEL OILS A term denoting products of refinery distillation sometimes referred to middle distillates. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DISTILLATION SYSTEM A small.) 1374. kerosene. i.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1369. distillation the process of driving off gas or vapor from liquids or solids. Z.. usually by heating. atoms. DISTILLATE quid hydrocarbons.com . 1375. in water. hydrochloric acid dissociates into hydrogen and chlorine molecules. and of high API gravity (above 60') recovered from wet gas by a separator that condenses the liquid out of the gas stream. 1372.) 1376. 179 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See distillate. (Distillate is an older term for the liquid today. usually water-white or pale straw color. it is called condensate or natural gasoline. diesel fuel. fractionate. or ions. See Solution Gas. and condensing the vapor back to liquid to purify.mzhelu@gmail. temporary "refinery" (200 to 1. See Condensate. For example. DISSOLVED GAS DISSOLVED-GAS DRIVE Gas contained in solution with the crude oil in the reservoir.e. or ions.000 b/d) set up at a remote drifting site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment. dissociation the splitting up of a compound of two or more simple molecules.

1380. In shallow wells there is often insufficient overburden pressure around the base of the conductor casing to prevent the gas from a substantial kick from blowing out around the casing. etc. a system used to control well blowouts encountered at relatively shallow depths and to protect floating rigs during blowouts by directing the flow away from the rig. When a kick occurs.) 1379. (See mud-return line. to break up.com . DIVERTER SYSTEM An assembly of nipples and air-actuated valves welded to a well's surface or conductor casing for venting a gas kick (q. each to be 180 Petroleum Engineer: M. the mud-flow channel from the conductor-pipe outlet is often called a ditch. distribution the apportioning of daily production rates to wells on a lease. such production is apportioned on the basis of periodic tests rather than on the individual receiving and gauging of oil at each well. Because there are many wells on a lease.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1377. cable. DIVESTITURE Specifically as it relates to the industry. DITCHING MACHINE diverter See Trencher. Z.mzhelu@gmail. to fragment an integrated oil company into individual. the blowout preventer is closed and the valves of the diverter system open to vent the gas harmlessly to the atmosphere. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1382. On a drilling rig. 1378.v. ditch a trench or channel made in the earth. 1381.) encountered in relatively shallow offshore wells.usually to bury pipeline. separate companies.

com . the royalty owners. substances that are potentially corrosive and impart an objectionable odor to the fuel when burned. A term used to describe certain petroleum products that have been treated to remove sulfur compounds and mercaptans that are the sources of unpleasant odors. Certain amounts of payment go to the operator of the producing property. a device similar to a die collar but with external threads. 181 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1386. 1385. DOCTOR TEST A qualitative method of testing light fuel oils for the presence of sulfur compounds and mercaptans. The purchaser prepares the division order after determining the basis of ownership and then requires that the several owners of the oil being purchased execute the division order before payment for the oil commences. 1383. production. 1384. A product that has been so treated is said to be "sweet to the doctor test. or MWD Downhole measurement while drilling (q. refining or marketing.v. and others having an interest in the production. 1387. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng." 1388. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering permitted to operate only within a single phase of the oil business exploration.). dk dle nipple DMWD DOCTOR SWEET dark. DIVISION ORDER A contract of sale to the buyer of crude oil or gas directing the buyer to pay for the product in the proportions set forth in the contract. transportation.

any small building used as an office or for storage. 1393. 1394. and others. a sharp bend in a joint of pipe. and storage room for small supplies and . 1390. 1395. 1396.) dolomite.com . The doghouse serves lunchroom. table.mzhelu@gmail. DOG ROBBER A loyal aid or underling who does disagreeable or slightly unorthodox (shady)jobs for his boss. See Key Seat. DOG FT DOG HOUSE To do less than one's share of work. 2. 182 Petroleum Engineer: M. change house. a master of the "midnight requisition" 1392. used in drilling reports. dormitory. (See pipe dolly. a small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office for the driller or as a storehouse for small objects.records.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1389. to hang back to drag one's feet. d ol dolly dolo dolomite. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. geologist. one-room shelter (usually made of fight tank iron) at a well site for the convenience and protection of the drilling crew. doghouse 1. DOGLEG A deviation in the direction of a ditch or the bore hole of a well. used in drilling reports. 1391.

DOOR MATS Colloquial term used in the early days to describe small tracts. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a twig or branch of a small tree (poach is favored by some witchers) which when held by an "expert" practitioner as he walks over a plot of land is supposed to bend down locating a favorable place to drill a well. just large enough to accommodate an oil derrick. The concept of pooling (q.) 1399. tone cleaned. door sheet a plate at the base of a tank shell or wall that is removed to allow the tank 183 Petroleum Engineer: M. the seismograph used in prospecting for potential oil-bearing geological structures. (See salt dome. dome a geologic structure resembling an inverted bowl.com . 1402.v. A witching device. doodlebug (slang) 1. 1401. 2.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1397. a short anticline plunging on all sides. 1400. 1403. Z. sometimes a reservoir rock for petroleum. 1398.) had not yet been accepted. dome-roof tank DOODLE BUG a storage tank with a dome-shaped roof affixed to the shell. 1120 of an acre. any of the various devices used in searching for petroleum deposits. dolomite a type of sedimentary rock similar to limestone but rich in magnesium carbonate. a popular term for any of the various geophysical prospecting equipment.mzhelu@gmail.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The chunks of coating fall onto a conveyor belt and are carried away from the job. double board the derrickman's working platform. also riding the pipe. when located at a height in the derrick or mast equal to two lengths of pipe joined together. double a length of drill pipe. A machine for removing tar and asphalt coatings from line pipe. a machine rides the pipe. casing. consisting of two joints screwed together. The pipe is placed in the chopper where guillotine-like blades cut through the dope but do not damage the pipe.) 184 Petroleum Engineer: M. DOPE GANG Workers who clean and apply a coat of enamel primer to a pipeline in preparation for coating with a tar-based anticorrosion material and wrapping with tough paper bandage. ward stroke and draw in fluid on the return stroke. 1405. DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP A reciprocating pump (plunger pump) with two sets of suction and discharge valves permitting it to pump fluid during the forward and backward movement of each plunger. A second machine. or tubing. d op e DOPE CHOPPER a lubricant for the threads of oil-field tubular goods.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1404. (See thribble board and fourble board. (Single-action pumps discharge on the for. or monkeyboard. On large pipeline projects. Compare thribble and fourble.com . coats and wraps the line in one operation. 1407. Z.) 1409. cleaning it with rotating metal brushes and then on a pimer. 1406. 1408.

The main drum is used for pulling tubing or drill pipe. that provides two hoisting drums in the assembly.) a pipe incorporating twice as many safety design factors as normally used. Z. double-drum hoist a device. A pipe in which the flow of liquid or gas is downward.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1410.)of pipe that is set back and racked in the derrick. A dowhole "real time" data gathering and transmitting system that sends information from the drill bit to the surface by one of several means. the second drum is used for swabbing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. consisting of two reels on which wire rope is wound. 1 1414." fours are "fourbles. joint stands are called "thribbles.com . Three. The two joints make a stand (q." 1412. 1415.mzhelu@gmail. (See hoist. A slang expression meaning to shift down into the lowest low gear. pertaining to the wellbore. The data transmitted by some form of telemetry-hardwire or electronics or hydraulic 185 Petroleum Engineer: M. TDOUBLING YARD T An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project where line pipe is welded together in two-joint lengths preparatory to being transported to the job and strung along the right of way. DOUBLES Drillpipe and tubing pulled from the well two joints at a time. 1416. doughnut DOWN IN THE BIG HOLE DOWNCOMER downhole DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING a ring of wedges or a threaded. 1417. tapered ring that supports a string of pipe. 1418. 1411.v.

Bulldozer. temperature. DP draft drill pipe. 1425. DOWSING RODS DOZER See Doodle Bug. a crawler-type tractor equipped with a hydraulically operated blade for excavating and grading. refining is downstream from production operations. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1 1422.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering impulse-includes drilling angle and rate.com . Z. downhole mud motor DOWNSTREAM a turbodrill or DynaDrill. For example. 1423. 1426. 1419. waterline. The MWD system is the most advanced yet developed to keep the driller and geologist informed on conditions several thousand feet downhole. marketing is downstream from refining. downtime the period during which an item of equipment cannot be operated because of ongoing repair or maintenance.mzhelu@gmail. 1424. used in drilling reports. 1420. the vertical distance between the bottom of a vessel floating in water and the 186 Petroleum Engineer: M. and condition of the bit. type formation. Refers to facilities or operations performed after those at the point of reference.

usually offshore. 1433. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. borers.mzhelu@gmail. DRAINAGE TRACT A lease or tract of land.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1427. immediately adjacent to a tract with proven production.com . DRAINAGE Migration of oil or gas in a reservoir owing to a pressure reduction caused by production from wells drilled into the reservoir. drag bit DRAG LINE (See bat and fishtail bit. draft marks pl numbers placed on the sides or ends of a floating offshore drilling rig to indicate its draft. The bucket at the end of the fine is swung into position and is then dragged into the material to be moved or dug out. 1428. 1430. Local drainage is the movement of oil and gas toward the well bore of a producing well. is a continuation of the producing acreage and therefore more or less valuable as a source of additional oil or gas.) A type of large excavating machine made with a long boom over which a line runs down to a clamshell bucket. an offshore Federal lease contiguous to producing property whose subsurface geologic structure. 187 Petroleum Engineer: M. drainage radius the area of a reservoir in which a single well serves as a point for drainage of reservoir fluids. 1431. 1429. DRAG UP To draw the wages one has coming and quit the job an expression used in the oil fields by pipeline construction workers and temporary or day la. 1432. Z.

the distance between the static level and the pumping level of the fluid in the annulus of a pumping well. in 1859 to a depth of 69 1/2 feet using crude cable-tool equipment. 1438. and completed in 1859. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. EDWIN L. clutches. power take off.S. Pennsylvania.v. Drake well the first U. 1439. 188 188 Petroleum Engineer: M. brakes and other machinery used on a drilling rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1434. Some 69 feet deep. drawdown 1. and serve as a power-control center for the hoisting gear and rotary elements of the drill column. it was drilled near Titusville. It is essentially a large winch that spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the drill stem and bit. Z.). the hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig. 1435. The man who drilled the country's first oil well near Titusville.mzhelu@gmail.. cable. DRAKE COL. 2.com . DRAW WORKS The collective name for the hoisting drum. DRAINAGE UNIT The maximum area in an oil pool or field that may be drained efficiently by one well so as to produce the maximum amount of recoverable oil or gas in such an area. shaft. 1437. Draw works are located on one side of the derrick floor. well drilled in search of oil. Pa. drawworks DRAWING TI IE FIRES Shutting dowry a refinery unit in preparation for a turnaround (q. 1436. the difference between static and flowing bottomhole pressures.

to gauge or measure pipe by means of a mandrel passed through it to ensure the passage of tools. 189 Petroleum Engineer: M. the area where the driller and his crew work. 1446.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1440. 1447. low-pressure fines. This type sleeve connection is used on small-diameter. 2. drift to move slowly out of alignment. The dress-up crew smooths the land. DRIFT MANDREL A device used to check the size of casing and tubing before it is run. and builds fences and gates. pumps.com . grass. or out of register. etc. A right-of-way gang that cleans up after the construction crews have completed their work. 1444. DRERRICK FLOOR dress DRESS-UP CREW Derrick floor. 1441. drift angle drift indicator (See deviation. off center. It does not measure the direction of inclination. plants trees. The drift mandrel (jack rabbit) is put through each joint of casing and tubing to make certain the inside diameters are sizes specified for the particular job. Z. DRESSER SLEEVE A slip-type collar that connects two lengths of plain-end (threadless) pipe.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) a device dropped or run down the drill stem on a wireline to just above the bit to measure the inclination of the well off vertical at that point. 1443. 1445. to sharpen or repair items of equipment (as drilling bits and tool joints). 1442.

1452. drig drill drilling.mzhelu@gmail. drift survey DRIFTING THE PIPE (See deviation survey. "He drilled around me and got the promotion. 1454. 1. 2. used in drilling reports. Pipe must be of proper diameter throughout to be able to run downhole tools such as packers. usually to find and remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and gas. A hole in the bottom of the drill permits the flow of drilling mud being pumped down through the drillpipe to wash the cuttings to the surface and also cool and lubricate the bit. Z. (See bit. to bore a hole in the earth. 1453. drill ahead drill around to continue drilling operations. bends. plugs.com . 1451. some are fixed.connector between drillpipe and 190 Petroleum Engineer: M. (slang) to get the better of someone (as. The tool attached to the lower end of the drilipipe.v. making certain there are no kinks. 1 1450.) or jack rabbit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1448. etc. to deflect the wellbore away from an obstruction in the hole. a heavy steel "head" c quipped with various types of cutting or grinding teeth. or flat places in the pipe by use of a drift mandrel (q.) drill bit DRILL BIT ROTARY 1456. 1455. some turn on bearings.) Testing casing or tubing for roundness. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

1462. 1 1464. DRILL BIT. See Drill Bit. DIAMOND DRILL BIT. The square corners on the collar. 1 1460. DRILL BIT. 1 1458. 1465. Drag. which is located just above the drill bit in the string. drill collar a heavy. FISH-TAIL DRILL BIT. thick-walled tube.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bit. usually steel. A bit with cutting teeth integral to the metal of the cones of the bit. Drilling was accomplished by the tearing and gouging action of the bit. A type of old-style drilling tool in which the cutting tooth or teeth were the shape of a fish tail. used between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem to weight the bit in order to improve its performance. Z. Originally. 1461. SQUARE A type of drill collar whose cross section is square instead of circular as in a more conventional collar. act 191 Petroleum Engineer: M. Square drill collars are used to prevent or minimize the chances of becoming hung up or stuck in a dogleg downhole. Now the drill collar is used to concentrate a heavy mass of metal near the lower end of the drill column. three-cone roller bit. the drill collar was a means of attaching the drill bit to the drillpipe and to strengthen the lower end of the drill column which is subject to extreme compression. a non insert bit. and bending stresses. Mill-tooth bits a re used in relatively soft formations found at shallow pepths. MILL-TOOTH A drag bit.mzhelu@gmail. torsion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. DRILL COLLAR. and was efficient in soft formations the forerunner of the modern.com . DRAG See Diamond Drill Bit.

or a trimaran hull. Cores A cylindrical sample of rock obtained by drilling with a hollow donut-shaped 1467. 1468. Drill Cores.000-foot lengths and weigh 50-100 tons. because of increased bit pressure and rapid rotation. bit and pipe. location. They may have a ship hull. a ship constructed to permit a well to be drilled from it at an offshore semisubmersible). Today. a catamaran hull. 1472. Electric. drill pipe the heavy seamless tubing used to rotate the bit and circulate the drilling fluid. drill ships. are capable of drilling exploratory wells in relatively deep waters. drill in to penetrate the productive formation after the casing is set and cemented on top of the pay zone. 1470.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as a reamer and to tend to keep the hole passable for the drillpipe. 1469. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. joints of pipe 30 ft long are coupled together by means of tool joints. drill out to remove with the bit the residual cement that normally remains in the lower section of casing and the wellbore after the casing has been cemented.com . drill site 192 the location of a drilling rig. 1466. 1471. or ship shape. collars are made up in 1. DRILL RIG.mzhelu@gmail.Drill collars were once a few feet long and weighed 400 or 500 pounds. DC-DC drill ship While not as stable as other floating structures (as a See Drilling Rig. Petroleum Engineer: M.

usually in a wildcat well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. the technique requires extreme caution. 1475.com . the well is assumed to be dry. drill to granite to drill a hole until basement rock is encountered. that make up the drilling assembly from the surface to the bottom of the hole. The hammer-like mechanism is located just above the bit and is actuated by air. producing both a boring and a fracturing action simultaneously. let cutoff or chemical cutoff also is used to free stuck pipe. the drill bit. 1476. Z. liquid. permitting some of it to be withdrawn. drill stem the entire length of tubular pipes. Tools that cut the pipe either internally or externally. 1478.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1474. are available. and rotates. however. drill-pipe cutter a tool to cut drill pipe stuck in the hole. 1477. the drill pipe. Drilling under pressure is advantageous in that the rate of penetration is relatively fast. and drill collars. 193 Petroleum Engineer: M. DRILL. drill under pressure to carry on drilling operations while maintaining a seal (usually with a rotating head) to prevent the well fluids from blowing out. Drill String A string of individual joints of drill pipe that extend from the bit to the kelly pipe. The drill string carries the mud down to. ROTARY-PERCUSSION A drill bit that rotates in a conventional manner but at the same time acts as a high-frequency pneumatic hammer. or high-frequency 1479. If no hydrocarbon-bearing formations are found above the basement. composed of the kelly.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1480.) pertaining to packers and other tools left in the wellbore to be broken up later by the drill bit. 1481. drill-pipe pressure gauge an indicator that is mounted on the mud-circulating system to measure the amount of pressure in the drill stem. DRILLED SOLIDS Rock particles broken and pulverized by the bit and picked up by the drilling mud as it circulates. or both. 194 Petroleum Engineer: M. aluminum. 1485. a check valve. 1487. or other soft brittle material.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. plastic. 1486. Z. Drillable equipment is made of cast iron. they add to the mud's density.com . the entry of formation pressure into the well. 1484. drill-pipe protector an antifriction device of rubber or steel attached to each joint of drill pipe to minimize wear. If the minute rock particles do not drop out in the mud pits or are not removed by surface equipment. drill-pipe pressure the amount of pressure exerted inside the drill pipe as a result of circulating pressure. drill-pipe float a valve installed in the drill stem that allows mud to be pumped down the drill stem but prevents flow back up the drill stem. drill-pipe safety valve a special valve used to close off the drill pipe to prevent flow and having threads to match the drill pipe in use. drill-stem test drillable (See formation testing. 1482. 1483.

a record kept on the rig for each tour to show the footage drilled. driller's BOP control panel a series of controls on the rig floor that the driller manipulates to open and close the blowout preventers. and other noteworthy occurrences. operation of downhole tools. 1494. 1490. Z. usually in 5. driller's log a record that describes each formation encountered and lists the drilling time relative. 1488. 1 1492. but he is also responsible for the downhole condition of the well.mzhelu@gmail. His main duty is operation of the drilling and hoisting equipment.) the area immediately surrounding the driller's console.to 10-ft intervals. 1493. to depth. driller's console a metal cabinet on the rig floor containing the controls that the driller manipulates to operate various functions of the drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drilling fluid tests.com . See Drilling Mud Density. 195 Petroleum Engineer: M. driller the employee directly in charge of a drilling or workover rig and crew. 1489. and pipe measurements. driller's panel driller's position driller's report (See driller's console. 1495. bit record.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering This condition can cause serious drilling and circulation problems.

This operation is "drilling in" the piling instead of the more common method of driving the piling. producing or production platforms The tool.mzhelu@gmail. It sometimes indicates that the bit has penetrated a high-pressure zone and thus warns of the pos. 1497. One standard drilling contract form is the American Petroleum Institute's (API). 1499. cylindrical drill with articulating cutting blades folded into the body of the drill for digging holes for piling-in off shore installations drilling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1496. Z. See API Bid Sheet and Well Specifications 196 Petroleum Engineer: M. DRILLING CONTRACT An agreement setting forth the items of major concern to both the operator and drilling contractor in the drilling of a designated well at a given location and at a specified time.com . particularly a deep well. another is the American Association of Oil well Drilling Contractors'(AAODC). Before drilling such a well. DRILLING AND BELLING TOOL A long. two to four feet in diameter. drilling break a sudden increase in the rate of penetration by the drill bit. the operator will usually try to acquire a sizeable block of leases surrounding the site of the proposed exploratory well. Piles then can be inserted and cemented. large-diameter. sibility of a blowout.) drilling barge DRILLING BLOCK 1498. (See barge. is so constructed that when it reaches the required depth of a few hundred feet the hinged cutting blades are extended to cut out a bell-shaped cavity at the bottom of the borehole. An area composed of separate contiguous leaseholds rage enough to drill an exploratory well. 1500. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

DRILLING COSTS. DRILLING CONTRACTOR A person or company whose business is drilling wells. 1507. drilling engine an internal-combustion engine used to power a drilling rig. carry rock cuttings to the surface and control down hole pressure. lubricate the drill pipe.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. From two to six engines are used on a rotary rig. Z. Fluids continuously circulated down the wellbore. drilling fluid analysis DRILLING FLUID SPECIALIST (See mud analysis. 1509.) A mud engineer (q. 1503. drilling engineer Drilling Fluid an engineer who specializes in the technical aspects of drilling. or gas.v. 1505. and two or more helpers who operate a drilling or workover rig for one tour each day. gasoline. 1506. 197 Petroleum Engineer: M. fueled by diesel fuel. others are contracted on a day rate. drilling control a device that controls the rate of penetration on a bit by maintaining a constant weight of a predetermined magnitude on the bit. See Turnkey Contract 1502. Wells are drilled on a per foot basis. 1504. to cool and lubricate the drill bit. It is also called an automatic driller or automatic drilling control unit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1501.com .mzhelu@gmail. a driller. 1508. a derrickman. INTANGIBLE drilling crew See Intangible Drilling Costs.

the chips are brought back up the annulus by the force of the high pressure air and are vented through the blooie pipe to the burn pit. 1514. Such funds attract "high-bracket" persons who will receive certain tax benefits. Z.000.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1511. 1515. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The kelly joint fits in the rotating element of the drilling head.com . DRILLING ISLAND A man-made island constructed in water 10 to 50 feet deep by dredging up the lake or bay bottom to make a foundation from which to drill wells. also the tool pusher or rig superintendent. rarely in wildcatting. Usually the fund is established as a joint venture or limited partnership with minimum investments of $5-$10. ROTATING A heavy casing boiled to the top of the blowout present the casing through which air or gas drilling is done. drilling foreman the supervisor of drilling or workover operations on a rig. 198 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 1512. DRILLING HEAD. drilling head a special rotating head that has a gear and pinion drive arrangement to allow turning of the kelly simultaneously with scaling the kelly against well pressure. as the drilling fluid. Compressed air. DRILLING FUND A general term Cescribing a variety of organizations established to attract venture capital to oil and gas exploration and development. enters the drillstring through a flexible hose attached to the kelly. As the bit pulverizes the rock. 1513. This procedure is used for development drilling.

Drilling Mud DRILLING MUD DENSITY A common term for drilling fluids. 1520. DRILLING JARS A jointed section in a string of cable tools made with slack or play between the joints. 1523. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The mast is held upright by guy wires. The jars jolting action is initiated either by the weight or tension of the drillstring which the driller can apply. This type mast is generally used on shallow wells or for reconditioning work. Density of mud is important because it determines the hydrostatic pressure the mud will exert at any particular depth in the well. HYDRAULIC A toot used in the drillstring for imparting an upward or downward jar or jolt to the drillpipe should it get stuck in . An advanced type of deep-drilling rig employs a mast like derrick of two principal members with a base as an integral part of the mast.he hole while drilling or making a trip.S. 1 1522.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1516.mzhelu@gmail. A type of derrick consisting of two parallel legs. in contrast to the conventional four-legged derrick in the form of a pyramid. See Driller's Log. 1519. gallon or in pounds per cubic foot. DRILLING JARS. The weight of drilling mud expressed in pounds per U. It the bit becomes lodged in the hole. 1517. 1518. drilling line DRILLING LOG DRILLING MAST a wire rope used to support the drilling tools. In 199 Petroleum Engineer: M. the sudden jar or impact developed by taking up of the slack in the jars aids in freeing the bit.com .

1529. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM. 1524. an instrument that records hook load. rotary speed and torque. ELECTRIC 1533. 1530. A typical engine-generator-motor rig-up would include fore such sets two for the mud pumps. and so forth. mud flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. drilling platform DRILLING PLATFORM.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the industry. the speed with which the bit drills the formation. See Monopod Drilling Platform. MONOPOD drilling rate drilling recorder (See platform.) In states that regulate well spacing.mzhelu@gmail. the rate of Penetration. one for the draw works and rotary table and one somewhat smaller set for lighting and auxiliary 200 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1531.) See Mat-supported Drilling Platform. penetration rate. 1528. To "heavy up on the mud" is to increase its density.) drilling rig DRILLING RIG. drilling pattern DRILLING PERMIT (See well spacing. Z. 1 1527. (See rig. a well permit. A drilling rig that receives its power from a system comprised of diesel engine-DC generator-DC motor. 1525. a drilling permit is the authorization to drill at a specified location. pump rate and pressure. during drilling. 1532. mud weight is synonymous with mud density.com .

mzhelu@gmail. 1534. drilling template (See temporary guide base. 1536. 1537.800 rpm) diesel engines is transmitted through clutches and compound to the rotary table through a torque tube.com . On the rig floor are the cat works and the rotary table as on a conventional rig. Mechanical rigs use diesel engines coupled directly to the equipment or through compound shafts to drive the rotary. Electric. whose current is converted to DC current to drive DC motors for variable-speed drilling operations. gear compound.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering loads. DRILLING RIG. DRILLING SPOOL (1)The part of the draw works that holds the drilling fine. MECHANICAL The most common type of drilling rig is the mechanical compound rig. The power from the high-speed (1. See Drilling Rig. and draw works are at or near ground level.) 201 Petroleum Engineer: M. Another type of electric rig uses the same power-flow system but the generators are AC. rising at about a 45' angle to the gear and chain drive on the rig floor. draw works. Z. Separate engine-AC generator sets Provide lighting and power for auxiliary functions. 12 to 15 feet below and behind the rig floor. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the drum of drilling cable on which is spooled wire that is threaded over the crown block sheaves and attached to the traveling block. SPLIT-LEVEL A land rig design in which the diesel engines. and mud pumps. (2) A flanged connector and installed within the blowout preventer stack to which the mud access lines and choke and kill lines are attached. 1535. DRILLING RIG.

DRILLSTEM TEST A method of obtaining a sample of fluid from a formation using a "formationtester tool" attached to the drillstem. mud. and in some instances provides crow quarters. carrying all of the supplies and equipment needed to drill and complete a well. fluid flows into the tester up the drillpipe to the surface. spare parts. If the formation pressure is sufficient. A drillship is self-contained. 1542. 1544. In rotary drifting. The tender carries pipe. cement. INFILL DRILLSHIP See Infill Drilling. DRILLSTEM The drillpipe. A self-propelled vessel. DRILLWELL (DRILLSHIP) See Moonpool.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1538.) to isolate the section to be tested and a chamber to collect a sample of fluid. 1539. 202 Petroleum Engineer: M. The tool consists of a packer (q. drilling unit the acreage allocated to a well when a regulatory agency grants a well 1540.mzhelu@gmail. permit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1541. offshore drilling platform. 1543.v. Z. the bit is attached to the drillstem or drift column which rotates to "dig" the hole. DRILLING.com . DRILLING TENDER A barge-like vessel that acts as a supply ship for a small. a ship equipped with a derrick amidships for drilling wells in deep water.

). gasoline recovered from a drip (q. solution gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1545.mzhelu@gmail. 1548. water. 1546. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when a well is drilled into the reservoir it is as if a valve were opened to vent the pressure. 203 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Natural gasoline recovered at the surface of a well as the result of the separation of certain of the liquid hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas in the formation. 1550.v. drive bushing a special device to fit the rotary bushing and transmit torque to the kelly and simultaneously to permit vertical movement of the kelly to make hole. A reservoir is very much like a pressure vessel. drip accumulator DRIP GASOLINE (See accumulator. Also called the kelly bushing. and artificial drives (q. DRIP OILER DRIVE See Wick Oiler. 1547. The energy or force present in an oil reservoir which causes the fluid to move toward the wells borehole and up to the surface when the reservoir is penetrated by the drill. The drive bushing may be square or hexagonal to fit the rotary opening or have pins for transmitting torque. DRIP A small in-line tank or condensing chamber in a pipeline to collect the liquids that condense out of the gas stream. casinghead gasoline. There are several kinds of reservoir drives gas cap. Drips are installed in low places in the line and must be "blown" or emptied periodically. 1549.com .) in a field gas line. Z.v.

using power from the hoisting engines.com . (See carrier rig. 1552. DRIVE PIPE A metal casing driven into the borehole of a well to prevent caving of the walls and to shut off surface water. Early-day lease tanks were made of redwood in the shape of a truncated cone (nearly cylindrical). the hoops had to be driven to tighten the seams between the staves to prevent leaks. Their staves are held together with steel rods equipped with turnbuckles for keeping the tank watertight.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1551. 204 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. The drive pipe. 1553. thus the unit can be driven straight ahead to reach the wellhead. Today wooden tanks are used on leases to handle salt water and other corrosive liquids. See Casing. DRIVE THE HOOPS To tighten the staves of a wooden stock tank by driving the metal bands or hoops down evenly around the circumference of the tank.) 1554. first used in an oil well by Colonel Drake. was the forerunner of the modern 'conductor or surface pipe. DROWNING A colloquial term for the encroachment of water at the well bore into a formation that once produced oil but now produces more and more water. drive-in unit a type of portable servicing or workover rig that is self-propelled. Ale driver's cab and steering wheel are mounted on the same end as the mast support. Z. Metal bands like those on a wooden barrel held the staves together. Once a year or so. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

dry hole any well that does not produce oil or gas in commercial quantities. 1558.S. dry drilling a drilling operation in which no fluid is circulated back up to the surface (often resulting in lost circulation). 1559. gas. 1560. gal (200 liters) used to ship refined products. drum 1.mzhelu@gmail. the wellbore.) 1557. dry oil an oil that has been treated so that only small quantities of water and other extraneous materials remain in it. or even oil. Such vapors tend not to liquefy under the temperatures and pressures usually encountered in the reservoir or at the wellhead. However. but not enough to justify production. 2. a cylinder around which wire rope is wound before being attached to the drawworks. Z. dry well (See dry hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. dry gas a natural gas comprised primarily of light hydrocarbon vapors. a cylindrical steel container of 50 to 55 U. 2. the fluid is usually circulated into the well to cool the bit. A dry hole may flow water. (See blind drilling. gas from which water has been removed. 1556.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1555.) 205 Petroleum Engineer: M. dry string the drill pipe from which drilling mud has been emptied as it is pulled out of 1561.com .

often encountered in "dry holes." one installed on the sea bed or under water. DRYTREE A Christmas tree installed on land or above water as distinguished from a "wet tree. DRY-HOLE PLUG A plug inserted in a well that is dry to seal off the formations that were penetrated by the borehole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1563. 1565. DST Drill Stem Test. See Plugging a Well. 1567. This treatment prevents salt water. 1564. the operator solicits dry hole "contributions" and in return for financial assistance agrees to furnish certain information to the contributors. dry-bed dehydrator a collection of devices for removing water from gas in which two or more beds of desiccant are used. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A downhole test of the productive capacity of a well through drill pipe up to the surface to obtain samples of gases and fluids and determine their rate of sustained flow. Before the well is drilled. Z. DUAL COMPLETION The completion of a well In two separate producing formations. The wet gas is sent through one bed for drying while the other is prepared for later use." from contaminating other formations. 1566.mzhelu@gmail. DRY-HOLE MONEY Money paid by one or more interested parties (those owning land or a lease nearby) to an operator who drills a well that is a dry hole. 1568." providing useful information. each at different depths. Wells sometimes are completed in three or even four 206 Petroleum Engineer: M. The well whether successful or dry serves to "prove their land.com .

The tanks have no bottoms and rest on the sea floor supported on their rims.com . each at a different depth.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. underwater storage tank the shape of an inverted funnel. built by Chicago Bridge & iron for Dubai Petroleum Company.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering separate formations with four strings of tubing inserted in the casing. Stationary engines in the field have modifications made to their carburetors that permit them to operate either on gasoline or natural gas. Oil from fields on shore is pumped into the top of the tanks under pressure forcing the sea water out the bottom. and was almost as popular as the Burton still which was developed for Standard Oil Company of Indiana.) that seal off all formations except the one to be produced by a particular string of tubing. the engine is switched to natural gas automatically. This is accomplished with packers (q. 1 1570. 1571. CARBON PETROLEUM Mr. In some installations. 207 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. DUAL DISCOVERY A well drilled into two commercial pay zones. The offshore tanks which are more than 100 feet tall also serve as single-point moorings for tankers taking on crude. two separate producing formations. Z. Dubbs. DUBAI STORAGE TANKS A specially designed. DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Engines equipped to run on liquid as well as gaseous fuel. 1573. 1572. a petroleum chemist developed a cracking process that found wide acceptance in the 1920s. when the gasoline supply is used up. DUBBS.

operations. Any small pumping device used on construction jobs or other temporary 1577.) enters the injection string by its own pressure. dump bailer a bailing device with a release valve.v.mzhelu@gmail. 1579. 1576.v. usually of the disk or flapper type. DULLS DUMP Drill bits badly worn or have lost Inserts or have broken teeth. Z.e.). The water from the aquifer (q. DUMP GAS Gas delivered under a dump gets contract. The weight of the hydrostatic column (water column) produces the necessary force for it to penetrate the oil formation. 208 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1574. i. a gas purchase and delivery contract that does not call for the delivery of a specified amount of gas but which does call for delivery of surplus gas after meeting the terms of a firm gas contract. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pushing the oil ahead of it to the producing wells in the field. DUMP FLOODING An unusual secondary recovery technique that uses water from a shallow water bed above the producing pay to I food the oil-producing interval. 1578.. 1575. DUCK'S NEST Colloquial term for a standby drilling mud tank or pit used to hold extra mud. or as an overflow in the event of a gas "kick" (q.com . used to place or spot material (as cement slurry) at the bottom of the well.

DUMPBOX A heavy wooden or metal box where the contents of a cable-tool well's bailer are emptied. dump valve the discharge valve through which oil and water are discharged from separators.).com . DUSTER dutchman A dry hole. duplex pump a reciprocating pump having two pistons or plungers. a tool-joint pin broken off in the drill-pipe box or drill collar box. 1582. the portion of a stud or screw that remains in place after the head has inadvertently been twisted off. used extensively as a mud pump on drilling rigs. Z. a well that encounters neither gas nor liquid at total depth. mud. and so on. dump tank a calibrated metering tank designed to automatically release an accurate volume of liquid. dump meter a liquid-measuring device consisting of a small tank with narrowed sections at top and bottom that automatically fills and empties itself and records the number of dumps. also called a measuring tank. and rock cuttings to empty into the box and slush-pit launder (q. treaters. 1586. but may be a liquid-level controller as well. 2. 1585. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is usually a motor valve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1580. The end of the bailer is lowered into the box which pushes the dart upwards.v. 1581. 1. 1584. 1583. 209 Petroleum Engineer: M. unseating the ball valve and permitting the water.mzhelu@gmail.

1591. Generally.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1587. Dynaflex tool the trade name for a directional drilling tool that deflects the drilling assembly off vertical without having to be pulled from the hole. dynamometer 1. DYNAMIC STATIONING A method of keeping a drill ship or semisubmersible drilling platform on target. a device used to measure the brake horsepower of a prime mover. 1588.) activated by underwater sensing devices that signal when the vessel has moved a few degrees off its drilling station. 1592. thus eliminating the need to turn the entire drill stem to make hole. is used in straight and directional drilling. several motors called thrusters are located on the hull(s) of the structure and are actuated by a sensing system. 1589. This is accomplished by the use of thrusters (q. dwt Dyna-Drill deadweight ton.mzhelu@gmail. a downhole motor driven by drilling fluid that imparts rotary motion to a drilling bit connected to the tool. The device that causes the tool to be deflected can be caught and retrieved with a wireline. 2.com . Z. over the hole dying drilling operations where the water is too deep for the use of anchors. 1590. A computer to which the system feeds signals then directs the thrusters to maintain the rig on location.v. the dynamometer indicates a variation in 210 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. As applied to a sucker-rod pumping. The Dyna-Drill. dynamic positioning a method by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained in position over an offshore well location. a trade name.

the minerals. E.P. 211 Petroleum Engineer: M. it usually refers to the permission given by a landowner for a pipeline or access road to be laid across his property.mzhelu@gmail.com . 1593. an assignment of work that can be handled without much exertion.) by removing or producing 1600. A continuous record of the result of forces acting along the axis of the polished rod is provided on a dynamometer card. from which an analysis is made of the performance of the well-pumping equipment. Z. 1597.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering load on the polished rod as the rod string reciprocates. the study of living things and their relation to their environment. E9M3 EARNEST MONEY Billion cubic metres. 1595. 1599. 1596. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In the petroleum industry. 1598. 1594. hand money. EASY DIGGING Ecology ECONOMIC DEPLETION A soft job. LUBRICANTS Extreme pressure lubricating oils and greases which contain substances added to prevent metal to metal contact in highly loaded gears and turntables. A sum of money paid to bind a financial transaction prior to the signing of a contract. The reduction in the value of a wasting asset (q. Edge well a well on the outer fringes of a productive subsurface formation.v. Easement a right that one individual or company has on anther's land.

1608. Z. Elbow a fitting that allows two pipes to be joined together at an angle of less than 180'. Elastomers are highly resistant to chemical decomposition (hydrolysis) in the presence of hydrocarbons which make them desirable for use in the petroleum industry. 1 1603. valve seats. used in drilling reports.) 212 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1607. out fall.) 1605. machinery vibrationabsorber mounts. much more so than natural rubber. EFFLUENT The discharge or outflow from a manufacturing or processing plant. log electric log.com . (See electric well log. drainage. Edgewater Effective permeability the water that touches the edge of the oil in the lower horizon of a formation. etc. guides. The petrochemical industry has produced many types of elastomers that are used for gasket material. Effective porosity the percentage of the bulk volume of a rock sample that is composed of interconnected pore spaces that allow the passage of fluids through the sample. Elec. (See porosity. the permeability of a rock to a fluid when the saturation of the fluid is less than 100 percent. usually 90' or 45'.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. swab cups.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1601. 1606. ELASTOMER Any of various elastic materials or substances resembling rubber. 1604.

ELECTRIC TRACING Electric well log See Heat Tracing. Z. ELECTRIC WELL LOGGING The procedure of lowering electrical instruments into the well bore to lest the density and other characteristics of rock formations penetrated. From the results of the survey. 1615. It is also called an electric log or electric survey. 1612. ELECTRIC (WELL) LOG An electrical survey of a well's borehole before it is cased. Such a rig has an electric drive. made to identify the formations. Electric survey (ES) (See electric well log. 1610. a record of certain electrical characteristics of formations traversed by the borehole. Electric dehydration Electric drive Electric rig (See emulsion breaker.) (See electric rig.mzhelu@gmail. determine the nature and amount of fluids they contain. which reflects the degree of resistance of the rock strata to electric current. 213 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 1613. 1614.com .) a drilling rig on which the energy from the power source is distributed to the various rig components through electrical conductors as opposed to distribution by mechanical transmission. 1611. and estimate their depth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. geologists are able to determine the nature of the rock penetrated by the drill and some indication of its permeability.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1609.

. iron. (See dissociation.mzhelu@gmail. brought about by the passage of an electrical current through the compound or through the solution containing the compound. chemicals. cadmium. Electromotive force (emf) 1. 2. an electromotive force is produced. The following metals are so arranged magnesium. Corroding action of stray currents is caused by electrolysis. (See corrosion. and usually gas. water. Electromotive series a list of elements arranged in order of activity (tendency to lose electrons). Electrochemical treater Electrolysis (See electrostatic treater. beryllium. the voltage or electric pressure that causes an electric current to flow along a conductor. 1620. when dissolved in water. by using heat. aluminum. Z. chromium. silver. the force that drives electrons and thus produces an electric current. (See corrosion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. nickel. zinc. and gold. produced by grids placed perpendicular to the flow of fluids in the 214 Petroleum Engineer: M.g. magnesium and iron) are placed in an electrolyte and connected by a metallic conductor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1616. copper.) 1621. 1617.) 1618. This field. Electrostatic treater a vessel that receives emulsion flows and resolves the emulsion to oil. and a high-voltage electric field. If two metals widely separated in the list (e.) the decomposition of a chemical compound. thus increasing its electrical conductivity.) 1619. tin. dissociates into positive and negative ions. Electrolyte a chemical that.com .

Reserves. Elk Hills was set aside as a U. Elev.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering treater. Elevated tank Elevator balls Elevator links Elevators elevation. Some elements such as radium and uranium are radioactive. Elk Hills is a major part of the U.mzhelu@gmail. a vessel above a datum line (usually ground level). (See emulsion treating. used in drilling reports.) The electrostatic treater is also called the Chemelectric or electrochemical treater. ELK HILLS Located in the lower end of the San Joaquin Valley of California.S. oil reserve in 1909 by President Taft upon recommendation of the U. the linkage between the elevator and traveling block. Element one of more than 100 simple substances that consist of atoms of only one kind and that either singly or in combination make up all matter. Z.S. drill pipe. so that the stand can be raised or lowered into the hole. the simplest element is hydrogen. For example. of casing. 1626. tubing. 1624. and is classed as one of the world's giant petroleum fields. 215 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1628. 1625.S. 1623. or column. a set of clamps that grip a stand. aids in breaking the emulsion. 1622. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Geological Survey (USGS). and one of the most abundant elements is carbon. or sucker rods. Naval Petroleum Reserves. Teapot Dome in Wyoming and the North Slope in Alaska are two other large Naval Petroleum.com . a device that connects the tubing elevators and traveling block. 1627.

Emulsion a mixture in which one liquid. (2) chemical compounds.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1636. Emulsified water water so thoroughly combined with oil that special treating methods must be applied to separate it from the oil. is uniformly distributed (usually as minute globules) in another liquid. Emulsion breakers may be (1) devices to heat the emulsion. Emulsion breaker a system.) 1633. (3) mechanical devices such 216 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. 1630. 1631. 1634. water-oil emulsion also is used as a drilling fluid. A large identation of a coastline. In an oil-water emulsion. electromotive force. 1632. device. An embayed coastline. thus achieving separation by lowering the viscosity of the emulsion and allowing the water to settle out. A typical product of oil wells. or process used for breaking down an emulsion and rendering it into two or more easily separated compounds (as water and oil). Compare free water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1629. a bay. the oil is the dispersed phase and the water the dispersion medium. Elliptical tank EMBAYMENT Emf EMINENT DOMAIN a tank that has an elliptical cross section. termed the dispersed phase.com . called the continuous phase or dispersion medium. the reverse holds. The right of a government body or public utility (common carrier) to take private property for public use by condemnation proceedings (q.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. in a water-oil emulsion. thus uniting all the drops. which destroy weaken the film around each globule of water.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering as settling tanks and wash tanks. Such tests may range from elaborate distillation conducted in laboratories to simple and expedient practices used in the field. 1637. EMULSION TREATER A tall cylindrical vessel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. This is also called electric dehydration. 1 1641. depending upon what emulsion is being treated. 1639.com . or (4) electrostatic treaters. a heater-treater. 1638. Emulsion test a procedure carried out to determine the proportions of sediment and dispersed compounds in an emulsion. 217 Petroleum Engineer: M. each droplet surrounded or encased in a film of oil. which use an electric field to cause coalescence of the water globules. the surface tension of the film of oil is reduced sufficiently to free the water droplets. EMULSION. Z. Emulsion treaters have a gas-fired furnace at the bottom of the vessel to heat 'he stream of oil piped through from the well to the stock tanks. Emulsion treating the process of breaking down emulsions to separate oil from water or other contaminants. CRUDE OIL-WATER Very small droplets of water suspended in a volume of crude oil. Treating plants may use a single process or a combination of processes to effect demulsification. The water. through the application of heat or mixing with a chemical. When this occurs the small droplets join others to form larger ones which have enough mass or weight to settle to the bottom. a type of oil heater for "breaking down" oil-water emulsions with heat and the addition of certain chemicals. although heavier than oil.mzhelu@gmail. cannot settle to the bottom of the tank until.

1643. In the analysis of liquids such as gasoline. synthetic fuels (q. tides. solar. ENERGY SOURCES Petroleum. Exothermic is the reverse a process or reaction that once begun gives off beat. substances. wind.). customer. geothermal (q. ENDOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep it going. goods for consumer use finished products. 1645. END-O The command given by one worker to another or to a group to lift together and move an object forward. hydropower. coal. Encroachment END POINT (See water encroachment. consumption of a product by a commercial or industrial 1646. 1644. END PRODUCTS END USE Material.) The point indicating the end of an operation or the point at which a certain definite change is observed.mzhelu@gmail. a signal to "put out" in a big lift. the end point is the temperature at which the liquid ceases to distill over. End points are of value in predicting certain performance characteristics of gasoline. Ultimate use. 1647. 218 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1648.).com .v. nuclear. Z.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1642. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

). BTU per cubic foot dry natural gas.7 petroleum coke. residual fuel oil. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Sophisticated recovery methods for crude oil which go beyond the more conventional secondary recovery techniques of pressure maintenance and water-flooding. 1651.v. 5. miscible hydrocarbon. C02. Enhanced recovery a method or methods applied to depleted reservoirs to make them productive once again. which enhanced recovery is targeted to produce. 1652. Some fields require the application of one of the above methods even for initial recovery of crude oil. 6. 5. a certain amount of oil remains in the reservoir. 5. 1. gasoline. 110. steam drive. ENGINE HOUSE On a cable. kerosene. ENERGY VALUE OF PETROLEUM & PRODUCTS Million BTU per barrel crude oil.6. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.3.tool rig the engine house held the steam-powered drilling engine. 5. Z. 6. polymer.0. 1650. After an oil well has reached depletion. and steam soak.mzhelu@gmail.com . a test that determines the volatility of a gasoline by measuring the percentage of the gasoline that can be distilled at various temperatures. (See secondary recovery and tertiary recovery. Enhanced recovery methods now being used include micellar surfactant (q. 1653. fabric belt which transmitted power from the engine to the band wheel.031 wet gas. 1. HOT-PLUG Engler distillation See Hot-plug Engine. and asphalt. 1654. 6.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1649. EOR methods are not restricted to secondary or oven tertiary projects.) 219 Petroleum Engineer: M.8.6 distillate fuel oil. ENGINE.3. Attached to the engine house was the belt hall which housed the wide.

A thermodynamic property. Bradford could se11 its entitlement for crude-cost equalization to Gulf and Gulf would be required to buy them.e. those with a large supply of price oil. ENTITLEMENTS PROGRAM A program instituted in 1974 by the federal government to equalize the access to domestic crude by all U.com . it is the sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its pressure multiplied by its volume (i. 1657. For example.S. 1656. Gulf. ENRICHED-GAS INJECTION A secondary recovery method involving the injection of gas rich in intermediate hydrocarbons or enriched by addition of propane. Refiners With more price controlled oil than a calculated national average were required to buy entitlements.. Enthalpy the heat content of fuel.mzhelu@gmail. advantage to some refiners. the traditional supplier. if Gulf oil were the traditional supplier of crude oil to Bradford Refining Co. Z. In effect. H = U + pV). or pentane on the surface or in the well bore as the gas is injected. and Gulf had available a larger percent of Pricecontrolled oil than the national average and Bradford had Tees than the average. The reasoning was that disproportionate access to inexpensive domestic crude would cave an unfair. butane. refiners-crude oil which was price controlled substantially below world price.. The buying and selling of entitlement was between traditional slippers and purchasers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1655. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Refiners with a lower than average amount of price controlled oil could sell entitlement. The program's aim was to make available Controlled to each refiner the same fraction of low-priced oil. would pay to Bradford Refining a certain amount of money for each barrel of uncontrolled crude oil it had to buy in the world market 220 Petroleum Engineer: M.

but as a relatively small percentage of total flow.com . Z. 1662.). ENTRAINED OIL Oil occurring as part of the gas steam.lie oil company is known as equity crude.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1658. Special separators are used to remove the liquid from the gas stream. ENTRY POSITION A starting job with a company usually sought by young man or man and woman just out of school who wishes to get into the business at whatever level with the expectation of president in due time. The cost of equity crude is calculated according to the price. Environments of deposition EOR EPA EQUITY CRUDE (See depositional environment. 221 Petroleum Engineer: M. as opposed to buy-back (participation) crude. 1663. 1661. In cases where a concession is owned jointly by a host government and an oil company. See Buyback Crude Oil. 1660. 1659. Entropy a measure of the amount of energy used internally in a system and unavailable to do mechanical work. the crude produced which belongs to . 1664. or physical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Environmental Protection Agency. The complex concept of entropy carries implications of the randomness of any system. chemical. mechanical.mzhelu@gmail.) Enhanced oil recovery (q.v.

) Devices used on offshore drilling or production platforms for emergency escape of personnel in the event of a fire or explosion. et al. Escarpment a cliff or relatively steep slope that separates level or gently sloping areas of land. When the arms are snapped loose from the platform. 222 Petroleum Engineer: M. Erosion drilling the high-velocity ejection of a stream of drilling fluid from the nozzles of a jet bit to remove rock encountered during drilling. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1665. Sometimes sand or steel shot is added to the drilling fluid to increase its erosive capabilities. estimated. Et. (See electric well log. unnamed participants or interest holders in a deal or a contract. 1669. 1668.mzhelu@gmail. Erosion the process by which material (as rock or soil) is worn away or removed (as by wind or water). See Suspense Money. ESCROW MONEY Est. 1666. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1667. Z. made plural and used colloquially by oil men. And others. 1671. they fall outward. They consist of counterweighted arms supporting a buoyant hold. 1670. The workers then slide down a lifeline to the floating head. the head descending to the water. ES ESCAPE BOOMS electric survey.com .als.

A simple hydrocarbon associated with petroleum. Ethane is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions. a colorless liquid used as antifreeze and as a dehydration medium in removing water from gas.) 1675. Evaporation loss a loss to the atmosphere of petroleum fractions through evaporation. 1676. EVAPORATION PIT An excavation dug to contain oil field salt water or brine which is disposed of by evaporation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1672.) 1677. Z. Even keel on a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. Ethane a light hydrocarbon.) Evening tour 223 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1678. Great amounts of salt water are produced with crude oil in some oil fields. 1673. the balance when the plane of flotation is parallel to the design waterline. (See glycol dehydrator. (See tour. (See vaporization. 1674.).v. It is a gas at atmospheric conditions. that is. found in natural gas. ETHANOL Ethylene glycol Alcohol. 1679. when there is no heel to either side. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. particularly older ones. Evaporate a sedimentary rock (as gypsum or salt) that originates from the evaporation of seawater in enclosed basins.mzhelu@gmail.com . C2H6. usually while the fractions are in storage or in process. one component oil gasohol (q.

a process or reaction that requires the addition of heat to keep ft going. 1681. Excelsior a fibrous material used as a filtering element in the hay section of heaters or heater-treaters. Exhaust valve the cam-operated mechanism through which burned gases are ejected from an engine cylinder. Exchanger a piping arrangement that permits certain properties of one fluid to be transferred to another fluid as they travel counter current to one another. Endothermic is the reverse. cooling the oil and heating the well fluid. Exhaust manifold a piping arrangement. In the heat exchanger of an emulsion-treating unit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1680. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . 1683. heat from the outgoing clean oil is transferred to the incoming well fluid. immediately adjacent to the engine. 1684. Z. EXOTHERMIC Refers to a process or chemical reaction that gives off heat. 1682. EXPANSION FIT 224 See Shrink Fit. 1686. 1685. Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. that collects burned gases from the engine and channels them to the exhaust pipe. Expanded perlite is sometimes used in cement to increase its yield without changing its properties. Expanded perlite a siliceous volcanic rock that is finely ground and subjected to extreme heat. The resulting release of water leaves the rock particles considerably expanded and thus more porous.

A circular loop (360" bend) put in a Pipeline to absorb expansion and contraction caused by heating and cooling. 1688. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Expendable.) with a root made like a slip joint.v.com . cylindrical carrier. Expansion loop a full loop built into a pipeline to allow for expansion and contraction of the line. As the vapor above the crude oil or volatile product expands with the heat of the day. plat hookups where there are severe temperature changes. without exerting a strain on Pipe or valve connections. (See gun-perforate.retrievable gun a perforating gun that consists of a hollow. the roof-and-apron section of the tank gas to expand without any loss to the atmosphere. Upon detonation. After firing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1687. The telescoping roof as it moves up and down. Specially fabricated. maintains a gastight seal with the inner wall of the tank. into which are placed shaped charges.mzhelu@gmail.) 1691. Expansion joint a device used to connect long lines of pipe to allow the pipe joints to expand or contract as the temperature rises or falls. Expendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metal strip upon which are mounted shaped charges in special capsules. EXPANSION ROOF TANK A storage or working tank (q. nothing remains of the gun but debris. 1689. A section of piping constructed in such a way as to allow for expansion and contraction of the pipe connections without damaging the joints. Z. 1690. accordion-like fittings are used as expansion joints in certain in. debris created by the exploded 225 Petroleum Engineer: M.

including aerial and geophysical surveys. core testing. and the drilling of wildcats. geological studies. 1697. a well drilled in an area proven to be Productive. the gun cannot be reused. sophisticated research ship equipped with seismic gravit. Exploration activities include aerial surveying. however. a well drilled to permit more effective extraction of oil from a reservoir. Z. EXPLORATION VESSEL A seagoing. a wildcat. 1694. It is sometimes called a development well. See Infill Drilling. coring. 1696. Exploitation EXPLOITATION WELL the development of a reservoir to extract its oil.com . vessels of this type there are onboard Processing and interpretation capabilities for the information gathered as the vessel cruises on the waters of the Outer Continental Shelf around the world. and magnetic systems for gathering data on undersea geologic structures. (See gun-perforate. Exploration well Exploratory Well 1698. and drilling of wildcat wells. 1695. geological studies. geophysical surveying. On the more advances . A development well. 1693.mzhelu@gmail. 226 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 1692. EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES The search for oil and gas. A well in an area where petroleum has not been previously found or one targeted for formations above or below known reservoirs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Exploration the search for reservoirs of oil and gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering charges falls into the carrier and is retrieved when the gun is pulled out of the hole.

com . 1702. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1704.mzhelu@gmail. EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING Using an explosive charge in the bottom of the well to fracture the formation to increase the flow of oil or gas. for certain jobs. It also is called a gas sniffer. EXPLOSIVE WELDING A method of welding is which a shaped explosive charge is used to "fastexpand" the end of a section of pipe into the bore of a special steel sleeve to form a solid bond. EXTENSION TEST See Outpost Well. is more desirable than fusion welding in which both pieces of metal must be heated to a high temperature. pressure-tight bond. See Well Shooter. 1701. EXPLOSION-PROOF MOTORS A totally enclosed electric motor with no outside air in contact with the motor windings. Explosimeter an instrument used to measure the concentration of combustible gases in the air. Extender a substance put in drilling mud to increase viscosity without adding clay or other thickening material. 1700. This welding technique creates little heat which. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1699. 1703. When the charge is detonated the force expands the pipe's outer circumference forcibly to the sleeves inner circumference making a secure. Cooling is by conduction through the frame and housing. 227 Petroleum Engineer: M. The shaped charge is inserted into the end of the pipe over which the sleeve is placed. an enclosed brushless motor.

Compare internal up. set. 228 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1706. gas. it may be expanded against the wall of the borehole hydraulically or by fluid pressure from the well. Often used downhole in conjunction with cementing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. External cutter a fishing tool containing metal-cutting knives that is lowered into the hole and over the outside of a length of pipe to cut it. 1711. The severed portion of the pipe can then be brought to the surface. Z. 1707.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1705. EXTERNAL CASING PACKER A device used on the outside of a well's casing to seal off formations or to protect certain zones. 1709. 1708. to inspect carefully. Externally upset pipe does not have a uniform diameter throughout its length but is enlarged at each end. Extrusive rocks EYEBALL igneous rocks formed when lava poured out on the earth's surface. External phase External upset (See continuous phase) an extra-thick wall at the threaded end of drill pipe or tubing. The packer is run on casing and when at the proper depth.com . Extraction plant a plant equipped to remove liquid constituents from casinghead gas or wet 1710. To align pipe connections or a temporary construction with the eye only.mzhelu@gmail.

1713. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 1714. facies part of a bed of sedimentary rock that differs significantly from other parts of 1715. The chuck is held in alignment against the pipe end by a Hydraulically actuated mandrel inserted into the pipe similar to internal line-up clamps used to align pipe for welding. Z. in which 321 represents the freezing point and 212" the boiling point of water at standard sea-level pressure. FAIL-SAFE Said of equipment or a system so constructed that. bonnets and packing glands cast separately and assembled. FACING MACHINE. 229 Petroleum Engineer: M. in the event of failure or malfunction of any part of the system. the bed. FABRICATED VALVE (See Fahrenheit scale.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1712. 1716. devices are automatically activated to stabilize or secure the safety of the operation. The facing machine essentially is a revolving disc-chuck holding a number of cutting tools. Fahrenheit degrees may be converted to centigrade degrees by using the following formula 'C = 5/9 ('F .32) 1717. PIPE A device for beveling or putting a machined face on the ends of large diameter line pipe. Most valves are steel Castings with bodies.) A type of valve or other fitting that is built and welded together from wrought iron and forged steel pieces to make a particularly strong high-pressure valve. F degree Fahrenheit. The facing machine is transported and brought into position by a modified boomcat.com . Fahrenheit scale a temperature scale devised by Gabriel Fahrenheit.

1720.S. 1722. Coast Guard in Federal offshore waters. FAIRLEAD A guide for ropes or lines on a ship to prevent chafing. is considered detrimental to the drillstring. Permanent structures such as drilling and production platforms are prohibited in a fairway which significantly curtails oil activity in some offshore areas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1718. 1719. Some large floating platforms have anchor lines made up of lengths of chain and cable. farm boss an oil company supervisor who controls production activities within a limited 230 Petroleum Engineer: M. FAIRWAY A shipping lane established by the U. by some authorities. Z. however. as reduced weight on the bif causes more tension on the drill. a sheave supported by a bracket protruding from the cellar deck of a semisubmersible drilling platform over which an anchor cable runs. 1723. Fanning the bottom. resulting in pipe and collar fatigue. 1721. pipe. fairleader a fitting or device used to maintain or alter the direction of a rope or chain so that it leads directly to a sheave or drum without causing undue friction. FANNING THE BOTTOM (OF THE BOREHOLE) Drilling with very weight on the drill bit in the hope of preventing the bit from drifting from the vertical and drilling a crooked hole. area.mzhelu@gmail. Fann V-G meter a device used to record and measure at different speeds the flow properties of plastic fluids (as the viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids).com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

" 1729. See Farm-out Agreement. regardless of the results of exploratory wells. FARM-OUT FARM-OUTAGREEMENT The name applied to a leasehold held under a farm-out agreement (q. FARMER'S SAND A colloquial term for "the elusive oil-bearing stratum which many landowners believe lies beneath their land. Often farm-ins are negotiated to assist the original owner with development costs and to secure for the buyer a source of crude or natural gas. usually one-eighth of the produced oil free of any expense to the landowner. The assignor may or may not retain an interest (royalty or production payment) in the production. 231 Petroleum Engineer: M. FARM-IN An arrangement whereby one oil operator "buys in" or acquires an interest in a lease or concession owned by another operator on which oil or gas has been discovered or is being produced. 1725. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.). 1726. fast line the end of the drilling line that is affixed to the drum or reel of the drawworks. FARMER'S OIL An expression meaning the landowner's share of the oil from a well drifted on his property royalty.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1724. 1728. A form of agreement between oil operators whereby the owner of a lease who is not interested in drilling at the time agrees to assign the lease or a portion of it to another operator who wishes to drill the acreage. 1727. Z.v.com . so called because it travels with greater velocity than any other portion of the line.

1731. Often strata on one side of the fault line have been displaced (upward. fathom a measure of ocean depth in countries using the English system of measurement. FAT OIL The absorbent oil enriched by gasoline fractions in an absorption plant. FEA FEDERALLEASE Federal Energy Agency An oil or gas lease on Federal land issued under the Act of February 25. 1737. fault plane fault trap a surface along which faulting has occurred a subsurface hydrocarbon trap created by faulting. 1733. or laterally) relative to their original positions. 1732. Z. downward.83 m. 1920. fatigue the tendency of a metal under repeated cyclic loading to break at a stress considerably less than its tensile strength as indicated in a static test. 1735. 232 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1730. 1734.com . which causes an impermeable rock layer to be moved opposite the reservoir bed. equal to 6 ft or 1.mzhelu@gmail. the gasoline is removed by distillation ' leaving the oil "lean" and ready for further use to absorb more gasoline fractions from the natural gas stream. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. After absorbing the gasoline fractions. fault a break in subsurface strata. 1736. and subsequent legislation.

Z. 1743. short for "owned in fee. 1745. 1747. landowner's royally.com . FEE The title or owner ship of land. FEE ROYALTY FEE SIMPLE feed off The lessor's share of oil and gas production. The feed-off rate is the speed with which the cable is unwound from the drum. A pipe. a lathering fine lied into a trunk line. or tubing coupling with the threads on the inside. stringy material of threadlike structure used to prevent loss of circulation or to restore circulation in porous or fractured formations. 1740." The owner of the fee holds title to the land. any tough. 233 Petroleum Engineer: M. FEEDER LINE FEMALE CONNECTION FERC FHACJOB fibrous material A pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1741. 1739. See Hydraulic Fracturing.mzhelu@gmail. Land or an estate held by a person in his own right without restrictions. FEED OR FEEDSTOCK Crude oil other hydrocarbons that are the basic materials for a refining or manufacturing process. rod. 1744. 1746. to lower the bit continuously or intermittently by allowing the brake to disengage and the drum to turn.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1738. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1742.

g. Appalachian MidContinent. field processing the processing of oil and gas in the field before delivery to a major refinery or gas plant. An oil field may include one or more pools. separation of water from oil and from gas. Some refineries are capable of using field butanes as 10 to 15 percent of charge stock. hexane. Some of the early prolific fields were. FIELD The area encompassing a group of producing oil and gas wells. Gulf Coast. and others-are separated. 234 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1748. East Texas.com . a pool. FIELD COMPRESSION TEST FIELD POTENTIAL A test to determine the gasoline content of casing-head or wet gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. including separation of oil and gas. A roughly contiguous grouping of wells in an identified area. propane. and have wells producing from several different formations at different depths. In order to establish a field allowable for prorationing purposes by a state regulatory commission. a field it was necessary to set equitable production levels.mzhelu@gmail. the product of gas processing plants in the field. Large areas that used to be designated as fields are now identified as districts. Seminole. Cushing. 1750. and West Texas. 1752. and removal of liquid hydrocarbons. Oklahoma City. 1749. Rocky Mountain and Permian Basin. The producing capacity of a field during a 24-hour period. Z. FIELD BUTANES A raw mix of natural gas ids. 1751. e. Raw mix streams are sent to fractionating plants where the various components-butane.

a porous medium through which a fluid is passed to separate it from material suspended in it. 1756. to pump drilling fluid into the wellbore while the pipe is being withdrawn in order to ensure that the wellbore remains full of fluid even though the pipe is withdrawn. Filling the hole lessens the danger of blowout or of caving of the wall of the wellbore. 1760. See Differential-pressure Sticking. fluid in hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1757. filter loss the amount of fluid that can be delivered through a permeable filter medium after being subjected to a differential pressure for a specified time. 1755.com . Z. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. The buildup of "cake" can cause serious drilling problems including the sticking of the drillpipe.). FILTER CAKE A plaster-like coating on the borehole resulting from the solids in the drilling fluid adhering and building up on the wall of the hole.v. 1761. 1758. 1759. FIELDTANKS FIH fill the hole Stock tanks (q. filler material filter a material added to a cement or cement slurry to increase its yield. field Pump a pump installed in a field to transfer oil from a lease tank to a central gathering station near a main pipeline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1754. 235 Petroleum Engineer: M.

A drilling-mud quality measured by putting a water-base mud through a filter cell. final squeeze pressure fine the fluid pressure at the completion of a squeeze-comenting operation. The mud solids deposited on the filter is filter cake (q. the upper ends of the tubing stands that are pulled from the well and set back (q.) in the derrick. 1772. 1763.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1762. FINES Minute particles of a solid substance rock. Z. (See mud. in orderly fashion. FINGER BOARD A rack high in the derrick made to support. the process of filtering a fluid. and that must be removed by screening. coat. 1 1770. Mud mixtures with low water loss are desirable for most drilling operations.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) and is a measure of the water-loss quality of the drilling mud. 1 1765. 1773. 236 Petroleum Engineer: M. the escape of the liquid part of a drilling mud into permeable formations.v.com . or catalytic material-too small to be used or handled efficiently. 1 1768. a fragment or particle of rock or mineral that is too minute to be treated as ordinary coarse material.) a fluid that has been passed through a filter.mzhelu@gmail. filter press filtrate filtration filtration loss FILTRATION-LOSS QUALITYOF MUD a device used in the testing of physical properties of drilling mud. 1766. 1771.

See Channel. in situ combustion. 1781. fire wall a structure erected to contain petroleum or a petroleum-fed fire in case a storage vessel ruptures or collapses. the temperature at which a petroleum product burns continuously after being ignited. fire fire flood FIRE FLOODING fire point to start and maintain the Fire in a boiler or heater. Z. 1 1776.com .). 1779. 1780. Rivulet-like infiltration of water or gas into an oil-bearing formation as a result of failure to maintain reservoir pressure. (See flash point. 1782. FINGER PIER A jetty or bridge-type structure extending from the shore out into a body of water to permit access to tankers and other vessels where water depth is not sufficient to allow docking at the shore. See In Situ Combustion.) 1783. Usually a dike is built around a petroleum storage tank and a steel or stone wall put up between the prime movers and the oil pumps in a pipeline pumping station. 1 1778. 237 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. fingerboard FINGERING a rack that supports stands of pipe being stacked in a derrick or mast.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1774. or as the result of taking oil in excess of maximum efficiency rates (MER) (q.v.

FIRM GAS Gas required to be delivered and taken under the terms of a firm gas purchase contract. tack welded in position. Ahead of the firing line or the "front end. and other fitting's made to withstand an accidental fire in a plant or process unit. will not be damaged to the extent that they will leak and thereby add to the emergency. At the front end the pipe is lined up end-to-end by sideboom tractors. and then a root run or first pass or course of metal is laid on by a welder. Such valves and flanges have metal gaskets and staffing boxes with specially formulated fire resistant packing or are fitted with metal-to-metal seals. Z. when subjected to fire from whatever cause. 1787.). Fire-trimmed valves.v. 1785. 238 Petroleum Engineer: M. Compare motorman. FIRING LINE In pipeline construction. 1786. 1788. flanges." there may be some preparatory or alignment welding. the part of the project where the welding is being done. Fish An object lost (or stuck) in the wellbore obstructing operations. The firing line is where two or more filler Passes and the final or cap pass are made. brought into perfect alignment by internal line-up clamps. the member of the crew on a steam-powered rig who is responsible for care and operation of the boilers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. FIRE-TRIMMED (VALVES AND FLANGES) A designation for valves.mzhelu@gmail. FIRE-WATER SUPPLY fireman A pond or tank containing water used exclusively for fire-fighting. 1789.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1784. Firm gas is priced higher than dump gas (q.com . This is true for extra-large diameter pipe.

harpoon-like tools which are forced into the end of a section of tubing. small slips. Although there are scores of standard tools used in fishing jobs. tall into the well. there are overshots with internal lugs or teeth which are forced over the end of lost pipe. 1792. fishing tool FISHING TOOLS a tool designed to recover equipment lost in the well. Z. There a variety of spears. Special instrument used in recovering objects lost in a well. cable. See Captured Bolt 1 1796. Many special and ingeniously designed fishing fools are used to recover objects lost downhole. and junk baskets for retrieving smaller objects such as lost drill bit cones. it is still useful in drilling soft formations. 1794. and other steel.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1790. First used when the rotary system of drilling was developed about 1900. pipe. 1791. also called a drag bit. Fishing FISHING JOB Operations to recover a fish. lugs. wedges or dogs-that can come loose. some are specially designed to retrieve particular objects. FISHPROOF Describes an item of equipment used in or over the well's borehole without parts-screws. casing or drill-pipe. nondrillable objects. and have to be fished out. The effort to recover tools. 1793. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. or other objects from the well bore which may have become detached while in the well or been dropped accidentally into the hole. 239 Petroleum Engineer: M. fishtail bit a drilling bit with cutting edge's of hard alloys.

com .mzhelu@gmail. used in drillingreports. tees. Small pipes (nipples). 1805. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. fissure FITTINGS a crack or fracture in a subsurface formation. unions. an indicator of wind direction used when drilling or performing a workover where hydrogen sulfide (sour) gas may be encountered.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1798. to attach a piece of cloth to the wire rope to enable the operator to estimate the position of the swab or bailer in the well. CATALYST A catalyst in a reactor vessel through which the liquid being treated drips or percolates through the bed of catalyst material. fl flag abbr. 1. 2. A secondary recovery operation where four input or injection wells are located in a square pattern with the production well in the center. 2. flowed or flowing. In other methods. in swabbing or bailing. FITTINGS. the catalyst is mixed thoroughly with the feed stock as it is pumped into the reactor vessel. The water from the tour injection wells moves through the formation flooding the oil toward the production well. a piece of cloth. a layout similar to a five-of-spades playing card. 1802. FIXED-BEP. 1803. swages used to make up a system of piping. elbows. Z. couplings. TRANSITION FIVE-SPOT WATERFLOOD PROGRAM See Transition Fittings. or nylon strand used to mark the wireline when swabbing or bailing. 1 1800. rope. 240 Petroleum Engineer: M. to signal or attract attention. 1804. 1. 1801.

in the event of lightning or other ignition of the venting vapor. Z. FLAME SNUFFER An attachment to a tank's vent line that can be manually operated to snuff out a flame at the mouth of the vent line a metal clapper-like valve that may be closed by pulling on an attached fine. with their open flames encased in a finemesh screen. FLAMBEAU LIGHT A torch used in the field for the disposal of casing-head gas produced with oil when the gas is without a market or is of such small quantity as to make it impractical to gather for commercial use. could be used in a gassy mine. FLAG THE LINE To lie pieces of cloth on the swab line at measured intervals to be able to tell how much fine is in the hole when coming out with the line. will prevent the flame from to the vapor inside the tank. FLAME ARRESTOR A safety device on a vent line of a storage or stock tank that. 241 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1808.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1810. The vapor venting from the tank may be ignited but the flame will not flash through the fine screen into the tank. the tank flame arrestor is effective for the same reason the fine screen "breaks up" and cools the flame at the surface of the screen preventing the ignition of the vapor behind the screen. 1807. Just as the old-fashioned miners lamps.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1806. The use of flambeau lights is now regulated under state conservation laws. Flame arrestors have a "membrane" of fine-mesh screen across the vent opening.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

eliminating the need for casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1811. FLAMMABLE (INFLAMMABLE) Term describing material which can easily be ignited. flange union a device in which two matching flanges are used tojoin the ends of two sections of pipe. Each half is screwed or welded to a length of pipe and the two halves are then bolted together joining the two lengths of pipe. flanged orifice fitting a two-piece orifice fitting with flanged faces that are bolted together." 1 1817. flange up 1.) of 80. FLANGE (1)A type of pipe coupling made in two halves. 2. to use. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. flanges to make final connections on a piping system. The use of the word "inflammable" which means flammable but thought by some people to mean nonflammable has fallen into disuse because of the confusion and the potential hazard of someone mistaking the prefix "in" for "non. 1812.mzhelu@gmail. 242 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 1814." 1813. 1815. FLAME-JET DRILLING fling technique that uses rocket fuel to burn a hole through rock strata. "They flanged up the meeting and went home.v. This leaves a ceramic-like sheath on the walls of the borehole. (slang) to complete any operation as.'F. Z. (2) A rim extending out from an object to provide strength or for attaching another object. or lower are classed as flammable. Petroleum products with a flash point (q.

SMOKELESS FLASH CHAMBER gas or vapor that is flared.mzhelu@gmail. Z. FLASH OFF flash point To vaporize from heated charge stock. flash set flex joint a premature thickening or setting of cement slurry that makes it unpumpable. 1824. FLARE (1)To burn unwanted gas through a pipe or stack. 1819.) (2) The f lame from a flare.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1818. 1823. the temperature at which a petroleum product ignites momentarily but does not burn continuously. 1825. a device that provides a flexible connection between the riser pipe and the subsea blowout preventers. 1 1821. Compare fire point. 1 1827. A refinery vessel into which a process stream is charged or pumped and where lighter products flash off or vaporize and are drawn off at the top. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (Under conservation laws. See Smokeless Flare. the flaring of natural gas is illegal. By accommodating lateral movement of a mobile offshore drilling rig. the pipe or the stack itself. flare gas FLARE. to distill. 1822. flex joints help to prevent a buildup of abnormal bending load pressure.com . The remaining heavier fractions are drawn off at the bottom of the vessel. 243 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1828. heavy. heavy equipment. inserted one or two joints above the bottom of the casing string. Flexible couplings dampen vibration and provide a way to make quick hook ups of engines and pumps which is useful in field operations. float switch a switch in a circuit that is opened or closed by the action of a j7oat and that maintains a predetermined level of liquid in a vessel. cylindrical steel section with a rounded bottom. (2) The buoyant element of a fluid-level shut off or control apparatus. flat-bed trailer the front end of which rests on a truck. actuating other devices as the liquid level rises and falls. FLEXIBLE COUPLING A connecting link between two shafts that allows for a certain amount of misalignment between the driving and driven shaft without damage to bearings. 1829. The float collar also prevents a backflow of cement during the cementing operation. 1833. An airtight canister or sphere that floats on liquids and is attached to an arm that moves up and down. that contains a check valve to permit fluid to pass downward but not upward through the casing.com . attached to the bottom of the casing string. 244 Petroleum Engineer: M. the rear end on two dual-wheel axles. FLOAT (1)A long. 1832. float shoe a short. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. float collar a special coupling device. allowing the casing to float during its descent and also decreasing the load on the derrick. Floats are used in the oil fields for transporting long. Z.mzhelu@gmail. It contains a check valve and functions similarly to the float collar but also serves as a guide shoe for the casing. 1 1831. The float collar prevents drilling mud from entering the casing while it is being lowered.

Oil may thus enter or leave the tank as pumping rates in the main line vary.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1834. float valve FLOATER a drill-pipe float.g.com . Z. 1839. Use of a floating roof eliminates vapor space above the liquid in the tank and conserves light fractions of the liquid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a floater. (1) A barge-like drilling platform used in relatively shallow offshore work. a tank covering that rests on the surface of a hydrocarbon liquid in the tank and rises and falls as the liquid level rises and falls. floating tank a tank with its main gate valve open to the main line at a station. (See floater.) floating offshore drilling rig floating roof 1837. 1835. 1836. semisubmersibles Drill ships. The buoyant effect of the hollow column 245 Petroleum Engineer: M. e.(2) Any offshore drilling p14tform without a fixed base. The roof rests on a series of pontoons whose buoyancy supports the roof proper. 1838. Drill barges. FLOATING ROOF TANK A storage tank with a flat roof that floats on the surface of the Oil thus reducing evaporation to a minimum. 1840.mzhelu@gmail. In floating the hole is filled with fluid and the casing is plugged before being lowered into the hole. FLOATING THE CASING A method of lowering casing into very deep boreholes when there exists the danger of the casing joints because of the extreme weight or tension on the upper joints.

1846. 1841. floodable length the length of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig that may be flooded without its sinking below its safety or margin line. 1842. 1843. to drive oil from a reservoir into a well by injecting water under pressure into the reservoir formation. Micellar-surfactant Flooding. but three or more are used on most rigs. 1844. to drown out a well with water. FLOODING. When the casing is in place.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of casing displacing the fluid reduces the weight and the tension on the upper joints. flocculation a property of contaminants or special additives to a drilling fluid that causes the solids to coagulate. a drilling crew member whose work station is on the derrick floor. 1847.com . usually a few inches below the freeboard deck.) 2. (See water J7ood. FLOODING The use of water injected into a production formation or resevoir to increase oil recovery. Members-of the drilling crew (usually two) who work on the derrick floor. Tertiary Recovory. 246 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1845. there are at least two floormen on each crew. On rotary drilling rigs. floorman See Dump Flooding. See Secondary Recovery. flood 1. DUMP FLOOR MEN. the plug is drilled out. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.

A drilled plug in the flow line at the wellhead that controls the oil flow to desired rate. 1854. FLOW NIPPLE A choke. flow FLOW BEAN a current or stream of fluid.com . etc. a heavy steel nipple put in the production string of tubing that restricts the flow of oil to the size of the orifice in the nipple. 9/64 in. paper chart on which flow rates are recorded by an actuated arm and pen of a flow meter. e.mzhelu@gmail. flotation cell a large. A replaceable. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cylindrical tank in which water that is slightly oil-contaminated is circulated to be cleaned before it is disposed of overboard or in a disposal well. Flow Line Subsea pipeline connecting satellite wells and/or platforms to a central production platform. 16/64 in. usually a device such as a bubble tower is installed in the cell to permit the introduction of gas into the water. Flow beans are drilled with different-sized holes for different flow rates. It is usual to report a new well's production as a flow of a certain number of barrels per day through a choke of a certain size. 1 1853. a flow plug.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1849.g. Since oil droplets cling to rapidly rising gas.. 1850. flow by heads FLOW CHART to produce intermittently.. 1855. 1851. 1856. Z. 247 Petroleum Engineer: M.

FLOW. FLOW TANK A single unit that acts as an oil and gas separator. Z. it provides a motor spirit of 10-15 octane numbers higher than that of the thermally cracked product.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1857. an oil heater. The fluid end of a reciprocating pump is accessible by removing the cylinder heads which exposes the pistons or pump plungers. production string. also Turbulent Flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.he pump cylinders are located. Catalytic cracking is regarded as the successor to thermal cracking as it produces less gas and highly volatile material. A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crude. naphthas or other intermediates in the presence of a catalyst. 1861.com . 1862. Inserting smaller liners and pistons permits pumping at higher pressure but at a reduced volume. pay string.mzhelu@gmail. 1 1860. capital string. Also Oil string. FLOW STRING The string of casing or tubing through which oil from a well flows to the surface. FLUID END (OF A PUMP) The end of the pump body where the valves (suction and discharge) and . 248 Petroleum Engineer: M. PLASTIC FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING UNIT See Plastic Flow. 1863. FLOW SHEET A diagrammatic drawing showing the sequence of refining or manufacturing operations in a plant. The process is also more effective in producing isoparaffins and aromatics which are of high antiknock value. 1858. and an oil and water treater. The cylinders or liners in most pumps are removable and can be changed for others with larger or smaller internal diameters.

com . and actuate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. control. Oils or compounds formulated for the purpose of removing used oil. decomposed matter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1864.mzhelu@gmail. the well. 1867. Fluidics is defined as "engineering science pertaining to the use of fluid-dynamic phenomena to sense. FLUIDICS Pertains to the use of fluids (and air) in instrumentation. and sludge from lubricating passages and engine parts. FLUID LEVEL The distance between the wellhead and the point to which the fluid rises in 1865. This buildup of mud solids can result in stuck pipe. 1869. FLUID LOSS A condition downhole in which a water-base drilling mud loses water in a highly permeable zone causing the solids in the drilling fluid to build up on the wall of the borehole." Fluidics provide a reliable system far less expensive than explosion-proof installations required with electrical instrumentation on offshore rigs. FLUXING To soften a substance with heat so that it will flow. to lower a substance's 249 Petroleum Engineer: M. which often arises when the hydrostatic head or mud pressure is consider ably higher than the formation pressure. metal cuttings. 1866. fusing point. process information. 1868. FLUSH PRODUCTION FLUSHING OILS The high rate of I low of a good well immediately after it is brought in. Z.

1875.com . and that the performance of lessee's covenants shall be excused when the failure of production or performance of covenants is owing to causes set forth in the clause. and other contingencies over which the lessee has no control. earth's crust. compliance with federal. FOLDING Buckling or other deformation of rock strata caused by movement of the 1871. 1 1873. FOOT-POUND A unit of energy or work equal to the work done in raising one pound the height of one foot against the force of gravity. Sometimes the price per foot changes as the well progresses and different formations are encountered. FORCE MAJEURE CLAUSE A lease clause providing that cessation or failure of production shall not cause automatic termination of the leasehold. state.v. FOOTAGE CONTRACT A contract for the drilling of a well in which the drilling contractor is paid on a footage basis as the well is taken down.) used on the "fool" or lower end of a suction pipe riser to maintain the column of liquid in the riser when the liquid is being drawn upward by a pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1870. wars. burns crude oil during testing operations. adverse weather.mzhelu@gmail. 1874. or municipal laws. 250 Petroleum Engineer: M. FORCED DRAFT BURNER Crude oil disposal equipment on offshore platforms. FOOT VALVE A type of check valve (q. Such clauses usually list acts of God. mounted on a boom or an extension of the deck. The burner. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. strikes. 1876.

formation boundary the horizontal limits of a formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Gas. not taxes creditable in the U. The pump has one horizontal barrel and a plunger attached to a vertical handle.mzhelu@gmail. one-cylinder pump for moving limited amounts of liquid. hand-operated. reduced crude. fore and aft FOREIGN TAX CREDIT the lengthwise measurement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. FORCEPUMP A barrel pump a portable. attached to a fulcrum at the base of the pump.com .S. government. company with a foreign government or one of its agencies represents oil royalty payments. Production sharing by a U. 1885. actuates the plunger 1 1880. When moved back and forth. according to the Internal Revenue Service. FORMATION A sedimentary bed or series of beds sufficiently alike or distinctive to form an identifiable geological unit. air and water manifolded with the test-crude stream result in complete combustion of the oil. Taxes paid a foreign government by a U.S. pumping out sump pits. the handle. 1884. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.S. 1 1878. 1 1883. 251 Petroleum Engineer: M. or intermediates are processed. 1881. or transferring oil or water from one small tank to another.S. FOREIGN TRADE ZONE An area in the United States where imported oil. company on its overseas oil operations that are creditable against taxes owed the U.

1889. alcohol. or similar materials are carried in suspension by the fluid into the fractures. 252 Petroleum Engineer: M. formation damage the reduction of permeability in a reservoir rock caused by the invasion of drilling fluid and treating fluids to the section adjacent to the wellbore. It is also called reservoir pressure or shut-in bottomhole pressure. glass beads. a method of stimulating production by increasing the permeability of the producing formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1888. oil. Under extremely high hydraulic pressure. When the pressure is released at the surface. dilute hydrochloric acid. The fluid enters the formation and parts or fractures it. or foam) is pumped downward through tubing or drill pipe and forced into the perforations in the casing.mzhelu@gmail.com . Sand grains. liquefied petroleum gas. 1891.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1887. Z. recorded in the hole at the level of the formation with the well shut in. This process is often called a frac job. leaving channels for oil to flow through them to the well. It is often called skin. These are called propping agents or proppants. Formation Density Log formation dip formation fracturing a trade name for density log. and the fractures partially close on the proppants. formation pressure the pressure exerted by fluids in a formation. aluminum pellets. the angle at which a formation bed inclines away from the horizontal. the fracturing fluid returns to the well. A fluid (as water. 1890.

Z. a plastic. (See acidize.com . 1894.) 1896. (See connate water.e. formation water formic acid the water originally in place in a formation. gradually exposing the formation to atmospheric pressure and allowing the well to produce to the surface. valves or ports that may be opened and closed from the surface. 1895. stronger than acetic acid but much less corrosive than hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. formation strike the horizontal direction of a formation bed as measured at a right angle to the dip of the bed. 253 Petroleum Engineer: M. a number of facts about the formation may be inferred.mzhelu@gmail. A port on the tool is opened to allow the trapped pressure below the packer to bleed off into the drill pipe. blended oils. From a record of the pressure readings. and a pressure-recording device. It is usually used for high-temperature wells. 1893.) a simple organic acid used for acidizing oil wells. where the well fluids may be sampled and inspected. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1892. FORMULATION The product of a formula. Incorporated in the drill-stem testing tool are a packer. formation testing the gathering of data on a formation to determine its potential productivity before installing casing in a well. The tool is lowered to bottom on a string of drill pipe and the packer set. isolating the formation to be tested from the formations above and supporting the fluid column above the packer. gasolines any material with two or more components or ingredients. i. The conventional method is the drill stem test..

Fossil energy by implication is the energy derived from sedimentary beds containing the fossilized remains of marine plants and animals. 1903.. natural gas. FOUR-CYCLE ENGINE An internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four strokesintake.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1897. and coal.mzhelu@gmail. four-way drag bit a drag bit with four blades. and exhaust-for each complete cycle. power. Z. The Ottocycle engine. and thus oil. 1900. the first casing or conductor string (generally with a diameter of 30 to 36 in. forward ad fossil in the direction of the bow on offshore drilling rigs. and coal were derived from organisms living in eons past. 1 1899.com . 1902. four-stroke cycle engine. FOSSIL ENERGY Energy derived from crude oil. the remains or impressions of a plant or animal of past geological ages that have been preserved in or as rock. gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. compression. It prevents sloughing of the ocean-floor formations and is a structural support for the permanent guide base and blowout preventers. FOSSIL FUEL foundation pile See Fossil Energy. also shale oil and oil recovered from tar sands.) set when drilling a well from an offshore drilling rig. 1901. 1 1905. (See big and fishtail bit.) 254 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or tubing consisting of four joints screwed 1907.mzhelu@gmail. the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission which has taken over the duties and responsibilities of Federal Power Commission along with other agencies in the field of energy. casing. 1 1911. together. Z. 1909. a regulatory body having to do with oil and gas matters such as pricing and trade practices. fourble a section of drill pipe. 1913. (See double board and thribble board. (See formation fracturing. fourble board the working platform of the derrickman (the monkeyboard) when it is located at a height on the derrick approximately equal to four lengths of pipe joined together. FP FPC flowing pressure. used in drilling reports. Methane is the predominant fraction in natural gas.com .) one component of a mixture of hydrocarbons. 255 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1912.) 1908. an agency of the Federal government. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1906. Federal Power Commission. frac frac job fraction fractured. As of 1977 the FPC has been superceded by the FERC.

) fractionating column a vessel or tower in a gas plant in which fractionation occurs. The acid acts on certain kinds of rocks. either natural or induced. fractionate. distillation. 1921. cylindrical refining vessel where liquid feedstocks are separated into various components or fractions. fractionate to separate single fractions from a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1 1915. fracture fracture acidizing a crack or crevice in a formation.) A Canadian chemist who developed a process for the use of sour crude for making kerosene. fracturing fracturing FRASCH. 1919. HERMAN (See formation fracturing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . 1920. a procedure by which acid is forced into a formation under pressure high enough to cause the formation to crack. 1922. usually carbonates. FRACTIONATOR A tall. 1918. (See 1917. usually by 1916.mzhelu@gmail. The frasch process opened the market for sour crude from Ohio and Canada just when it was thought the production from Pennsylvania 256 Petroleum Engineer: M.) (See formation fracturing. Compare matrix acidizing. to increase the permeability of the formation.

1927. an accurate measurement of its stretch is transmitted to the surface. world prices. boat. or floating off shore drilling rig. free water the water produced with oil. 1925.mzhelu@gmail. Z. Price. free-point Indicator a tool designed to measure the amount of stretch in a string of stuck pipe and to indicate the deepest point at which the pipe is free. freeboard the vertical distance between the waterline and the freeboard deck on a ship. 257 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and West Virginia fields had peaked and the country was running low on sweet crude for kerosene and gasoline. See Posted 1924.com . It usually settles out within rive minutes when the well fluids become stationary in a settling space within a vessel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Compare emulsified water. The free point indicator is lowered into the well on a conducting cable. FREE MARKET PRICE Oil prices not subject to controls by the government. free-water knockout (FWKO) a vertical or horizontal vessel into which oil or emulsion is run in order to allow any water not emulsified with the oil (free water) to drop out. The stretch measurements indicate the depth at which the pipe is stuck. as increasing strain is put on the pipe. Each end of a strain gauge element is anchored to the pipe wall by friction springs or magnets. a royalty interest. 1926. 1923. 1928. and. FREE RIDE An interest in a well's oil and gas production free of any expense of that production.

1932. FREEZE BOX An enclosure or a water pipe riser that is exposed to the weather. As the fluid moves through the pipe. Z. When friction is present. FREON A trademark applied to a group of halogenated hydrocarbons. heat is produced. 1936. earth-moving or cutting scoop with curved runners or supports on the sides. 1931. friction loss a reduction in the pressure of a fluid caused by its motion against an enclosed surface (as a pipe). 1930. A type. 1935. having one or more florine atoms in the molecule. and a single long handle used to guide the scoop blade into the earth or material being moved.mzhelu@gmail. a refrigerant. 1933. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .) fresh water freshwater mud FRESNO SLIP water that has little or no salt dissolved in it. of horse-drawn. friction resistance to movement created when two surfaces are in contact. (See mud. friction between the 258 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1934. The freeze box or frost box surrounding the pips is filled with sawdust manure or other insulating materia1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1929. freeboard deck the uppermost continuous deck on a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig equipped with a permanent means of closing all openings to the water.

cubic feet per pound. 1943. FROSTUP Icing of pipes and flow equipment at the wellhead of a high-pressure gas well. feet per second. 1937. causes moisture in the atmosphere to condense and freeze on the pipes. foot. feet per minute. the greater the losses are. 1947. foot-pound. 1948. 1944. cubic feet per day. 1949. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ft ft-lb ft/min ft/s ft2 ft3 ft3-lb ft3/bbl ft3/d 1940. Z. The cooling effect of the expanding gas.mzhelu@gmail. 259 Petroleum Engineer: M. as pressure is reduced.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid and the pipe wall creates a pressure loss. square foot. 1 1942. 1 1939. The faster the fluid moves. cubic feet per barrel. 11946.com . cubic foot.

cubic feet per minute. FUELOIL Any liquid or liquefiable petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace. a wellbore drilled with a full-gauge bit. 1959. the displacement of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship when floating at its deepest design draft. or for the generation of power in an engine. ran or other fitting whose opening is as large in cross section as the pipe. a mechanical device that sprays fuel into a cylinder of an engine.com . full-gauge bit full-gauge hole full-load displacement a bit that has maintained its original diameter. 1955.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1950. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100"F 1956. FULL BORE Designation for a valve. 1 1953. used extensively in diesel engines and to some extent in spark-ignition engines. 1954. 1958. FUEL-AIR RATIO The ratio of fuel to air by weight in an explosive mixture which is controlled by the carburetor in an internal combustion engine. casing or tubing it is mounted on. Z. 1951.mzhelu@gmail. ft3/s ftl/min fuel injector cubic feet per second. 1957. 260 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 261 Petroleum Engineer: M. a liquid aldehyde. 1968. FWKO free-water knockout. 2 heating oil. Two oil. 1964. FURFURAL An extractive solvent of extremely pungent odor. light gas oil that can be used as diesel fuel and for residential heating. 1967. production.. i.mzhelu@gmail. fungible relating or pertaining to petroleum products with characteristics so similar that they can be mixed together. funnel viscosity viscosity as measured by the Marsh funnel.e. used extensively in refining a wide range of lubricating oils and diesel fuels. FUSIBLE PLUG A fail-safe device. 1966. a meltable plug. transportation. clay-like substance used in certain types of oil filters. a plug in a service line equipped with a seal that will melt at a predetermined temperature releasing pressure that actuates shut. 1 1963. 1961. down devices.000 cm' of drilling fluid to flow through the funnel. or commingled. distillate fuel. Said of a company engaged in all phases of the oil business.com . 1965. refining. FURNACE OIL No. FULLER'S EARTH FULLY INTEGRATED A fine. See Integrated Oil Company.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1960. Z. based on the number of seconds it takes for 1. marketing.

gallons per minute. is equal to approximately 1. M. The imperial gallon. used in drilling reports. 262 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1970. g G&OCM and oil-cut mud. 1977. gallon (gal) a unit of measure of liquid capacity that equals 3. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. by moving contact with a bearing without sufficient lubrication. P.34 lb at 60 F. 1978. gallon. as a shaft journal. gas- 1971. gal. To chafe by friction and heat as two pieces of metal are forcibly rubbed together in the absence of lubrication. Z. 1 1974. variation of gauge. To damage or destroy a finished metal surface.A . 1975.2 U.785 liters and has a volume of 231 in.mzhelu@gmail.3' A gallon of water weighs 8.com .S. G .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1969. Geological Society of America. gram.000 cubic feet of natural gas produced. gage gal gal/min GALL Gallons of gasoline per 1. G. 1972. 1976.S . used in Great Britain.

mzhelu@gmail. 1982. 1983. 1985. Z. 1980.com . and which indicate the relative densities of the surrounding rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A well-logging technique wherein a well's borehole is bombarded with gamma rays from a gamma ray emitting device to induce output signals that are then recorded and transmitted to the surface. highly penetrating X ray emitted by radioactive substances during their spontaneous disintegration. a device that is capable of sensing and measuring the amount of gamma particles emitted by certain radioactive substances. 1981. The gamma ray signals thus picked up indicate to the geologist the relative density of the rock formation penetrated by the well bore at different levels. Gamma-Gamma Density Log gamma-ray detector a trade name for a density log. The measurement of gamma particles (sometimes called gamma rays) is the basis for a number of radioactivity welllogging methods. gamma particle a short.) 263 Petroleum Engineer: M. GAMMA RAY LOGGING GAMMA RAY-GAMMA RAY LOGGING See Natural Gamma Ray Logging. gamma-ray log (See radioactivity well logging. 1984.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1979. GAMMA RAY Minute quantities of radiation emitted by substances that are radioactive. Subsurface rock formations emit radiation quantum that can be detected by well-logging devices.

device for the bottom-hole separation of oil and gas in a pumping well. gang pusher the supervisor of a roustabout crew or a foreman in charge of a pipeline crew.com . GANG PUSHER A pipeline foreman. 1988. or garbutt rod a short rod on the lower end of the traveling valve of a rod pump. The gas anchor (a length of tubing about 5 feet long) is inside a barrier pipe with perforations at the upper end. 1987. the gas breaks out of the fluid and exits the anchor through perforations near the top.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1986. being lighter than oil. Oil in the annulus between the well's casing and tubing enters 264 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1989. which has an opening near the bottom. all or most of the gas escapes before the fluids enter the pump. garbutt ROD garbot.mzhelu@gmail. In this way. Z. perforated device attached to the bottom of a sucker-rod pump that helps to prevent gas lock. the man who runs a pipeline or a connection gang a pusher. The remaining fluids enter the pump through a mosquito bill (a tube within the anchor). GANG TRUCK A light or medium-sized flat-bed truck carrying a portable doghouse or man rack where the pipeline repair crew rides to and from the job. gas oil contact the point or plane in a reservoir at which the bottom of a gas sand is in contact with the top of an oil sand. gas anchor a tubular. It is attached to the standing valve and used to pull the valve out of its scat when repairs are needed. The device works on the principle that gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. rises. As well fluids enter the anchor. 1990. The pipeliners toots are carried in compartments beneath the bed of the truck.

acetylene bottles are shorter and somewhat larger in diameter. 1991. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Gas drive is also used in a form of secondary recovery. white oil. GAS BOTTLES The cylindrical containers of oxygen and acetylene used in oxyacetylene welding. Oxygen bottles are tall and slender with a tapered top. GAS BUSTER A drilling mud/gas separator. Also casinghead gasoline.) the use of the energy that arises from gas compressed in a reservoir to move crude oil to a wellbore. Z. gas drilling (See air drilling. The use of gas as a drilling fluid. GAS CONDENSATE Liquid hydrocarbons present in casinghead gas that condense upon being brought to the surface formerly distillate. See Distillate. the gas goes out through the casing to the wellhead. RETROGRADE GAS DISTILLATE GAS DRILLING gas drive See Retrograde Gas Condensate. in which gas is injected into input wells to sweep remaining oil to a producing well. 1992. 1997. a surge chamber on the mud-flow line where entrained gas breaks out and is vented to a flare line. 265 Petroleum Engineer: M. 1 1996. 1994. the gas-free mud is returned to the mud tanks or mud pits.com .mzhelu@gmail. GAS CONDENSATE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the perforations and is picked up by the pump. now condensate. 1998. See Air Drilling. 1993.

GAS INJECTION Natural gas injected under high pressure into a producing reservoir through an input or injection well as part of a pressure maintenance. GAS INJECTION WELL A well through which gas under high pressure. the higher formation pressure forces the fluid out of the wellbore. Z.mzhelu@gmail. The gas is pumped into the hole and at the lower end of the tubing it becomes a part of the fluid in the well. or recycling operation. Gas may be injected continuously or intermittently. GAS KICK GAS LIFT 2004. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Hundred of thousands of stripper wells are pumped by small gas engine. 266 Petroleum Engineer: M. A method of lifting oil from the bottom of a well to the surface by the use of compressed gas. secondary recovery. Injected gas aerates the fluid to make it exert less pressure than the formation does. As the gas expands. Before the electrification of oil fields.com . all pumping wells and small pipeline booster stations were powered by stationary gas engines. See Kick. 2003. is injected into a producing formation to maintain reservoir pressure. gas lift the process of raising or lifting fluid from a well by injecting gas down the well through tubing or through the tubing-casing annulus. it lifts the oil to the surface. 2000. 2 2002. attended by lease pumpers who not only are practical machanics but are experienced production men as well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 1999. consequently. GAS ENGINE A two or four-cycle internal combustion engine that runs on natures gas a stationary field engine.

effectively blocks the gravity flow of oil. GAS METER. Z.65 psia at a temperature of 60 F. The gas prevents the oil from flowing into chambers and must be vented or bled off. If the gas pressure is sufficient. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. condition that can exist in an oil pipeline. GAS LOCK a condition sometimes encountered in a pumping well when dissolved gas. consequently.com . GAS LIQUIDS See LPG. MASS-FLOW See Mass-flow Gas Meter. STANDARD A method of measuring volumes of natural gas by the use of conversion factors of standard pressure and temperature. sold and transported. the standard temperature is 60'F One standard cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14. no fluid enters the tubing. GAS MEASUREMENT. the standing valve is "locked" shut and. because of its compressibility and penchant for collecting in high places in the line. The gas. 2007. natural gain. at any temperature and pressure can be converted to standard cubic feet.65 pounds per square inch. when elevated sections of the line are filled with gas. 2006. released from solution during the upstroke of the plunger.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering depending on the producing characteristics of the well and the arrangement of the gas-lift equipment. 267 Petroleum Engineer: M. the measurement by which gas is usually bought. appears as free gas between the valves. Using the conversion table. Gas lock can also occur in suction chambers of reciprocating pumps. 2005.mzhelu@gmail. The standard pressure is 14.

A gas plant separates desirable hydrocarbon components from the impurities in natural gas. Gas Reservoir A rock stratum that forms a trap for the accumulation of crude oil and natural 2012. permits more or less gas to flow through a pipeline and thus controls the pressure.) Petroleum Engineer: M. gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed to prepare it for sale to consumers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z.com . indicating the presence of a gas 2015. gas turbine 268 (See compressor. GAS SNIFFER A colloquial term for a sensitive electronic device that detects the presence of gas or other hydrocarbons in the stream of drilling mud returning from downhole. by opening and closing in response to pressure. fluid returns. gas regulator an automatically operated valve that. gas. 2 2010.mzhelu@gmail. 2016. the gas that appears in drilling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2008. stone from which natural gas is obtained. 2 2014. a predetermined pressure. gas sand gas show a stratum of sand or porous sand. 2011. zone. A pressure-reducing device on gas take-off piping that can be set to deliver a supply of gas a. For example a regulator can be adjusted to permit a flow of gas at a pressure of 8 or 10 ounces per square inch from a gas main carrying 100 pounds per square inch.

2022. gas-cap drive drive energy supplied naturally (as a reservoir 269 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Unconventional Natural Gas. See Oxyacetylene Welding. The allowable is transferable to another lease in the same field. The shutting in of the gas-cap producer preserves the reservoir pressure which is essential to good production practice.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2017. INTERRUPTIBLE GAS. gas well GAS. 2018. 2020. 2024. Wells drilled into the oil zone cause a release of pressure which allows the compressed gas in the cap to expand and move downward forcing the oil into the well bores of the producing wells. also Associated Gas. 2021. 2019. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS. UNASSOCIATED GAS. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS-CAP ALLOWABLE a well that primarily produces gas. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. A production allowable granted an operator who shuts in a well producing from a gas cap of an oil-producing reservoir. See Unassociated Gas. 2023. GAS-CAP DRIVE The energy derived from the expansion of gas in a free state above the oil zone which is used in the production of oil.com . See Interruptible See Liquefied Petroleum Gas. GAS WELDING Welding with oxygen and acetylene or with oxygen and another gas.

GAS-LIFT GAS Natural gas used in a gas-lift program of oil production. sometimes causing loss of circulation. so when the combined gas is stripped of petroleum liquids only the formation gas is credited with the recovered liquids. 2027. the gas will expand forcing the oil down-dip and into the well bores. (See reservoir-drive mechanism. GAS-CAP FIELD A gas-expansion reservoir in which some of the gas occurs as free gas rather than in solution. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The free gas will occupy the highest portion of the reservoir. When wells are drilled to lower points on the structure. gas-cut mud a drilling mud having entrained formation gas that gives the mud a characteristically fluffy texture. This is necessary for oil and gas royalty purposes. its cost per thousand cubic feet (MCF) is considerably less. gas-input well a well into which gas is injected for the purpose of maintaining or supplementing pressure in an oil reservoir. And because it is a "working gas" as opposed to commercial gas. 2026. Z. Lift gas is usually first stripped of liquid hydrocarbons before it is injected into the well. gas-cut mud often must be treated to lessen the chance of a blowout. 2028. The gas forms bubbles in the drilling fluid seriously affecting drilling operations.) 2025. Because a large amount of gas in mud lowers its density.mzhelu@gmail.com . Gas lift and commercial gas commingle when produced. 270 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is produced) by the expansion of gas in a cap overlying the oil in the reservoir. Drilling mud aerated or charged with gas from formations downhole.

expressed in cubic feet per barrel or cubic meters per metric ton. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2030. 2033. gas-lift mandrel a device installed in the tubing string of a gas-lift well onto which or into which a gas-lift valve is fitted. gas-oil ratio (GOR) is a measure of the volume of gas produced with oil. Thus. the gas-lift valve is installed as the tubing is placed in the well. There are two common types of mandrels. Well pressure is supplemented at intervals along the 271 Petroleum Engineer: M. except by a costly secondary recovery program. A high gas-to-oil ratio is extremely undesirable because the pressure in a reservoir. gas-transmission system the central or trunk pipeline system by means of which dry natural gas is transported from field gathering stations or processing plants to the industrial or domestic fuel market. whatever the volume of gas measured at the well that is produced per barrel of oil. Tubing and casing pressures cause the valve to open and close thus allowing gas to be injected into the fluid in the tubing to cause the fluid to rise to the surface. 2031. the valve is installed and removed by wireline while the mandrel is still in the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. is being depleted. however. the tubing string must be pulled.mzhelu@gmail. GAS-OIL RATIO The number of cubic feet of natural gas produced with a barrel of oil. In the sidepocket mandrel. a great percentage of the oil may not be recoverable. eliminating the need to pull the tubing to repair or replace the valve.com . In the conventional gas-lift mandrel. 2032. gas-lift valve a device installed on a gas-lift mandrel. to replace or repair the valve. the propulsive force to move the oil in the formation to the boreholes. The ratio is expressed 5001 or 10001. which in turn is put on the tubing string of a gas-lift well. And with the reservoir pressure gone.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering transmission line by compressors to maintain a strong enough flow to move the gas to its destination. cork.' a motor fuel. GASIFICATION Converting a solid or a liquid to gas. or of specially formulated rubber. 2038.com . gasket a material (as paper. GASOHOL A mixture of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent alcohol. fibrous material used to make the union of two metal parts pressure tight. or rubber) used to seal two essentially stationary surfaces. converting a solid hydrocarbon such as coal or oil shale to commercial gas. 272 Petroleum Engineer: M. Gasohol was first marketed in the late 1970s as a way to stretch available gasoline stocks by using surplus agricultural products to make ethanol or grain alcohol. Drilling Mud. gas in a free state above an oil zone. asbestos. thin. Ready-made gaskets are sheathed in very thin. 2034. or they may be made exclusively of metal. the manufacture of synthetic gas from other hydrocarbons See Synthetic Gas. GASBOX Colloquial term for a mud-gas separator at a drilling well. soft metal. 2037. See Degassing 2035. gas cap a free-gas phase overlying an oil zone and occurring within the same producing formation as the oil. Z. (See reservoir. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GASC AP The portion of an oil-producing reservoir occupied by free gas.) 2036.mzhelu@gmail.

2044.a well that produces natural-gas. 2046. 2 2042. RAW See Marine White gasoline. As natural gas enters the combustion chamber it is ignited. 2 2048. 2043. The untreated gasoline cut from the distillation of crude oil natural gasoline. diesel fuel. A rotary engine whose power is derived from the thrust of expanding gases on blades or vanes on a spindle within the body of the engine. GATE Short for gate valve.com . a gasoline similar to motor fuel but lower in octane and highly unstable. spark-ignition engines. and as it instantaneously expands. often used as 2040. 273 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2039. Z. natural-gas well. GASOLINE. GASOIL A refined fraction of crude oil somewhat heavier than kerosene. combustion. GASOLINE PLANT A compressor plant where natural gas is stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons usually present in wellhead gas. common term for all pipeline valves. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE. causing rotation of the spindle furnishing power to an attached pump or compressor. flammable liquid hydrocarbon refined from crude oils and used universally as a fuel for internal. it creates a powerful thrust that is directed against the vanes of the turbine. 2045. gasoline a volatile.mzhelu@gmail. GASSER GASTURBINE A commercial.

e. used in gathering crude oil from the field to a main pipeline. gas. GATHERING FACILITIES Pipelines and pumping units used to bring oil or gas from production leases by separate lines to a central point.mzhelu@gmail. Some valves have stems. 2050. BACKFLOW A type of swing-check valve made so the clapper's position may be changed from open to closed by an externally mounted handle. usually of small diameter. When the clapper is closed (resting on its seat in a normal position). GATE VALVE A pipeline valve made with a wedge-shaped disk or "tongue" which is moved from open to closed (up to down) by a threaded valve stem. fluid can flow in the opposite direction.com . Z. 2053.v. Other valves have a rising stem (q. raising the disk and opening the valve. GATE. i. raising the disk to open position. The valve stem is threaded and when the threaded valve wheel is turned the stem rises through the wheel. or a trunk pipeline. when open (raised from its seat by the handle). a tank farm. 2052. The handle is attached to the clapper's fulcrum shaft which protrudes through the side of the valve body.. gathering line a pipeline. fluid can flow in one direction only.) which firmly attached to the wedge. or both from wells to a central point-the gathering station-where there is the accessory equipment required to deliver a clean and salable product to the market or to 274 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2051. which remain in the valve bonnet (do not rise) and when they are rotated by the valve wheel screw into the disk.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2049. gathering system the pipelines and other equipment needed to transport oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

and similar equipment. and associated equipment. emulsion treaters. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.).com . sparking material or sheathed in a durable plastic. (See undergauge bit. The tip of the bob is point zero on the gauge column. outage gauge. abbreviated as psig (pounds per square inch gauge). Z. 275 Petroleum Engineer: M. through which the tank may be gauged and oil simples taken. gathering tanks. with a bob attached.mzhelu@gmail. An oil-gathering system includes oil and gas separators. GAUGE.) 2056. to use a bit gauge to check the size of the bit. innage gauge. 2057. A gas-gathering system includes regulators. See Hitch.v. 2 2055. Gauge pressure. compressors. gauge 1. 2. GAUGE HATCH An opening in the roof of a stock or storage tank.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering another pipeline. to measure the quantity of oil in a tank. fitted with a hinged lid. gauge pressure the amount of pressure exerted on the interior walls of a vessel by the fluid contained in it (as indicated by a pressure gauge). 2058. plus atmospheric pressure equals absolute pressure. held in a frame equipped with handle and winding crank used in gauging the liquid level in tanks. See Gathering Facilities. dehydrators. To prevent striking sparks. A reel of steel measuring tape.).v. 2059. TICKET A run ticket (q. the bob is made of brass or other non. GAUGE HOLE GAUGE LINE A gauge hatch (q. 2060.

2066. He samples and tests the crude oil to determine quantity and quality. the opening in a tank or other vessel through which measuring and sampling are performed.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2062. used in drilling reports.) 2068. 'They are sometimes called strapping tables. records the temperature. gauger a pipeline representative for the sale or transfer of crude oil from the producer to the pipeline. gauging tape GC a metal tape used to measure the depth of liquid in a tank. gauging tables tables prepared by engineers to show the calculated number of barrels for any given depth of liquid in a tank. gas cut.mzhelu@gmail. 2063. checks the sediment content. 2064. "buys" the tank of oil for his company. A gasger the pipeline company's agent and. flexible-steel tape with a plumb bob at the end to measure the oil in the tank. makes out a run ticket. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2067.). GAUGETANK GAUGETAPP gauging hatch A tank in which the production from a well or a lease is measured. 2065. and turns the oil into the pipeline. (See strap. FIELD A person who measures the oil in a stock or lease tank. in effect. GAUGER. 2069. 276 Petroleum Engineer: M. and uses a calibrated. Z.com . Gauge line (q.v.

The enclosure or case containing a gear train or assembly of reduction gears.com . Z. (See gel strength and thixotrophy. gel strength a measure of the ability of a colloidal dispersion to develop and retain a gel form.) 277 Petroleum Engineer: M. based on its resistance to shear. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. jellylike state assumed by some colloidal dispersions at rest. Sometimes bentonite and other colloidal clays are added to drilling fluid to increase its gel strength. GC M GEARBOX gas-cut mud. of a drilling mud determines its ability to hold solids in suspension. gel cement a cement or cement slurry that has been modified by the addition of 2 2076. or shear strength. When agitated. and thixotrophy. GEARPUMP GEL See Pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2070. 2071. A viscous substance. Gelling agents are mixed with water or light oil to form an emulsion that will carry a quantity of sand for various well workover procedures. a semisolid. bentonite. shearometer.mzhelu@gmail. the gel converts to a fluid state.) 2074. The gel strength. Gear. used in drilling reports. 2073. the case containing a pump's pinion and ring gears. 2072. (See gel. a jelly-like material used in well stimulation and formation fracturing to suspend sand or other proppants in the fracturing medium.

Silurian. the most recent era. Mississippian. Ordovician. geochemistry has proved to be an important adjunct to geology and geophysics in exploratory work. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Pennsylvanian and Permian. By analyzing the contents of subsurface water for presence of organic matter associated with oil deposits. 2 2081. Dividing these eras are periods. the Paleozoic Era represents the oldest rocks whose ages are 225 to 600 million years old the next title next era is the Mesozoic with rocks 75 to 225 million years old. has rocks from the present to 75 million years old. Devonian.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2077. Z.v. GEOCHEMICAL PROSPECTING Exploratory methods that involve the chemical analysis of rocks and subsurface water for the presence of organic matter associated with oil and gas deposits 2078. GEOLOGIC COLUMN The vertical range of sedimentary rock from the basement rock (q. GEOCHEMISTRY The science of chemistry applied to oil and gas exploration. GEOLOGIC ERAS GEOLOGIC PERIODS GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE See Geologic Time Scale. the Cenozoic. GEODESY The branch of science concerned with the determination of the size and shape of the earth and the precise location of points on the earths surface. surface. 2084. 2079.mzhelu@gmail.) to the 2082. Beginning with the they are Cambrian. According to authorities in the study of the earth.com . 2083. all 278 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Geologic Time Scale.

fracturing faulting (the place where the strata have fractured and slipped by one another) are geological structures that often form structural traps that are logical places to find accumulations of oil and gas .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering in the Paleozoic Era. Geologic time scale the long periods of time dealt with and identified by geology. GEOLOGIST. Geologic time is divided into eras (Cenozoic. Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. which are subdivided into periods and epochs. it is assigned a place in the scale and thereafter referred to as Mesozoic rock of the Triassic period and so on. A petroleum geologist. In the youngest era Cenozoic are the Tertiary and Quaternary. and running tests. geologist a scientist who procures and interprets data pertaining to the strata of the earth's crust. In contrast to a hard-rock geologist. 2087. Mesozoic. the interpretation of 279 Petroleum Engineer: M. In addition to deciding on location to drill he may supervise the drilling.and water.com . particularly with regard to coring. and Precambrian). Z. is primarily concerned with sedimentary rocks where most of the world oil has been found. Geologists have divided the Quarternary Period. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Cambrian. logging. Folding. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE Layers of sedimentary rocks which have been displaced from their normal horizontal position by the forces of nature. In the Mesozoic Era are the Triassic.a person trained in the study of the earth's crust. HYDRODYNAMICS A geologist specializing in the study of the mechanics of fluids in underground formations. In general the work of a petroleum geologist consists in searching for structural traps favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas. His work involves analysis of the test data. 2086. 2085.mzhelu@gmail. When the age of a type of rock is determined. identifying the earlier epoch of the Quarternary Period as Pleistocene.

GEOLOGY The science that deals with the history of the earth and its life as recorded in 2090. origin.) Geophones are often called jugs. (See seismograph.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering fluid pressure from drilling wells and well logs. A series of geophones are placed on the ground at intervals to detect and transmit. Z. geophone an instrument that detects vibrations passing through the earth's crust. and applying his findings to the solution of problems associated with oil and gas well exploration and development. used in conjunction with seismography. In addition to providing living quarters and a store of 280 Petroleum Engineer: M. formations.sensitive sound detecting instruments used in conducting seismic surveys. geology the science that relates to the study of the structure.mzhelu@gmail. Geolograph a trade name for a patented device that automatically records the rate of penetration and depth during drilling. the reflected sound waves created by explosions set off in the course of seismic exploration work. and fossils. history. 2089. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GEOLOGRAPH A device on a drilling rig to record the drilling rate or rate of penetration during each 8-hour tour. GEOMETRY OF A RESERVOIR A phrase used by petroleum and reservoir engineers meaning the shape of reservoir of oil or gas. 2088. 2093. to an amplifier-recording system. GEOPHYSICAL CAMP Temporary headquarters Established in the field for geophysical teams working the area. and development of the earth and its inhabitants as revealed in the study of rocks.com . the rocks. 2 2092.

placing explosive charges. the camp has facilities for processing geophysical data gathered on the field trips. Z. 2099. geothermal gradient the increase in the temperature of the earth that follows increasing distance from the surface. the behavior of electric currents-to the science of geology. 2097. geopressure abnormally high pressure exerted by some subsurface formations. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The deeper the formation lies. the higher the pressure it exerts on a wellbore drilled into it. 2094. setting out or stringing geophones.mzhelu@gmail. geosyncline a part of the earth's surface that sank over a long period of time. Geophysical Survey Searching and mapping the subsurface structure of the earth's crust using geophysical methods (e.g. GEOPHYSICAL TEAM A group of specialists working together to gather geophysical data. It averages about 1 F per 60 ft but may be considerably 281 Petroleum Engineer: M. Thousands of feet of sedimentary and volcanic rock were formed in it over millions of years.com . forming a trough hundreds of miles long and tens of miles wide. gravitational pull. 2095. seismic) to locate probable reservoir structures capable of producing commercial quantities of natural gas and/or crude oil. detonating shot charges.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering supplies. Their work consists of drilling shot holes. GEOPHYSICS The application of certain familiar physical principles-magnetic attraction. 2098. 2096. speed of sound waves. and reading and interpreting the results of the seismic shocks set off by the explosive charges.

geothermal reservoir 1. Found in deposits in Utah. Z. and coke.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering higher. The rate of increase in geothermal temperature is approximately one degree Fahrenheit for each 55 feet of depth or more than 1OO'F. a subsurface layer of rock that is hot but contains little or no water. geronimo Gilsonite (See safety slide. turn to steam at the surface. 2.mzhelu@gmail. 282 Petroleum Engineer: M.e. superheated water from deep in the earth. fuel oil. 2101. to generate steam to power turboelectric generators. 2 2104. a subsurface layer of rock containing steam or hot water that is trapped in the layer by overlying impermeable rocks. when treated and refined. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION The use of underground.The increase in temperature of the earth the deeper a hole is drilled. uintaite. Geothermal reservoirs are a potential source of energy. i. 2100.) a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon belonging to the asphalt group. yields gasoline. In very deep wells.A solid hydrocarbon with the general appearance of coal. lustrous form of asphalt that.. per mile of hole. natural heat sources. the bottom-hole temperature is so hot (400 to SOO'F) that special drilling mud formulations must be used. Plain water cannot be used because the water in the returning drilling mud would vaporize. 2102. A granular form of Gilsonite is sometimes used as a cement additive to prevent lost ciruculation. a black.

girt none of the horizontal braces between the legs of a derrick. spanning the crown block. 2107. a device used to form a seal around a reciprocating or rotating rod (as in a pump) to prev6nt fluid leakage.). 2108. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. a supporting member. 2111. gin-pole truck a truck equipped with hoisting equipment and a pole or arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy machinery. (2) A vertical frame on the top of the derrick. B B GIRBITOL PROCESS A process used to "sweeten" sour gas by removing the hydrogen sulfide 2109. used in drilling reports. gimbal a mechanical frame that permits an object mounted into it to remain in a stationary or near stationary position regardless of movement of the frame. 2106.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2105. providing a support for hoisting. (H2S). 2110. Z. Gimbals are often used offshore to counteract undesirable wave motion. GIRT One of the braces between the legs of a derrick.com . 283 Petroleum Engineer: M. (3) A mast (q.mzhelu@gmail. GL gland ground level. GIN POLE (1) An A-frame made of sections of pipe mounted on the rear of a truck bed that is used as a support or fixed point for the trucks winch line when lifting or hoisting.

moves a mating part downward onto a ground seat that is integral to the valve body. Also a missile dropped into the well bore to detonate an explosive charge or to jar a downhole tool into operation. and wire brushes used to clean the inside of a pipeline of accumulations of wax. ethylene glycol. Z.a scraper with self-adjusting spring blades that is pumped through a pipeline to clear away accumulations and deposits. which heats the wet glycol to remove the water from it so it can be recycled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2112. Usually a glycol unit includes a tower. plug-like device equipped with scraper blades. globe valve (See valve. to drop or pump a device down a borehole. go in the hole GO-DEVIL to lower the drill stem into the wellbore.com . 2118. rust. sand.)A type of pipeline valve that shuts off as the stem. glycol 1. any of the large class of dihydroxy alcohols (as propylene glycol). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2. and water. rotated by the hand wheel. 2 2117. the go-devil is pushed along by the oil pressure.A facility for removing minute particles of water from natural gas not removed by the separator. When inserted in the line. glycol dehydrator a processing unit used to remove all or most of the water from gas. usually through the drill pipe or tubing. rollers. and a reboiler. in which the wet gas is put into contact with glycol to remove the water. A pipeline scraper. 2113.mzhelu@gmail. 284 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2115. a cylindrical.

"the well has gone to water"). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GOOSENECK A nipple in the shape of an inverted U attached to the top of the swivel (q. GOR governor gpm gr graben Gas-oil ratio (q. gone to water pertaining to a well in which production of oil has decreased and production of water has increased (e. 2120.v. Z. 2127. 2128. the opposite of a horst. gray. GOOSING GRASS Cutting grass and weeds around the lease or tank farm.v. 2 2125. gallons per minute.the curved connection between the rotary hose and swivel. 285 Petroleum Engineer: M. a block of the earth's crust that has slid downward between two faults. shaving the grass off the ground with a sharp hoe-like tool.mzhelu@gmail.g.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2119.).) and to which the mud hose is attached. A well in which the production of oil has decreased and the production of water has increased to the point where the well is no longer profitable to operate.com . 2126. used in drilling reports. any device that limits or controls the speed of an engine. 2 2123. 2121.. leaving the ground clean.

000 kg and nearly equal to 1 cm' of water at its maximum density. 286 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . GRABLE OIL WELL PUMP A patented. ·hatchet knot. GRASS ROOTS Said of a refinery or other installation built from the ground up as contrasted to a plant merely enlarged or modernised. 2132. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. GRANNYHOLE GRANNYKNOT The lowest. and mica. 2134. 2136. gram (g)a unit of metric measure of mass and weight equal to 1/1.mzhelu@gmail. drum-and-cable pumping unit that can be installed in a wellhead cellar. 2130.) an igneous rock composed primarily of feldspar. It usually does not contain petroleum. 2135. A knot tied in such a way as to defy untying an improperly tied square knot.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2129. quartz. the rate of regular or graded ascent or descent. The low profile of the pumping unit makes it ideal for use in populated areas. 2133. 2131. GRADIENTS (TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE) The rates of increase or decrease of temperature or pressure are defined as gradients. most powerful gear on a truck. gram molecular weight granite (See molecular weight. Z. The unit raises and lowers the pumping rods by winding and unwinding cable on a drum or spoof. and to protect the beauty of the landscape.

m. GRAVEYARD SHIFT A tour of work beginning at midnight and ending at 8 a.) 287 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2140. gravel pack gravel packing a mass of very fine gravel placed around a slotted liner in a well. (See tour. See Drilling Island. 2139. graveyard tour the shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts at or about midnight. also 1ce Platform. The mass of gravel excludes sand from intruding in the well but allows continued rapid production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2137. Hoot-owl shift. Z. Gravel is dredged from the sea bottom or transported from a nearby liver or delta and dumped into holes cut in the ice. The well is enlarged by underreaming at the point where the gravel is packed. grass-roots refinery a refinery built from the ground up as opposed to an addition or modification of an existing one. 2141. to 7 a. are constructed to make a foundation area from which to drill exploratory wells.com . GRAVEL ISLAND In some locations (in shallow water near shore) in the Arctic gravel is lands.m. 40 to 50 in diameter.m. In pipeline operations. 2138. the graveyard shift is customarily from 11 p.Using gravel to fill the cavity created around a well bore as it passes through the producing zone to prevent caving or the incursion of sand and to facilitate the flow of oil into the well bore. 2142. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a method of well completion in which a slotted or perforated liner is placed in the well and surrounded by small sized gravel.mzhelu@gmail.

In the absence of water drive or effective gas drive.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2143. API gravity. Z. to be pulled by the force of gravity. gravity drainage is an important source of energy to produce oil. GRAVING DOCK A dry dock. 288 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2148.com . It is also called segregation drive.the attraction exerted by the earth's mass on objects at its surface.(See API gravity and specific gravity. gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir toward a wellbore resulting from the force of gravity.) 2147. GRAVITY DRIVE A natural drive occurring where a well is drilled at a point lower than surrounding areas of producing formations causing the oil to drain downhill into the well bore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the weight of a body. 2 2146. the ship is left high and dry for repairs. To the geophysicist. If the reservoir rock is highly permeable and dips sharply toward the well there is usually good oil recovery. When the water is pumped out. (2) Short for specific gravity. gravimeter an instrument used to detect and measure minute differences in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations to obtain data about subsurface formations. geophysical instrument used to measure the minute variations in the earth's gravitational pull at different locations.mzhelu@gmail. GRAVITY (1)The attraction of the earth's mass for bodies or objects at or near the surface. a dock that can accept ships into an enclosure. (3) To flow through a pipeline without the aid of a pump. these variations indicate certain facts about subsurface formations. 2144.

Its general configuration is that of a column mounted on a large circular base which has storage for 1 million barrels of crude. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The tube oils may be very light or heavy cylinder oils. a line that transports liquid from one elevation to a lower elevation by the force of gravity alone. oil.com . the thickening agent (usually soaps) may be any material that when mixed with oil will produce a grease structure. (2) Colloquial for crude oil. either in the producing zone or by gravity in the separators after production. One of the world's largest gravity structures is located off the Scottish coast in the North Sea. GRAVITY MAPS Results of reconnaissance gravity surveys display of gravity measurements taken in an area.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2149. GRAVITY SEGREGATION The separation of water from oil. or heavy from lighter hydrocarbons by the force of gravity. Z. GRAVITY STRUCTURE An offshore drilling and production platform made of concrete and of such tremendous weight that it is held securely on the ocean bottom without the need for piling or anchors. GRAVITY LINE A pipeline that carries oil from a lease tank to pumping station without the use of mechanical means. 2152.mzhelu@gmail. and water according to their densities. the stratification of gas. 2153. 2150. GREASE (1) A lubricating substance (solid or semisolid) made from lubricating oil and a thickening agent. See Gravimeter. 289 Petroleum Engineer: M. The base is 450 feet in diameter. 2151. the column is 180 feet in diameter and the overall height of the structure is about 550 feet.

GRIND OUT Colloquial for centrifuge. greensand a sand that contains considerable quantities of glauconite. grind out to test for the presence of water in oil by use of a centrifuge. As the rotary table is turned by the drilling engines. iron.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2154. time. Grief stems are heavy.mzhelu@gmail. kelly joint. used in drilling reports. emulsion. Asphalt-base crudes are sometimes referred to as 2155. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. GROSS PRODUCTION TAX A severance tax (q. black oil. 2159. 2156.). grief stem (obsolete) kelly. GREEN OIL A paraffin-base crude oil. thousands or millions of cubic feet of gas or tons of coal. liquid for suspended material-water. sand. the grief stem and the drillpipe are rotated. to test samples of crude oil or othe. 2 2158. at a certain sum per unit of mineral removed (barrels of oil.com . a tax usually imposed by a state. and silicate.v.Kelly joint. sand-by use of a centrifuge machine. which gives the sand its color and name. 2160. and gravel). the total production of oil from a well or lease during a specified period of 2161. 290 Petroleum Engineer: M. a greenish mineral composed of potassium. thick-walled tubular pieces with squared shoulders that are made to fit into the hole in the rotary table. the top joint of the rotary drill string that works through the square hole in the rotary table. sulphur. grn gross production green.

sand. (2) To stabilize and make permanent Grout is usually a thin mixture that can be worked into crevices and beneath and around structural forms. pressuretight Used on small-diameter piping. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. one half is convex. This type arrangement is usually for offshore seismic surveys in which several companies are planning to submit bids for offshore Leases offered in a government lease sale. and booth ground to fit.com . fastened to the ground anchor that changes a horizontal pull on a wireline to a vertical pull (as when swabbing with a derrick over a well). 2166. 2164. GROUPSHOT Geophysical expiration performed for several individuals or companies on a cost-sharing basis. and foundation work.mzhelu@gmail. the other had concave in shape. or rock formation to stabilize it. GROWLERBOARD See Lazy Board. Z. A threaded ring holds the halves together.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2163. the sealing material used in grouting. or pulley. 291 Petroleum Engineer: M. GROUT (1)A concrete mixture used to fill in around piling. The companies share the information as well as the cost. caissons. heavy machinery beds. 2167. GROUND-SEAT UNION A pipe coupling made in two parts.) 2165. 2168. ground block a wireline sheave.to force sealing material into a soil. gross tonnage the entire interior capacity of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig expressed in tons equal to 100 ft2. (See block.

filled with concrete and rounded at the bottom and placed at the end of the casing string. guidelines lines. 2173. usually four. flywheels and drive shafts. It prevents the casing from snagging on irregularities in the borehole as it is lowered.com . 292 Petroleum Engineer: M. guards are used on equipment such as belts. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2171. drums. power-transmission chains. 2172. guide shoe a short. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2169.mzhelu@gmail.) the petrified remains of plants or animals. GRUB STAKE AGREEMENT An agreement whereby one person undertakes to prospect for oil and agrees to hand over to the person who furnishes the money or supplies a certain proportionate interest in the oil discovered. useful for correlation and age determination of the rock in which they were fount. attached to the temporary guide base and permanent guide base that help to accurately position equipment (as blowout preventers) on the seafloor when a well is drilled offshore. guard a metal shield placed around moving parts of machinery to lessen or avoid the chance of injury to personnel. 2170. A hole in the center of the shoe allows drilling fluid to pass up into the casing while it is being lowered and cement to pass out during cementing operations. A 2174. This type of agreement is common for solid minerals but is not often used in oil prospecting. guide base guide fossil (See temporary guide base and permanent guide base. heavy. cylindrical steel section.In the oil field.

the kind you pull on like a cowboy boot. 2177.mzhelu@gmail. (Casing is perforated to permit the oil from the formation to enter the well.com . especially in older fields. A heavy. where the water settles out and is drawn off and the clean oil flows out to storage. Gun barrels have largely been replaced by unified heater-treater equipment but are still common. GUN PERFORATION A method of putting holes in a well's casing downhole in which explosive charges lowered into the hole propel steel projectiles through the casing wall. A perforating gun is then lowered into the hole and fired to detonate high-powered jets or shoot steel projectiles (bullets) through the casing and cement and into the pay zone. gun-perforate to create holes in casing and cement set through a productive formation. 2178. which separates Banquereau and Sable Island Banks.) 2180. The formation fluids flow out of 293 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.any relatively sticky formation (as clay) encountered in drilling. 2179. it is pumped into the gun barrel. gun barrel a settling tank used to separate oil and water in the field. After emulsified oil is heated and treated with chemicals. Gully.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2175. the A major submarine canyon indenting the seaward edge of the Scotian Shelf. 2176. GUM BOOTS GUMBO Rubber boots. sticky mud formed downhole by certain shales when they become wet from the drilling fluid. A common method of completing a well is to set casing through the oil-bearing formation and cement it.

and other debris that is cleaned out of a pipeline when a scraper or a pig is put through the line.mzhelu@gmail. gunk squeeze a bentonite and diesel-oil mixture that is pumped down the drill pipe to mix with drilling mud being pumped up the annulus. The stiff.) 2181. In reality. the lines attached to ground anchors for lateral support are wind guys. 2182. The end of the guy wire is attached to a stake or a deadman (q. GUNK The collection of dirt. rust. (See jetperforate. guy line a wireline attached to a mast or derrick to stabilize it. 294 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2186.com .v. With improved drilling technology. like a geyser.A well that comes in with such great pressure that the oil blows out of the wellhead and up into the derrick. a gusher is a blowout and is extremely wasteful of reservoir fluids and drive energy. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). paraffin. In the early days of the oil industry. oil. 2 2188. and many times were the only indications that a large reservoir of oil and gas had been struck.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the reservoir through the perforations and into the wellbore. 2 2184. The lines that provide the main support for the structure are load guys. especially the use of drilling mud to control downhole pressures. gushers are rare today. puttylike material is squeezed into lost-circulation zones to isolate them from the wellbore. See Blowout. gusher an oil well that has come in with such great pressure that the oil jets out of the well like a geyser. Z. GUY WIRE A cable or heavy wire used to hold a pole or mast upright. gushers were common. mill scale.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2189. (See calcium sulfate and anhydrite. Unlike a magnetic surveying instrument. gyroscopic surveying instrument a device used to determine direction in and angle at which a wellbore is drifting off the vertical." water with high concentrations of minerals. 2191. 2190.) Boiler scale. rock-like layer on the inner surfaces Gypsum. a gyroscopic instrument obtains direction and is not affected by magnetic irregularities that may be caused by casing or other ferrous metals.) 2192. Z. (See dead-man. a residue or deposit from "hard water. gypsum a naturally occurring crystalline form of hydrous calcium sulfate. Pipe and vessels handling hard water become gypped up as the minerals form a hard.) 295 Petroleum Engineer: M. (See directional survey and directional drilling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. guy-line anchor GYP a buried weight or anchor to which a guy line is attached.com .

Half solos can be from six to 12 feet in length and are placed over the pitted or corroded section of the pipe and welded in place with a bead around the entire perimeter of the half sole. hour. or either of them is produced or drilling operations are continued as hereinafter provided.com ." The primary term in this case is 5 years. 2197. Hammer drilling 296 Petroleum Engineer: M. HALF SOLE A metal patch for a corroded section of pipeline.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. An habendum clause might read. h H2S HABENDUM CLAUSE 2195. of whatever kind. when placed in the drill stem just above a rollercone bit. hammer drill a drilling tool that. Z. delivers high-frequency percussion blows to the rotating bit. The patch is cut from a length of pipe of the same diameter as the one to be repaired. 2196.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2194. The clause in a lease setting forth the duration of the lessee's interest in the property. half-life the amount of time needed for half of a quantity of radioactive substance to decay or transmute into a nonradioactive substance. Half-lives range from fractions of seconds to millions of years. See Primary Term.v. Hydrogen sulfide (q.). 2198. 2 2200. "it is agreed that this lease shall remain in force for a term of five years from this date and for as long thereafter as oil or gas.

v. guard. Strippers which make 10 barrels or less of oil a day rarely are pumped 24 hours a day. 2204. Z. a pipe connection or nut that can be unscrewed by hand. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combines the basic features of rotary and cable-tool drilling (i. See Earnest Money. 2 2203. When struck. bit rotation and percussion). To disconnect the pull-rod line from a pumping jack or pumping unit being operated from a central power (q.). 2 2209. 2201.e. especially one in the field. HANDY HANG A WELL OFF Hand-tight.com . hang rods to suspend sucker rods in a derrick or mast on rod hangers rather than place them horizontally on a rack. the pumper knows each well and how long it should be pumped. As a result he may "hang a well off" after six hours of pumping. 2207. to use such a tool. On a lease with a number of stripper wells. corroded sections of pipe by striking the pipe with a hammer. 2205. hand HAND MONEY handrail a worker in the oil industry.. 297 Petroleum Engineer: M. others after 12 hours or so. a railing or pipe along a passageway or stair that serves as a support or 2206. hammer test a method of locating thick-walled. a corroded section resounds differently than a noncorroded section.

HANGER. duty blowout preventer stack or production tree. i. 298 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some of the valve assemblies weigh thousands of pounds or more so they must be hoisted into place. 2217. 2212. the rods are pulled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2211. drill collars. hard hat a metal or hard plastic helmet worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger of being injured by falling objects. hard facing. HANG THE RODS To pull the pump rods out of the well and hang them in the derrick on rod hangers. stabilizers.mzhelu@gmail.e. unscrewed and layed down. ROD HANGING IRON See Rod Hanger.. and other rotary drilling tools to minimize wear when they are in contact with the wall of the hole. an extremely hard material. aligned. that is applied to the outside surfaces of tool joints. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and bolted to their mating piece. the rods are hung outside the derrick. Z.com . hard banding hard facing 2 2216. heavy. 2214. A colloquial expression for the job of Assembling a high-pressure. 2213. layed out horizontal on a rack. usually crushed tungsten carbide. If this is the case. On shallow wells with short strings of rods. On portable pulling units. they may be pulled from the well by a simple pulling unit consisting only of a guyed mast.

1/8. rectangular cake pan. 1/4. or both. Putting a hard surface on a softer metal by welding or other metallurgical process. 2 2220. e. tools.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2218.g. e. Hat-type foundations are used for small pumps and engines or other installations not requiring solid. scanners. 1/2 inch. (1) Electronic and mechanical components of a computer system. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HARDWARECLOTH A type of galvanized metal screen that can be bought in hole sizes. a coaching or hard-surfacing of the part is a practical solution. HAT-TYPE FOUNDATION A metal base or foundation i@. permanent foundations. The holes are square. (2) Mechanical equipment.com . etc. magnesium. 2222. 299 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2224. hard water water that contains dissolved compounds of calcium. the shape of an inverted. parts. HARDFACING HARDWARE See Hardbanding. computers. Z.g.mzhelu@gmail. 2225. 2223. Compare soft water. 2221. HARDBANDING Laying on a coating or surface of super-hard metal on a softer metal part at a point or on an area of severe wear or abrasion. Also called hardfacing. printers. storage drums. Where it may be impractical or prohibited by structural constraints to manufacture a part from the harder metal. HARDWIRE (TELEMETRY) Describes a system of communication or information transmission using electric wire from point to point instead of electronic or wireless transmission.

mzhelu@gmail. A large-diameter hemp or nylon rope for towing. 2 2229. HATCHET KNOT HAULASS HAWSER A knot that defies untying and so must be cut. 2236. 2.com . an object or condition. or securing a ship 2232. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. hatch 1. Such a well lacks sufficient gas pressure to flow steadily and 300 Petroleum Engineer: M. a granny knot. mooring. a fingerboard. Z. 2237. that presents or causes a risk of accident or fire. HEAD WELL A well that makes its best production by being pumped or flowed intermittently. related to equipment. hay section a section of a heater or a heater-treater that is filled with fibrous material through which oil and water emulsions are filtered. 2 2234. 2 2231. hayrack hazard (obsolete) a rack used to hold pipe on a derrick. split. 2227. or envirorlment. hydraulic head. site. -the opening from the deck into the cargo space of ships. an opening in the roof of a tank through which a gauging line may be lowered to measure its contents. vamoose. 2235. head a quantity of fluid that flows out of a well intermittently rather than continuously. An inelegant term meaning to leave a place with all haste. or barge.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2226.

v. 2241. crew chief. HEADER A large-diameter pipe into which a number of smaller pipes are perpendicularly welded or screwed. a sot under the walking beam to prevent it from failing on the drilling crew when it is disconnected from the crank and pitman (q. See Hydrostatic Head. the well must be pumped. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HEADACHE POST A frame over a truck cab that prevents pipe or other material being hauled from failing on the cab. HEADACHEI A warning cry given by a fellow worker when anything is accidentally dropped or fails from overhead toward another worker. If the well cannot accumulate enough gas pressure to overcome the hydrostatic head. 301 Petroleum Engineer: M. This type of flow is often caused by a lack of gas to produce a steady flow thus allowing the well's tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil out. HYDROSTATIC 2239. represented by the column of oil in the tubing. 2240. See Manifold.com . 2238. Z. 2242. An Intermittent or unsteady flow of oil from a well. a collection point for oil or gas gathering lines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering must wait for the tubing to load up with oil until enough gas accumulates to force the oil up the tubing and out to the tanks.mzhelu@gmail. head well puller HEAD.). HEADING headgate the gate valve nearest the pump or compressor on oil or gas lines.

2247. 2244. SHELL AND TUBE A common type of industrial heat exchanger with a "bundle" of smalldiameter pipes (tubes) inside a long. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Hairpin exchangers may have bare or finned tubes inside the shelf. heat exchanger HEAT EXCHANGER. cylindrical steel shell. FINNED TUBE (See exchanger.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2243.com .) Small-diameter pipe or tubing with thin metal fins attached to the outer circumference for cooling water and other liquids or gases. HAIRPIN A type of shell and tube exchanger with tubes inside a 12 to 18-inch diameter shell which may extend 20 to 30 feet and then doubles back the same distance like a hairpin. plate exchangers exhibit a much higher heat transfer coefficient thin tie more Conventional Shell and tube exchangers. Because of its thin walls. Finned tube exchangers cool by giving up heat from the surface of the fins to the atmosphere in a manner similar to an automobile radiator. However. PLATE A relatively low-pressure heat exchanger that uses thin-walled plates as its heat transfer elements. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. because of their less-sturdy construction there are pressure limits to their use. to heat the process stream or to make steam. 2246. Heat exchangers are not only for cooling but for heat recovery systems as well. HEAT EXCHANGER. 2245. In some plants finned tube exchangers are built in ductwork through which the exhaust gas of a turbine flows at 800'F. The tubes (50 to 302 Petroleum Engineer: M. Oil or process liquids are pumped through the exchanger tubes to use the waste heal. HEAT EXCHANGER. HEAT EXCHANGER.

liquid metals. Heat normally lost to a cooling medium can be used to heat a stream 2248. by perforated steel end plates. the atmosphere in most cases. or acetone. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Heat taken in or absorbed at the lower end of the boat pipe. Z. the end in contact with the heat source.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 100 in small units. The liquid to he cooled is pumped through the tubes. In its basic form a heat pipe consists of a closed tube (the shell) two to six inches in diameter and as long as need be. thousands of heat pipes were installed along the big line to maintain the frozen soil around the vertical support members. equidistant. the liquid to evaporate and move up the pipe as a vapor. The continuous cycle of vaporization and condenation within the closed pipe makes the heat pipe an efficient. glycerine..mzhelu@gmail. naturalconvection heat transfer loop. The space inside the shell not filled with tubes carries the cooling water or other liquid. HEAT TAPE An electrical heating element made in the form of an insulated wire or tape used as a tracer line to provice heat to a pipeline or instrument piping. 2249. 303 Petroleum Engineer: M. methanol. On the trans-Alaska pipeline. cause. moves back down the pipe in the wick by gravity or capillary action. GRAVITY RETURN A type of passive heat exchanger (requiring no external energy source) that draws heal from a heat source and gives up heat to a heat sink. Heat exchangers act not only as a cooling apparatus but are often used as a waste heat recovery system. The heat tape is held in direct contact with the piping by a covering of insulation. several hundred in larger ones) run parallel to the shell and are supported. as a liquid. The dissipation of the heat at the upper end condenses the vapor which.com . The shell also contains a quantity of working liquid which may be anhydrous ammonia. HEAT PIPE. The shell has a porous wick made of fine metal mesh in the inside circumference extending from top to bottom.

whether steam or electrical tape. HEAT TRACING The paralleling of instrumentation. free-water knockout. a device that moves with the heave of a floating offshore drilling rig to prevent the bit from being lifted off the bottom of the hole and then dropped 304 Petroleum Engineer: M. PIPELINE An installation fitted with heating coils or tubes for heating certain crude oil to keep it "thin" enough to be pumped through a pipeline. 2 2256.com . (2) A refinery furnace. HEATER (1)An installation used to heat the stream from high-pressure gas and condensate wells (especially in winter) to prevent the formation of hydrates. Heat tracing lines. and oil and gas separator. HEATER. heave heave compensator the vertical motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. lines with small-diameter steam piping or electrical heat tape to keep the fines from freezing or to warm the product or instrument fluid sufficiently to keep them flowing freely.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2250. Crudes with high pour points (congealing at ordinary temperatures) must be heated before they can be moved by pipeline. product or heavy crude oil. A heater-treater is a combination of a heater. are attached parallel to the host piping and both are covered with insulation. a residue which interferes with the operation of the separator. 2 2253. 2 2258. Z. 2254. 2251. heater-treater a vessel that heats an emulsion and removes water and gas from the oil to raise it to a quality acceptable for pipeline transmission.mzhelu@gmail.

residual fuel oil. kerosene.e.. (See motion Compensator. which require special production techniques. Z. 2262.com . 2 2261. and asphalt-remaining after the lighter fractions have been distilled off. lubricating oils. 2263.) 2259. it and other types of oil are eligible for free market or world prices. wax. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is used with devices such as bumper subs. The product remaining after the lighter fractions-gasoline. and are used to stablize the bit and to force it to make a straighter hole. Heavy metal is used to make drill tools to add weight to the drill assembly.residue left over from the refining process after all lighter fractions are off. heavy ends are the heavier fractions of refined oil fuel oils. HEAVY ENDS In refinery parlance. back .S. tubes.mzhelu@gmail. HEAVY METAL Spent uranium or tungsten. HEAVY CRUDE OIL Crude oil of 20' API gravity or less. 305 Petroleum Engineer: M. HEAVY FUEL OIL A residue of crude oil refining processes. to extract them from the underground formations. Because heavy crude oil is more costly to produce.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering back down (i. HEAVY BOTTOMS A thick. to maintain constant weight on the bit). There are perhaps billions of barrels of heavy oil still in place in the U. paraffin. with less deviation from the vertical. Drill collars made of heavy metal weigh twice as much as those made of steel. notably steam injection or steam soak. 2264. and distillate fuelshave been extracted from the crude. See Light Ends. Heavy bottoms are used for residual fuel and/or asphalt.

ha. Perforated pipe is inserted in the drilled holes to carry steam. heavy weight drillpipe drill pipe having thicker walls and longer tool-joints than usual as well as an integral wear pad in the middle.com . 2267. In the horizontal method.mzhelu@gmail. Heavy-wall is sometimes used in the drillstring to reduce the number of larger diameter and stiffer drill collars. HECTARE A metric unit of land measurement equal to 1 0. HEAVY-WALL DRILLPIPE Drillpipe with thicker walls than regular drilipipe. soaks the formation. HEAVY OIL PROCESS (HOP) A steam injection process developed by a subsidiary of Barber Oil Corporation in which steam is injected through horizontal lines into subsurface oil sands containing heavy oil. workman construct a concrete cavern 25 feet in diameter and 20 feet high. 306 Petroleum Engineer: M. lateral holes are drilled several hundred feet in all directions. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. After it is cased. From this work area. The steam. a seven-loot diameter shaft is drilled into the relatively shallow formation. Several joints of this pipe may be placed in the drill stem between drill collars and regular drill pipe to reduce the chances of drill pipe fatigue or failure. 2 2269. 2266.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2265. Z. oil of 20" API gravity or less. causing the highly viscous oil to separate from the sand and flow into the laterals after the steam injection is halted. This is true in directional drilling and even in straight holes in certain areas of the country.47 acres. injected under pressure. Conventional steamflooding employs vertical holes through which steam is injected. Some of the advantages of heavy-wall pipe over drill collars are Heavy-wall can be handled at the rig floor by regular drillpipe elevators and slips and can be racked in the rig like regular pipe.000 square meters or 2. Abbreviation .

Helideck HEPTANE A landing area for helicopters. Hydraulic horsepower a designation for a type of very-high-pressure plunger pump used in downhole operations such as cementing. Z.com . Although heptane is a liquid at ordinary atmospheric conditions. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 307 Petroleum Engineer: M. waves. hexane a saturated hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. 2 2275. 2277. 2278. At ordinary atmospheric conditions hexane is a liquid but often occurs in small amounts in natural gas. used in drilling reports. hertz a unit of frequency measurement equal to one cycle per second. HEXANE A hydrocarbon traction of the paraffin series.mzhelu@gmail. 2272. 2273. hydrofracturing. and acidizing. A liquid hydrocarbon of the paraffin series. HGOR HHP high gas-oil ratio. heel the inclination of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig to one side caused by wind. or shifting weights on board. 2276.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2271. one of the heavy m& in a hydrocarbon mixture. it is sometimes present in small amounts in natural gas.

com . 2281.mzhelu@gmail. or lubricating oil to small shops and garages. See Solution Gas. the higher up on the structure a well is drilled the better the chances of encountering oil and avoiding the underlying water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When this condition occurs the operator (lease pumper) must have the tank cleaned before the pipeline company will run the tank of oil. 308 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2280. Z. HIGH A geological term for the uppermost part of an inclined structure where the likelihood of finding oil is considered to be the greatest. As oil and gas tend to accumulate at the top of underground structures. 2283. HI-BOY A skid-mounted or wheeled tank with a hand-operated pump mounted on top used to dispense kerosene. HIDE THE THREADS To make up (tighten) a joint of screw pipe until all the threads on the end of the joint are screwed into the collar. HIGH BOTTOM A condition in a field stock tank when BS&W (basic sediment and water) has accumulated at the bottom of the tank to a depth making it impossible to draw out the crude oil without taking some of the BS with it into the pipeline. traps and domes. gasoline. hiding the threads and making a leakproof connection. HIGH-PRESSURE GAS INJECTION Introduction of gas into a reservoir in quantities exceeding the volumes produced in order to maintain reservoir pressure high enough to achieve mixing between the gas an 1 reservoir oil. 2282.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2279.

(Well history is required in some states. a winch or similar device. coring record.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2285. etc.) Well histories include formations encountered. the drawworks. the distortion of the hull of an offshore drilling rig when the bow and stern are lower than the middle caused by wave action or unbalanced or heavy loads. depths. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cementing and perforating. hoisting cable the cable that supports the drill pipe. (See squeeze cementing. 2293. Draw Works. HISTORY OF A WELL A written account of all aspects of the drilling. 2290.) 2286.com . See 309 Petroleum Engineer: M. completion. 2 2289. mud program. swivel. hoist an arrangement of pulleys and wire rope or chain used for lifting heavy objects. 2287.mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports. any difficulties. high-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry into a well at the points to be sealed with a final pressure equal to or greater than the formation breakdown pressure. HOCM hogging heavily oil-cut mud. and traveling block on a rotary drilling rig. 2 2292. size and amount of casing. HOISTING DRUM A powered reel holding rope or cable for hoisting and pulling a winch. Z. hook. and operation of a well.

2295. or holiday. in coatings on pipelines and equipment. 2298. 2 2301. hole HOLE OPENER the borehole.mzhelu@gmail. (See also mousehole and rathole. The devices are timbers or lengths of pipe hinged to a deadman or overhead support at one end.) A type of reamer used to increase the diameter of the well bore below the casing. 2296. an electrical device used to locate a weak place. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A sucker-rod pump may use a mechanical hold-down for attachment to a seating nipple. holiday holiday detector a gap or void in coating on a pipeline or in paint on a metal surface. hoisting plug a plug with extended shoulder surfaces screwed into the ends pf drill collars to permit a safe lifting with elevators. hold-down a mechanical arrangement that prevents the upward movement of certain pieces of equipment installed in a well. 2299. the other end attached to and supposing the moving rod line. also called a lifting sub or lifting nipple.com . 310 Petroleum Engineer: M. HOLD DOWN/HOLD UP Oscillating anchoring devices or supports for a shackle-rod line to hold the rod line to the contour of the land it traverses. The special tool is equipped with cutter arms that are expanded against the wall of the hole and by rotary action reams a larger diameter hole. Z. 2297.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2294.

) and which engages the bail of the swivel in drilling operations. When detected. Z. hollow carrier gun a perforating gun consisting of a hollow. a cavernous or vugular 2306. HOLIDAYS Breaks or I laws in the protective coating of a joint of line pipe. Holidays are detected by electronic testing devices as the pipe is being laid. 2304.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2302. See Jeeping. usually calculated by an API formula. HOOK The hook attached to the frame of the rig's traveling block (q. 2305. See Hook-load Capacity. 311 Petroleum Engineer: M.v.). a stratum of rock that contains large void spaces. debris caused by the exploding charges falls into the carrier to be retrieved with the reusable gun. hook load capacity the nominal rated load capacity of a portable hoist and mast arrangement. A hook block may have more than one sheave mounted in the frame a traveling block (q. the breaks are manually coated. cylindrical metal tube into which are loaded shaped charges or bullets. 2308. 2307. HOOK BLOCK A pulley or shrive mounted in wooden or metal frame to which a hook is attached. homocline honeycomb formation a series of beds dipping in the same direction.com . Upon detonation. 2303. formation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.v.

or ship channel. nipples. HOOKS Pipe-laying tongs named for the shape of the pipe-gripping head of the scissors-like wrench. The friction springs pre. HORIZONTAL ASSIGNMENT The assignment of an interest in oil or gas above or below a certain depth in a well.mzhelu@gmail.v.) at an angle from the horizontal beneath a stream. The arrangement of pipes.com . Z. vent the slips and hook from turning with the pipe and assist in advancing the slips up a tapered sleeve to engage the wall of the outside pipe as weight is put on the packer. or an assignment can specify a particular formation. pump. canal. 2313. 2314. 2315. or a well. combine clay and oil or water to make drilling fluid. that part of a formation of sufficient porosity and permeability to form a petroleum reservoir. HOOKUP To make a pipeline connection to a tank. It is also called a wall-hook packer. 2311. HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Drilling with a specially designed slant rig (q. hook-wall packer a packer equipped with friction blocks or drag springs and slips and designed so that rotation of the pipe unlatches the slips. 2312.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2309. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2310. HORIZON A zone of a particular formation. This type of directional 312 Petroleum Engineer: M. The hopper is used to mix cement slurry. and valves in such a connection. and so on. flanges. hopper a large funnel through which solid materials may be passed and n-mixed with a liquid injected through a connection at the bottom.

oil shale and geothermal energy. the opposite of a graben. HORSEPOWER.7 watts of 2322. and from which it makes a profit. HORSEPOWER A unit of power equivalent to 33.mzhelu@gmail. 313 Petroleum Engineer: M. See Vertical Integration. 2 2318. INDICATED AND BRAKE horst See Indicated and Brake Horsepower." 2 2321. an oil company is said to be horizontally integrated when. horse head the curved section on the oil-well end of the walking beam of a beampumping unit from which the bridle is suspended. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION Refers to the condition in which a diversified company has resources or investments other than its principal business. Z.000 foot-pounds a minute or 745. HORSEFEED An old oil field term for unexplainable expense account items in the days of the teamster and line rider who were given an allowance for horse feed. it owns coal deposits. 2316. electricity. Expenses that needed to be masked in anonymity were simply listed "horse feed. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2319. a block of the earth's crust that has been raised up between two faults. 2323. is into nuclear energy. besides oil and gas holdings.com . Specifically.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering drilling has been perfected and is used to make pipeline crossings where dredging a trench across a waterway is too costly or too disruptive of ship traffic and a bridge or A-frame supported line is prohibited by the authorities.

See Hot-fluid Injection.com . without distortion and undue stress. also Hortonspheroid. hot oil oil produced in violation of state regulations or transported interstate in violation of federal regulations. under pressure. hot spot an abnormally hot place on a casing coupling when a joint is making up.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2324. Z. HOT PASS A term describing a "bead" or course of molten metal laid down in welding a pipeline. See Pipeline Welding. 314 Petroleum Engineer: M. HORTONSPHERE A spherical steel tank for the storage.mzhelu@gmail. It usually indicates worn threads on the pipe and in the coupling. resembling somewhat a tangerine in shape. e. 2325. of volatile petroleum products. As vessels subjected to high internal pressures tend to take the shape of a sphere. 2328. The hot pass is the course laid down on top of the stringer bead. gasoline. 2 2327. 2330. and LP-gases. HOT FOOTING Installing a heater at the bottom of an input well to increase the flow of heavy crude oil from the production wells. the tanks designed to hold liquid or gases under pressure are made spherical or nearly so to handle internal pressures of several hundred pounds per square inch safely. 2329. which is the first course in welding a pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a flattened spherical tank.g. HOT OIL (FORIEGN) A term applied to oil produced by a host country after the host country confiscates the assets of a foreign oil company.

A pioneer in developing the use of catalysts in cracking crude oil. Houdry. in which hot fluid (water. 2334.v. Houdry's work is credited with ushering in the era of catalytic cracking. Afterwards the plug remains hot. 2335.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2331. Z. HOT-PLUG ENGINE A stationary diesel-cycle engine that is started by first heating an alloy-metal plug in the cylinder head that protrudes into the firing chamber. helping to provide heat for ignition." the treatment of a producing well with heated oil to melt accumulated paraffin in the tubing and annulus. HOT-HEAD ENGINE hot-oil treatment A hot-plug engine (q. or steam) is injected into a formation to increase the flow of low-gravity crude to production wells.com . The hot plug assists in the initial ignition of the diesel fuel until engine reaches operating speed and temperature. at "semidiesel. It is said his interest in cars fed him to experiment with more efficient methods of refining and to work with various catalysts until he perfected the catalytic cracking process that bears his name. or other installation without shutting down operations. 2332. Pipeline. gas. EUGENE J.). See Tapping and Plugging Machine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2336. 2333. Although there are several cracking processes in use today. HOT-FLUID INJECTION A method of thermal oil recovery. was a World War 1 hero and auto racer.mzhelu@gmail. 315 Petroleum Engineer: M. HOUDRY. HOT TAPPING Making repairs or modifications on a tank. a wealthy Frenchman. hot-tube engine hot head See Somidiesel. See Hydrocracking.

2 2341. each large tong. A petroleum chemist who worked with Dr. 316 316 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. and so on but excluding machinery. See Air Cushion Transport. With three sets of tongs on the joint being screwed in. huff-and-puff injection hull (slang) cyclic steam injects.com .E. Working on a pipeline. DR. 2345.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2337. 2 2339. horsepower. Burton in developing the first commercially successful petroleum cracking process using heat-and pressure. run by two or three men. plating. columns. 2346. 2344. Then the three tongs. Z. The tong crews on large-diameter screw pipelines (up to about 12-inch pipe) hit the hooks in perfect rhythms. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. HOUSE BRAND (GASOLINE) HOVERCRAFT hp hp-h HRMNG THE HOOKS An oil company's regular gasoline. with all six t)r nine men.v. a gasoline bearing the company's name. hit together to "hide the threads. horsepower-hour." to tighten the joint the final and most difficult round. 2347. the framework of a vessel including all decks. an expression used by the tong crew of a pipeline gang.M.W.) until the joint was nearly screwed in. 2 2343.R. made a stroke every third beat of the collar pecker's hammer (q. screwing in joints of pipe using pipe tongs. HUMPHREYS.

com . compression. moorings. hydrate a hydrocarbon and water compound that is formed under reduced temperature and pressure in gathering. It is often caused by a faulty or improperly adjusted governor. 2 2351.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2348. Hydrates often accumulate in troublesome amounts and impede fluid flow. Z. 2354. a dry powder obtained by treating quicklime with enough water to satisfy its chemical affinity for water.v. They resemble snow or ice. the biggest blow on record. and transmission facilities for gas. HUNDRED-YEAR STORM CONDITIONS A specification for certain types of offshore installations-production and drilling platforms. HURRY-UP STICK The name given to the length of board with a hole in one end which the cable-toot driller used to turn the T-screw at the end of the temper screw (q. productivity. hunting a surge of engine speed to a higher number of revolutions per minute (rpm) followed by a drop to normal speed without manual movement of the throttle. This enabled the driller to perform the job of letting out the drilling line easily and rapidly. to enlarge by taking water on or in.) when the walking beam was in motion. Chemical symbol is Ca(OH)2. hydrated lime calcium hydroxide. and offshore storage facilities-is that they be built to withstand winds of 125 miles an hour and "hundred-year storm conditions". 2352. Hydrafrac the copyrighted name of a method of hydraulic fracturing to increase 2353.mzhelu@gmail. B B 317 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2349.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2355.com . Although head refers to distance or height. hydraulic head the pressure caused by tne weight of a column of liquid upon a unit area expressed by the height or distance of the liquid above the point at which the pressure is measured. pressure to the face of the formation. forcing the strata apart. Usually two pods. pumping. Various Patented techniques. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A method of stimulating production from a formation of low permeability by inducing fractures and fissures in the formation by applying very high fluid. are used. hydraulic fluid a liquid of low viscosity (as light oil) that is used in systems actuated by liquid (as the brake system in a modern passenger car). hydraulic control pod a device used on offshore drilling rigs to provide a way to actuate and control subsea blowout preventers from the rig. using the same principle. through which fluid is sent toward the preventers.mzhelu@gmail. Hydraulic lines from the rig enter the pods. painted different colors.) hydraulic pump a device that lifts oil from wells without the use of sucker rods. hydraulic coupling a fluid connection between a prime mover and the machine it drives that uses the action of liquid moving against blades to drive the machine. it is used to express the pressure resulting from the weight of a body of liquid since the weight is directly proportional to the height. 2359. 2358. Z. are employed by oil field service companies. 2356. 2 2361. each to safeguard and back up the other. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See hydraulic 318 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2357.

or for closing a blowout preventer against pressure. The hydraulic pump may be used to pump several wells from a central source and has been used to lift oil from depths of more than 10. hydraulic ram a cylinder and piston device that uses hydraulic pressure for pushing. lifting. The downhole engine is operated by clean crude oil under pressure (power oil) that is drawn from a power-oil or settling tank by a triplex plunger pump. If two parallel strings are used. HYDRAULIC WORKOVER UNIT A type of workover unit that is used on high-pressure wells where it may be necessary to snub the pipe out of the hole and back in the hole when the workover is completed. which is seated in the string. and a mixture of power oil and produced fluid is returned through the casingtubing annulus. It is commonly used to raise portable masts from a horizontal to a vertical position. 2364. 2366. 319 Petroleum Engineer: M. Surface power is supplied from a standard engine-driven pump. Z. See Snubbing. especially the annular blowout preventer. Hydril the registered trademark of a prominent manufacturer of oil-field equipment. One pump functions as an engine and drives the other pump (the production pump). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 2365. If a single string of tubing is used. for leveling a production rig at an uneven location. one supplies the power oil to the pump while the other returns the exhaust and produced oil to the surface.000 ft. hydraulic pumping a method of pumping oil from wells by using a downhole pump without sucker rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2363. power oil is pumped down the tubing string to the pump. or pulling. Subsurface hydraulic pumps consist of two reciprocating pumps coupled and placed in the well.com .

2370. 2368.). Ale smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous. prepared by mixing hydrogen chloride gas in water. It is also known as muriatic acid. Although composed only of two elements. jet fuel and/or high-grade fuel oil. reformer charge stock. and freezing points increase as their molecular weights increase. the largest are solids. If water leaks from any place in the tubing. or both are replaced. Chemical symbol is HCI. HYDROCRACKING A refining process for converting middle-boiling or residual material to highoctane gasoline. natural gas.v. components. whose densities. 2369.) The main product from the hydrocracking process (q. Hydrocarbon An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. 2371.mzhelu@gmail. the coupling. either the joint of tubing. usually as the tubing is being run in the well. Z. boiling points. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Hydrocarbons often occur in petroleum products. 2372. and coals.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2367. hydrocione HYDROCRACKATE (See desander. gasoline blending 2373.com . hydro-test to apply hydraulic pressure to check for leaks in tubing or tubing couplings. hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for itself. hydrocarbons organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon. hydrochloric acid a compound commonly used to acidize carbonate rocks. 320 Petroleum Engineer: M.

which causes the foul smell of sour petroleum fractions.mzhelu@gmail. a device mounted on the end of the drawworks shaft of a drilling rig that serves as an auxiliary to the mechanical brake when pipe is lowered into the well. See Sour 2 2381. 2376. Z.com . The braking is achieved by a runner or impeller turning in a housing filled with water. The process is considered by some refiners as a supplement to the basic catalytic cracking process. hydrofluoric-hydrochloric acid hydrogen sulfide (See mud acid. hydrocyclone HYDRODYNAMICS (See desander.H2S. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) An odorous and noxious compound of sulfur found in "sour" gas. It is extremely poisonous and corrosive. of sulfur and hydrogen commonly found in petroleum. Gas. 2 2375. 2382. 2379. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. relatively low-temperature process using hydrogen and a catalyst. 2378. hydromatic hydromatic brake hydromatic brake.) a gaseous compound. 2377. 321 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Hydrocracking is an efficient.) A branch of science that deals with the cause and effect of regional subsurface migration of fluids.

Z. Sound-detecting activities. 2384. the pressure exerted by a body of water at rest. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.433 per foot of height. Sound waves generated by blasts from an air gun reflect from formations below the seabottom and are picked up by the hydrophones and transmitted to the mother ship.com . 2386. HYDROSTATIC TESTING Filling a pipeline or tank with water under pressure to test for tensile strength. The API gravity of a liquid is read on a graduated stem at the point intersected by the liquid. Hydrophones are attached to a cable towed by the seismic vessel. Water is used for testing because it is noncompressible so if the pipe or tank does rupture there 322 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. its ability to hoir. hydrophilic hydrophobic HYDROPHONES instruments used in underwater seismic exploration a substance that tends to adsorb water. HYDROMETER An instrument designed to measure the specific gravity of liquids. a substance that tends to repel water. a glass tube with a weighted lower tip that causes the tube to float partially submerged. 2385. 2387.) 2390. Those of other liquids may be determined by comparing their gravities with the gravity of water. a certain pressure without rupturing. 2 2389. The hydrostatic head of fresh water is 0. (See pressure gradient. Hydropressure hydrostatic head The pressure on any rock at a given depth based on a hydrostatic head.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2383.

Z. 2391. box-like enclosure is placed in the center of the frame over the pipe. Interstate Commerce Commission. the Interstate Commerce Commission. 2396. 2 2398. Then an openbottomed. a large frame is lowered into the water and clamped to the pipeline.C .M. 2 2393.com . 2399.C .mzhelu@gmail. 2 2401.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is no potentially dangerous expansion of the water as would be the case if a gas under very high pressure were used. induction survey. International Association of Drilling Contractors. Indicated horsepower.P IADC ICC 2 2395. The sea water is displaced with breathing-gas mixtures for the diver-welders permitting them to do their work in the dry but high-pressure atmosphere. I. hertz. In hyperbaric welding of undersea pipelines. Power lines and life-support umbilicals are connected to the box. HZ I-ES I . HYPERBARIC WELDING (EXCESSIVE-PRESSURF WELDING) Welding on the sea bottom "in the dry" but under many atmospheres of pressure (compression). a federal board that has jurisdiction over interstate pipelines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 323 Petroleum Engineer: M.

outside diameter. 2406. temperatures. itself quite thick. Sea water is pumped onto the normal ocean ice. where it freezes in the minus 30' to 40'C. initials used in specifying pipe sizes. thick platform of ice for drilling in the high Arctic. 2 2405. IDIOT STICK A shovel or other digging tool not requiring a great deal of training to 2 2408. 5-inch OD. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. IDLER GEAR OR WHEEL A gear so called because it is usually located between a driving gear and a driven gear.g. ID Inside diameter of a pipe or tube. The platform is built up a few inches at a time with successive pumpings and freezing of the water until the ice is calculated to be thick enough to support drilling operations with a 1. Ice platform technology was pioneered by Panarctic Oil Ltd. It also transmits the direction of rotation of the driving to the driven gear. 31/2-inch ID also CD. transmitting the power from one to the other. e.mzhelu@gmail. e. ICE PLATFORM A man-made. a pulley or sprocket used with belt or chain drives on machinery to maintain desired tension on the belt or chain. a company with a great deal of experience in Arctic exploration.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2 2403.g.500-ton drillrig and auxiliary equipment. 2411. Without the idler or the intermediate gear. 2 2410. idle idler to operate an engine without applying a load to it. operate.000 to 1.. the driving gear by directly meshing with the driven 324 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .

2 2421.) a rock mass formed by the solidification of material poured (when molten) into the earth's crust or out on its surface.mzhelu@gmail. in the field. Idler wheels or pulleys are also fined for tightening belts or chains or to maintain a uniform tension on them. 2 2419. sometimes used for increasing the density of oil-well cement slurries. used in drilling reports.67. ignorant end ilmenite (slang) the heavier end of any device (as a length of pipe or a wrench). Current is produced by an armature rotating in a magnetic field created by permanent magnets. valves. immiscible IMPACT WRENCH not capable of mixing or being mixed (as oil and water). 2 2416. An air-operated wrench for use on nuts and bolts of large engines.com . IGNITION MAGNETO An electric current generator used on stationary engines. wrenches and sledgehammers in tightening and loosening large nuts. Z. 2414. A magneto is geared to the engine and. the magneto continues to supply electric current for the ignition system. ig igneous rock igneous. Granite is an igneous rock. 2417. (See igneous rock. Impact wrenches have taken the place of heavy end.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering gear reverses the direction of rotation. 2 2413. A small version of 325 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an iron-black mineral of composition FeTiO3 or FeO TiO2 with a specific gravity of about 4. once the engine is started either by hand cranking or by a battery starter. and pumps. 2 2423.

shape. not auxiliary or only supporting.mzhelu@gmail.) 2427. The oil in the formation is then ignited. and position of the fish are obtained from the examination of the impression left in the lead. usually preheated at the sand face of the well by a downhole heater. and allowed to rest on a tool or other object that has been lost in the well. heat exchanges integral to a process or processing chain.com . and an appropriate fishing tool may be selected. 2424. creating a burning front that moves outward radially. When the block is retrieved. A formation may be porous yet impermeable if there is an absence of connecting passages between the voids within it. (See permeability. run into a well. preventing the passage of fluid. 2428. in the line.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the impact wrench is the air-operated automobile lugwrench used at modern service stations and garages. 2429. in situ combustion a method of enhanced recovery in which thermal energy is used to channel crude oil to the producing wellbore. Z. 326 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which is made up on drill pipe or tubing at the surface. impending blowout impermeable early manifestation or indication of a blowout. Air is introduced into the reservoir through an injection well to support combustion. the size. combining with some hydrocarbons in the formation to maintain combustion as well as supply thermal energy for the process. Air is continually injected. IN-LINE EQUIPMENT Pumps. separators. impression block a block with lead or another relatively soft material on the bottom of it. 2 2426.

When the instrument is retrieved. For example. inch. 327 Petroleum Engineer: M. the distance from the center of the disk the hole was punched by the free-swinging plumb bob indicates the degree of drift or deviation from the vertical hole is being drilled. Z. 2433. There are several types of drift indicators. another is a plumb bob encased in a small steel tube which on signal punches a hole in a paper disk.com . one is the acid bottle inclinometer (q. incipient blowout INCLINOMETER (See ironing blowout. in in/sec in3 INCENTIVE PRICING 2 2432. gas found at great depths. coalseam gas (q.mzhelu@gmail. inches per second. 2434. 2435. geopressurized gas.) may receive incentive pricing if it qualifies under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regulations. Pricing above the going market price for a product that may be more costly to produce.v.) An instrument used downhole to determine the degree of deviation from the vertical of a well bore at different depths. cubic inch. 2436. a drift indicator.). Incentive pricing is often the difference between producing a natural resource and not producing because of the high cost of production.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2430.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

bonds. 328 Petroleum Engineer: M. Independent operators and small producing companies are credited with finding most of the new oil fields. independent a nonintegrated oil company whose operations are in the field of petroleum production only excluding transportation. having no pipeline system or refinery. 2439. Rights that have no physical existence but that authorize certain activities or interests.mzhelu@gmail. independent wire-rope center (IWRC) a type of construction of steel drilling lines or wire rope that provides a separate wire rope to serve as a core for the drilling line and prevent it from being crushed. land either overlooked by the majors or thought not worth fooling with until a discovery is made. revolutions per minute. Independents often lease and drill on small parcels of land. refining. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and marketing. the power developed within the cylinder of an engine which is greater than the power delivered at the drive shaft by the amount of mechanical friction which must be overcome.com . 2438. INDEPENDENT PRODUCER (1) A person or corporation that produces oil for the market. 2 2442. stroke.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2437. INDICATED HORSEPOWER Calculated horsepower. 2440. and the number of cylinders. INCORPOREAL RIGHTS Having no material body or form. Z. An engine's horsepower is calculated by using the bore. Said of casements. or patents. (2) An oil-country entrepreneur who secures financial backing and drills his own well an independent operator. See Brake Horsepower. Once discoveries are made it is the large oil companies that do most of the development work.

2449. INDICATOR PASTE. 2446. 329 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2448. when compared with resistivity readings. INDUSTRIAL GAS inertia INFILL DRILLING Gas purchased for resale to industrial users. the tendency of an object having mass to resist a change in velocity. interruptible gas (q. WATER A paste material applied to a steel gauge line or wooden gauge pole that changes color when immersed in water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. INDICATOR PASTE. an induction survey. GASOLINE A viscous material applied to a steel gauge line or gauge pole that changes color when it comes in contact with gasoline.v.com . can aid in determination of oil and water zones. Eddy currents are induced in the formations by a transmitter coil through which an alternating current circulates. It is usually conducted in conjunction with a regular electric survey (ES). The voltages are amplified and recorded on the surface.). making it easy for the gauger to read the height of gasoline in the tank. Because oil-bearing formations are less conductive to electricity than water-bearing formations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2443.mzhelu@gmail. induction survey (I-ES) an electrical well log in which the conductivity of the formation rather than the resistivity is measured. It is used to detect the presence of water in a tank of oil. 2 2445. 2450. Wells drilled to fill in between established producing wells on a ]erase a drilling program to reduce the spacing between wells in order to increase production from the lease. The current sets up magnetic fields that induce voltages in a receiver coil. and thus is shortened to I-ES. Z.

Salt is a mud inhibitor.com . and to corrosive environments to decrease corrosive action. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2451. added in small quantity to gasolines to prevent oxidation and gum formation. INGAA inhibited acid Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. A bank of indicators. infilling well INFLUENT INFORMATION CONSOLE. 2455. weight on the drill bit. mud pressure. to keep the driller informed of all aspects of the drilling operation. See Effluent. The flow of liquids or gas into a vessel or equipment. 2454. 330 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2 2453. DRILLER a well drilled between known producing wells to better exploit the reservoir. or acid fracturing. an acid that has been chemically treated before acidizing. etc. and display dials showing weight of the drillstring. mud pump speed. inhibited mud a drilling fluid to which chemicals have been added to prevent it from causing clay particles in a formation to swell and thus impair the permeability of a productive zone. engine speed. (See acidize.) 2 2459. inhibitor an additive used to retard undesirable chemical action in a product.mzhelu@gmail. Z. to lubricating oils to stop color change. 2 2461. counters. 2 2457. a well to lessen its corrosive effect on the tubular goods and yet maintain its effectiveness..

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . heel. initial stability the stability of an offshore drilling rig when upright or with a small angle of 2469. 2 2468. 2 2464. and is no longer pumpable. Inhibitors are sometimes used to interfere with a chemical reaction somewhere along the process train. maximizing oil recovery and conserving resources. An inhibitor's role is the reverse of a catalyst's. recorded after testing operations and recovery of load oil and used as an indicator of the maximum ability of a well to produce on completion without subsequent reservoir damage. or set up.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2462. 331 Petroleum Engineer: M. Injection The process of pumping gas or water into an oil-producing reservoir to provide a driving mechanism for increased oil production. 2471.mzhelu@gmail. 2470. 2 2466. INHIBITORS A substance that slows down a chemical reaction. initial potential (IP) the early production of an oil well. Injecting Injecting water or gas into the reservoir for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure. gas injected in gas-lift operations. Z. initial set the point at which a cement slurry begins to harden. injected gas a high-pressure gas injected into a formation to maintain or restore reservoir pressure.

nine spot. at a rate proportional to that of the flow of the well fluid. 2 2474. the most common method of gauging a tank. injection well a well in which fluids have been injected into an underground stratum to increase reservoir pressure.com . injection pattern the spacing and pattern of wells in a secondary recovery or pressuremaintenance project determined from the location of existing wells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2472. and cost of drilling new wells. five spot. seven spot. 2 2478. 2 2476. See Outage Gauge. Operating power may be derived from electric motors or gas-driven. In addition to all necessary drilling equipment. and peripheral. 2 2480. injection pump a chemical feed pump that injects chemical reagents into a flow-line system. reservoir size and shape. INNAGE GAUGE A measure of the quantity of oil in a tank calculated on the basis of the depth of oil in the tank. diaphragm-operated motors or by linkage with the walking beam of a pumping well.mzhelu@gmail. to treat emulsions. Barge rigs are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by a towboat. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 332 Petroleum Engineer: M. such barges have crew quarters. type of offset operations used. Common injection patterns include line drive. Z. INLAND BARGE RIG A drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel for use in shallow water or swampy locations.

mzhelu@gmail. tenance operation. to control them within a predetermined 333 Petroleum Engineer: M. inspection windows are large enough to permit a mechanic to enter the crankcase to inspect or "change out" a bearing. allowing mud to be pumped in but preventing any flow back up the stem. speed of rotation. inside blowout presenter a valve installed in the drill stem to prevent a blowout inside the stem. 2486.) A flat metal plate fitted with a gasket and bolted over an opening in the gearbox of a pump or the crankcase of an engine. inside cutter INSPECTION PLATE (See internal cutter. 2485. rate of flow. multicylinder engines. INNOVATOR'S ROYALTY A type of overriding royalty paid to the person instrumental in bringing a company to a concession from a foreign government British a fixer's royalty. 2482. See Overriding Royalty. INPUT WELL A well used for injecting water or gas into a formation in a secondary recovery or pressure main 2483. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. On large. to indicate these phenomena with visible or audible signals. 2484.com . By removing the plate an inspection of the gears or crank and connecting-rod bearings can be made. temperature. instrumentation a device or assembly of devices designed for one or more of the following functions to measure operating variables (as pressure. Z.). to record them.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2481. etc. Flow is thus possible only downward.

and to stop operations if the control fails. and preparation of the drillsite. 2487. 2488. 2489. A company engaged in all phases of the oil business. Simple instrumentation might consist of an indicating pressure gauge only. INTANGIBLES INTEGRATED OIL COMPANY Short for intangible drilling costs (q. insulating flange a flange equipped with plastic pieces to separate its metal parts. 2490. a company that handles its own oil from wellhead to gasoline pump.. thus preventing the inflow of electric current. refining. 334 Petroleum Engineer: M. hauling. the desired range of pressure. 2491.e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. do the items for which expenditures were made have salvage value? If not they qualify under the tax laws as intangible drilling costs. Intangible costs include also the construction of derricks. intake valve the cam-operated mechanism on an engine through which air and sometimes fuel are admitted to the cylinder. transportation. In a completely automatic system. Insulating flanges are often used in cathodic protection systems to prevent electrolytic corrosion and are sometimes installed when a flowline is being attached to a wellhead. temperature. Z. The rule of thumb is. and so on is predetermined and preset. production. buildings.mzhelu@gmail. repairs. tanks. pipelines on the lease. but do not include the material or equipment. fuel. INTANGIBLE DRILLING COSTS Expenditures made by an operator for labor. and marketing. i.v. and supplies used in drilling and completing a well for production.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering range.).

In simple English. integrating orifice meter an orifice meter with an automatic integrating device. intermediate casing string the string of casing set in a well after the surface casing to keep the hole from caving. The string is sometimes called protection casing. Z. HORIZONTAL INTEREST IN AN OIL OR GAS WELL INTERFACE See Horizontal Integratio also Vertical Integration. 2493. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. one behind the other. Sometimes the blowout preventers can be attached to it. It is constructed so that the product of the square roots of each of the differential and static pressures is recorded on the chart. In a packed or fullline pumping under pressure the integrity of the interface is well maintained.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2492. The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in. also Working Interest.) 335 Petroleum Engineer: M. intermitter a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. When the product total is multiplied by the orifice flow constant. The products are continuously totaled and shown on a counter index. See Operating Interest. 2497.com . The point or are a where two dissimilar products or grades of crude oil meet in a pipeline as they are pumped. Intermittent gas lift (See gas lift. INTEGRATION.mzhelu@gmail. 2495. the rate of flow is directly determined. this means that there is surprisingly little mixing of the two batches of produc 2496. 2494.

Compare continuous phase.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2498. 2502. 336 Petroleum Engineer: M. internal-combustion engine a heat engine in which the pressure necessary to produce motion of the mechanism results from the ignition or burning of a fuel-air mixture within the engine cylinder. drill pipe with intermal upset has a uniform. Z. 2504. a regulation device used in production of a flowing well. The severed portion of the pipe can then be returned to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. containing metal-cutting knives. that is lowered into the inside of a length of pipe stuck in the hole to cut the pipe. which has the extra thickness on the outside. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. internal preventer internal upset an inside blowout preventer. INTERMEDIATE STRING intermitter 2499. straight wall outside. See Casing. 2501. internal phase the fluid droplets or solids that are dispersed throughout another liquid in an emulsion. internal cutter a fishing tool. Unlike conventional drill pipe. Compare external upset.com . 2503. an extra-thick inside wall on the end of tubing or drill pipe at the point where it is threaded to compensate for the metal removed in threading. 2500. The well flows wide open (not through a choke) for short periods several times a day and is then closed in.

2506. 2508. Upset casing is normally run at the top of long strings in deep operations. 337 Petroleum Engineer: M. eventually are phased out of international trade operations. the purpose of which is the conservation of oil and gas by the prevention of waste. it is synonymous with connate water. 2507. INTERSTATE OIL COMPACT A compact between oil-producing states negotiated and approved by Congress in 1935.com . usually to industrial plants and large commercial firms. that can be curtailed or interrupted during emergencies or supply shortages in order to maintain service to domestic customers.mzhelu@gmail. and metric. international SI metric system a system of measure based on the metric system and described and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.S. Thus the outer wall of the pipe is the same diameter throughout its length. interstice interstitial water a pore space in a reservoir rock. Originally. water contained in the interstices of a reservoir rock. there were six states as members. today. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2505. both U. In reservoir engineering. 2509. there are nearly 30. It provides an international standard of measurement to be followed when certain customary units. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TINTERRUPTIBLE GAS A gas supply. The Compact provides no power to coerce but relies on voluntary agreement to accomplish its objectives. 2510. internal-upset pipe tubular goods in which the pipe walls at the threaded end are thickened (upset) on the inside to provide extra strength in the tool joints.

asphaltic materials. while molten. io a hydrogen atom or a molecule of other compounds that is either charged positively (a action) or negatively (an anion). 2512. 2516. initial potential. 2. I occ IOSA Interstate Oil Compact Commission. IP 1.. made up of soaps. Compare reverse emulsion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. intrusive rock an igneous rock that. the water is dispersed as droplets throughout the oil). 2514. Sometimes it is called an invert-emulsion mud or an invert-oil-emulsion mud.) 2515.com . invert emulsion an emulsion of water in oil (i.mzhelu@gmail. lignite. 338 Petroleum Engineer: M. invaded zone an area within a permeable rock adjacent to a wellbore into which a filtrate (usually water) from the drilling mud has passed. 2517.. 2513. (See oil mud and oil-base mud. Z. the water is dispersed throughout the oil in small droplets to form a tight emulsion.used in drilling reports.e. invert-oil mud an oil mud used for drilling or workover. International Oil Scouts Association.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2511. and 10 to 50 percent water. initial production. In the resulting fluid. with consequent partial or total displacement of the fluids originally present in the zone. penetrated into or between other rocks and solidified.

com . Z. isobutane. appear in two. Many organic substances. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. although composed of the same number of the same atoms. 2521. Okla. 2523. Its work is chiefly concerned with the relationships between the oil industry and the public and government 2519. Irreducible Water Saturation In a sufficiently thick and homogenous hydrocarbon reservoir this represents the minimum possible water saturation. a group that sets standards for instruments made and used in the U. isooctane. ISA the Instrument Society of America. isopentane.S. for example. In petroleum fractions there are many substances that are similar. IPAA the Independent Petroleum Association of America. an organization of independent oil and gas producers headquartered in Tulsa. isogonic line an imaginary line on a map that joins places on the earth's surface at which the variation of a magnetic compass needle from true north is the same. differing only in specific gravity. 2522. which may range from 0 to 30 or more degrees either east or west 339 Petroleum Engineer: M. three. ISO A prefix denoting similarity. and many other isomers. or more varieties or isomers which differ widely in physical and chemical properties. This variation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2518.mzhelu@gmail. irnpeller a set of mounted blades (as the rotor of a centrifugal pump) used to impart motion to a fluid. 2520.

e. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ISOMERIZATION A refinery process for converting chemical compounds into their isomers. ISOPENTANE ISOTHERMAL A high-octane blending stock for automotive gasoline. 2525. It is widely used in calculating reserves and in planning secondary-recovery projects. Z. 2528.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of true north. ISOPACHOUS MAP A geological map a that shows the thickness and conformation of underground formations. 2524. the expansion or compression is isothermal. isopach map a geological map of subsurface strata showing the various thicknesses of a given formation underlying an area. At constant temperature. When a gas is expanded or compressed at a constant temperature. 2529. rearranging the structure of the molecules without changing their size or chemical composition. i.mzhelu@gmail. must be compensated for to obtain an accurate reading of direction.. Petroleum Engineer: M. IWRC 340 inclement wire-rope center. 2527. ISOMERS Compounds having the same composition and the same molecular weight but differing in properties. 2530.com . 2526. Heat must be added to expanding gas and removed from compressing gas to keep it isothermal. used in determining underground oil and gas reserves.

mzhelu@gmail. The pins may thus be raised out. The releasing procedure is called "unjaying the tool. male element that has pins that fit into milled J-shaped slots on the sleeve. releasing weight that may be supported by the sleeve. 2532. Z. It is sometimes referred to as a stabbing jack.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2531. Petroleum Engineer: M. jack-up a jack-up drilling rig." 2533. When the male element is lowered and turned relative to the sleeve. JACK RABBIT A device that is put through casing or tubing before it is run to make certain it is the proper size inside and outside. electric motor. the pins slide in the slot towards the long side of the J. or rod line from a central power. which is open-ended. JACK BOARD A wood or metal prop used to support a joint of line pipe while another joint is being screwed into it. The pumping jack's walking beam provides the up and down motion to the well's pump rods. Jack boards have metal spikes inserted at intervals to support the pipe at different levels. a drift mandrel. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2534. The short sides of the J-slots provide a shoulder for supporting weight on the pins of the male element. 2535. a device used to support the end of a length of pipe while another length is being screwed onto the pipe.com . 2536. a sleeve receptacle with a fitted. JAC K An oil well pumping unit powered by a gasoline engine. J-4 FUEL J-tool A designation for highly refined kerosene used as fuel for jet engines.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2537. sticking up high above the platform. 2538. jack-up drilling rig an offshore drilling structure with tubular or derrick legs that support the deck and hull.) 2542.OFFSHORE PLATFORM jackknife mast See Platform Jacket. JACK-UP RIG A barge-like. When on location. 342 Petroleum Engineer: M. the legs of the jack-up rig are in a raised position. floating platform with legs at each corner that can be lowered to the sea bottom to raise or "jack up" the platform above the water. jackknife rig a drilling rig that has jack-knife mast instead of a standard derrick. (See mast. the legs are run down hydraulically or by individual electric motors.com . it is lowered or laid down intact and transported by truck.mzhelu@gmail.A masttype derrick whose supporting legs are hinged at the base. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Towed to location offshore. 2540. the bottoms of the legs rest on the seafloor. 2539. Once the legs are firmly positioned on the bottom. Jacket Offshore platform consisting of a framework of tubular members with a deck (or decks) on top and piles driven through the framework to fix the structure to the sea bed. A jack-up rig is towed or propelled to a location with its legs up. JACKET. opensided tower raised vertically by special lifting tackle attached to the traveling block. Z. a structural-steel. When the rig is to be moved. 2541. the deck and hull height are adjusted and leveled. When positioned over the drilling site.

See Bumper Sub. jar a percussion tool operated mechanically or hydraulically to deliver a heavy hammer blow to objects in the borehole. especially when the bit becomes stuck in the hole. When the drilling line is slacked off. Jack shafts usually are relatively short and often are splined. Cable-tool jars (part of the drillstring) are essentially a pair of elongated. jackshaft a short shaft that is usually set between two machines to provide increased or decreased flexibility and speed. After the first nut is threaded and tightened on a stud. Blows may be delivered downward or upward. 2546. Fishing.com . haft in the power train. JAM NUT A nut used to jam and lock another nut securely in place. interlocking steel links with a couple of feet of "play" between the links. jars are used to free objects stuck in the hole or to loosen tubing or drill pipe that is hung up. When the line is suddenly tightened the upper link moves upward engaging the lower link with great force that usually frees the stuck bit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.An intermediate. the upper link of the jars moves down into the lower link.mzhelu@gmail. to apply a heavy blow to the frill stem by use of a jar. the second and locking nut on a stud bolt.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2543. JARS A tool for producing a jarring impact in cable-toot drilling. 2544. 2545. the jar being controlled at the surface. 343 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. a second nut is tightened down on the first nut to prevent it from working loose. jar accelerator a hydraulic tool used in conjunction with a jar and made up on the fishing string above it to increase the power of the hammer blow 2547.

com . The explosive is lowered into the pipe to the desired depth and detonated. jet 1. 2552.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2548. the drilling fine is jerked (pulled up and released suddenly) providing an up and down motion to the spudding tools on a cable tool rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. jet bit a drilling bit having nozzles through which drilling fluid is directed in a highvelocity stream to improve the efficiency of the bit at the bottom of the hole. 2550. As the crank revolves.mzhelu@gmail. in a perforating gun using shaped charges. If there is a break or holiday (q. an electric charge.) in the protective coating a signal is transmitted through the indicator ring to an alarm.v. a hydraulic device operated by pump pressure to clean mud pits and tanks in rotary drilling and to mix mud components. jerk line a short rope used on the cathead of the drilling rig to tighten pipe-joints by pulling on the makeup longs. jet cutoff a procedure for severing pipe stuck in a well by detonating special shapedcharge explosives similar to those used in jet perforating. The force of the 344 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. Z. cement. 2553. JEEPING Refers to the operation of inspecting pipe coating with the aid of electronic equipment. 2549. fast-moving stream of exploded particles that cuts a hole in the casing. a highly penetrating. and formation. JERKER A line connects the bandwheel crank to the drilling cable. An indicator ring is passed over the pipe which caries. 2551.

JET FUEL jet gun A specially refined grade of kerosene used in jet propulsion engines. Once detonated. The loaded charges are lowered into the hole to the desired depth.mzhelu@gmail. that is used in jet perforating. mixing with the dry cement to form a slurry for pumping downhole to cement the casing in a well or for a squeeze job. jet-perforate to burn a hole through the casing with a shaped charge of high explosives instead of a gun that fires projectiles. 2557. or other fluid that imparts motion and subsequent pressure to a fluid medium. and the severed portion of the pipe is retrieved.) 345 Petroleum Engineer: M. and so forth. jet out jet pump to use a jet to clean out the cellar. a pump that operates by means of a jet of steam. Z. 2559. slush pit. JET MIXER (CEMENT) A device consisting of a hopper to which a water supply under pressure is connected. 2555. (See jet-perforate.) 2554. (See bullet perforator and gunperforate.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering explosion makes radiating horizontal cuts around the pipe. See Squeeze a Well. penetrating jets of high-pressure gases that cut holes in the casing and cement and some distance into the formation. 2558.) 2556. water. Sacks of cement are opened and dumped one at a time into the hopper. The high-pressure water is jetted through the lower part of the hopper. including a carrier and shaped charges. (See jet-perforate. an assembly.com . Formation fluids then flow into the wellbore through the perforations. the charges emit short. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

through an attached hose. The jetted water. At the waist of the venturi the stream's velocity is increased even more and the pressure at this point is substantially reduced.) through which "clean" drilling mud is pumped at high pressure and velocity. This is done with a suction hose that derives its partial vacuum from a jet nozzle arrangement. JETTING Injecting gas into a subsurface formation for the purpose of maintaining reservoir pressure.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The patented jet sled straddles the pipeline and scours out the seabed material ahead and beneath the line with a sears of high-pressure jets of sea water. drilled rock fragments from the bottom of the working mud pits. JETTED-PARTICLE DRILLING A method of drilling in hard rock formations using steel pellets forced at high velocity from openings in the bottom of the drill bit. Jetted particle drilling has been used more or less experimentally and has not had wide acceptance. a type of venturi (q. the cutting from the bottom of the working pit in 346 Petroleum Engineer: M.1. The jetted particles are used with air drilling. JETTING THE PITS A method of removing cuttings.200 psi. Z. 2561. creating enough vacuum to draw in.v. 2563. The power is supplied by a series of high-pressure pumps aboard an accompanying jet barge. The small steel pellets after striking and chipping the rock are returned to the surface by the force of the returning drilling air. 2562.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2560.com . at . JETSLED An underwater trenching machine for burying a pipeline below the sea floor. along with the rock which has been pulverized. is directed ahead and below the fine and literally cuts a ditch in the sea floor into which the line is laid.

tubing. three. As the chips are drawn Into the hose. equipment. or rod that has threaded connections at both ends. JOINT A length of pipe. A pier (q. companies.v. and fourble. JETTY JOCKEY 2565.com .) 2567.a single length (30 ft) of drill pipe or of drill collar. An experienced and proficient driver of largo trucks or earth-moving 2566. they are discharged in the reserve pits. Z. These multiple-joint sections are called stands (q. JOINT ADVENTURE joint movement See Joint Venture. 347 Petroleum Engineer: M. the shipment of a tender of oil through the facilities of one or more pipeline 2569. thribble.casing. drillpipe and tubing are run the first time (lowered into the hole) a joint at a time. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). casing. On drilling rigs.v. Several joints screwed together constitute a stand of pipe. 2564. or four at a time depending upon the height of the derrick.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the manner of a vacuum cleaner. 2568. joint tariff a rate sheet issued jointly by two or more companies setting forth charges for moving oil over the facilities of each. when pulled out of the hole and stacked in the rig. they are usually pulled two. or tubing usually from 20 to 30 feet long. (See double.).mzhelu@gmail.

See Consortium. Usually the partner with the largest interest in the venture will be the operator. JUMBO BURNER A flare used for burning waste gas produced with oil when there is no ready market or the supply of gas is too small or temporary to warrant a pipeline. Out on the water there is no place to put the oil during a test or when a well is allowed to blow to clean the hole so the oil has to be burned. Joint venture 1easing is a common practice.mzhelu@gmail. 2575.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2570. is equipped with air and water jets around the perimeter of the burner nozzle. JOURNALBOX jug jug hustler A metal housing that supports and protects a journal bearing. A special kind of jumbo burner is used on offshore drilling platforms to burn oil and gas when a well is being tested or in the event of an emergency. Z. The big burner. 2573. mounted on a boom or an extension of the platform deck.One who carries and places geophones in seismic work.com . the weight bearing segment of the shaft. 2572. (See geophone. JOINT VENTURE A business or enterprise entered into by two or more partners. Geophones are strung along the ground over an area where seismic shots are to be made by jug hustlers.) (slang) the member of a seismograph crew who places the geophones. 2574. See Journal. JOURNAL That part of a rotating shaft that rests and turns in the bearing. When oil is burned the air and water jets are turned on which results in the complete 348 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2571.

The basket is lowered into the hole and by the turbulence set up by pumping of the drilling mud the lost object is washed into the basket. some of the oil would fall to the water below and present a real hazard. When the basket is brought back to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. drilling cones off the bit. JUNK BASKET A type of fishing tool used to retrieve small objects lost is in the borehole or down the casing. the junk enters a barrel in the tool and is held by metal projections. 2580. As the core is cut. the junk is removed with the core. Z. etc. 2577. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. such objects as small slipe. JUNK MILLS Drill bits with specially hardened. Without the high-pressure air and water jets to aerate and supply oxygen the oil would not burn completely. JUMBOIZING A technique used to enlarge an oil tanker's carrying capacity by cutting the vessel in two amidships and inserting a section between the halves. Jumbo burner or forced-draft burner.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering combustion of the of oil.com . tools. or catchers. or any relatively small object that impedes drilling and must be fished out of the hole.a device made up on the bottom tom of the drill stem to cut a core into the bottom of the hole on which junk rests. 2578. junk may be a lost bit. 2579. milled pieces of pipe. After the junk has been ground or broken up 349 Petroleum Engineer: M. rough cutting to grind and pulverize downhole "junk" material or nonretrievable tools or equipment such as millable packers and the like. to abandon (as a nonproductive well). junior orifice fitting junk a one-piece orifice fitting without flanges. wrenches. pieces of a bit. metal debris lost in a hole. 2576.

Z.mzhelu@gmail. non drillable objects circulating in the annulus. 2581.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering into small pieces. the pieces can be circulated the surface by the drilling mud or bypassed by the regular drillstring.com . junk sub a tool run just above the bit or mill in the drill stem to catch small. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 350 Petroleum Engineer: M.

or vice versa. 25K to 60K. used in drilling reports. degree Kelvin. To the ad writer this is scientific shorthand meant to catch the eye of the no-nonsense engineer or technical person.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2582. through which the kelly passes and by means of which the torque of the rotary table is transmitted to the kelly and to the drill stem. When a high-pressure backflow begins inside the drill stem. the valve is closed to keep pressure off the swivel and rotary hose.g.or sixsided. (See &kelvin temperature scale. also $25K . 2585. e. It has a bored passageway that permits fluid to be circulated into the drill stem and up the annulus. a centerline strength member running fore and aft along the bottom of a floating offshore drilling rig. notably petroleum industry ads. kelly bushing a device fitted to the rotary table. forming the backbone of the structure. A kelly cock is also inserted in the string below the kelly joint in some instances..$60K. one thousand. K The abbreviation for kilo. Z. KB keel kelly bushing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Petroleum Engineer: M.com . suspended from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns. Kelly the heavy steel member. four.mzhelu@gmail.A blowout preventer built inside a three-foot section of sleet tubing inserted in the drillstring above the kelly. Also called the drive bushing.) 2583. In certain employment ads. kelly cock a valve installed between the swivel and the kelly. 2584. 2586. the letter K is used instead of three zeros in giving salary ranges. 2587.

KELLY SAFETY VALVE KELLY SAVER SUB See Kelly Cock. It is useful when the kelly or a joint of pipe attached to it must be spun up. See Kelly Valve. Attached to the top of the kelly or grief stem (q. KELLY HOSE KELLY JOINT See Mud Hose. when actuated. unloosened.) are the swivel and mud hose. e. Lower. causes the kelly to turn or spin. The spinner saves time in unscrewing and again in screwing in when a joint of drillpipe must be added to the string. Z. LOWER An automatic valve attached to the lower end of the kelly joint that opens and closes by mud pump pressure.v. 2590.mzhelu@gmail. KELLY SPINNER A mechanism attached to the swivel that spins the kelly joint in and out of the first joint of drillpipe after the kelly has been broken out. rotated rapidly in order to make up the kelly or pipe in another joint of pipe. minimizing wear on the kelly.a pneumatically-operated device mounted on top of the kelly that. 2593. KELLY VALVE.com .. The threads of the drill pipe mate with those of the saver. The first and the sturdiest joint of the drill column. the thick-walled. 2589. 2591. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2588. The purpose of the valve is to prevent the 352 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2592.a saver sub that fits in the drill stem between the kelly and drill pipe. i. hollow steel forging with two flat sides and two rounded sides that fit into a square hole in the rotary table which rotates the kelly joint and the drill column.

2594.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering mud in the kelly joint from pouring out on the derrick floor each time the kelly is disconnected from the drillpipe. the pumps are started and the mud pressure opens the kelly valve and drilling resumes. When the mud pump is stopped. 353 Petroleum Engineer: M. the kelly valve automatically closes. kerosine a light. On the Kelvin scale. and speeds up the job of making a connection. kerogen shales contain material neither petroleum nor coal but an intermediate bitumen material with some of the properties of both. KEROSENE. but "kerosine" is preferred by the API to parallel "gasoline". RAW Kerosene-cut from the distillation of crude oil. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Kerogen is identified as a pyrobitumen. Z.com . KEROGEN SHALES Commonly called oil shales. Small amounts of petroleum are usually associated with kerogen shales but the bulk of the oil is derived from heating the shale to about 660'F. 2597. flammable hydrocarbon fuel or solvent.mzhelu@gmail. keeps the rig floor dry. (See absolute temperature scale. 2599. It is also spelled kerosene. 2598. The automatic valve saves valuable mud. See Kerogen Shales. Kelvin temperature scale a temperature scale with the degree interval of the centigrade scale and the zero point at absolute zero. KEROGEN A bituminous material occurring in certain shales which yield a type of oil when heated. After a joint of drillpipe is added to the String and the kelly is made up tight.) 2 2596. water freezes at 273' and boils at 373'. not treated or "doctor tested" to improve odor and color.

Key seating results from the dragging of pipe on a sharp bend in the hole. 2605. KEY (1) A tool used in pulling or running sucker rods of a pumping oil well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2600. then an accurate contouring of the key bed well indicate the subsurface strata. other strata conform to the key bed. KEYWAY kg A groove or slot in a shaft or wheel to hold a key (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a channel or groove cut in the side of the hole parallel to the axis of the hole.v. KEYSEATING A condition downhole when the drill collar or another part of the drillstring becomes wedged in a section of crooked hole. KEYSEAT A section of the well bore deviating abruptly from the vertical causing drilling tools to hang up. 1. a hook-shaped wrench that fits the square shoulder of the rod connection. a groove cut in a shaft or pulley bore parallel to the axis. 2601. (2) A slender metal piece used to fasten a pulley wheel or gear onto a shaft. kilogram. Rod wrenches are used in pairs. 2602. 2. particularly a dogleg which is an abrupt deviation from the vertical or the general direction of the hole being drilled. 354 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . The key fits into slots (keyways) cut in both the hub of the wheel and the shaft. KEYBED The stratum chosen for contouring or making tin isopachous map.). 2604. Z. a shoulder in the borehole. If as it is hoped.mzhelu@gmail. one to hold back-up and the other to break out and unscrew the rod. 2603.

WATERFLOOD KICKING DOWN A WELL See Waterflood Kick. kick an entry of water. 3.com . oil. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2606. If the gas pressure is not controlled by Increasing the mud weight. 2607. A primitive method of drilling a shallow well using manpower (leg power). a kick can violently expel the column of drifting mud resulting in a blowout. to swab a well to restore it to production. a pole made from a small tree was used to support the drilling line and bit in the hole. 2609. causing loss of circulation. 355 Petroleum Engineer: M. lifting the bit ready for another "kick" by the driller. Kh This symbol is used in petrophysical and reserves calculations to represent the maximum permeability of a rock formation. in workover operations. 2. It occurs because the pressure exerted by the column of drilling fluid is not great enough to overcome the pressure exerted by the fluids in the formation drilled. If prompt action is not taken to control the kick or kill the well.mzhelu@gmail. to deviate a wellbore from the vertical. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or other formation fluid into the wellbore. 2608.Pressure from downhole in excess of that exerted by the weight of the drilling mud.usually by injecting gas. kick off 1. The green sapling would spring back. KICK. 2610. The driller with his foot in a stirrup to the line would kick downward causing the pole to bend and the bit to hit the bottom of the hole. a blowout will occur. gas. to bring a well into production. In oil's very early days.

and selling it as Kier Rock Oil.. Kier began refining kerosene. to shut in the well with the blowout preventers. kickoff point (KOP) the depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2611. in production. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. With the assistance of J.com . In the early 1850s. circulate the kick out. Usually the conditions concern pricing or market availability. KIER. Booth. kill 1. to prevent a threatened blowout by taking suitable preventive measures (e. in drilling.C. Kier was skimming crude oil from the water of his salt wells in Pittsburgh. 356 Petroleum Engineer: M. and increase the weight of the drilling mud).. one-vessel refineries around the country making kerosene for use in a new lamp that had been invented. 2615.g. By 1859 and the advent of Drake's well. 2612. there were nearly a hundred small. usually greater than that required to maintain the well in production.mzhelu@gmail. 2614. SAMUAL M. a Philadelphia chemist who designed a crude. Pa. used in directional drilling. a medicinal cure-all Soon he had more oil than he could peddle in bottles so he became interested in refining. Z. 2. kickoff pressure the gas pressure required to kick off a well. coal-fired still. KICKOUT CLAUSE In some purchase contracts for oil and gas a clause that permits the purchaser. to renegotiate the contract. 2613. under certain conditions. to stop a well from producing oil and gas so that reconditioning of the well can proceed.

It gas pressure threatens to cause loss of circulation or a blowout. KILLER WELL A directional well drilled near an out-of-control well to "kill" it by flooding the formation with water or mud. 357 Petroleum Engineer: M. kinematic Viscosity the absolute viscosity of a fluid divided by the density of the fluid at the temperature of the viscosity measurement. 2620.mzhelu@gmail. See Kick. 2617.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2616. 2618. kill a well 1. provided to remind personnel of the necessary steps to take to kill a well. Wells that have blown out and caught fire are often brought under control in this manner it other means tail. drilling mud is made heavier (heavied-up) by the addition of special clays or other material. kill sheet a printed form that contains blank spaces for recording information about killing an impending blowout.com . 2619. kill line a high-pressure line that connects the mud pump and the well and through which heavy drilling fluid can be pumped into the well to control a threatened blowout. 2. To overcome downhole pressure in a drilling well by the use of drilling mud or water. to circulate water and mud into a completed well before starting well-servicing operations. One important function of drilling mud is to maintain control over any downhole gas pressures that may be encountered. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to bring under control a well that is threatening to blow out. Z.

or 6. 2622. KNUCKLE BUSTER A wrench so worn or of such poor quality that it will not hold when under the strain of heavy work. knockout drops knot (slang) a slugging compound. 2625. a block is inserted between the rodline hook and the knock-off post which interrupts the line's forward movement putting slack in the line so that the hook may be disengaged.com . per hour.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2621.020. 2627.20 feet. The drilling crew's name for the place the driller keeps his orders and reports. KNOCKOUT A tank or separator vessel used to separate or "knock out" water from a 2624. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When the well is to be hung off (shut down). smart box. 358 Petroleum Engineer: M. knowledge box (slang) the cupboard or desk in which the driller keeps the various records pertaining to a drilling operation.mzhelu@gmail. KNOCK-OFF POST A post through which a rod line moves as it operates a pumping jack. stream of oil. a unit of speed equal to 1 nautical mile. 2623. 2626. kink a loop in a wire rope that. Z. causes permanent distortion of the wire rope. having been pulled tight. It is also equal to about I'A statute miles per hour.

A type of ship's propeller that rotates within a cylindrical cowling which concentrates the thrust of the propeller. kV kW kwh 2633. KWH. kilowatt.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2628. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Kort nozzles are installed on some tugboats and drilling-tender vessels to increase their maneuverability and response. placed above the drill bit in the drill stem. KNUCKLE JOINT A universal joint (q.) 2631. kickoff point.(See kick off. kilovolt. used in directional drilling. used in drilling reports. 2632.com . a deflection tool. kw-h kilowatt-hour. A knuckle joint is useful in fishing operations because it allows the fishing tool to be deflected to the side of the hole where a fish may have come to rest.mzhelu@gmail. 2630. with a ball and socket arrangement that allows the tool to be deflected at an angle. a type of early drilling tool hinged on a movable joint so that the drill could be deflected at an angle from the vertical. KO KOP KORT NOZZLE kicked off.v. Z. 2634. 2629. 359 Petroleum Engineer: M.). This produces a nozzle effect as the water is jetted from the cowling.

.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2635. 2640. 2638. 2637. 2639.S. land casing to install casing so it is supported in the casinghead by slips. LANDING CASING Lowering a string of casing into the hole and setting it on a shoulder of rock at a point where the diameter of the borehole has been reduced. the area between the grooves into which the rings fit on a piston. LACT lease automatic custody transfer. the area of a partly machined surface (as with grooves or indentations) that is left smooth. LANDED COST (OF OIL) The cost of a barrel of imported oil off loaded at a U. port. 2642. landed. The beginning of the smaller diameter hole forms the shoulder on which the casing is landed.) a smooth flow of fluid in which no cross flow of fluid particles occurs between adjacent stream lines. LACT unit laminar flow (See lease automatic custody transfer.com .mzhelu@gmail. The casing is usually landed in the casinghead at exactly the position in which it was hanging when the cement plug reached its lowest point. and LACT. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2641. Landed cost includes all foreign taxes and royalties plus cost of transportation. A LACT unit is an automated system for measuring and transferring oil from a leasegathering system into a pipeline. land 1. 2. 2636. landing depth the depth to which the lower end of casing extends in the hole when casing is Petroleum Engineer: M.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2643.

landman

a person in the petroleum industry who negotiates with landowners for land options, oil-drilling leases, and royalties and with producers for the pooling of production in the Field; also called leasernan.

2644.

LANDOWNER ROYALTY

A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on t property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production.

2645.

lap

an interval in the cased hole where the top of a liner overlaps the bottom of a string of casing.

2646.

LAP-WELDED PIPE

Line pipe or casing made from a sheet of steel which is formed on a mandrel. The two edges, tapered to half normal thickness, are 1a,oped over and welded. See Seamless Pipe.

2647.

lastengaged thread

the last pipe thread that is actually screwed into the coupling thread in making up a joint of drill pipe, drill collars, tubing, or casing. If the pipe makes up perfectly, it is also the last thread cut on the pipe.

2648. 2649.

latch on LATER

to attach elevators to a section of pipe to pull it out of or run it into the hole.

A metric unit of volume 1.057 U.S. quarts; 61.02 cubic inches. 362

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2650.

LATERAL LINES

Pipelines that tie into a trunk line; laterals are of smaller diameter and are laid as part of a gathering system or a distribution system. In an oil field, laterals bring oil or gas from individual leases or tank batteries to the booster station and the trunk line.

2651.

latex cement

an oil-well cement composed of latex, cement, a surfactant, and water and characterized by its high-strength bond with other materials and its resistance to contamination by oil or drilling mud.

2652.

lay barge

a barge used in the construction and placement of underwater pipelines. joints of pipe are welded together and then lowered off the stern of the barge as it moves ahead.

2653.

lay down pipe

to pull drill pipe or tubing from the hole and place it in a horizontal position on a pipe rack. Compare set back.

2654. 2655.

LAY TONGS LAY-DOWN RACK

See Pipe Tongs.

A storage area for tubing and drillpipe that are removed from a well and laid down rather than set back and racked vertically in the derrick.

2656.

LAY-DOWN THE TUBING

To pull the tubing from the well, a joint at a time, and remove it from the derrick floor to a nearby horizontal pipe rack. As each joint is unscrewed from 363

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the string, the lower end of the joint is placed on a low cart and pulled out to the rack as the driller lowers the pipe which is held up by the elevators.

2657. 2658. 2659.

layer laying down LAZY BENCH

a bed, or stratum, of rock.

(See lay down pipe.)

A bench on which workers, when not working, may rest. A perch from which a work operation may be observed by workers or loafers.

2660.

LAZY BOARD

A stout board with a handle used to support the end of a pipeline while another length of pipe is screwed into it. On small lines. the man operating the lazy board or "granny" board usually handles the back-up wrench which holds one joint of pipe firm while another joint is being screwed in.

2661.
pound.

lb lb/ft3 LB/LB

2662. 2663.

pounds per cubic foot.

Pound per pound. In a refining process, the ratio of ingredients to be mixed or introduced to the process.

364

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2664.

LBS-H2O/MMSCF

Pounds of water per million standard cubic feet (MMSCF) of natural gas. The designation of water content for large volumes of gas. See PPM/VVT.

2665.

LCCV

Large crude-carrying vessels tankers from 100,000 to 500,000 dead. weight tons capable of transporting 2.5 to 3.5 million barrels of oil in one trip. Cruising speed of LCCVs is 12 to 18 knots overall length, about 1,200 feet; draft when fully loaded, more than 80 feet.

2666.
on the lease.

lead line

the pipe through which oil or gas flows from the well to additional equipment

2667.
battery.

LEAD LINES

Lines through which production from individual wells is run to a tease tank

2668.

lead tongs

(pronounced "leed") the pipe tongs suspended in the derrick and operated by a wireline connected to the breakout cathead. They are also called breakout tongs.

2669. 2670.

lead-tong man leak-off test

the crew member who operates lead tongs during hoisting of the drill pipe.

a gradual pressurizing of the casing after the blowout preventers have been installed to permit estimation of the casing burst point. 365

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2671. 2672.

LEAN GAS lean oil

Natural gas containing little or no liquefiable hydrocarbons. See Wet Gas.

a hydrocarbon liquid usually lighter in weight than kerosine and heavier than paint thinner. In a gas-processing plant, lean oil is used in an absorber to remove heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas.

2673.

LEASE

(1) The legal instrument by which a leasehold is created in minerals. A contract that. for a stipulated sum, conveys to an operator the right to drill for oil or gas. The oil lease is not to be confused with the usual lease of land or a building. The interests created by an oil-country lease are quite different from a realty lease. (2) The location of production activity; oil installations and facilities; location of oil field office, tool house, garages.

2674.

lease automatic custody transfer

(LACT) automatic measurement and transfer of oil from a producer's tanks to a connected pipeline, which circumvents the need for personnel to be present at the site.

2675.

LEASE BROKER

A person whose business is securing leases for later sale in the hope of profit. Lease brokers operate in areas where survey or exploration work is being done.

366

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2676.

LEASE CONDENSATE

Liquid hydrocarbons produced with natural gas and separated from the gas at the well or on the lease. See Condensate.

2677.

LEASE HOUND

Colloquial term for a person whose job is securing oil and gas leases from landowners for himself or a company for which he works. See Landman.

2678.

LEASE LINES

Gathering lines on a lease; usually small-diameter (2 to 4-inch) pipelines that carry production from the lease wells to a central tank battery; lead fines.

2679.

lease metering site

the point on a lease where the volume of oil produced from the lease is measured, usually automatically.

2680. 2681. 2682.

lease operator lease tank LEASE TANKS

(See pumper.)

(See production tank.)

A battery of two or more 100 to 500-barreitanks on a lease that receive the. production from the wells on the lease. Pipeline connections are made to the lease tanks for transporting the oil to the trunk line and thence to the refinery.

2683.

leaseman

(See landman.) 367

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2684. 2685.

leeward LEFT-HAND THREAD

(nautical) downwind.

A pipe or bolt thread cut to be turned counterclockwise in tightening. Most threads are right-hand, cut to be tightened by turning clockwise. Nipples with one kind of thread on one end, another on the other end, are referred to as "bastard (q.v.) nipples."

2686. 2687. 2688.

LEGAL SUBDIVISION LEGS, OIL DERRICK lens

Forty acres; one-sixteenth of a section (square mile).

The tour corner-members of the rig, held together by sway braces and girts.

1. a porous, permeable, irregularly shaped sedimentary deposit surrounded by impervious rock. 2. a lenticular sedimentary bed that pinches out, or comes to an end, in all directions.

2689.
gas well.

LESSEE

The person or company entitled, under a lease, to drill and operate an oil or

2690.

lessor

the conveyer of a lease (as an oil and gas lease).

368

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2691.

level

1. the height or depth at which the top of a column of fluid is located (as the level of fluid in a well). 2. a horizontally even surface. 3. a device used to determine if a surface is horizontal.

2692.

LIFO-FIFO-FILO

Last in first out; first in first out; first in fast out. Acronyms that designate the sequence of movement in and out or the handling of crude oil and products in inventory or held in storage.

2693.

lifter-roof tank

a tank whose roof rises and falls with the changes of pressure in the tank but does not float on the product stored in it.

2694.

LIFTING

(1) Refers to tankers and barges taking on cargoes of oil or refined product at a terminal or transshipment point. (2) Producing an oil well by mechanical means; pump, compressed air, or gas.

2695. 2696.

LIFTING COSTS lifting nipple

The costs of producing oil from a well or a lease,

a short piece of pipe with a pronounced upset, or shoulder, on the upper end, screwed into drill pipe, drill collars, or casing to provide a positive grip for the elevators. It also is called a lifting sub or a hoisting plug.

2697.

lifting sub
369

(See hoisting plug and lifting nipple.)

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2698.

LIGHT CRUDE

Crude oil that flows freely at atmospheric temperatures and has an API gravity in the high 30s and 40s; a light-colored crude oil. See Heavy Crude Oil.

2699. 2700.

light crude oil light displacement

a crude oil of relatively high API gravity (usually 40' or higher).

on mobile offshore drilling rigs, the weight of the rig with all permanently attached equipment but without fuel, supplies, crew, ballast, drill pipe, and so forth.

2701.
gasoline.

LIGHT ENDS

The more volatile products of petroleum refining e.g. butane, propane,

2702.

LIGHT PLANT

An early-day term for an installation on a lease or at a company camp (q.v.) that provided electricity for fighting and small appliances. The light plant often was simply a belt-driven D. C. generator run off one of the engines at a pipeline pumping station or a pumping well's engine. The lights "surged" with the power strokes of the engines and went out when an engine "went down," but the lights were far better than gas lights or none at all.

2703.

lightening hole

a hole cut into a strengthening member that reduces its weight but does not affect its strength significantly. 370

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2704.

lightweight cement

a cement or cement system that handles stable scurries having densities of less than the optimum weight of neat cement.

2705.

lignosulfonate

an organic drilling fluid additive derived from by-products of a papermaking process using sulfite; added to drilling mud to minimize fluid loss and to reduce the viscosity of the mud.

2706.

limber hole

a hole cut in a structural member of a ship or offshore drilling rig, usually in a tank, to allow water to pass through freely.

2707. 2708.

LIME lime mud

Colloquial for limestone.

a drilling mud that is treated with lime to provide a source of soluble calcium in the filtrate in order to obtain desirable mud properties when drilling in shale or clay formations.

2709.

limestone

a sedimentary rock rich in calcium carbonate that sometimes serves as a reservoir rock for petroleum.

2710.

line

1. any length of pipe through which liquid or gas flows. 2. rope or wire rope. 3. electrical wire.

371

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2711.

line drive

in water-flooding, a pattern of injection wells designed to advance water to the producing wells in the form of a frontal movement. (See waterflood.)

2712.

LINE FILL AND LINE PACK

Line fill The amount of gas or oil or product required to fill a new line before deliveries can be made at take-off I points or the end of the fine. Line pack The volume of gas or barrels or oil maintained in a trunk pipeline at all times in order to maintain pressure and provide uninterrupted flow of gas or oil. There are millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas in the country's pipelines at ad times.

2713.

LINE LIST

Instructions to the pipeline construction crews building a line across the land of many property owners. The instructions list all owners, the length of line across each property, and include any special restrictions such as "keep all gates closed and in good repair" and "avoid at all costs damaging large trees." The right-of-way man leaps make up the line list,

2714.
forth.

line pipe

a steel or plastic pipe used in pipelines, gathering systems, flow lines, and so

2715.
(See pig.)

line scraper

372

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2716.

LINE, GAS SALES

Merchantable natural-gas line from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying gas that has had water and other impurities removed; a line carrying pipeline gas (q.v.).

2717.

LINE, OIL SALES

Merchantable crude-oil fine from a lease or offshore production processing platform carrying oil that has had water and other impurities removed; a line transporting pipeline oil, (q.v.).

2718.

LINE-PACK GAS

Gas maintained in a gas transmission line at all times to maintain pressure and effect uninterrupted flow of gas to customers at take-off points.

2719.

LINER

In drilling, a length of casing used downhole to shut off a water or gas formation so drilling can proceed. Liners are also used to case a "thief zone" (q.v.) where drilling fluid is being lost in a porous formation. A finer is also a removable cylinder used in reciprocating pumps and certain types of internalcombustion engines; a sleeve.

2720.

liner barrel

a pump barrel used for either tubing pumps or rod (insert) pumps. A fullcylinder liner barrel consists of a steel jacket inside of which is a full-length tube of cast iron or special alloy. The inner surface of the barrel is polished to a mirrorlike finish to permit a fluid-tight seal between it and the plunger. In a sectional liner barrel, the tube placed inside the steel jacket consists of a

373

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

series of sections placed end to end and held firmly in place by means of threaded collars on the ends of the steel jacket.

2721.

liner completion

a well completion in which a screen liner is used to obtain communication between the reservoir and the wellbore.

2722. 2723. 2724.

liner hanger liner lap LINEUP CLAMPS

a slip device that attaches the liner to the casing.

the distance that a liner extends into the bottom of a string of casing.

A device that holds the ends of two joints of pipe together and in perfect alignment for welding. Lineup clamps operate on the outside of the pipe and are used on smaller diameter line pipe. Large-diameter pipe-20 to 36-inch and over-are aligned by internal, hydraulically operated mandrel-like devices.

2725.

LINKAGE

A term used to describe an arrangement of interconnecting parts-rods, lovers, springs, joints, couplings, pins-that transmit motion, power, or exert control.

2726.

liquefied natural gas

(LNG) a liquid composed chiefly of natural gas (i.e., mostly methane). Natural gas is liquefied to make it easier to transport if a pipeline is not feasible (as across a body of water). Not as easily liquefied as LPG, LNG must be put under low temperature and high pressure to become liquefied.

374

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

2727.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)

Natural gas that has been liquefied by severe cooling (-160'C.) for the purpose of shipment and storage in high-pressure cryogenic tanks. To transform the liquid to a useable gas, the pressure is reduced and the liquid is warmed.

2728.
gas.

liquefied natural-gas carrier

(LNGC) a tank ship that is specifically designed to transport liquefied natural

liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) a mixture of heavier, gaseous, paraffinic hydrocarbons, principally butane and propane. These gases, easily liquefied at moderate pressures, may be transported as liquids but converted to gases on release of the pressure. Thus, liquefied petroleum gas is a portable source of thermal energy that finds wide application in areas where it is impracticable to distribute natural gas. It is also used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines and has many industrial and domestic uses. Principal sources are natural and refinery gas, from which the liquefied petroleum gases are separated by fractionation.

2729.

liquid

a state of matter in which the shape of the given mass depends on the containing vessel, but the volume of the mass is independent of the vessel. A liquid is a practically incompressible fluid. liquid-level controller any device used to control the liquid level in a tank by actuating electric or pneumatic switches that open and close the discharge valve or the intake valve, thus maintaining the liquid at the desired level. 375

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

the study of rocks. 2736.com . lithification Lithologic. lithology lithology the conversion of unconsolidated deposits into solid rock. usually macroscopic. 2733. 376 Petroleum Engineer: M. and so forth. Z. 2732. liquid-level Indicator a device connected to a vessel and coupled with either a float in the vessel or directly with the fluid therein and calibrated to give a visual indication of the liquid level in the tank. the individual character of a rock in terms of mineral composition. The physical character of a rock. or supplies. 2734.mzhelu@gmail. machinery. Also. structure. liquid-level gauge any device that indicates the level or quantity of liquid in a container. 2735.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2730. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LIQUID HYDROCARBONS Petroleum components that are liquid at normal temperatures and atmospheric pressure. liter a unit of metric measure of capacity equal to the volume occupied by 1 kg of water at 4 C and at the standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mm. 2731. list the position of a ship or offshore drilling rig that heels to one side because of a shift in cargo.

2739. lm LNG LNGC load lime. used to secure loads (usually of pipe) on trucks. A flowing well always has dissolved gas. After the war. 2743. load binder a chain or cable with a latching device.com . 377 Petroleum Engineer: M. the weight or pressure placed on an object. Z. See Liquefied Natural Gas. used in drilling reports. LIVE OIL Crude oil which contains dissolved natural gas when produced. in mechanics.mzhelu@gmail. See weight on the bit. Compare idle. The load on a bit refers to the amount of the weight of the drill collars allowed to rest on the bit. liquefied natural-gas carrier. to engage an engine so it works. It is also called boomer. LITTLE BIG INCH PIPELINE A 20-inch products pipeline built from East Texas to the Fact Coast during World War 11 to solve the problem caused by tanker losses as the resume of submarine warfare. the line was sold to a private gas transmission company. 2742. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as it is the gas pressure which pushes the oil out of the porous formation to the well bore and up to the surface. 2741. Pumping wells may produce oil with a small amount of gas entrained in the production. 2740. 2738.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2737.

e. and access roads built. loading rack loc LOCAL DRAINAGE the equipment used for transferring crude oil into tank cars. shooting. load guy LOAD OIL (See guy line. LOCATION DAMAGES Compensation paid by an operator to the owner of the land for damages to the surface or to crops during the drilling of a well.mzhelu@gmail. a surface leveled for tanks and rig. a well spacing unit. used in drilling reports. Drainage. 2745. LOCATION The well site the place where a well is to be drilled or has been drilled. 378 Petroleum Engineer: M." 2750.) Oil of any kind put back into a well for any purpose. Mud pits must be dug.g.com . 2748. The movement of oil or gas toward the well bore of a producing well.. Z. 2746. location.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2744. or swabbing. "Two locations south of the discovery well. hydraulic fracturing.g. e.. See 2749. so there are always some location damages to be paid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2747.

com . 379 Petroleum Engineer: M. a book used by station engineers and gaugers to keep notes of current operating conditions and other useful information. and station engineers. log a well to run any of the various logs used to ascertain downhole information about a 2753. SAMPLE logbook See Sample Log. LOG ROAD log sheet See Cord Road. 2757. LOG. 2755. 2756.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2751. well. 2752. a daily report sheet on which operating data is entered by gaugers.mzhelu@gmail. log a systematic recording of data. 2754. at the Logging surface. electrical well log. and electrical and radioactive logs obtained from The systematic recording of data obtained from the driller's log and mud log instrumentation lowered into and retrieved from the drill hole after drilling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. dispatchers. Z. Many different logs are run in wells being produced or drilled to obtain various characteristics of downhole formations. mud log. or radioactivity log. as from the driller's log.

two or more valves made in one compact steel block. 2760. This indicates that mud is being lost in porous formations. usually in the same right-of-way. loose-valve tree. 2763. Z.. LOSE RETURNS Refers to a condition in which less drilling mud is being returned from downhole than is being pumped in at the top. The spoof on which the wire is wound is powered by a small engine to reel in the thousands of feet of wire lowered into the hole with the logging tool. The construction of a pipeline parallel to an existing line. or coarsely permeable beds. 2764. LOOSE-VALVE TREE The designation for a Christmas tree or production tree nippled up or made up with individual valves as contrasted to solid-block tree valves. Fissured. 2759. evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole.) the loss of quantities of whole mud to a formation. or a cavern. doubling a pipeline over part of its length. 2762. with the new section tied into the original line.e. crevices.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2758. usually in cavernous. LOGGING UNIT Well service wireline equipment for downhole well surveys. to increase the throughput capacity of the system. 2761.mzhelu@gmail. i. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LONG STRING LOOPING A LINE See Production String. A stacked. loss of circulation lost circulation (See lost circulation. 380 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .

unsuccessful fishing job. or casing that has become separated from the part of the pipe reaching the surface. low-pressure squeeze cementing the forcing of cement into the points in a well to be squeezed at a pressure not exceeding the formation-breakdown pressure. LOWBOY A low-profile. and so forth.) a substance added to cement slurries or drilling muds to prevent the loss of cement or mud to the formation. drill collars. The many wheels and axles serve to spread the weight of the trailer and its load over a large area to 381 Petroleum Engineer: M. in general.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Lost circulation can lead to a blowout and. Z. a fish. reduce the efficiency of the drilling operation. silt. lost returns lost-circulation material (See lost circulation. 2765. 2767. necessitating its removal before normal operations can proceed. lost hole a well that cannot be further drilled or produced because of a blowout. (See bridging material. flat-bed trailer with multiple axles (6 to 10) for transporting extra-heavy loads over relatively short distances. etc. It is also called lost returns. low-solids mud a drilling mud that contains a minimum amount of solid material (as sand. (See squeeze cementing.) 2769.mzhelu@gmail. 2770. 2766.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. tubing.) and is used in rotary drilling when possible because it can provide fast drilling rates.) 2768. lost pipe drill pipe.

com .) separated from natural gasoline or crude oil by fractionation or other refining processes. The low bed makes it easier to load and unload the heavy equipment it was designed to move. is opened. releasing the pressure on the liquid. 2774. 2772. butane. LOWER IN To put a completed pipeline in the ditch. This is done with side-boom tractors that lift the pipe in slings and carefully lower it into the ditch. propane and other fight ends (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LP-gas. for example. a small quantity of liquid "boils" or turns to a gas and can then be used just as natural gas for cooking or heating. 2773. "bottled gas". When the valve on the "bottle" or small tank of butane. 382 Petroleum Engineer: M. The slings are made of layers of heavy canvas or rubber-impregnated fabric so as not to scuff or break the anticorrosion pipe coating which is applied to all buried pipelines. liquefied petroleum gases revert to the gaseous state. At atmospheric pressure. Z.v. used in drilling reports. 2771. LP-GAS DRIVE The injection of high-pressure enriched gas or an LPG slug to effect the miscible displacement of oil. See Tertiary Recovery. ls limestone.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering avoid damaging streets and highways.mzhelu@gmail. LPG Liquefied petroleum gas. Liquid butane and propane or a mixture of the two are used extensively in areas where there is no natural gas service.

Specially formulated lubricating oil that flows freely in cold weather. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. LUBRICATOR.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2775. contains the tube oil. GRAVITY SPLASH A type of lubrication system for relatively slow-moving machinery. 2777. Short for lubricating oil or lubricant. as through a lubricator. 383 Petroleum Engineer: M. against pressure. MUD A temporary hookup of pipes and valves for introducing additional. maintains sufficient viscosity or "body" to properly lubricate the engine e. lse LUBE OIL LUBRICATING OIL. heavy drilling mud into the well bore to control gas pressure. 2776. Through one or two joints of large-diameter casing attached atop the wellhead. The crankcase of a pump. 2778. and in the heat of engine operation. 2780. As the crankshaft 2779. Also tube and tubes. It is used to run tools or substances into a producing well without having to kill the well and affords a method of sealing off pressure while allowing a device such as a wireline to pass into the well.g. lubricator a specially fabricated length of casing or tubing usually placed temporarily above a valve on top of the casing or tubing head.com . for example. MULTIGRADE lease. the heavy mud is fed into the well bore. LUBRICATION SYSTEM.mzhelu@gmail. 10-30 SAE. Z.

John H. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Texas. ANTHONY F. Z. Lucas' Spindletop gusher in 1901 (75.mzhelu@gmail. It was Capt. Galey and James M. LXT UNIT A low-temperature separator. LURGI PROCESS A process for the commercial gasification of coal which originated in 2783. CAPT.com .000 bbls/day) that ushered in the modern oil age of large oil companies. a mechanical separator which uses refrigeration obtained by expansion of gas from high pressure to low pressure to increase recovery of gas-entrained liquids. 2782. Germany. LUCAS. Guffey owned the Spindletop gusher located near Beaumont. 384 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2781.

and photographic or mechanical equipment to determine and record directional information.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2784. a string of tubing of very small diameter.mzhelu@gmail. 2787. the hot. cubic meter. 2786. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. square meter. fluid matter within the earth's crust. a magnetic compass. MAGNETO See Ignition Magneto. 2788. m m2 m3 mA macaroni string magma 2785. that produces igneous rocks when cooled. revealing defects. meter. and a powder or paste of magnetic particles is applied. Petroleum Engineer: M. 2789.) 2791. magnetic surveying instrument a device used to determine the direction and drift of a deviated wellbore. Magnaflux a trade name for the equipment and processes used for detecting cracks and other surface discontinuities in iron or steel. 2790. It uses a plumb bob. A magnetic field is set up in the part to be inspected. milliampere. The particles arrange themselves around discontinuities in the metal. capable of intrusion or extrusion. (See directional survey and directional drilling.com . Z.

and so forth. 2795. 386 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a trunk line.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2792.mzhelu@gmail. 2796. MAGNETOMETER An instrument for measuring the relative intensity of the earth's magnetic effect. the Texas deck. to attach a joint of drill pipe onto the drill stem suspended in the wellbore to permit deepening of the wellbore. taking a core. make a hand make a trip (slang) to become a good worker. 2797. To screw a pipe or threaded connection tight by the use of a wrench. 2794.com . and then to return the drill stem to the wellbore. 2793. make hole MAKE IT UP to deepen the hole made by the bit. Used to detect rock formations below the surface. main deck the principal deck extending from front to back of a ship or offshore drilling rig. in instrument used by geophysicists in oil exploration work. Z. main line make a connection a large-diameter pipeline between distant points. 2798. to drill ahead. 2799. to hoist the drill stem out of the wellbore to perform one of a number of operations such as changing bits.

3. to compensate for (as to make up for lost time). male connection a pipe. 2. 2803. rod. 2805. 2801. 2802. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. MAKING HOLE MALE CONNECTION Progress in drilling a well. to assemble and join parts to form a complete unit (as to make up a string of casing). make up 1.com . 2804. 4. makeup cathead the cathead used as a power source for screwing together joints of pipe. coupling. or tool that has threads on the outside so it can be joined to a female connection.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2800. make up a joint MAKE-UP TORQUE to screw a length of pipe into another length of pipe. 387 Petroleum Engineer: M. The power necessary to screw a joint of pipe into another sufficiently tight to hold and not loosen under working conditions. to mix or prepare (as to make up a tank of mud). makeup intend to be added to a system (as makeup water used in mixing mud). A pipe. 2806. Z. to screw together two threaded pieces. literally. MAN RACK A portable "doghouse" or cab mounted on a flat-bed truck for transporting pipeline workers to and from the job.mzhelu@gmail. or coupling with threads on the outside circumference.

Z. to combine several flows into one. manifold an accessory system of piping to a main piping system (or another conductor) that serves to divide a flow into several parts. 2810. 2808. Manholes have fitted covers with gaskets that are kept bolted in place when the tank is in use. a bill of lading.com . 2809.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2807. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2811. or to reroute a flow to any one of several possible destinations. or shaft around which other parts are arranged or attached or that fits inside a cylinder or tube. manhole a hole in the top or side of a tank through which a person can enter.A hole in the side of a tank or other vessel through which a man can enter. spindle. MANIFEST A document issued by a shipper invoicing oil or products transported by a ship. 388 Petroleum Engineer: M. the liquid level in one arm rises while the level in the other drops. MANIFOLD An area where pipelines entering and leaving a pumping station or tank farm converge and that contains all valves for controlling the incoming and outgoing streams. usually in inches or millimeters. When pressure is applied. manometer a U-shaped piece of glass tubing containing a liquid (usually water or mercury) that is used to measure the pressure of gases or liquids.mzhelu@gmail. A set of calibrated markings beside one of the arms permits a pressure reading to be taken. mandrel a cylindrical bar.

Z. 2818. MARGINAL STRIKE A discovery well on the border line between what is considered a commercial and a noncommercial well. and major cities. MARGINAL WELL A low-producing well. rivers. MAP. 389 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2812. 2815. 2816. roads. MAP. streams. 2817. MAP.mzhelu@gmail. 2814. a three-dimensional model of a surface area. usually not subject to allowable regulations. MARINE OIL Petroleum found by wells offshore or on the continental shelf. 2813. including rivers.com . lakes. latitude and longitude lines. a step-out well that may have over-reached the pool boundary. land and political boundaries. lakes. TOPOGRAPHIC A map containing geologic information of the surface and/or the subsurface. SURVEY MAP. A map which shows in detail the physical features of an area of land. BASE A map that contain. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a well that is approaching depletion of its natural resource to the extent that any profit from continued production is doubtful. RELIEF A model of an area in which variation in the surface is shown in relief...

marine riser connector a fitting on top of the subsea blowout preventers to which the riser pipe is 2820. Marine white contains no tetraethyl lead or other additives that could clog the needle vales of gasoline appliances. balloon-like tires are 10 or 12 feet high and two or three feet wide providing buoyancy as well as traction in 390 Petroleum Engineer: M. A tractor-like vehicle whose wheels are fitted with extra-large rubber tires inflated with air for use in swamps. marl MARSH BUGGY a semisolid or unconsolidated clay. lanterns blow torches. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or sand. Marine risers are used to provide a return fluid-flow conductor between the well bore and the drill vessel and to guide the drillstring to the wellhead on the ocean floor. connected. silt.com . boat Motors. easily identified rock stratum. drilling.mzhelu@gmail. 2823. The great. marker bed a distinctive. MARINE WHITE GASOLINE Gasoline made for camp stoves. 2821. especially one used as a guide for 2822. The riser is made up of several sections including flexible joints and a telescoping joint to absorb the vertical motion of the ship caused by wave action. marine riser system (See riser pipe.)string of specially designed steel pipes that extends down from drillShip or floating platform to the subsea wellhead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2819. Z.

Also called the rotary bushing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering marshland. a sturdy A frame used for drilling shallow wells or for workover. the mast can be divided into two or more sections to avoid excessive length extending from truckbeds on the highway. 2824. 2826. MAST A simple derrick made of timbers or pipe held upright by guywires. as distinguished from a standard derrick. master bushing an adapter used to reduce the size of the opening through the rotary table and to fit the slips. which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit. for example. 2827. For transporting by land.mzhelu@gmail. It may be split in two pieces or may be a solid ring. are used in many refineries where large volumes of gas are consumed. MASS-FLOW GAS METER A gas meter that registers the quantity of gas in pounds which is then converted to cubic feet. mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The large bushing that fits into the rotary table of a drilling rig into which the ke1ly bushing fits. 391 Petroleum Engineer: M. Marsh funnel a calibrated funnel used in field tests to determine the viscosity of drilling 2825. tapered slips are then inserted around the drillpipe to hold it securely while another joint is added to the drilistring. a gin pole. Z.com . Mass-flow meter. The marsh buggy is indispensable in exploration work in swampy terrain. When kelly bushing is lifted out of the master bushing.a portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit. which are somewhat more accurate than orifice meters.

2834. MAT-SUPPORTED DRILLING PLATFORM A self-elevating (jack-up) offshore drilling platform whose legs are attached to a metal mat or substructure that rests on the sea floor when the legs are extended. MASTER GATE A large valve on the wellhead used to shut In a well if it should become 2829. necessary. MATSTRUCTURE The steel Platform placed on the sea floor as a rigid foundation to support the legs of a jack-up drilling platform.mzhelu@gmail. 2830.com . e. Z. the other the shape of a heavy adz. 392 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2831. The head has two sharpened steel blades. one is in the shape of a pick. the blind or blank rams of a blowout preventer. master valve (1). a large valve on the Christmas tree used to control the flow of oil and gas from the well.g.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2828. pump plungers and liners or sucker rod box and pin. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as opposed to fracture aridizing. matrix acidizing the procedure by which acid flow is confined to the natural permeability and porosity of the formation. MATING PARTS Two or more machine or equipment parts made to fit and/or work together. (2). piston and cylinder. 2832. 2833. MATTOCK A toot for digging in hard earth or rock.

2841. maximum allowable pressure the greatest pressure that may safely be applied to a structure or vessel. Mcf/d md MEA 1000 ft' of gas per day. 2837. diethanolamine. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. another common organic base. an organic base used in refining operations to absorb acidic gases in process streams. 2840.) in the derrick of an oil well. millidarcy. maximum water in oil-well cementing. 2839. Z. It is a unit of measure that is more commonly used in the low volume sectors of the gas industry such as stripper well production. Also DEA. MAY RAKE Mcf Another name for the finger board (q. (See darcy. 2836. 2842.v. the maximum ratio of water to cement that does not cause the water to separate from the slurry on standing. or producing well). 393 Petroleum Engineer: M. maximum capacity the maximum output of a system or unit (as a refinery.com . 2838.) Short for monoethanolamine. (Thousand Cubic Feet) Mcf stands for one thousand cubic feet.mzhelu@gmail. Pressure in excess of this amount leads to failure or explosion.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2835. gasoline plant. pumping unit.

a calibrated tank that.(of production) (q. UNITS OF measuring tank 2846. mechanical rig a drilling rig in which the source of power is one or more internal-combustion engines and in which the power is distributed to rig components through mechanical devices (as chains.). Chemical compound. float switches. mercaptan a chemical 394 Petroleum Engineer: M. containing sulfur.v. It is also called a power rig. 2845. 2844. 2848. sprockets.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2843. pressure switches. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. by means of weirs. clutches. usually to determine the depth of the well or the depth to which the pipe or tubing was run. Measuring tanks are used in LACT systems and may also be referred to as metering tanks or dump tanks. measure in to obtain an accurate measurement of the depth reached in a well by measuring the drill pipe or tubing as it is run into the well. LENGTH MEASURE.com . Z. MER MERCAPTAN maximum efficiency rate. present in certain refined products that Impart objectionable odor to the product. 2849.mzhelu@gmail. 2847. measure out to measure drill pipe or tubing as it is pulled from the hole. and shafts). or similar devices. automatically measures the volume of liquid run in and then released.

2853. inclined). When the hull inclines slightly to a new position. MERCURY NUMBER A measure of the free sulfur in a sample of naphtha. 395 Petroleum Engineer: M. chemical.). it intersects the first line at a point called the metacenter.g. crude oil containing no more than one percent BS&W (q. 2850. Mercury is mixed with a sample and shaken. Marble is a metamorphic rock. Many mercaptans have an offensive odor and are used as odor and in natural gas.. merchantable oil a crude oil in which the BS& W content is not in excess of that allowed by the purchase.. and structural alterations caused by processes within the earth's crust. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 2851.com . Z.(crude) of a quality as to be acceptable by a pipeline system or other purchaser. metacenter a point located somewhere on a line drawn vertically through the crater of buoyancy of the hull of a floating vessel with the hull in one position (e. If a second line is drawn vertically through the new center of buoyancy. making it salable. and the degree of discoloration in the sample is compared with a standard to determine the mercury number. Location of the metacenter is important because it affects the stability of floating vessels (as mobile offshore drilling rigs). the center of buoyancy of the hull also moves to a new position.g. level) and then another (e.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering compound similar to alcohol in which sulfur replaces the oxygen.mzhelu@gmail. metamorphic rock a rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical. 2852.

2. Meters are proved by passing a known volume of fluid through them at a known rate and comparing this volume with a standard.com . equal to 3. or 100 cm. or rates of flow of gases. heat. 2855. that is lowered into a tank containing a known volume of fluid. 2858. METAMORPHISM Changes in rock induced by pressure.mzhelu@gmail. 2. a device used to measure and often record volumes. meter prover a device used to check the accuracy of a meter. or electric currents. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which consists essentially of a bell.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2854. quantities. adjustment of a meter so that its readings conform to a standard 2857. The rate at which the 396 Petroleum Engineer: M. meter chart a circular chart of special paper that shows the range of differential pressure and static pressure and that is marked by the recording pens of a flow meter. it displaces the fluid and forces it through the meter to be tested. meter (m) 1.28 ft. As the chart revolves on its spindle. 39.A replaceable paper chart for recording pressure or flow for a 24-hour period.37 in. liquids. an inked pen traces the variations in pressure or volume. meter calibration 1. the fundamental unit of length in the metric system. to measure quantities or properties of a substance. As the bell is lowered. Z. 2856.. and the action of water that results in a more compact and highly crystalline condition. or piston. A typical prover used for checking meters is the bell prover. the operation by which meter readings are compared with an accepted standard.

2859. a colorless flammable gas. flammable paraffin hydrocarbon. 2861.) The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. Twophase units separate oil and gas and meter the oil. the volume passing through the meter is recorded. three-phase units separate oil. natural gas may contain appreciable quantities of 397 Petroleum Engineer: M. and meter the oil and water.0% In addition to these gases. It has a calibrated tube containing a known volume of fluid.com . gaseous. Methane 80. displacing the fluid in the tube and forcing it through the meter. one of the main constituents of illuminating gas. that is the chief component of natural gas and an important basic hydrocarbon for petrochemical manufacture. and thus the rate of flow through the meter can be controlled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bell drops is controlled. 2863. The reading is then compared with the standard (the volume in the tube). CH.5% Butane 2. Z. The piston prover is extensively used in LACT systems.5% Pentane plus 3. metering separator a complete separator and volume meter integrated into a single vessel. 2862. meter run point the point in a gas-gathering system at which a field measuring meter and accessories are situated. and gas. with a boiling point of -258 F. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. metering tank METHANE (See measuring tank. methane a light.mzhelu@gmail. water. 2860..0% Ethane 7.0% Isobutane 1.0% Propane 6.. As the piston advances.

Centimeters x 0. Meters X 10. the cubic meter as the unit of volume.com . inches Sq.37 = inches Meters X 3. a colorless. inches Liters X 0.mzhelu@gmail. gas).764 = sq. methane series METHANE-RICH GAS PROCESS METHANOL the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. the gram as the unit of weight. and contaminants (as hydrogen sulfide and water vapor).609 = kilometers Millimeters X 0.305 = meters Miles X 1609.281 = feet Kilometers X 0. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Although gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures. flammable liquid derived from methane (natural 2867. METRIC SYSTEM CONVERSION Inches X 0.3937 = inches Meters X 39. 2865.00 = meters Miles X 1. 2866.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering nitrogen. Centimeters x 0.155 = sq.061 = cu. the liter as the unit of capacity. helium. 2868.2642 = gallons Gallons X 3. metric system a decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter as the unit of length. 2864. certain of the gases comprising the mixture that is natural gas are variable in form and may be found either as gases or as liquids under suitable conditions of temperature and pressure. feet Cu. carbon dioxide. Methyl alcohol. See MRG Process.03937 = inches Centimeters X 0.0254 = meters Feet X 0.621 = miles Sq.78 = liters 398 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. and the square meter as the unit of area.

a silicate mineral characterized by sheet cleavage. Z. 399 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2869. petroleum sulfonate. and muscovite is potassic white mica.g. 2871. milligram. a method of recovering additional crude oil from a field depleted by conventional means including repressuring and waterflooding.com . micellar. A tertiary recovery technique. mg mica 2870. Biotite is ferromagnesian black mica. soluble-oil. When poured in sufficient quantity on top of crude oil or refined products in a tank. Such a project may have various names. balloon like plastic spheres containing a sealed-in gas-usually nitrogen. The blanket is composed of billions of hollow. The chemical Solution reduces the surface tension of the oil clinging or adhering to the porous rock thus "setting the oil free" to be pumped out with the flooding solution. MICROBALLOONS A foam blanket that floats on the liquid in storage tanks to reduce losses from evaporation. Sometimes mica is used as a lost-circulation material in drilling. 2872. Micellar-surfactant drive or flooding involves injecting water mixed with certain chemicals @into the producing formation. 2873. they spread across the surface forming a dense layer that is effective in reducing evaporation. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. micellarpolymer. e.mzhelu@gmail. The spheres are almost microscopic in size. MICELLAR-POLYMER FLOODING MICELLAR-SURFACTANT FLOODING See Micellar-Surfactant Flooding.

400 Petroleum Engineer: M. micron one-millionth of a meter. Oil produced principally in Kansas.com . 2876. 2878.v. 2880. MICT MID-CONTINENT CRUDE MIDDLE DISTILLATES moving in cable tools. a metric unit of measure of length equal to 0. 2879. heating oil. Microlog a trade name for a special electric-survey method in which three closely spaced electrodes are pressed against the wall of the borehole to obtain a measurement of formation characteristics next to the wall of the hole. kerosene. for example) and must be removed from the circulating mud by the use of a desilting device. and North Texas. Z.mzhelu@gmail.) and other low-gravity solids in drilling mud are described as being so many microns in size (10 microns. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The term applied to hydrocarbons in the so-called middle range of refinery distillatio e. migration the movement of oil from the area in which it formed to a reservoir rock where it can accumulate. Oklahoma.g.001 MM. swiping 'or a "good" cause.A unit of measure equal to one-thousandth of a millimeter. light diesel oil. and heavy diesel oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2874. used in drilling reports. 2875. MIDNIGHT REQUISITION Obtaining material without proper authority borrowing unbeknown to the "lender". 2877. Fines (q.

P to use a mill to cut or grind metal objects that must be removed from a well.com . sharp. a downhole tool with rough. 2882. MILLABLE Said of material used downhole. In analyzing drilling mud. Mills are run on drill pipe or tubing to grind up debris in the hole. Pipelines must be cleaned of mill scale before being put in service carrying crude oil. "soft" enough to be bored out or pulverized with milling tools. i. bridges. reaming mills. A quart equals 964 ml. milliliter (mi) one-thousandth of a liter. this term is used interchangeably with cubic centimeter (cm3). 2886.. and plugs. 2884. and so forth. remove stuck portions of drill stem or sections of casing for sidetracking.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2881. MILL SCALE A thin layer or incrustation of oxide which forms on the surface of iron and steel when it is heated during processing. MILL To grind up to pulverize with a milling tool (q. They are also called junk mills. MILLING 401 Petroleum Engineer: M. packers. 2883. Z. Darcy. MILLIDARCY A unit of permeability of a rock formation.mzhelu@gmail.v. gas or products.).e. extremely hard cutting surfaces for removing metal by grinding or cutting. This is done by running steel-bristle pigs and scrapers. one-thousandth of a darcy. See 2885. and ream out tight spots in the casing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. depending on what use they have.

of gas. 2888. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 2887. milling shoe MILLING TOOL (See burn shoe and rotary shoe.) A grinding or cutting fool used on the end of the drill column to pulverize a piece of downhole equipment or to cut the casing. those used for dry cleaning and paint 2893. millisec min mineral rights 2890. 2889. and other minerals beneath the surface of the earth.mzhelu@gmail.com . mineral rights are the property of the surface owner unless disposed of separately. oil. 2892. thinners. conveyed by deed. In the U.5 in. minute. millisecond.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Cutting a "window" in a well's casing with a tool lowered into the hole on the drillstring. MINERAL SPIRITS Common term for naphthas (solvents). the rights of ownership. in 402 Petroleum Engineer: M.S. diameter. miniaturized completion a well completion in which the production casing is less than 4. 2891..

com . 2896. MIST Small. 2899. carbon dioxide or a mixture thereof) are injected into the reservoir to reduce interfacial forces between oil and water in the pore channels and thus displace oil from the reservoir rock. one behind the other.mzhelu@gmail. 2898. For example. 403 Petroleum Engineer: M. MINISEMI A scaled-down semisubmersible drilling platform built for service in relatively shallow water. natural gas. Regulations set minimum tender amounts a common carrier pipeline is required to take into its system and pump to destination. LPG. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. C02 May be injected into the formation followed by waterflooding. MIR miscible drive moving in rig. See Tertiary Recovery. MISCIBLE FLOOD A secondary or tertiary oil recover method in which two or more formation flooding fluids are used. almost microscopic droplets of water entrained in natural gas. 2897. Z. 2895. a method of enhanced recovery in which various hydrocarbon solvents or gases (as propane. Such gas must be treated to remove the water before it will be accepted by a gas transmission pipeline. used in drilling reports. MINIMUM TENDER The smallest amount of oil or products a pipeline will accept for shipment.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2894.

and the liquid is removed from the separator along with other separated liquids. 2907. 2901. milliliter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. weighting materials. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2900. to which a foaming agent has been added as a circulation medium. 2905.mzhelu@gmail. 2903. mix mud to prepare drilling fluids from a mixture of water or other fluids and one or more of the various dry mud-making materials (as clay. millimeter. mist extractor a metal member used to remove moisture or condensable hydrocarbons from a gas stream in an oil and gas separator. (See casing string. 2902. 2904. ml mm mm2 2906. etc. square millimeter. mist drilling a drilling technique that uses air or gas. mixed string mixing tank a combination string.) any tank or vessel used to mix components of a substance (as in the mixing of additives with drilling mud). The moisture condenses on the metal surface.com . chemicals. 404 Petroleum Engineer: M.).

So many dollars per million BTU.com . million standard cubic feet. 2910. 2911. 2 fuel oil at specific locations in the U. a platform rig is not. a drilling rig used exclusively to drill offshore wells that floats upon the surface of the water when being moved from one location to another. rating used for large industrial heaters and other large thermal installations such as furnaces and boilers. The drill ship. 2909. It may or may not float once drilling begins.mzhelu@gmail. MMcf MMOTU. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2908. The standard referred to is usually 60 F and 1 atmosphere (14. 2913. 2915. a pricing formula in some gas purchase contracts which is tied directly to formulas involving prices paid to No. and jack up drilling rig are all mobile rigs.S. semisubmersible drilling rig. 405 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.$ million cubic feet. 2912. Million BTU (British thermal units) per hour. mm3 MMBTUIHR cubic millimeter.7 psi) of pressure but varies from state to state. MMscf/d MMsct million standard cubic feet per day. 2914. used in drilling reports. MO mobile offshore drilling rig moving out. a common unit of measurement for large quantities of gas.

2919.v. 2 2918. mol mole 2922. MOBILE PLATFORM A self-contained. 2921. MODULE An assembly (q. for example. have been altered by 2920. For deep-water. For example. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) that is functional as a unit.com . the quantity of a substance whose unit weight is numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. Z. modified cement a cement whose proper .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2916. a gas compressor module. additives. MOCK-UP A full-sized structural model built accurately to scale for study and testing of an installation to be used or operated commercially.mzhelu@gmail. mole. one mole of water (H*O) is 406 Petroleum Engineer: M. Some of the larger semisubmersible drilling platforms are capable of moving in the open sea at five to seven knots. chemical or physical. an electronic or hydraulic module. and can be joined with other units for increasing or enlarging the function. offshore drilling platform with the means for self propulsion.ties. offshore work mock-ups are made to simulate conditions in subsea well-head chambers and sea-floor work areas.

2927. water. the molecular weight of water. each of which is 1 unit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 18 weight units (pounds. 2926. in which each molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen). Z.com . MON Motor Octane Number. whether or not it will knock or ping in an engine with a given compression 407 Petroleum Engineer: M. is 18 because the atomic weight of each of the hydrogen molecules is 1 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16.g. mole percent the ratio of the number of moles of one substance to the total number of moles in a mixture of substances multiplied by 100 (to put the number on a percentage basis). tons. HzO. For example. 2925. It usually consists of a group of atoms that are either different (e. the weight of which is 16 units). Ha. from the center of rotation..mzhelu@gmail. consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen) or that are alike (e. the product of a force and a distance to a particular axis or point.. F. one atom of oxygen. the measure of a gasoline's antiknock qualities. hydrogen. H*O. S. molecule the smallest part of a substance that can exist on its own. 2924.) because the molecular weight of water is 18 (two atoms of hydrogen.g. acting at a perpendicular distance. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. moment a turning effect created by a force. etc. grams. 2923. molecular weight the sum of the atomic weights in a molecule.

$1.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering ratio. Motor Octane number of a gasoline is determined by test engines run under simulated conditions of load and speed. monitor an instrument that reports the performance of a control device or signals if unusual conditions appear in a system. money left on the table. 2931. iron. The monkeyboard provides a small platform to raise him to the proper height to be able to handle the top of the pipe. Z. 2928. See Octane Rating. Nontnagnetic drill collars are often made of this material. the derrickman's working platform. MONEY LEFT ON THE TABLE A phrase referring to the difference between the high and the second highest bid made by operators or companies when bidding an Federal or state oil leases. the derrickman must handle the top end of the pipe. $750. second-highest bid.000.v. (See double board. For example. a BS& W monitor provides a mechanical means of preventing contaminated oil from entering the pipeline by detecting the presence of excessive water and actuating valves to divert the flow back to dehydration facilities.000. thribble board. 2929.000. MONKEY BOARD A colloquial and humorous reference to the tubing board (q.) high in the derrick. S250. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. As pipe or tubing is run into or out of the hole.) 408 Petroleum Engineer: M. and fourble board. silicon. which may be as high as 90 ft in the derrick or mast.mzhelu@gmail.000. and carbon. Monel steel a nickel-base alloy also containing copper.com . manganese. For example high bid. 2930.

When the crest of an anticline (q.com . 2935. moving bodies of ice present serious problems for more conventional platforms. Z. and whose head can be used as a hammer a crude wrench suitable for mechanical work of the roughest kind. 409 Petroleum Engineer: M. with the derrick rising above. square-jawed wrench whose adjusting screw collar is located on the handle. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (See bentonite. a partial cross section of the strata making up the fold is exposed at the earth's surface and the undisturbed lower flanks form what are called monoclines.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2932. the moonpool of drillwell is usually located amidship.) is eroded away. supporting leg. MONOPOD DRILLING PLATFORM A type of offshore drilling platform with a single.) 2936.a walled. 2933. 2934. completed. montmorillonite a clay mineral often used as an additive to a drilling mud. MONOCLINE A geological term for rock strata that dip in one direction. MONKEY WRENCH An adjustable. MOONPOOL The opening in a drillship through which drilling operations are carried on.mzhelu@gmail. The design of the monopod makes it effective in Arctic regions where thick. It is a hydrous aluminum silicate capable of reacting with such substances as magnesium and calcium.v. or abandoned from the drill ship. round hole or well in the hull of a drill ship (usually in the center) through which the drilling assembly and other assemblies pass while a well is being drilled.

com . used on pipeline construction as an adjunct to the jack board and in lowering the pipeline into the ditch. 2938. buoys. Used to backfill a pipeline ditch using a team of horses or a tractor pulling the board forward and a workman pulling it back into position for another bite.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. chain. A humorous and somewhat sarcastic term for conservation (Environmental Protection Agency) people who. 2940. MOORING SYSTEM.) by which a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained on location at the drilling site. mooring system equipment (as anchors. The report includes depths reached at the end of each tour. MORNING REPORT The report the tool pusher or drilling supervisor makes each morning after assembling the drifting reports of the drillers under his supervision. footage drilled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2937. 2942. by law. can shut down a drilling well or a construction project to allow a rare or endangered species of bird to incubate her eggs unmolested or migrating or mating moose to go about their important business without being disturbed. MOPE POLE A lever. 410 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. etc. MORMON BOARD A broad. MULTIBUOY MOOSE AND GOOSE MEN See Multibuoy Mooring System also SBM Single-buoy Mooring. 2939. reinforced sled-like board with eye bolts on each end and a handle in the center. 2941. a pry pole usually made by cutting a small tree. wireline.

pump speeds and pressures. Z. rotary speeds. gasoline. or 411 Petroleum Engineer: M. mechanical). 2943. cylindrical device placed around a joint of pipe as it is being broken out during a trip out of the hole. 2947. It is also called a mud saver or a splash box. cores the taken. motor valve a valve operated by power other than manual (i. MOTOR SPIRIT A highly volatile fraction in petroleum refining.e. bit weights. and of the information of past 24 hours of operation. hydraulic. mother hubbard (slang) a hinged. 2946. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. electric. (See tour.) morning tour mosquito bill 2944.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering formations penetrated. motion compensator any device (as a bumper sub or heave compensator) that serves to maintain constant weight on the bit in spite of vertical motion of a floating offshore drilling rig. metal.com . It keeps mud from splashing beyond the immediate area. an ingredient of motor 2948.mzhelu@gmail.. 2945. a tube mounted at the bottom of a sucker-rod pump and inside a gas anchor to provide a conduit for well fluids (that contain little or no gas) into the pump.

into which a length of drill pipe is placed temporarily for later connection to the drill string. 412 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2950. motor-generator rig a drilling rig driven by electric motors with current supplied by engine-driven generators at the rig. When this joint is pulled out and screwed onto the drilistring. made up to the kelly. mousehole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. pulled out of the mousehole. 2954. motorman the crew member on a rotary drilling rig responsible for the care and operation of drilling engines. hole drilled to the side of the well bore to hold the next joint of drillpipe to be used. 2952. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. usually lined with pipe. miles per hour. mousehole an opening through the rig floor. See Rat Hole. 2955.com . megapascal. mousetrap MPa mph a fishing tool used to recover a parted string of sucker rods from a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2949. 2953.mzhelu@gmail. The length to be added is placed in the mousehole. 2951. and subsequently made up into the string. Z. another joint of drillpipe is made ready and slipped into the mouse hole to await its turn.

2957. 2960. properties. cooled. MRG is a patented process (Japan Gasoline Co. scrubbed to remove C02. mud additive any material added to drilling fluid to change some of its characteristics or 2962. see "Drilling Fluid" a mixture of hydrofluoric acids and surfactants used to effect mud removal from the wellbore.com .) to make synthetic natural gas from propane. thousand standard cubic feet per day. mud analysis examination and testing of drilling mud to determine its physical and chemical 413 Petroleum Engineer: M. Liquid propane is hydrodesulfurized and gasified with steam at temperatures between 900' and 1000'F. dried.mzhelu@gmail. properties. MRG PROCESS Methane Rich Gas Process. and fed to distribution lines. ms Mscf/D Mud mud acid 2958.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2956. 2959. 2961. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. The resulting gas mixture is methanated. microsecond.

mud balance a beam balance consisting of a cup and a graduated arm carrying a sliding weight and resting on a fulcrum. viscosity.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2963. and so forth. and other measures to prepare the mud for conditions encountered in a specific well. mud circulation the act of pumping mud downward to the bit and back up to the surface by normal circulation or reverse circulation. mud box mud cake (See mother hubbard. 2964. 2966. density. used to determine the density or weight of drilling mud.) the sheath of mud solids that forms on the wall of the hole when the liquid from the mud filters into the formation. the addition of water. the removal of sand and other solids.See Filter Cake. MUD BARREL A small bailer used to retrieve cuttings from the bottom of a cable tool drilling 2965. Conditioning may include the use of additives. Z. mud conditioning the treatment and control of drilling mud to ensure that it has the proper gel strength.com . 414 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. also called well cake or filter cake. 2967. 2968. the removal of gas. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. well.

and prepares reports detailing the mud weight and additives used. preparation of the drilling mud. and the behavior of drilling fluids. Cooling also reduces the thermal stress on the drill string. a pipe that shoots a jet of drilling mud under high pressure into the mud pit to mix additives with the mud. mud engineer a specialist in drilling fluids. Z. Mud Filtrate mud gun The fluid component of drilling mud which penetrates into a formation. 2973. a funnel-shaped cup into which a measured quantity of mud is poured and allowed to run through. 2971.. MUD COOLING TOWER In drilling in or near a geothermal reservoir. MUD CUP A device for measuring drilling mud density or weight.com . MUD ENGINEER One who supervises the. 2970.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2969. A drilling fluid specialist. 2972. 2974. against time. engineering. the drilling mud becomes superheated and must be cooled to avoid flashing or vaporizing of the liquid (water or oil) in the mud stream at the surface. who combines knowledge of chemistry.) 415 Petroleum Engineer: M. tests the physical and chemical propertied of the slurry. mud hopper (See hopper. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Mud is pumped through the mud hose to the swivel and down through the kelly joint and drillpipe to the bottom of the well. and suggests changes that may be made in the mud system to make the drilling more efficient. mud man an employee of the company that supplies drilling mud to a drilling rig. also called the rotary hose.com . Mud logging is often carried out in a portable laboratory set up at the well. 2976. steelreinforced. advises the operator on what types of mud to use. flexible rubber tube through which drilling mud flows from the standpipe to the gooseneck. 2977. 2978.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2975. the recording of information derived from examination and analysis of formation cuttings made by the bit and mud circulated out of the hole. MUD LINE mud logger mud logging The sea or lake bottom. an employee of a mud-logging company who keeps the mud log. mud hose a reinforced. 2980. A portion of the mud is diverted through a gas-detecting device and examined under ultraviolet light to detect the presence of oil or gas. mud motor (See Dyna-Drill and turbodrill) 416 Petroleum Engineer: M. the interface between a body of water and the earth. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. rubber hose connecting the mud pump with the swivel and kelly joint on a drilling rig.mzhelu@gmail. a mud engineer. He runs tests on the mud to ensure that it performs as it should.The flexible. 2979.

or three-cylinder piston pump whose pistons travel in replaceable liners and are driven by a crankshaft actuated by an engine. In rotary drilling there are at 417 Petroleum Engineer: M. reciprocating pump that circulates drilling mud in rotary drilling. to block off the flow of oil into the wellbore. See Reserve Pit. the clean mud gravitates into the suction pit where it is picked up by the pump's suction line. 2.or tripleacting. After the rock cuttings drop out in the settling pit. Z. 2982. mud pump a large.com . depending on their main purpose. to seal the hole against formation fluids by allowing the buildup of wall cake. and the fluid is temporarily stored there before being pumped back into the well. Mud pits are also called shaker pits. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the cuttings drop out leaving the mud "clean" and ready for another trip to the bottom of the borehole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2981. two. Mud pumps withdraw the mud from one end of a pit as the circulated mud. A mud pump also is called a slush pump. settling pits. Additives are mixed with mud in the pit.A large. As the mud moves to the suction line. A typical mud pump is a double. flows in at the other end. mud off 1. reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud on a drilling rig. usually made of steel plates. 2983. bearing rock chips from the borehole. through which the drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and fine sediments to settle out.mzhelu@gmail. MUD PITS Excavations near the rig into which drilling mud is circulated. The duplex (two-cylinder) or triplex (three-cylinder) pump draws mud from the suction mud pit and pumps the slurry downhole through the drillpipe and bit and back up the borehole to the mud settling pits.a reservoir or tank. and suction pits.

2989. 2987. In case of a breakdown or other necessary stoppages. another pump can be immediately put on line. AUTOMATIC See Kelly Valve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mud weight a measure of the density of a drilling fluid expressed as pounds per gallon (ppg). pounds per cubic foot (ib/ft').com . mud saver mud screen MUD TANKS (See mother hubbard.) at the well site. or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). 2988.mzhelu@gmail.v. 418 Petroleum Engineer: M. Mud tanks are used where it is impractical to dig mud pits (q.) a shale shaker. Lower. Mud weight is directly related to the amount of pressure the column of drilling mud exerts at the bottom of the hole. Mud-Kil a trade name for a chemical additive for Portland cement that reduces the effect of contamination of cementing slurries by organic chemicals commonly found in drilling muds. Portable metal banks to hold drilling mud. MUD VALVE. 2986. Z. mud report a special form filled out by the mud man that records the properties of the drilling mud used while a well is being drilled. 2984.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering least twin mud pumps. 2985. sometimes more.

) 2995. MUDSCOW A portable drilling-mud tank in the shape of a small barge or scow used in cable-tool drilling when relatively small amounts of mud wore needed or in a location when a mud pit was not practical. Also. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. through which drilling mud flows upon its return to the surface from down the hole.) and examined by the geologist. 419 Petroleum Engineer: M. MUD-MOTOR DRILLING mud-return line See Turbo drilling.com . Rock chips are retrieved with the aid of the shale shaker (q. a kind of large sled for transporting pipe and equipment into a marshy location. 2993.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2990. slush pump.v. 2991. a record of information derived from examination of drilling fluid and drillbit cuttings. 2994. 2992. Z. a trough or pipe placed between the surface connections at the wellbore and the shale shaker. A progressive analysis of the well-bore cuttings washed up from the bore hole by the drilling mud. (See mud logging. MUDHOG MUDLOG A mud pump. a conveyance. The mudscow is pulled by a crawler-type tractor which would not bog down as would a wheeled vehicle. a pump to circulate drilling mud in rotary drilling. mud-weight recorder an instrument installed in the mud pits that has a recorder mounted on the rig floor to provide a continuous reading of the mud weight.

). so said the cable tool men who were skeptical of the newfangled drilling method. of rotary drilling and before the advent of accurate well logging produciole formations could be mudded up (plastered over)by the sheer weight of the column of drilling mud. mule-head hanger MULLET (See horse head. Unhitched from the wagon. to add solid materials (as bentonite or other clay) to a drilling fluid composed mainly of clear water to obtain certain desirable properties. The "skinner" got his name from the ability to skin the hair off a mule s rump with a crack of the long reins he used. 2999.) Humorous and patronizing reference to an investor with money to put into the drilling of an oil well with the expectation of getting rich.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 2996. a driver of a team or span of horses or mules hitched to an oil field wagon. 2997.v. hoist and do eathwork with a slip or Fresno (q. appropriately called butt lines. a sucker. 2998. the team was used to pull. Mudding up occurs also in pumping wells. or the residue of drilling mud. The mud may be from shaley portions of the producing formation.mzhelu@gmail.com . from sections of uncased hole. 420 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. MULE SKINNER Forerunner to the truck driver. a person who knows nothing about the oil business or the operator with whom he proposes to deal. MUDUP In the early day. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

A beam 421 Petroleum Engineer: M. an arrangement for producing a well in which one wellbore penetrate two or more petroleum-bearing formations that lie one over the other. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3000. Submarine pipelines connect the pipelineended manifold to the shore. all the pumps are powered by a single prime mover (as an engine or motor) instead of each pump being powered individually. The completion of a well in more than one producing formation. 3003. MULTIPAY WELL MULTIPLE COMPLETION See Multiple Completion. Z. each a different length and each packed off to prevent the commingling of different reservoir fluids.) from submerged hoses that are lifted from the sea bottom. MULTIPLIER A device or linkage for increasing (or decreasing) the length of the stroke or travel of a rod line furnishing power for pumping wells on a lease. A pump is placed at every well. 3004. MULTIBUOY MOORING SYSTEM A tanker loading facility with five or seven mooring buoys to which the vessel is moored as it takes on cargo or bunkers (q. multiple well-pumping system a method of lifting oil out of several wells in a field.v. Each reservoir is then produced through its own tubing string.mzhelu@gmail. however. The tubing strings are suspended side by side in the production casing string. extending up to the Christmas tree. Each production zone will have its own tubing installed. From there the oil may be piped to separate tankage. See Dual Completion. 3001. 3002.com .

3005.) muriatic acid hydrochloric acid. 3007.mzhelu@gmail. 3006. multishot survey MV MWD (See directional survey. q. By varying the distance from the fulcrum of the two rod-line connections. A technique to determine the real-time position of the drill bit in a directionally drilled well during the drilling process using instrumentation placed near the bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering which oscillates on a fulcrum and bearing to which is attached the rod line from the power source (central power.v. millivolt.com . Measurement While Drilling. Z. 422 Petroleum Engineer: M. the travel of the well's rod line can be lengthened or shortened to match the stroke of the well's pump.) and a rod line to the pumping well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

etc. NAC E NAMEPLATE RATING National Petroleum Refiners Association.mzhelu@gmail. successor to the Natural Gasoline Association of America. nameplate ratings are always heeded.A .R. N STAMP Designates equipment qualified for use in nuclear installations pipe. N.A. or electric motors. 3010. valves.. The manufacturers ratings as to speed (rpm). N. voltage requirement. N .G. 3013.A. To ensure proper and lasting performance of machines and equipment. compressors. 3 3012. printed or stamped on the makers nameplates attached to pumps.com . Z. working pressure.P. 3015. NAMING A WELL See Well Naming. 423 Petroleum Engineer: M. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. pumps. horsepower.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3008. An Act of Congress that empowers the Federal Power Commission to set prices and regulates the transportation of natural gas.G . type of fuel. fittings. 3014. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.P. engines. Natural Gas Processors Association. Natural Gas Act. etc. 3009.

NAPHT HENE-BASE CRUDE OIL naphtha Asphalt-base crude (q. are measured. NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE-ALASKA An area west of Prudhoe Bay field and south of Point Barrow containing millions of acres set aside and held in reserve for national security purposes. naphthene-base oil a crude oil that is characterized by a low API gravity and a low yield of lubricating oils having a low pour point and a low viscosity index (compared to paraffin-base oils). C2H4). NATIVE GAS Gas originally in place in an underground formation as opposed to gas injected into the structure. 3020.). cut through by the wells borehole. naphthene series the saturated hydrocarbon compounds of the general formula CnH2n. a volatile. It is often called asphalt-base oil because the residue from its distillation contains asphaltic materials but little or no paraffin wax. 3021. flammable liquid hydrocarbon distilled from petroleum and used as a solvent or fuel. 3018.v. 3017. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3022.com . Z. A radiation detector is lowered into the hole and picks up gamma rays emitted by the 424 Petroleum Engineer: M. (as ethylene or ethene. See Naval Petroleum Reserves.) 3019.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3016.mzhelu@gmail. NATURAL GAMMA RAY LOGGING A procedure in which gamma rays naturally given off or emitted by rock formations. (See hydrocarbons.

the heavier hydrocarbon components of natural gas. 3028. casinghead gasoline. are located in Elk Hills and Buena Vista. propane. ethane. butanes. Areas containing proven oil reserves which were set aside for national defense purposes by Congress in 1923.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. propane. the more important of which are methane. 3029. and hexane. the liquid hydrocarbons recovered from wet natural gas. and condensate. Natural gas plant an installation in which natural gas is processed for recovery of natural gas liquids. including liquefied petroleum gases such as butane and propane. pentane. UNCONVENTIONAL Natural gasoline NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES See Unconventional Natural Gas. NATURAL GAS. California Teapot Dome. The Reserves. including ethane. 3025. NATURAL GAS Gaseous forms of petroleum consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors. Petroleum Engineer: M. Wyoming and on the North Slope in Alaska. estimated to contain billions of barrels of crude oil. 3023. The signals are transmitted to a recording device at the surface. 3024.com . butane. 3027.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering rock. Z. See Gamma Ray Logging. Neat cement 425 a cement with no additives other than water. gas produced from a gas well. Natural Gas Liquids Liquids obtained during natural gas production. 3026.

and J.com . high-pressure piping where accurate control of small amounts of liquid or gas is desired. 3035. permeability.mzhelu@gmail. Net Pay Cutoffs Specified limits of porosity. (See bottleneck. 3031. 3034. Z. 3036. Net Pay Refers to the sum of the productive intervals of a reservoir and is determined by the application of cutoffs. The "tongue" of the valve is a rod that tapers to a point and fits into a seat which permits fine adjustments as when used with pressure gauges. water saturation and shale volume below which a formation would be unable to achieve or sustain commercial production. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A. W. Kirby of the DuPont research laboratory discovered neoprene first called polychloroprene.) 3032. Net Pay Map 426 A contour map depicting net thickness' of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. 3033. NEEDLE VALVE A valve A valve used on small. Carothers. Petroleum Engineer: M. lra Williams. Collins.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3030. NEOPRENE A rubber-like product derived from petroleum and compounded with natural rubber to produce a substance highly resistant to chemicals and oils. NEB Necking National Energy Board the tendency of a metal bar or pipe to taper to a reduced diameter at some point when subjected to excessive longitudinal stress.

com . net-oil computer a system of electronic and mechanical devices that automatically determines the amount of oil in a water and oil emulsion. and other assessments. Net production is also called working-interest oil (i. Such an interest is carved out of the working interest and represents an economic interest in the oil and gas produced from the property. the net oil produced by all of its wells multiplied by the company's working interest in the wells). NET REVENUE INTEREST A fractional share of the working interest not required to contribute to. 3041. NET PROFITS INTEREST A share of gross production from a property. nor liable for. including taxes. royalties. expressed in tons equal to 100 ft3. have been paid. 3038. any part of the expense of drilling and completing the first well on the property or lease.. net production the amount of oil produced by a well or lease. net tonnage the gross tonnage of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig less all spaces that are not or cannot be used for carrying cargo.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3037. measured by the net profits from the operation of the property.e. 3039. exclusive of its BS& W content. Net revenue is income from a property after all costs. Z.mzhelu@gmail. Sometimes referred to as net royalty. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. One advantage of a net-oil computer is that the water and oil do not have to be separated for it to measure the volume of the oil. 3040. 427 Petroleum Engineer: M.

3043. (See radioactivity logging. Neutron Lifetime Log neutron log NEW OIL (NCL) a trade name for a pulsed-neutron survey. 3045.) 3044. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v.mzhelu@gmail. owing to special properties. neutrons can be emitted from a substance when its nucleus is penetrated by gamma particles from a highly radioactive source. This property is used in neutron logging. 3047.) For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973.) to make good tube oil one of the many fractions of crude oil that. new oil is the production from a property in excess of production in 1972. Under certain conditions. neutron a part of the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen. See Old Oil. Newtonian fluid a fluid in which the viscosity remains constant for all rates of shear if constant conditions of temperature and pressure are maintained. Most drilling fluids behave as non-Newtonian fluids as their viscosity is not constant but varies with the rate of shear. 3046. NEUTRAL STOCK Lubricating oil stock that has been dewaxed and impurities removed and can be blended with bright stock (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3042. is ideal as a blending stock for making high-quality tube oil. 428 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . (See radioactivity logging. all-subsequent production from a property producing in 1972.

NGPA nipple nipple chaser Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. 429 Petroleum Engineer: M. The device is used to check the effectiveness of a squeeze job (q. Noble Metal (Catalyst) A metal used in petroleum refining processes that is chemically inactive with respect to oxygen. (slang) a crew member who procures and delivers tools and equipment for a 3051. Nitroglycerine is placed in a well and exploded to fracture the rock.mzhelu@gmail. 3049. Sand and gravel are usually placed above the explosive charge to improve the efficiency of the shot. drilling rig.).v. a tubular pipe fitting threaded on both ends and less than 12 in. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Nitro shooting a formation stimulation process first used about a hundred years ago in Pennsylvania. Z. 3052. 3054. 3053.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3048.com . nipple up to bolt together various valves or fittings (as to nipple up the blowout preventers or the Christmas tree). 3050. etc. long. Today nitro shooting has been largely replaced by formation fracturing. to estimate the gas flow from perforated formations. Noise Log A sound detection system inside a logging tool designed to pick up vibrations caused by flowing liquid or gas downhole.

copper. Under such circumstances. e. or tungsten.com . bronze. or rods are made of other metal or combination of metals. Nominations (1)The amount of oil a purchaser expects to take from afield as reported to a regulatory agency that has to do with state proration. production from beneath the property requires that any drilling be done on other land. spent uranium. brass. Nonane a paraffin hydrocarbon. valves. a graph that enables one.g.. Nonferrous Containing no iron.mzhelu@gmail. Its boiling point is about 303. nonferrous tools. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. that is liquid at atmospheric conditions.7 psi). (2) Information given to the proper agency of the Federal government or a state relative to tracts of offshore acreage a person or company would like to see put up for bid at a lease sale. Z.5 F (at 14. usually brass or 430 Petroleum Engineer: M. Nomograph A device used by engineers and scientists for making rapid calculations. Non Drilling Lease A lease that grants lessee the customary rights relative to oil and gas under the acreage but provides that a well shall not be drilled on the property. Non-drilling leases are usually granted where surface installations or activities make the drilling of a well impractical or incompatible. to find the value of a dependent variable when the values of two or more independent variables are given. with the aid of a straightedge. 3056. 3057. C9H20. Nonsparking tools are made of nonferrous metals.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3055. 3058.

3064. uninterrupted circulation of drilling fluid down the drill stem. 3059. having no pores.mzhelu@gmail. a "silent" working-interest owner. the landowner's interest.com . Nonoperator The working interest owner or owners other than the one designated as operator of the property. back to the surface. (See directional drilling.) 431 Petroleum Engineer: M. normal circulation the smooth. and up the annular space between the pipe and the hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. out the bit. 3062.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering bronze. Hand tools made of bronze or other nonferrous alloys for use in areas where flammable oil or gas vapors may be present. Z.v. landowner's royalty (q. Nonmagnetic drill collar a drill collar made of an alloy (Monel) that does not affect the readings of a magnetic compass placed within it to obtain subsurface indications of the direction of a deviated wellbore. Nonoperating Interest (In a Well) An interest in an oil or gas well bearing no cost of development or operation. Nonporous Nonsparking Tools containing no interstices. because they are softer and will not give off sparks when struck against another piece of metal. 3063.) 3060. 3061. (See mud circulation and reverse circulation.).

normal formation pressure formation fluid pressure equivalent to 0.000 ft. 3073. a "this is it" situation. used in drilling reports. The crucial point the vital move or decision. 3070. National Petroleum Reserve . 3072. 432 Petroleum Engineer: M.650 psi at 10.mzhelu@gmail.). 3068. denotes standard pipe thread.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3065. DOWN TO THE Naval Petroleum Reserves (q. Normalizing a heat treatment applied to metal tubular goods to ensure uniformity of the grain structure of the metal. Z. 3069. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. NPR NPR-A NPSH NPT NS NUMBER 2 FUEL NUT CUTTING. If the formation pressure is 4. 3067. also Two oil. Furnace oil.v. 3066. 3071. it is considered normal. National pipe thread. no show.Alaska Net positive suction head. distillate fuel.465 psi per foot of depth from the surface.com .

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3074.com . Nutating meter a flow meter that operates on the principle of the positive displacement of fluid by incorporating the wobbling motion of a piston or disk. Z.) 433 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. (See positive displacement meter.

.

3079. OAPEC OBJECTIVE DEPTH (OF A WELL) Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. used in drilling reports. used in drilling reports.g. A circular rubber gasket used in flanges. OBO VESSEL A specially designed vessel for carrying ore and crude. the objective depth.and gas-cut mud. both in bulk form.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3075. 3078. oil.v. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The first oil and bulk ore tanker/carrier was launched in 1966 and used in handling relatively small cargoes of oil and ore. Over and short (q.. and other equipment for making a joint pressure tight.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 3081. Drilling contracts often state that the hole shall be drilled to a specified depth or to a certain identifiable formation. The depth to which a well is to be drilled. e.500 feet or the Skinner sand. 435 Petroleum Engineer: M. oil and salt water.).com . 0-rings in cross section are circular and solid. 3077. O&G O&GCM O&S O&SW O-RING oil and gas. 3076. 3080. valves. whichever comes first. "to 5." 3082.

4 1/2-inch OD. 3089.S. used in drilling reports. a labor organization representing a large number of the industry's refinery and other hourly workers. OCTANE RATING A performance rating of gasoline In terms of antiknock qualities. The higher the octane number the greater the antiknock quality. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) an agency of the U. 3085.g. used in drilling reports. C&Hlg. e.com . 3088.g. 94 octane gasoline is superior in antiknock qualities to a gasoline of 84 octane.mzhelu@gmail.. CD and ID (inside diameter) are initials used in specifying pipe sizes. Z. OD Outside diameter of pipe. 3084. e. that is a liquid at atmospheric conditions. Oil.7 psi). 8 5/8-inch 10. 436 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3087. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3083. 3090. OC OCAW oil cut. OCM OCS octane oil-cut mud. Its boiling point is 258 F (at 14. government that establishes and enforces safety standards for industry employees. Chemical and Atomic Workers Union. 3086. outer continental shelf a paraffin hydrocarbon..

Odorants are used also in liquids or gases being stored or transported to detect leaks. 3094. 3092. OFFSET WELL (1) A well drilled on the next location to the original well. The distance from the first well to the offset well depends upon spacing regulations and whether the original well produces oil or gas. offloading refers more specifically to liquid cargo crude oil and refined products. OF OFF THE SHELF open flow. unpleasant odor to alert householders should they have even a small leak in the house piping. 437 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. (2) A well drilled on one tract of land to prevent the Drainage of oil or gas to an adjoining tract where a well is being drilled or is already producing. Said of products or equipment that are ready and waiting at a supplier's warehouse and can be taken "off the shelf" and shipped immediately. Another name for unloading. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ODORANT A chemical compound added to natural gas to produce a detectable. 3096. 3093. 3095. off-production OFFLOADING shut in or temporarily unable to produce (of a well).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3091. are ready to be employed on some job. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. Refers also to techniques and procedures that have been perfected and.com .

A drilling unit for offshore operations may be a mobile floating vessel with a ship or barge hull.000 wells had been drilled offshore. In general. while development wells are drilled from platforms. Z. 3102. 438 Petroleum Engineer: M. By 1979. 3099.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3097. in the Gulf of Mexico. OGIP Original Gas In Place. based on the analysis of well information. a self-propelled or towed structure with jacking legs (jack-up drilling rig). offshore drilling drilling for oil in an ocean or large lake. 1947. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Louisiana. or a permanent structure used as a production platform when drilling is completed. used in drilling reports. a semisubmersible or submersible base.com . 3100. Oil Information Committee of the American Petroleum Institute (API). 3101. Offshore Area The area offshore Nova Scotia under the Board's jurisdiction as defined in Schedule 1 of the Accord Implementation Acts. more than 20. 3098. The total quantity of trapped gas believed to exist in a geologic feature or structure. geophysical and petrophysical data. 43 miles south of Morgan City. OFFSHORE "WELL NO. OH OIC open hole. geological. 1" The fist offshore well (out of sight of land) was drilled on November 14. wildcat wells are drilled from mobile floating vessels (as semisubmersible rigs and drill ships) or from jack-ups.

the heavier liquids falling to the bottom and the gas rising to the top. The analyzer automatically der net oil and not water in a liquid stream. The cash bonus is the money paid by the lessee to the landowner (the lessor) for the granting of an oil and gas lease. includes distillates or condensate recovered or extracted from natural gas. Oil Based Mud OIL BONUS Drilling mud in which mineral oil is the continuous phase. Separation is accomplished principally by gravity.com . Separators are vertical or horizontal and are cylindrical or spherical in shape. OIL Crude petroleum (nil) and other hydrocarbons produced at the wellhead in liquid form.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3103. 3107. 3104.v. oil and gas separator an item of production equipment used to separate liquid components of the well stream from the gaseous elements.) reserved by the lessor (usually the landowner) in addition to the cash bonus and royalty payment he is entitled to receive. This information is important on leases where the production of individual wells (perhaps with different royalty owners) is to be commingled in the lease tanks or the pipeline gathering system. A float valve or other liquid-level control regulates the level of oil in the bottom of the separator. NET A well testing installation that separates the oil flow and water content of individual wells on a lease. Z. OIL ANALYZER. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3105. The landowner's royalty traditionally is 439 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. An oil payment (q. 3106.

OIL BROKER One who acts as a go-between in the domestic or international crude oil market. OIL IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to refiners to buy certain amounts of crude oil shipped in from abroad. 3112.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering one-eighth of the gross production from the well or the lease. the wells. It takes the drill to find oil. 3109.mzhelu@gmail. the term includes not only the surface area but may include the reservoir. Commonly. OIL FINDER A wry reference to a petroleum geologist. drill collars. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. he will come up with oil for someone who wishes to buy. independent producer and small refiner. 3108. A broker will find a market for a quantity of crude or product not committed by long-term contract. Just as readily. tubing. Brokers perform a useful function in the oil business by being knowledgeable about the industry's supply and demand situation. the surface area overlying an oil reservoir or reservoirs. Z. 3111. and line pipe. 3110.com . the broker receives either a flat fee or a percentage of the deal he helps consummate. He is the unobtrusive link between buyer and seller. However. drillpipe. geologists maintain that they do net find oil but instead locate or identify formations that in their opinion are favorable to the accumulation of oil. OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR GOODS oil field Well casing. and production equipment as well. For his services. 440 Petroleum Engineer: M. if there is more than one well.

producing. It may be granted to a bank to pay off a loan. or refining 3116. and pipelining. production. or to someone else for other considerations. Oil-base mud and invertoil mud are types of oil muds. to areas of exploration. They are useful in drilling certain formations that may be difficult or costly to drill with water-base mud. 3117. oil mud a drilling mud in which oil is the continuous phase.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3113.mzhelu@gmail. OIL PAYMENT A share of the oil produced from a well or a lease. An oil payment or overriding royalty (q. An oil payment is in fact a slice of the royalty from the well and comes to the owner of the royalty at specified times. for example the owner of the seven-eighths working interest. OIL PATCH A form referring broadly to the oil field. 3114. quarterly. or annually. and is free of any costs or assessments for operating the well or lease. monthly. 441 Petroleum Engineer: M.) may be conveyed to another party by the owner of a larger interest. oil in place the amount of crude oil that is estimated to exist in a reservoir and that has not been produced. oil operator an individual or company engaged in finding. free of the costs of production. petroleum.v. Compare oilemulsion mud. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. selling. 3115.com .

sandstone that yields oil.. (2) In pipeline parlance. 3121. OIL ROYALTY The lessor's or landowner's share of oil produced on his land.com . Oil rings are generally made of brass and are used on relatively slow-moving shafts. (by extension) any reservoir that yields oil. OIL RUN (1) The production of oil during a specified period of time. As the ring slowly rotates through the well of oil. a tank of oil gauged.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3118. 3123. petroleum-like substance extracted from oil sands. In some instances. OIL POOL An underground reservoir or trap containing oil. 3122.mzhelu@gmail. An oil field may contain one or more pools. The customary 1/9 royalty can be paid in money or in oil. 3120. it deposits oil on the shaft. tested. 3119. OIL RING A metal ring that runs on a horizontal line shaft in the bearing well which has a supply of tube oil. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A pool is a single separate reservoir with its own pressure system so that wells drilled in any part of the pool affect the reservoir pressure throughout the pool. a pipeline run. and put on the line. See Run Ticket. Bitumen is defined as "any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons together with their nonmetallic derivatives". another fraction of production is specified as royalty. 442 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. A heavy. asphalts and tars. oil sand OIL SANDS BITUMEN 1.

443 Petroleum Engineer: M. an oil tanker. A mishap that permits oil to escape from a tank. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . GRABLE See Production String. Z. having permeated from its subsurface boundaries and accumulating in small pools. considered a pollutant. 3131. 3129. See Grable Oil Well Pump.mzhelu@gmail. a film of oil floating on water. or a pipeline. It is operated either mechanically or hydraulically. oil seep a surface location where oil appears. 3127. 3126. 3128. oil saver a gland arrangement that seals by pressure and is used to prevent leakage and waste of gas. 3125.).v. 3130. oil scout a representative of an oil company who gathers data on new oil and gas wells and other industry developments. an offshore well. OIL STRING OIL WELL PUMP. OIL SHALE oil slick OIL SPILL Kerogen shale (q. oil. Oil spill has come to mean oil on a body of water where even small amounts of oil spread and become highly visible.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3124. or water around a wireline (as when swabbing a well).

the use of an oil-emulsion mud increases the drilling rate and ensures better hole conditions than other muds.) 3134.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3132. or dispersed. which are tightly emulsified so that they do not settle out. in the oil as small droplets. (See oil mud and invert-oil mud.mzhelu@gmail. or dispersed. Compare oil mud 3136. oil-cut containing oil (describes a liquid. An oil-mist system is economical in its use of lubricant and efficient on many types of antifriction applications. in the water in small droplets.com . 444 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. oil-base mud an oil mud that contains from less than 2 percent up to 5 percent water. The oil zone is usually immediately under the gas zone and on top of the water zone if all three fluids are present and segregated. 3133. OIL-MIST SYSTEM A lubricating system which pneumatically conveys droplets of a special oil from a central source to the points of application. as oil-cut mud recovered in a drill-stem 3135. oil-emulsion mud a water-base mud in which water is the continuous phase and oil is the dispersed phase. oil zone a formation or horizon of a well from which oil may be produced. The oil is spread out. test). Because of its lubricating abilities. The water is spread out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

) cement or a mixture of cement and other materials for use in oil. 3140. Z. 3139. surface or subsurface. Once surrounded. A curtain-like device deployed around or across the path of a drifting oil spill. the oil-water in.) The third man at a pumping station in the old days. (See sucker-rod pumping and hydraulic pumping. The curtain is weighted on the bottom edge to hold it a foot or two below the surface and has floats on the upper edge to hold the curtain a foot or more above the surface.com . the oil is sucked up by a vacuum cleaner-like suction pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. oil-water emulsion oil-well cement (See reverse emulsion and emulsion. the telegraph 445 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3141. 3144. oil-wet rock OILER (See wettability. OIL-SPILL BOOM Any of various devices or contraptions to contain and prevent the further spread of oil spilled on water until it can be picked up. The normal shift-crew on a large gathering or mainline station was the station engineer. gas.) 3143. water wells.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3138. that is used to lift fluids from the reservoir to the surface.mzhelu@gmail. terface. oil-water contact the point or plane where the bottom of an oil sand contacts the top of a water sand in a reservoir. or 3142. oil-well pump any pump.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. on-deck ON-LINE PLANT (GAS) present on a ship or rig deck and exposed to weather.v.mzhelu@gmail. 3148.). Petroleum Engineer: M. Gas processing plant located on or near a gas transmission line which takes gas from the trunk line for processing-stripping. dry gas to the line. of a tank. 3147. OP0rItod by a walking beam instead of a Pumping jack. on-suction on-the-line 446 of a tank. 3146. OLD OIL For the purposes of price regulation under the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering operator-assistant engineer and the oiler whose job included feeling the engine and pump bearings. scrubbing. Any production in excess of this amount from a property is new oil (q. old oil is production from a property up to the 1972 level of production. being emptied into a pipeline. 3149. ON STREAM Term used for a processing plant. a refinery or a pumping station that is operating. 3150. open to pump suction. To bring on stream is to start up a plant or an operation.com . keeping the wick oilers full and dripping properly and cleaning mopping the station floors. drying-and returns the clean. Z. ON THE BEAM Refers to a well on the Pump. 3145. 3151.

3157. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 447 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3158. OOG OOIP oolite Office of Oil and Gas. geological. OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Rock characterized by oolites is called oolitic. and engineering information gathered from wells drilled in the same area. pressures. bits. as well as consultation with drilling experts. a consulting service first developed by American Oil Company that makes available to operators of drilling rigs technical. An Investor who agrees to a one-third for one-fourth deal will pay one-third of the cost of the well to casing point and receive one-fourth of the well's net production. drill speed. being pumped.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3152. OP-DRILLING SERVICE Optimization drilling. Included is advice on mud programs. 3155.) THIRD FOR ONE-QUARTER A term used by independent oil operators who are selling interests in a well they propose to drill. (See oolite. used in drilling reports. 001 oolitic.com . Original oil in place. 3153. 3154. on-the-pump ONE of a well. 3156. a spherical or ellipsoidal particle of sand with concentric or radial structure that is formed by the replacement or accretion of concentric layers of lime around a quartz grain. Z.

the mineral interest less the royally. having no casing. 3161. Reservoir fluids flow unrestricted into the open wellbore.mzhelu@gmail. open-hole completion a method of preparing a well for production in which no production casing or liner is set opposite the producing formation. 3165. Good production practice nowadays is to produce a well under maximum efficiency rate conditions (q. See Working interest. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the flow of production from a well without any restrictions (valves or chokes) on the rate of flow. Z. open OPEN FLOW of a wellbore. 3163. 3160.com . any wellbore in which casing has not been set.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3159. OPERATING INTEREST An interest in oil and gas that bears the costs of development and operation of the property. Open flow is permitted only for testing or clean-out. An open-hole completion has limited use in certain situations.v. The production of oil or gas under wide-open conditions. open formation open hole open-flow test a petroleum-bearing rock with good porosity and permeability. a test made to determine the volume of gas that will flow from a well during a given time span when all surface control valves are wide open. 3162.). 3164. 448 Petroleum Engineer: M.

3167. or this grant is surrendered as stipulated herein. the other is the unless lease (q. an operator was a telegrapher at a pumping station who sent reports on pumping rates. In the old days.v. OPERATOR.v. The delay rental clause (q. optimum water the amount of water used to give a cement slurry the best properties for its particular application. 3168. the lessee promises to drill on or before the first anniversary date or do something else pay rental. OPERATOR An actuating device a mechanism for the remote operation and/or control of units of a processing plant. PLANT OR STATION A worker who is responsible for the operation of a small plant or a unit of a larger plant during his working shift.)." In an or lease." 449 Petroleum Engineer: M. OR LEASE One of the two most common forms of oil and gas leases. Operators usually are air or hydraulically actuated. and line pressures to the dispatcher (q. Their main use is for opening and closing stops and valves. etc. five years for example. tank gauges. Both types of leases are granted for a primary term.) of an or lease is often written as follows "Lessee agrees to begin a well on said premises within one year of date hereof or thereafter pay lessor as rental $------each year in advance to the end of this term or until said well is commenced. forfeit the lease. Z.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3169. and "so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3166.mzhelu@gmail.com .).

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3170.
etc.).

organic rock

rock materials produced by plant or animal life (as coal, petroleum, limestone,

3171.

ORGANIC SUBSTANCE

A material that is or has been part of a living organism. Oil, although classified as a mineral, is an organic substance derived from living organisms.

3172.

organic theory

an explanation of the origin of petroleum, which holds that both the hydrogen and carbon that make up petroleum come from plants and animals of the land and sea. This organic material is theorized further to have come more from sea and swamp life and very tiny creatures rather than land life and larger creatures.

3173.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

(OPEC) pl the countries of the Middle East, Africa, and South America that produce oil and export it and that have organized to negotiate and regulate oil prices.

3174.

orientation

the process of positioning a deflection tool so it faces in the direction necessary to achieve the desired direction and drift angle of a directional hole. (See directional drilling.)

3175.

oriented core

a core sample whose location in the reservoir has been pinpointed.

450

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3176.
drilling.

oriented drill pipe

a drill pipe run in a well in a definite position, often a requisite in directional

3177.

orifice

a device with an opening in it whose diameter is smaller than that of the pipe or fitting into which it is placed to partially restrict the flow through the pipe. The difference in pressure on the two sides of an orifice plate, as determined by an orifice meter, can be used to measure the volume of flow through the pipe.

3178.

orifice fitting

a device placed in a gas line to hold an orifice plate. (See flanged orifice fitting, junior orifice fitting, and senior orifice fitting.)

3179.

ORIFICE METER

A measuring instrument that records the flow rate of gas, enabling the volume of gas delivered or produced to be computed.

orifice pipe tap
a tap for pressure connections made at points two-and-a-half pipe diameters upstream and downstream from the orifice; a full-flow connection.

3180.

orifice plate

a sheet of metal, usually circular, in which a hole of specific size is made for use in an orifice fitting. (See orifice.)

3181.

orifice pressure drop

the pressure differential that occurs across an orifice plate.

451

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3182.

orifice well tester

a device used to test the gas flow of a well, including orifice plates, a hose, and a siphon gauge. It is used primarily to estimate the amount of gas flowing on a drill-stem test when a high degree of accuracy is not required.

3183.
flanges.

orifice-flange tap

a tap for pressure connections made close to the orifice and through the

3184.

ORYHOLE

An unsuccessful well; a well drilled to a certain depth without finding oil; a "duster" (q.v.).

3185. 3186.

OSHA OTTO-CYCLE ENGINE

the Occupational Health and Safety Administration.

A four-stroke cycle gas engine the conventional automobile engine is an Ottocycle engine, invented in 1862 by Beau de Rochas and applied by Dr.Otto in 1877 as the first commercially successful internal combustion engine. The four strokes of the Otto cycle are intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

3187. 3188.

out-of-gauge bit outage

a bit that is no longer of the proper diameter.

a quantity of oil that is lost while in storage or being transported.

452

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3189.

OUTAGE GAUGE

A measure of the oil in a tank by finding the distance between the top of the oil and the top of the tank and subtracting this measurement from the tank height. Outage gauging is used on large storage tanks in which there may be several feet of heavy sediment in the bottom preventing the plumb bob on the gauge line from touching bottom. By measuring the distance from the top of the tank whose height is known, the height of the oil from the bottom can be easily arrived at. See lnnage Gauge.

3190. 3191.
(as a rock).

outboard outcrop

away from the center of the hull or toward the side of an offshore drilling rig.

the exposed portion of a buried layer of rock. to appear on the earth's surface

3192.

OUTCROPA

A subsurface rock layer or formation that, owing to geological conditions, appears on the surface in certain locations. That part of a strata of rock that COMES to the surface.

3193.

OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS)

"All submerged land (1) which lies seaward and outside the area of lands beneath the navigable waters as defined in the Submerged Lands Act (67 Stat. 29) and (2) of which the subsoil and scabed appertain to the U,S. and are subject to its jurisdiction and control."

3194.

outer continental shelf orders

(See OCS orders.) 453

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3195. 3196. 3197. 3198.

outpost well outside cutter outside diameter OVER AND SHORT (0 & S)

a well located outside the established limits of a reservoir; a step-out well.

(See external cutter.)

(See diameter.)

In a pipeline gathering system O&S refers to the perennial imbalance between calculated oil on hand and the actual oil on hand. This is owing to contraction, evaporation, improper measuring of lease tanks, and losses through undetected locks. Oil is paid for on the basis of the amount shown in the lease tanks. By the time this oil is received at the central gathering station, the amounts invariably are short which represent a loss to the pipeline system.

3199.
tank.)

over and short station

a pump station where one or more tanks are floating on the line. (See floating

3200.

Over-flush

an excess quantity of fluid used to push acid out of the tubing or casing when an acid mixture is displaced into a well, thus directing the acid to the desired place in the well.

454

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3201.

OVER-THE-DITCH COATING

Doping and wrapping fine pipe above the ditch just before it is lowered in. Most fine pipe is coated and wrapped in the pipe yard and then transported to the right-of-way and strung. Over-the-ditch coating has the advantage of minimizing scuffing or other damage to the coating suffered through moving and handling.

3202. 3203. 3204.

overburden overburden pressure overflow pipe

the strata of rock that lie above the stratum of interest in drilling.

the pressure exerted by the overburden on the formation targeted for drilling.

a pipe installed at the top of a tank to enable the liquid within it to be discharged to another vessel when the tank is filled to capacity.

3205.

OVERHEAD

A product or products taken from a processing unit in the form of a vapor or ·gas; a product of a distillation column.

3206. 3207.

Overpressure OVERRIDE

Formation pressure in excess of hydropressure.

See Overriding Royalty.

455

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3208.

OVERRIDE SYSTEM

A backup system; controls that take over should the primary system of controls fait or be taken out for adjustment or repair; a redundancy built in for safety and operational efficiency.

3209.

OVERRIDING ROYALTY

An interest in oil and gas produced at the surface tree of any cost of productio royalty in addition to the usual landowner's royalty reserved to the lessor. A 1/16 override is not unusual.

3210.

overshot

a fishing tool that is attached to tubing or drill pipe and lowered over the outside wall of pipe or sucker rods lost or stuck in the wellbore. A friction device in the overshot, usually either a basket or a spiral grapple, firmly grips the pipe, allowing the lost fish to be pulled from the hole.

3211.

OXYACETYLENE WELDING

The use of a mixture of oxygen and acetylene in heating and joining two pieces of metal. When the weld edges of the two pieces are molten, metal from a welding rod is melted onto the molten puddle as the welder holds the tip of the rod in the flame of the torch. Oxygen and acetylene are used also in cutting through metal. The intense heat generated it the tip of the cutting torch (about 3,500"F) literally melts away the metal in the area touched by the flame See Welding Torch.

3212.

oz

Ounce, unit of weight equal to 1/16 of a pound, 28.35 grammes

456

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3213. 3214.

P&A p-low

plugged and abandoned. (See plug and abandon.)

a notation of the amount of pressure generated on the drill stem when the mud pumps are run at some speed slower than the speed used when drilling ahead. A p-low or several p-lows are established for use when a kick is being circulated out of the wellbore.

3215.

P.S.I.A.

Pounds per square inch absolute; pressure measurement which includes atmospheric pressure.

3216. 3217.
pascal.

P.S.I.G. Pa pack off

Pounds per square inch gauge (as observed on a gauge).

3218.

to place a packer in the wellbore and activate it so it forms a seal between the tubing and casing.

3219.

PACKAGE PLANT

A facility at a refinery where various refined products are put in cartons and boxes ready for shipment. Waxes, greases, and small-volume specialty oils are boxed in a package, plant.

457

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3220.

packed-hole assembly

a drill stem that consists of stabilizers and special drill collars and is used to maintain the proper angle and course of the hole. This assembly is often necessary in crooked-hole country.

3221.

packer

a piece of downhole equipment, consisting of a sealing device, a holding or setting device, and an inside passage for fluids, used to block the flow of fluids through the annular space between the tubing and the wall of the wellbore by sealing off the space between them. It is usually made up in the tubing string some distance above the producing zone. A sealing element expands to prevent fluid flow except through the inside bore of the packer and into the tubing. Packers are classified according to configuration, use, and method of setting and whether or not they are retrievable (i.e., whether they can be removed when necessary, or whether they must be milled or drilled out and thus destroyed).

3222.

packer fluid

a liquid, usually mud but sometimes salt water or oil, used in a well when a packer is between the tubing and casing. Packer fluid must be heavy enough to shut off the pressure of the formation being produced, must not stiffen or settle out of suspension over long periods of time, and must be noncorrosive.

3223.

PACKING

Any tough, pliable material-rubber or fiber-used to fill a chamber or "gland" around a moving rod or valve stem to prevent the escape of gas or liquid; any yielding material used to effect a pressure tight joint. Packing is held in place 458

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

and compressed against a moving part by a "follower," an adjustable element of the packing gland.

3224. 3225.

packing gland PALYNOLOGY

the metal part that compresses and holds packing in place in a stuffing box.

The science that deals with the study of five and fossil spores and with pollen grains and other microscopic plant structures. As palynology concerns oil prospecting, particularly stratigraphic problems, the science involves age dating rocks and determining the environment when sedimentary formations were laid down. This can be observed from well borehole cuttings, cores, and surface outcrop samples; also microscopic analysis of source rock samples and other basic geochemical studies.

3226.

paraffin

a hydrocarbon having the formula CnH2n + 2 (methane, CH4; ethane, C2H6; etc.) Heavier paraffin hydrocarbons (i.e., those of C18H38 and heavier) form a waxlike substance that is called paraffin. Heavier paraffins often accumulate on the walls of tubing and other production equipment, restricting or stopping the flow of desirable lighter paraffins.

3227. 3228.

paraffin hydrocarbon paraffin inhibitor

(See paraffin.)

a chemical that, when injected -into the wellbore, prevents or minimizes paraffin deposition.

459

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3229. 3230.
a solid

paraffin scraper paraffin wax
substance resembling beeswax but composed entirely of

any tool used to remove paraffin from inside tubular goods.

hydrocarbons. It is obtained from the crude wax that results from the solvent dewaxing or cold pressing of light paraffin distillates. The refined product is of relatively large crystalline structure, is white and brittle, and has little taste or odor.

3231.

PARAFFIN-BASE CRUDE

Crude oil containing little or no asphalt materials; a good source of paraffin, quality motor lubricating oil, and high-grade kerosene; usually has lower nonhydrocarbon content than an asphalt-base crude.

3232.

paraffin-base oil

a crude oil characterized by a high API gravity, a high yield of lowoctane gasoline, and a high yield of lubricating oil with a high pour point and a high viscosity index. Popularly, and according to an early classification system, a paraffin-base oil is a crude oil containing little or no asphalt and whose residue from distillation contains paraffin wax. (Compare naphthene-base oil.)

3233.

paraffin-deposition interval

(PDI) the in. terval in the production tubing string where heavy paraffin hydrocarbons are deposited on the inside walls of the tubing. The interval is dependent on temperature; below or above certain temperatures, paraffin will not form.

460

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3234.

parasequence

Relatively conformable depositional units bounded by surfaces of marine flooding, surfaces that separate older strata from younger and show an increase in water depth in successively younger strata. Parasequences are usually too thin to discern on seismic data, but when added together, they form sets called parasequence sets that are visible on seismic data. See Also depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy, stratum

3235.

parted rods

sucker rods that have been broken and separated in a pumping well because of corrosion, improper loading, damaged rods, and so forth.

3236.

PARTICIPATION

A type of joint venture between a host country and an international oil company holding concession rights in that country. Participation may be voluntary on the part of the oil company or as the result of coercion by the host country.

3237. 3238. 3239.

PARTICIPATION CRUDE OIL PARTICULATE MATTER pascal

See Buy-back Crude Oil.

Minute particles of solid matter-cinders and fly ash-contained in stack gases.

Pa) an international system (SI) metric unit of pressure measurement. One pound per square inch (psi) of pressure equals approximately 6,894.757 pascals, and 1 kilogram per square centimeter (kg/cm') of pressure equals approximately 98,066.5 Pa, or 98.07 kilopascals (kPa). 461

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3240.

patch

a material used to cover, fill up, or mend a hole or weak spot. A metal piece extending" halfway around a pipe and wriddd

3241.

PAY HORIZON

The subsurface, geological formation where a deposit of oil or gas is found in commercial quantities.

3242.

PAY OUT

The recovery from production of the costs of drilling, completion, and equipping a well. Sometimes included in the costs is a prorata share of lease costs.

3243. 3244. 3245. 3246.
pound

pay string PAY ZONE PB Pcf PCV PDI

the Production casing.

See Pay Horizon.

abbr plugged back; used in drilling reports.(see plug back)

3247. 3248.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (q.v.),

paraffin-deposition interval.

462

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

3249.

PEAK-SHAVING LNG PLANT

A liquefied natural gas plant that supplies gas to a gas pipeline system during peak-use periods. During slack periods the liquefied gas is stored. With the need for additional gas, the liquid product is gasified and fed into the gas pipeline.

3250. 3251.
rope fittings.

PEAPICKER Pelican hook

An inexperienced worker a green hand; boil weevil.

(nautical)a device releasable under tension that engages chain links and wire-

3252. 3253.

PEMEX pendant line

Petroleos Mexicanos, the state-owned Mexican oil company.

(nautical) a wire rope attached to an anchor and sometimes to the anchor chain and used to pull and lower the anchor. The ends of the pendant not on the anchor are attached to buoys on the surface of the Water.

3254.

PENDULUM DRILL ASSEMBLY

A heavily weighted drill assembly using long drill collars and stabilizers to help control the drift from the vertical of the drill bit. The rationale for the weighted drill assembly is that. like a pendulum at rest, it will resist being moved from the vertical and will tend to drill a straighter hole.

463

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Perforating is accomplished by lowering into the well a perforating gun. to pierce the casing wall and cement to provide holes through which formation fluids may enter or to provide holes in the casing so that materials may be introduced into the annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. eastern Ohio. percussion drilling tool perf perforate (See hammer drill.mzhelu@gmail.com . or perforator. 464 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. used in drilling reports. used in drilling reports. 3259. Per Percussion drilling Permeability. Z. that fires electrically detonated bullets or shaped charges from the surface.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3255. 3258. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 1 cable-tool drilling. 3260. and southern New York state. 3261. perforate under-balanced to perforate the well with a column of fluid in the wellbore. 3256. PENNSYLVANIA-GRADE CRUDE OIL Oil with characteristics similar to the crude oil Produced in Pennsylvania from which superior quality lubricating oils are made. 3257.) perforated.rotary drilling in which a special tool called a hammer drill is used in combination with a roller-cone bit. Similar-grade crude oil is also found in West Virginia.

3265.) 3263. When lowered into the well's casing on a wire line opposite the formation to be produced.or jet-perforating guns. has steel projectiles placed at intervals over its outer circumference. The gun. perpendicular to the gun's long axis. 3264. a steel tube of various lengths.com .mzhelu@gmail. PERFORATING To make holes through the casing opposite the producing formation to allow the oil or gas to flow into the well. perforated liner perforated pipe a liner that has had holes shot in it by a perforating gun. 3266. (See gun-perforate. the sections of pipe (as casing liners. PERFORATING GUN A special tool used downhole for shooting holes in the well's casing opposite the producting formation. perforated completion a well completion in which the production casing or liner is punctured to allow passage between the wellbore and the producing formation. Shooting steel bullets through the casing walls with a special downhole "gun" is a common method of perforating. Z.) in which holes or slots have been cut before setting.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3262. tail pipes. Perforations are usually made with bullet. shooting numerous holes in the casing which permit the oil or gas to flow into the casing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. etc. 465 Petroleum Engineer: M. Perforate/Perforating Piercing the casing and cement using shaped explosive charges to provide a flow path for formation fluids. the gun is fired electrically.

3272. 3273. permanent completion a well completion in which production. PERMAFROST The permanently frozen layer of earth occurring at variable depths in the Arctic and other frigid regions. and re-completion operations can be performed without removing the wellhead. 466 Petroleum Engineer: M. and return to its lowest position. the time required for the bow or stern of a floating offshore drilling rig to start at its lowest Position. 3269. It is seated in the temporary guide base and serves as a wellhead housing. 3270. Permeability The measure of a formation's ability to transmit fluids and/or gases. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. permanent guide base a structure attached to and installed with the foundation pile when a well is drilled from an offshore drilling rig. 3268. Also. 3271. Z.mzhelu@gmail. PERFORATIONS. rise with the waves. workover. guidelines are attached to it so that equipment (as the blowout preventers) may be guided into place on the wellhead.com . period of roll the time required for a floating offshore drilling rig to roll from one side to the other and back.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3267. SHAPED-CHARGE period Of Pitch See Shaped-charge Perforation.

Person-years personnel net The equivalent of one person working a full year.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3274. 3281. natural gas. 3278. a net attached to a floatable ring. Z. feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of plastics and synthetic rubber.mzhelu@gmail. the science of synthesizing substances derived from crude oil. and sand is pumped under high pressure into an oil-bearing formation penetrated by the well bore. This 467 Petroleum Engineer: M. on which personnel ride when being transferred from boat to rig on offshore locations. PETROCHEMICALS Chemicals derived from petroleum. an extension added to the handle of a wrench to increase the leverage. 3276. 3279. PESA petrochemical Petroleum Equipment Suppliers' Association. 3277. 3275. PERSUADER An oversized toot for a small job. and natural gas liquids. a chemical manufactured from petroleum and natural gas or from raw materials derived from petroleum and natural gas.080 hours. chemicals. PETROFRACTURING A process In which a mixture of oil.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3280. PETROCHEMISTRY A word derived from petroleum and chemistry. It is usually rigged to a crane. or 2.

the term embraces the whole spectrum of hydrocarbons-gaseous. PETROLEUM TAR SANDS Native asphalt. In the popular sense.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering produces cracks and fissures in the formation to improve the flow of oil. 468 Petroleum Engineer: M. petroleum means crude oil. Sandstone. 3288.com . solid and semisolid bitumen. 3283. limestone. 3287.mzhelu@gmail. See Hydraulic Fracturing. 3286. PETROLEUM RESERVES NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES. 3282. In its broadest sense. including oil-impregnated rock or sand from which oil is recoverable by special treatment. STRATEGIC PETROLEUM ROCK See Naval Petroleum Reserves. shale. See Strategic Petroleum Reserves. petroliferous containing petroleum (of rocks). 3284. dolomite. and solid. 3285. referred to as synthetic crude. and other porous rock formations where accumulations of oil and gas may be found. liquid. petrol PETROLEUM (British) gasoline. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Processes have been developed for extracting the oil. PETROLEUM SULFONATE FLOODING See Micellar-surfactant Flooding.

a substance with a pH of 4 is more than twice as acid as a substance with a pH of 5. PETROLOGY The science that deals with the origin. structure. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. 469 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. structure. occurrence. numbers less than 7. and classification of rocks. a substance with a pH of 9 is much more than twice as alkaline as a substance with a pH of 8. A neutral solution (as pure water) has a pH of 7. a geologist who studies the origin. increasing acidity.com . SEDPAIENTARY A specialist in petrology. pH value a unit of measure of the acid or alkaline condition of a substance. acid solutions are less than 7. basic. 3291.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3289. 3292. occurrence. greater than 7. Similarly. and from drill cores.mzhelu@gmail. with 7 representing neutrality. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3293. also a specialist in the acoustical properties of rocks who often works with geophysicists in determining the presence of oil and gas in sedimentary formations. PETROLOGIST. 3290. history. history. Petrophysics Study of reservoir properties based on the data obtained from various logging tools and methods. or alkaline solutions are above 7. PH (pH) A symbol used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from 0 to 14. chemical composition. increasing alkalinity. and chemical composition of sedimentary rocks.

PHYSICAL DEPLETION The exhausting of a mineral deposit or a petroleum reservoir by extraction or 3297. The three phases of HgO. any portion of a nonhomogeneous system that is bounded by a surface. used in drilling reports. for example. phase 1. automatically sounds a warning or effects changes in the stack emissions when they exceed predetermined levels. usually salt. is homogeneous throughout. pi pickle pipeline. are ice (solid). a cylindrical or spherical device that is affixed to the end of a wireline just above the hook to keep the line straight and provide weight. 3298. a jetty. in physics.mzhelu@gmail. Z. production. 2.com . 3300. and may be mechanically separated from the other phases. 3296. piercement dome 470 a mass of material. 3295. a distance over the water for use 4 s a landing place or to tie up boats. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYZER A device for detecting and analyzing the changes in properties and quantities of a plant's stack gases.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3294. 3299. that rises and penetrates rock formations. and steam (gas). or variation has advanced. water (liquid). through the use of electronic linkage. oscillation. PIER A walkway-like structure built on piling out from shore. The analyzer. the stage or point in a cycle to which a rotation. Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

). When insertec in the line at a "trap. (nautical) to install anchors behind each other in tandem on the same 3305. Drilied-in piling 471 Petroleum Engineer: M. Pigs or scrapers (q." the platform is constructed on shore and then floated and towed to location where it is "sunk" by flooding its compartments.com . 3303. thus forming a tight seal as they move along cleaning the pipe wails. See Gravity Structure. Some platforms of this type have oil storage facilities within the base of the structure. PILING. rust.mzhelu@gmail.v. pig iron PIG TRAP piggyback (slang) a piece of oil-filed equipment made of iron or steel. pliable discs that fit the internal diameter of the pipe. In this operation the piles are cemented in to achieve more stability. Referred to as a "gravity structure. or other foreign matter." the pressure of the oil stream behind it pushes the pig along the line.) are made with tough. 3306. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. PIG A cylindrical device (three to seven feet long) inserted in a pipeline for the purpose of sweeping the line clean of water. also Tension-leg Platform. mooring line. DRILLED-IN Piling that is inserted into holes drilled by special large-diameter bits. A scraper trap (q. PILELESS PLATFORM A concrete offshore drilling platform of sufficient weight to hold the structure firmly in position on the sea bottom. 3302. Z. 3304.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3301.

Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3310. PILLOW TANKS Pliable. Easily deplorable. 155) 3308.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is often used to secure platform jackets to the ocean floor.v. PILOTMILL.com . the rubber pillows can be filled by tank truck or air shuttle. 3311. are now in service at remote locations to store diesel fuel. pilot mill a special mill that has a heavy. (See illustration. PILOT PLANT A small model of a future processing plant. tubular extension below it called a pilot or stinger. A type of junk mill (q. It guides the mill to the top of and centers it over the pipe. is designed to go inside drill pipe or tubing that is lost in the hole. and tube oil until steel tankage can be erected. 3307. thus preventing the mill from bypassing the pipe. 3309. Pillow tanks. The pilot. first used by the military to store fuel. p. gasoline. smaller in diameter than the mill. used to develop and test processes and operating techniques before investing in a full-scale plant. pin pin packer 472 (See tool joint. folded up and taken to another location. 3312. and when no longer needed they may be emptied. See Drilling and Boiling Tool.) with a tapered confer projection below the cutting surface of the bit to guide or pilot the bit into the open end of a piece of junk or a toot to be milled out downhole. synthetic rubber and fabric fuel "tanks" that look like giant pillows.) Petroleum Engineer: M.

3315. usually steel. When weight is put on the packer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering a packer in which the packing element is held in position by brass or steel pins.com . 3316. an increase in the wall thickness can only be obtained by decreasing the internal diameter. 3317. Once the pin tap is engaged. Casing. pinch-out a geological structure that forms a trap for oil and gas when a porous and permeable rock ends at or stops against an impervious formation. tubing. tubing. the external diameter is the same for 473 Petroleum Engineer: M. shearing the pins and allowing the element to fold and pack off.through which fluids are conducted. two metal sleeves telescope. pipe a long. or line pipe. PINCHING A VALVE Closing a valve part way to reduce the flow of liquid or gas through a pipeline. threaded device made up on the bottom of drill pipe or tubing and used to screw into the box of a stand of drill pipe or drill collars lost in the hole. drill pipe. hollow cylinder. and drill pipe are designated by external-diameter.mzhelu@gmail. 3313. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See Cracking a Valve. Thus. 3314. the lost pipe can be retrieved. Because lengths of pipe are joined by external-diameter couplings threaded by standard tools. Oilfield tubular goods are casing (including liners). pinch in to decrease the size of the opening of an adjustable choke when a kick is being circulated out of a well. Z. pin tap a short.

) used for connecting lengths of pipe. elbows.com . pipe hanger 1. 3321. PIPE LAY BARGE PIPE MILL. 3324. 2. See Portable Pipe Mill. a circular device with a frictional gripping arrangement used to suspend casing and tubing in the well. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 474 Petroleum Engineer: M. One who installs and repairs piping. usually of small diameter.mzhelu@gmail. An "oil patch plumber" according to pipeliners who traditionally work with large-diameter pipe 3320. 3319. pipe fittings the auxiliary parts (as couplings. Grading depends on the yield strength of the steel. PORTABLE See Lay Barge. etc. It has a handle on one end and two semicircular pieces on the other end that are designed to fit under the shoulder of a joint of pipe and avoid damage as the pipe is lifted with the tool. crosses. 3318. 3322. pipe dolly PIPE FITTER any device equipped with rollers and used to move drill pipe or collars. pipe jack a hand tool used to lift and move a stand of pipe that is set back in the derrick. Weight is expressed in pounds per foot. a device used to support a pipeline. tees. 3323.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering all weights of the same size pipe.

upon command from an operator. and lowering in of pipe. 3326. The replaceable mandrels come in all size 2" to 12".It eliminates the need to stand pipe in the derrick while it is out of the hole. either picks up pipe from a rack and lifts it into the derrick or takes pipe from out of the derrick and places it on the rack. 2. (obsolete) 1. 475 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.com . a worker who places pipe to one side in the derrick. 3327. handling.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3325. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Fabric slings are used to prevent scarring or damaging the pipelines protective coating. pipe repair clamp pipe saddle a clamp used to make a temporary repair of a leak in a pipeline. outlet. PIPE SLING A stirrup-like sling made of heavy belting material used on the winch line of boom cats for lifting. a fitting made in parts to clamp onto a pipe to stop a leak or provide an 3330. a pneumatic or hydraulic device often used on drill ships that. PIPE STRAIGHTENER A heavy. 3331.mzhelu@gmail. pipe rack pipe racker a horizontal support for tubular goods. 3329. 3328. pipe rams a sealing component for a blowout preventer that closes the annular space between the pipe and the blowout preventer or wellhead. pipeyard press equipped with hydraulically powered mandrels for taking the kinks and bends out of pipe.

3336. 476 Petroleum Engineer: M. to bite into the surface of the pipe in turning it. usually buried in the earth or laid on the seafloor. PIPE TONGS Long-handled wrenches that grip the pipe with a scissors-like action. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . or other liquid from the pipe as the pipe is pulled from the hole. The head (called the butt) is shaped like a parrot's beak and uses one corner of a square "tong key.mzhelu@gmail. The electric motor furnishes power for the chopper blades. used to wipe off mud. pipeline connection the outlet from a well or tank by which oil or gas is transferred to a pipeline for transportation away from the field. 3333.1 disappears-until the next pipeline job. 3334. Z. pipeline a system of connected lengths of pipe. pipe wiper a disk-shaped device with a hole in the center through which drill pipe or tubing passes. PIPELINE DELUMPER A motor-driven chopping machine that is flanged Into a pipeline to break up any solid material that may have found its way into the fluid stream." held in a slot in the head. 3337. 3335. used in laying a screw pipeline. Delumpers are used for the most part on coal slurry pipelines. PIPELINE CAT A tough. that is used for transporting petroleum and natural gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3332. a boomer. experienced pipeline construction worker who stays on the job until is flanged up and the. oil. A hard-working. impermanent construction hand.

to check the route of a pipeline for leaks or other abnormal conditions. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. butane.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3338. PIPELINE GAUGER PIPELINE INSPECTION SPHERE 3340. and other gas liquids-usually present in natural gas will not condense or drop out in the transmission lines. pipeline patrol a watch. 3341. PIPELINE GAS Gas under sufficient pressure to enter the high-pressure gas lines of a purchaser. usually maintained from an airplane. The diving sphere is lowered to the sea floor by a boom and tackle extending from the deck of a work boat or diving tender equipped with support systems.mzhelu@gmail. See Gauger. gas sufficiently dry so that liquid hydrocarbons-natural gasoline. pipeline oil a crude oil whose BS& W content is low enough to make the oil acceptable for pipeline shipment. A manned bathysphere for inspection of offshore pipelines or to investigate the underwater terrain. 3339. 3342. PIPELINE PRORATIONING The refusal by a purchasing company or a pipeline to take more oil than 4 needs from the producer by limiting pipeline runs from the producer's lease an informal practice in the days of overproduction when market conditions 477 Petroleum Engineer: M. for a proposed route for laying a pipeline. 3343. the sea floor.com .

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering were unsatisfactory or when the pipeline system lacked storage space. for short local lines. Z. and (5) final or capping pass. that surrounds a piston and maintains a tight fit inside a cylinder. piston a cylindrical sliding piece that is moved by or moves against fluid pressure within a confining cylindrical vessel. patrol using light planes or. Welders then lay on courses of weld metal called passes or beads designated as (1) stringer bead. by the pickup truck and the man on foot. One who does pipeline construction or repair work welders. anyone who is involved in the building. 3345. the bevelled ends of two joints are brought together and aligned by clamps. connection men.mzhelu@gmail. and operation of a pipeline system. cat drivers. Also referred to as purchaser prorationing. (4) filler pass.com . costing and wrapping operators. usually metal. PIPELINE SPREAD PIPELINE WELDING 3346. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. broadly. The line rider has been replaced by the pipeline. PIPELINE RIDER One who covers a pipeline by horseback looking for leaks in the line or washed-out sections of the right of way. 3347. ditching machine operators. 3348. piston ring a yielding ring. (2) hot pass. See Spread. In pipeline welding. 3344. (3) third pass or hot fill (for heavy-wall pipe). maintenance. 478 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. heavy residue in oil refining. piston rod 1. PVTs usually consist of float devices in the mud pits that sense mud-level data and transmit the data to a recording and alarm device mounted near the driller's position on the rig floor. 3354. Looking much like a large. Pit Volume Totalizer (PVT)a trade name for a series of devices that continuously monitor the level of the drilling mud in the mud pits. a metal shaft that joins the piston to the crankshaft in an engine. 3352. If the mud level in the pits drops too low or rises too high. one end of which is connected to the piston and the other to the pony rod.com . 2. 3353. the pitcher pump is built on the order of the "old 479 Petroleum Engineer: M. a dark brown to black bituminous material found in natural beds. the alarm sounds to warn the driller that action may be necessary to prevent a blowout. pit-level indicator pit-level recorder PITCH (See Pit Volume Totalizer.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3349. PITCHER PUMP A small hand pump for very shallow water wells. cast-iron cream pitcher. a metal shaft in a mud pump.) (See Pit Volume Totalizer. PIT LINERS Specially formulated plastic sheeting for lining earthen or leaking concrete pits to prevent seepage of oil or water into the ground. 3350. 3351. See Brea. Z.) Asphalt. also produced as a black. 3355.

crater-like holes or pits. 3357. does not have a string of pump rods attached. A simple and elegantly fundamental pumping machine. 3359. Z. The pitcher pump's handle. 3358. Pitot-tube meter a meter that uses a Pitot tube and a manometer or other differential-pressure mechanism to measure flowing fluids. pk pkr pink. See Anode. used in measuring the velocity head of a flowing medium. pitman the arm that connects the crank to the walking beam on a pumping unit by means of which rotary motion is converted to reciprocating motion. 3360. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . also Rectifier Bed. Pitot tube an open-ended tube arranged to face against the current of a stream of fluid. Water is pumped by the suction created by a leather cup and valve arrangement in the throat or lower body of the pump together with a foot valve 20 feet or so down in the tubing. which is directly related to the rate of flow.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering town pump" with one exception. packer. PITTING (OF PIPE) Line pipe corroded in such a manner as to cause the surface to be covered with minute. 3356. working on a fulcrum. The difference between the pressure on the Pitot tube and the static pressure is the velocity head of the flow. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail. 3361. 480 Petroleum Engineer: M.

and keeps the necessary operating records. flowing as a river with the center of the stream moving at a greater rate than the edges which are retarded by the friction of the banks (or pipe wall). 481 Petroleum Engineer: M. plasticity the ability of a substance to be deformed without rupturing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The resinous material is hardened by the addition of special chemicals which creates a porous mass that permits oil to flow into the well but holds back the sand at the same time.mzhelu@gmail.com . As the point on a tracing arm is passed along the outline of a figure. (See sand consolidation. 3367. plastic viscosity an absolute flow property indicating the flow resistance of certain types of fluids.) 3366. makes minor adjustments and repairs. See Turbulent Flow. 3364. plastic squeezing the procedure by which a quantity of resinous material is squeezed into a sandy formation to consolidate the sand and prevent its flowing into the well. Plastic viscosity is a measure of shearing stress. PLASTIC FLOW The flow of liquid (through a pipeline) in which the liquid moves as a column.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3362. planimeter an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure. PLANT OPERATOR An employee who runs plant equipment. a graduated wheel and disk indicate the area encompassed. Z. 3363. 3365.

PLATFORM BURNER platform jacket See Forced-draft Burner. 3374. used on offshore platforms.). or both. PLAT A map of land plots laid out according to surveys made by a Government Land Office showing section.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3368. township.) on an offshore platform. PLATFORM TREE A production Christmas tree (q.com . 3369.v. a grid-like representation of land areas showing their relationship to other areas in a state or county. an assembly of control and production valves.mzhelu@gmail. platform an immobile offshore structure constructed on pilings from which wells are drilled. through which wells are produced. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PLAT BOOK A book containing maps of land plots arranged according to Township and Range for counties within a state. See Plat. commonly known as a platformer (q. PLATFORMATE High-octane gasoline blending stock produced in a catalytic reforming unit. Z. 3372. a support that is firmly secured to the ocean floor and to which the legs of a platform are anchored.v. 482 Petroleum Engineer: M. produced. 3370. 3371. and range. 3373.

3377.com . PLATFORMER A catalytic reforming unit which converts low-quality straight-chain paraffins or naphthenes to low-boiling. 3378. See Acoustic Plenum. 3379. submerged manifold connected to the shore by-pipelines that serve a tanker loading station of the multibuoy mooring type (q. Pipeline-end manifold. 3376.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3375. PLUG 483 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. Z. Central control rooms at refineries are usually kept at pressures of a few ounces above the surrounding atmosphere to prevent potentially explosive gases from seeping into the building and being ignited by electrical equipment. an offshore. play PLEM the extent of a petroleum-bearing formation. sure greater than the outside air. branched-chain paraffins or aromatics of higher octane.mzhelu@gmail. PLENUM A room or enclosed area where the atmosphere is maintained at a pres. The line is set in accordance with local and international rules for safety of life at sea. Some offshore drilling and production platforms are provided with plenums as a safety measure.). 3380. a refinery unit that produces high-octane blending stock for manufacture of gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Plimsoll mark a mark placed on the side of a floating offshore drilling rig or ship denoting the maximum depth to which it may be loaded or ballasted.

Z. 3386.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering To fill a well's borehole with cement or other Impervious material to prevent the flow of water. gas.mzhelu@gmail. 3384. wells were often improperly plugged or left open. 3385. sidetrack. A type of quick-opening pipeline valve constructed with a central core or "plug.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 484 Petroleum Engineer: M. plug container plug flow PLUG VALVE (See cementing head. 3382. 3383. In the industry's early years. tubing." The valve can be opened or closed with one-quarter turn of the plug. Plugging back also can be accomplished by a mechanical plug set by wireline. a stop. to place cement in or near the bottom of a well to exclude bottom water. PLUGGING A WELL To fill up the borehole of an abandoned well with mud and cement to prevent the flow of water or oil from one to another or to the surface. plug and abandon plug back (P&A) to place a cement plug into a dry hole and abandon it. to stop the flow of oil or gas. or drill pipe. or produce from a formation already drilled through. or oil from one strata to another when a well is abandoned to screw a metal plug into a pipeline to shut off drainage or to divert the stream of oil to a connecting line. 3381.) a fluid moving as a unit in which all shear stress occurs at the pipe wall.

plunger PLUNGER PUMP (See sucker-rod pump.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Modern practice requires that an abandoned well be properly and securely plugged. as a valve closes. 3389. Several pneumatic controls are used on drilling rigs to actuate rig components (as clutches. pumps. Z. 3390. Plugging material a substance used to temporarily or permanently block off zones while treating or working on other portions of the well. 3387.com .mzhelu@gmail. hoists.) A reciprocating pump in which plungers or pistons. (See hydraulic control pod. engines. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Air injection pneumatic hoist. 485 Petroleum Engineer: M. push the fluid out into a discharge line.) A plan for financing oil and gas exploration developed for off shore exploration. pneumatic control a control valve that is actuated by air. draw in a volume of liquid and. The form of the plan is usually corporate. 3393. etc. the investors receiving shares of stock in the corporation and other securities. 3391. 3388. p od POGO PLAN 3392. moving forward and backward or up and down in cylinders.

He is the "brains" of the crew as he keeps his men pulling and "hitting" in unison and In time with the other tong crews working on the same joint of screw pipe. usually of two different sizes. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3394. Z. 3397. (p) the viscosity of a liquid in which a force of 1 dyne (a unit of measurement of small amounts of force) exerted tangentially on a surface of 1 cm' of either of two parallel planes 1 cm apart will move one plane at the rate of 1 cm per second in reference to the other plane with the space between the two planes filled with the liquid. 3398. point-reaction force poise a force that counteracts another force at a single point.mzhelu@gmail. polar compound a compound (as water) with a molecule that behaves as a small bar magnet with a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other. POINT MAN The member of a pipeline tong crew who handles the tips (the points) of heavy pipe-laying tongs. pole mast a portable mast constructed of tubular members. 3395. A pole mast may be a single pole. 3396.com . that is telescoped together to be moved or extended and locked to obtain maximum height above a well. 486 Petroleum Engineer: M. Double-pole masts give added strength and stability.

the union of light olefins to form hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight. and toys. airtight. plastic house wares. (2). metal tanks that float on the fluid and support the moveable deck structure of the roof. pony rod (1). polished rod the topmost portion of a string of sucker rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3399. 3404. It has a uniform diameter and is smoothly polished to effectively seal pressure in the stuffing box attached to the top of a well.mzhelu@gmail.com . POLYMERIZATION A refining process of combining two or more molecules to form a single heavier molecule. polymer mud a drilling mud to which has been added a polymer. 3401. 3400. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a sucker rod less than 25 ft long. PONTOONS The elements of a floating roof tank that provide buoyance. the rod joined to the connecting rod and piston rod in a mud pump. Z. 3402. 3403. POLYETHYLENE A petroleum-derived plastic material used for packaging. to increase the viscosity of the mud. 487 Petroleum Engineer: M. a chemical that consists of large molecules that were formed from small molecules in repeating structural units. used for lifting fluid by the rodpumping method. polymerization is used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stock from cracked gases. The main ingredient of polyethylene is the petrochemical gas ethylene.

putting on the pump. homemade. It also is called a relief valve or a safety valve. SALT-DOME/SALT-PLUG poor boy POP pop valve See Salt-dome Pools. Pony rods are screwed Into the top of the string just below the polished rod (q.v.com . resulting in a parcel of "land large enough for the granting of a well permit under applicable spacing regulations. to do something on a shoestring. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3411.). contiguous tracts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3405. It is used as a safety device on pressurized vessels and other equipment to prevent damage from excessive pressure. to make do. portion of a producing reservoir.) a spring-loaded safety valve that opens automatically when pressure exceeds the limits for which the valve is set. Pooling is often erroneously used for unitization (q. 488 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. The bringing together of small. 3409. Unitization describes a joint of all or some significant. See Oil Pool.mzhelu@gmail. POOL POOLING 3407. Z. PONYRODS Sucker rod made in short lengths of 2' to 8' for use in making up a string of pumping rods of the correct length to connect Vie polished rod of the pumping jack.). 3408. 3410. POOLS. 3406. used in drilling reports. (See put on the pump.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3412. 3415. especially with respect to sour gas and casinghead gas. unsafe. 3416. POP-OFF VALVE popcorn POPPET VALVE See Relief Valve. (See pore.mzhelu@gmail. oil. substandard. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3418. or cheap. or all three). A spring-loaded vertical valve that permits downward flow as fluid pressure opens the valve. POPPING The discharge of natural gas into the atmosphere. 3417.com .) A cylindrical steel drum with steel bristles protruding from the surface. the gas was "wasted" as there was no ready market for it. p or PORCUPINE porosity or pores. 3414. a common practice in the 1920s and 1930s. A type of check valve installed in a riser or a downhole packer to prevent fluid from rising vertically in the pipe or the well bore. After the liquid hydrocarbons were extracted. used in drilling reports. a super. pipe-cleaning pig for swabbing a sediment-laden pipeline. pore an opening or space within a rock or mass of rock. Compare vug. usually small and often filled with some fluid (as water. Pressure from below moving upward is blocked by the valve's clapper held shut by spring tension. 489 Petroleum Engineer: M. gas. 3413.

3424. portland cement position-reference system (See cement.) 3422. And with good permeability (q. the rig should always be directly over the wellhead to minimize wear on subsea 490 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. a mast mounted on a truck and capable of being erected as a single unit. a well penetrating the formation should be a producer. Ideally. 3420. an important property of oil-bearing formations.com .). and lays fine pipe in end continuous operation. POROSITY The state or quality of being porous. electric welded. the volume of the pore space expressed as a percent of the total volume of the rock mass. 3423. and strung out behind the machine as it moves forward. tested.mzhelu@gmail. (See telescoping derrick.) any system or method by which surveillance is maintained on the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. Good porosity indicates an ability to hold large amounts of oil in the rock. 3421. self-propelled "factory on wheels" that forms. the quality of a rock that allows liquids to flow through it readily. welds. PORTABLE PIPE MILL Avery large.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3419. port portable mast (nautical) the left side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow). The pipe is made from rolls of sheet steel (skelp) shaped into a cylindrical form.

3428. POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP A pump that or moves a measured volume of liquid on each stroke or revolution a pump with no significant slippage. by rotating vanes or buckets. The displacement of a fixed volume of fluid may be accomplished by reciprocating or oscillating pistons. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a metal box under a truck bed that holds pipeline repair tools. The flow of mud comes into the bottom of the device and travels over baffles to control mud flow over the shale shaker. by nutating disks.com .are directed into the intake manifold and from there they mix with the gasoline to be burned. positive-displacement meter a mechanical.) 3425. 2. a receiving tank situated at the end of the mud-return line. 3427. or by using tanks or other vessels that automatically fill and empty. fluid-measuring device that measures by filling and emptying chambers of a specific volume. 491 Petroleum Engineer: M. POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM A system installed on automobiles manufactured after 1968 to reduce emissions from the engine's crankcase.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering equipment and facilitate operations involved with the equipment. a plunger or rotary pump. Z. also known as a volume meter or voltmeter. possum belly 1. (See acoustic position reference and taut-line position-reference system.mzhelu@gmail. The emissions-oil and unburned gasoline vapors. positive choke a choke in which the orifice size must be changed to change the rate of flow through the choke. 3426.

Z. potential test a test of the rate at which a well can produce oil or gas. bars. 492 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 3435. the maximum volume of oil or gas that a well is capable of producing. 3437. 3436. pcf) a measure of the density or weight of drilling fluid. lblgal) a measure of the density of a fluid (as drilling mud). (psi) an English measure of the amount of pressure on an area that is 1 in. Once literally posted in the field. and wrenches.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3429. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3430.) 3434. square. (See potential. chains. (slang) a relatively shallow well. POSSUM BELLY A metal box built underneath a truck bed to hold pipeline repair tools shove's. POTS (PUMP VALVE) pounds per cubic foot pounds per gallon pounds per square inch See Valve Pots.com . (lb/ft'. 3431. posthole digger posthole well potential (slang) a small or makeshift drilling rig. 3432. tongs. (ppg. POSTED PRICE The price an oil purchaser would pay for crude oil of a certain API gravity and from a particular field or area. 3433.

in pounds per square inch. Z. pour point a temperature 5 F above that temperature at which an oil is solid. 3442. 3444.com . For example. Mechanical. as drilling mud. a measure of the amount of pressure.) power slips (See slips. exerts for every foot of length at the bottom of the column. DRILLING RIG power takeoff See Drilling Rig. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. POUR-POINT DEPRESSANT POWER power rig power sub A chemical agent added to oil to keep it flowing at low temperatures. POWER SYSTEMS.) 3439. 493 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3438. 3443. or casing in a well in lieu of a rotary. 3441. pounds per square inch per foot (psi/ft) n. that a column of fluid. See Central Power. tubing.52 psi/ft. (PTO) a gearbox or other device serving to relay the power of a prime mover to auxiliary equipment. 3440. (See mechanical rig.. so that a column of 10-ppg mud that is 1. (See pressure gradient.) a hydraulically powered device used to turn the drill pipe. Electric. 3445. the lowest temperature at which an oil will flow. also Drilling Rig. 10-ppg mud exerts 0.000 ft long exerts 520 psi at the bottom of the column.

and watertightness. After a joint is stabbed. Z. but some have single-acting pistons that function. Conventional tongs are operated by a mechanical pull provided by a jerk line connected to a cathead. power tongs a wrench that is used to make up or break out drill pipe. pozzolan-cement mixture a mixture of pozzolan and cement. Added to oil-well cements. Most mud pumps have double-acting pistons.com . or casing to which the torque is provided by air or fluid pressure. and influence factors such as pumping time. operated through cranks and connecting rods by power supplied to its crankshaft from an electric motor or internal-combustion engine. 3447. increase resistance to sulfate attack. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. POWERTONGS An air or hydraulically powered mechanism for making up and breaking out joints of drillpipe. It is usually a duplex (with two cylinders) but may be triplex (with three cylinders). pozzolan a natural or artificial siliceous material commonly added to portland cement mixtures to impart certain desirable properties. the power tongs are latched onto the pipe which is screwed in and tightened to a predetermined torque. ultimate strength.mzhelu@gmail. casing or tubinq. 3449. as plungers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3446. 3450. pozzolans reduce slurry weight and viscosity. tubing. 3448. 494 Petroleum Engineer: M. power-driven mud pump a reciprocating pump for circulating drilling fluids.

3456. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pozzolan-lime reaction the reaction between pozzolans and lime in the presence of water. 3453. pozzolanic reaction 1. the reaction between a pozzolan and any other material used to form a cementation product. basic refinery located in a remote area. 3455. PRAIRIE-DOG PLANT A small.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3451.v. Z.) which is very small. a pozzolan-lime reaction. 3454.000 barrels a day) set up at a remote drilling site to make diesel fuel and low-grade gasoline from available crude oil for the drilling engines and auxiliary equipment such as a light-plant engine . 3452. temporary refinery (200 to 1.com . Parts per million (of water)LBS-H20/MMSCF.mzhelu@gmail. used to express water content in a small amount of gas. ppg ppm PPM/VOL PPM/WT pounds per gallon. forming a cementitious material primarily composed of hydrated calcium silicates. See also LBS-H2O/MMSCF 3457. Parts per million (of water) in a given weight of gas. parts per million. 495 Petroleum Engineer: M. 2. etc. a "distillation system" (q. welding unit.

pressure is usually expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). sometimes called spearhead.. 3461. a Bourdon tube. 3462. pressure gauge an instrument for measuring ]fluid pressure that usually registers the difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the fluid by indicating the effect of such pressures on a measuring element (as a column of liquid. pressure drop a loss of pressure as a fluid passes from an area of small volume to an area of larger volume.mzhelu@gmail.com . or other pressuresensitive device). resulting from friction. Z. pressure the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface (as that exerted against the inner wall of a container or piping system by a fluid or that exerted on a wellhead by a column of gas in the well).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3458. For example. 3463. pressure gradient a scale of pressure differences in which there is a uniform variation of pressure from point to point. 3460. Compare overflush. a diaphragm. preignition a condition in an internal-combustion engine characterized by a knocking sound and caused by the fuel-air mixture having been ignited too soon because of an abnormal condition.S. Pre-flush the quantity of fluid used ahead of the acid solution pumped into a well in an acid-stimulation treatment. 3459. a weighted piston. the pressure gradient of a column 496 Petroleum Engineer: M. In the U. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

3467.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of water is about 0.v. pressure parting a phenomenon in which a rock formation is caused to be broken apart along bedding planes or in which natural cracks are widened by the application of hydraulic pressure. earth lifting. PRESSURE SNUBBER A pulsation dampener (q. Pressure losses occur as the fluid is circulated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or other fluids into the reservoir before reservoir pressure has dropped appreciably.). usually early in the life of the field. to reduce or eliminate a decline in pressure.com . usually occurring because the fluid is moving against the surface.465 psi/ft or 10. 3465.. It is sometimes called breaking or cracking the formation. 2. 0.433 psi/ft of vertical elevation (9. 3466.mzhelu@gmail. Z.79 kPa/m).e. a reduction in the amount of force a fluid exerts against a surface. the amount of pressure indicated by a drill-pipe pressure gauge when drilling fluid is being circulated by the mud pump.51 kPa/m). 3464. 497 Petroleum Engineer: M. The normal pressure gradient in a well is equivalent to the pressure exerted at any given depth by a column of 10 percent salt water extending from that depth to the surface (i. pressure loss 1. or formation fracturing. water. pressure maintenance a method for increasing ultimate oil recovery by injecting gas.

Z. Such a tank is often spherical. has a wall thickness greater than that of the usual storage tank. and temperature (PVT) an examination of reservoir fluids in a laboratory under various pressures. 3472. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and has a concave or convex top. volume.) a system of conducting regular checks and testing of equipment to permit replacement or repair of weakened or faulty parts before failure of the equipment results. 3474. used to provide a protective sheath around the 498 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3470.com .mzhelu@gmail. 3473. 3469. or pop valve. safety valve. preventer preventive maintenance (See blowout preventer. 3471. also called a relief valve. pressure vessel any container designed to contain fluids at a pressure substantially greater than atmospheric. and temperatures to determine the characteristics and behavior of the fluid. volumes.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3468. pressure storage tank a storage tank constructed to withstand pressure generated by the vapors inside. analysis pressure. pressure-relief valve a valve that opens at a preset pressure to relieve excessive pressures within a vessel or line. primary cementing the cementing operation that takes place immediately after the casing has been run into the hole.

and to prevent the migration of undesirable fluids. PRIME MOVER The term describes any source of motion. in the oil field it refers to engines and electric motors. 3478. (See secondary cementing and squeeze cementing. Prime mover is also applied to large four-wheel-drive trucks or tractors. but retails under the t>rand name of an independent supplier or his own brand name.. a large 499 Petroleum Engineer: M. if possible. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. or the interest in the property reverts automatically to the lessor or landowner. See Or Lease. When a lease's primary term expires. the power source. PROCESSING PLATFORM PROCESSS TEAM A production platform (q. 3480. PRIMARY TERM The period of time an oil and gas lease is to run or be valid. PRIVATE BRAND DEALER A gasoline dealer who does not buy gasoline from a "major" supplier. also Delay Rental. 3479. primary recovery oil production in which only existing natural energy sources in the reservoir provide for movement of the well fluids to the wellbore. to segregate the producing formation.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering casing.mzhelu@gmail. 3476. 3477. Of the energy used in the U.) 3475.v. the lease must be renewed.S.) Steam produced in a refinery's or chemical plant's boilers to heat a process stream or for use in a refining process.

Petrochemical plants are important users of superheated. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. natural gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering percentage is consumed in the production of process steam. PRODUCING PLATFORM An offshore structure with a platform raised above the water to support a number of producing wells.mzhelu@gmail. When the wells are completed. 3484. The oil goes to the lease tanks. where there are large volumes of water. 3483. (See pay sand. in offshore operations. When water and oil are mixed in the production stream they go into a gun barrel or other type of oil/water separator. 3485. End product gas gas resulting from a special manufacturing process. synthetic 500 Petroleum Engineer: M.) Flowing oil and/or gas from a well to the production systems. PRODUCED WATER Salt water produced from the oil from a well. 3482. the drilling equipment is removed and the platform is given over to operation of the producing wells. high-pressure steam.! an angle from the vertical away from the platform. as many as 60 wells are drilled from a singer large platform by slanting the hole P. the water to an evaporation pit or.com . it is pumped into a salt water disposal well. Z. producing zone Producing/Production PRODUCT GAS the zone or formation from which oil or gas is produced. 3481.

these product percentages can be changed depending upon market demand.3%. 2.) 501 Petroleum Engineer: M.6%. other products. lubricating oils. The pump is constructed with channels and wells that I ill with product and in which the bearings or other moving parts run.mzhelu@gmail. gauging. various kinds of oils with lubricating qualities. 21. 9.e.. 3488. (See oil string and long string. 6.2%. 7. With modern-day refining methods. Z.3%. inside of which is usually suspended the tubing string. PRODUCT IMPORT TICKET A license issued by an agency of the Federal government to a refiner or marketer to import products from abroad. i. jet fuel and kerosene. and otherwise preparing the product for the pipeline. handles only clean liquids. production casing the last string of casing or liner that is set in a well. the amount of oil or gas produced in a given period. needless to say.0%. gas oil and distillates. 3487. residual fuel oil. PRODUCT YIELD (AVERAGE) From a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil the average yield is as follows gasoline. 3489. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3486. Product lubricated equipment. 6. PRODUCT LUBRICATED Describes a pump whose bearings are lubricated by the liquid it is pumping. production 1. 49. the phase of the petroleum industry that deals with bringing the well fluids to the surface and separating them and with storing.com .6%. 3490.

Also. 3492. 3493. a spinner survey. production log a well-logging method that measures and records the flow of fluid past an indicating device placed at varying depths in a producing or injection well. Z. and are usually cheaper to build than steel production platforms. See Carved-Out Interest. PRODUCTION ISLAND An island made by dredging up material from the bottom of a lake or the ocean bottom to support one or more producing wells. 3494. an island can be landscaped to hide the pumping wells and other equipment from view. It is a common practice in the oil country to borrow money on a producing well to finance further Development of a lease. close to shore. Production islands are constructed in shallow water. the islands are less offensive to the esthetic eye. PRODUCTION PACKER An expandable plug-like device for sealing off the annular space between the well's tubing and the caning. This overriding royalty conveyed to the bank or other lender is free and clear of any costs of production or maintenance. And with a lower profile. 502 Petroleum Engineer: M. also Overriding Royalty. PRODUCTION PAYMENT LOAN A loan that is to be repaid out of the production of a well or a lease. The production packer is ran as part of the packer is mechanically or hydraulically expanded and "set" firmly against the casing wall isolating the production formation from the upper casing while permitting the oil or gas to flow up the tubing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3491.mzhelu@gmail.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To pay off the loan the operator "carves out" a royalty payment to the lending institution from his seveneighths working interest.

and pumping the oil and gas to shore stations. separating. storing. After the skid has been lifted into position and secured to the platform it is connected to the flow lines of the offshore wells it is to serve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3495. production rig a portable servicing or workover outfit. PRODUCTION SKID A prefabricated oil and gas production unit assembled on a base or skid on the shore and transported to an offshore platform by one or more derrick barges. 3497. 503 Petroleum Engineer: M. and other auxiliaries to permit handling and working a drill string. separators. A well-servicing unit consists of a hoist and engine mounted on a wheeled chassis with a self-erecting mast. PRODUCTION STRING The casing set just above or through the producing zone of a well. See Production Platform. The production string is the longest and smallest diameter casing run in a well. Z. PRODUCTION PLATFORM An offshore structure built for the purpose of providing a central receiving point for oil produced in an area of the offshore.mzhelu@gmail. A workover rig is basically the same. usually mounted on wheels and selfpropelled. plus a substructure with rotary. treating. and pumping units for moving the oil to shore through a submarine pipeline. It reaches from the pay zone to the surface. 3498.com . pump. treaters. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3496. pits. The production platform supports receiving tanks. and begins its function of receiving.

3505. PRODUCTION TAX Production Tree See Gross Production Tax. 3500.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3499. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A type of bidding for federal and sometimes state oil leases in which a relatively small cash bonus is paid for the lease acreage plus a share in the net profits should the lease prove to be commercially productive. Z.mzhelu@gmail.com . 3502. products cycle the sequence or order in which a number of different products are batched through a pipeline. productivity index (PI) a well-test measurement indicative of the amount of oil or gas a well is capable of producing. 3506. also referred to as a flow tank or lease tank. 3501. In some 504 Petroleum Engineer: M. products line PROFIT-SHARING BIDS a pipeline used to ship refined products. It may be expressed as PI= __Q_______ 3504. Production Well A well drilled and completed for the purpose of producing crude oil or natural 3503. gas. An arrangement of heavy duty valves and fittings installed on the wellhead to control flow from the well and/or to facilitate injection operations. production tank a tank used in the Field to receive crude oil as it comes from the well.

) for holding open the cracks made in the formation by the extremely high pressure applied in the treatment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3510. 3507.com . Lead Operator.mzhelu@gmail. 3511. that is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. or other miniature pellets suspended in the fracturing fluid that are forced into the formation and remain to prop open the cracks and crevices permitting the oil to flow more freely. Imperial Oil Resources Limited and Nova Scotia Resources Limited. This type of bidding substantially reduces the front-end cost for an operator but extends the payout time for his wells. Mobil Oil Canada Properties. propane a parafrin hydrocarbon. Z.) Material used in hydraulic fracturing (q. 3509. 3508. Proponents The parties proposing to carry out SOEP. C&Ha. Project Sands The Proponents term for those reservoir zones that they recognize as having sufficient gas volumes and producibility to form the basis of the production forecast. beads. the sand grains. specifically. proppant PROPPANTS (See propping agent.v. Shell Canada Limited.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering instances bidders have offered a 75 to 90 percent share in net profits for an especially promising parcel. It is a constituent of LPG. Joint Operator. 505 Petroleum Engineer: M.

and from fields to leases. propping agent a granular substance (as sand grains.mzhelu@gmail. and gravity studies that are privately owned. land and offshore reconnaissance surveys from seismic.) 506 Petroleum Engineer: M. or other material) carried in suspension by the fracturing fluid that serves to keep the cracks open when the fracturing fluid is withdrawn after a fracture treatment. geological formations gathered or purchased from a supplier of such data by an operator and kept secret. walnut shells. inter mediate casing.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3512. 3513. PRORATIONING Restriction of oil and gas production by a state regulatory commission. (See intermediate casing string. and then allocated to individual wells. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3515. protection casing a string of casing set to protect a section of the hole and to permit drilling to continue to a greater depth. Prorationing involves allowables which are assigned to fields. usually on the basis of market demand. proration a system enforced by a state or federal agency or by agreement between operators that limits the amount of petroleum that can be produced from a well or field within a given period. 3516. Z. PROPRIETARY DATA Information on subsurface.com . 3514.

3519. 3521. 3518. where PI is the productivity index (b/d per psi of pressure differential). pounds per square inch per foot. a calibration tank. a small. P. 507 Petroleum Engineer: M. PROTECTIVE STRING A string of casing used in very deep wells and run on the inside of the outermost casing to protect against the collapsing of the outer string from high gas pressure encountered. 3520. and Pf is flowing bottom-hole pressure (psi). Q is the rate of production (b/d). psi Psi/ft psia pounds per square inch. mobile tank used to check the accuracy of meters. is the static bottomhole pressure (psi).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3517. Psig is the pressure in a vessel or container as registered on a pressure gauge attached to the container. 3523. psig pounds per square inch gauge. 3524.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Psia is equal to the gauge pressure plus the pressure of the atmosphere at that point.com . Z. pounds per square inch absolute.Pf to determine the accuracy of a petroleum measurement meter. prove prover tank Ps . 3522.

PTO puddling power takeoff. pull out PULL ROD PULLEDTHREADS (See come out of the hole. 1. Z. 508 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3530.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. necessary.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3525. in field practice. the reciprocation or rotation of the casing during or after a primary cementing operation. 3528. 3527. 3532. threads on pipe or tubing damaged beyond use by too much torque or force used in making up the joint.com . in cement evaluation work. Stripped threads. 3533.mzhelu@gmail. To pull a drill bit from the hole before it is worn out to pull a bit before it is 3531.) Shackle rod (q. to remove casing from a well. the agitation of cement slurry in molds with a rod to remove trapped air bubbles. 2. 3529. to pull a bit from the hole for replacement before it is greatly worn. pull a well pull casing pull it green PULL ONE GREEN In to collapse a derrick. 3526.

the drillpipe is unscrewed in two or three-joint sections (stands) and stacked in the derrick. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3534. 3537. Often part of the string must be cut off and left in the hole.v. as much of the casing as can be pulled is retrieved.v. pulling unit a well-servicing outfit used in pulling rods and tubing from the well.). the lower section must first be reprieved with a "fishing tool" (q. If the tools are to be run again (put back in the hole). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .). It exerts a strong upward pull on the fish by hydraulic power derived from fluid that is pumped down the fishing string. PULLING TOOLS Taking the drillpipe and bit out of the hole. It is rare that all the casing can be removed from the hole.mzhelu@gmail. PULLING THE CASING Removing the casing from the hole after abandoning the well.) 509 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3535. 3536. Prior to plugging the well with mud and cement. pulling tool a hydraulically operated tool that is run in above the fishing tool and anchored to the casing by slips. The rods above the break are pulled in a normal manner. Rods must also be pulled when they have parted downhole. See Doubles. (See production rig. 3538. 3539. PULLING MACHINE PULLING RODS A pulling unit (q. The operation of removing the pumping or sucker rods from a well in the course of bringing up the bottom-hole pump for repairs or replacement.

Z. 3545. residual oil saturation. (See sucker-rod pump and working barrel. chambered device that minimizes periodic increases and decreases in pressure (as from a mud pump). and bottom-hole pump. 3544. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3542.) 510 Petroleum Engineer: M. any gas. jet pump. PULLIROD LINE pulsation dampener See Shackle Rod. casedhole logging method that uses radioactivity reaction time to obtain measurements of water saturation. pump barrel the cylinder or liner in which the plunger of a sucker-rod pump reciprocates.or liquid-charged.) are installed on discharge instrument from the incessant pounding fine-mesh sleve-like disks are placed in the small tubing or piping to which the gauge is attached this arrangement "filters out" much of the surging which can damage delicate gauges.com . Various types of pumps include the reciprocating pump. 3541. centrifugal pump. hydraulic pump. 3543. pulsed-neutron survey a special. and fluid contacts in the formation outside the casing of an oil well. mud pump. pump a device that increases the pressure on a fluid or raises it to a higher level.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3540. PULSPATION DAMPENER Various devices for absorbing the transient.mzhelu@gmail. rotary pump.v. On such pumps air chambers (q. submersible pump. rhythmic surges in pressure that occur when fluid is pumped by reciprocating pumps. sucker-rod pump.

pump pressure PUMP SPECIFICATIONS fluid pressure arising from the action of a pump A plunger pump designated as 6 x 12 duplex is a two-cylinder pump whose cylinders are 6 inches in diameter with a stroke of 12 inches. A pump with 511 Petroleum Engineer: M. metallic section that forms the working barrel of some reciprocating pumps. 3550. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. accurately machined.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3546. 3548. To prevent pumping off. and in some pumps they provide a method of conveniently changing the displacement and capacity of the pumps. 3549. pump liner a cylindrical.com . pump manifold an arrangement of valves and piping that permits a choice in the direction of routing of suction and discharge fluids between two or more pumps. 3547. pump off to pump (a well) so that the fluid level drops below the standing valve of the pump and it stops working. pump jack a surface unit similar to a pumping unit but having no individual power plant. Liners are an inexpensive means of replacing worn cylinder surfaces. a pump must be installed at the proper depth in the fluid. 3551. 3552. pump house a building that houses the pumps. Z. Usually several pump jacks are operated by pull rods or cables from one central power source. engines. and control panels at a pipeline gathering station or trunk station.mzhelu@gmail.

DOUBLE-ACTING PUMP. A casing pump is run into the well on the sucker rods.com . 3553. Oil is discharged from the pump into the casing and out the wellhead. Z. and other equipment to route and maintain the flow of oil.v.) 3555. 512 Petroleum Engineer: M. a packer (q. 3554. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3557. CASING A sucker-rod pump designed to pump oil up through the casing instead of the more common method of pumping through tubing.) on top or bottom of the pump barrel provides packoff or seal between the pump and the wall of the casing at any desired depth. DOUBLE-DISPLACEMENT See Double-Acting Pump.6 x 10. A type of downhole rod pump which has plungers placed In tandem and operated simultaneously by the pump rods.mzhelu@gmail. PUMP. DUPLEX A two-cylinder reciprocating plunger pump. 3558. pump station an installation built at intervals along an oil pipeline to contain storage tanks. pump valve any of the valves on a reciprocating pump (as the suction and discharge valves) or on a sucker-rod pump (as a ball-and-scat valve). pumps. its stroke is 10 inches. 3556. (See standing valve and traveling valve. This pump can be fitted with liners and pistons from 4 inches to 6 inches in diameter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering replaceable liners (cylinders) may carry a specifications plate that reads 4. PUMP. PUMP.

they mesh in a rolling action like an old-fashioned clothes wringer. See Rocker. SCREW An oil well pump operated by a shackle-rod line. 513 Petroleum Engineer: M. As the gears rotate. and powered by an electric motor. GEAR A type of rotary pump made with two sets of meshing gears. like other rotary pumps. A small-volume. efficiently handle small volumes of fluid.. PUMP. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ROD See Positive-displacement Pump. rotary pump for handling viscous or abrasive liquids. 3563. POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMP. 3562. ROD-LINE PUMP.com . Z. metal-to-metal seal. The locking device is a hold-down. a pumping jack. When lowered to its pumping position. The pumping element is an Archimedes screw housed in a sturdy. 3560. When rotated on their shafts in the pump housing. and standing valve are assembled and lowered into the well through the tubing. 3561. cylindrical body. plunger.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3559. PUMP. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel. PUMP. Gear pumps. often of high viscosity. the pump is locked to the tubing to permit relative motion between plunger and barrel.mzhelu@gmail. fluid is taken in the suction port and forced out the discharge port. at high pressures. and consists either of cups or a mechanical.

TUBING See Triplex Pump. pumpability the physical characteristic of a cement slurry that determines its ability to be 514 Petroleum Engineer: M. PUMP. PUMP. TRAVELING-BARREL A downhole pump. directacting pumps with the steam piston connected directly to the pump's fluid plunger. SIMPLEX A one-cylinder steam pump used in refineries and processing plants where extra or excess steam is available. 3566. 3568. operated by rods. 3565. operate below the fluid level in the well. PUMP. 3569.mzhelu@gmail. instead of the plunger reciprocating in the barrel as in more conventional pumping devices.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3564. 3567. The plunger assembly is lowered into the pump barrel on the string of pump rods. Simplex pumps are simple. PUMP. Submersible pumps are run by electricity and. as the name implies. The barrel is installed on the bottom of the string of tubing and is run into the well on the tubing string. SUBMERSIBLJ A bottom-hole pump for use in an oil well when a large volume of fluid is to be lifted. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A class of downhole pumps in which the barrel of the pump is an integral part of the tubing string.com . pumped. in which the barrel moves up and down over the plunger. Z. TRIPLEX PUMP.

He is also called a switcher or lease operator. the walking beam on this type unit is short and is not used as a balancing member. 3573. The polished rod works through a stuffing box on top of the tee and in the run of the tee to operate a sucker-rod pump in the well. and so forth. ensuring steady production. usually a beam arrangement driven by a crank attached to a speed reducer. 3572. The weights are usually in the form of heavy iron plates added to the walking beam until they balance the pull or weight of the string of pumping rods. pumper the oil company employee who attends to producing wells. The string of pump rods is balanced by adding sufficient extra iron weights to the heavy cranks. PUMPING UNIT. preparing reports. He supervises any number of wells. testing. CRANK-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its counterweights on the two cranks that flank the unit's gear box. pumping tee a heavy-duty steel. 3571. 3574.mzhelu@gmail. T-shaped pipe fitting that is screwed or flanged to the top of a pumping well.com . Pumped fluid is discharged through the side opening of the tee. gauging. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3570. 515 Petroleum Engineer: M. BEAM-BALANCED An oil well pumping unit that carries its well-balancing weights on the walking beam on the end opposite the pump rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. PUMPING UNIT. pumping unit the machine that imparts reciprocating motion to a string of sucker rods extending to the positive-displacement pump at the bottom of a well.

Made at the pipe mill under controlled conditions. TOOL 516 (See tool pusher. 3578. pusher PUSHER. See also Central Power. PURCHASER PRORATIONING PURIP.com . also Gang Pusher. 3576. Z. tubing. 3581. Pup joints come in different lengths to make up a string of tubing of the proper length. BACKSIDE An arrangement that permits one prime mover (electric or engine) to operate two pumping wells. 3580. Short sections of well tubing made to American Petroleum Institute standards.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3575. the short joints are of the same quality as the rest of the tubing. Jerkers pump small volumes but can buck high pressure. it takes in fluid (the suction stroke) as the counterweight pulls the plunger back from the pumping stroke. 3577. Petroleum Engineer: M. small-volume plunger pump actuated by the to-and-fro motion of a shackle-rod line and an attached counterweight. from the bottom of the well to the tubing hanger in the wellhead. The jerker pumps on the pull stroke of the rod fine. API a length of drill pipe. or casing shorter than 30 ft. A single-barrel.) See Tool Pusher. 3579. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pup joint PUP JOINTS. JERKER See Pipeline Prorationing. PUMPING.mzhelu@gmail. The hook up is such that the load on one well counterbalances. the upstroke load of the other well.

517 Petroleum Engineer: M. to install a pump jack or pumping unit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3582.com . and temperature analysis). and temperature. PVT 1. volume. put a well on put on the pump to start a well flowing or pumping.g. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pressure. (See pressure. PVC Polyvinylchloride.volume. 3587. fittings. and bottomhole pump in 3584. and temperature analysts. a tough. 3585.. light structural members. PVC is highly resistant to salt water and chemicals. 3583. petroleum-derived plastic that can be extruded or molded and is used for pipe. 3586. volume. 2. the exhaust temperature of an engine). especially above the range of mercury thermometers (e.mzhelu@gmail. PVT analysis PYROBITUMEN pyrometer pressure. See Kerogen and Kerogen Shales. sucker rods. Z. durable. 3588. Pit Volume Totalizer. an instrument for measuring temperatures. a well.

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Quartz a hard mineral composed of silicon dioxide. and sedimentary rocks. 519 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3591. used in drilling reports. 3592. 3595. Qtz Qtze Quad Quarter-tjrnvalve quartz. A butterfly valve with its disk that rotates on a shaft or trunion in the valve body also is opened and closed with a quarter turn of the handle. A plug valve.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3589. Turn of the handle.000 trillion. used in drilling reports. ball valve. Quench to rapidly cool heat-treated metal by immersion in an oil or water bath. Quebracho a south american tree that is a source of tannin extract. which is used as a thinning agent for drilling mud. quartzite. Short for quadrillio 1.mzhelu@gmail. A valve made with a plug or Sphere with a full-bore opening on the horizontal axis that can be opened or Closed with a quarter or 90'c. 3593. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3590. a common component in igneous metamorphic. Z. or butterfly valve. 3594.

To release. Quench oil A specially refined oil with a high flash point (q.mzhelu@gmail." 520 Petroleum Engineer: M. Quicklime Quitclaim unslaked lime (calcium oxide). An instrument or document releasing a certain interest in land owned by a grantor at the time the agreement takes effect. Chemical symbol is cao.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3596. and forever quitclaim all right. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and interest in the following described land.com . remise. 3598. Z. hot metal. title. The key phrase of a quitclaim is " .v. . .) Used in steel mills to cool 3597.

521 Petroleum Engineer: M. Racking board A platform high in the derrick. 2. often used to denote a function up to the stage where the commercial potential of a process or technology can be Evaluated. cash and carry at the refinery's loading dock. on well-service rigs.o.mzhelu@gmail. with the customer picking up pipeline or other transportation charges. Radial flow the flow of fluids into a wellbore from the surrounding drainage area.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3599. 3605. 3604. Rack pipe 1. (see rankine temperature scale. 3601. Rabbit A plug put through lease flow fines for the purpose of clearing the lines of foreign matter. The price of petroleum products at the refinery loading rack. where the derrick man Stands when racking tubing being pulled from the well. See pilot plant. Z. To place pipe withdrawn from the hole on a pipe rack.b. 3603. See pig. 3600. water and to test for obstructions. At the refinery.) Research and development.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rack pricing Selling to petroleum jobbers or other resellers at f. 3602. See also tubing board. To stand pipe on the derrick floor when coming out of the hole. R R&d degrees rankine.

) an arrangement of pipes containing a circulating fluid used for heating an external object or cooling an internal substance by radiation. 522 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3611. 3610. Both indicate the types of rocks in the formation and the types of fluids contained in the rocks. Radioactivity well logging the recording of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations. Radiation logging Radiator (see radioactivity well log gang. 3607. or thorium) of releasing alpha panicles. normally consists of two recorded curves a gamma-ray curve and a neutron curve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. a radioactive material (often carnotite) put into a well to allow observation of fluid or gas movements by means of a tracer survey.com . 3608. Radioactive Radioactive tracer exhibiting radioactivity. A radioactivity log. beta particles.) 3612. uranium.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3606. Radioactivity the property possessed by some substances (as radium. (see radioactivity well logging.mzhelu@gmail. The two logs may be run simultaneously in conjunction with a collar locator in a cased or uncased hole. 3609. or gamma particles as the substance spontaneously disintegrates. Radioactivity log a record of the natural or induced radioactive characteristics of subsurface formations. also known as a radiation log.

3616. Ram blowout preventer a blowout preventer that uses rams to seal off pressure on a hole that is with or without pipe. pipe rams.com . when closed. permitting the upper section to be removed from the bop stack." 3615. It is also called a ram preventer. 3614. raffinate is that portion of the oil being treated that remains undissolved and is not removed by the selective solvent. Rainbow (1) the irridescence (blues. form a seal on a hole that has no drill pipe in it. When the ram is closed on the Pipe the jaws or blades cut the pipe."just a rainbow on a bucket of water. Ram the closing and scaling component on a blowout preventer. or shear-may be installed in several preventers mounted in a stack on top of the wellbore. pipe. Ram preventer Ram. shear rams cut through drill pipe and then form a seal. One -of three type-sblind. and reds) imparted to the surface of water by a thin film of crude oil. 3618. 3617. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. seal around the pipe. 523 Petroleum Engineer: M. when closed. Blind rams. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3613. A closure mechanism on well's blowout preventer stack fitted with chisel like jaws that are hydraulically operated. (2) the only evidence of oil from an unsuccessful well. greens.shear ram blowout periventer. Raffinate In solvent-refining practice.mzhelu@gmail.

Rat hole (1) a slanted hole drilled near the well's borehole to hold the kelly joint when not in use.v. (3) in 524 Petroleum Engineer: M. water freezes at 491. (2) the section of the borehole that is purposely deviated from the vertical by the use of a whipstock (q. Z. 3623.).) 3622. a temperature scale with the degree interval of the fahrenheit scale and the zero point at absolute zero. 3624. (see absolute temperature scale.60' and boils at 671.69'. Rasp a mill used in fishing operations.mzhelu@gmail. Ratable take (1) production of oil and/or gas in such quantities that each landowner whose property overlies a producing formation will be able to recover an equitable share of the oil and/or gas originally in place beneath his land. 3621.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3619. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (2) production in accordance with allowables set by a state regulatory commission. 3620. Range length a grouping of pipe lengths. Api designation of range lengths are as follows- Range of stability the maximum angle to which a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig may be inclined and still be returned to its original upright position. Range oil Rankine temperature scale Kerosene-type product used in old kerosene stoves or cooking ranges. to reduce the size of the box or collar on the lost tool. On the rankine scale. before running the fishing tool. The kelly is unscrewed from the drillstring and lowered into the rat hole as a pistol into a scabbard.com .

butane). The length to be added is placed in the rathole. Z. pulled out of the rathole. 2. 3626. common carriers (q.) And common purchasers of gas and oil are prohibited from discriminating in favor of one supplier over another. A hole in the rig floor 30 to 35 ft deep. made up to the kelly. Gas straight from the well before the extraction of the liquefied hydrocarbons (gasoline. 3630.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering some states. A hole of a diameter smaller than the main hole that is drilled in the bottom of the main hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and made up into the string. 3628.v. 3627. 3625. Raw gasoline gasoline extracted from wet natural gas. Rate of penetration (ROP) a measure of the speed at which the bit drills into formations. to reduce the size of the wellbore and drill ahead. Rathole connection the addition of a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string. 525 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually expressed in feet per hour. Raw crude Raw gas a crude oil before it is refined.mzhelu@gmail. into which the kelly and swivel are placed when hoisting operations are in progress. wet gas.com . lined with casing that projects above the floor. 3629. Rathole 1.

Reboiler A refinery heater that reheats or reboils a part of a process stream drawn off a distilling column and then is reintroduced to the column as a vapor. propane. Raw mix A stream of mixed components butane. Often a rathole is reamed or opened to the same size as the main wellbore. a milling tool used to cut the casing downhole. Rdx Re-refined oil Ream (see cyclonite. Reamers are run on the drillstring and are built with cutting blades or wheels that can be expanded against the walls of the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3631.v. a wellbore will cave in). the product of gas processing plants that is sent on to fractionating plants for the separation of the various components. 526 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3633. 3636.mzhelu@gmail. See field butanes. to enlarge the wellbore by drilling it again with a special bit. 3635. 3637.) Reclaimed oil (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Reamer A toot used to enlarge or straighten a borehole. 3634. Reboiling is a process of reworking a part of the charge in a distilling column to ensure more complete fractionating.). Z. 3632. Reaming An operation to restore a wellbore to its original diameter (occasionally.com . and others. hexane.

v. Reciprocating pump A pump with cylinders and pistons or plungers for moving liquids through a pipeline a plunger pump (q. 3641. 527 Petroleum Engineer: M. is collected. re-refined. used in drilling reports. a positive displacement compressor. a type of compressor that has a mechanism functioning as a check valve to separate the high-pressure discharge from the low-pressure suction. 3639.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rec Reciprocating compressor recovered.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3638. Reciprocation a back-and-forth movement (as the movement of a piston in an engine or 3642. They handle relatively small volumes but do so at high pressures. Reclaimed oil Lubricating oil which.v. 3640. after a period of service. Z. Reciprocating pumps are used extensively in the field and at refineries for moving crude oil and products.). pump).). Large volumes of oils as are moved in trunk or main lines are pumped with large high-speed centrifugal pumps (q. Reciprocating compressors are used extensively in the transmission of natural gas through pipelines.mzhelu@gmail. and sold for reuse. The pistons or plungers move forward and backward alternately drawing in fluid into the cylinders through the suction valves and discharging the liquid through discharge valves into a pipeline.

the rectifier installation converts the ac to dc (direct current) and allows the dc to flow into the metal to be protected. By reversing the flow of electric current. the percentage of the oil or gas in place (expressed in stock-tank barrels or in thousands of cubic feet) that will ultimately be recovered. Recovery the total volume of hydrocarbons that has been or is anticipated to be produced from a well or field. Recovery factor the percentage of oil or gas in place in a reservoir that ultimately can be withdrawn by primary and/or secondary techniques. voltage) on a paper form. 3644. the corrosion is in. Hibited. 528 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. Rectifier bed A source of electric current for protection against corrosion of pipelines. Recording gauge a device that provides a chronological record of gauge indications (as by tracing values of pressure. 3647. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Using a source of ac electric current. tanks. vacuum. Recoverable Reserves That part of the hydrocarbon volumes in a reservoir that can be economically 3645. It is driven by a clockwork mechanism. and other metal installations buried or in contract with the earth. Metal corrosion is a chemical action which produces minute quantities of current that normally flows away from the metal into the ground.com . 3646.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3643.mzhelu@gmail. produced.

Red-lime mud a clay. Reduced crude oil Crude oil that has undergone at least one distillation process to separate some of the lighter hydrocarbons. Red bed a layer of sedimentary rock that is predominantly red. especially one of the permian or triassic age.mzhelu@gmail. a pipe fitting that is threaded on both ends and decreases in diameter from one end to the other. Reducing tee a t-shaped pipe fitting with openings of two different sizes. 529 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . Reducing crude towers its api gravity. Recycling (gas) Injecting gas back into a formation to maintain reservoir pressure so as to produce a larger percentage of oil from the formation. 3 3652. Z. Reducing flange Reducing nipple a flange fitting used to join pipes of different diameters.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3648. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3649. Reducing elbow a fitting that makes an angle between two joints of pipe and that decreases in diameter from one end to the other. water-base mud containing caustic soda and tannates to which lime has been added. 3653. 3656. 3654. 3655. 3650.

3661. Reef A type of reservoir trap composed of rocks. expressed in seconds. after having moved off location because of weather or other reasons halting Drilling operations.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3 3658. 3660. run through straightening mandrels inspected. Reef reservoirs are often characterized by high initial production which falls off rapidly. The one-inch or so flexible tubing is carried on a larger spool mounted on a specially equipped truck. Reeled tubing A well-service tool used in well workovers. made up of the skeletal remains of animals.com . usually limestone. 3662. and paid out over the stern of the barge in the manner of a hawser. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. it is unspooled. Redwood viscosity a unit of viscosity measurement obtained when using a redwood viscometer.mzhelu@gmail. The tubing is inserted in the well through the wellhead valves and is used basically for i rushing out the well and reestablishing a circulating path. requiring pressure maintenance techniques to sustain production. Reentry To reestablish contact with the well's borehole in offshore waters. Reel barge A pipe-laying barge equipped with a gigantic reel on which fine pipe up to 12 inches in diameter is spooled at a shore station. To lay the pipe. 3659. It is the standard of viscosity measurement in great britain. Z. A notable example of reentering was that of the deep Sea drilling program by the scripps institution of oceanography when the crew of 530 Petroleum Engineer: M.

com .000 feet of water in the atlantic.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the drillship glomar challenger reentered the hole nine times while drilling in 14. Refine Refiner-marketer Refinery Refinery gas to manufacture petroleum products from crude oil. Z. Reeve to pass (as the end of a rope) through a hole or opening in a block or similar 3664. The composition of refinery gas varies in accordance with the process by which it is produced. See acoustic reentry. 3663. and ethylene) not found in natural gas. the physical plant and attendant equipment used in the process of refining. device. 3665. Reeve the line to string a wire-rope drilling line through the sheaves of the traveling and crown blocks to the hoisting drum. Reeving a line To string up a tubing or other line in preparation for hoisting. butylene. 531 Petroleum Engineer: M. to run a fine from the winch up and over a sheave in the crown block and down to the derrick floor 3666. but it consists essentially of the same paraffin hydrocarbons as natural gas plus olefins (as propylene. and/or heating oils who operates his own refinery. 3667. 3668. A marketer of gasoline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the gas produced from certain petroleum refinery operations (as cracking or reforming). 3669.

Air at a temperature of 1. Refinery. 3673. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3674.com . Is mixed with the spent catalyst. Z. For example. 3672. Registered breadth the width of the hull of a mobile offshore drilling rig or a ship measured at its points of greatest width and used to determine its registered tonnage.) 532 Petroleum Engineer: M. basic r(@fining unit that is transportable by lowboy trailer to locations where low-grade or straight-run gasoline and diesel fuel are needed and a source of crude oil is available. such a midget "distillation system" can be trucked to a remote drilling site and can supply fuel for diesel drilling engines and gasoline for auxiliary equipment. Regenerator A refinery vessel into which inactive or spent catalyst is pumped to egenerate it. skid-mounted A small. Regular cement (see common cement.mzhelu@gmail. causing the oxidation of the carbon leaving the catalyst clean and regenerated. 3671. to burn off the coating of carbon or coke. Reforming processes The use of heat and catalysts to effect the rearrangement of certain of the hydrocarbon molecules without altering their composition appreciably.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3670. the conversion of low-octane gasoline fractions into higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished gasoline also the conversion of naphthas to obtain more volatile product or higher octane number.100 f.

)..v. 3680. Reid vapor pressure A measure of volatility of a fuel. relative permeability is used to express the permeability of the rock to each fluid. 3681. Release a statement filed by the lessee of an oil and gas lease indicating that the lease has been relinquished.e. its ability to vaporize.mzhelu@gmail.) Petroleum Engineer: M. 3678.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3675. At absolute humidity) at a given temperature and pressure. 3677. Relative permeability the effective permeability divided by the absolute permeability. released oil could be sold at free market prices. released oil is old oil production equal to any volume of new oil produced. Unlike old oil. 3679. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Relative humidity the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount it would contain if completely saturated (i. Relief valve 533 (see pressure-relief valve. Released oil Under the emergency petroleum allocation act of 1973. the specific designation. Reid vapor pressure. 3676.com . is named after the man who designed the test apparatus for measuring vapor pressure (q. Z. When a rock is saturated with more than one fluid. Regulator a device that reduces the pressure or volume of a fluid flowing in a line and maintains the pressure or volume at a specified rate.

Relief well A directional well drilled near an out-of-control or burning well to kill the well by flooding the formation with water or drilling mud. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and so forth at a point distant from where the indications are actually taken. This procedure is necessary when a kick is being circulated out of a well.v. 3686. Part of a surveillance and control system for offshore or other remote production operations. In some instances more than one relief well is drilled to reduce the flow of the blowing well. voltage. Remote bop panel a set of controls used to open and close the blowout preventers. Remote reading gauge an instrument that provides indications of pressure. well. Repeater station An electronic installation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3682. usually placed on the rig floor. A killer well (q. a well drilled as close as possible or prudent to an out-of-control well and into the same formation in order to vent off or relieve the flowing pressure of the blowout so that the wild well may be brought under control. 3683. Rental. placed some distance away from the rig so that they can be operated without personnel present on the rig floor. Z. delay Payment of a sum of money by lessee to the lessor to delay the drilling of a 3687. 3685. Remote choke panel a set of controls. 534 Petroleum Engineer: M. vacuum.). that is manipulated to control the amount of drilling fluid being circulated out through the choke manifold.mzhelu@gmail.com . 3684.

Repressure to increase or maintain reservoir pressure by injecting a pressurized fluid (as air. for maintaining reservoir pressure. gas. See recycling (gas). Repressuring operation The injection of fluid into a reservoir whose pressure has been largely depleted by producing wells in the field. a reservoir. Z. Reserve pit An excavation connected to the working mud pits of a drilling well to hold excess or reserve drilling mud. waves. 3689. 3690. Repressure gas Gas purchased for injection into an underground formation. and other forces of nature or when the vessel is subjected to accidental flooding. or water) to effect greater ultimate recovery. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. See service well. Reserve buoyancy the buoyancy above the waterline that keeps a floating vessel upright or seaworthy when the vessel is subjected to wind. 3691. 3693.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3688. Reserves pl the unproduced but recoverable oil or gas in place in a formation that has been proved by production. 535 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3692. currents.com . This secondary recovery technique used to increase the reservoir pressure in order to recover additional quantities of oil. a standby pit containing already-mixed drilling mud for use in an emergency when extra mud is needed.

This is accomplished with inferences based on an assumed continuity of the data in hand. gas and water encroachment.v. It is necessary also in projects such as water-flooding. a stratigraphic trip (q. Reservoir engineer A petroleum engineer. 3695. Reservoir modeler A reservoir engineer or geologist who. Z. and hydraulic fracturing. 3696. Reservoir A porous.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3694. It is equal to the shut in pressure (at the wellhead) plus the weight in pounds of the column of oil in the hole. one who advises production people on matters relating to petroleum reservoirs estimating and determining effects of reservoir pressure drops. and feasibility of secondary and tertiary recovery programs. The work of the reservoir modeler is important in producing a field at the maximum efficient rate (mer) (q.com . seismic information.000 feet high. would be several thousand pounds. changes in gas-oil ratios. for example. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and rock samples.). test-hole findings. thermal recovery of oil. Using data from wells in the area. By various means.mzhelu@gmail. 3697. rates of production. Reservoir pressure The pressure at the face of the producing formation when the well is shut in. the modeler projects and expands his information beyond what is known and provable into 'he realm of the conjectural. simulates petroleum reservoirs. permeable sedimentary rock formation containing quantities of oil and/or gas enclosed or surrounded by layers of less permeable or impervious rock. a structural trap. cores.). In a 536 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. The hydrostatic pressure exerted by a column of oil 5.

) A term used to describe oils that are "leftovers" in various refining processes. (see residuals. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Water-drive reservoirs depend on water pressure to force the hydrocarbons out of the reservoir and into the wellbore. the natural energy by which reservoir fluids are caused to flow out of the reservoir rock and into a wellbore. migrated and accumulated in reservoirs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering flowing well. the reservoir pressure would be sufficient to overcome the pressure of the hydrostatic head.mzhelu@gmail. Resid market Residual fuel Residuals The market for residual oils black oils market. 3698. 537 Petroleum Engineer: M. pressure is reduced. water-drive Reservoir-drive mechanism See water-drive reservoir. Reservoir. heavy black oils used in ships boilers and in heating plants. allowing the gas to expand and provide the driving energy. Reservoir rocks Sandstone. Gas drives depend on the fact that. 3704. Residue gas Gas that remains after processing in a separator or a plant to remove liquids contained in the gas when produced.com . See tail gas. 3703. 3701. 3702. 3700. as the reservoir is produced. formed cons ago. Z. limestone and other permeable formations into which petroleum. 3699.

The "bottom of the barrel. Resistivity the electrical resistance offered to the passage of current. tar-like substance remaining after all useable fractions have been distilled off. It is mainly used in remedial operations. and portland cement that provides an improved cement bond. Retarder a chemical compound (as gypsum.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3705. the opposite of an accelerator.com . 3706. or hardening time of oil-well cements. Z. Residuum What is left after crude oil been refined to extinction. setting. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a heavy.) 538 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3709. or into the open hole around the shoe. Retarded cement a cement in which the thickening time is extended by adding a chemical 3710." literally. etc. Retainer a cast-iron or magnesium drillable tool consisting of a packing assembly and a back-pressure valve. conductivity. the opposite of 3708. water. Resin cement an oil-well cement composed of resins. retarder. 3707. because its high cost prohibits its use for routine cementing of casing. lime.) That is used to prolong the thickening. around the shoe. It is used to close off the annular space between tubing or drill pipe and casing to allow the placement of cement or fluid through the tubing or drill pipe at any predetermined point behind the casing or liner. black.mzhelu@gmail. (see cementing materials. sodium tannate.

instead of expanding to form a gas. "the ft. Retrograde gas condensate A liquid hydrocarbon (condensate) formed in deep formations as the reservoir pressure is reduced through production of natural gas. 3712. Retrograde condensation in reservoir mechanics. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3711.. Field tests have indicated its economic feasibility. Lewis gas plant was retrofitted with automation . when pressure is decreased. Retrofitting To modify or add to an engine.g. . the formation of liquid droplets in a gas as the well is produced and the pressure drops. . but its practicability is undetermined. 3713. Some hydrocarbons exist naturally above their critical temperature in the reservoir. or operating plant something new for the sake of efficiency. . the formation rock is "wet" by the condensate which is then not as recoverable as when it was in a gaseous state. better performance. item of equipment. e. To retro (go back) and i it or make a change or refinement in the original item of equipment or plant. the gas condenses to form a liquid instead of the usual pattern of liquid changing to gas. as a result. As the pressure is reduced. 539 Petroleum Engineer: M. they condense to form a liquid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . Retractable bit a bit that can be changed by wireline operations without withdrawing the drill string. or increased safety.mzhelu@gmail." After years of hand operation the plant was modernized and made more efficient. Hence the term "retrograde gas condensate. 3714." As liquefaction occurs.

3719. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. cuttings. 3718. and through ports in the sides of the basket the drilling mud is jetted to the bottom of the hole and back into the open end of the tool. the solvent (water) diffuses through the manmade membrane leaving the salt and other contaminants behind.com . A technique used in fishing for "junk" in the bottom of the well's borehole. A ball is then pumped down to cause the drilling fluid 540 Petroleum Engineer: M. other. Z. Returns Reverse circulation pl the mud. A junk basket (q. washing the junk back up into the junk basket. Reverse-circulation junk basket a special junk basket that is lowered into the hole to a position over the junk with normal circulation. The process uses the phenomenon of osmosis. and so forth that circulate up the hole to the surface. Return bend a u-shaped section of piping that connects two other pipes parallel to each 3716.mzhelu@gmail. 3717.v. just above the junk to be retrieved. 3720. Reverse osmosis A process used in the industry for removing salt and other contaminants from water. Reverse emulsion a relatively rare oil-field emulsion composed of globules of oil dispersed in water. the diffusion through a semipermeable membrane of a solvent leaving behind the solute or dissolved substance. In reverse osmosis.) Is lowered into the hole. Most oil-field emulsions consist of water dispersed in oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3715.

a squib shot (q. 3723. i. Rhaboomacy Rheology The "science" of divination by rods.v. Z. RFT Repeat Formation Tester. A high resolution down hole logging tool which records reservoir pressures at multiple points in a well and may on occasion be configured to obtain several small samples of gas. Wet gas. Reverse-pressure perforating Reworking a well (see perforate under-balanced.. etc. See doodle bug. the well may be hydraulically fractured to open new cracks and fissures in the formation. engineers.). 541 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to exit through nozzles in the tool so that reverse circulation occurs and creates a vacuum inside the tool so that the junk is sucked into it.) To restore production where it has fallen off substantially or ceased altogether.mzhelu@gmail. of special importance to mud 3726. A small charge of nitroglycerine. 3724. the study of the flow of gases and liquids. is detonated in the bottom of the hole. 3721. 3725. 3722. In addition to removing or washing out sand and silt accumulations. cleaning out an accumulation of sand and silt from the bottom of the well.e. And switches. Rich gas Natural gas containing significant amounts of liquefiable hydrocarbons. butane. if conditions warrant. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Propane.com .. oil and/or other fluids over a reservoir interval. Or. Casinghead gasoline. wands.

augers. hammers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and sand lines) used in the construction of the standard cable-tool rig. bolts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3727. (rod) a vessel used in gas-processing plants to remove methane from rich oil. Rig floor the area immediately around the rotary table and extending to each corner of the derrick or mast. 3729. Rich oil Rich-oil demethanizer Rig a lean oil that has absorbed heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas. 3730.mzhelu@gmail. are much 542 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . guy wires. Steel derricks are erected by bolting parts together. and so forth rest. and the adz to fit the wood to his pattern. 3732.). 3728. (2) originally. 3733. (2) a large tractor-trailer. the area immediately above the substructure on which the drawworks. (1) a drilling rig (q. 3731. a person who built derricks on the spot out of rig timbers and lumber on which he used crosscut saws. Z. Rig irons pl the metal parts (with the exceptions of nails. Rig builder (1) a person whose job is to build or (in a modern context) to assemble a derrick. Large semisubmersibles anchored miles at sea with hundreds of workers.v. axes. rotary table. One who Rig manager supervises all aspects of offshore rig operation.

Rig register A roster of offshore drilling equipment-jackups. It is kept current and lists the vessel's or platform's depth capability. A push-down rig has a conventional mud system. As the drillpipe and bit are rotated.500 feet in relatively soft formations. 543 Petroleum Engineer: M. push-down A drilling rig which is a modification of rigs used by the mining industry and for drilling water wells. and other pertinent information.mzhelu@gmail. Z. or other heavy equipment. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A second joint is then added and the rotary is raised to the top to turn and push down on the second joint. 3736. somisubmersibles. the pipe is pushed downward hydraulically until the first joint is in the hole and the rotary is at floor level. a modern jane's fighting ships as it were. heavy. The register. platforms. 3734. Rig. equipment. with the rotary and its pipe-turning mechanism on top of the first joint of drillpipe 30 feet or so up in the a-frame. 3737. 3735. was introduced by the petroleum engineer magazine. tenders and drilling barges-deployed around the world. The drillpipe is supported within an a-frame. roughcut timbers used in the trade by rig builders when derricks were built rather than assembled.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering like a small town engaged in drilling a well in hundreds of feet of water. Rig superintendent Rig timbers a tool pusher. whether self-propelled or towed. drilling engines. The rig manager is the resident boss of this floating microcosm. but the rig is practical only for drilling holes 10 about 3. Large-dimension wooden beams used to support the derrick. drillships.

Z. See dress up crew. To prepare to move the drilling rig and associated tools and equipment to another location or to storage. reeve the lines. 3740. tubular goods. 3742. to stack the tools. Right-of-way gang A work crew that clears brush. and other obstructions from the right Of way.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3738. Right-of-way man A person who contacts landowners. set up the derrick. lay the derrick down (a jackknife or other portable rig). 3739. Also have necessary bits. ss class 2000 Rig-down See ss class 2000 rig. to get all equipment in place ready to make hole dig the cellar and mud pits. Rig-up To make preparations to drill. municipal authorities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and load up the pipe and fittings and other equipment ready for transport to another well site. The crew also installs access gates in fenced property. 3743. set engines and pumps. Right-of-way a strip of land usually 50 to 80 ft wide on which permission has been granted by the landowner to construct a pipeline. disconnect the engines. 3741. timber. Valves.com . government agency representatives for permission to lay a pipeline through their property or 544 Petroleum Engineer: M. rams. Rig. to disassemble the mud system. fill the mud pits.mzhelu@gmail. and fittings on hand. connect the lines of the mud system and set auxiliary equipment.

Cause of ringworm corrosion his been traced to the upsetting process.mzhelu@gmail. It occurs in a ring a few inches from the upset. and highways from the proper authorities. located above the surface of the water. It is also called marine riser. 545 Petroleum Engineer: M. which is on the ocean floor. in which heat required in upsetting causes the heated end to have a different grain structure from the rest of the pipe. 3748. Ring Ringworm corrosion (see piston ring. Z. Normalizing prevents this condition. A riser pipe serves as a guide for the drill stem from the drilling vessel to the wellhead and as a conductor of drilling fluid from the well to the vessel. 3746. (2) in offshore drilling by semisubmersible.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering through the political subdivision. railroads. a riser is the casing extending from the drilling platform through the water to the sea bed through which drilling is done. jackup. 3 3745. See marine riser system. and the drilling equipment. 3747. Riser pipe the pipe and special fittings used on floating offshore drilling rigs to establish a seal between the top of the wellbore.) a form of corrosion sometimes found in the tubing of condensate wells. or drillship. The riser consists of several sections of pipe and includes special devices to compensate for any movement of the drilling rig caused by waves. fixed platform. He also arranges for permits to cross navigable waterways. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Riser (1) a pipe through which liquid or gas flows upward.com .

used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3749. and sedimentary. River clamps Heavy steel weights made in two halves bolted on screw pipe at each collar to strengthen the joints and keep the line lying securely on the river bottom or in a dredged trench. 3751. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Riser-angle indicator an acoustic or electronic device used to monitor the angle of the flex joint on a floating offshore drilling rig. 3753. 3754.) running. movement. Riser tensioner line a cable that supports the marine riser while compensating for vessel 3750. 546 Petroleum Engineer: M. used in drilling reports. metamorphic. 3752. Rocks are divided into three groups on the basis of their mode of origi igneous. 3755.(see ream. a small angle should be maintained on the flex joint to minimize drill-pipe fatigue and wear and damage to the blowout preventers and to maximize the case with which tools may be run. Rmg Rng Rock reaming.com . Used by tankies when tearing down an old tank or other vessel put together With rivets. Rivet buster An air-operated (pneumatic) chisel-like tool for cutting off rivet heads.mzhelu@gmail. an aggregate of different minerals. Z. Usually.

and shale and mud-stone. and chemi. 3760. clastic One of the categories of sedimentary rock.) (slang) a geologist. These factors act to cause recrystallization of the minerals of the rock. Cal action. An early-day term for a well's shutin or wellhead pressure when all valves are closed and the pressure is observed at the surface. Rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a so-called secondary rock which consists of particles that are fragments of preexisting rocks. pressure. Rock. conglomerate. 547 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rock a well to initiate flow by alternatively bleeding pressure from and closing off the casing and tubing of a well that is loaded up.com . their character and appearance are changed." The three classes of clastic sedimentary rocks are sandstone. sandstones become quartzites. When either igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to enough heat. 3761. Z. 3759. 3758. limestone becomes marble. They may range in size from "blocks the size of boxcars down to colloids so fine as to remain in suspension almost indefinitely. metamorphic Rocks formed by the metamorphosis of other rocks. 3757. Rock bit Rock hound Rock pressure (see roller-cone bit. shales become slates. Granite may become Gneisses or schists.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3756.

Rockers A counterbalance installed on a shackle-rod line. they can form volcanic cones or spread out in flows or sheets. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3762. 3763. the unit of measure used in buying certain types of pipeline right of way. Rockhound A geologist. 3764. to pull the rod line back after its power stroke. they can be forcibly thrust up between beds of other kinds of rocks in what are called sills. 3765. Granite is an example of plutonic rock. (2) a sucker rod. so on the return stroke the line is kept taut by a counterbalance. a piston rod. 548 Petroleum Engineer: M." Rocks that have solidified deep beneath the earth's crust are referred to as plutonic. Rockers often are in the shape of a box or crate filled with rocks. a humorous but affectionate colloquialism for a person who Assiduously pursues rock specimens in a search for evidence of oil and gas deposits. pluto. One edge of the box is attached to a fulcrum bearing on which it moves back and forth like a rocking chair. Rod lines can only pull. Z.igneous Rocks that have solidified from a molten state deep in the earth. from the greek god of the lower regions.mzhelu@gmail. an engine's connecting rod. Rod (1) sixteen and one-half feet.com . Rock. Those rocks that hive reached the surface while still molten are called lavas. operating a pumping jack. or they can fill crevices and then solidify as "dikes.

).com . (see sucker-rod pump. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3771. (see sucker rod. Z. 3770. Rod hook a small. 3772. Rod line Rod pump Rod rotor See shackle-rod line. swivel hook having a fast-operating. Rod blowout preventer a ram device used to close the annular space around the polished rod or sucker rod in a pumping well. It has a bail attached to the rod hook to pull or run sucker rods. (see sucker rod. (see sucker rod.mzhelu@gmail. automatic latch to close the hook opening when weight is suspended from the hook.) 549 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3768.) a ratchet mechanism actuated by a fixed rod or chain connection with the walking beam of a pumping unit that provides a slow rate of rotation to the rod string.) Rod hanger a device used to hang the sucker rods on the mast or in the derrick. Rod back-off wheel a device used to unscrew rods when the pump is stuck or sanded up and the well has to be stripped out.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3766. 3767. Rod elevator a device used to pull sucker rods. distributing the wear uniformly on both rods and tubing. 3769.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3773. rod. 3780. Rod wax Rod whip a paraffin wax that forms on the sucker-rod string.com . The fee paid to a landowner for the easement of a pipeline right of way across his property. the rapid. 3777. 3775. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Rod-line pump Roddagefee See pump. 3776. Rodjob Rodpump See pulling rods.mzhelu@gmail. whiplike motion of the rods in a sucker-rod pumping system caused by vibration of the rod string. It is a form of blowout preventer. Rod stripper a device used when rods are coated with heavy oil or when the well may flow through the tubing while the rods are being pulled. Right of way is measured in rods (16 1/2 feet) hence the term roddage fee. Rodhanger A rack with finger-like projections on which rods are hung when pulled from the well. 3774. See right of way. 3778. 550 Petroleum Engineer: M. a vertical rack for hanging lengths of pumping rods. Z. jek er. 3779. See pump.

3782. 3783. Roll atank To agitate a trank of crude oil with air or gas for the purpose of mixing small quantities of chemical with the oil to break up emulsions or to settle out impurities. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. 3785. Roll-dampening tanks pl the compartments on a floating offshore drilling rig that are filled with water to offset the tendency of the rig to roll. that are mounted on extremely rugged bearings. and supply as part of the overall cost of operating a company for the benefit of all customers served by a pipeline or other common carrier. or cutters. service. Roll the angular motion of a ship or floating offshore drilling rig as its sides move up and down. 551 Petroleum Engineer: M. Roller-cone bit a drilling bit made of three cones. Roller bit The rock-cutting tool on the bottom of the drillstring made with three or four shanks welded together to form a tapered body.com . 3786. 3784. They are also called rock bits. Roll in To include the cost of new facilities. Each shank supports a conelike wheel with case-hardened teeth that rotate on steel bearings. Z. The surface of each cone is made up of rows of steel teeth or rows of tungsten carbide inserts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3781. to roll in the cost of new supplies and facilities for the purpose of arriving at a new rate structure.

as it is pushed down and rotated by the drillstring.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3787. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. steel tool with a tapered end has a series of rollers. Mon. 3789. 3790. a measure of a gasoline's antiknock quality determined by tests made on engines running under moderate conditions of speed and load. 3788. Z. or collapsed casing and tubing in the hole. The long. the series of refers forces the damaged pipe open and restores it to its original diameter and roundness. Rootrun The first course of metal laid on by a welder in joining two lengths of pipe or other elements of constructio the stringer bead (q. Rolling pipe Turning a joint of screw pipe into the coupling of the preceding joint by the use of a rope looped once around the pipe and pulled by a rope crew. motor octane number. Ron Research octane number. This procedure was used on larger diameter line pipe-10 and 12-inch-to make up the connection rapidly before the tongs were put on the pipe for the final tightening. Roofrock A layer of impervious rock above a porous and permeable rock formation that contains oil and gas. casing and tubing A steel tubular device for opening up and reconditioning buckled. 3791. dented.v. The tool is forced into the damaged pipe and. 552 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . See octane rating. Rollers. is a measure of gasoline's antiknock characteristics determined by tests under more severe conditions of load and speed.mzhelu@gmail.).

v. (p. the rotary bushing. The kelly. A device for securing the end of a steel cable into a connecting piece-a clevis. bushing is turned by the rotary table and the bushing rotates the kelly and drillstring.) 3794. 3796. and through which the kelly joint moves downward ass drilling Procedes.) 553 Petroleum Engineer: M. Rotary drilling a drilling method in which a hole is drillid by a rotating bit to which a downward force is applied. which also provides a passageway through which the drilling fluid is circulated.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3792.com . Modern rotary machines have a special component. 3793. which permits vertical movement of the kelly while the stem is turning. Z. Rotary helper (see roughneck. 3795. The bit is fastened to and rotated by the drill stem.mzhelu@gmail. Rotary the machine used to impart rotational power to the drill stem while permitting vertical movement of the pipe for rotary drilling. to turn the kelly bushing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3797. A metal cup or socket (like a whip socket) into which The cable end is inserted and which then is feted with molten lead or babbitt. Additional joints of drill pipe are added as drilling progresses. Rotary bushing The metal casting that fits into the master bushing of the rotary table on a drilling well. hook or chain. Rop Rope socket rate of penetration.

3799. Z. Rotary rig A derrick equipped with rotary drilling equipment. 554 Petroleum Engineer: M. and auxiliary equipment. Draw works.com . meshing gears or lobes. Often in drilling deep.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3798. or tubing to mill away the obstruction.mzhelu@gmail. i. Rotary pump a pump that moves fluid by positive displacement. a modern Drilling unit capable of drilling a borehole with a bit attached to a rotating column of steel pipe. 3800. gears. mud pumps. rotary table.e. pipe. Rotary hose the hose on a rotary drilling rig that conducts the drilling fluid from the mud pump and standpipe to the swivel and kelly. maintaining full diameter. thus cutting less than a full hole. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Drilling engines.. Rotary shoe a length of pipe whose bottom edge is serrated or dressed with a hard cutting material that is run into the wellbore around the outside of stuck casing. hardrock formations the bit will become worn or distorted. using a system of rotating vanes. or lobes. The vaned pump has vanes extending radially from a rotating element mounted in the casing. The following reamer trims the hole wall. 3802. The geared rotary pump uses oppositely rotating. Rotary reamer A rock-cutting tool inserted in the drill column just above the drill bit for the purpose of keeping the hole cut to full diameter. also called the mud hose or the kelly hose. 3801.

3805. the head prevents the well from blowing out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. effecting a continuous. Rotation gas lift a gas-lift system in which the gas that is injected and subsequently produced is recompressed and reinjected into the well. 3807.com .) (see rotating head. usually installed above the main blowout preventers. Rotary tongs Rotating blowout presenter Rotating head pl (see tongs. It has a beveled-gear arrangement to create the rotational motion and an opening into which bushings are fitted to drive and support the drilling assembly. 3808.) a sealing device used to close off the annular space around the kelly when drilling with pressure at the surface.mzhelu@gmail. closed system that does not require the introduction of additional gas from an 555 Petroleum Engineer: M. A rotating head makes it possible to drill ahead even when there is pressure in the annulus that the weight of the drilling fluid is not overcoming. or rotary machine.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3803. 3806.) Rotary slips Rotary table 3804. Z. pl (see slips. It is used mainly in the drilling of formations that have low-pressure. high-volume fluids. the principal component of a rotary. used to turn the drill stem and support the drilling assembly. The rate of penetration through such formations is usually rapid.

round trips or "a trip. standard equipment for digging ditches by hand.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . or rig crewman. up in the derrick racking pipe. sometimes called a rotary helper. Roustabout a worker who assists the foreman in the general work around producing oil wells. 3811. On deep wells. subordinate to the driller. usually on the property of the oil company. may take 24 hours. 3809. A roustabout may also be a 556 Petroleum Engineer: M. and on "trips" operate the pipe tongs breaking out or unscrewing the stands of drillpipe." as it is more commonly called. Roundtrip the action of pulling out and subsequently running back into the hole a string of drill pipe or tubing. three 8-hour shifts.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering extraneous source for operation. Z. Round-point shovel A digging tool whose blade is rounded and tapers to a point in the center of The cutting edge. 3813. tend the drilling engines and mud Pumps. Round trip Pulling the drillpipe from the hole to change the bit and running the drillpipe and new bit back in the hole. the driller's assistants who work on the derrick floor. Roughnecks Members of the drilling crew. 3812. 3814. A long-handled shovel. Roughneck a worker on a drilling or workover rig. 3810. It is also called tripping the pipe. floorman. except that needed to make up losses in the system.

mzhelu@gmail. the sovereign is the landowner who traditionally receives 12 1/2 percent or oneeighth of the oil and gas produced from his land. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Royalty bidding An uncommon practice of bidding on federal leases by offering a high royalty interest to the government on any production discovered on the tract in lieu of the traditional cash bonus. 3817. of front money. 3815. 557 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering helper on a well-servicing unit or one who does utility work on an offshore drilling rig. 3816. the right or prerequisite of the king to receive a percentage of the gold or silver taken from the mines of his realm. Originally. Today. Z. The advantages to a company bidding royalty interests instead of cash could be a savings in millions of dollar. In case the lease is unproductive. Royalty bonus Describes an overriding royalty or oil payment reserves by the lessor. Royalty A share of the minerals (oil and gas) produced from a property by the owner of the property. the 1andowner usually any consideration received or to a lessor on the execution of a lease in excess of the customary one-eighth royalty is called a bonus or royalty bonus. This is the basic form of royalty. Royalty interests as high as 70 and 80 percent of gross production have been offered. But as you will note there are variations and "refinements" to the concept of what belongs to the king. See landowners royalty. the company is out only the cost of the well and any seismic or other exploratory expenses.

fee The lessor's share of oil and gas production. 3822. Oil on the outer continental shelf and on federal land is royalty oil. regardless of his share of actual proceeds from the sale of the lease's production.com . Z. 3824. compensatory Payments to royalty owners as compensation for loss of income which they may suffer due to the failure of the operator to develop a lease properly. But there are such interests that run only for a specified. also oil on land owned by a state or a municipality is royally oil. term A royally not in perpetuity but for a definite period of time. Royalty. Royalty. landowner's royalty traditionally one-eighth of gross production free of any cost. 3823. innovator's 558 See innovator's royalty. fixed-rate Royalty calculated on the basis of a fixed rate per unit of production.mzhelu@gmail. federal. 3820. 3819. Royalty interest. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. guaranteed. Royalty. slate or local. The minimum amount of royalty income a royalty owner is to receive under the lease agreement. Royalty oil Oil owned by the government. fixed length of time with no qualifying 'thereafter" clause.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3818. Royalty. 3821. Petroleum Engineer: M. Royalty. without regard for the actual proceeds from the sale of the production. Most royally interests are created for a fixed period and so long thereafter as oil and gas are produced.

Rp Rpm Rt Ruct rock pressure. which varies from the normal 16@ percent up to 110 percent of the value of the production. 559 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Royalty. 3829.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3825. revolutions per minute. sliding-scale Royalty paid to the federal government on oil and gas production from a government lease. used in drilling reports. 3826. 3827. landowner's A share of the gross production of the oil and gas on a property by the landowner without bearing any of the cost of producing the oil or gas.mzhelu@gmail. Z. used in drilling reports. Royalty. The usual landowner's royalty is one-eighth of gross production. 3830. rigging up and cable tools. 3828. As the value of production increases the percentage of royally also increases to a maximum of 50 percent.com . rotary table. usually offshore. Royalty. used in drilling reports. 3831. shot-in Payment to royalty owners under the terms of a mineral lease which allows the operator or lessee to defer production from a well which is shut in for lack of a market or pipeline connection.

Run-around Running the tools a platform encircling the top of the derrick Putting the drillpipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3832. See soft plug. 3 3835. 3836. a record of the oil transferred from the producer's storage tank to the pipeline. drill pipe. and so forth. a safety plug. into the hole in preparation for 3840. Z.com . running oil from a tank into a pipeline for delivery to a purchaser. Rupture disk A thin. 3838. metal plug or membrane in a fitting on a pressure line made so as to blow out or rupture when the pressure exceeds a predetermined level. It is the basic legal instrument by which the lease operator is paid for oil produced and sold. Run a tank Run in Run pipe Run ticket to transfer oil from a stock tank into a pipeline. Run A transfer of crude oil from a stock tank on a production lease to a pipeline gathering system for transportation to the buyer's facilities. drilling. to go into the hole with tubing. to lower a string of casing into the hole. 560 Petroleum Engineer: M. 3839. 3833. 3837. with the bit attached.

Z.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 561 Petroleum Engineer: M. used in drilling reports. 3842.com . Rur Rw rigging up rotary rig. This symbol is used in petrophysical calculations to represent the electrical resistivity of formation water.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3841.

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G. barite.com . The clamp conforms to the curve of the pipe and is held in place by u-bolts that fit around the pipe and extend through the clamp. Saddle A clamp. caustic. Z. used in drilling reports. second. Ps. 563 Petroleum Engineer: M. a professional organization of geophysicists engaged in exploration for oil and gas. The society of exploration geophysicists. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. ilmenite. for stopping the flow of oil or gas from holes or spies in a pipeline. (sx) a container for cement. S S. S/t Sack sample to .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3843. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. heavy bearing located on top of the samson post to support the walking beam on a circle tool drilling rig or an oil @veil pumping jack 3850. 3 3846. 3849. 3844. Saddle bearing A broad. Sacks (bags) contain the following amounts 3848. fitted with a gasket. bentonite. a devise for making temporary repairs to a line. 3847. and so forth.mzhelu@gmail.E.

564 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sae number A classification of lubricating oils in terms of viscosity only. Thus. placed above it. 3854. He also wears a safety harness (attached to the mast or derrick) to prevent him from failing.v. A standard established by the society of automotive engineers. 3855.mzhelu@gmail.). Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3851. prematurely. part of the safety joint as well as the tool attached to the @isa remain in the hole and become part of the fish. Sae 20. Safety goggles a protective eye covering worn by oil-field workers to minimize the danger to the eyes of being struck by flying objects or harmed by corrosive substances. 3852. the safety joint permits easy disengagement of the string of pipe above the safety joint. Safety platform the monkeyboard or platform on a derrick or mast on which the derrickman works. If the tool cannot be disengaged from the fish. sae 1ow. Safety latch a latch provided on a hook or swivel to prevent it from becoming detached 3857.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3853. multiviscosity lubricating oil (q.) an accessory to the fishing tool. Safety clamp a device used to suspend a rod string after the pump has been spaced or when the weight of the rod string must be taken off the pumping equipment. Safety hat Safety joint (see hard hat. 3856. 30.

To exit by the safety slide. 3863. Safety slide a device normally mounted near the safety platform to afford the derrickman a means of quick exit to the surface in case an emergency arises. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is usually affixed to a wireline. Safety shoes metal-toed shoes or boots with nonskid. Salinity log a special radioactivity well log that is electronically adjusted to reflect gammaray emissions resulting from the collision of neutrons with chlorine atoms in the formations. logs provide an estimate of the relative amounts of oil. 3862.com . Salt dome/salt-plug pool Structural or stratigraphic traps (q. 3859. Z. the opposite of hogging. corrosion-resistant soles worn by oilfield workers to minimize falls and injury to their feet. or chlorine. Safety valve Sagging See relief valve. 3860. one end of which is attached to the derrick and the other end to the surface. the distortion of the hull of a vessel when the middle is lower than either end because of excessively heavy or unbalanced loads.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3858. 3861. pools formed by the intrusion of underlying salt formations into overlying Porous and permeable sedimentary layers creating traps favorable to the presence of oil and gas. the derrickman grasps a handle on it and rides it down to the ground. or salt water in a formation.mzhelu@gmail. 565 Petroleum Engineer: M. Also called a geronimo.v. gas. Salinity.) Associated with rock-salt intrusions.

3870. Salt-brine cement Salt-dome storage a cementing slurry whose liquid phase contains sodium chloride. a central treating plant (in which salt water is 566 Petroleum Engineer: M. Cavities leached out of underground salt formations by the use of superheated water for the storage of petroleum products. butane. forming traps for petroleum.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3864. Salt water Salt-bed storage a water that contains a large quantity of salt. Thick formations or underground layers of salt in which cavities are mined or leached out with super-heated water for the storage of petroleum products.. A typical system is composed of collection centers (in which salt water from several wells is gathered). 3865. propane. Especially lp gases. brine.g. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Formations above the salt plug are usually arched so that they dip in all directions away from the center of the dome.com . Salt dome a dome that is formed by the intrusion of rock salt into overlying sediments.mzhelu@gmail. Healing oils. the method and system for the disposal of salt water produced with crude oil. 3867. 3868. Saltplug Saltwater disposal See salt dome. 3869. and other lp-gases. 3866. leaving them truncated. e. A piercement salt dome is one that has pushed up so it penetrates the overlying sediments.

Each bag with its sample is tagged with identifying information.) And examined by the geologist to identity the formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering conditioned to remove scale. The cuttings. Sample bag A small cotton bag with a drawstring to hold rock cutting samples. are saved and the depth where obtained is recorded. especially in cable-tool drilling. lease. etc. brought to the surface by the bailer. This record shows the characteristics of various strata drilled through. 3874. 3875. 567 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. location. 3873.com . 3871. well name.v.or corrosion-forming substances). Sample Cuttings of a rock formation broken up by the drill bit and brought to the surface by the drilling mud. depth at which cuttings were taken. 3872. Sampler a device attached to a flow line to permit continuous sampling of the oil or gas flowing in the line. Treated salt waste is injected into a suitable formation). and disposal wells (in which. Rock samples are collected from the shale shaker (q. Sample log A record of rock cuttings as a well is being drilled. Z. the type of rock being drilled.mzhelu@gmail. Saltwater mud a drilling mud in which the water has appreciable amounts of salt (usually sodium chloride) dissolved in it.

2. Sand Short for sandstone. 568 Petroleum Engineer: M. Samson post A heavy. vertical limber that supports the well's walking beam (q. 3879. one of the more prolific sedimentary rock formations. Z. The walking beam rests on the samson post on a broad paddle bearing and moves up and down like a child's teeter-totter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3876. From an examination of these cuttings. sometimes in the shape of a lens.). Sampling the taking of a representative sample of fluid from a tank to measure its temperature. specific gravity. the geologist determines the type of rock and the type of formation being drilled and estimates oil and gas content. Sandstone formation. sandwiched between two impervious layers of rock. a geologic trap favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas. Other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. The well cuttings obtained at designated footage intervals during drilling. the samson post is located just ahead of the band wheel. Samples n pi 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3877.mzhelu@gmail. On a cable-tool rig. In informal usage.com . and bs&w content 3878. Sand body A sand or sandstone formation defined by upper and lower layers of impervious rock." 3880.v. Small quantities of well fluids obtained for analysis.

3882.) Sand fill Sand lens Sand line a column of sand that has entered and accumulated in the wellbore. It is usually 9/16 in. (see lens. Sanding out is usually the result of a slowed fracture-fluid velocity. Sand out to plug a well inadvertently with proppants during formation fracturing. that allows the proppants to become separated from the fluid instead of being carried away from the wellbore. 3884. 3885. In diameter and several thousand feet long. unconsolidated grains of a producing formation are made to adhere to prevent a well from producing sand but permit it to produce oil and gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3881. See gravel packing. a wire rope used on well-servicing rigs to operate a swab or bailer. Sand control A technique for coping with sand from unconsolidated (loose. Sand consolidation any one of several methods by which the loose. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. unpacked) formations that migrate (drift or wash) into downhole pumping equipment or into the borehole. Z.mzhelu@gmail. It is also called screening out. 3883. or screening effect.com . 3886. 569 Petroleum Engineer: M.

v. Sand pump A cylinder with a plunger and valve arrangement used for sucking up the pulverized rock. from drilling mud. wound. iron oxide. Z. sand. More effective than a simple bailer. (oil is also found in limestone. Shell pump." 3892. sludger. other sedimentary rocks are referred to as "sands. dolomite. under restricted production because of sand accumulation in the wellbore. especially because of sand accumulation.com .) And by removing most of the abrasive material reduces wear on mud pumps and bits. 2. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3887. Sands Common terminology for oil-bearing sandstone formations. 3891. sedimentary rock composed of individual grains of sand (commonly quartz) that are cemented together by silica." pulverized rock and sand. Sand separator A device for removing "drilled solids. and other porous rock. and so forth. 3890. 570 Petroleum Engineer: M. Of a well. and water from the bottom of the well bore. The sand separator is used in addition to the shale shaker (q. Sandstone is a common rock in which petroleum and water accumulate. calcium carbonate. Impeded or hindered.) In informal or loose usage. shales. Sanded-up 1.mzhelu@gmail. Sandstone a detrital. Sand reel a metal drum on a drilling rig or workover unit around which the sand line is 3889. 3888.

a plant that derives its feed stock or raw material from the main processing unit. 571 Petroleum Engineer: M." These gas streams are further refined in a facility called by refinery engineers the sats gas plant. Sat Satellite plant saturated or saturation. ethane.). (2) the extent to which gas is dissolved in the liquid hydrocarbons in a formation. 3897.). Subsea wells located remote from the production facility and connected to the facility by flowlines. Saturates is a synonym for hydrocarbons whose carbon atoms are "saturated with hydrogen atoms. Sats gas plant A refiner's term for the part of the refinery that processes gas streams carrying saturates (q. and others.v. 3895.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3893. Saturation (1) the extent to which the pore space in a formation contains hydrocarbons or connate water (q. Z.v.) To be stripped out of the gases. butanes. Saturates Components of refinery-process gas streams methane.com . 3896. A facility that supports the main processing plant.v. 3899. Satellite platform Satellite Wells Production platform (q. 3894.mzhelu@gmail. 3898. propane. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

Saver sub a device made up in the drill stem to absorb much of the wear between frequently broken joints (as the kelly and drill pipe. also seconds saybolt universal. 572 Petroleum Engineer: M. Scantlings pi (nautical) the dimensions of the structural members in the hull. other heavy-duty products. bubble point. Initials for synthetic butadiene rubber. Sbr is used in the manufacture of tires. and 210 f).). Sbm system Sbr Single-buoy mooring system (q.-it is referred to as the saybolt viscosity and written as saybolt second universal (ssu). Z. Saybolt seconds Saybolt viscometer See seconds saybolt furol. shoes. the main ingredients of which are derived from petroleum. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. consisting basically of a container with a hole or jet of a standard size in the bottom.mzhelu@gmail. 3904. 3903. 3905.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3900. 130 f. an instrument used to measure the viscosity of fluids.com .v. See 3901.) 3902. Saturation pressure The pressure at which gas begins to be released from solution in oil. hose. The time required for the flow of a specific volume of fluid is recorded in seconds at three different temperatures (100 f. 3906.

Scat (welding) rig A rack that carries welding generators.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3907. 3911. The rig is powered by a small diesel engine. pronounced "slumberjay". 3909. and spools of welding wire along the pipe being welded. Scour Erosion of the seabed caused by the action of waves and currents. S cop e the ratio of the total length of a mooring line (as on a mobile offshore drilling rig) to the depth of the water. 3913. named for the french scientists who first developed the method. Automatic welding heads ("bugs") are moved ahead on the pipe as the joints are welded. 3910. 3912. Schlumberger one of the pioneer companies in electric well logging.com . gas bottles (c02). Z. standard cubic feet of gas per day. 3908. 573 Petroleum Engineer: M. S cf Scf/d Scheduler standard cubic feet of gas. See dispatcher.mzhelu@gmail. Today. A person in an oil-dispatching office who plans the future movement of batches of crude oil or product in a pipeline system. keeping batches separated and making arrangements for product input and downstream deliveries. many companies provide logging services of all kinds. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

3918. rods.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3914. leasing. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sea lines. Scraper trap a specially designed piece of equipment that is installed in a pipeline to launch or receive a pipeline scraper. 3917. Excessive scouring causes spanning. 3915.mzhelu@gmail. casing. Subsea lines are inspected for scouring and spanning by side-scan sonar devices or by diver inspection. and well potentials. the hanging of a section of the line one to several feet off bottom. Z. drilling rates. Formations encountered. or flow lines. If allowed to go uncorrected the Pipeline welds crack or the pipe ruptures from its unsupported weight.com . by all available means. Scouring The erosion or washing away of the sand/clay covering of a buried subsea pipeline. survey data. Scouting a well Gathering information. 3916. about a competitor's well the depth. Scout A person hired by an operator or a company to seek out information about activities of drilling wells in an area. and geophysical reports. Scouring caused by sea currents is a serious problem for under. well logs. Scraper any device (as a line scraper) that is used to remove deposits (as scale or paraffin) from tubing. 574 Petroleum Engineer: M. drilling rates and depths.

wire Brushes. Screen out Screen pipe (see sand out. removes the cake so that the cement can bond solidly to the formation. rust. 3921. a screen liner. a cylindrical.) a perforated pipe with a straining or filtering device (usually closely wound coils of wire wrapped around the pipe) to allow the flow of well fluids but exclude sand. Scratcher a device fastened to the outside of casing that removes the mud cake from the wall of the hole to condition the hole for cementing. the scratchier. formed of stiff wire. It is also called a screen pipe. 575 Petroleum Engineer: M. and toothed rollers used to clean accumulations of wax. By rotating or moving the casing string up and down as it is being run into the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3919. pipeline A pig.mzhelu@gmail. Screen liner a liner that is perforated and arranged with a wire wrapping to act as a sieve to prevent or minimize the entry of sand particles into the wellbore.com . 3922. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. The scraper is inserted in the fine at a "trap" (q. Scraper. 3923. plug-like device equipped with scraper blades.) And is pushed along by the pressure of the moving column of Oil. 3920.v. and Other foreign matter from pipelines.

Natural gas when it is produced or when it Flows from the well under pressure usually contains impurities. 3926. as well as liquid hydrocarbons. used when it is not desirable to put tubing weight on the packer. usually are driven by electric motors but can be hooked up to gas engines. Scrubbing Purifying a gas by putting it. When rotated on their shafts.-from one location to another by means of a helix or screw rotating in a cylindrical conduit. Z. solid material pelletized plastics. two.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3924. 3925. also the Removal of entrained water.mzhelu@gmail. and chemical plants to handle highly viscous fluids and as transfer pumps for small volumes of liquid at high pressures. or three screws or spiral members. Screw pump A rotary pump made with one. Screw conveyor A mechanism for moving dry. Archimedes thought of it first. matter. cement. which are small. Screw pumps and other types of rotary pumps are used in refineries. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. traces of other gases and microscopic droplets of water. through a water or chemical wash. 576 Petroleum Engineer: M. Screw packer a packer in which the packing element is expanded by rotating the pipe. sulfur. the screws closely mesh and take in fluid at the suction end of the pump and force it out the discharge port in a continuous stream. Scrubber a vessel through which fluids are passed to remove dirt and other foreign 3928. Screw pumps. 3927.com . etc.

Seals Thin strips of metal. Scrubbing plant A facility for purifying or treating natural gas for the removal of hydrogen sulfide or other impurities. used to "seal" a valve in an open or closed posit on. 3929. shut down for orders. imprinted with serial numbers. to close off or secure against a flow of fluid. Sd Sdo Sdy Seal Seal-off sand or sandstone. the penetration of a drilling fluid into a potentially productive formation'. 3935.mzhelu@gmail. a trunk line. Z. 3933. used in drilling reports. 3932. 3936. 3934. 3931.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Before it can be accepted by a gas transmission line.com . used in drilling reports. The metal strip has a locking snap on one end 577 Petroleum Engineer: M. used in drilling reports. scrubbed and dried out. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. thus restricting or preventing the formation from producing. Sealines Submarine pipelines lines laid on the ocean floor from offshore wells to a production platform and to receiving stations onshore. the gas must be stripped of the liquid hydrocarbons. 3930. sandy.

See lap-welded pipe. 3938. 3940. anchor a pump. 3939. Seat Seaterminal the point in the wellbore at which casing is set.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering Into which the free end is inserted. (see squeeze cementing. having machined contours to fit a matching plug with locking pawls.mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports. Secondary cementing includes a plug-back job. Sec Secondary cementing section.) 578 Petroleum Engineer: M. Seals are used on Tanks in a battery to prevent the undetected opening or closing of a valve. Z. The terminal is served by filling lines from shore or by smaller. It is used to regulate or shut off flow. Wells are plugged to shut off bottom water or to reduce the depth of the well for other reasons. 3941. Seamless pipe Pipe made without an axial seam. locking it securely. deep-draft tankers. 3937. pipe made from a billet or solid cylinder of hot steel and "hot-worked" on a mandrel into a tubular piece without a seam. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or permit installation of a flow regulator. Seating nipple a special tube installed in a string of tubing. in which a plug of cement is positioned at a specific point in the well and allowed to set. any cementing operation after the primary cementing operation. 3942. An offshore loading or unloading facility for large. shallow-draft vessels.com .

See also seconds saybolt universal. 3944.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3943. gas injection. Sixty cubic centimeters of an oil are put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through a standardized orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature. against the casing wall. Secondary recovery The extraction of oil from a field beyond what can be recovered by normal methods of flowing or pumping the use of waterflooding. 3946. The Cutter arms are then expanded. The seconds required to flow through is the oil's viscosity its ssf number. As the drillpipe is rotated.mzhelu@gmail. 3945. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the cutters do their work. its viscosity. 579 Petroleum Engineer: M. Section mill A downhole cutting tool made with expendable arms used to cut sections out of the casing in the hole. Seconds saybolt universal (ssu) A measurement of the viscosity of a light oil. and other methods to recover additional amounts of oil.is put in an instrument known as a "saybolt viscosimeter" and permitted to flow through an orifice in the bottom at a specified temperature. The number of seconds required for the flow through is the oil's ssu number. A measured quantity of oil usually 60 cubic centimeters. either hydraulically or mechanically. Z. The mill is attached to the end of the drillstring and lowered into the hole to the point where the casing is to be cut. Seconds saybolt furol (ssf) A measurement of the viscosity of a heavy oil.

3950. where much of the rock is sedimentary (as opposed to igneous or metamorphic) and therefore likely to contain hydrocarbons. basic sediment. thus allowing oil or gas to flow out of fissures in the rock. also called tank bottoms. shale. (2). 3953. 3949. buried layers of sedimentary rock. Seep the natural surface appearance of oil or gas that results when a reservoir rock becomes exposed to the surface. 3952. (1).mzhelu@gmail. Section milling the process by which a portion of pipe. such as Scotian Basin. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. used in drilling reports.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3947. 3951. Sedimentary rock a rock composed of materials that were transported to their present position by wind or water. Z. Sandstone. usually casing. and limestone are sedimentary rocks. is actually removed by cutting with a mill. 3948.com . In geology. 580 Petroleum Engineer: M. Section of land Sed Sediment One square mile 640 acres. sixteen 40-acre plots. sediment. and so forth. The matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid. Sedimentary Basin A geographical area.

3958. sound-detecting hydrophones. trailed from a geophysical vessel. 3 3962.v. Segregation drive Seis Seismic sea streamer (see gravity drainage. 3960. 3957. Seismogrami Seismograph The record produced by a seismographic survey. used in drilling reports.v.). harmless electronic or air detonations are set off which are reflected from rock formations beneath the sea floor and picked up by the sensitive. Z. Vibrations are created by discharging explosives in 581 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. See geophone. used in prospecting for probable oil-bearing structures. As the vessel moves slowly ahead.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3954. A cable. As used in the exploration for oil and gas. See vibrator vehicle. 3959.mzhelu@gmail. towing a series of hydrophones along the sea floor recording seismic "signals" from underwater detonations. A device that records vibrations from the earth. a seismograph records shock waves set off by explosions detonated in shot holes (q. 3956. Seismic shot hole Seismic thuiwper Seismogram See shot hole.) seismograph. a device that detects vibrations in the earth.) And picked up by geophones (q. 3955.com .

Self-elevating drilling unit an offshore drilling rig. 3966.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 3963. to bond or adhere. Seismographic survey Geophysical information on subsurface rock formations gathered by means of a seismograph (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shallow boreholes or by striking the surface with a heavy blow. Seize To stick together. Seismometer A device for receiving and recording shock waves setoff by an explosion or other seismic sources and reflected by underground rock formations.com . usually with a large hull. 582 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. 3964. Z. It has a mat or legs that are lowered to the seafloor and a main deck that is raised above the surface of the water to a distance where it will not be affected by the waves. 3965. The type and velocity of the vibrations (as recorded by the seismograph) indicate the general characteristics of the section of earth through which the vibrations pass. as a button to a cylinder from heat and pressure. a jack-up drilling rig. The investigation of underground strata by recording and analyzing shock waves artificially produced and reflected from subsurface bodies of rock. as two pieces of metal that have become hot from excesive friction as one piece moves relative to the other. a seismograph which measures the movements of the ground.).

3969. hot-head or hot-plug diesels. more correctly. Semisubmersible rigs are either self-propelled or towed to a drilling site and either anchored or dynamically positioned over the 583 Petroleum Engineer: M. Also referred to as a spontaneous potential.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3967. Z.mzhelu@gmail. After the gun is fired. (see gun-perforate. Semisubmersible Semisubmersible drilling rig (see semisubmersible drilling rig. a small. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the strip is retrieved. and so forth are assembled on the deck. it is one of the basic curves obtained by an electrical well log.) 3970.) a floating offshore drilling structure that has hulls submerged in the water but not resting on the seafloor. low-compression diesel hot-plug engine. Living quarters. are equipped with a plug that extends into the firing chamber healed by a torch or by electricity to assist in the ignition of the diesel fuel until the engine is running and up to operating temperature.com . storage space. Semidiesels or. 3971. Self-potential (sp) one of the natural electrical characteristics exhibited by a formation as measured by a logging tool lowered into the wellbore. 3968. Semiexpendable gun a perforating gun that consists of a metallic strip on which encapsulated shaped charges are mounted. Semidiesel A misnomer for a diesel-cycle engine whose compression is not highEnough to create sufficient heat to ignite the injected fuel when starting cold.

such as found in corrosion products on casing. sand Sequestering agent Natural gas separated out of the oil by a separator at the well.-also decanting centrifuge. 3973. Semisubmersibles are more stable than drill ships and are used extensively to drill wildcat wells in rough waters such as the north sea. low-temperature (gas) Separator. Separator gas Separator. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 3972. 3978.com . Z. 3979. 3977. 3 3976. (see dynamic positioning.) 3974. Hydrocarbons may be associated with serpentine.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering site or both. Serpentine an igneous rock composed in part of hydrated magnesium silicate. Separator a cylindrical or spherical vessel used to isolate the components in mixed streams of fluids. which form when the acid contacts scales or iron salts and oxides. but this is unusual. See sand separator. a chemical used with an acid in a well treatment to inhibit the precipitation of insoluble iron hydroxides. 584 Petroleum Engineer: M. See lxt unit.mzhelu@gmail. Senior orifice fitting a one-piece orifice fitting that allows the orifice plate in it to be changed without the flow of gas in the line being disturbed. (see oil and gas separator.

Temperature and pressure gauging fishing. Any small force on the steering wheel activates a hydraulically powered mechanism that does the teal work of turning the wheels. 3984.6nism Short for servomechanism (q.com .). Service well A non-producing well used for injecting water or gas into the reservoir or producing formation in pressure maintenance or secondary recovery programs also a salt-water disposal well. 585 Petroleum Engineer: M. and workover of oil and gas wells. 3982. See servomechanism.mzhelu@gmail. An automatic device for controlling large amounts of power with a small amount of force an example of a servomechanism is the power-steering on an automobile. acidizing and shooting are some of the service tools and procedures provided by the numerous service companies that perform specialized work in the oil field. Z. Servo Servomech. sampling. 3981. completion. 3985. Set back to place stands of drill pipe and drill collars in a vertical position to one side of the rotary table in the derrick or mast of the drilling or workover rig.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3980. so-called wireline tools such as logging.v. Servomotor A power-driven mechanism that supplements a primary control operated by a comparatively small force. 3983. Service tools A variety of downhole equipment used in drilling. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. fracturing.

to set pipe. Settling pit the mud pit into which mud flows and in which heavy solids are allowed to settle out. 586 Petroleum Engineer: M. Settling the separation of substances because of different sizes and specific gravities of components in the substances. On transportable.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3986. setbacks are outside the derrick proper. mast-type derricks used on land.com .) Tapers off. Offshore drilling platforms often list the stand capacity of their setbacks as an indication of their pipe-handling capability and capacity. the production of a well that has ceased flowing and has been put on the pump. 3991. 3992.mzhelu@gmail. 3990. Z. (see set casing. Settled production The lower average production rate of a well after the initial flush production (q. 3987. 3989.v. Often auxiliary equipment (as desanders) must be installed to speed this process. Set casing Set pipe Set up Setback to run and cement casing at a certain depth in the wellbore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) to harden (as cement). The space on the derrick floor where stands of drillpipe or tubing are "set back" and racked in the derrick. 3988.

gulf. 3998. 587 Petroleum Engineer: M. and british petroleum and royal dutch shell. used in drilling reports. 3994. Jointed steel rods. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The two overseas sisters.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3993. The term was first used by enrico mattei then head of the italian government oil company ente nazionale ldrocarburi. 3997. 3995.mzhelu@gmail.v. and mobile of the u. Sewage-treatment plant a system on offshore locations used to render human and other wastes biologically inert before the wastes are discharged overboard. Z. Production tax.) With a well's pumping unit or pumping jack. It is slid that these seven companies control a major portion of production and refinery runs in the free world. used in drilling reports. approximately 25 feet long and 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter. Severancetax A tax levied by some states on each barrel of oil or each thousand cubic feet of gas produced.com . used to connect a central power (q.s. shale. standard of califonia. Sg Sh Shackle rod show of gas.. texaco. Shackle-rod lines are supported on metal posts (usually made of 2-inch line pipe) topped with wooden guide blocks which are lubricated with a heavy grease. 3996. Seven sisters A term applied to the seven large international oil companies exxon.

4000. Shake out To force the sediment in a sample of oil to the bottom of a test tube by whirling the sample at high speed in a centrifuge machine.com . After the sample has been whirled for three to five minutes. the percent of bs&w (sediment and water) is read on the graduated test tube. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The size of the openings in the sieve is carefully selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling fluid and the anticipated size of cuttings. 4003. Shale shaker a series of trays with sieves that vibrate to remove cuttings from the circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations. usually the first pit into which the mud flows after returning from the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 3999. Z. Shale oil Oil obtained by treating the hydrocarbon kerogen found in certain kinds of shale deposits. 4004. 588 Petroleum Engineer: M. Shaker Shaker pit (see shale shaker. It is also called a shaker. Most shales are compacted mud and consequently do not contain oil or gas in commercial quantities.) the mud pit adjacent to the shale shaker.mzhelu@gmail. 4002. 4001. When the shale is heated the resulting vapors are condensed and then treated in an involved process to form what is called shale oil or synthetic oil. Shale A type of sedimentary rock composed of fine particles of older rock laid down as deposits in the water of takes and seas.

Shaped-charge perforation A perforation technique using shaped explosive charges instead of steel projectiles to make holes in casing.com . (see gunperforate. Shales. a narrow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4007. Shaped charge a relatively small container of high explosive that is loaded into a perforating gun.v. high-velocity stream of particles (a jet) that penetrates the casing. Shave-tails A skinner's (q. 4009.) Term for his mules. 589 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sharpshooters are one of the pipeliner's digging tools used for squaring up a ditch or the sides of a bell hole (q. Upon detonation.). Quantities of explosives are made in special configurations and detonated at the bottom of the hole against the casing wall to make the perforations. Sharpshooter A spade. A vibrating screen for sifting out rock cuttings from drilling mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4005.-and formation. Drilling mud returning from downhole carrying rock chips in suspension flows over and through the mesh of the shale shaker leaving the small fragments of rocks which are collected and examined by the geologist for information on the formation being drilled.) 4008. square-ended shovel used in digging. 4010. kerogen Shaleshaker See kerogen shales.v. cement. the charge releases a small.mzhelu@gmail. Z. 4006.

permitting an element of the tool to assume a predetermined attitude. 4012. 4013. preventing damage to the shaft or other parts of the power train. Shear rams are used in mobile offshore drilling operations to provide a quick method of moving the rig away from the hole when there is no time to trip the drill stem out of the hole. through drill pipe and form a seal against well pressure. Should the propeller strike an obstruction. Z. or shear. Then when thrust or torque is applied. (see gel) 590 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . shear pins or screws are used in downhole tools or equipment to hold a part in position until the tool is landed or in place. of a drilling fluid. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4014.) an instrument used to determine the shear strength. 4015. Shear strength Shearometer (see gel strength. In other applications. the pin will shear. Shear action or stress that results from applied forces and that causes or tends to cause two adjoining parts of a body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. Shear rams pl the components in a blowout preventer that cut. or gel strength. the pin or screw shears. Shear pin A retaining pin or bolt or screw designed to shear or give way before damage can be done to the item of equipment it is holding in place.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4011. A common use for a shear pin is to secure a propeller to a shaft.mzhelu@gmail.

Shoestring sand a long.com . drill ship. narrow sand deposit. Shock sub a trade name for a device positioned in the drill stem between the bit and drill collars that absorbs impact loads and vibration from the up-and-down motion of the drill stem. 4018. 4017. thus acquiring the name. Shirttails extend below the threaded pin of the bit and are usually rounded on bottom. 4021. usually a buried sandbar or filled channel. an earth-resistivity meter used to measure the resistance of soil to the passage of electrical current. 591 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4019. Shipshape drilling rig Shirttail 4020. Shock subs are designed to transmit torque while absorbing reciprocative loads that decrease the efficiency of the drill bit. the body of a tank. the part of a drilling bit on which the cone is anchored. Sheave Shell Shepard's canes (pronounced "shiv") a grooved pulley. Z.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4016. 4022. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.

com . Shot hole A small -diameter hole. for "planting" explosive charges in seismic operations. A charge of high explosive.) 2. usually drilled with a portable. Truck-mounted drill. (2). Short trip Pulling the drillstring partway out of the hole. (see seismograph. Z. The point at which a detonation is to be made in a geophysical survey.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4023.) 4026. (see directional survey. usually nitroglycerine.) 4024.v.mzhelu@gmail. to discharge explosives to create vibrations in the earth's crust. (see shoot and nitro shooting. Shoot (1). Shot 1. 4025. 4027. A point at which a photograph is made in a single-shot survey. Shot point The shot hole (q. Shooting has been almost completely replaced by formation fracturing and acid treatments. now largely replaced by formation fracturing. Short trips may be necessary to raise the drill up into the protective string of casing to avoid having the Drillstring stuck in the hole by a cave-in or sloughing of the wall of the borehole below the protective casing.). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In seismographic work. detonated in a well to shatter the formation and expedite the recovery of oil. 592 Petroleum Engineer: M. To explode nitroglycerine or other high explosives in a hole to shatter the rock and increase the flow of oil.

and as the heated part cools. a show of oil usually signifies the well will not be a commercial producer. samples. As the oil and water are pumped into the tall column.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4028. or cores. 4031. the shotgun serves as a water and sediment knockout vessel. the water and sediment settles to the bottom. Show of oil A small amount of oil in a well or a rock sample.mzhelu@gmail. 593 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4032. A heated part is placed around a companion piece. On a small-production or stripper lease. and so forth of a 4030. for example) to extremely low temperature with "dry ice and placing the part in position. the oil frees itself from most of the water and floats on top of the water where it gravitates through a take-off line into the stock tanks. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . slender tank for separating water and sediment from crude oil. As it returns to normal temperature. 4029. Shrinkage a decrease in oil volume caused by the evaporation of solution gas or by lowered temperature. drilling well. The water is drawn off through a "syphon" which may be adjusted to take off only the water. an expansion fit may be made by cooling a part (a valve-seat insert. Conversely. Show the appearance of oil or gas in cuttings. a tight "expansion fit" will result. a shri fit results. Shotgun tank A tall. Shrink fit An extremely tight fit as the result of "shrinking" one metal part around another.

A well is shut in when its wellhead valves are closed. There is a great difference between a shut down and a shut in. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. which can happen for many reasons failure of equipment waiting on pipe. shut-in pressure should be above zero. 4034.mzhelu@gmail. A shut in well often wit! Be waiting on tankage or a pipeline connection. Water-producing interval. waiting on orders from the operator etc.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4033. 4035. 594 Petroleum Engineer: M. because the pressure exerted by the drilling fluid should be equal to or greater than the pressure exerted by the formations through which the wellbore passes. however. 4036. waiting on cement. as noted on a gauge installed on the surface control valves. Z. also describes a well on which the valves have been closed. shut-in pressure should be zero. A well is shut down when drilling ceases. 4037. On a flowing. Shut down Shut down-shut in well to stop work temporarily or to stop a machine or operation temporarily.com . Shut off to stop or decrease the production of water in an oil well by cementing or mudding off the. producing well. Shut-in pressure the pressure when the well is completely shut in. shutting off production. Shut in To close the valves at the wellhead so that the well stops flowing or producing. When drilling is in progress.

shut-in casin Sibhp Sicp Side bootacats shut-in bottom-hole pressure.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4038. Shutin royalty Payments made when a gas well. See reservoir pressure.) 4042. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. is shut in for lack of market for the gas. 4044. This permits the gas to move out of the formation toward the borehole and build its head of pressure. the well is shut in for 24 hours or even longer. Shutdown rate a rate provision usually contained in a drilling contract that specifies the compensation to the independent drilling contractor when drilling is suspended at the request of the operator. Si (1). 4040. capable of producing in paying quantities.Used in drilling reports. 595 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see international si metric system. This type of royalty or some form of rental is usually required to prevent termination of the lease. 4039. Z. See boomcats. (2). Shut in. To allow the pressure to buildup to its peak.com . 4043. Systeme internationale. Shutin pressure Pressure as recorded at the wellhead when the valves p re closed and the well is shut in. 4041.

) Side-pocket mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel. In.mzhelu@gmail.) With a hinged latch that opens on one side to permit it to be fastened around the pipe and secured for hoisting.. Z. By beginning the deviation of the hole several hundred feet above the junk in the original hole.) Sidetrack to drill around broken drill pipe or casing that has become lodged permanently in the hole by the use of a whip-stock. to 1 3/16. A hollow bullet is fired into the formation wall to capture the core and then retrieved on a flexible steel cable. turbodrill.e. the new hole %mil bypass the obstruction and may be taken on down to the pay zone.com . Lost tools. 596 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sidewall core/sample Sidewall coring A sample of rock taken from the wall of the well's borehole. (see directional drilling.v. A method of drilling past obstructions in a well. 4048.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4045. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. In length. or other mud motor. pipe or other material blocking the hole.). Side-door elevators Casing or tubing elevators (q. In diameter and from 3/4 to 1 in.v. 4049.) 4047. Sidetracking Drilling of another well beside a non-producing well and using the upper part of the non-producer. A downhole tool which forces the drill bit to drill at a slight angle from the vertical. Core samples of this type usually range from 3/4. This can be done with the use of a whipstock (q. i. 4046. Side-door mandrel (see gas-lift mandrel. a coring technique especially useful in soft rock areas in which @ore samples are obtained from a zone that has already been drilled.

Sidewalltap or cock A small-diameter valve inserted in the wall of a tank or other vessel for drawing samples or bleeding off pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4050. the determination of the percentage of particles that pass through several screens of graduated fineness. 597 Petroleum Engineer: M. Sigma Silica flour Society of independent gasoline marketers of america. When the glass cylinder had been pumped full. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4 4053. Sight glass A glass tube in which the height of a liquid in a tank or pressure vessel may be observed. a silica.com . sio2. 4051. the attendant opened the valve on the filling hose which permitted the gasoline to gravitate into the vehicle's tank. Gravity pump. used in drilling reports. Z.mzhelu@gmail. The glass tube is supported by fittings that extend through the vessel wall thus allowing the fluid in the tank to assume a corresponding level in the glass. 4054. ground to a fineness equal to that of portland cement. Sidpp Sieve analysis shut-in drill-pipe pressure. 4057. 4056. 4055. Sight pump An "antique" gasoline dispensing system in which the gasoline was pumped by hand into a ten-gallon glass tank atop the pump in plain sight of the customer.

(see directional survey.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4058. and fourble. used in drilling reports.). 598 Petroleum Engineer: M. Compare double. 4063.v. thribble. It provides weight so that the tool can be lowered into the well properly. Z.com . 4062. An offshore floating platform (20 to 35 feet in diameter) connected to Pipelines from the shore for loading or unloading tankers.) a heavy weight or bar placed on or near a lightweight wireline tool. Sip shut-in pressure. Sinter to bond pieces of metal into a mass of metallic powder by heating them. 4061. Single-point mooring Single-shot survey Sinker bar Single-buoy mooring (q.mzhelu@gmail. Single Single-buoy mooring system a joint of drill pipe. The sbm system is anchored in deep water thus permitting large tankers to off load or "lift" cargo in areas where it is impractical to build a loading jetty or the close-in water is too shallow for deep-draft vessels. 4059. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4060. 4064. Tungsten carbide inserts are often bonded to the cones of button bits by sintering when the bits are being manufactured.

In casing and tubing which is to be run in a well. 4067. e. 4068. On a "big well. roundness is very important. everyone knows when the pay is reached.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4065. the geologist may be the only one who recognizes it. And if the pipe were out of round the tools and equipment would not go down. plug-like toot that is pushed or pulled through a length of pipe to lost for roundness. Also. Skidding the rig allows the move to be accomplished with little or no dismantling of equipment. The geologist examines the cuttings brought up by the drilling mud to ascertain just when the pay zone is penetrated. first rising to a higher level than that of the tube of pipe inlet and then flowing downward and through. Skid the rig to move a rig with a standard derrick from the location of a lost or completed hole preparatory to starting a new hole. Siphon a bent tube of pipe through which a liquid flows. and other interested parties who literally sit waiting for the wells drill to bore into what is expected to be the producing formation. on small or marginal wells.com . swabs. Sizing scraper A cylindrical. etc. 599 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. pumps. 4066. 4069." a very good well. There are a number of downhole tools which must be run. Can be pulled or carried on a truck. Sitting on a well The vigil of the geologist. Skid tank A product-dispensing tank mounted on skids or runners. Packers.mzhelu@gmail.. the operator. out-of-round pipe is more vulnerable to collapsing pressures encountered in the hole.g.

Z. 4071. and pumps it into a tank on board. Skid-mounted units are usually readily movable by pulling as a sled or by hoisting onto a truck. 600 Petroleum Engineer: M. flatbed truck. As the boat is maneuvered to where the oil has been corralled by an oil-spill boom (q.v.). (heavy timbers).) An engine and suction pump on board takes the oil off the top of the water much like a vacuum cleaner. Transportable folding or jackknife rigs are seldom skidded. Skim pit an earthen pit. The minute quantities of oil are skimmed off the top of the water in the pit. 4 4074. The use of skids. Skidding the rig Moving the derrick from one location to another without dismantling the structure. they are folded down to a horizontal position and moved on a large. Skimming plant (1) a topping plant (q. into which water with small amounts of oil is pumped. The skimmer is mounted on a skiff or small boat.com . often lined with concrete. transporting the rig from a completed well to another location nearby. Skid-mounted Refers to a pumping unit or other oil field equipment that has no permanent or fixed foundation but is welded or bolted to metal runners or timber skids.mzhelu@gmail. 4075. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. rollers. 4072. and the water is disposed of.v. and a truck or tractor. Skimmer A type of oil-spill clean-up device propelled over the water that sucks or paddles oil into a tank.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4070.

The area of the formation that is damaged because of the invasion of foreign substances into the exposed section of the formation adjacent to the wellbore during drilling and completion. was turned into @reeks or accidentally discharged from lease tanks or from broken pipelines. Skin is expressed in dimensionless units. See mule skinner. a positive value denotes formation damage and a negative value indicates improvement.) Skin effect Skinner Slab patch 4078. See half sole. The pressure drop from the outer limits of drainage to the wellbore caused by the relatively thin veneer (or skin) of the affected formation. 2. has a 601 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Skin 1.mzhelu@gmail. A driller will slack off to put additional weight on the bit. (see skin. in the early days in some fields. 4080. canted from the vertical.com . The slant rig. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) a facility built alongside a creek or small stream to catch and skim off oil that. 4077. 4076. Slack off to lower a load or ease up on a line. 4079. Slant rig A drilling derrick designed to drill from offshore platforms at angles of 20 to 35 degrees from the vertical. 4081. A metal patch made out of a section of pipe welded over a pitted or corroded section of pipeline.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 602 Petroleum Engineer: M. beneath a water-supply lake. 4082. on-site drilling would be impractical or unsafe. Slant well Slant-hole technique Directional well. 4084. A procedure for drilling at an angle from the vertical by means of special downhole drilling tools to guide the drill assembly in the desired direction. than with a conventional rig using directional drilling techniques. particularly in relatively shallow water. When the sleeve is in place.com . Sleeve fitting A collar or nipple that is slipped over a length of pipe to repair a leak caused by a split or corrosion. Slant holes also are drilled to flood a formation with water or mud to kill a wild or burning well. With a slant rig it is possible to reach farther out from a drill platform. Slant holes are drilled to reach a formation or reservoir under land that can not be drilled on. the ends are welded to the pipe beyond the damaged section. hook.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering companion structure for racking the drillpipe vertically when coming out of the hole on a trip. Slick line (see solid wireline. and kelly joint-moves up and down on rails which are an integral part of the derrick.mzhelu@gmail. such as a town site. swivel. a cemetery or industrial property where direct. The rigs traveling equipment-block. 4085. 4083. Z. See killer well.

(set miniaturized completion. Made from street steel. pipeline A wide. Slim-hole drilling drilling in which the size of the hole is smaller than the conventional hole diameter for a given depth. thus permitting circulation between the tubing and annulus. 4090. the valves are mechanically or hydraulically operated. Slip joint (see telescoping joint. 4087. Slide valves Very large. This decrease in hole size enables the operator to run smaller casing.com . Teams and slips were used to dig slush pits and build tank dikes before the days of the bulldozer. The slings. Slip A horse -drawn. box-like valves for flues and stacks. 4088. Sling. Sliding-sleeve nipple a special device placed in a string of tubing and operated by a wireline tool to open or close orifices. The slip has two handles by which the teamster guides the metal scoop into the ground at a slight angle to skim oil. earth-moving scoop. or to open or shut off production from alternate intervals in a well. a load of earth. are used to minimize scuffing or damaging the pipelines anticorrosion coating.) 4089. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4091. Z. A full slip would hold about one-half cubic yard. rubber and fabric sling for lowering-in or handling coated and wrapped pipe. at the end of the boom cat's hoisting lines. thereby lessening the cost of completion.) 603 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4086.mzhelu@gmail.

and quite a load it is. tubing or casing suspended in the drillhole by the slips (q. for example. Packers and other downhole equipment are secured in position by slips that engage the pipe by action directed at the surface. a log-log rule. a tank where off-specification products or interface 604 Petroleum Engineer: M. When making a trip. Z. 4094. This is a slip load. an instrument consisting of a ruler and a medial slide graduated with logarithmic scales used for rapid calculations. the traveling block and the hook will be lifting hundreds of thousands of pounds.mzhelu@gmail. 4 4096.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4092.v. Slip load The weight of the string of drillpipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.000 feet long. 4093. coming out of the hole with drillstring 10. But when one stand is above the rotary table and is being unscrewed to be set back into the derrick's pipe rack.). mix is stored. Rotary slips fit around the drill pipe and wedge against the master bushing to support the pipe. Slip stick An engineer's slide rule. Sloptank (1) on a products pipeline.com . the full weight of the remaining string of pipe is held by the slips. Power slips are pneumatically or hydraulically actuated devices that allow the crew to dispense with the manual handling of slips when making a connection. Slips pl wedge-shaped pieces of metal with teeth or other gripping elements that are used to prevent pipe from slipping down into the hole or to hold pipe in place.

4100. 605 Petroleum Engineer: M. e. A tank for holding the oil water mix from a vessel that has washed down its compartments. Sloughing Slow-set cement (pronounced "sluffing".mzhelu@gmail. d. (3) any vessel used for retaining contaminated oil or water until it can be properly disposed of. carbon. Sludger Slug See sand pump. 4101. grit. 4102. Api classes n. or other deposits. A measured amount of liquid injected into a pipeline. and the addition of a chemical retarder. A pipeline scraper or pig. see caving) a manufactured cement in which the thickening time is extended by the use of a coarser grind. 4097. heavy emulsion containing water. a batch.com . SLOWING A WELL Opening a well to let it blow for a short period to free the well tubing or casing of accumulations of water.. 4098. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (2) at a marine terminal. 4099. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sludge An oleo-like substance caused by the oxidation of oil or by contamination with other material a thick. and oxidized oil. sand. and f are slow-set cements. the elimination of the rapid hydrating components in its composition.

Slurry pipeline A pipeline whose primary service is carrying a mixture of crushed solids in a water or oil medium. the drilling fluid has been emptied out of it so that the crew members and the rig floor are not contaminated with the fluid. there it supports the casing and provides a seal in the wellbore to prevent migration of underground fluids. A pipeline is the cheapest and most efficient 606 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4103. 4104. 4106. 4105. Slugging compound a special chemical demulsifier that is often added to the emulsion samples to determine the total amount of sediment and water in the samples. Before hoisting drill pipe. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when a stand of pipe is unscrewed. 4107. also called knockout drops. the oil will accumulate in low places until sufficient gas pressure builds behind it to push it out forcibly as a slug. (2) a small slug of acid pumped into a pumping well to open up the formation as part of a well workover operation. The common use of the term refers to a pipeline carrying pulverized coal in water. Slug the pipe to pump a quantity of heavy mud into the drill pipe. or a slug. Slurry a plastic mixture of cement and water that is pumped into a well to harden. thus. When gas and oil are pumped in the same line.mzhelu@gmail. it is desirable (if possible) to pump into its top section a quantity of heavy mud. Slugging (1) intermittent flow in a pipeline. that causes the level of the fluid in the pipe to fall.

has gained favor with shippers who are attracted by the pipeline's economics and safety. the sum of the absolute volumes of solids and liquids that constitute a slurry. 4113. kilograms per liter (kg/liter). etc. In recent years the pumping of smallparticle solids. Slurry yield the volume of slurry obtained when one sack of cement is mixed with the desired amount of water and additives (as accelerators.) 607 Petroleum Engineer: M. measured in poise. Slush pump (see mud pump. Slurry viscosity Slurry volume Slurry weight the consistency of a slurry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4111. the density of a cement slurry. usually fabricated steel tanks fitted with built-in piping. etc. 4109. as well as environmental acceptance. expressed in pounds per gallon (ppg).). Modern rotary drilling rigs are generally provided with three or more pits. Slush pit the Mud pit in which rotary drilling cuttings are separated from the mud stream or in which mud is treated with additives or temporarily stored before being pumped back into the well. notably coil in water. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering form of transportation for liquids. and mud agitators. 4112. fluid-loss control agents. 4110.com . pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3). valves.mzhelu@gmail. 4108.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4114.

Slush-pit launder

A wooden or metal square-sided conduit or sluice box where the bailer is dumped, the water, mud, and rock chips flushing down the launder into the slush pit. This device, a cousin to the launder used in washing ore from a mine, is part of a cable-tool drilling scene.

4115. 4116.

Slushpump Smoke point

Mud pump (q.v.).

One of the specifications on jet-engine fuel. Kerosene or jet fuel with a low smoke point is not as desirable as fuel with a high smoke point. Hydrotreating the fuel reduces the smoke or gives it a higher smoke point. This is not a contradiction, as it appears. The high and low smoke points indicate the high and low points on the wick of a testing device made like an old fashioned kerosene lamp. The higher the wick can be turned up while burning the sample of jet fuel without producing smoke, the cleaner burning it is; thus the high smoke point.

4117.

Smokeless flare

A specially constructed vertical pipe or stack for the safe disposal of hydrocarbon vapors or, in an emergency, process feed that must be disposed of. Smokeless flares are equipped with steam jets at the mouth of the stack to promote the complete combustion of the vented gases. The jets of steam induce greater air i low and cool the flame resulting in complete combustion without smoke or ash.

608

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4118.

Snapgrabber

A member of a work gang who manages to find easy jobs to keep himself busy while the heavy work is being done by his companions. A fully occupied loafer.

4119. 4120.

Snatch block Sng

a block that can be opened up to put a line over a roller or sheave.

Synthetic natural gas; gas manufactured by various processes from coal, tar sands, or kerogen shales (q.v.). Substitute natural gas.

4121. 4122.
gumbo.

Sniffer Snow-bank digging

(see explosimeter.)

Colloquial expression for the relatively soft, easy drilling in sand, shales, or

4123.

Snub

To check a running line by taking a turn around a post or fixed object; to take up and hold fast the slack in a line to secure or hold on object from moving with an attached rope turned around an anchoring piece.

4124.

Snubbers

An ingenious rig-up of lines and blocks to push down on joints of pipe that must be put into the well through the blowout preventer stack against very high well pressure. With a special hookup, the upward pull of the rig's traveling block and hook is transmitted to lines and a yoke that push down on a joint of drillpipe, forcing it by the packing of the rams in the bop stack while 609

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

the rams are holding the well pressure leak-light. After a number of joints of pipe are forced in (the joints are screwed together), their weight equals the up thrust of the well's pressure so the snubbers may be removed and the remainder of the pipe

4125.

Snubbing

A procedure for servicing wells that are under pressure. Tubing, packers, and other downhole tools are withdrawn from the well through a stack of rams (valve-like devices that close around pipe or tubing being withdrawn and seal off the well pressure). As each joint of tubing is withdrawn, it is unscrewed.

4126.

Snuffer

a tank safety device that seals the vapor vent manually and prevents vapor from escaping into a fire, thus snuffing out the flame.

4127. 4128. 4129. 4130.

So S o &g S o &w Socket

show of oil; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and gas; used in drilling reports.

show of oil and water; used in drilling reports.

(1). A hollow object or open device that fits or holds an object. (2). Any of several fishing tools used to grip the outside of a lost tool or a joint of pipe.

4131.

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
610

(see carboxymethyl cellulose.)

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4132.

Sodium chloride

common table salt; sometimes used in cement slurries as an accelerator or a retarder, depending on the concentration. Chemical symbol is NaCl.

4133. 4134.

SOEP Soft rope

Sable Offshore Energy Project

Rope made of hemp, sisal. Jute, or nylon, as distinguished from wire rope which is a steel cable.

4135. 4136.

Soft water Softplug

(see hard water.)

A safety plug in a steam boiler, soft enough to give way or blow before the boiler does from excessive high pressure; the plug in an engine block that will be pushed out in case the cooling water in the block should freeze, thus preventing the ice from cracking the block.

4137.

Software

The collection of programs used in a particular application for use in a computer. Tapes, cards, disk packs containing programs designed for a process or series of processes.

4138.

Solenoid

An electrical unit consisting of a coil of wire in the shape of a hollow cylinder and a moveable core. When energized by an electric current, the coil acts as a bar magnet, instantly drawing in the moveable core, a solenoid on an 611

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

automobile's starting mechanism causes the starter-motor gear to engage the toothed ring on

4139.

Solution

a uniform mixture of two or more substances. The dissolved substance is the solute; the substance in which the solute is dissolved is the solvent.

4140.

Solution gas

Natural gas dissolved and held under pressure in crude oil in a reservoir.See solution-gas field.

4141. 4142.

Solution gas-oil ratio Solution-gas drive

(see gas-oil ratio.)

a source of natural reservoir energy, in which the solution gas coming out of the oil expands to force the oil into the wellbore.

4143.

Solution-gas field

An oil reservoir deriving its energy for production from the expansion of the natural gas in solution in the oil. As wells are drilled into the reservoir. The gas in solution drives the oil into the well bore and up to the surface.

4144.

Solvent

A liquid capable of absorbing another liquid, gas, or solid to form a homogeneous mixture a liquid used to dilute or thin a solution.

4145.

Sonde

a logging tool assembly, especially the device in the logging assembly that senses and transmits formation data. 612

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4146.

Sonic interface-detector

A pipeline sensing "probe" for detecting the approach of a product interface by identifying the change in sound velocities between the two products being pumped. The electronic device has a probe inserted through the wall of the pipeline. Protruding into the fluid stream. The probe picks up the variations in sound velocities, and through the proper linkage proper give an audible alarm or actuate valves when the interface arrives.

4147.

Sonic logging

the recording of the time required for a sound wave to travel a specific distance through a formation. Difference in observed travel times is largely caused by variations in porosities of the medium, an important determination. The sonic log, which may be run simultaneously with a spontaneous potential log or a gamma-ray log, is useful for correlation and often is used in conjunction with other logging services for substantiation of porosities. It is run in an uncased hole.

4148.

Soup

Nitroglycerine used in "shooting" a well. Nitro in its pure form is a heavy, colorless, oily liquid made by treating glycerin with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. It is usually mixed with absorbents for easier handling. Nitro, when used in well shooting, is put in tin "torpedos," 4 to 6 inches in diameter, and lowered into the well on a line. The bottom of each torpedo can is made to nest in the top of the preceding one, so as many cans as necessary for the shot can be lowered in and stacked up, nitro is measured in quarts the size of the shot depends upon the thickness and hardness of the formation to be fractured. 613

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4149.
compound.

Sour

containing hydrogen sulfide or caused by hydrogen sulfur or another sulfur

4150.

Sour corrosion

embrittlement and subsequent wearing away of metal, caused by contact of the metal with hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

4151. 4152. 4153. 4154.

Sour crude Sour crude oil Sour gas Sour products

sour crude oil.

oil containing hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur compound.

natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide.

Gasolines, naphthas, and refined oils which contain hydrogen sulfide (h2s) or other sulfur compounds. Sourness is directly connected with odor.

4155.

Sour-service trim

A designation by manufacturers of oil field fittings and equipment that their products have finishes resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide (h2s) and other corrosive a agents in "sour" oil and gas. See sour gas.

4156.

Source rocks

Sedimentary formations where nearly all the world's petroleum has been found. Nearly 60 percent of the world's petroleum reserves are in sandstone the other 40 percent are in limestone, dolomite, et al. 614

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4157.

Source station

a pump station at a pipeline junction by which oil is pumped from a main line into a branch or lateral line.

4158. 4159.

Sp Spacers and washes

self-potential or spontaneous potential.

Specially formulated fluids for removing drilling mud from a well's borehole just ahead of the cement in a downhole cementing job. It is essential to a good cement job that the mud be removed and the wall of the hole be clean to ensure a good bond between cement and the wall. Spacers are thick fluids which displace the drilling mud ahead of the cement in a slug or piston-like manner, owing to the fluid's high viscosity and weight differential. Washes are much thinner fluids which separate the drilling mud from the cement being purred downhole and simultaneously remove the coating of mud left on the formations. This is accomplished through a combination of turbulent and surfactant action.

4160. 4161.

Spacing Spacing clamp

(see well spacing.)

a clamp used to hold the rod string in pumping position when the well is in the final stages of being put back on the pump.

4162.

Spacing pattern

Geographic subdivision established by government authority, usually state, defining the number of acres to be allotted to each well drilled in a reservoir. 615

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

This is a conservation measure for it is generally agreed that increased recovery from a reservoir is not a function of the number of wells drilled. One oil well on 40 acres is a general rule, in some states. But there are many exceptions. Gas wells, one or two to a section (640 acres), depending upon well depth, producing formation, and other factors.

4163. 4164. 4165.
Spear

Spaghetti Spd Spe

tubing or pipe with a very small diameter.

spudded; used in drilling reports.

society of petroleum engineers. (see aime.) a fishing tool used to retrieve pipe lost in a well. The spear is lowered down the hole and into the lost pipe, and, when weight, torque, or both are applied to the string to which the spear is attached, the slips in the spear expand and tightly grip the inside of the wall of the lost pipe. Then the string, spear, and lost pipe are pulled to the surface.

4166. 4167.

Spearhead Spears

(see preflush.)

Fishing tools for retrieving pipe or cable lost in the borehole. Some spears resemble harpoons with fixed spurs, others have retractable or releasing type spurs.

616

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4168.

Specific gravity

the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance at the same temperature. For example, if 1 in3 of water at 39 f weighs 1 unit and 1 in.' of another solid or liquid at 39 f weighs 0.95 unit, then the specific gravity of the substance is 0.95. In determining the specific gravity of gases, the comparison is made with the standard of air or hydrogen. (see gravity.)

4169.

Specific heat

the amount of heat required to cause a unit increase in temperature in a unit mass of a substance, expressed as numerically equal to the number of calories needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 c.

4170.

Speed droop

the number of revolutions per minute that an engine slows down from running at maximum, no-load speed to running at maximum, full-load speed. Usually expressed as a percentage, speed droop should not exceed 7 percent.

4171.

Spent

of a substance whose strength or merit has been exhausted in a process. For example, after a well has been acidized, any acid that remains in the well is said to be a spent acid because its strength has been used up in the acidizing process.

4172.

Spherical blowout preventer

A large, barrel-shaped well closure mechanism attached to the top of the well's casing. Its purpose is to close around the drillpipe in the event of a severe gas kick or threatened blowout. When the preventer's closing 617

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

mechanism is hydraulically actuated, pressure is applied to a piston which moves upward, forcing the packing element to extend into the well bore and around the drillpipe in a pressure-tight seal. Should the spherical preventer be damaged or for some reason not hold pressure, rams in the bop stack below can also be closed on the pipe to hold the pressure until the well is killed (the pressure is equalized) by the injection of heavier drilling mud.

4173.

Spheroid

As it applies to the industry, a spheroid is a steel storage tank in the shape of a sphere flattened at both "poles," designed to store petroleum products, mainly lp-gases, under pressure. See hortonsphere.

4174.

Spider

a circular steel device that holds slips supporting a suspended string of drill pipe, casing, or tubing.

4175.

Spiders

The hinged, latching device attached to the elevators (the hoisting arms that lift pipe and casing in the derrick). An elevator spider is a unit attached to the travelling-block hook for hoisting pipe, casing, and tubing out of the hole and lowered in. The spider is manually locked around a length of tubing just below the tool joint. Some advanced types of elevator spiders are air operated.

4176.

Spin-up

To screw one stand of drillpipe or tubing rapidly into another with a spinning Chain (q.v.). After making up the joint in this manner, the heavy pipe tongs are applied to make the joint fight. 618

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Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4177.

Spindletop

The name of the gusher brought in by capt. Anthony lucas, near beaumont, texas, in 1902. The well, the first important producer ever drilled with Rotary tools, blew in (literary) and produced, at the rate of 75.000 to 100,0000 barrels day.

4178.

Spinner survey

a production-logging method that uses a small propeller turned by fluid movement. By use of a recording arrangement, the number of turns of the propeller can be related to the fluid quantity flowing past the instrument to obtain a production log.

4179.

Spinning cathead

a spooling attachment on the makeup cathead to permit use of a spinning chain to spin up or make up drill pipe.

4180.

Spinning chain

a y-shaped chain used to spin up (tighten) one joint of drill pipe into another. In use, one end of the chain is attached to the tongs, another end to the spinning cathead, and the third end is free. The free end is wrapped around the tool-joint and the cathead pulls the chain off the joint, causing the joint to spin (turn) rapidly and tighten up. After the chain is pulled off the joint, the tongs are secured in the same spot, and continued pull on the chain (and thus on the tongs) by the cathead makes the joint up to final tightness.

4181.

Spinning tongs

See spinning wrench.

619

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4182.

Spinning wrench

An air-operated drillpipe or tubing wrench used in place of the spinning chain (q.v.) And the winch-powered tongs. After the joint of pipe is stabbed into the toot joint or collar, the air wrench is latched on and spins the pipe in and applies a measured or fixed amount of torque, thus ensuring the equal tightening of all joints.

4183.

Spirally grooved drill collar

a drill collar with a round cross section that has a long continuous groove or flute machined helically into its outer surface. The spiraled groove provides space between the wall of the hole and the body of the collar, minimizing the area of contact between the hole wall and collar; thus the possibility of differential pressure sticking is reduced.

4184. 4185.

Splash box Splash zone

(see mother hubbard.)

the area on an offshore structure that is regularly wetted by seawater but is not continuously submerged. Metal in the splash zone must be well-protected from the corrosive action of seawater and air.

4186.

Splice

to join two parts of a rope or wireline by interweaving individual strands of the line together. Unlike a knot, a splice does not significantly increase the diameter of the line at the point where the parts are joined.

620

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering

4187.

Split sleeve

A type of pipeline repair clamp made in two halves that bolt together to form a pressure tight seal over a hole or split in the pipe. Split sleeves also are made to enclose leaking valves and flanges until they can be permanently repaired.

4188. 4189.
pumps.

Split-level drilling rig Spm

See drilling rig, split- level

Strokes per minute; indicates the speed or pumping rate of reciprocating

4190.

Sponge oil

A type of lean oil (q.v.) Used in refinery absorber columns to absorb light petroleum fractions or a fighter lean oil that has vaporized in an upstream process.

4191.

Sponson

An air chamber along the sides of a barge or small ship to increase buoyancy and stability. Sponsons are used on crane barges for additional buoyancy and to minimize listing when heavy, off-side lifts are being made with the crane.

4192.

Spontaneous potential

(sp) one of the basic electric-logging curves obtained by measuring natural earth currents; also called self-potential but referred to as 'sp'.

621

Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.com

com . spoof pieces are used to connect a seabed i low line to a platform riser. Spool pieces may either be a simple nipple with the ends cut a. 10 bbl of diesel oil may be spotted around an area in the hole in which drill collars are stuck against the wall of the hole in an effort to free the collars. 622 Petroleum Engineer: M. For example. flanged on both ends.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4193. S p ot to pump a designated quantity of a substance (as acid or cement) into a specific interval in the well. Spools. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. Spools act as spacers for the valves in the blowout preventer. casing and tubing Short-length castings. 4195. a drum. A flanged joint placed between two blowout preventers to provide a space for a tool joint. Z. the proper angles or they may include a valve or other fittings. 4196. S p ool 1. 2. In undersea work. or two undersea lines. A cylindrical device with a rim at each end on which wireline is wound. Spool pieces are difficult to measure and cut because of the pitch and yaw angle of the pipes to be joined. to wind or roll onto a spool or drum. Spool piece A short section of piping specially cut to join the ends of two pipelines lying at unusual attitudes to each other in tight. 4194. used in christmas tree assemblies to separate and support the various valves iii the stack. Difficult-to-reach places.

a "spread' may be literal.mzhelu@gmail.) Who can obtain certain quantities of oil for a price and for a one-time sale. Z. the stud duck.v. Spot market sales (1) the term applied to sales of crude oil or products on one time basis and usually at prices above the going rite or world prices. As the men and equipment are strung out along the right of way for several miles. Spread boss The person in charge of men and equipment on a large pipeline or other construction project. Often these sales are arranged by an oil broker (q. These spot sales usually are intermittent and often at prices somewhat below the posted prices. Spread A contractor's men and equipment assembled to do a major construction job. as compared to long-term charter rates. 4200. widely with demand and availability of tonnage. the spread is a concentration of the equipment for the work.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or other jobs. (2) sales of domestic crude oil by major produces to independent refiners from the majors temporary over production or surplus. 623 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4198.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4197. On well workover. Spot charter rates fluctuate. 4199. Spot charter tanker rates The cost per ton to move crude oil product by tanker from one port to another on a one-time basis.

It is sometimes used for drilling soft.g.. a machine's working part to assume its original position after being acted upon for a split instant by a larger force. (spiral. Spud to move the drill stem up and down in the hole over a short distance without rotation.) 4204. Spud bit a special kind of drilling bit with sharp blades. This stored-up energy of the. exerts a pressure or force against whatever is compressing it equal to the compressive force. 4205. The instantaneous closing of an .com . or leaf) which. which results in lost circulation. When compressed. Careless execution of this operation creates pressure surges that can cause a formation to break down. chain. Spread mooring system a system of rope. Z. Spud in to begin drilling.automobile's exhaust and intake valves after being opened by the engine's push rods and rocker arms. or combination of the two attached to anchors on the ocean floor and winches on the structure to keep a floating vessel near a fixed location on the sea surface. A spring . to start the hole. (see spud in. e. 4202. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. or valve incorporating one or more springs to effect an action or motion. machinery.mzhelu@gmail. 624 Petroleum Engineer: M. coil. 4203.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4201. sticky formations. Spring loaded Refers to an item of equipment. compressed spring is to close a valve after being opened by a momentary greater force (a pop-off or relief valve). rather than teeth.

a cementing operation in which cement is pumped behind the casing under high pressure to recement channeled areas or to block off an uncemented zone. forcing cement to the bottom of the casing 625 Petroleum Engineer: M.Square but with rounded edges. Spudder Spur line a portable cable-tool drilling rig. Sq Sqeeze 4209. square. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an oil pipeline that picks up oil from the gathering lines of several oil fields and delivers it to a main line or trunk line. a special drill collar. 4211. used in drilling reports. used to control the straightness or direction of the hole. often part of a packed-hole assembly.com . on each side. Squeeze a well A technique to seal off with cement a section of the well bore where a leak or incursion of water or gas occurs. 4207. sometimes mounted on a truck or trailer. 4210. Square meter (m2)a unit of metric measure of an area equal to a square that measures 1 m 4213. 4212. 4208.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4206.mzhelu@gmail. Squ Square drill collar squeeze.

4214. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Squnch joint a special threadless tool joint for large-diameter pipe. Squeeze job Squib shot See squeeze a will. Z. sometimes used on offshore drilling rigs. squeeze job.mzhelu@gmail. repair casing leaks. 4218. Squeeze cementing the forcing of cement slurry by pressure to specified points in a well to cause seals at the points of squeeze. and so forth. A small charge of nitroglycerin set off in the bottom of a well as part of a workover operation after cleaning out a well. Because no rotation is required to make up these joints. Ss sand or sandstone.' to 'wake up the well. (see cementing. a locking device is actuated to seat the joints. It is a secondary-cementing method. a small explosive charge may be set of. especially conductor pipe. 4216. freeing the producing interval of sand and silt. used in drilling reports. 626 Petroleum Engineer: M. When the box is brought down over the pin and weight is applied. used to isolate a producing formation.) 4215." 4217. seal off water. their use can save time when the conductor pipe is being run.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering and up the annular space between the casing and the will of the borehole to seal off a formation or plug a leak in the casinghead a.

4224. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. When the drillpipe is locked into the casing shoe.000ton deck-load capacity. to guide the end of a pipe into a coupling or tool joint when making up a 4225.000 feet of water. The drilipipe is landed in a special casing shoe at the bottom of the casing. When the cement works its way up the outside of the casing.2000 The designation for the class of semisubmersible drilling platforms (the largest built to date 1979) which are of 18. pumping of the cement downhole begins. filling the annular space.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4219.v. and reaches the surface.). and capable of drilling in 2.mzhelu@gmail. 2.000-ton displacement.com . This displaces the cement to the bottom of the tubing. connection. Sso Sstt Ssu Ssu & ssf Stab slight show of oil. Stab-in cementing (of a well) A method of cementing large-diameter casing in the borehole in which cement is pumped down through the drillpipe. saybolt seconds universal. (see saybolt viscometer. Stab-in cementing uses less cement than 627 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4220. cement pumping is stopped and water and drilling mud are started down the pipe behind the cement. 4222. Ss. 4221. subsea test tree. used in drillingReports. 4223.) Seconds saybolf universal and seconds saybolt furol (q. Z.

com .v. 4229. Stabbing board a temporary platform erected in the derrick or mast 20 to 40 ft above the derrick floor. 4227. The derrickman or another crew member works on the board while casing is being run in a well. (3) on a drilling rig. Before the days of the welded line. 628 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering pumping down the casing and minimizes contamination at the cement/drilling mud interface.). The floorman (roughneck) centers the joint of pipe being lowered into the tool joint (q. Stabber (1) a pipeline worker who holds one end of a joint of pipe and aligns it so that it may be screwed into the collar of the preceding joint. the stabber works the line-up clamps or line-up mandrel. Stabbing jack Stability (see jack board. 4228. The board may be wooden or fabricated of steel girders floored with antiskid material and powered electrically to raise or lower it to the desired level. the pipeline stabber worked only half a day because of the exhausting nature of his work.) the ability of a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig to return to an upright position when it has rolled to either side by an external force (as waves). El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (2) on a pipe-welding crew. A stabbing board serves the same purpose as a monkeyboard or safety platform but is temporary instead of permanent.mzhelu@gmail. 4226. Z.

stabilizers are used to maintain correct hole angle. Stable emulsion Stack Stack a rig (see emulsion. 4234.) (see blowout premier. A vessel in which hydrocarbon vapors are separated from liquids. (see packed-hole assembly. (the lugs protrude from the body of the sleeve. Z. Stabilizer (1). If the rig is transportable.com . The bushing or sleeve can be the fixed or rotating type with permanent or replaceable wings or lugs.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4230.mzhelu@gmail.) to store a drilling rig on completion of a job when the rig is to be withdrawn from operation for a time. Stack the tools Pulling the drillpipe and laying it down (stacking outside the derrick) in preparation for skidding or dismantling the derrick. it is folded down and made ready to move. to hold the bit on course. Stabilizer sleeve A bushing the size of the borehole inserted in the drill column to help maintain a vertical hole. 629 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4231. 4235. 4233.) (2). A tool placed near the bit and often above it in the drilling assembly and used to change the deviation angle in a well by controlling the location of the contact point between the hole and drill collars. making contact with the wall of the hole. Conversely. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4232.

mzhelu@gmail. After exploration techniques have revealed the possibility of the existence of a subsurface hydrocarbon-bearing formation.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4236. Z. treating systems.) Colloquialism for joints of line pipe. 4238. or drillpipe. Stage separation an operation in which well fluids. or three-sometimes four joints) unscrewed from the string as a unit and racked in the derrick. Stake a well to precisely locate on the surface the point at which a well is to be drilled. tubing. The height of 630 Petroleum Engineer: M. The operating pressure of each succeeding separator is lower than the one preceding it. Stage separation is an efficient process in that a high percentage of the light ends of the fluid are conserved. 4240. a certified and registered land surveyor drives a stake into the ground to mark the spot where the well is to be drilled. two. usually under pressure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. are separated into liquid and gaseous components by passing consecutively through two or more separators. Staging the placement of compressors. in a series with another unit or units of like design to improve operating efficiency and results. 4241. and so forth. cooling systems. Staked lime Stalks Stand of pipe (see hydrated lime. 4239. pumps. A section of drillpipe or tubing (one.com . 4237.

com . Standard temperature a predetermined temperature used as a basic measurement. Z. 4244. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Volumes of gas re bought and sold corrected to the standard pressure and temperature. The petroleum industry uses 60 f (1 5. 4245. Standard cubic foot of gas The volume of gas contained in one cubic foot of space at a pressure of 14. Standard pressure the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high.mzhelu@gmail." See doubles. Standard pumping rig A conventional pumping unit consisting of an engine or electric motor operating a walking beam which raises and lowers the sucker rods in an up and down pumping action. 4247. 4243. 4242. Standard derrick a derrick that is built piece by piece at the drilling location as opposed to a jackknife mast. Portable workover rigs are usually fitted with a mast that holds stands about 60 ft long (doubles).65 pounds per square inch absolute and a temperature of 60'f. 5 c) as its standard temperature during measurement 631 Petroleum Engineer: M. which is pre-assembled. 14. Stand tubing to support tubing in the derrick or mast when it is out of the well rather than laying it on a rack. Standard derricks have been replaced almost totally by jackknife masts.7 psia. equivalent to 4246.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the derrick determines the number of joints that can be unscrewed in one "stand of pipe.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering of oil. Standoff in perforating.mzhelu@gmail.v. 4249. Compare double and fourble. On a rig. Stands the connected joints of pipe racked in the derrick or mast when making a trip. the usual stand is 90 ft long (three lengths of pipe screwed together) or a thribble.) The standpipe extends part way up the derrick and connects to the mud hose which is connected to he gooseneck (a curved pipe) of the swivel. 4252. Conversion is aided by the use of api conversion tables. Standard tools Standby rig time See cable tools. the distance a jet or bullet must travel in the wellbore before encountering the wall of the hole. 4248. Z. The volume of a quantity of oil at its actual temperature (assuming it is not 60 f) is converted to the volume the oil would occupy at 60 f. 4250. Payment made during the period of time when the drilling rig is shut down awaiting a decision from the lease owner and other interested parties whether or not drilling is to continue. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 632 Petroleum Engineer: M. Standpipe The pipe that conveys the drilling mud form the mud pump to the swivel (q. 4253.com . Standing valve a fixed ball and scat valve at the lower end of the working barrel of a suckerrod pump. 4251. The standing valve and its cage do not move as does the traveling valve.

Static line (1) a wire line to drain off or ground static electricity that may have built up from friction in a vehicle or its content. Static pressure the force exerted by a fluid that is at rest and confined within a tank or line as measured by a gauge. (3) a guy wire. (2) a line used to actuate part of a device or mechanism when the line is pulled.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4254. or a-frame.mzhelu@gmail.) Particularly in rotary and centrifugal pumps. which can cause cavitation (q. an anchored line for stabilizing a pole.v. 4255. rig. as the static line which is attached to jumper's parachute and to the plane to open the chute. 4258. A pump whose capacity or pumping rate is greater in volume of fluid being fed into it is being "starved". 633 Petroleum Engineer: M. Starve a pump To have insufficient suction head at the pump's intake connection. the other end attacted to an upright construction for support. a grounding line for gasoline transports to prevent arcing or static charges when unloading. any wire or line.v. loss. 4257. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. one end anchored to a deadman (q. Static fluid level the level to which fluid rises in a well when the well is shut in. a complex carbohydrate sometimes added to drilling fluids to reduce filtration 4256. Z.com . Starboard Starch (nautical) the right side of a vessel (determined by looking toward the bow).). See suction head. net positive.

used in drilling reports. 4262. 4260. Z. Station keeping S tb Stb/d S td S td s Steam Steam flooding See dynamic stationing. 4265. A secondary or tertiary oil recovery method in which superheated high. driving them 634 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4266. stock tank barrels per day. The water from the coded and condensed steam is pumped out of the well with the oil and separated at e surface. Steam is piped into the pump's steam chest an from there it is admitted to the power cylinder where it arts upon the pump's power pistons. see heavy oil process(hop).com . water in its gaseous state. Pressure steam is injected into an oil formation to heat the oil. stock tank barrel. 4261.mzhelu@gmail. standard. stands. 4264. 4263. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. to reduce its viscosity so it will separate from the oil sand and drain into the well bore.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4259. Steam pump A reciprocating pump that receives its poweer from big -pressure steam.

4268.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to and fro as the steam valves open and close. Steam rigs have been replaced almost totally by mechanical or electric rigs. 4272.mzhelu@gmail. a malleable alloy of iron and carbon that also contains appreciable amounts of manganese and other elements. 4270. Steel reef Refers to the artificial "reels" fromed by the substructures of offshore drilling and production platforms that attract a variety of marine life from barnacles and algae to many kinds of fish. 4271. The fluid end of the pump is driven by the steam pistons. Steel storag Refers to the storage of crude oil and products in above-ground steel Tanks. Steam soak Steam trap See steam flooding.com . 4269. Steaming plant Steel See treating plant. see pump simplex. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4267. 4273. Highpressure steam is furnished by a boiler plant located near the rig. In the 1920s and 30s vast tank firms of sleet tankage were filled with crude 635 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. A device on a steam line designed to trap air and water condensate and automatically bleed the air and drain the water from the system with a minimum loss of steam pressure. Steam rig a rotary drilling rig on which steam engines operate as prime movers.

Still any vessel in which hydrocarbon distillation is effected. came into effect sharply reducing the amount of oil stored on tank farms. 636 Petroleum Engineer: M. Steel-tooth bit Step-out well (see roller-cone bit.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering oil. 4275. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. an outpost well. Stick-electrode welding Electric-arc welding in which the welding rod or electrode is hand-held as compared to automatic to automatic. Under prorationing. prorationing.mzhelu@gmail. 4277. 4278. where it was set afire by lightning and suffered great losses through evaporation. 4274.) a well drilled adjacent to or near a proven well to ascertain the limits of the reservoir. Made in the shape of the letter a. Z.com . See cattle guard. the oil stayed in the ground until the market could handle it. See gas welding. In a few years.and store it in 55. Stile Steps made for walking up and over a fence or other obstruction. 4276. the restriction of production by state regulatory bodies. The market could not absorb all of the country's production but oil still flowed from the wells as each operator or company tried to produce as much oil as possible-. stiles are used on farms and fenced leases to get to the other side without going through a gate. which was the going size in those days. however.000-barrel tanks.

pipe A type of distillation unit in which oil to be heated passes through pipes or tubes in the form of a flat coil. shell The oldest and simplest form of a distillation sti11 a closed vessel in which crude oil is heated and the resulting vapors conducted away to be condensed into a liquid product. the other.g.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4279. similar to certain kinds of heat exchangers. Still. (see acidize. Z.). The vapors are then condensed into a liquid product. 637 Petroleum Engineer: M. S tn stain. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. formation fracturing. Stinger The pipe guide at the laying-end of a lay barge (q.. The hot oil is piped to a bubble tower or fractionation tower where the oil flashes or vaporizes. No distillation or fractionation takes place in the still proper.) 4282. the radiant-heat chamber where oil is raised to the required temperature. 4280. 4283. Acidizing. There are two main chambers in a pipe still one where the oil is preheated by flue gases (the convection chamber). On a reel-type lay barge where the coiled pipe is straightened before being laid over the end of the barge. Stimulation any process undertaken to enlarge old channels or create new ones in the producing formation of a well (e.com . 4281. used in drilling reports.v.mzhelu@gmail. Still. the stinger controls the conformation of the pipe as it leaves the barge. or nitro shooting).

S to p A common term for a type of plug valve used on lease tanks an d lowpressure gravity systems. When the valve is turned a quarter turn to shut it off. 4286. When properly aligned the dies are Rotated clockwise in the flame. Stop-and-waste valves are used mainly on small-diameter water piping. 4289. 4285. an adjustable frame holding a set of steel dies or cutting teeth that is clamped over the end of the pipe to be threaded. 638 Petroleum Engineer: M. S to p c o c k A type of plug valve usually installed on a small-diameter piping pet cock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stock-tank oil lacks much of the dissolved gas present at reservoir pressure and temperatures. Stop-and-waste valve A type of plug valve that when in a closed position drains the piping above or beyond it. leaving course of threads. Stock and dies A device for making threads on the end of a joint of pipe or length of rod. 4288. oil as it exists at atmospheric conditions in a stock tank. Stock tank Stock-tank oil a crude oil storage tank. Z.com . a small port or hole in the valve body is uncovered.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4284. Permitting water above the valve to drain out. 4287. preventing a freeze up in cold weather. cutting away excess metal.mzhelu@gmail.

12-inch or smaller mud is packed in the end of the line to dim up the drainage. Petroleum Engineer: M. On largediameter lines.v. Stoppel A plug inserted in a pipeline to stop the flow of oil while repairs are being made a specially designed plug inserted in a pipeline through the use of a tapping machine (q. Stopcocking Shutting in wells periodically to permit a buildup of gas pressure in the formations and then opening the wells for production at intervals. The sphere effectively fills the line and makes a good dam. Gaseous storage facilities are usually salt caverns or depleted natural gas or crude oil reservoirs. Storage Facilities Facilities used for storing natural gas. But when the pipe is cut some oil may still be draining from a higher level of the line. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. an inflatable rubber sphere is inserted in the cut line and inflated with compressed air. for example. Z. When the repair is made. the pump is shut down and the line is drained as completely as possible. 4292.). To block this drainage a stoppel or plug is put in. cutting out a short section of the pipe. 4293. Storage gas 639 gas that is stored in an underground reservoir.v.). It disintegrates and will end up either in a storage tank or at a scraper trap.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4290. On small-diameter lines. when the line is repaired the pump is started and the mud plug is pushed along inside the line. 4291. They generally come in two forms gaseous storage facilities and liquified natural gas (LNG) storage facilities. In making a pipeline repair. pumping is resumed and the inflated sphere is pushed ahead to take-off point just as a batching sphere (q.

4296. 4295. shutting the well in completely. See salt-bed storage. the tubing valve acts as an automatic shut-off in the event there is damage to the control valve or the christmas tree.com . Primarily used on offshore. 4297. are ideal storage wells for petroleum products. Z. Flowing full stream. hundred-year See hundred-year storm conditions. Jug-shaped cavities are leached or washed out of salt beds using super-heated water under pressure. the resulting underground caverns.mzhelu@gmail. Or town site locations. Storm choke A safety valve installed in the wells tubing below the surface to shut the well in when the flow of oil reaches a predetermined rate. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. salt-bed Storelease a tank in which oil is stored pending transfer to a pipeline or purchase. It is at this moment that the high-pressure stream activates the storm choke. A preprinted lease form (bought at the store) with blanks to be filled in by the parties to the lease. Should the flow valves be damaged or be torn away by a storm or other cause.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4294. the well is wide open. some are 100 feet in diameter and 900 feet deep. Storage tank Storage. 640 Petroleum Engineer: M. Storage jug The name applied to underground salt cavities for the storage of lp-gases and other petroleum products. 4298. See salt-bed storage. Storm conditions. bay. 4299.

Z. (see packer.000 feet of 10-inch pipe can be carried on the massive reel and payed out like a giant hawser as the barge moves through the water at about a mile an hour. A straddle packer may be used to isolate sections of open hole to be treated or tested or to isolate certain areas of perforated casing from the rest of the perforated section.v. Straddle plant Straddle test See on-line plant.mzhelu@gmail.) May be of short duration as in the north sea or in the extremely hostile environment of arctic waters. 4302. Stove oil Stovepipe method (laying pipe) A fight fuel oil or kerosene used in certain kinds of wickless-burner stoves. This capability is very important where "weather windows" (q. A reel barge can lay as much pipe in an hour or so as can be welded and laid from a conventional lay barge in a day. one above and one below the zone being tested. 641 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4304. In contrast.com . over the stinger (q. On some of the largest reel barges 12. Adding one joint at a time (as in building a stovepipe) in laying an offshore pipeline from a weld-and-lay barge.) And onto the sea floor.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4300. 4301.) 4303.v. Straddle packer two packers separated by a spacer of variable length. selective testing of an interval or formation by the use of two packers. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. reel-barge pipe laying is done by unreeling a spool of pipe over the stern of the reel barge.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4309. without the use of pressure or catalysts. or processing plants. The strainer is flanged and is bolted into a pipeline. Strain Strain gauge to effect a change of form or size as a result of the application of a stress. 4308. 4307.) 4311. Strap to measure and record the dimensions of oil tanks to prepare a tank table to determine accurately the volume of oil in a tank at any measured depth. 4306.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4305. an instrument used to measure minute distortions caused by stress forces in mechanical components. pot An inline strainer used to catch and hold debris being pumped through a pipeline in a products line. the simple vaporization and condensation of a petroleum fraction. 642 Petroleum Engineer: M. Strap in to measure a length of pipe as it is run into the hole.mzhelu@gmail. Strainer. Straight run Refers to a petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil. 4310. a refinery.com . Z. Straight hole a hole that is drilled vertically or nearly vertically so that no part of the hole is more than 3 degrees off the vertical per 100 ft of hole. (see gauging tables.

(see strata. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Strat test a well that is drilled primarily to obtain geological information and that is usually not completed even if commercial quantities of petroleum are found. and computing deadwood (q. 4316.measurements.) 4317.mzhelu@gmail. 4313. Stratification natural layering or lamination characteristic of sediments and sedimentary rocks.com . height.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4312. Z. the general character of the rocks. steel thickness. Stratigpaphic test hole A hole drilled to gather information about a stratigraphic formation.v.) Are made from these. Strapping Measuring a tank with the use of a steel tape to arrive at its volume Strapping involves measuring the circumference at intervals. 4314. 4318. usually parallel beds of rock. An individual bed is a stratum. their porosity.). Stratigraphic test (see strat test.v. top to bottom. Tank tables (q.) 643 Petroleum Engineer: M. The caches of crude are located in various areas across the country. and permeability. Crude oil stored in underground formations and scaled caverns as a fuel reserve in the event of a national emergency or a prolonged oil embargo by foreign suppliers. 4315. Strata Strategic Petroleum reserves distinct.

distribution. ignoring regular downtime for turnarounds or for other reasons. Strike (see formation strike.) Capable of holding oil or gas. To have a well in a producing reservoir. and succession of rock strata. 4320.com . formed by a change in the characteristics of the formation-loss of porosity and permeability. 4323. Stress a force that.) 644 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4319.mzhelu@gmail. composition. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Stratum Straw in the cider barrel 4322. Stratigraphic trap A type of reservoir (q. calendar days would include lime not on the line and therefore give a distorted result. Stream day includes an allowance for regular downtime. distorts or deforms it. when applied to an object. Z. In computing a plant's throughput on a daily basis. or a break in its continuity--which forms the trap or reservoir.v. (see strata. Stream day An operating day on a process unit as opposed to a calendar day. or to have an interest in a well in a producing field. 4324. 4321. Stratigraphy Geology that deals with the origin. Stream day computations include only days the plant was on stream.

a hit. 4330. tubing. a textile-covered fuse with a core of very high explosive. 4327. Compare drill string and drill stem. 4331. Strike plate an extra piece of metal placed on the bottom of an oil storage tank to protect it from the repeated striking of the plumb bob at the end of the gauger's tape.com . String up to thread the drilling line through the sheaves of the crown block and traveling block. 4328. 645 Petroleum Engineer: M. to create an explosive jar inside stuck pipe or tubing to back off the pipe at the joint immediately above the stuck point.mzhelu@gmail. One end of the line is secured to the hoisting drum and the other to the derrick substructure. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the casing string. to make a strike is to find oil in commercial quantities. String the entire length of casing. Z.) A welding term that refers to the first bead or course of molten metal put on by the welder as two joints of line pipe are welded together. 4326.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4325. See pipeline welding. String-shot back-off Stringer bead (see string shot. (2) a good well.) 4329. or drill pipe run into a hole. (see shot. String shot an explosive device that uses primacord. Strike (1) the angle of inclination from the horizontal of an exposed strata of rock.

to dismantle for the purpose of inspection and repair. On large-diameter pipelines two joints are welded together in a "doubling yard" (q. 4335. 4334.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4332.com . to remove liquid components from a gas stream. Screwing or welding the joints together to form a pipeline. Tubing must be stripped over the rods a joint at a time. An area convenient to a large pipeline construction project Where the pipe is unloaded from railway flatcars.v. Strip charts are sometimes used. need not be changed more than once a month it the operator desires.. 646 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.). Also. the speed at which the long chart moves through the meter is adjustable so the recording of fluctuations in gas flow may be spread out. Stringing pipe Placing joints of pipe end to end along a pipeline right of way in preparation for laying. 4333. After "doubling" the sections of pipe are hauled to the job and strung along the right of way. Strip chart In lieu of the circular chart for recording gas flow through an orifice meter. i. Strip a well to pull rods and tubing from a well at the same time. See also stripping the pipe. Z. coated and wrapped and two joints welded together. as long as 35 to 40 feet.mzhelu@gmail. Strip charts. permitting more accurate readings. and the exposed sucker rod is then backed off and removed. Strip To disassemble.e.

com . condensates from accumulators. (2). 4340.mzhelu@gmail. A rubber disk surrounding drill pipe or tubing that removes mud as the pipe is brought out of hole. Z. Stripper rubber (1). To remove the drill stem from the hole while the blowout preventers are (2).000 stripper wells in the u. Stripper head a blowout prevention device consisting of a gland and packing arrangement bolted to the wellhead. 4337. Stripper tower. An oil well in the final stages of production. Strip pipe (1). Stripped gas Stripper a processed gas from which liquefied hydrocarbons have been removed.” water from knockout drums. The pressure-sealing element of a stripper blowout preventer. To pull the drill stem and the washover pipe out of the hole at the same time. closed. 4338. Most stripper wells are pumped only a few hours a day. (see stripper head. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It is often used to seal the annular space between tubing and casing. a well producing less than 10 barrels a day.) 4341.s. a tower for the physical removal of contaminants from “sour water. sour-water A refinery vessel. 4339. In 1978 there were nearly 400. producing 20 percent of the country's oil. and 647 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4336.

4346. before it undergoes biological treatment or is discharged in the plant’s waste-water system. 4345. a portable mast constructed of angular as opposed to tubular steel members. a stand” at a time. 4343. The pipe is “stripped” by withdrawing it. Strks Structural mast streaks. used in drilling reports. 4348.mzhelu@gmail. 4347. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Stripping plant Stripping the pipe See gasol no plant. The job of removing drillpipe or tubing from a well under pressure. a joint at a time. Stripper wheel A hand wheel which is attached to the upper rod in a string of sucker rods in the well to unscrew them. 4344. The tubing must be “stripped” over the rods. 4342.com . Stripping job the simultaneous pulling of rods and tubing when the sucker-rod pump or rods are frozen in the tubing string. Stripping the well To pull the rods and tubing from the well at the same time. through a wellhead plug equipped with a hydraulic closure mechanism (ram) that maintains pressure contact with the pipe being withdrawn. Z. while maintaining control of the well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering other processing units.) 648 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see jackknife mart.

See stratigraphic trap. or tubing that has inadvertently become lodged immovably in the hole. tubing. When torque is applied. It may occur when drilling is in progress. Structural trap A type of reservoir containing oil and/or gas formed by movements of the earth’s crust which seal off the oil and gas accumulation in the reservoir forming a trap. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. casing. 4351. Structure Subsurface folds or fractures of rock layers which may form a reservoir capable of holding oil or gas.) Or by welding on a nipple or other fitting. drill collars. A mechanical device for driving or screwing stud bolts into a bored and threaded hole. Anticlines. Stuck point Stud driver the depth in the hole at which the drill stem. Stuck pipe drill pipe.com .v. 4353. An auxiliary fine attached to an existing fine by use of a tap saddle (q. when casing is being run in the hole. a wrench-like device attached to one threaded end of a stud bolt without damaging the threads.mzhelu@gmail. and faulting of different kinds form structural traps. or when the drill pipe is being hoisted.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4349. salt domes. 4354. 4352. Z. Structure contour map Stub line See contour map. 4350. 4355. or casing is stuck. the other end of 649 Petroleum Engineer: M.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. 4356. Z. Drill-press or air motors.). and kelly saver sub. or stud. Submersible (see submersible drilling rig. Simple stud drivers are hand held. Studin To attach a line (usually of smaller diameter) to an existing line. Stud duck Stud-link chain Top man.) 650 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4359. (see junk sub. the big boss. lifting nipple. saver sub. A short. (2). bent sub. A threaded device made up in the drill stem that serves some special purpose. Stuffing box A packing gland a chamber or “box” to hold packing material compressed around a moving pump rod or valve stem by a “follower” to prevent the escape or gas or liquid. 4360. 4358. threaded piece of pipe used to adapt parts of the drill stem that otherwise cannot be screwed together because of differences in thread size or design.com .mzhelu@gmail. (nautical) an anchor chain on which each link has a bar. bumper sub. 4357. manifold or vessel and make the connection by cutting a hole in the existing installation and welding on a nipple or other fitting. across the shorter dimension of the link to prevent kinking and deformation under load. Sub (1).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering the bolt screws into the hole. But for large jobs they can be adaoted for impact wrenches (q.) 4361.

Submersible drilling rig an offshore drilling structure that has several compartments that are flooded to cause the structure to submerge and rest on the ocean floor.) 651 Petroleum Engineer: M. (see formation testing. 4364. Subsea test tree (sstt) a device designed to be landed in a subsea wellhead or blowoutpreventer stack to provide a means of closing in the well on the ocean floor so that a drill-stem test of an offshore well can be obtained.com . the vessels hull is submerged by flooding its compartments leaving the derrick and its equipment well above the water line. repair. Wellhead cellar. A self-contained unit resembling a bathysphere to carry men to the ocean bottom to install. Men work in a dry. 4366.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4362. Normal atmosphere. or adjust wellhead connections. 4363. Z. Of necessity. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Submersible barge platform A type of drilling rig mounted on a barge-like vessel used in shallow coastal Waters. The underwater wellhead system was developed by lockheed petroleum services ltd. 4365. When on location. One type of modular unit is lowered from a tender and fastened to a special steel. In cooperation with shell oil company. most submersible rigs are used only in shallow waters. submersible. Submersible pump Subsea completion system See pump.mzhelu@gmail.

4368.com . Sucker rod a special steel rod. Subsurface Subsurface geology Subsurface safety valve Subsurface sampling below the surface of the earth (as subsurface rocks). the foundations on which the derrick or mast and (sometimes) engines sit. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. diameter varies from 1/2 to 1 'a in. Sucker rods are threaded on each end and manufactured to exact dimension standards and metal specifications set by api.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4367. 4371. Substitute natural gas Substructure (sng) see synthetic (substitute) natural gas.mzhelu@gmail. (see tubing safety valve. Tests run on this sample help to obtain an accurate knowledge of the physical properties of the reservoir fluid under actual conditions. 4370. 652 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4369. 4372. Lengths are 25 or 30 ft. Z.) a procedure in which a bottom-hole sampler is lowered into the well and filled with a sample that is representative of the reservoir conditions and that contains all the constituents of the fluid in their true proportions. containing space for storage and well control equipment. the study of rocks that lie beneath the surface of the earth. 4373. several rods screwed together make up the mechanical link from beam-pumping unit on the surface to the sucker-rod pump at the bottom of a well.

hollow In certain applications. hollow sucker rods are used. Sucker rods. Basic components are the barrel. Small washer-like devices attached to a pumping well's sucker rods to confer the rods in the tubing as the rods move up and down. The rods are attached to the cage or pull tube (traveling barrel). serving the dual purpose of rod and production tubing in the same string.mzhelu@gmail. pump.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4374. 4377. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Sucker-rod coupling Sucker-rod guides an internally threaded fitting used to join sucker rods. 4375. Sucker-rod pump the downhole assembly used to lift fluid to the surface by the reciprocating action of the sucker-rod string. 4376. slim-hole pumping. Traveling-barrel pumps are most often used with hollow-rod pumping. the pump is installed in the seating nipple or a packer-type pump anchor is used. Two types of sucker-rod pumps are the tubing pump. The guides prevent excessive wear of the tubing and the rods as well. plunger. The weight of the rod string and fluid is counterbalanced by weights attached to a reciprocating beam or to the crank 653 Petroleum Engineer: M. and hold-down. which is run into the well as a complete unit. and the rod. or insert. in which the barrel is attached to the tubing. valves. Z. 4378.com . Sucker-rod pumping a method of articifical lift in which a subsurface pump located at or near the bottom of the well and connected to a string of sucker rods is used to lift the well fluid to the surface.

Sucker-rod scrapers Perforated disks attached to the string of sucker rods of a pumping well to prevent the build up of paraffin on the inside of the tubing. 4379. the perforated disks (several to each rod) scrape off the paraffin attempting to coat and then build up on the tubing. pumping rods. 4383. hitting the hooks (q. The hydrostatic head. 4381.). then the minimum liquid level above the pumps immediate intake connection should be 12 feet. 4382.mzhelu@gmail.) Pressure at the impeller eye of a centrifugal pump. net positive Working in a pipeline gang laying screw pipe. The additional two feet of liquid level are needed to overcome the friction of connecting piping. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering member of a beam-pumping unit or by air pressure in a cylinder attached to the beam. As the rods move up and down.v. Suction line the line that carries a product out of a tank to the suction side of the pumps.com . SUCKING THE TONGS Suction head. 654 Petroleum Engineer: M. the height of the column of liquid required to ensure that the liquid its above its bubble point (q. reducing the amount of oil that can be pumped from the well. if a pump requires 1 0 foot of not positive suction head to fill properly and prevent cavitation. also called the loading line. Suckerrod Steel rods that are screwed together to form a "string" that connects the pump inside a well's tubing downhole to the pumping jack on the surface. 4380.

also called a sump pit. When such a formation is encountered. Suitcase sand a formation found to be nonproductive.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4384. 4388. Z. 4385. 4387. used in drilling reports. which combines with iron to form iron sulfide. A suction pit Sump pit 655 Petroleum Engineer: M. the name. the ability of a cement to resist deterioration by sulfate ions. a nipple-like fitting. Suction pit the mud pit from which mud is picked up by the suction of the mud pumps. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the other end closed. and the crews pack their suitcases and move to another job. hence. 4386. Sul wtr Sulfate resistance Sulfate-reducing bacteria sulfur water. operations are suspended.com . bacteria that digest sulfate present in water. 4391. 4390. Sump a low place in a vessel or tank used to accumulate settlings that are later removed through an opening in the bottom of the vessel. a troublesome scale. SULL NOSE A screw-end pipeline plug a pipeline fitting one end of which is closed and tapered to resemble a bull's nose. 4389. one end threaded. causing the release of hydrogen sulfide.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4392.com .mzhelu@gmail. Sur survey. Supertanker Supply-boat mooring system (ssms) The largest crude oil carrier yet designed. 4393. Superport A terminal or oil-handling facility located offshore in water deep enough to accommodate the largest. used in drilling reports. Supercharger A mechanism such as a blower or compressor for increasing the volume of air charge to an engine over that which can normally be drawn into the cylinders through the action of the pistons on the suction strokes. 4397. Loading fines are supported by the yoke which is hinged to the boat allowing free articulation to accommodate any kind of sea condition during loading. Z. 4396. Superchargers are operated or powered by an exhaust-gas turbine in the engine's exhaust stream. A type of sea terminal for tinkers and supply boats featuring a single log securely fixed to the ocean floor with a truss-like yoke which attaches to the bow of the vessel being loaded. 656 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4395. The leg of the mooring system is equipped with a universal joint and is able to rotate as the ship weathervanes. See supercharger. 4394. Supercharge To supply air to an engine's intake or suction valves at a pressure higher than the surrounding atmosphere. deep-draft oil tankers.

an electronic device in which a probe is inserted into the drill stem near a directional-drilling deflection tool. Z. inexpedient storage. so called because the rig floats on the surface of the water. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4400. seepage. 4405.) Surface drilling unit an offshore drilling rig that is either a drill ship or a drilling barge. 4402. Surface-active agent (see surfactant.mzhelu@gmail. Surface waste waste incurred by line leaks. 4399.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4398. 4404. Compare conductor pipe. 4401. Surface casing Surface pipe (see surface pipe. The probe sends to the surface continuous 657 Petroleum Engineer: M. Surface pressure Surface safety valve the formation pressure measured at the wellhead. a valve mounted in the christmas tree assembly that stops the flow of fluids from the well if damage occurs to the assembly. Some states require a minimum length to protect fresh-water sands.) the first string of casing set in a well after the conductor pipe. varying in length from a few hundred feet to several thousand. 4403. and so forth. Surface-motion compensator Surface-readout device a heave compensator.com . Usually such waste is regulated by federal or state agencies.

Surfactants are useful in that their use can ensure that the surface of one substance or object is in thorough contact with the surface of another substance.) Extend their applicability. especially the front-to-back motion of the rig when it is moored in a seaway.) 4406.com . a drilling mud prepared by adding a surfactant to a water-base mud to change the colloidal state of the clay from that of complete dispersion to one of controlled flocculation. Surge the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a direction in line with the centerline of the rig. (see directional drilling. Z. lower plastic viscosity. but their many advantages (high chemical and thermal stability. 658 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4407. high-temperature wells. etc. Surfactant flooding Surfactant mud See micellar-surfactant flooding.mzhelu@gmail. 4409. Readout devices greatly simplify the accurate orientation of the drilling assembly so that numerous directional surveys can be eliminated. minimum swelling effect on clay-bearing zones. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. These muds were originally designed for use in deep. Surfactant a substance that affects the properties of the surface of a liquid or solid by concentrating on the surface layer.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering signals that show the direction and angle at which the bit is drilling. 4408.

which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. 4413. Surgetank A vessel on a flow line whose function is to receive and neutralize sudden. Z. Surge tanks often are used on systems where fluids flow by heads (q. 4414. Escrow money. Surge tank a tank or vessel through which liquids or gases are passed to steady flow and eliminate pressure surges.com . 659 Petroleum Engineer: M.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. controlling such increases. survey Survey Suspension/Suspend (see directional).) Owing to entrained gas. Surge effect a rapid increase in pressure downhole that occurs when the drill stem is lowered rapidly or when the mud pump is rapidly brought up to speed after starting. Line company after filing a rate increase.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4410. fails to approve the increase. 4411. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. transient rises or surges in the stream of liquid. The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. 4415. 4412.

com . Survey stakes may bear notations indicating elevation or location. Z. 4421. fails to approve the increase. A transit is commonly used by surveyors for running levels. Suspended discovery An oil or gas field that has been identified by a discovery well but is yet to be 4420. a theodolite. Suspense money The term applied to revenue or money collected by a regulated gas pipe. Escrow money. Survey stakes Wooden markers driven into the earth by a survey crew identifying the boundaries of a right of way. 4419. Suspension/Suspend Sw The temporary cessation of drilling or production operations in a well. 4417. 4418. 4422. Line company after filing a rate increase. a chain of 100 links. used in drilling reports. which is subject to an obligation to refund the money to purchasers it the regulatory agency. on a tripod. A telescope mounted on a calibrated base. for measuring horizontal as well as vertical angles. or a well location. each link equaling 7. 660 Petroleum Engineer: M.92 inches. developed. controlling such increases.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4416.mzhelu@gmail. salt water. the route of a pipeline. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Surveyor's chain Surveyor's transit A measuring instrument.

4426. 4425. Swaybraces The diagonal support braces on a rig structure. the side-to-side motion when the rig is moored in a seaway.com .g. Swab a hollow. or other machine. the motion of a mobile offshore drilling rig in a linear direction from side to side or perpendicular to a line through the centerline of the rig. 4428. 2-inch to 3-inch 2-inch to 4-inch. sway braces hold the legs (the corner members) of the rig in place. that is a different size on each end. steel tool. Swamper Sway (slang) a helper on a truck. rubber-faced cylinder mounted on a hollow mandrel with a pin joint on the upper end to connect to the swab line. tractor. to operate a swab on a wireline to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally. Along with the horizontal girts. 4427. Swabbing is a temporary operation to determine whether or not the well can be m 4424. a nipple. used to force open casing that has collapsed downhole in a well. Swage A heavy.mzhelu@gmail. Swage nipple An adapter.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4423. especially. e. Z. 661 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A check valve that opens upward on the lower end provides a way to remove the fluid from the well when pressure is insufficient to support flow. tapered at one end. a short pipe fitting.

mzhelu@gmail. oil containing little or no sulfur and especially little or no hydrogen sulfide.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4429. Swbd Sweet swabbed. Crude oil containing very little sulfur and having a good odor. 4436. 4431. 662 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4432. to remove sulfur or sulfur compounds from gas or oil. 4437. 4433.com . 4434. Sweet gas a natural gas containing little or no hydrogen sulfide. 4430. used in drilling reports. Sweet corrosion the deterioration (‫ )ﻓﺴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬of metal caused by contact with carbon dioxide and acids. Having a good odor a product testing negative to the "doctor test"-free of sulfur compounds. Sweet Oil and Gas Sweetcrude Sweeten Petroleum containing little or no hydrogen sulphide. Sweet crude Sweet crude oil Sweet gas sweet crude oil. produced. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Natural gas free of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) when 4435.

com . 4440. 4441. and a swing shift. Swept-frequency explosion A type of controlled explosion used in seismic work in which a string of small detonations are set off in sequence instead of the more conventional single.mzhelu@gmail. 4443.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4438. flanges. The swing shift covers the days off of the other so the swing man works two day shifts. 4439. Z. there are three shifts of workers. Swing line an extension of the suction line that pivots vertically inside an oil tank. Swing shift Swingcheck See swing man. 663 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4442. swept-frequency explosions are a vibration or shock source in conducting seismographic surveys. It reduces stratification by allowing an operator to withdraw product from varying heights in the tank. In oil and gas exploration. and valves. In a refinery or pump station operating 24 hours a day.). The other graveyard shift is worked either by another swing man or another plant worker who is not a regular shift worker. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. A check valve (q. Swing joint A combination of pipe fittings that permits a limited amount of movement in the connection without straining the lines. and one graveyard or hoot-owl shift.v. two evening shifts. A swing line may be used in place of a mixing nozzle or other circulating system. Swing man One whose job is working in place of other employee son their days off. large explosion.

4446. the reverse of an anticline. 4445. designated as synthane. Sx Syncline sacks. Synfuel Synthane plant Short for synthetic gas or oil (q. synthetic methane. he would be called a pumper. 4450. 664 Petroleum Engineer: M.). Z. 4447. used in drilling and mud reports.v. 4448. a downwarped. 4449. A coal-to-gas pilot plant operated by the energy research and development administration in Pennsylvania. trough-shaped configuration of folded. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. stratified rocks. When a tank is full he switches valves. turning the production into other tanks. A switches works on a lease with flowing production. Designed to produce 1. It also provides a connection for the rotary hose and passageway for the flow of drilling fluid into the drill stem.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4444. Switcher A person who works on an oil lease overseeing the filling of lease stock tanks. Switicher Swivel (obsolete) a pumper or lease operator. If the lease had only pumping wells. a rotary tool that is hung from the rotary hook and trailing block to suspend and permit free rotation of the drill stem.mzhelu@gmail.2 mmcfd of pipeline gas.

Hydrogen must be added to the product to make up for deficiencies in the original hydrocarbon source. Synthetic (substitute) natural gas (sng) A gas that is obtained either by heating coal or by refining heavier hydrocarbons.). See gasification. 4452. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and tar sands (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4451.v. Synthetic gas Commercial gas made by the reduction or gasification of solid hydrocarbons coal. oil shale and tar sand. Synthetic oil A term applied to oil recovered from coat. 4453. Z.com . 665 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. oil shales.

D. The short length of chain. 666 Petroleum Engineer: M. tag line a utility rope or cable that is attached to unwieldy loads being hoisted by a crane to allow a load handler better control of the movement of the load. an instrument that measures the speed of an engine. Total depth. abbreviated tach. with a hook attached. TAIL TAIL CHAIN To carry the light end of a load. 4460.com . 4459. Said of a well drilled to the depth intended. temporarily abandoned. T T. Z. on the end of a winch line. TA tachometer TACK WELD top of. 4458. 4457. tag to touch an object downhole with the drill stem as to tag bottom (of the hole) or to tag the top of the fish. 4456. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4454. 4455. used in drilling reports. Spot weld temporarily joining two joints of pipe to hold them in position for complete welding.mzhelu@gmail. 4461. to extricate a vehicle from a ditch or mud. 4462.

when naphtha and kerosene are being distilled. As a rod is unscrewed. In a distillation column at a refinery. over which pendant lines travel when an anchor is being brought in or dropped. TAIL GAS Residue gas from a sulfur recovery unit. For example. as the elevator holding the other end is stacked off. refuse material separated as residue. 4466.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4463. he "walks" the rod to a rack where it is laid down. tail pipe tail roller a pipe run in a well below a packer. a large roller located across the stern of an anchor-handling boat.mzhelu@gmail.v. kerosene has begun to boil or vaporize. This unavoidable overlap 667 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4467. the end point (q. tail ends are the overlapping ends of the distillation curves of two products. 4468. tail out rods to pull the bottom end of a sucker rod away from a well when laying rods 4465. So before naphtha reaches its end point. 4464. any gas from a processing unittreated as residue. but the initial boiling point of kerosene is about 305'F. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. down. TAILINGS TAILS ENDS Leftovers from a refining process. Z.com .) of naphtha is about 325'F. TAILING-OUT RODS Unscrewing and stacking rods horizontally outside the derrick. 4469. a worker takes the free end and.

4473. Z. to measure and record the total length of pipe. casing. casing a well. tank a metal. a ten-wheeler. or wooden container used to store a liquid. 4471. Two types include production tanks and storage tanks. plastic.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering results in tail ends. in general. by counting the number of joints run. flat-bed truck with two closely coupled pairs of axles in the rear. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . the high end of one product and low end of a closely related product. knows to the foot where the bottom of the casing is downhole. take out tally to remove a joint or stand of pipe from the drill stem. the latter are. larger and of stronger construction. run in a well. sometimes forming a slope of chips and larger fragments one-fourth to one-third the way up the face of the disintegrating rock cliff. TANDEM A heavy-duty. So before lowering a joint it is carefully tallied (measured) so the operator. TALLYING THE PIPE In setting pipe. or tubing that is to be 4472. it is important to keep tab on the footage of pipe run in the hole. 4474. TALUS Rock fragments at the base of a cliff. 4470. 4475. 668 Petroleum Engineer: M.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4476. Z. or the tank running over. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4481. tank barge a large.) 4480. tank farm a group of large tanks maintained by a pipeline used to store oil after it has been transferred from the production tanks before transportation to the refinery. The propeller shaft. See Battery. 4479. a fire. 4477. 4 4483. pl the settlings in the bottom of a storage tank. 4484.mzhelu@gmail. TANK BATTEIIY tank battery tank bottoms 4478. flat-bottomed vessel divided into compartments and used to carry crude or fuel oil. (See basic sediment and water and bottoms. protrudes through the 669 Petroleum Engineer: M. A mound of earth surrounding an oil tank to contain the oil in the event of a rupture in the tank. tank car TANK DIKE a railroad car used to transport petroleum or petroleum products. a group of production tanks located in the field that store crude oil. TANK MIXER Motor-driven propeller installed on the shell of a storage tank to stir up and mix tank sediments with the crude.com .

Tank tables are prepared from tank strapping measurements. See Strapping. products. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v. Tank tables are made from dimensions furnished by tank strappings (q.mzhelu@gmail.) tank ship tank strapper 4486. This arrangement does away with the need for the conventional loading rack (q. and vapors from the filing operation can be more easily contained. 4485.) 4488. Turbulence created by the prop thrust causes the BS&W to remain suspended in the oil as it is pumped out. 670 Petroleum Engineer: M.). the person who measures a tank at various levels to see how much it will 4487. Z.v.). "Tank Train" tank cars are interconnected which permits loading and unloading of the entire train of cars from one track connection. hold. from bottom to the top gauge point of the tank.com . TANK TRAIN A new concept in the rail shipment of crude oil.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering shell. See Densmore. tank table a table giving the barrels of fluid contained in a storage tank corresponding to the linear measurement on a gauge line. Amos. (See strap. TANK TABLES A printed table showing the capacity in barrels for each one-eighth inch or one-quarter inch of tank height. and other liquids developed by General American Transportation (GATX). 4489. (See tanker. with the motor mounted on the outside.

BULLET tankage tanker a truck designed to transport petroleum or petroleum products. 4492. 4496.) is used.v.com . for tapping larger lines. also called a tank ship. LPG. 4491. a hole or opening in a line or vessel in which a gauge or valve may be inserted and screwed tight. Tankers whose capacity is 100. 4494. TANKER RATES. 4493. 4495. to have a hole made in it for drawing off gas or liquid. 4497. or SNG. the total capacity of a number of tanks in a field. tank truck TANK.000 deadweight tons or more are supertankers.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4490. Tap saddles are used on field lines. TAP SADDLE A type of pipeline clamp with a threaded hole in one of the two halves of the bolt-on clamp for use when a pipeline is to be tapped. A jetty or pier equipped to load and unload oil tankers. See Sea Terminal. See Bullet Tanks. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. 2" to 10". nipples are welded to the pipe and a tapping machine (q. SPOT CHARTER TANKER TERMINAL tap See Spot Charter Tanker Rates. LNG. a ship designed to transport oil. either very large crude carriers or ultralarge crude carriers.mzhelu@gmail. 671 Petroleum Engineer: M.

a flanged connection is one furnished with a screw or weld flange.v. Tapped is an internally threaded (female) connection into which an externally threaded piece may be. taper tap a fishing tool that is run into a hollow fish (as a drill collar) and rotated to cut sufficient threads to provide a firm grip. A nipple. TAPPING AND PLUGGING MACHINE A device used for cutting a hole in a pipeline under pressure. tapered string drill pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4498. 4500. and the tapping machine is unscrewed from the valve. and so forth with a diameter larger near the top of the well than that below. sucker rods. working through the open valve. durable cutting material. 4 4503. 4501. 4499. permitting the fish to be pulled and recovered. TAPER MILL A type of junk mill (q.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. bores a hole in the line. tubing. an elongated. The tapping drill is withdraw. with a full-opening valve attached.com . A connection can then be made to the pipeline at the valve. screwed. tapered grinding and pulverizing bit (tapered from several inches to one or two inches in diameter) whose surface had been hard-faced with super-hard. is welded to the line. The tapping machine is screwed onto the valve and. 672 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z. TAPPED OR FLANGED CONNECTIONS Indicates the two types of pump or process unit connections available from suppliers. the valve is closed.).

TARIFF A schedule of rates or charges permitted a common carrier or utility pipeline tariffs. Tar sands are difficult to produce by ordinary methods. 4506. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 800-mile pipeline was completed in the summer of 1977. An inclinometer measures the slope of the line at the rig. Z. thus it is costly to obtain usable hydrocarbons from them.000 deadweight tons displacement. 673 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4504. tarlike hydrocarbons.com . The Valdez crude oil terminal covers 1. taut-line reference system a system for monitoring the position of a floating offshore drilling rig in relation to the subsea wellhead by stretching a taut steel line from the rig to the ocean floor. The system's weakness is that the taut line can be distorted by currents and thus give inaccurate readings. Its designed throughput is 1. 4505. TAPS Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. tar sand a sandstone that contains mostly very heavy. 4507. a large-diameter pipeline built from the oil rich North Slope of Alaska to the warm-water port of Valdez on the state's south shore.mzhelu@gmail. The terminal has four loading berths for tankers up to 200.000 acres and is one of the world's largest. because the line is assumed to be straight from the rig to the ocean floor. Compare acoustic past reference and position-reference system. The 48-inch. any angle in the lines indicates that the rig has moved.2 million barrels a day. and. are the charges made by common carrier pipelines for moving crude oil or products.

batteries.com . 4513. 4512.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4508. 4514. T cf (Trillium Cubic Feet) A volume measurement of natural gas. 4511. top dead center. Some large teaming contractors in the early days kept stables with 600 teams (1. 674 Petroleum Engineer: M. and 4509. T BA Among marketing department people.200 horse and mules). 4510.mzhelu@gmail. In the days of drt roads in the booming oil fields. TBA stands for tires. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TEAMSTER See Mule Skinner. Tcfld TD TDC TEAMING CONTRACTOR trillion cubic feet of gas per day. the horse and wagon was the most dependable mode of transportation. Z. total depth. approximately equivalent to one Quad. accessories. A person who furnished teams of horses and mules and oil field wagons for construction and earth work in the oil fields.

4520. A device for the remote control of a steam drilling engine on a cable-tool rig. The magnets draw down a small bar on the telegraph sounder. tear down to dismantle a rig at the completion of a well and prepare it to be moved to the next location. When the lever is depressed. making a dot or a dash sound depending upon the length of time 675 Petroleum Engineer: M. Teapot Dome in Wyoming was the center of controversy and scandal in the 19205 during the presidency of Warren G. 4518.com . Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4515. closing the electric circuit which energizes two small coils into magnets. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. By turning his wheel. the other mounted on the steam valve of the engine. the brass lever or key makes contact with a fixed terminal. 4516. Harding. 4519. the driller regulated the speed of the engine by opening or closing the steam valve. TECTONIC MAP A geological map structural map showing the folding and faulting of subsurface formations. one at the drillers stand. TELEGRAPH KEY A Morse code sending instrument made with a spring loaded lever on a fulcrum.mzhelu@gmail. 4517. TEG TELEGRAPH triethylene glycol. TEAPOT DOME Part of the Naval Petroleum Reserves set aside by Congress in 1923. The "telegraph" consisted of a wire or a small cable running between the pulleys.

4521. dashes are made one at a time with the forefinger. usually by a tackle that hoists the wireline or by hydraulic pistons. Generally the upper section of a telescoping derrick is nested (telescoped) inside the lower section of the structure and raised to full height either by the wireline or hydraulically. 4522.) 4524.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (split seconds) contact is made by the telegrapher. Dots are short. 4523.) 676 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . The advantage of the bug is that it makes dots in rapid succession by a slight pressure on the thumb lever. hence the name. portable mast. (See riser pipe. (See production n .mzhelu@gmail. A popular. waves. telescoping Joint a device used in the marine riser system of a mobile offshore drilling rig to compensate for the vertical motion of the rig caused by wind. telescoping derrick a portable mast that is capable of being erected as a unit. g. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. It consists of an inner barrel attached beneath the rig floor and an outer barrel attached to the riser pipe and is an integrated part of the riser system. and pole mart. Z. telemetry data that is gathered by electronic or other sensing devices and is transmitted to points remote from the place where the data was collected. patented bug is the Vibroplex which has a beetle on the nameplate. TELEGRAPHER'S BUG An automatic Morse code sending machine operated by pressure from the telegrapher's thumb and forefinger. or weather. dashes are slightly longer.

to 'C. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ('F. TEMPERATURE BOMB A device used downhole to measure bottom-hole and circulating temperatures on a drilling well.mzhelu@gmail.hat permits the driller to adjust tension on the drilling fine. 4529. telltale hole a hole drilled into the space between rings of packing material used with a liner in a mud pump. TEMPER SCREW A device on the cable of a string of cable fools . One technique involves attaining a temperature sensitive probe in a Protective sleeve attached to a carrier mounted on the drillpipe.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. temperature a measure of heat or the absence of heat. temper or temple screw a part on a cable-tool rig used to regulate the force of the blow delivered to the drill bit. 4526. indicating that the packing must be renewed. = 9/5 ('C. A temper screw is made in the general form of a turnbuckle" (q.32').) 4528. ('C. When the liner packing fails. 4527. The latter is the standard used in countries on the metric system. expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or centigrade. it controls the feed rate of the drilling tools. 4530.)+ 32'.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4525. to 'F) 'F. Z. = 5/9 ('F . fluid spurts out of the telltale hole with each stroke of the piston. Attached to the walking beam. 677 Petroleum Engineer: M.) 'C.

Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4 4532. constructed on.) An offshore platform whose supporting legs fit into a frame previously constructed and anchored to the sea floor. the rate of change of temperature with displacement in a given direction. 4537. 4534. 678 Petroleum Engineer: M. or water leaking into the hole.mzhelu@gmail. shore. In addition. temporarily abandoned temporarily shut in but not plugged. The platform. temperature gradient 1. One important use of the logging device is to determine the location of cement in the annular space between casing and well bore after a cement job. 2. it is used to determine the height of cement behind the casing and to locate the source of water influx into the wellbore. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. TEMPERATURE LOG Recording temperature variations downhole by the use of an electrode containing a length of platinum wire that readily assumes the temperature of drilling mud. template TEMPLATE PLATFORM (See temporary guide base. The curing or hardening cement gives off heat which alters the flow of electric current observable at the surface. 4 4536. the increase in temperature of a well as its depth increases.com . gas. is taken out to location by a crane barge where it is into the frame. temperature survey an operation to determine temperatures at various depths in the wellbore. 4533. 4538.

TENDERS A quantity of crude oil or refined product delivered to a pipeline for transportation. 2. tender 1. storage space. temporary guide base the initial piece of equipment lowered to the ocean floor once a mobile offshore drilling rig has been positioned on location. usually containing living quarters. 4542. It serves as an anchor for the guidelines and as a foundation for the permanent guide base and has an opening in the center through which the bit passes. (See yield point. indicating the tension on a scale a strain gauge. It is also called a template. Regulations set the minimum amount of oil that will be accepted for transportation. the barge anchored alongside a relatively small offshore drilling platform. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . From two positions on a section of the cable a sensitive gauge measures the stretch and twist of the cable under load. 4541.mzhelu@gmail. tensile strength a measure of the load required to part metal. 679 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.) 4543. Tensile strength is greater than yield strength. 4540.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4539. TENSIOMETER A gauge attached to a cable or wire rope to detect the tension being applied. a shipment of oil presented by a shipper to a pipeline for movement. and the mud system.

The guidelines must also be tensioned. It usually includes a tank farm and may include tanker-loading facilities.). The primary phase is flowing and finally pumping down the reservoir until it is "depleted" or no longer economical to operate. 4547.v. Two types of systems are used the deadweight system and the pneumatic system. TENSIONER SYSTEMS Tensioner systems are installed on deep water floating drilling platforms to maintain a constant tension on the marine riser (q. Secondary recovery usually involves re-pressuring or 680 Petroleum Engineer: M.mzhelu@gmail. pitch. 4546. The constant tension of the cables makes the platform immune to heave. conditions that affect conventional semisubmersibles. TERTIARY RECOVERY The third major phase of crude oil recovery. 4548. Tensioning systems serve the dual purpose of compensating for the vertical motion of the drilling vessel or platform and maintaining a constant tension or lifting force on the riser. TENSION-LEG PLATFORM A semisubumersible drilling platform held in position by multiple cables anchored to the ocean floor. 4545. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. and a separate tensioner system is provided for them. Z. and roll caused by wave action.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4544. terminal a point to which oil is transported through-pipelines.com . tensioner system devices installed on a floating offshore drilling rig to maintain a constant tension on the riser pipe despite any vertical motion the rig makes.

. which are diverted through the testing devices on a lease. coatings. 681 Petroleum Engineer: M.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering simple water-flooding. plastics and ceramicswhich are subjected to heat. 4550. This is accomplished by flooding the formation with water mixed with certain chemicals that "free" the oil adhering to the porous rock so it may be taken into solution and pumped to the surface. test separator an oil and gas separator that is used to separate relatively small quantities of oil and gas. reducing surface tension. alloys. cold. e. TEST COUPONS Small samples of materials-metals.mzhelu@gmail. 4549. The third or tertiary phase employs more sophisticated techniques of altering one or more of the properties of crude oil. TESTING.g. test well a wildcat well. See Micellarsurfactant Flooding. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. when the lineman wants to call in to the switchboard. 4551. humidity and other conditions of stress to test durability and performance under simulated operating conditions. Z. The test includes a hand-cranked telephone instrument whose lead wires are clipped to the phone lines. HYDROSTATIC See Hydrostatic Testing. 4552. TEST SET (TELEPHONE) A lineman's portable equipment for testing the circuit on a telephone line. pressure.

for burning refinery gases before they are vented to the I la re tower (q.com . hence the name. 4554. to gasoline to improve itsantiknock quality. or combine hydrocarbon molecules. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. with refractory lining and banks of burners at various levels. Thermal cracking is used to increase the yield of gasoline obtainable from crude oil. TETRAETHYL LEAD A lead compound added. A refining process in which heat and pressure are used to break down. 4559. 682 Petroleum Engineer: M.).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4553.v. rearrange.). THEODOLITE THERMAL CRACKING (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ A surveyor's transit (q. The upper deck of any offshore drilling rig that has two or more platform levels. a petrochemical gas. Z. cylindrical furnace. in small amounts. v. TEXAS DECK The top deck of a large semisubmersible drilling platform. Thermal Decay Time THERMAL OXIDIZERS (TDT) Log a proprietary name for a type of pulsed-neutron survey. 4558. TEXAS TOWER A radar or microwave platform supported on caissons anchored to the ocean floor.mzhelu@gmail. The tower resembles an offshore drilling platform in the Texas Gulf. Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is manufactured from ethyl chloride which is derived from ethylene. 4557. 4556. 4555. A large.

The welded ends are known as the "hot junction" which is placed where the temperature is to be measured. The two free ends are carried through leads to the electromotive force detector. The thermocouple is based upon the principle that a small electric current will flow through two dissimilar wires properly welded together at the ends. The most common thermometer is the mercury-filled glass tube that indicates temperature by the expansion of the liquid mercury.com . when one junction is at a higher temperature than the other. 4561.) which has a thermometer as an integral part of the instrument to show the temperature of the liquid.mzhelu@gmail. or the galvanic effect of dissimilar metals in contact. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. estimate thermometer temperature from its effect on a substance with known an instrument that measures temperature. Various types of thermometers measure temperature by measuring the change in pressure of a gas kept at a constant volume. Thermometers provide a way to characteristics (as a gas that expands when heated). Z." When the hot junction is heated. the change in electrical resistance of metals. THERMOMETRIC HYDROMETER A hydrometer (q. 4562. This is of first importance as the density or API gravity varies with the temperature. a temperature-measuring device used extensively in refining. known as the "cold junction. 683 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4560. THERMOCOUPLE A pyrometer.v. the millivolts can be measured on a temperature scale. Hydrometers used by pipeline gaugers are thermometric hydrometers.

also called a thief sand or a thief zone. THIEF A metal or glass cylinder with a spring-actuated closing device that is lowered into a tank to obtain a sample of oil. thief sand THIEF ZONE (See thief formation. thickening time the length of time a slurry is pumpable. or to the bottom of the tank to take a column of heavy sediment. THIEF HATCH An opening in the top-of a tank large enough to admit a thief and other oil.mzhelu@gmail. must be sealed off with a liner or plugged with special cements or fibrous clogging agents before drilling can resume. 684 Petroleum Engineer: M. also called pumping time. The thief is lowered into the tank on a line that when jerked will trip the spring valve enabling the operator to obtain a sample at any desired level. Lost circulation is caused by a thief formation. 4566. up to 1 00 poise as measured on the consistometer. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4564. 4567. (See pumpability. which also include crevices and caverns.) A very porous formation downhole into which drilling mud is lost. thief formation a formation that absorbs drilling fluid as the fluid is circulated in the well.sampling equipment.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4563. Z.Thief zones. 4565. 4568.

less sophisticated models or prototypes. viscosity. 4572.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4569. THIRD-GENERATION HARDWARE Equipment developed from earlier. reduces its viscosity. gelled state when at rest. But when force is again applied (pumping is resumed) the cement again becomes a pumpable slurry. thin to add a substance such as water or a chemical to drilling mud to reduce its 4571. 4570.mzhelu@gmail. thinning agent a special chemical or combination of chemicals that. This procedure may be repeated until the predetermined setting time of the cement is reached.com .). 685 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4574. Z. 4573." become rigid when pumping ceases. thixotrophy the property exhibited by a fluid that is in a liquid state when flowing and in a semisolid. Most drilling fluids must be thixotrophic so that the cuttings in the fluid will remain in suspension when circulation is stopped. THIXOTROPIC The property of certain specially formulated cement slurries-used in cementing jobs downhole-that causes them to "set. when added to a drilling mud.v. THIEFING ATANK Taking samples of oil from different levels in a tank of crude oil and from the bottom to determine the presence of sediment and water with the use of a thief (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the latest in the evolution of specialized equipment.

casing.) around the drillpipe in preparation for running the pipe up or backing it out. thribble thribble board a stand of pipe made up of three joints and handled as a unit. The stand or joint of drill pipe to be made up is turned or spun by a pull on the spinning chain from the cathead on the drawworks. 4581.com . 4 4580. 4578. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the monkeyboard when it is located at a height in the derrick equal to the length of three lengths of pipe joined together. THREAD PROTECTOR A threaded cap or lightweight collar screwed onto the ends of tubular goods (pipe.v. Compare double board and fourble board. Throttling is usually caused by improper lift of the valve.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4575. And tubing) to protect the threads from damage as the pipe is being handled. throttling the choking or failing that occurs when a mud pump fails to deliver a full amount of fluid through one or more of its valves. THROWING THE CHAIN Wrapping the spinning chain (q. Z.mzhelu@gmail. 4576. throw the chain to flip the spinning chain up from a tool-joint box so that the chain wraps around the tool-joint pin after it is stabbed into the box. 4577. 686 Petroleum Engineer: M. Crew members become proficient at throwing the chain in such a way as to put several wraps on the pipe with one deft motion.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4582. 4586. See Dynamic Stationing. tight formation a petroleum. the anchoring device for the deadline of a hoisting-block arrangement. THUMPER TIDELANDS See Vibrator Vehicle.) Jets or propellers on large tinkers. TIE-IN An operation in pipeline construction in which two sections of line are connected a loop lied into the main line a lateral line to a trunk line. and deep water drilling platforms that provide a means to move the vessel sideways-at right angles to the ship's normal line of travel-when docking or in maintaining position in water too deep for conventional anchors. 4 4589. 4587. 4584. driliships. 4583. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. thruster THRUSTERS (See dynamic positioning. Land submerged during high tide.com . tie-down a device to which a guy wire or brace may be attached.or waterbearing formation of relatively low porosity and 687 Petroleum Engineer: M. permeability. The Federal government now has the right to produce oil and gas from this area of the continental shelf.mzhelu@gmail. 4585. The term also refers to that portion of the continental shelf between the shore and the boundaries claimed by states. Z.

TIGHT GAS Natural gas produced from a tight formation. For example. 4595. logs-is kept secret by the operator. Compare key seat. In view of these constraints. 4593. acidizing.com . TLP Term-limit pricing an agreement on price between a supplier and a wholesaler or jobber that runs for a specified length of time. 4591.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4590. tight spot a section of a borehole in which excessive wall cake has built up. TIGHT HOLE A drilling well about which all information-depth. The production of tight gas is more costly and therefore less attractive to producers owing to the need for fracturing. one that will not give up its gas readily or in large volumes. Z. drilling rate. conventional onshore gas wells by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. TO LAY OFF AN INTEREST To sell off a portion of one's interest in a well to another person to reduce the financial loss should the well be noncommercial or dry. an 688 Petroleum Engineer: M. such g as has been given an incentive price of 150 percent of the price of gas from new.mzhelu@gmail. derby-like. 4594. and plants to protect their heads. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. formations encountered. 4592. refineries. and other expensive treatments to free the gas from the relatively impermeable formations. safety hat worn by all workers in the oil fields. reducing the hole diameter and making it difficult to run the tools in and out. T I N HA T The metal.

5 barrels equals a metric ton or long to 1.000 kilograms or 2. For rough approximation.000 lb. It is used as a solvent and as an antiknock agent in gasoline.000 kg. ton-mile a measurement of the amount of use a wireline has received. TOLUENE An aromatic hydrocarbon resembling benzene but less volatile and flammable. (See tonnage.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering investor who has a 30 percent interest in a well to be drilled may lay off five or 10 percent of his interest for cash he needs to minimize his risk or to reduce his "exposed position.5 barrels.) 4599.6 pounds. 4598. 689 Petroleum Engineer: M." 4596. (nautical) a volume measure equal to 100 ft' applied to mobile offshore (2). depending on the oils specific gravity. (3). 4601.204. (metric) a measure of weight equal to 1. 4600. a measure of weight equal to 2. tongman the member of the drilling crew who handles the tongs. If a wireline has moved a 1-ton load a distance of 1 mile. the line has received 1 ton-mile of usage. 6.com . 4597. Z. TOEBOARD The enclosure at toe height around a platform or on a catwalk to prevent tools or other objects on the platforms from being kicked off accidentally. 7. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.5 to 8. to n (1). drilling rigs. TON OF CRUDE OIL A ton of crude oil is.mzhelu@gmail.

the two tongs (one for applying torque. sometimes called a toolie. or other pipe. 4606. 4604. tool joint a heavy coupling element for drill pipe made of special alloy steel. Z. The backup tongs are anchored by a rope or chain secured to a substantial rig member. Power tongs are pneumatically or hydraulically operated tools that serve to spin the pipe up tight. tonnage tool dresser (nautical) the size of a ship or spaces within a ship as measured in tons.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4602. a driller's helper on a cable-tool rig. The tongs are counterbalanced because of their weight and size. and.com . 4605. the other for backup) are swung toward the pipe by the floormen. Where a joint of pipe is to be tightened. TONGS. and so forth according to the specific use. once responsible for sharpening or dressing the drill bit. casing.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) 4603. tubing. A chain and rope lanyard attached to the handle of the torque tongs is bulled by a friction turn or two around the cat head (operated by the driller). Tool joints have coarse. rotary tongs. to apply the final makeup torque. tapered threads and seating shoulders designed to sustain the 690 Petroleum Engineer: M. in some instances. (See also chain tongs. DRILLPIPE AND CASING Large wrenches for making up or breaking out (tightening ox loosening) joints of pipe or casing. and upon making contact with the pipe a latching device clamps the tongs onto the pipe. tongs pl the large wrenches used for turning when making up or breaking out drill pipe. variously called casing tongs.

The leak detector puts a 1. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. The smallest leak in the connection is indicated on a gauge by a drop in pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering weight of the drill stem.) of such length that they can be racked in the derrick. is attached to the other end. 4607. 4609. withstand the strain of frequent coupling and uncoupling. 4608.) on a cable-tool rig. Heavy-duty.v. and provide a leakproof seal. tool pusher TOOLIE TOOLJOINT a drilling foreman or rig superintendent. threaded joints specially designed to couple and uncouple drillpipe into "stands" (q.v. 4 4611.mzhelu@gmail. The tool joint may be welded to the end of the pipe or screwed on or both. is attached to one end of a length of drill pipe. 691 Petroleum Engineer: M. intermediate couplings between the tool joints are made with regular pipe collars. TOOL JOINT LEAK DETECTOR A hydraulic testing device which is clamped around a tool joint after it is made up light in the drillstring and before it is lowered in the hole. A tool -dresser (q. or the pin. A hard metal facing is often applied in a band around the outside of the tool joint to enable it to resist abrasion from the walls of the borehole.com . Z. or box. The male section of the joint. and the female section.000-psi pressure or more on the outside circumference of the joint and holds the pressure for a few seconds.

later. top dead center (TDC) the position of a piston when it is at the highest point possible in the cylinder of an engine. 4613. In such a plant the oil remaining after these products are taken off is usually sold as fuel oil. Roberts. E. tends to.v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4612. 4618. The first torpedoes used black powder as an explosive.com . the top. TOPS The "tops" in a refinery operation are the fractions or products distilled or flashed off at the top of a tower or distillation unit. process. such as gasoline and kerosene. a Civil War veteran.v. or 692 Petroleum Engineer: M. A. TORQUE A turning or twisting force. The well-shooting torpedo was invented and used by Col. Z. in 1865. 4617. often marked on the flywheel. TORPEDO An explosive device used in shooting (q. L.) have been removed by a simple refining 4615. TOPPING PLANT An oil refinery designed to remove and finish only the lighter constituents of crude oil. TOPPED CRUDE OIL Oil from which the fight ends (q. 4616. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail.) a well. TOP OUT To finish filling a tank to put in an additional amount that will fill the tank to 4614. a force that produces a rotation or torsion. nitroglycerin was substituted for the powder.

if 8-hr tours are employed. total depth tour (TD) the maximum depth reached in a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4619. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. (pronounced "tower") an 8-hr shift worked by a drilling crew or other oil-field workers. continuous flow of power. TORSION BALANCE A delicate instrument used by early-day geophysical crews to measure the minute variations in magnetic attraction of subsurface rock formations. As minute variations in magnetic of the subsurface features were plotted over a wide area.mzhelu@gmail. The most common divisions of tours are daylight. Sometimes 12-hour tours are used. and graveyard.com . The forsion balance has been superceded by the less complicated (to use) gravity meter or gravimeter. especially on offshore rigs. 4624. for example) and the driven components (mud pumps and rotary) to transmit a smooth. TORQUE CONVERTER An item of hydraulic equipment which is installed between the prime movers (drilling engines. 4623. the geophysicist had some idea as to where sedimentary formations that might contain oil were located in relation to non-sedimentary rocks. evening. See The torque 4621. 4620. The degree to which a toxin is harmful. 4622. TOWER HAND Toxicity A member of the drilling crew who works up in the derrick derrick man. 693 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.

tracer survey a survey used in an oil well to obtain a reading of radioactivity from a quantity of special material injected into the well.com . TRACER LINES tubing paralleling and in contact with process or Small-diameter instrumentation piping in a refinery or other plant to provide heat or cooling for the fluid or gases in transit. TRACT BOOK A record book maintained by the district land offices of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 4628. tubing pressure. In the field. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Toxin TP tracer Any substance.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4625. listing all entries affecting described land. a substance added to reservoir fluids to permit the movements of the fluid to be followed or traced. Z. liquid. larger diameter tracer lines are used to heat low-gravity. which in sufficient quantity is harmful to biota. 4626. used in drilling reports. 4630. Dyes and radioactive substances are used as tracers in underground water flows and sometimes helium is used in gas.mzhelu@gmail. 4627. or solid. Radioactive tracers may be gas. When samples of the water or gas taken some distance from the point of injection reveal signs of the tracer. 694 Petroleum Engineer: M. viscous crude oils so they may be pumped. the route of the fluids can be mapped. More often tracer lines carry steam. See also Heat Tape. 4629.

an oil broker. 4632. measure.mzhelu@gmail. 695 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4634. arranging for supplies and trading surpluses of one product for others. used in low compression farm tractors. one who operates in the international oil market. It is often used to mark crankshaft positions on engines. A Classic example of a transducer is the telephone receiver which is actuated by electric power and supplies acoustic power to the atmosphere. Z. composition pipe for handling corrosive liquids and salt water. TRACTOR FUEL A low-octane fuel.com . less volatile than motor gasoline. able electric current. A form of transducer is an air or hydraulic system that will actuate an electric system by pressure on a contact switch. Another and true form of transducer is the thermocouple (q. TRANSITE PIPE A patented. abbreviated tram. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4631.) wherein heat on two dissimilar pieces of metal will create a small. 4633. TRANSDUCER A device or instrument actuated by power from one kind of system and in turn supplies power to another system.v. 4635. trammel a metal rod of precise length used to measure distance between two points where accessibility is limited. TRADER One who deals in bulk petroleum or products both domestic and foreign.

transmission the gear or chain arrangement by which power is transmitted from the prime mover to the drawworks. TRANSSHIPMENT TERMINAL A large. TRANSPONDER A radio or other electronic device that. 4640.v. 2. (2). 4638. the areas in the drill stem near the point where drill pipe is made up on drill collars. mud pump. transition zone (1). "super-tanker" (LCCV) (q. TRANSITION FITTINGS When using plastic pipe in the field or at a plant. Such terminals have large storage capacities and high-volume 696 Petroleum Engineer: M. transmission line 1. are installed. special transition fittings.. 4637. deep-water terminal where crude oil and products are delivered by . the area in which underground pressures begin to change from normal to abnormally high as a well is being deepened. a high-voltage line used to transmit electric power from one place to another. or rotary table of a drilling rig. a pipeline used to transmit natural gas or other fluids. 4641.com . If so. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. upon receiving a designated signal. Z.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4636. emits a signal of its own. made with one end acceptable to the plastic pipe and the other end a standard thread end or weld end.mzhelu@gmail. 4639.) and transshipment of product is by smaller tankers. it is usually necessary to make connection with steel tank fittings or a pipeline.

Z. Compare standing valve. traveling block an arrangement of pulleys. On the downstroke. the ball is unseated.) 4645. On the upstroke. 4643.com . which in turn is connected to the bottom holddown. TRAP A type of geological structure that retards the free migration of oil and concentrates the oil in a limited space.mzhelu@gmail. 'Re working barrel is connected to the sucker-rod string through a connector and the traveling valve. supporting the fluid load. 4644. allowing fluid to enter into the production column. The traveling valve moves with the movement of the sucker-rod string. which moves up and down in the derrick or mast. the ball member of the valve is seated. A mass of porous. See Anticline. through which drilling cable is reeved. traveling valve one of the two valves in a sucker-rod pumping system. (See block and crown block.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering unloading facilities to accommodate the mammoth vessels that carry more than two million barrels of oil each trip. or sheaves. impermeable rock thus forming a trap. 697 Petroleum Engineer: M. permeable rock which is sealed on top and down both flanks by nonporous. 4642. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the standing valve is connected to the top of the plunger. traveling barrel pump a sucker-rod insert pump in which the working barrel travels and the plunger remains stationary.

coalesce. emulsions. by the addition of chemicals. 4649. Z. The patented dehydrator uses some heat in its process. heat. 4648. TREE SAVER A patented. 4651. cylindrical refining or processing columns fitted with internal. electricity. The water and other foreign matter settle to the bottom of the tank and are then drawn off. 4650. treater a vessel in which oil is treated for the removal of BS& W. See Bubble Cap Trays. and then drop out by gravity. particularly on low-gravity crude oils. mandrel-like piping made to slip into and through the valves and connecting spools of a Christmas tree when a well is to be stimulated. TRAYED COLUMNS Any of several kinds of vertical. and other impurities and with the addition of chemicals causing the water and oil to separate. or all three.mzhelu@gmail. 4647.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4646. TREATING PLANT A facility for heating oil containing water. treat to subject a substance to a process or to a chemical reagent to improve its quality or remove a contaminant. TREATER. horizontal trays or baffles over which charge stock flows from top to bottom in a vaporization or absorption process. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 698 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . ELECTROSTATIC An oil treater that uses AC and DC electrical force fields to cause the water droplets in the oil-water emulsion to come together.

through which the drilling fluid is discharged. scoops out a ditch to predetermined width and depth. self-propelled machine with digging buckets fixed to an "endless" chain bolt or circular frame that. emergency service.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering acidized.) 699 Petroleum Engineer: M. fully charged. tricone bit a type of bit in which each of three toothed and conical cutters is mounted on friction-reducing bearings and is forced into the formation by the weight and rotary motion of the drill stem. is ready for use. The bit body is often fitted with nozzles. A storage battery. (See bit and directional drilling. 4653. 4655.) 4656. or hydrofracked under high pressure. Should the main source of power fail. a large. when rotated. usually for standby. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. kept charged by a small amount of current from a primary electrical source. The mandrel or inner sleeve takes the pressure. (See glycol dehydration. the battery. 4652. TRENCHER A ditching machine. triethylene glycol (TEG) a liquid chemical used in gas processing to remove water from the gas. or jets. A one-eye bit is used in soft formations to drill a deviated hole. See Tour. protecting the tree both from the high pressure and any corrosive or abrasive fluids during the stimulation operation.mzhelu@gmail. TRICK TRICKLE-CHARGED BATTERY 4654. Z.com .

See Round Trip. TRIM. on the wellhead. trim (nautical) the difference between the draft forward and the draft aft on a mobile offshore drilling rig. used exclusively to ascertain the amount of mud necessary to keep the wellbore full with the exact amount of mud that is displaced by drill pipe. 4661.) a small mud pit with a capacity of 10 to 15 bbl. 700 Petroleum Engineer: M. High-pressure gas encountered in drilling deep wells that can cause serious problems of control when the tools are pulled out of the hole in making a trip.). the crew must resort to stripping the pipe (q. 4659. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the blowout preventer. SOUR SERVICE TRIP TRIP GAS See Sour Service Trim. The driller must exercise extreme care to prevent loss of control or a blowout.. 4658. in order to come out of the hole under high-pressure conditions. 4662. trip in trip out trip tank (See go in the hole.mzhelu@gmail.com . removing the drillstring through the wells stack of control valves.v. Z. i. 4660. 4663. usually with 1 bbl divisions.e. Sufficient mud must be in the hole to provide the hydrostatic head necessary to contain the downhole gas pressure. Sometimes.) (See come out of the hole.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4657.

TRIPPING THE BIT Removing the bit from the hole and running it in again. 4664. 4667. the drillpipe must be pulled a stand at a time in order to reach the bit. TRIPLEX PUMP A reciprocating pump with three plungers or pistons working in three cylinders.com . the drill pipe displaces a certain amount of mud. and a trip tank again can be used to keep track of this volume." three -joint stands. as it has a power stroke every one-third or a revolution of the crankshaft compares] to every half revolution for the duplex pump. as three-joint stands are 90 feet high and can present problems in windy areas. Handling thribbles calls for a large. a volume of mud equal to that which the drill pipe occupied while in the hole must be pumped into the hole to replace the pipe. a main line. trunk line 701 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4666.) See Round Trip. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4665.mzhelu@gmail. The triplex pump discharges fluid more evenly than a duplex or two plunger pump. tall derrick. Z.v. (In removing the bit. Tripping doubles requires one-third more pipe connections to make up and break out by the floor men than if they were tripping "thribbles.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering When the bit comes out of the hole. When the bit goes back in the hole. TRIPPING DOUBLES An expression meaning pulling the drillpipe out of the hole (or going in) in two-joint stands (q.).

exchanger bundles. The tubes or pipes. are spaced equidistance apart in parallel rows and are supported by perforated endplates thus forming a "bundle. Z. and other close pipe work.v. 702 Petroleum Engineer: M. TRUNNION VALVE A type of butterfly valve whose orifice is opened and closed by a disk rotating on trunnions or pins seated in the valve body." 4672. tube sheet a metal plate through which the tubes in the tube bundles are placed for support. 4670. 4673. 4671. 4669. The name given to the tubes in the core of a heat exchanger (q. to run tubing in a well.). effecting a pressure-tight connection between the tubes and the heads of a condenser or heat exchanger. tstg tube TUBE BUNDLE testing. A weld or flanged fitting in the shape of a U used in construction of manifolds. used in drilling reports. Trunnion valves are opened and closed by a quarter turn of the handle. TUBE STILL TUBE TURN A pipe still (q. aft the same length. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.v.mzhelu@gmail.com . 4674.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4668.).

com .v.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4675. dented or collapsed well tubing or casing. packer-like device run in a string of tubing that clamps against the wall of the casing. tubing hanger an arrangement of slips built into a steel housing and engaged in the upper end of the wellhead that serves as a support for the suspended tubing string. 4677. tubing small-diameter pipe that is run into a well to serve as a conduit for the passage of oil and gas to the surface. the cyclic up and down movement of the lower section of tubing as the well is pumped by a rod pump. The elevators are attached by steel links or bails to the hook. deformed diameter of the damaged pipe. 4680. Z. As the cylindrical tool is forced lower and rotated it pushes out dents and restores the pipe to its original diameter. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4678. 4679. TUBING ANCHOR A downhole. TUBING AND CASING ROLLERS A downhole tool for reconditioning buckled. The tool is lowered into the hole. tubing elevators pl a clamping apparatus used to pull tubing.mzhelu@gmail. The elevators latch onto the pipe just below the top collar. entering the small. 703 Petroleum Engineer: M.). The tubing anchor prevents the "breathing" of the tubing. TUBING BOARD A small platform high in the derrick where a "derrick man" (a member of the drilling crews who is not affected with acrophobia) stands to rack drillpipe or tubing as it is being pulled and set back (q. 4676.

They may be operated manually. tubing spider a device used with slips to prevent tubing from failing into the hole when a joint of pipe is being unscrewed and racked. 4687.mzhelu@gmail. 4686. forged-steel fitting that is flanged to the casinghead and intowhich the tubing hangers fit. See Pump. and provides connections at the surface to control the production of gas or oil. the formation pressure on the tubing in a well at the wellhead. 4682. hydraulically. 4684. TUBING SPOOL A heavy. an element of the above-ground well completion hookup. tubing job tubing pressure TUBING PUMPS tubing safety valve the act of pulling tubing out of and running it back into a well.com . 704 Petroleum Engineer: M.tubing tongs n pl the large wrenches used to break out and make up tubing. TUBING HEAD The top of the string of tubing with control and flow valves attached. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4683.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4681. Z. 4685. Tubing safety valves are widely used in offshore wells to prevent pollution if the wellhead fails for any reason. the tubing head supports the string of tubing in the well. seals off pressure between casing and the inside of the tubing. a device installed in the tubing string of a producing well to shut in the flow of production if the flow exceeds a preset rate. Similar in design and function to the casinghead. or pneumatically. Tubing.

Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4688. Even in the warmest months of summer. Z. drill pipe. the top few inches supporting only limited vegetation. 4693. the subsoil remains frozen. also called tungsten carbide insert bits.mzhelu@gmail. and line pipe.) 4691. any kind of pipe. tungsten carbide bit TURBINE METER. 4690. A mechanism inserted into a liquid flow fine that measures volumetric flow rate and total flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. as on a water wheel. also called tubular. 4689. The spindle is connected to a counter and readout mechanism. LIQUID a type of roller-cone b'9 or rock bit. (See pipe. 4692. tubingless completion a method of producing a well in which only a small diameter production casing is set through the pay zone. This type of completion has limited application in small volume. showing rate of flow and total daily or monthly throughput. with no tubing or inner production string used to bring formation fluids to the surface. causing the spindle to turn. The meter is constructed with vanes on a spindle inside a housing that can be flanged into a flow fine. TUNDRA A vast area in the Arctic lying between the permanent ice cap and the m' ore southerly forested region. dry-gas reservoirs. 705 Petroleum Engineer: M. casing. tubular tubular goods tubular goods. The movement of liquid through the meter exerts a force on the curved vanes. Oil-filed tubular goods include tubing.com .

4695. See Plastic Flow. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4694. TURBULENT FLOW The movement of liquid through a pipeline in eddies and swirls which tends to keep the column of liquid "together" rather than running like a river with the center of the stream moving faster than the edges. Although straight holes can be drilled with the tool. The mud pressure from the pumps at the surface pumping mud down through the drillpipe turns the turbine that rotates the drill bit. turbodrill a drilling tool that rotates a bit attached to it by the action of the drilling mud on the turbine blades built into the tool.) is to supply air to the intake of an engine at a pressure higher than the surrounding atmosphere. hence there is no kelly joint being turned by the rotary table. 4697.com . it is used most often in directional drilling. The drillpipe does not rotate as in conventional drilling. A centrifugal blower driver) by an engine's exhaust-gas turbine to supercharge the engine. 4696.mzhelu@gmail. TURBODRILLING A type of rotary drilling in which a fluid-drive turbine (motor) is placed in the drillstring just above the drill bit. To supercharge (q. When a turbodrill is used. 4698. Z.v. Turbine. thus it is unnecessary to rotate the drill stem. 706 Petroleum Engineer: M. TURBINE PUMP TURBOCHARGER See Pump. rotary motion is imparted only at the bit.

periodic inspection and overhaul of the units of a refinery or processing plant.mzhelu@gmail. a right-and left screw link used for tightening a rod. inspection and repair of piping and process vessels. TURNKEY WELL A well drilled under a turnkey contract (q. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the expression "on bottom and turning to the right" indicates that drilling is proceeding normally. 4701. to rotate the drill stem clockwise. TURNKEY A verb made from the adjective "turnkey. TURNBUCKLE A link with a screw thread at one end and a swivel at the other. procurement. Z.v. independent of supervision by the operator. 4700. 4703.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4699. When drilling ahead. In a turnkey contract. TURNAROUND The planned. 4704. 4702. and testing of a project before turning it over to the owner for operation. the preventive maintenance and safety check requiring the shutting down of a refinery and the cleaning.). construction. turnkey contract a drilling contract that calls for the payment of a stipulated amount to the drilling contractor on completion of the well." to perform a complete job as under a turnkey contract (q. a guy wire. to take over and perform all necessary work of planning.v. the contractor furnishes all material and labor and controls the entire drilling operation. 707 Petroleum Engineer: M. completion. or stay. turn to the right on a rotary rig.).

. This maneuver reduces the tension on the mooring lines to a small fraction of that on a vessel moored in a fixed position. MOORED ICE-DRILLING BARGE A drilling barge of new concept developed by Dome Petroleum Ltd. all for an amount specified in the contract.com . the vessel weathervanes until its bow is headed into the ice flow. 708 Petroleum Engineer: M. The new barge has a 16-anchor mooring system attached to a swivel directly beneath the drilling derrick. 4707. regardless of direction. he "delivers. TURNTABLE.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4705. the vessel is free to rotate around the turret axis and head into oncoming seas. 4708. it to the owner ready to "turn the key" and start the oil running into the lease tank. Because all mooring lines are connected to the turret. ROTARY DRILLING TURRET See Rotary Table. When on production. TURNKEYCONTRACT A contract in which a drilling contractor agrees to furnish all materials and labor and do all that is required to drill and complete a well in a workman like manner. At the approach of advancing ice on the barge's beam. for use in Arctic waters where floating or moving ice is a danger to conventional drillships or barges. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4706. turret mooring a system of mooring a drill ship on the drilling site in which mooring lines are spooled onto winches mounted on a turret in the center of the vessel.mzhelu@gmail.

TWO-STAGE COMPRESSOR Two-stage identifies a type of compressor that intakes gas and compresses or raises the pressure in the first chamber of the compressor and passes the gas 709 Petroleum Engineer: M. twin a well drilled on the same location as another well and closely offsetting it but producing from a different zone. 4710. TVD Total vertical depth. Z. TWISTATAIL To bring pressure to bear in order to speed up a job or to get action from someone who is suspected of dragging his feet. The connector is in the general configuration of an English walnut.com . TVD is always less than a well's total depth (TD) because of the inevitable deviation from the vertical of the well bore. 4711. 4712. power and exhaust stroke are accomplished in one revolution. 4714. TURTLEBACK A two-part clamp for joining lengths of shackle rod (q. 4713.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4709. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. twist off of drill pipe or drill collars.v.). the two halves are held together by a bolt and nut. TWO-CYCLE ENGINE An internal combustion engine that produces one power stroke for each revolution of the crankshaft intake.mzhelu@gmail. compression. 4715. to part or split primarily because of metal fatigue in the pipe or because of mishandling.

4716. Z.mzhelu@gmail. used in drilling reports. raising the pressure to the required level. Twp township. is further compressed.com . 710 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering into the second-stage chamber where it.

El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. among its many service. to cause a fluid to flow in a u-tube. the drill stem serves as one arm of the u and the annulus as the other. geological survey an agency of the federal government that. especially on ships. 4720.s. regulates the placement of wells in federal offshore lands.mzhelu@gmail.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4717. Ullage in a tank is necessary to allow space for the expansion of the oil in the tank when the temperature increases. 4722.com . U. A follower or saddle piece fits over the threaded ends and is held in place by nuts. U. 711 Petroleum Engineer: M.g.s. the amount by which a tank or vessel lacks being full. Z. both ends of which are threaded. U-tube a u-shaped piece of pipe. and duties. U-tubing the action of fluids flowing in a u-tube (as heavy mud forcing lighter mud down the drill stem and up the annulus). U-bolts or u-clamps are used to hold two ends of wire lines together or to make a loop in a length of wire cable by turning back the running part (the loose end) on the standing part of the cable and clamping them together.s. The drill stem in the hole is a u-tube configuration. Ulcc Ullage ultralarge crude carrier. 4718. 4721. 4719. U-bolt A bed in the shape of a u.

if they lie at an angle to each other. 4726.mzhelu@gmail. or pool. Unbranded gasoline Gasoline sold by a major refiner to jobbers and other large distributors without bearing the name of the refiner. it is an angular unconformity. 4725. Where the two dissimilar formations touch or meet. 4727. a layer of sandstone is lying on a layer of limestone. Ultimate recovery Ultralarge crude carrier total ancipated recovery of oil or gas from a well.com . if the rock layers on either side (top and bottom) are parallel. it is a parallel unconformity. Compare tanker and very large crude carrier. 4724. Ultrasonic atomizer A development in burners for heating oils in which high-frequency sound waves are focused on the stream of fuel. 4728. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. not in solution or as free gas with oil or condensate. For example. Uncomformity The surface that separates two rock units. 712 Petroleum Engineer: M. See associated gas. the upper layer does not conform to the lower layer or vice versa. this surface is an unconformity. lease. a super-tanker whose capacity is 500.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4723.000 deadweight tons or more. forming a spray of microscopic fuel droplets. The resulting intimate mixture of fuel and air makes for greater combustion efficiency. Unassociated gas Natural gas occurring alone. Z.

(see angular unconformity and disconformity. Lack of continuity in deposition between rock strata in contact with one another corresponding to a gap in the stratigraphic record. Unconf Unconformity unconformity. the unconventional gas supplies 713 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. If an unconsolidated sandstone produces oil or gas.) 4731. Unconsolidated sandstone a sand formation in which individual grains do not adhere to one another. 2.) 4733. Geologists have known of these sources for many years but. Z. 2. (see angular unconformity and disconformity. Unconventional natural gas The term applied to natural gas so difficult and expensive to produce that the sources have been bypassed in favor of more easily obtainable supplies. Unconformity 1.mzhelu@gmail. in certain shales in the appalachian basin. Such sources are to be found in tight sandstone reservoirs in the western and southwestern states. The surface of contact between rock beds in which there is a discontinuity in the ages of the rocks. 1. Lack of continuity in deposition between rock strata in contact with one another corresponding to a gap in the stratigraphic record.) 4732. used in drilling reports. it will produce sand as well if not controlled or corrected. because of the low prices for conventional.com . The surface of contact between rock beds in which there is a discontinuity in the ages of the rocks. 4730. more cheaply producible conventional gas. and in geopressurized reservoirs along the gulf coast.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4729. (see sand control and sand consolidation.

when lowered into the hole. Also. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering have remained untouched. or other fluids out of the wellbore and into another formation 4736. Z. 4737. Bit worn down to 6 5/8 in. Underground storage In certain areas of the country where there are underground caverns petroleum and products are stored for future use.mzhelu@gmail. A 6 7/8 in. Underground blowout an uncontrolled flow of gas. is under-reamed to enlarge the exposed area of the hole and increase the flow of oil into the hole. Is undergauge.).v. 4734. Undergauge bit a drilling bit whose outside diameter has been worn down until it is smaller than the bit specifications allow. a type of under-reamer.Often the borehole. to get at these marginal sources advances in technology have to be developed. To enlarge the size of the borehole of the well by the use of an under-reamer (q.com . and at great cost. A belling tool. 4735. A tool with expanding arms or lugs that. See salt-dome storage. Underground waste Underream loss of recoverable reserves as a result of damage to the reservoir. 4738. salt water. can be released at any depth to ream the hole with steel or insert cutters. which has penetrated the producing formation. some are not naturally sealed and would permit the stored oil to leak into subsurface water sources. All caverns are not suitable. is sometimes used 714 Petroleum Engineer: M.

The mating surfaces are pulled together by a flanged. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Union a coupling device that allows pipes to be connected without being rotated. 715 Petroleum Engineer: M. The under-reamer is made with expendable arms fitted with cutters. Unit 1. 3. A piece or several pieces of equipment performing a complete function (as a beam-pumping unit). When torque is applied to the two halves by a single bolt.com . The two mating halves of the coupling have tapered shoulders. 4741. 4742. Z. Underreamef A type of drilling loot used to enlarge the diameter of the borehole in certain downhole intervals. Underreamer Unibolt coupling a device used to underream. When the reamer is pulled from the hole the arms fold in toward the body of the tool. the coupling is tightened.mzhelu@gmail. 4739.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering to excavate a bell-shaped hole just below the production string of tubing or casing for the same purpose. Unibolt couplings are for medium-diameter piping and take up less space than conventional multibolt flanges. 4743. When in position the expendable arms are released and the cutters chew away the rock to enlarge the hole. Several leases that are operated by one company. A patented coupling or flange for joining two lengths of pipe. 4740. to enlarge or increase the face area of the hole. 2. One lease that is operated by several companies. threaded collar on the union. drawing the bolt lugs together.

Universal A shaft coupling able to transmit rotation to another shaft not directly in line with the first shaft. which is not the same as unitization. Unitization A term denoting the joint operation of separately owned producing leases in a pool or reservoir.. 716 Petroleum Engineer: M. Unitization makes it economically feasible to undertake cycling. 4746. 4747. With the knowledge that a pool or a reservoir is a unit or an entity. changing pumps.com .Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4744.mzhelu@gmail. with its own pressure system and a continuous oil-bearing strata. the man in charge of the pulling unit crew that does routine subsurface work on producing wells. a moveable coupling for transmitting power from one shaft to another when one shaft is at an angle to the other's long axis. Unitoperator Head well puller.g. e. or secondary recovery programs. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Cleaning out. as well as a share of the production. pressure maintenance. In such an arrangement. For another type of joint venture see pooling. unitization was the logical arrangement to maintain as long as possible the productive life of the pool. Z. each lease bears its prorata share of the expense of any project undertaken. Unit operator the oil company in charge of development and producing in an oil field in which several companies have joined together to produce the field. 4745. pulling rods and tubing.

717 Petroleum Engineer: M. Unproven area Unsaturated hydrocarbon a wildcat area.Dollars ($-----) which shall operate as rental and cover the privilege of deferring the commencement of a well for 12 months from said date. Unmanned station A pipeline pumping station that is started. 4751." 4750. See delay rental. and monitored by remote control. but it is known as the unless lease because of the wording of the delay rental clause (q. a straight-chain compound of hydrogen and carbon whose total combining power has not yet been reached and to which other atoms or radicals can be added. most intermediate booster stations on large trunk lines are unmanned and remotely controlled from the dispatcher's office. Unlesslease A type of lease in general use. There is no single form of the unless lease. Z. 4749.) Which usually takes the following form "if no well is commenced on said land on or before the date hereof.v. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . 4752. Through telecommunication systems. stopped.v.). Unless clause The clause in an unless lease that provides for the termination of the lease interest unless the lessee commences drilling or pays rental during the primary term of the lease. the other common type is the or lease (q. this lease shall terminate as to both parties unless the Lessee on or before that date shall pay or tender to lessor the sum of--.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4748.mzhelu@gmail.

mzhelu@gmail. the point in a line or system situated opposite the direction of flow. Upsettubing Tubular goods that are "upset" are made thicker in the area of the threads in order to compensate for the metal cut away in making threads.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4753. responsible for the enforcement of rules pertaining to the drilling and production of oil and gas in offshore areas of the u. 4754. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com .s. but in well tubing. Updip well A well located high on a structure where the oil-bearing formation is found at a shallower depth. 4755. Upset to forge the ends of tubular products so that the pipe wall acquires extra thickness and strength near the end. the thickening is on the outside. 4757. Usually upsetting is performed to provide the thickness needed to form threads so that the tubular good can be connected. Usgs united states geological survey. the additional metal is usually put on the inside. In the manufacture of casing and drillpipe. 4756. Z. especially the smaller sizes. 718 Petroleum Engineer: M. Upstream in the direction opposite that of the flow in a line. This is known as exterior-upset tubing.

V. volt.com . part of a full-scale advertising information program conducted by the American Petroleum Institute to tell the oil industry's story to the public. a space that is devoid of all matter and that exerts zero pressure. bigger and tougher versions of the automobile fan belt.C. The V-door is opposite the drawworks and is used as an entry to bring in drill pipe. A type of "endless" V-shaped belt used in transmitting power from an engine's grooved drive pulley to the grooved sheave of a pump.E. Theoretically. V V-BELT 4759. or VOICE is part of the Program in which speakers from the industry appear before interested groups to tell oil's story. and other tools from the pipe rack. compressor. V. 2.O. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.I. The V-belts.I.0. Z. Voluntary Oil Industry Communications Effort.E.mzhelu@gmail. casing. or other equipment. Vacuum 1. are used in sets of from two to twenty belts depending upon the size of the drive pulley.C. 4761. A condition that exists in a system when pressure is reduced below atmospheric pressure.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4758. 4762. 719 Petroleum Engineer: M. V-door An opening at floor level in a side of a derrick or mast shaped like an inverted V. 4760.

4764. 4766. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. lighter fractions of the heavy charge stock will flash off or vaporize. So vacuum distillation saves in refinery fuel costs and may prevent the breaking down or changing of molecules which might occur at higher distillation temperatures. The pressure in some flasher vessels is less than one-third atmospherics or 5 pounds per square inch./sq. 4767. VACUUM TAR 720 Petroleum Engineer: M. This technique with its relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or decomposition of the charge stock. a large-diameter column where charge stock is distilled at less than atmospheric pressure. VACUUM STILL A refining vessel in which crude oil or other feed-stock is distilled at less than atmospheric pressure. the lower the boiling point for all liquids.mzhelu@gmail. For example water which boils at 212 degrees F. 4765. Under the atmospheric pressure of 14. Z. See Asphalt.7 lbs. At this reduced pressure. Boils at 102 degrees at a pressure of one pound.com . Vacuum gauge an instrument used on gas or gasoline engines to indicate the performance characteristics and load.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4763. In. VACUUM DISTILLATION (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺨﻠﻲ‬ Distillation under reduced pressure (less than atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of the liquid being distilled. The lower the pressure. VACUUM FLASHER A refinery vessel.

A special kind of valve that uses a welded bellows rather than soft packing around the valve stem. PACKLESS See Needle Valve. 4773. globe value. the orifices in the two disks are in perfect alignment.com . VALVE. and relief valve. NEEDLE VALVE. Valve a device used to control the rate of flow in a line. MULTIPLE-ORIFICE A patented orifice valve with two orifice plates or disks in pressure tight contact. to open or shut off a line completely. VALVE. or to serve as an automatic or semiautomatic safety device. 4771. it is raised and lowered into the valve body by a connecting stem outside the fluid cavity. 4772.mzhelu@gmail. One disk can be rotated through 90'. needle valve. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. To reduce the flow. Those with extensive usage include the gate valve. the moveable disk is rotated a certain number of degrees which partially covers the orifice in tile fixed disk. check valve. VALVE POTS The wells in the body of a reciprocating (plunger) pump where the suction and discharge valves are located. plug valve. Valve pots are on the fluid end of the pump. Z. 4 4770. and are covered and sealed by heavy. threaded plugs or metal caps bolted over the top of the pots. The stem of the packless valve does not rotate. Packless or packingless valves usually are for small-diameter piping 721 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4768. For full flow through the valve. thus restricting the flow through the valve.

mzhelu@gmail. SAMUEL The man who invented and successfully operated the first crude oil pipeline. To a railroad five Miles away. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. VAN SYCKEL.com . To handle gas lock or vapor lock the gas must be bled off the system by removing a line or loosening a connection. or the fines and carburetor cooled sufficiently to condense the gas back to a liquid. 4778. Pa. The line was two-inch and ran from Pithole City. Z. 4774. It pumped 81 barrels the first day. through a linkage of pressure piping. 4777. A pilot valve is usually employed to modulate or dampen the action of a larger valve as it opens to relieve the system pressure. VALVE. thus sounding the knell for the teamster and his wagonload of oil barrels.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering (one-quarter to 2-inch) and are used on piping carrying hazardous or toxic fluids or gases and for high-pressure steam. Controls the opening of a larger relief or safety valve. 722 Petroleum Engineer: M. Vapor a substance in the gaseous state that is capable of being liquefied by compression or cooling.. VAPOR LOCK A condition that exists when a volatile fuel vaporizes in an engines fuel line or carburetor preventing the normal flow of liquid fuel to the engine. PILOT A small relief valve that. 4775. VANE PUMP A type of rotary pump designed to handle relatively small volumes of liquid products gasoline and fight oils as well as highly viscous fluids. 4776.

4782. Equilibrium is established when the rate of evaporation of a substance is equal to the rate of condensation of its vapor. For example. an electrical switch is made vapor proof so that a spark issuing from it will not cause an explosion in the presence of combustible gases. the pressure exerted by the vapor of a substance when the substance and its vapor are in equilibrium. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4783.mzhelu@gmail. Vapor phase Vapor pressure of a substance. 4784. The vapors are drawn into a collecting tank and by pressure and cooling are condensed to a liquid.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4779. 4780. Vaporization (1). 4781. The act or process of converting a substance into the vapor phase. terminals. and service stations. A facility for collecting and condensing vapors of volatile products being loaded into open tanks at refineries.com . VR units significantly reduce air pollution by petroleum vapors. 4785. Vapor recovery VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT a system or method by which vapors are retained and conserved. The state of substances being in the vapor phase. Susceptible to or affected by vapors. existence in the gaseous state. VAPORTENSION See Vapor Pressure. 723 Petroleum Engineer: M. (2). Z. Vapor proof adj.

4790. Venturi-tube meter a flow meter used to determine the rate of flow that uses a ٛenture tube as the primary element for creating differential pressures in flowing gases or liquids. Compare orifice meter. straight. or pump to permit the escape of air or gas.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4786. Of a wellbore. The effect of the tube is to increase the velocity and decrease the pressure at the point where the tube’s diameter is reduced. The relationship between the line pressure and the pressure at the narrow “waist” of the tube is used in computing the rate of flow. VENTURIMETER An instrument for measuring the volume of flowing gases and liquids. in the shape of an elongated hourglass. 4791. The tube. or quantity discharged. 724 Petroleum Engineer: M. line. rate of flow. is flanged into a pipeline carrying the fluid. not deviated. 4 4789. 4787. developed according to the principle that a fluid flowing through a constriction has increased velocity and reduced pressure. Vent Venturi tube an opening in a vessel. Z. Vertical an imaginary line or shaft drilled at right angles to the plane of the horizon.mzhelu@gmail. It consists of two parts—the tube through which the fluid flows and a set of indicators which show the Pressures. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.com . a short tube with a calibrated constriction in it that is used in instruments.

Very large crude carrier (VLCC) a super-tanker whose capacity is larger than 100. The buoyancy of the platform exerts sufficient tension on its mooring systems to stabilize it in all kinds of weather. 4794.000 dwt. Specifically. Z. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Wells are drilled through the risers by conventional methods and completed at the platform deck. transports it. refines or processes it.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4792. VERTICAL INTEGRATION Refers to the condition in which a company produces raw material. See Horizontal Integration. VERTICAL-MOORED PLATFORM A buoyant drilling-producing platform moored to the sea floor by flexible risers cemented into the seabed. Vibration dampener Vibration damper (See Shock Sub. transports it in its own pipelines. 725 Petroleum Engineer: M. and markets the product all as one integrated operation.mzhelu@gmail.) a device affixed to an engine crankshaft to minimize stresses that result from torsional vibration of the crankshaft. According to the critics of the industry. (See tanker and ultralarge mole carrier.) 4795. When all wells are drilled and completed the VMP becomes a producing platform. refines it.com . 4793. this is not in the country’s best interest. 4796.000 deadweight tons but less than 500. an oil company is said to be vertically integrated when it finds and produces oil and gas. and markets its products under its brand name.

Very large crude carrier. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Viscometer a device used to determine the viscosity of a substance. capable of transporting one million barrels or more. also called a 4799. 4800.com . 4801. 4803. viscosimeter. 726 Petroleum Engineer: M. Reference oils are highly paraffinic Pennsylvania oil. VICTAULIC COUPLING A patented pipe coupling made in two halves that wrap around the grooved ends of two lengths of pipe and are forced together by bolts. Z. VISROSEIS VLCC Producing seismic shockwaves by the use of “thumpers” or vibrator vehicles. Before the halves of the coupling are put in position. 4798. a crude oil tanker of 160. making a pressure tight connection. a rubber ring is placed over the junction of the two lengths of pipe. The rubber is compressed. An index used to establish the tendency of oil to thin out at increasing temperatures. and Gulf Coast naphthenic oil.” of a fluid.000 deadweight tons or larger. When the coupling is tightened with the two bolts. ViscosimeterViscosity Viscosity index (See viscometer. or “stickiness.mzhelu@gmail.) The resistance to flow. rated 100. 4802. rated 0.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4797.

The volume tank is usually located a few feet away from the gas engine fuel line takeoff. often one inch. VLPC Voids n pl Volatile VOLATILITY Very large product carriers (oceangoing tankers). (See vapor and vaporization. 4809. Z.v. 727 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4808.).com . Is that gas from the lease is piped to each gas engine through a small pipe. 4805.) (See positive-displacemmi meter. besides its.) The extent to which gasoline or oil vaporizes. 4810. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. the ease with which a liquid is converted into a gaseous state. 4807. readily vaporized.) A small cylindrical vessel connected to a gas fine in the oil field to provide an even flow of gas to an engine and to trap liquids that may have condensed in the gas line. and as the engine intakes gas the small pipe would not provide a steady and continuous enough supply. being a small catch vessel for water and drip gasoline (q.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4804. cavities in a rock that do not contain solid material but may contain fluids. Voltmeter Volume meter VOLUMETANK (See positive-displacement meter. 4806. One reason for volume tank.mzhelu@gmail.

4814. But the fluid put out by the pump is 290 cu in.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4811.. Volumetric efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage. VUGULAR-TYPE ROCK Rock with large pits or cavities in its structure. versus. if the pump pistons displace 300 cu in. 4816. 728 Petroleum Engineer: M. a cavernous formation. 4815. a cavity in a rock. 4812. Limestone. Volumetric efficiency the actual volume of fluid put out by a pump divided by the volume displaced by a piston or pistons (or other device) in the pump. Vs Vug Vugular formation Vugular porosity 4813. Z.mzhelu@gmail. For example. is an example of a vugular-type sedimentary rock. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a secondary rock porosity formed by the dissolving of the more soluble portions of a rock in waters containing carbonic or other acids. which often contains pits and cavities. Then the volumetric efficiency of the pump is about 97 percent.com . a rock formation that contains vugs. Pumps are seldom 100 percent efficient.

watt. the wall hook centers it in the hole so that it may be recovered with an overshot. Z.) (WOC) pertaining to or during the time when drilling or completion operations are suspended so the cement in a well can harden sufficiently. water cushion.) 4822. used in drilling reports.mzhelu@gmail.com . Walking beam the steel. Wall sticking (See differential-pressure sticking.) a device used in fishing for drill pipe. Wall cake Wall hook (See filter cake. which is run on the fishing string and attached to the wall hook. (See sucker-rod pumping. If the upper end of the lost pipe is leaning against the side of the wellbore. 4823.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4817. 4824. 4819. 4821. W W/C Wail-stuck pipe Waiting on cement 4818. horizontal member of a beam-pumping unit. (See cushion. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4820.) 729 Petroleum Engineer: M. usually with rocking or reciprocating motion.) (See differential-pressure sticking.

Wash pipe (1). A rotary shoe. It is also called a gun barrel. 4828. which cuts away the formation. or whatever is sticking the pipe. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Wash tank a tank containing heated water. (See hook-wall packer. 4830. Washover pipe. 4826. used to remove the water from the crude. Wash over to release pipe that is stuck in the hole by running washover pipe. 2. is made up on the bottom joint of the washover pipe. Wall-hook guide Wall-hook packer (See wall hook. Rotation of the assembly frees the stuck pipe.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4825. Several washovers may have to be made if the stuck portion is very long. A fluid-cut opening caused by fluid leakage. Z. (2).) a packer that supports itself against the wall of the casing in which it is set.) 4827. 4829. A short length of surface-hardened pipe that fits inside the swivel and serves as a conduit for drilling fluid through the swivel.mzhelu@gmail.Through which crude-oil emulsion is forced to flow. Washout 1. The washover pipe must have an outside diameter small enough to fit into the borehole but an inside diameter large enough to fit over the outside diameter of the stuck pipe. 730 Petroleum Engineer: M. and the assembly is lowered into the hole. mud. Excessive wellbore enlargement caused by solvent and erosional action of the drilling fluid.com .

back off. 4835. The washover pipe cleans the annular space and permits recovery of the pipe. Water block a reduction in the permeability of a formation. and pulling to be carried out in one round trip (See wash over and back off. Water loss Water maker (See fluid loss. Z.) 4832. thus enabling the washed-over portion of the fish to be retrieved. 4836. 4837. Washover assembly Washover pipe (See washover pipe. that have collected in the annulus.) 731 Petroleum Engineer: M. It is sometimes called wash pipe. 4834. The tool permits washover. 4833.) (See water-distillation unit.mzhelu@gmail. Washover back-off connector tool a fishing tool that is made up in a length of washover pipe connected to the top of the fish once the washover is completed and then backed off the fish. caused by the invasion of water into the pores. and so forth.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. mud.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4831.) an accessory used in fishing operations to go over the outside of tubing or drill pipe that is stuck in the hole because of cuttings. Water encroachment the movement of water into a producing formation as the formation is depleted of oil and gas by production.

mzhelu@gmail. The top of the drilling derrick or mast that supports the crown block. the ratio of water to cement in a slurry. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Water Saturation Water string Water table The percentage of pore space in a formation occupied by water. any additives are dispersed in the water. (2). 4843. 4842. Underground water supplies used for irrigation and industrial plants. 4840. To reduce the weight or density of a drilling mud by adding water. In water-base muds. (2). Water-back (1). 4839. The paste is applied to a plumb bob. It is expressed as a percentage. Z. 4844. (3). Water-based Mud Water-cement ratio A drilling mud in which the continuous phase is water. To reduce the solids content of a mud by adding water.com . The underground level at which water is found. which 732 Petroleum Engineer: M. 4845. 4841. Water-base mud a drilling mud in which the continuous phase is water. a string of casing used to shut off water above an oil sand. Water-cut paste a material that changes color (usually to red) in water. The use of water-cut paste is one method by which the level of water in the bottom of an oil storage tank can be determined. Compare oil-base mud. (1). indicating the number of pounds of water needed to mix 100 lb of cement.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4838.

in which only the edge of the oil is in contact with the water. 4849.com . 4850. when closed. Water-wet rock Watered-out Waterflood (See wettability.mzhelu@gmail. 733 Petroleum Engineer: M. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Bottom-water drive is more efficient. and edgewater drive. The water level is then measured off the bob by noting the depth of the red portion of the bob. a method of secondary recovery in which water is injected into a reservoir in order to remove additional quantities of oil from the reservoir that have been left behind after primary recovery. there are two types of water drive bottom-water drive. which forces the oil into the wellbore. Z.) of a well. having gone to water. Water-distillation unit a system used mostly on offshore or desert locations to convert seawater to fresh. in which the oil is totally underlain by water. blocks the passage of and withstands the pressure of water. potable water by distillation. In general.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering is lowered to the bottom of the tank and then retrieved. 4847. Water-drive the reservoir-drive mechanism in which oil is produced by the expansion of the underlying water. 4851. Usually. a waterflood Involves the injection of water through wells specially set up for water injection and the removal of the water and oil from the wells drilled adjacent to the injection wells. 4846. Watertight door a door on ships or mobile offshore rigs that. 4848.

mzhelu@gmail.com . Weight on the bit the difference between the net weight of the entire drill stem and the reduced weight resulting when the bit is resting on bottom. 4857. Wax WC Wear sleeve (See paraffin. 4855. From this reading. Z. weight on the bit can be estimated during drilling. 734 Petroleum Engineer: M.) an instrument near the driller's position on a drilling or workover rig that shows the weight suspended from the hook when the bit is off the bottom. usually the lowest zone in the reservoir.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4852. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4854. or density. cylindrical device attached to a joint of drill pipe midway between the tool joints that minimizes wear to the outside of the pipe at points where the pipe touches the wall of the hole. of the drilling fluid by adding weighting material. used in drilling reports. a hollow. Waterzone the portion of an oil or gas reservoir occupied by water. Weevil Weight indicator (See boll weevil. 4858. 4853. 4856.) wildcat. Weight up to increase the specific gravity. 4859.

mzhelu@gmail. (See electric well log. Logging methods include records kept by the driller. 4861. and sonic logging.) 4865. radioactivity well logging. Weighting material a material with a specific gravity greater than that of cement. 4862. multiple completions. The method of well completion used by the operator depends on the individual characteristics of the producing formation or formations. 4863.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4860. to drill a well. 735 Petroleum Engineer: M. These techniques include open-hole completions. core analysis. 4864.com . Well permit authorization. mud logging. usually by a governmental conservation agency. conventional perforated completions. Z. the activities and methods necessary to prepare a well for the production of oil and gas. drill-stem tests. cased. or both. mud and cutting analyses. the method by which a flow line for hydrocarbons is established between the reservoir and the surface. and miniaturized completions. sand-exclusion completions. used to increase the density of drilling fluids or cement scurries. tubingless completions. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Well Well completion the hole made by the drilling bit. It can be open. A permit is sometimes required for deepening or remedial work also. Weir a device installed in a separator or treater and used to determine the amount of liquid flowing over it when the depth of the liquid is known. Well logging the recording of information about subsurface geologic formations. and electric and radioactivity procedures.

) 4870. relating to well-servicing work.) the maintenance work performed on an oil or gas well to improve or maintain the production from a formation already producing. and so forth. gas-lift valves. an acidizing treatment in which the acid is placed in the wellbore and allowed to react by merely soaking in it. packers. also called wellbore cleanup. and radioactivity well logging. The hole drilled by the drill bit. Well spacing the regulation of the number and location of wells over a reservoir as a conservation measure.mzhelu@gmail. (See roustabout and crew chief. 4872.com . tubing. 4871. (See acidize. rods. 4867. Z. It is a relatively 736 Petroleum Engineer: M. and nitro-shooting. as a well-servicing company. 4869.) A program of work performed on an existing well. Well surveying Well Workover Wellbore Wellbore soak (See deviation survey. Well puller Well servicing a member of a well-servicing crew.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4866. Well stimulation any of several operations used to increase the production of a well. Usually it involves repairs to the pump. 4873. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. formation fracturing. 4868. electric well log.

Wellhead the equipment used to maintain surface control of a well. 4877. the relative affinity between individual grains of rock and each fluid that is present in the spaces between the grains. 737 Petroleum Engineer: M. the rock is oil wet. most often the water is in contact with the surface of each grain. including the casing head. and Christmas tree. either in an emulsion or as free water. If oil and water are both present. Wet gas a natural gas containing an appreciable amount of heavier hydrocarbons. and the rock is called water wet. if the oil contacts the surface. Z. Wet oil Wettability an oil that contains water. which are often liquid.com . 4876.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering slow process because very little of the acid actually comes in contact with the formation. pertaining to the wellhead (as wellhead pressure). 4879. tubing head. a mother hubbard. 4875. Wet box a shield set up to prevent oil or mud from splashing over the floor or on machinery and workmen while tubing or drill pipe is being pulled. 4878.mzhelu@gmail. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. However. Wetting the adhesion of a liquid to the surface of a solid. 4874.

or gas is escaping with great force to the surface. to drill wildcat wells. 4886. to straighten crooked boreholes. also called a gusher. used in drilling reports. With present-day exploration methods and equipment. and to sidetrack to avoid unre-trieved fish. 4882. a machine that pulls or hoists by winding a cable around a spool. 4883. 4881. steel casing that uses an inclined plane to cause the bit to deflect from the original borehole at a slight angle. Wildcat (1).Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4880. Wild well a well that has blown out of control and from which oil. 4885. (2). water.mzhelu@gmail.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. a long. (nautical) a geared sheave of a Windlass used to pull anchor chain. 4884. 738 Petroleum Engineer: M. Wildcatter Winch one who drills wildcat wells. Z. Wh Whelp Whipstock white. a sprocket tooth in a wildcat. Whipstocks are commonly used in controlled directional drilling. about one wildcat out of every six proves to be productive although not necessarily profitable. A well drilled in an area where no oil or gas production exists.

) (See guy line. 4890. Windward (nautical) upwind. The wind-load rating is calculated according to API specifications. 4893. Window a slotted opening or a full section removed in the pipe lining (casing) of a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4887. 739 Petroleum Engineer: M. Windlass a device on an anchor-handling boat that propels the anchor chain to and from a chain locker where it is stored. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.mzhelu@gmail. usually made to permit sidetracking.) a horizontal stiffening and structural member installed near the top of a floating-roof tank to reinforce the tank wall against wind pressure. Wind girder Wind guy Wind ring (See wind ring. also called a wind girder. 4888. 4891.com . Wind-load rating a specification used to indicate the resistance of a derrick to the force of wind. 4889. Z. Typical wind resistance in derricks is 75 mph with pipe standing in the derrick and 115 mph or higher without. 4892.

(See wire rope.mzhelu@gmail. 4895. Wire-wrapped screen Wireline Wireline core barrel Wireline cutting tool a type of liner. 4899. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Wire rope is used as drilling line (in rotary and cable-tool rigs). Z. servicing line. Wireline preventer a manually operated ram blowout preventer that is specially adapted for closure around a wireline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4894. 4898. and so on. used to cut another wireline stuck in a 4900. Wiper plug a rubber-bodied. 740 Petroleum Engineer: M. Wire rope a rope composed of steel wires twisted into strands that are in turn twisted around a central core of hemp or other riber to create a rope of great strength and considerable flexibility. coring line.or aluminum-cored device used to separate cement and drilling fluid as they are being pumped down the inside of the casing during cementing operations.) (See core barrel.com . winch line. well. Wiper plugs also remove drilling mud that adheres to the inside of the casing. It is also called wireline or cable. 4896. 4897.) a device usually run on a solid wireline. plastic.

mzhelu@gmail. Wireline wiper a flexible rubber wiper used to scrape mud or oil from a wireline as it is pulled 4903. Examples of workover operations are deepening. which pulls the plunger up through the working barrel. squeeze cement. pulling and resetting liner. 4905. the traveling valve opens. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4906. The traveling valve closes. 4907. the standing valve closes. water-oil ratio. 4904. Working barrel the outer shell of a downhole plunger pump. WO/O WOC WOR Work over waiting on orders. plugging back. Z. used in drilling reports. Wireline spear a special fishing tool fitted with prongs to catch and recover wireline that has broken off and been left in a well.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4901. the standing valve in the working barrel opens. from a hole. waiting on cement. and fluid enters the barrel. and so on. The pumping cycle starts with an upward stroke of the rods. On the stroke of the plunger.com . and the fluid is forced from the 741 Petroleum Engineer: M. to perform one or more of a variety of remedial operations on a producing oil well to try to increase production. 4902.

e. temperature.. Working interest the portion of oil production money out of which operating and development costs are paid (i.mzhelu@gmail. a flat area on an otherwise round fitting to which a wrench can be applied (as on sucker-rod couplings).com . The portion remaining after deduction of royalty interest). 4913. 4914. Working pressure the maximum pressure at which an item is to be used at a specified 4910. 4909. a special drilling mud used to keep a well under control when it is being worked over.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering working barrel through the plunger and into the tubing. Repeated strokes bring the fluid to the surface. 4911. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.) Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production. 4908. Workover rig Worm Wrench flat (See production rig and pulling unit. 4915. A workover fluid is compounded carefully so it will not cause formation damage. Z.) (slang) a new and inexperienced oilfield worker. It is also called a wrench square. Working-interest oil Workover Workover fluid (See net production and working interest. 4912. 742 Petroleum Engineer: M.

) 743 Petroleum Engineer: M.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4916.com . El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Wrench square (See wrench flat. Z.mzhelu@gmail.

(CH3)2. xln xylene crystalline.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4917. used in drilling reports. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. 4918. C6H4. 744 Petroleum Engineer: M. Z.com .mzhelu@gmail.carbons. A commercial mixture is used as a solvent when oil-filed emulsions are being tested. similar to benzene. any of three flammable hydro.

Yd Yd2 Yd3 Yield point 4921. cubic yard. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng. Z. the maximum stress that a solid can withstand without undergoing permanent deformation either by plastic flow or by rupture. the angular motion about a line perpendicular to a horizontal plane through the rig or ship.mzhelu@gmail. the angular motion as the or stern moves from side to side.) 745 Petroleum Engineer: M. Yaw on a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. 4923.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4919.com . to move from side to side (as a ship). (see tensile strength. yard. square yard. 4922. 4920.

After a certain length of time. Z. temporarily. 746 Petroleum Engineer: M.com . 4925. Zone of lost circulation An interval in a subsurface formation so porous or cut with crevices and fissures that the drilling mud is lost in the pores. cracks.Glossary of Petroleum Engineering 4924. 4927. the substance again turns to a liquid unblocking the producing formation.mzhelu@gmail. leaving none to circulate back to the surface. a mineral) for use in catalytic cracking units. Zone isolation A method of scaling off. 4926. Zone a rock stratum that is different from or distinguished from another stratum (as pay zone). A special substance is forced into the formation where it hardens allowing time for the well bore to be taken on down. a producing formation while the hole is being deepened. Zeolttic catalyst Catalyst formulations that contain zeolite (any of various hydrous silicates. or even a cavern. El-Helu E-Mail: peteng.