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# Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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Table of Contents Table of Contents

Principle Principle 3 3

Objective Objective 3 3

Background Background 3 3

• • Newton’s law of cooling Newton’s law of cooling 3 3

Experimental Setup Experimental Setup 5 5

• • Description of the Combined Convection and Radiation Description of the Combined Convection and Radiation

Heat Transfer Equipment: Heat Transfer Equipment: 5 5

Useful Data Useful Data 6 6

Procedure Procedure 7 7

1 . 1 . Free convection experiments Free convection experiments 8 8

Observations Observations 8 8

Analysis of results Analysis of results 8 8

Comparison to theoretical correlations Comparison to theoretical correlations 9 9

2 . 2 . Forced convection experiments Forced convection experiments 10 10

Observations Observations 10 10

Analysis of results Analysis of results 10 10

Comparison to theoretical correlations Comparison to theoretical correlations 11 11

Discussion Discussion 12 12

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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University of Puerto Rico University of Puerto Rico

Mayagüez Campus Mayagüez Campus

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

INME 4032 - LABORATORY II INME 4032 - LABORATORY II

Spring 2004 Spring 2004

Instructor: Guillermo Araya Instructor: Guillermo Araya

Experiment Experiment 2 2: : Natural And Forced Convection Experiment Natural And Forced Convection Experiment

Principle Principle

This experiment is designed to illustrate the Newton’s law of cooling by This experiment is designed to illustrate the Newton’s law of cooling by

convection and to understand how the heat transfer coefficient is obtained convection and to understand how the heat transfer coefficient is obtained

experimentally. Natural and forced convection over a heated cylinder is experimentally. Natural and forced convection over a heated cylinder is

analyzed and experimental results are compared with standard correlations. analyzed and experimental results are compared with standard correlations.

Objective Objective

Determine the heat transfer coefficient for a flow around a cylinder under Determine the heat transfer coefficient for a flow around a cylinder under

free and forced convection. Understand the correlation between Nu, free and forced convection. Understand the correlation between Nu,

Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. Compare with standard correlation from Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. Compare with standard correlation from

textbooks on heat transfer. The effect of thermal radiation is also included. textbooks on heat transfer. The effect of thermal radiation is also included.

Background Background

Newton’s law of cooling Newton’s law of cooling

For convective heat transfer, the rate equation is known as Newton’s law of For convective heat transfer, the rate equation is known as Newton’s law of

cooling and is expressed as: cooling and is expressed as:

) (

∞

− · ′ ′ T T h q

s

Where Ts is the surface temperature, T Where Ts is the surface temperature, T∞ ∞ the fluid temperature, h the the fluid temperature, h the

convection heat transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer coefficient and

q ′ ′

the convective heat flux. The heat the convective heat flux. The heat

transfer coefficient h is a function of the fluid flow, so, it is influenced by the transfer coefficient h is a function of the fluid flow, so, it is influenced by the

surface geometry, the fluid motion in the boundary layer and the fluid surface geometry, the fluid motion in the boundary layer and the fluid

properties as well. properties as well.

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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From the normalized momentum and energy equation in the boundary layer: From the normalized momentum and energy equation in the boundary layer:

2

*

* 2

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Re

1

y

U

x

P

y

U

V

x

U

U

L ∂

∂

+

∂

∂

− ·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

Momentum equation Momentum equation

2

*

* 2

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pr Re

1

y

T

y

T

V

x

T

U

L ∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

Energy equation Energy equation

Independently of the solution of these equations for a particular case, the Independently of the solution of these equations for a particular case, the

functional form for U functional form for U

* *

and T and T

* *

can be written as: can be written as:

U U

* *

= f(x = f(x

* *

,y ,y

* *

,Re ,Re

L L, dp , dp

* *

/dx /dx

* *

) )

and and

T T

* *

= f(x = f(x

* *

,y ,y

* *

,Re ,Re

L L, Pr, dp , Pr, dp

* *

/dx /dx

* *

) )

Heat transfer, due to the no-slip condition at the wall surface of the boundary Heat transfer, due to the no-slip condition at the wall surface of the boundary

layer, occurs by conduction; layer, occurs by conduction;

0 y

f

"

s

y

T

k q

·

∂

∂

− ·

By combining with the Newton’s law of cooling, we obtain: By combining with the Newton’s law of cooling, we obtain:

∞

·

−

∂

∂

− ·

T T

y

T

k

h

s

0 y

f

Since Since T T

* *

was defined as was defined as

s

s *

T T

T T

T

−

−

·

∞

h h can be written in terms of the dimensionless temperature profile can be written in terms of the dimensionless temperature profile T T

* *

0

*

*

0

*

*

* *

) (

) (

· ·

∞

∞

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

−

−

− ·

y

f

y

s

s f

y

T

L

k

y

T

T T L

T T k

h

This expression suggests defining a dimensionless parameter; This expression suggests defining a dimensionless parameter;

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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0 y

*

*

f

*

y

T

k

hL

Nu

·

∂

∂

· ·

From the dimensionless temperature profiles, we can imply a functional form From the dimensionless temperature profiles, we can imply a functional form

for the Nusselt number, for the Nusselt number,

Nu = f(x Nu = f(x

* *

,Re ,Re

L L

* *

,Pr,dp ,Pr,dp

* *

/dx /dx

* *

) )

To calculate an average heat transfer coefficient, we have to integrate over To calculate an average heat transfer coefficient, we have to integrate over

x x

* *

, so the average Nusselt number becomes independent of x , so the average Nusselt number becomes independent of x

* *

. For a . For a

prescribed geometry, prescribed geometry,

*

*

dx

dp

is specified and is specified and

Pr) , (Re f Nu

L

L ·

This means that the Nusselt number, for a prescribed geometry is a universal This means that the Nusselt number, for a prescribed geometry is a universal

function of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. function of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

Doing a similar analysis for free convection, it can be shown that, Doing a similar analysis for free convection, it can be shown that,

Pr) , Gr ( f Nu · or or Pr) , Ra ( f Nu ·

Where Where Gr Gr is the Grashof number and is the Grashof number and Ra Ra is the Rayleigh number. The is the Rayleigh number. The

Rayleigh number is simply the product of Grashof and Prandtl numbers ( Rayleigh number is simply the product of Grashof and Prandtl numbers (Ra Ra

= Gr Pr = Gr Pr) )

Then, for free convection the Nusselt number is a universal function of the Then, for free convection the Nusselt number is a universal function of the

Grashof and Prandtl numbers or Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Grashof and Prandtl numbers or Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers.

Experimental setup Experimental setup

Description of the Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Description of the Combined Convection and Radiation Heat

Transfer Equipment Transfer Equipment: :

The combined convection and radiation heat transfer equipment allows The combined convection and radiation heat transfer equipment allows

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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investigate the heat transfer of a radiant cylinder located in flow of air (cross investigate the heat transfer of a radiant cylinder located in flow of air (cross

flow) and the effect of increasing the surface temperature. The unit allows flow) and the effect of increasing the surface temperature. The unit allows

investigation of both natural convection with radiation and forced investigation of both natural convection with radiation and forced

convection. The mounting arrangement is designed such that heat loss by convection. The mounting arrangement is designed such that heat loss by

conduction through the wall of the duct is minimized. A thermocouple (T conduction through the wall of the duct is minimized. A thermocouple (T

10 10) is ) is

attached to the surface of the cylinder. The surface of the cylinder is coated attached to the surface of the cylinder. The surface of the cylinder is coated

with a matt black finished, which gives an emissivity close to 1.0. The with a matt black finished, which gives an emissivity close to 1.0. The

cylinder mounting allows the cylinder and thermocouple (T10) position to be cylinder mounting allows the cylinder and thermocouple (T10) position to be

turned 360° and locked in any position using a screw. An index mark on the turned 360° and locked in any position using a screw. An index mark on the

end of the mounting allows the actual position of the surface to be end of the mounting allows the actual position of the surface to be

determined. The cylinder can reach in excess 600°C when operated at determined. The cylinder can reach in excess 600°C when operated at

maximum voltage and in still air. maximum voltage and in still air. However the recommended maximum However the recommended maximum

for the normal operation is 500°C for the normal operation is 500°C. .

Useful Data: Useful Data:

Cylinder diameter D = 0.01 m Cylinder diameter D = 0.01 m

Cylinder heated length L = 0.07 m Cylinder heated length L = 0.07 m

Effective air velocity local to cylinder due to blockage effect Ue = (1.22) Effective air velocity local to cylinder due to blockage effect Ue = (1.22)× ×

(Ua ) (Ua )

Physical Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure Physical Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure

T T V V k k Pr Pr

K K m m

2 2

/s /s W/mK W/mK - -

300 300 1.568E-5 1.568E-5 0.02624 0.02624 0.708 0.708

350 350 2.076E-5 2.076E-5 0.03003 0.03003 0.697 0.697

400 400 2.590E-5 2.590E-5 0.03365 0.03365 0.689 0.689

450 450 2.886E-5 2.886E-5 0.03707 0.03707 0.683 0.683

500 500 3.790E-5 3.790E-5 0.04038 0.04038 0.68 0.68

550 550 4.434E-5 4.434E-5 0.04360 0.04360 0.68 0.68

600 600 5.134E-5 5.134E-5 0.04659 0.04659 0.68 0.68

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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Where: Where:

T is the absolute temperature, T is the absolute temperature, V V is the Dynamic viscosity of air, k is the is the Dynamic viscosity of air, k is the

thermal conductivity and Pr is the Prandtl number. thermal conductivity and Pr is the Prandtl number.

Procedure Procedure

a ) a ) Connect instruments to the heat transfer unit Connect instruments to the heat transfer unit

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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Combined Convection and Radiation Combined Convection and Radiation

Heat Transfer Equipment Heat Transfer Equipment

Schematic Diagram showing the Schematic Diagram showing the

Combined Convection and Radiation Combined Convection and Radiation

Heat Transfer Equipment Heat Transfer Equipment

b ) b ) Measure the reading for the surface temperature of the cylinder, the Measure the reading for the surface temperature of the cylinder, the

temperature and velocity of the air flow and the power supplied by the temperature and velocity of the air flow and the power supplied by the

heater. heater.

c ) c ) Repeat steps 1 and 2 for different velocities the air flow and power Repeat steps 1 and 2 for different velocities the air flow and power

input. input.

Free convection experiments Free convection experiments

Observations Observations

Set Set

V V I I T T

9 9 T T

10 10

Volts Volts Amp Amp

° °C C ° °C C

1 1 4 4

2 2 8 8

3 3 12 12

4 4 16 16

Analysis of results Analysis of results

Set Set

Q Q

input input h h

r r h h

C1th C1th h h

C2th C2th

W W W/m W/m

2 2

K K W/m W/m

2 2

K K W/m W/m

2 2

K K

1 1 4 4

2 2 8 8

3 3 12 12

4 4 16 16

The total heat input is: The total heat input is:

Q Q

input input = V = V× × I I

The heat transfer rate by radiation is: The heat transfer rate by radiation is:

Q Q

rad rad = = ε ε σ σ A (T A (T

s s

4 4

– Ta – Ta

4 4

) = h ) = h

r r A (T A (T

s s – T – T

a a) )

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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So, So,

a s

a s

r

T T

T T

h

−

−

·

) (

4 4

εσ

The heat transfer rate by convection is: The heat transfer rate by convection is:

Q Q

conv conv = Q = Q

input input - Q - Q

rad rad

From Newton’s law of cooling From Newton’s law of cooling

) (

a s c conv

T T A h Q − ·

And And

) (

a s

conv

c

T T A

Q

h

−

·

Comparison to theoretical correlations Comparison to theoretical correlations

For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder, Morgan suggests a correlation of For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder, Morgan suggests a correlation of

the form, the form,

n

D D

cRa

k

D h

Nu · ·

(1) (1)

c and n are coefficients that depend on the Rayleigh number c and n are coefficients that depend on the Rayleigh number

Rayleigh Rayleigh

number number

c c n n

10 10

-10 -10

– 10 – 10

-2 -2

0.675 0.675 0.058 0.058

10 10

-2 -2

– 10 – 10

2 2

1.02 1.02 0.148 0.148

10 10

2 2

– 10 – 10

4 4

0.850 0.850 0.188 0.188

10 10

4 4

– 10 – 10

7 7

0.480 0.480 0.250 0.250

10 10

7 7

– 10 – 10

12 12

0.125 0.125 0.333 0.333

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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The Rayleigh number is calculated from, The Rayleigh number is calculated from,

Pr

D ) T T ( g

Ra

2

3

a s

υ

− β

·

where where

film

T

1

· β

and and

2

T T

T

a s

film

+

·

Churchill and Chu recommend a single correlation for a wide range of Churchill and Chu recommend a single correlation for a wide range of

Rayleigh number, Rayleigh number,

[ ]

2

27 / 8

16 / 9

6 / 1

D

Pr) / 559 . 0 ( 1

Ra 387 . 0

60 . 0 Nu

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

+

+ ·

12

10 Ra ≤ (2) (2)

From correlation (1) and (2) we can determine h From correlation (1) and (2) we can determine h

C1th C1th and h and h

C2th C2th and compare and compare

with h with h

c c obtained from the experiment. obtained from the experiment.

Forced convection Forced convection

Observations Observations

Set Set

V V I I V V

a a T T

9 9 T T

10 10

Volts Volts Amp Amp m/s m/s

° °C C ° °C C

1 1 20 20 0.5 0.5

2 2 20 20 1 1

3 3 20 20 2 2

4 4 20 20 3 3

5 5 20 20 4 4

6 6 20 20 5 5

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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7 7 20 20 6 6

Analysis of results Analysis of results

Set Set

Q Q

input input h h

r r h h

C C Re Re Nu Nu

1 1 Nu Nu

2 2 h h

C1th C1th h h

C2th C2th

W W W/m W/m

2 2

K K W/m W/m

2 2

K K - - - - - - - - - -

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

The total heat input is: The total heat input is:

Q Q

input input = V = V× × I I

The heat transfer rate by radiation is: The heat transfer rate by radiation is:

Q Q

rad rad = = ε ε σ σ A (T A (T

s s

4 4

– Ta – Ta

4 4

) = h ) = h

r r A (T A (T

s s – T – T

a a) )

So, So,

a s

a s

r

T T

T T

h

−

−

·

) (

4 4

εσ

The heat transfer rate by convection is: The heat transfer rate by convection is:

Q Q

conv conv = Q = Q

input input - Q - Q

rad rad

From Newton’s law of cooling From Newton’s law of cooling

) (

a s c conv

T T A h Q − ·

and and

) T T ( A

Q

h

a s

conv

c

−

·

Comparison with theoretical correlations Comparison with theoretical correlations

For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder, Hilper suggests, For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder, Hilper suggests,

Experiment2 Experiment2 INME 4032 INME 4032

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3 / 1 m

D

D Pr Re C

k

D h

Nu · ·

(3) (3)

where C and m are coefficient that depend on the Reynolds number: where C and m are coefficient that depend on the Reynolds number:

Re Re

D D C C m m

0.4-4 0.4-4 0.989 0.989 0.330 0.330

4-40 4-40 0.911 0.911 0.385 0.385

40-4000 40-4000 0.683 0.683 0.466 0.466

4000-400000 4000-400000 0.193 0.193 0.618 0.618

40000-400000 40000-400000 0.027 0.027 0.805 0.805

All properties are evaluated at the film temperature All properties are evaluated at the film temperature

2

T T

T

a s

film

+

·

Churchill and Bernstein proposed the following correlation for Re Pr>0.2 Churchill and Bernstein proposed the following correlation for Re Pr>0.2

5 / 4

8 / 5

D

4 / 1

3 / 2

3 / 1 2 / 1

D

282000

Re

1

Pr

4 . 0

1

Pr Re 62 . 0

3 . 0 Nu

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+

+ ·

(4) (4)

where all properties are evaluated at the film temperature. where all properties are evaluated at the film temperature.

From correlation (3) and (4) we can determine h From correlation (3) and (4) we can determine h

C1th C1th and h and h

C2th C2th and compare and compare

with h with h

c c obtained from the experiment. obtained from the experiment.

Discussion Discussion

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