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Title: Vector Analysis and Quaternions Author: Alexander Macfarlane Release Date: October 5, 2004 [EBook #13609] Language: English Character set encoding: TeX *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK VECTOR ANALYSIS AND QUATERNIONS ***

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i

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS.

EDITED BY

MANSFIELD MERRIMAN and ROBERT S. WOODWARD.

**No. 8. VECTOR ANALYSIS
**

and

QUATERNIONS.

by

ALEXANDER MACFARLANE,

Secretary of International Association for Promoting the Study of Quaternions.

NEW YORK: JOHN WILEY & SONS. London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited. 1906.

Transcriber’s Notes: This material was originally published in a book by Merriman and Woodward titled Higher Mathematics. I believe that some of the page number cross-references have been retained from that presentation of this material. I did my best to recreate the index.

ii

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS.

edited by

**Mansﬁeld Merriman and Robert S. Woodward.
**

Octavo. Cloth. $1.00 each. No. 1. History of Modern Mathematics. By David Eugene Smith. No. 2. Synthetic Projective Geometry. By George Bruce Halsted. No. 3. Determinants. By Laenas Gifford Weld. No. 4. Hyperbolic Functions. By James McMahon. No. 5. Harmonic Functions. By William E. Byerly. No. 6. Grassmann’s Space Analysis. By Edward W. Hyde. No. 7. Probability and Theory of Errors. By Robert S. Woodward. No. 8. Vector Analysis and Quaternions. By Alexander Macfarlane. No. 9. Diﬀerential Equations. By William Woolsey Johnson. No. 10. The Solution of Equations. By Mansfield Merriman. No. 11. Functions of a Complex Variable. By Thomas S. Fiske.

PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc., NEW YORK. CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited, LONDON.

the theory of numbers. This plan of publication has been arranged in order to meet the demand of teachers and the convenience of classes. mechanics. the ﬁrst edition of which was published in 1896. each chapter being independent of the others. contained eleven chapters by eleven authors. possibly also monographs on branches of astronomy. It is the intention of the publishers and editors to add other monographs to the series from time to time. In these reissues it will generally be found that the monographs are enlarged by additional articles or appendices which either amplify the former presentation or record recent advances. and non-Euclidean geometry.Editors’ Preface The volume called Higher Mathematics. if the call for the same seems to warrant it. the group theory. It is the hope of the editors that this form of publication may tend to promote mathematical study and research over a wider ﬁeld than that which the former volume has occupied. Among the topics which are under consideration are those of elliptic functions. the calculus of variations. 1905. but all supposing the reader to have at least a mathematical training equivalent to that given in classical and engineering colleges. but it is also thought that it may prove advantageous to readers in special lines of mathematical literature. December. The publication of that volume is now discontinued and the chapters are issued in separate form. iii . and mathematical physics may be included.

it is now recognized as a necessity for the exact student of physics or engineering. December. In America. For those who desire information on the literature of the subject a Bibliography has been published by the Association for the promotion of the study of Quaternions and Allied Mathematics (Dublin. 1898. 1896). has been prepared by Professor Joly (London. There is still much variety in the matter of notation. Dr. Tait’s Scientiﬁc Papers have been reprinted in collected form (Cambridge. 1899.Author’s Preface Since this Introduction to Vector Analysis and Quaternions was ﬁrst published in 1896. 1903) which has now reached a second edition. 1904). In Great Britain. Also the writings of the great masters have been rendered more accessible. Wilson has ampliﬁed and extended Professor Gibbs’ lectures on vector analysis into a text-book for the use of students of mathematics and physics (New York. 1894–). 1900). and Professor Joly has realized Hamilton’s idea of a Manual of Quaternions (London. Turner have published a manual for students entitled Vectors and Rotors (London. pamphlets. Bucherer has published Elemente der Vektoranalysis (Leipzig. Knott has prepared a new edition of Kelland and Tait’s Introduction to Quaternions (London. 1901). 1905. and whereas some reviewers then regarded the analysis as a luxury. Ontario. In the same interval many papers. and the relation of Vector Analysis to Quaternions is still the subject of discussion (see Journal of the Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung for 1904 and 1905). 1905). 1901). In Germany Dr. and a complete edition of Grassmann’s mathematical and physical works has been edited by Friedrich Engel with the assistance of several of the eminent mathematicians of Germany (Leipzig. iv . and Dr. and discussions have appeared. 1904). the Elements of Quaternions. Canada. A new edition of Hamilton’s classic. Chatham. the study of the subject has become much more general. Professor Henrici and Mr. 1903). Professor Hathaway has published a Primer of Quaternions (New York.

2 Addition of Coplanar Vectors. 5 Addition of Vectors in Space.Contents Editors’ Preface Author’s Preface 1 Introduction. 4 Coaxial Quaternions. 8 Composition of Quantities. 10 Composition of Rotations. 7 Product of Three Vectors. Index 11 PROJECT GUTENBERG “SMALL PRINT” iii iv 1 3 9 16 21 23 28 32 37 44 47 v . 3 Products of Coplanar Vectors. 6 Product of Two Vectors. 9 Spherical Trigonometry.

This space analysis is a universal Cartesian analysis. Arts. or quaternion in nature. in the same manner as algebra is a universal arithmetic. whether rectangular. The diﬀerent views of this extension of analysis which have been held by independent writers are brieﬂy indicated by the titles of their works: • Argand. By providing an explicit notation for directed quantities. 2–4 treat of the more restricted analysis. by “Quaternions” is meant a space-analysis in which the quaternion is the fundamental idea. 1806. Calcolo delle Equipollenze.Article 1 Introduction. 1 . 1827. Treatise on the geometrical representation of the square roots of negative quantities. or polar. • Moebius. or of a still diﬀerent nature. 1835. and developed so as to harmonize with one another and with the Cartesian Analysis1 . Essai sur une mani´ ere de repr´ esenter les quantit´ es imaginaires dans les constructions g´ eom´ etriques. • Bellavitis. while Arts. just as propositions about quantities in a plane remain true when restricted to a straight line. • Warren. Hence in the following articles the ascent to the algebra of space is made through the intermediate algebra of the plane. The subject to be treated is the analysis of quantities in space. see Nature. 1891–1893. or are of such a kind that they can be adequately represented by space quantities. 1 For a discussion of the relation of Vector Analysis to Quaternions. Der barycentrische Calcul. whether they are vector in nature. cylindrical. Every proposition about quantities in space ought to remain true when restricted to a plane. instead of in a roundabout way by means of a quadratic function. 5–10 treat of the general analysis. They are in truth complementary parts of one whole. it enables their general properties to be investigated independently of any particular system of coordinates. and in this chapter they will be treated as such. It also has this advantage that it can express the directed quantity by a linear function of the coordinates. By “Vector Analysis” is meant a space analysis in which the vector is the fundamental idea. 1828.

• Hankel. System der Raumlehre. 1866. 1867. 1874. Symbolic Forms derived from the conception of the translation of a directed magnitude. Principles of the Algebra of Physics. 1888. in “Reprint of Electrical Papers. 1853. • Schlegel. 1881–4. Calcolo geometrico. Trigonometry and Double Algebra.” . 1867. Lectures on Quaternions. • Heaviside. Elements of Vector Analysis. • Gibbs. 1891. Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre. Vector Analysis. INTRODUCTION. 1890.” 1885–92. 1851. 2 • O’Brien. and Elements of Quaternions. • Tait. An excellent synopsis is given by Hagen in the second volume of his “Synopsis der h¨ oheren Mathematik. • Peano. Papers on Space Analysis. 1844. 1872. 1891–3. • Ho¨ uel. Philosophical Transactions. • Macfarlane. 1849. The Directional Calculus. • Grassmann. • Hamilton. Elementary Treatise on Quaternions. Vorlesungen u ¨ber die complexen Zahlen und ihre Functionen.ARTICLE 1. • Hyde. Th´ eorie des quantit´ es complexes. • De Morgan.

2 The dot was used for this purpose in the author’s Note on Plane Algebra. as usual. and explains readily many things which are diﬃcult to explain by the other analysis. and its direction by a small Greek letter.Article 2 Addition of Coplanar Vectors.2 but in such simple expressions as the above. the diﬀerence is suﬃciently indicated by the diﬀerence of type. each component starting from the end of its 1 This notation is found convenient by electrical writers in order to harmonize with the Hospitalier system of symbols and abbreviations. as b. A system of three mutually rectangular axes will be indicated. Though a vector is represented by a line.1 its magnitude by a small italic letter. a directed area which is of two dimensions in length. A vector quantity may be such that its components have a common point of application and are applied simultaneously. By a “vector” is meant a quantity which has magnitude and direction. The analysis of a vector here supposed is that into magnitude and direction. as β . 3 . or it may be such that its components are applied in succession. k . Kennelly has since used for the same purpose in his electrical papers. as B . R = rρ. Examples are a linear velocity which is of one dimension in length. But it will be found that the analysis into magnitude and direction is much more in accord with physical ideas. A vector will be denoted by a capital italic letter. For example. the vector is analyzed into tensor and unit-vector. 1883. and whose direction coincides with or represents the direction of the vector. B = bβ . It is graphically represented by a line whose length represents the magnitude on some convenient scale. an axis which is of no dimensions in length. which means that the tensor is a mere ratio destitute of dimensions. Sometimes it is necessary to introduce a dot or a mark to separate the speciﬁcation of the direction from the expression for the magnitude. its physical dimensions may be diﬀerent from that of a line. According to Hamilton and Tait and other writers on Quaternions. while the unit-vector is the physical magnitude. j . by the letters i.

36/36◦ 30 . then we have the more symmetrical formula OC = 2 + f 2 + 2f f cos(θ − θ ) f1 1 2 2 1 2 tan−1 f1 sin θ1 + f2 sin θ2 . and AC parallel to OB .—Let OA and OB represent two vectors of the same kind simultaneously applied at the point O.—Let the forces applied at a point be 2/0◦ and 3/60◦ . f1 cos θ1 + f2 cos θ2 When the components are equal. and join OC . This principle was discovered with reference to force. Take the direction of OA for the initial direction. and an example of the latter in two rectilinear displacements made in succession to one another. Thus OA may be denoted by f1 /0. OB by f2 /θ2 . f1 + f2 cos θ2 Example. OC by f /θ. ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. From the geometry of the ﬁgure it follows that 2 2 f 2 = f1 + f2 + 2f1 f2 cos θ2 and tan θ = hence OC = 2 + f 2 + 2f f cos θ 2 f1 1 2 2 f2 sin θ2 . Then the resultant is 4 + 9 + 12 × 1 2 tan−1 √ 3 3 7 = 4. If the ﬁrst component is given as f1 /θ1 .ARTICLE 2. f1 + f2 cos θ2 tan−1 f2 sin θ2 . but it applies to any vector quantity coming under the above conditions. The diagonal OC represents in magnitude and direction and point of application the resultant of OA and OB . 4 predecessor. and the magnitude of the resultant is twice the projection of either component on the bisecting line. OC = 2f1 cos 2 2 . Draw BC parallel to OA. the direction of the resultant bisects the angle formed by the vectors. An example of the former is found in two forces applied simultaneously at the same point. Composition of Components having a common Point of Application. The above formula reduces to θ2 θ2 . the direction of any other vector will be suﬃciently denoted by the angle round which the initial direction has to be turned in order to coincide with it.

f1 cos(θ2 − θ1 ) + f2 = f cos(θ2 − θ). and there is only one set of two components which produces a given resultant. then the other component is f2 /θ2 = 2 − 2f f cos θ f 2 + f1 1 tan−1 f sin θ −f1 + f cos θ Given the resultant and the directions of the two components.—The resultant of two equal alternating electromotive forces which diﬀer 120◦ in phase is equal in magnitude to either and has a phase of 60◦ . 1 − cos2 (θ2 − θ1 ) . Join AC and draw OB equal and parallel to AC . The line OB represents the component required. from which it follows that f1 = f {cos(θ − θ1 ) − cos(θ2 − θ) cos(θ2 − θ1 )} . It is evident that OA and OB when compounded produce the given resultant OC .” Let f /θ be the vector and f1 /0 one component. then compound it with the given resultant to ﬁnd the required component. the lines OA and OB cut oﬀ represent the required components. The line OB is identical with the diagonal of the parallelogram formed by OC and OA reversed. hence the rule is. to ﬁnd the other component. and CB parallel to OX . hence they are the only pair of components having the given directions. Given a vector and one component.—Let OC represent the resultant. for it is the only line which combined with OA gives OC as resultant. 5 Example.—The resultant is represented by OC .ARTICLE 2. Then f1 + f2 cos(θ2 − θ1 ) = f cos(θ − θ1 ). ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. Let f /θ be the vector and /θ1 and /θ2 the given directions. “Reverse the direction of the component. to ﬁnd the magnitude of the components. From C draw CA parallel to OY . and OA the component. and the directions by OX and OY .

let 100/60◦ . 2 π . ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. as A. f cos θ f cos θ + f sin θ . 2 π . 1 + cos 60◦ 6 Composition of any Number of Vectors applied at a common Point. C . For example.—The resultant may be found by the following graphic construction: Take the vectors in any order. Now f1 /θ1 = f1 cos θ1 /0 + f1 sin θ1 Similarly f2 /θ2 = f2 cos θ2 /0 + f2 sin θ2 and fn /θn = fn cos θn /0 + fn sin θn Hence f /θ = = f cos θ /0 + 2 π . The resultant obtained is the same. whatever the order. the vector from the beginning of A to the end of C is the resultant of the given vectors. and as the order is arbitrary. The result may be obtained analytically as follows: Given f1 /θ1 + f2 /θ2 + f3 /θ3 + · · · + fn /θn . B . From the end of A draw B equal and parallel to B . This follows by continued application of the parallelogram construction. 2 f θ 2 π 2 · tan−1 f sin θ . /30◦ . then f1 = 100 cos 30◦ . and /90◦ be given.ARTICLE 2. and from the end of B draw C equal and parallel to C . the area enclosed has no physical meaning.

3 Composition of Successive Vectors.) Prob. For any number of successive vectors. 4/40◦ . 3 h/nt. and has a physical meaning. 2 3 This does not hold true of a sum of vectors having a real order of succession.ARTICLE 2. 3/30◦ . then A + B = −C . and B a vector starting from the end of A. The line OP is not the complete equivalent of A + B . The resultant vector is 123/45◦ . (Ans. Zero. ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS.—The composition of successive vectors partakes more of the nature of multiplication than of addition. In this chapter no attempt is made to apply formal laws to directed quantities. but each pair diﬀers in phase by 120◦ . Calculate the resultant vector of 1/10◦ . etc. the ordinary rule about the transposition of a term in an equation holds good. This is permissible because there is no real order of succession among the given components. The diagonal OP represents A + B only so far as it is considered independent of path. But A + B and B + A determine diﬀerent paths. 1. and from O draw a vector equal to B . 2/20◦ . it would also be the complete equivalent of B + A. Prob. and A + C = −B . Find the components of the vector 100/70◦ in the directions 20◦ and 100◦ . and B + C = −A. the areas they determine with OP have diﬀerent signs. if it were so. Prob. the sum so far as it is independent of path is the vector from the initial point of the ﬁrst to the ﬁnal point of the last. 4. The velocity of a body in a given plane is 200/75◦ . Prob. Prob. It is a mistake to attempt to found space-analysis upon arbitrary formal laws. Three alternating magnetomotive forces are of equal virtual value. Compound the following magnetic ﬂuxes: h sin nt + h sin(nt − 120◦ )/120◦ + (Ans. Prob. 6. and from its extremity a vector equal to A. 2. ﬁnd the other component. 3. 5. What is attempted is an analysis of these quantities. This is also true when the successive vectors become so small as to form a continuous curve. ﬁnd the resultant. if A + B + C = 0. For example. The area between the curve OP Q and the vector OQ depends on the path. the fundamental rules must be made to express universal properties of the thing denoted. Let A be a vector starting from the point O. and one component is 100/25◦ . Draw the third side OP . 7 In the case of a sum of simultaneous vectors applied at a common point. and one component is 100/0◦ . . ﬁnd the other component.) h sin(nt − 240◦ )/240◦ . and as they go oppositely around.

ADDITION OF COPLANAR VECTORS. a/nt. 8. 9. Prob. Compound two alternating magnetic ﬂuxes at a point a cos nt/0 and a sin nt/ π . . 8 Prob. Find the resultant of two simple alternating electromotive forces 100/20◦ and 50/75◦ . Prove that a uniform circular motion is obtained by compounding two equal simple harmonic motions which have the space-phase of their angular positions equal to the supplement of the time-phase of their motions. 7.ARTICLE 2. 2 (Ans.) Prob.

9 . When all the vectors considered are conﬁned to a common plane. Thus the complete product breaks up into two partial products. namely. that the square of a sign of direction is +. but unfortunately it does not explain ii = +. each may be expressed as the sum of two rectangular components. as suggested by ordinary algebra. it is supposed not to be an axis. R = xi + yj . j an operand. The kind of operator which i is supposed to denote is a quadrant of turning round the axis i. Here i and j are not unit-vectors. not necessarily of the same kind physically. Hence AB = (a1 i + a2 j )(b1 i + b2 j ) = a1 b1 ii + a2 b2 jj + a1 b2 ij + a2 b2 ji. and (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k which has the axis of the plane for direction.—Let A = a1 i + a2 j and B = b1 i + b2 j be any two vectors. If we assume. and k the result. Let i and j denote two directions in the plane at right angles to one another. but a quadrant of rotation round an axis. but we do not assume that the order of the factors is indiﬀerent. then the above reduces to AB = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k.Article 3 Products of Coplanar Vectors. This explains the result ij = k. We assume that their product is obtained by applying the distributive law. and further that the product of two directions at right angles to one another is the direction normal to both. then A = a1 i + a2 j . but rather signs of direction. Product of two Vectors. a1 b1 + a2 b2 which is independent of direction. B = b1 i + b2 j .1 1 A common explanation which is given of ij = k is that i is an operator. for it would give ii = i.

it is an essentially positive or signless quantity. 2 × 4 + 3 × 5 = 23 foot-pounds per second. The former partial product is so called because it is of such a nature. 2 2 Corollary 2. the direction of the other A must be the same.—SBA = SAB . draw QM and N L perpendicular to OP . It is denoted by SAB where the symbol S. PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. denotes. then SAB denotes the rate of working of the force. The kinetic energy due to the downward 642 10 velocity is 10 × and that due to the horizontal velocity is × 1002 . for whatever the direction of A. Then (OP )(OM ) = (OP )(OL) + (OP )(LM ). a a = a1 b1 + a2 b2 . 10 Scalar Product of two Vectors. Corollary 1.ARTICLE 3. Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and B . For instance. being in Roman type. Its kinetic energy then is 10 (642 + 1002 ) foot-poundals. 2 a quantity which has no direction.—By a scalar quantity is meant a quantity which has magnitude and may be positive or negative but is destitute of direction. Example 2.—A2 = a2 1 + a2 = a . let A denote a force and B the velocity of its point of application. The result is the same whether the force is projected on the velocity or the velocity on the force. hence the scalar product cannot be negative. a1 a2 = a b1 + b2 . but a function of the vectors A and B . The square of any vector is independent of direction. Example 1.—A force of 2 pounds East + 3 pounds North is moved with a velocity of 4 feet East per second + 5 feet North per second. ﬁnd the rate at which work is done. not a vector. The geometrical meaning of SAB is the product of A and the orthogonal projection of B upon A.—A stone of 10 pounds mass is moving with a velocity 64 feet down per second + 100 feet horizontal per second. the 2 2 .

—Let A = (10i + 11j ) inches and B = (5i + 12j ) inches. and is denoted by VAB . then SAB = ab cos αβ . Example. It is to be observed that the coordinates of A and B are mere component vectors. their pole. and draw the lines indicated by the ﬁgure. when the components are rectangular. It is then evident 1 1 a2 a2 − 2 b1 b2 − 1 that the area of the triangle OP Q = a1 b2 − 2 2 (a1 − b1 )(b2 − a2 ) = 1 ( a b − a b ). that is. Its geometrical meaning is the product of A and the projection of B which is perpendicular to A. 800 cos 45◦ volts. but by simple addition. PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. where αβ denotes the angle between the directions α and β . . the area of the parallelogram formed upon A and B . Example. 11 whole kinetic energy is obtained. The two together written as above specify the normal k . that is. where αβ denotes the direction which is normal to both α and β . Also VAB = ab sin αβ · αβ . not by vector. that is. Example. 65 square inches in the plane which has the direction k for axis. Vector Product of two Vectors. Here /45◦ indicates the direction α and /90◦ the direction β . 1 2 2 1 2 Thus (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k denotes the magnitude of the parallelogram formed by A and B and also the axis of the plane in which it lies. whereas A and B themselves are taken in a real order.ARTICLE 3.—At a distance of 10 feet /30◦ there is a force of 100 pounds /60◦ The moment is VAB = 10 × 100 sin /30◦ /60◦ pound-feet 90◦ //90◦ = 1000 sin 30◦ pound feet 90◦ //90◦ Here 90◦ / speciﬁes the plane of the angle and /90◦ the angle. then VAB = (120 − 55)k square inches.—The other partial product from its nature is called the vector product. If A is expressed as aα and B as bβ .—The eﬀective electromotive force of 100 volts per inch /90◦ along a conductor 8 inch /45◦ is SAB = 8 × 100 cos /45◦ /90◦ volts. and /45◦ /90◦ means the angle between the direction of 45◦ and the direction of 90◦ . It follows that VBA = −VAB . that is. Let OP and OQ represent the vectors A and B .

A−1 = α = 2 = 2 a a a1 + a2 2 The reciprocal and opposite vector is −A−1 . a a 2 Writers who identify a vector with a quadrantal versor are logically led to deﬁne the reciprocal of a vector as being opposite in direction as well as reciprocal in magnitude.ARTICLE 3. In the ﬁgure let OP = 2β 1 be the given vector. A−1 = feet East + 125 5 10 5 feet North and −A−1 = − feet East − feet North.—If A = 10 feet East + 5 feet North. a b = (cos αβ + sin αβ · αβ ).—By the reciprocal of a vector is meant the vector which combined with the original vector produces the product +1. and OR = 2 (−β ) is its reciprocal and opposite. 125 125 125 Product of the reciprocal of a vector and another vector.2 10 Example. then OQ = 1 2 β is its reciprocal. The reciprocal of A is denoted by A−1 . b must equal a−1 and β must be identical with α in order that the product may be 1. a Hence SA−1 B = b b cos αβ and VA−1 B = sin αβ · αβ . Since AB = ab(cos αβ + sin αβ · αβ ). a2 1 = 2 a1 b1 + a2 b2 + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )αβ . . PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS.— A−1 B = 1 AB. 12 Reciprocal of a Vector. It follows that a1 i + a2 j aα 1 .

2/90◦ . B = 3/0◦ + 4/90◦ . the total product will be represented by OR. If the product is formed after the other mode of association we have A(BC ) = (a1 i + a2 j )(b1 c1 + b2 c2 ) + (a1 i + a2 j )(b1 c2 − b2 c1 )k = (b1 c1 + b2 c2 )(a1 i + a2 j ) + (b1 c2 − b2 c1 )(a2 i − a1 j ) = SBC · A + VA(VBC ).—Let A = 1/0◦ + 2/90◦ . where αβγ denotes the direction which is perpendicular to the perpendicular to α and β and γ . Hence the latter partial product diﬀers with the mode of association. where the point separates the vectors to which the S refers.—Let A = a1 i + a2 j . The latter product is also expressed by (VAB )C . B = b1 i + b2 j . C = 5/0◦ + 6/90◦ . Square of a Binomial of Vectors. The former partial product means the vector C multiplied by the scalar product of A and B .—If A + B denotes a sum of non-successive vectors. The fourth proportional to A. B. the resultant of OP and OQ. Then (AB )C = (a1 b1 + a2 b2 ) + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k (c1 i + c2 j ) = (a1 b1 + a2 b2 )(c1 i + c2 j ) + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )(−c2 i + c1 j ). If these partial products (represented by OP and OQ) unite to form a total product. 13 Product of three Coplanar Vectors.ARTICLE 3. while the latter partial product means the complementary vector of C multiplied by the magnitude of the vector product of A and B . and more analytically by abc cos αβ · γ . The vector a2 i − a1 j is the opposite of the complementary vector of a1 i + a2 j . But the square of . It is also expressed by abc sin αβ · αβγ . which is equivalent to V(VAB )C . C is (A−1 B )C = 1×3+2×4 5/0◦ + 6/90◦ 12 + 22 1×4−2×3 + −6/0◦ + 5/90◦ 12 + 22 = 13. it is entirely equivalent to the resultant vector C . because VAB is at right angles to C . PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS.4/0◦ + 11. Example. C = c1 i + c2 j denote any three vectors in a common plane. The former product is also expressed by SAB · C .

—Let A + B + C denote a sum of successive vectors. PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. while the vector part gives four times the area included between the path and the third side. The product terms must be formed so as to preserve the order of the vectors in the trinomial. = A2 + AB + BA + B 2 . + 2(VAB + VAC + VBC ). Hence S(A + B + C )2 = (1) = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab cos αβ + 2ac cos αγ + 2bc cos βγ and V(A + B + C )2 = (2) = {2ab sin αβ + 2ac sin αγ + 2bc sin βγ } · αβ (1) (2) . Hence (A + B )2 = (A + B )(A + B ). = A2 + B 2 + 2SAB. 14 any vector is a positive scalar. The scalar part gives the square of the length of the third side. that is. giving (A + B )2 = A2 + 2AB + B 2 = A2 + B 2 + 2SAB + 2VAB. and consequently we need not expect the square to be a scalar quantity. This may also be written in the form a2 + b2 + 2ab cos αβ. not of the factors. A is prior to B and C . there is no third vector C which is the complete equivalent. but of the terms in the binomial. and B is prior to C . = A2 + B 2 + SAB + SBA + VAB + VBA. = A2 + B 2 + C 2 + 2(SAB + SAC + SBC ). Square of a Trinomial of Coplanar Vectors. hence the square of A + B must be a positive scalar. the square must be formed after the rules for the products of rectangular components (p. We observe that there is a real order. Since A and B are in reality components of one vector. 432). this causes both product terms to be AB .ARTICLE 3. But when A + B denotes a sum of successive vectors. Hence (A + B + C )2 = A2 + B 2 + C 2 + 2AB + 2AC + 2BC.

PRODUCTS OF COPLANAR VECTORS. ﬁnd the area of the polygon. 12. or vector product. Find the sine and cosine of the angle between the directions 0. A force of 10 pounds /45◦ is acting at the end of 8 feet /200◦ . .) Prob. and 6/0◦ + 5/90◦ . ﬁnd the torque. which is the theorem of moments. 7/225◦ ..5807 N.8141 E. Find the fourth proportional to 10/0◦ + 2/90◦ .17/90◦ . but in accordance with the order of the vectors in the trinomial. C = 7/45◦ . 1 1 V(AB + AC + BC ) = {15 sin /0◦ /30◦ + 21 sin /0◦ /45◦ + 35/30◦ /45◦ }. ﬁnd the moment.75 + 7.04 × 107 lines per inch per second. and 0.000 lines per square inch /0◦ .53 = 15.03/0◦ + .—Let A = 3/0◦ . ﬁnd the vector product. (Ans. 11.5060 E. Prob.7. 13. 16. At a distance of 25 centimeters /20◦ there is a force of 1000 dynes /80◦ . what is the work done (scalar product)? What is the meaning of the negative sign in the scalar product? Prob. Prob. (Ans. + 0. 8/180◦ . . + 0. B = 5/30◦ . The radius of curvature of a curve is 2/0◦ + 5/90◦ . per second. Prob.ARTICLE 3. 14.) Prob. 15. 8/0◦ − 3/90◦ . 1. Also that the product terms are not formed in cyclical order. Prob. The vector part is four times the area included between the successive sides and the resultant side of the polygon. Note that it is here assumed that V(A + B )C = VAC + VBC . 9/100◦ . ﬁnd the curvature. A conductor in an armature has a velocity of 240 inches per second /300◦ and the magnetic ﬂux is 50. 10.42 + 4. per second + 50 feet SE. A mass of 100 pounds is moving with a velocity of 30 feet E. Prob. ﬁnd its kinetic energy. 2 2 = 3. 18. 15 The scalar part gives the square of the vector from the beginning of A to the end of C and is all that exists when the vectors are non-successive. 17.8625 N. Find the area of the polygon whose successive sides are 10/30◦ . When a force of 200 pounds /270◦ is displaced by 10 feet /30◦ . Prob. Example.

for the two vectors may or may not be of the same physical kind. where θ denotes the angle in radians. It is the most important key to the extension of analysis to space. it is not conical. Etymologically “quaternion” means deﬁned by four elements. but the above form shows that the equation is homogeneous. Also R = rβ θ and A = β −θ . hence all the quaternions considered have a common axis. that is to say. the turning-factor may be omitted. a quantity destitute of physical dimensions. The magnitude may or may not be a mere ratio. The operator which changes A into R consists of a scalar multiplier and a turning round the axis β . and expresses nothing but the 1 The idea of the “quaternion” is due to Hamilton. When the angle is naught. Thus π β θ = cos θ · β θ + sin θ · β 2 . which is true in space. The turning is in a plane. that is. 16 . in plane analysis it is deﬁned by two. By a “quaternion” is meant the operator which changes one vector into another. the direction normal to the plane may be denoted by β . one of which has a zero angle and the other an angle of a quadrant. Thus R = rβ θ A and 1 1 1 1 reciprocally A = β −θ R. For the present all the vectors considered lie in a common plane.Article 4 Coaxial Quaternions. Let the former be denoted by r and the latter by β θ . r A R r The turning factor β θ may be expressed as the sum of two component operators. Its importance may be judged from the fact that it has made solid trigonometrical analysis possible.1 Let A and R be two coinitial vectors. It is composed of a magnitude and a turning factor.

n the alternations per unit of time. that is. the operator which changes the current into the electromotive force is a quaternion. Components of the Reciprocal of a Quaternion. p θ = tan−1 . where r is the resistance. also that I −1 E = r + 2πnl · β 2 . are given by r= p2 + q 2 . COAXIAL QUATERNIONS. The resistance is the scalar part of the quaternion. which stands for −1. and I the alternating current in magnitude and phase. l the self-induction. The relations between r and θ. 2 In . and p and q .—Let E denote a sine alternating electromotive force in magnitude and phase. and the inductance is the vector part.2 Hence rβ θ = r cos θ + r sin θ · β 2 =p+q·β2 and rβ θ A = pA + qβ 2 A = pa · α + qa · β 2 α.—Given R = p + q · β 2 A. and that it also serves to specify the general turning factor β θ as well as the quadrantal turning π factor β 2 . q π π π π 17 Example. equivalence of a given quaternion to two component quaternions. The advantages of using the above notation are that it is capable of being applied to space. and β denotes the axis of the plane of representation. then E = r + 2πnl · β 2 I. √ π the method of complex numbers β 2 is expressed by i.ARTICLE 4. It follows that π E = rI + 2πnl · β 2 I . then A= 1 π R p+q·β2 π p−q·β2 R = π π p+q·β2 p−q·β2 p−q·β2 R p2 + q 2 π p q = − 2 ·β2 2 2 2 p +q p +q π π π π = R.

COAXIAL QUATERNIONS.. 1886. Addition of Coaxial Quaternions. . .—In the case of a compound circuit composed of a number of simple circuits in parallel I1 = therefore. May. if R1 = (p1 + q1 · β 2 )A. 238. Philosophical Magazine. Rn = (pn + qn · β 2 )A.—If the ratio of each of several vectors to a constant vector A is given. . . q) · β 2 q) π p ) +( 2 R. p. + 2πn 2 l r 2 +(2πn)2 l2 ·β2 π + (2πn)2 l r 2 +(2πn)2 l2 2 I. 18 Example. r1 1 π I2 = r2 − 2πnl2 · β 2 2 + (2πn)2 l2 E. r − 2πnl · β 2 E r2 + (2πn)2 l2 r − 2πn 2 r + (2πn)2 l2 π r2 π l ·β2 2 2 + (2πn) l E. R2 = (p2 + q2 · β 2 )A.—Take the same application as above.ARTICLE 4. . the ratio of their resultant to the same constant vector is obtained by taking the sum of the ratios. .3 3 This theorem was discovered by Lord Rayleigh. r2 2 π etc. Thus. By the above we deduce that from E = (r + 2πnl · β 2 )I I= π 2πnl r − 2 ·β2 r2 + (2πnl)2 r + (2πnl)2 E. Example. . . . then R= and reciprocally A= p−( ( 2 π π π p+ q ·β2 π A. . . I= = and reciprocally E= r r 2 +(2πn)2 l2 r r 2 +(2πn)2 l2 r1 − 2πnl1 · β 2 2 + (2πn)2 l2 E. See also Bedell & Crehore’s Alternating Currents. . It is important to obtain I π in terms of E . .

ARTICLE 4. then R = r θ −θ β R.” treat this product of coaxial quaternions as if it were the product of vectors. and R to R . The angles are summed because they are indices of the common base β . p + q2 π (pp + qq ) + (pq − p q ) · β 2 = R. p+q·β2 π π p − q · β 2 = (p + q · β 2 ) 2 R. and A to R . Given R = rβ θ A = (p + q · β 2 )A and R = r β θ A = (p + q · β 2 )A. The impressed alternating electromotive force is 200 volts. COAXIAL QUATERNIONS.4 Quotient of two Coaxial Quaternions. required the current. the resistance of the 1 circuit is 10 ohms.7 amperes / − 20◦ 42 . 19 Product of Coaxial Quaternions. 19.—If the given quaternions are those which change A to R. such as Hayward in “Vector Algebra and Trigonometry. the quaternion which changes A to R is obtained by taking the product of the given quaternions. are given. r π π π π π π 1 π R. . and likewise the product of the turning factors.) 4 Many writers. Given R = rβ θ A = p + q · β 2 A and R = r β θ A = p + q · β 2 R. p2 + q 2 = (p + q · β 2 ) Prob. then that which changes R to R is obtained by taking the quotient of the latter by the former.—If the quaternions which change A to R. (Ans. then R = rr β θ+θ A = (pp − qq ) + (pq + p q ) · β 2 A. 18. and there are 60 alternations per second.” and Stringham in “Uniplanar Algebra. This is the fundamental error in the Argand method. the self-induction is 100 henry. Note that the product is formed by taking the product of the magnitudes.

r2 . ﬁnd the impressed voltage. 22. 21. and self-inductions l1 . etc. A number of coils having resistances r1 . .. If the electromotive force is 110 volts /θ and the current is 10 amperes /θ − 4 ﬁnd the resistance and the self-induction. Prob. Prob. 20. etc. there being 120 alternations per second. l2 . 20 1 π.ARTICLE 4. COAXIAL QUATERNIONS. and reciprocally. are placed in series.. ﬁnd the impressed electromotive force in terms of the current. If in the above circuit the current is 10 amperes. Prob.

It may be speciﬁed as xi + yj + zk ρ= 2 . then we deduce the other form thus: R = r cos θ · i + r sin θ cos φ · j + r sin θ sin φ · k. x For example. The additional angle φ/ is introduced to specify the plane in which the angle from the initial line lies. B = 10 30◦ //45◦ = 10 cos 45◦ · i + 10 sin 45◦ cos 30◦ · j + 10 sin 45◦ sin 30◦ · k. x + y2 + z2 where the three squares are subject to the condition that their sum is unity. A vector in space can be expressed in terms of three independent components. If we are given R in the form rφ//θ. we deduce R= x2 + y 2 + z 2 tan−1 z y tan−1 y2 + z2 . If R is given in the form xi + yj + zk .Article 5 Addition of Vectors in Space. and any constant vector B may be expressed as B = bβ = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k. and when these form a rectangular set the directions of resolution are expressed by i. k . In space the symbol ρ for the direction involves two elements. 21 . Any variable vector R may be expressed as R = rρ = xi + yj + zk . Or it may be speciﬁed by this notation. j . a generalization of the notation for a plane. φ//θ.

from C = 3i + 4j + 5k we deduce C= √ 9 + 16 + 25 tan −1 22 5 4 √ tan −1 41 3 = 7.4//64◦ . R1 = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k.ARTICLE 5. Express in the form r φ//θ the resultant vector of 1i + 2j − 3k. 4i − 5j + 6k and −7i + 8j + 9k. R2 = x2 i + y2 j + z2 k. 20 30◦ //40◦ .5 311◦ //61◦ . Prob. ADDITION OF VECTORS IN SPACE. 26.π 3 and F = 1000 π 6 3π . Express E = 100 π 4 . .—When the successive vectors do not lie in one plane. Prob.9. . 25. and 30 40◦ //50◦ . z) 2 z and tan θ = y y) + ( x . 27. Successive Addition. . Express A = 4i − 5j + 6k and B = 5i + 6j − 7k in the form rφ//θ (Ans.8 130◦ //63◦ and 10. 23. but these add by vector addition into a resultant directed area. . Prob. the several elements of the area enclosed will lie in diﬀerent planes. then R= and 2 2 2 x i+ y j+ z k r= tan φ = x + y ( + 2 z . 8.07 51◦ . let R1 .5. Find the resultant of 10 20◦ //30◦ . 24. Express C = 123 57◦ //142◦ and D = 456 65◦ //200◦ in the form xi + yj + zk. 4 in the form xi + yj + zk. To ﬁnd the resultant of any number of component vectors applied at a common point. Rn represent the n vectors or. R2 . ····················· Rn = xn i + yn j + zn k . Again. . Prob.) Prob.

and the vector of electromotive force. and consequently are summed by simple addition. and ji = −k we obtained (p. In the dynamo three principal vectors have to be considered: the velocity of the conductor at any instant. j 2 = +. ij = k. Frequently all that is demanded is. because k is in tri-dimensional space the axis which is complementary to i and j . We also observe that the three rules ij = k . ik = −j . The square combinations give results which are independent of direction. The ﬁgure shows that these rules are made to represent the relation of the advance to the rotation in the right-handed screw. The area vector determined by i and j can be represented in direction by k .Article 6 Product of Two Vectors.—By the rules i2 = +. from the symmetry of space we assume that the following rules are true for the product of two vectors in space: i2 = +. jk = i. The physical meaning of these rules is made clearer by an application to the dynamo and the electric motor. ki = j . Accordingly. jk = i. ik = −j . kj = −i. Rules of Signs for Vectors in Space. j 2 = +. k2 = + . given two of these directions to determine 23 . the intensity of magnetic ﬂux. each of which has the highest importance in mathematical and physical analysis. kj = −i. ki = j are derived from one another by cyclical permutation. ij = k . likewise the three rules ji = −k . ji = −k. 432) a product of two vectors containing two partial products.

and that the magnetic ﬂux is to the left. for it compares the three directions directly with the right-handed screw. is AB = (a1 i + a2 j + a3 k )(b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ). corresponding to the rotation from the velocity to the ﬂux in the righthanded screw we have advance into the paper: that then is the direction of the electromotive force. corresponding to current ﬂux we have advance towards the bottom of the page. The corresponding formula for the electric motor is current ﬂux = mechanical-force. and force current = ﬂux. Complete Product of two Vectors. Suppose that the direction of the velocity is i. The formula ij = k becomes velocity ﬂux = electromotive-force. that its velocity is towards the bottom. Example. not necessarily of the same kind physically. 24 the third. = a1 b1 ii + a2 b2 jj + a3 b3 kk + a2 b3 jk + a3 b2 kj + a3 b1 ki + a1 b3 ik + a1 b2 ij + a2 b1 ji = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 + (a2 b3 )i + (a3 b1 − a1 b3 )j + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k a1 = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 + b1 i a2 b2 j a3 b3 k . Their product. from which we derive by cyclical permutation ﬂux force = current. and that the magnetic ﬂux is towards the left. and electromotive-force velocity = ﬂux. and that of the ﬂux j . from which we deduce ﬂux electromotive-force = velocity. which therefore must be the direction of the mechanical force which is applied to the conductor.ARTICLE 6. then the direction of the electromotive force is k . 444). suppose that in a motor the direction of the current along the conductor is up from the paper. according to the rules (p. The formula velocity ﬂux = electromotive-force is much handier than any thumb-and-ﬁnger rule.—Suppose that the conductor is normal to the plane of the paper. PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS.—Let A = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and B = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k be any two vectors. Again.

PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS. Corollary 2. the vectors are necessarily homogeneous.—Hence SBA = SAB . for the two factors have the same direction. namely. b3 k respectively. and OP × ON = OP × (OL + LM + M N ). but in a product the vectors may be heterogeneous. and OQ represent B . The square of A must be positive. and let OL. For b1 a1 + b2 a2 + b3 a3 = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 . 25 Thus the product breaks up into two partial products. In a sum of vectors. Example. Corollary 1.—The vector product as before is denoted by VAB . Scalar Product of two Vectors. Its geometrical meaning is the product of A and the orthogonal projection of B upon A. and negative when they have opposite directions. The former is called the scalar product.—Let the intensity of a magnetic ﬂux be B = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k . The product is positive when the vector and the projection have the same direction. Then ON is the orthogonal projection of OQ. a a a = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 = SAB.—The scalar product is denoted as before by SAB . a1 a2 a3 = a b1 + b2 + b3 . which has the direci j k tion normal to the plane of A and B .ARTICLE 6.—Hence A2 = a1 2 + a2 2 + a3 2 = a2 . then the ﬂux through the area is SSB = bl sl + b2 s2 + b3 s3 . By making a3 = b3 = 0. and the latter the vector product. Vector Product of two Vectors. LM . b2 j . we deduce the results already obtained for a plane. Let OP represent A. The product of B and the orthogonal projection on it of A is equal to the product of A and the orthogonal projection on it of B . and let the area be S = s1 i + s2 j + s3 k . It means the product of A and the component of B which is perpendicular . and M N be the orthogonal projections upon OP of the coordinates b1 i. which is independent of direction. and b1 b2 b3 . a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a1 a2 a3 a3 b3 .

and is represented by the area of the parallelogram formed by A and B . and let C denote any other vector having the same point of application. . and ij represent the respective components of the product. PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS. Product of two Sums of non-successive Vectors.—Given A = r φ//θ and B = r φ //θ . Thus (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k denotes the magnitude and direction of is 2 the parallelogram formed by the projections of A and B on the plane of i and j .—If A is expressed as aα and B as bβ . The orthogonal projections of this area upon the planes of jk .—Hence VBA = −VAB . and (a3 b1 − a1 b3 )j that on the plane of k and i. Example.—Let A and B be two component vectors. C = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k. Let A = a1 j + a2 j + a3 k. where αβ denotes the direction which is normal to both α and β .—Given two lines A = 7i − 10j + 3k and B = −9i + 4j − 6k .ARTICLE 6. Example. then the triangle OP Q is the projection of half of the parallelogram formed by A and B . giving the resultant A + B . to ﬁnd the rectangular projections of the parallelogram which they deﬁne: VAB = (60 − 12)i + (−27 + 42)j + (28 − 90)k = 48i + 15j − 62k. Corollary 1. For. Corollary 2. Then SAB = rr cos φ//θ φ //θ = rr {cos θ cos θ + sin θ sin θ cos(φ − φ)}. let OP and OQ (see second ﬁgure of Art. Similarly (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )i denotes in magnitude and direction the projection on the plane of j and k . B = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k. ki. 26 to A. 3) be the orthogonal projections of A and B on the plane of i and j . and drawn in the sense given by the right-handed screw. then SAB = ab cos αβ and VAB = ab sin αβ · αβ . But it is there shown that the area of the triangle OP Q 1 (a1 b2 − a2 b1 ).

A body of 1000 pounds mass has linear velocities of 50 feet per second 30◦ //45◦ and 60 feet per second 60◦ //22◦ . and the magnetic ﬂux is N. ﬁnd the diﬀerence of potential at the ends. then (A + B )(C + D) = AC + AD + BC + BD. Prob. Show that if a system of area-vectors can be represented by the faces of a polyhedron. ﬁnd the direction of the mechanical force on the conductor. what is the direction of the electromotive force in the conductor? Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. 31.ARTICLE 6. 27 Hence (A + B )C = AC + BC . C and D. 37. their resultant vanishes. PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS. The arm is 9i + 11j + 13k feet. A conductor 8i + 9j + 10k inches long is subject to an electromotive force of 11i + 12j + 13k volts per inch. A + B = (a1 + b1 )i + (a2 + b2 )j + (a3 + b3 )k. and the force applied at either end is 17i + 19j + 23k pounds weight.5. . In the same way it may be shown that if the second factor consists of two components. The relative velocity of a conductor is S. 30. Find the rectangular projections of the area of the parallelogram deﬁned by the vectors A = 12i − 23j − 34k and B = −45i − 56j + 67k. 35.. Show that work done by the resultant velocity is equal to the sum of the works done by its components. Prob. ﬁnd its kinetic energy. that of the magnetic ﬂux is West. The direction of the current is vertically downward. Since A and B are independent of order. which are non-successive in their nature.W.W. When A + B is a sum of component vectors (A + B )2 = A2 + B 2 + AB + BA = A2 + B 2 + 2SAB.) Prob. 326 volts. Similarly V(A + B )C = {(a2 + b2 )c3 − (a3 + b3 )c2 }i + etc. 32. (Ans. 29. Prob. 28. A body to which a force of 2i + 3j + 4k pounds is applied moves with a velocity of 5i + 6j + 7k feet per second. Prob. Prob. 33. ﬁnd the torque. 34.. = (a2 c3 − a3 c2 )i + (b2 c3 − b3 c2 )i + · · · = VAC + VBC. 36. consequently by the principle already established S(A + B )C = (a1 + b1 )c1 + (a2 + b2 )c2 + (a3 + b3 )c3 = a1 c1 + a2 c2 + a3 c3 + b1 c1 + b2 c2 + b3 c3 = SAC + SBC. ﬁnd the rate at which work is done. Show that the moment of the velocity of a body with respect to a point is equal to the sum of the moments of its component velocities with respect to the same point.

according to the rules p. B = 4i + 5j + 6k . B = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k . j k 3 6 = 0. and C = 7i + 8j + 9k . Then (1) = (4 + 10 + 18)(7i + 8j + 9k ) = 32(7i + 8j + 9k ). 9 28 . B .—Let A = 1i + 2j + 3k .Article 7 Product of Three Vectors. Hence ABC = (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 )(c1 i + c2 j + c3 k ) + (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )i + (a3 b1 − a1 b3 )j + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k (c1 i + c2 j + c3 k ) = (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 )(c1 i + c2 j + c3 k ) + a2 b2 c1 i a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 a3 b3 c2 j a1 b1 a1 b1 c3 k a2 b2 (1) (2) a1 + b1 c1 (3) Example. −3 (2) = 7 i 1 (3) = 4 7 2 5 8 6 −3 8 9 = 78i + 6j − 66k. By the product of A.—Let us take A = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k . and C = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k . 444). Complete Product. and C is meant the product of the product of A and B with C .

. Example. 29 (1) (2) (3) where cos αβγ denotes the cosine of the angle between the directions αβ and γ . and αβγ denotes the direction which is normal to both αβ and γ . For V(VAB )C = {−(b2 c2 + b3 c3 )a1 + (c2 a2 + c3 a3 )b1 }i + {−(b3 c3 + b1 c1 )a2 + (c3 a3 + c1 a1 )b2 }j + {−(b1 c1 + b2 c2 )a3 + (c1 a1 + c2 a2 )b3 }k. Then V(VAB )C = −(28 + 40 + 54)(1i + 2j + 3k ) + (7 + 16 + 27)(4i + 5j + 6k ) = 78i + 6j − 66k. By adding to the ﬁrst of these components the null term (b1 c1 a1 − c1 a1 b1 )i we get −SBC · a1 i + SCA · b1 i. B = bβ .ARTICLE 7.—It is merely the third vector multiplied by the scalar product of the other two. The principle here proved is of great use in solving equations (see p. PRODUCT OF THREE VECTORS. and by treating the other two components similarly and adding the results we obtain V(VAB )C = −SBC · A + SCA · B. each of the three partial products is proportional to each of the three magnitudes. or weighted by that product as an ordinary algebraic quantity.—Take the same three vectors as in the preceding example. If the directions are kept constant. then ABC = abc cos αβ · γ + abc sin αβ sin αβγ · αβγ + abc sin αβ cos αβγ. C = cγ . Second Partial Product. 455). We may also write ABC = SAB · C + V(VAB )C + S(VAB )C (1) (2) (3) First Partial Product.—The second partial product may be expressed as the diﬀerence of two products similar to the ﬁrst. If we write A = aα.

Example. we know that S(VAB )C = S(VBC )A = S(VCA)B = −S(VBA)C = −S(VCB )A = −S(VAC )B. Hence the volume formed by the three vectors has no direction in space.—From the determinant expression for the third product. Hence any of the three former may be expressed by SABC . and let the straight wire L = 15 centimeters 60◦ //45◦ . in the usual formula for the volume of a parallelepiped. PRODUCT OF THREE VECTORS. C taken in that order. and cos αβγ to cos φ. B. Sum of the Partial Vector Products.ARTICLE 7.—Let the velocity of a straight wire parallel to itself be V = 1000 /30◦ centimeters per second. and the product of VAB with the projection of C upon it is the measure of the volume in magnitude and sign.—By adding the ﬁrst and second partial products we obtain the total vector product of ABC . Third Partial Product. The line VAB represents in magnitude and direction the area formed by A and B . The third product S(VAB )C is represented by the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors A. which is denoted by V(ABC ). By decomposing the second product we obtain V(ABC ) = SAB · C − SBC · A + SCA · B. Then VV B = 6000000 sin 60◦ 90◦ //90◦ lines per centimeter per second. 30 The determinant expression for this partial product may also be written in the form a1 b1 a2 c1 b2 i a c2 + 2 b2 j a3 c2 b3 j a c3 + 3 b3 k a1 c3 b1 k c1 i It follows that the frequently occurring determinant expression a1 b1 a2 c1 b2 d 1 a c2 + 2 b2 d2 a3 c2 b3 d 2 a c3 + 3 b3 d3 a1 c3 b1 d 3 c1 d1 means S(VAB )(VCD). Hence S(VV B )L = 15 × 6000000 sin 60◦ cos φ lines per second where cos φ = sin 45◦ sin 60◦ . but it is positive or negative according to the cyclical order of the vectors. let the intensity of the magnetic ﬂux be B = 6000 /90◦ lines per square centimeter. In the expression abc sin αβ cos αβγ it is evident that sin αβ corresponds to sin θ. . and any of the three latter by −SABC .

Similarly V(βγα) = cos βγ · α − cos γα · β + cos αβ · γ and V(γαβ ) = cos γα · β − cos αβ · γ + cos βγ · α. Find the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors 100i +50j +25k. These three vectors have the same magnitude.ARTICLE 7. Find Vαβγ . 1 − {S(αβγ )}2 . 31 They have the directions respectively of α . Prob. we get V(αβγ ) = cos αβ · γ − cos βγ · α + cos γα · β. Prob. and deduce Vβγα and Vγαβ . Find the second partial product of 9 20◦ //30◦ . β . −4i + 5j − 7k. By removing the common multiplier abc. γ = 40◦ //35◦ . that is.91 volts. for the square of each is cos2 αβ + cos2 βγ + cos2 γα − 2 cos αβ cos βγ cos γα. Find the volume of the tetrahedron determined by the extremities of the following vectors: 3i − 2j + 1k. 50i + 10j + 80k. and that between the plane of the ﬁrst two and the direction of the third 60◦ . 39. 40.) Prob. γ . PRODUCT OF THREE VECTORS. Prob. 8i + 4j − 3k. γ of the given triangle. and −75i + 40j − 80k. which are the corners of the triangle whose sides are bisected by the corners α. Find the voltage at the terminals of a conductor when its velocity is 1500 centimeters per second. . the intensity of the magnetic ﬂux is 7000 lines per square centimeter. 3i − 7j − 2k. and the length of the conductor is 20 centimeters. . 42. (Ans. 41. Prob. Prob. Also the third partial product. β . 11 45◦ //45◦ . the angle between the ﬁrst and second being 30◦ . 38. β = 30◦ //25◦ . Find the cosine of the angle between the plane of l1 i + m1 j + n1 k and l2 i + m2 j + n2 k and the plane of l3 i + m3 j + n3 k and l4 i + m4 j + n4 k. 10 30◦ //40◦ . Let α = 20◦ //10◦ . 43.

m2 at the extremity of A2 . The equation expresses a physical of mechanical principle. A mass m − m may be introduced at the extremity of any radius-vector R. it is required to ﬁnd how to add or compound them.Article 8 Composition of Quantities. and means the directed moment of m with respect to the extremity of R. together with the said mass-vector applied at the extremity of R. etc. Addition of a Located Scalar Quantity. The equation states that the mass m at the extremity of the vector A is equivalent to the equal mass at the extremity of R. The product m(A − R) is what Clerk Maxwell called a mass-vector. so that mA = (m − m)R + mA = mR + mA − mR = mR + m(A − R). mA = mR + m(A − R) . Here A − R is a simultaneous sum. m1 at the extremity of A1 .. A number of homogeneous quantities are simultaneously located at diﬀerent points. and denotes the radius-vector from the extremity of R to the extremity of A. 32 .—Let mA denote a mass m situated at the extremity of the radius-vector A. Hence for any number of masses.

z= m (mc) . (mc) · k . m or R m= mA mA − mA − R mR m. COMPOSITION OF QUANTITIES. m m(ai + bj + ck ) m (mb) · j (ma) · i + + m m mA . m 60◦ //45◦ . moment = m1 A1 + m2 A2 − (m1 + m2 )R. (m1 + m2 )R = 156(cos 60◦ i + sin 60◦ cos 75◦ j + sin 60◦ sin 75◦ k ).—Let R = xi + yj + zk. m1 A1 = 56(cos 45◦ i + sin 45◦ cos 60◦ j + sin 45◦ sin 60◦ k ). m1 A1 = 50(cos 30◦ i + sin 30◦ cos 45◦ j + sin 30◦ sin 45◦ k ). and A = a1 j + b1 j + c1 k .—Given 5 pounds at 10 feet 45◦ //30◦ and 8 pounds at 7 feet ﬁnd the moment when both masses are transferred to 12 feet 75◦ //60◦ . Since m(A − R) = = the resultant moment will vanish if R= Corollary. y= m (mb) .ARTICLE 8. 33 where the latter term denotes the sum of the mass-vectors treated as simultaneous vectors applied at a common point. then the above condition may be written as xi + yj + zk = = therefore x= (ma) . Example. .

and a force of 7i + 9j + 11k pounds weight at 10i + 12j + 14k feet. F2 at A2 . COMPOSITION OF QUANTITIES. etc. + the condition for no resultant couple is VR which requires F = VAF.ARTICLE 8. so that the . such as F1 at A1 . ﬁnd the torque which must be supplied when both are transferred to 2i + 5j + 3k . This equation asserts that a force F applied at the extremity of A is equivalent to an equal force applied at the extremity of R together with a couple whose magnitude and direction are given by the vector product of the radius-vector from the extremity of R to the extremity of A and the force.—Let FA denote a force applied at the extremity of the radius-vector A.. As a force F − F may introduced at the extremity of any radius-vector R.—Given a force 1i + 2j + 3k pounds weight at 4i + 5j + 6k feet. Hence for a system of forces applied at diﬀerent points. F to be normal to Example. VAF . we have FA = (F − F ) + FA = FR + V(A − R)F. we obtain (FA ) = = Since V (A − R) F = = VAF − VAF − VR VRF F (FR ) + F R V (A − R) F V (A − R) F. 34 Composition of a Located Vector Quantity.

VAF = 9i − 18j + 9k. (1) (2) 1 · F F = (VAF ) 1 . By taking the vector product of the above equal vectors with the reciprocal F we obtain V VR F 1 F =V VAF 1 F . R= 1 F + SR (VAF ) 1 · F F. . VR F = 37i − 4j − 18k. and the right member is equivalent to the complete product on F account of the two factors being normal to one another. of By the principle previously established the left member resolves into −R + 1 SR · F . 35 Torque = −28i − 14j + 27k. F The extremity of R lies on a straight line whose perpendicular is the vector (1) and whose direction is that of the resultant force. eﬀect may be the same as before. COMPOSITION OF QUANTITIES.ARTICLE 8. VA1 F1 = 3i − 6j + 3k. F = 8i + 11j + 14k. The term (2) means the projection of R upon that line. VA2 F2 = 6i − 12j + 6k. hence −R + SR that is.

ARTICLE 8. 44. VAF − VR F F = 0. Find the torque for 4i +3j +2k pounds weight at 2i − 3j +1k feet. hence it is given by V that is V VR F F =V AF F. we obtain 2 − F R + SR F· F =V AF F. Since F = 8i + 11j + 14k . the perpendicular 8i + 11j + 14k 1 9i − 18j + 9k = {351i + 54j − 243k }. Example. 381 381 Prob. hence there always is a central axis. 47. This is the same straight line as before. Find the moment at 90◦ //270◦ of 10 pounds at 4 feet 10◦ //20◦ and 20 pounds at 5 feet 30◦ //120◦ . Prob. 64 + 121 + 196 8i + 11j + 14k 1 = and F 381 to the line is Since V VAF = 9i − 18j +9k . 46. 36 The condition for the central axis is that the resultant force and the resultant couple should have the same direction. COMPOSITION OF QUANTITIES. 45. and 2i − 1k − 1k pounds weight at −3i + 4j + 5k feet when transferred to −3i − 2j − 4k feet. the direction of the line is 8i + 11j + 14k √ . . therefore R= 1 ( F) 1 =V F 2V F V (V AF + SR ( F F) 2 · F AF ) + SR 1 · F F. Prob. only no relation is now imposed on the directions of F and VAF . Prob. Find the central axis in the above case. By expanding the left member according to the same principle as above. Prove that the mass-vector drawn from any origin to a mass equal to that of the whole system placed at the center of mass of the system is equal to the sum of the mass-vectors drawn from the same origin to all the particles of the system.—Find the central axis for the system of forces in the previous example.

and j 2 j 2 = j π = π π −. j 2 . let i 2 . π π π π π i 2 j 2 = −k 2 . i 2 i 2 = −. Hence we obtain the following Rules for Versors. k2 j 2 = i2 π π π i2k2 = j 2. to k 2 .Article 9 Spherical Trigonometry. j . it is π π π equivalent to the quadrant from j to i. j . k 2 denote quadrantal versions in the positive sense about the axes i. In order to distinguish π π π clearly between an axis and a quadrantal version round it. Similarly π π π π j 2 j 2 means the product of two quadrantal versions round j . . it is π π equivalent to a semicircular version round i. that is. Similarly for the other two pairs of products. that is. k respectively. Similarly k 2 k 2 = k π = −. π π By i 2 i 2 is meant the product of two quadrantal versions round i. 37 π π π j 2 i2 = k2 . Let i. π π π π π π π k 2 k 2 = −. π π By i 2 j 2 is meant a quadrant round i followed by a quadrant round j . k 2 i 2 = −j 2 . But j 2 i 2 is equivalent π to the quadrant from −i to −j . k denote three mutually perpendicular axes. The directions of positive version are indicated by the arrows. hence i 2 i 2 = iπ = −. to −k 2 . π π π π π π j 2 j 2 = −. j 2 k 2 = −i 2 .

By applying the above rules. n k 2 . therefore β b γ c = (cos b + sin b · β 2 )(cos c + sin c · γ 2 ) = cos b cos c + cos b sin c · γ 2 + cos c sin b · β 2 + sin b sin c · β 2 γ 2 . Similarly let γ denote the axis and c the ratio of the spherical versor AQ.—Let β denote the axis and b the ratio of the spherical versor P A. then (li + mj + nk ) 2 denotes a quadrant of angle round that axis. then the versor itself is expressed by β b . 38 The meaning of these rules will be seen from the following application. m j 2 . and these components are not successive versions. then the versor itself is expressed by γ c . This quadrantal version can be decomposed into the π π π three rectangular components li 2 . But from the preceding paragraph β 2 γ 2 = − cos βγ − sin βγ · βγ 2 . we obtain (li + mj + nk ) 2 (l i + m j + n k ) 2 π π π π π π π π = (li 2 + mj 2 + nk 2 )(l i 2 + m j 2 + n k 2 ) = −(ll + mm + nn ) − (mn − m n)i 2 − (nl − n l)j 2 − (lm − l m)k 2 = −(ll + mm + nn ) − (mn − m n)i + (nl − n l)j + (lm − l m)k π 2 π π π .ARTICLE 9. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. Product of Two Spherical Versors. Now β b = cos b + sin b · β 2 . nk 2 . π π π π π π π π π π π . mj 2 . Let π li + mj + nk denote any axis. Similarly any other quadrantal π π π π version (l i + m j + n j ) 2 can be resolved into l i 2 . and γ c = cos c + sin c · γ 2 . but the parts of one version.

namely. The second term is the directed sine of the angle. and y −c = cos c − sin c · γ 2 . it is equivalent to the fundamental theorem of spherical trigonometry. β b γ −c = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos βγ + {cos c sin b · β − cos b sin c · γ + sin b sin c sin βγ · βγ } 2 . therefore Vβγ = {sin 45◦ cos 30◦ sin 30◦ sin 60◦ − sin 45◦ sin 30◦ sin 30◦ cos 60◦ }i + {sin 45◦ sin 30◦ cos 30◦ − cos 45◦ sin 30◦ sin 60◦ }j + {cos 45◦ sin 30◦ cos 60◦ − sin 45◦ cos 30◦ cos 30◦ }k.ARTICLE 9. 2.—Let β = 30◦ //45◦ and γ = 60◦ //30◦ . for the square of (2) is equal to 1 minus the square of (1). . 1 Principles π of Elliptic and Hyperbolic Analysis. Then cos βγ = cos 45◦ cos 30◦ + sin 45◦ sin 30◦ cos 30◦ . and γ = cos 30◦ i + sin 30◦ cos 60◦ j + sin 30◦ sin 60◦ k . Quotient of Two Spherical Versors. π 2 39 (1) (2) The ﬁrst term gives the cosine of the product versor. cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. where A denotes the external angle instead of the angle included by the sides. therefore β b γ c = cos b cos c − sin b sin c cos βγ + {cos b sin c · γ + cos c sin b · β − sin b sin c sin βγ · βγ } . p. and its direction is normal to the plane of the product angle. γ −c is the reciprocal of γ c . and sin βγ · βγ = Vβγ .1 Example.—The reciprocal of a given versor is derived by changing the sign of the index. but β = cos 45◦ i + sin 45◦ cos 30◦ j + sin 45◦ sin 30◦ k. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. As π π β b = cos b + sin b · β 2 .

when expanded. and γ c the versor RS . is sin a sin b sin c − cos αβ · γ 2 + cos αγ · β 2 − cos βγ · α 2 + cos αβγ . then αa β b γ c denotes P S . β 2 γ 2 = − cos βγ − sin βγ · βγ 2 . 451). The versor of the fourth term is α 2 β 2 γ 2 = −(cos αβ + sin αβ · αβ 2 )γ 2 π π π π π π π 2 π π π = − cos αβ · γ 2 + sin αβ cos αβγ + sin αβ sin αβγ · αβγ . namely. Now sin αβ sin αβγ · αβγ = cos αγ · β − cos βγ · α (p. β b the versor QR. 40 Product of Three Spherical Versors. π π π . Now αa β b γ c =(cos a + sin a · α 2 )(cos b + sin b · β 2 )(cos c + sin c · γ 2 ) = cos a cos b cos c + cos a cos b sin c · γ π 2 π 2 π π π (1) π 2 + cos a cos c sin b · β + cos b cos c sin a · α π 2 π 2 (2) (3) (4) + cos a sin b sin c · β γ π 2 + cos b sin a sin c · α γ π 2 π π 2 π 2 π 2 + cos c sin a sin b · α β 2 + sin a sin b sin c · α β γ π 2 The versors in (3) are expanded by the rule already obtained. hence the last term of the product. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.—Let αa denote the versor P Q.ARTICLE 9.

the factors are then quaternions in the most general sense. Hence cos αa β b γ c = cos a cos b cos c − cos a sin b sin c cos βγ − cos b sin a sin c cos αγ − cos c sin a sin b cos αβ + sin a sin b sin c sin αβ cos αβγ. cos c. It will be found that cos β b γ c = 1 − 1 2 {b + 2bc cos βγ + c2 } 2! 1 + {b4 + 4b3 c cos βγ + 6b2 c2 + 4bc3 cos βγ + c4 } 4! 1 − {b6 + 6b5 c cos βγ + 15b4 c2 + 20b3 c3 cos βγ 6! + 15b2 c4 + 6bc5 cos βγ + c6 } + . 458) that cos β b γ c = cos b cos c − sin b sin c cos βγ and sin β b γ c Now cos b = 1 − and sin b = b − b3 b5 + − etc. But the theorem remains true when the axes are independent.ARTICLE 9. and. Sin αa β b γ c = cos a cos b sin c · γ + cos a cos c sin b · β + cos b cos c sin a · α − cos a sin b sin c sin βγ · βγ − cos b sin a sin c sin αγ · αγ − cos c sin a sin b sin αβ · αβ − sin a sin b sin c {cos αβ · γ − cos αγ · β + cos βγ · α} . . . letting Sin denote the directed sine. for the third angle must begin where the second leaves oﬀ. 2! 4! 6! π 2 = cos c sin b · β 2 + cos b sin c · γ 2 − sin b sin c sin βγ · βγ 2 . sin b. 3! 5! b4 b6 b2 + − + etc. . . multiply out. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. 2 In the above case the three axes of the successive angles are not perfectly independent. and sin c in the above equations. and group the homogeneous terms together.—It has been shown (p.2 41 Extension of the Exponential Theorem to Spherical Trigonometry. π π π Substitute these series for cos b.

ARTICLE 9. π π π 3 . we ﬁnd that the terms on the second line can be thrown into the form π π 1 2 π b · β + 2bc · β 2 γ 2 + c2 · γ π . the only diﬀerence being that cos βγ occurs in all the odd terms as a factor. βbγc = 1 + b · β 2 + c · γ 2 π 1 − {b2 + 2bc(cos βγ + sin βγ · βγ 2 ) + c2 } 2! π π π π 1 − {b3 · β 2 + 3b2 c · γ 2 + 3bc2 · β 2 + c3 · γ 2 } 3! π 1 + {b4 + 4b3 c(cos βγ + sin βγ · βγ 2 ) + 6b2 c2 4! + 4bc3 (cos βγ + sin βγ · βγ 2 ) + c4 } + . we obtain (Sin β b γ c ) 2 = b · β 2 + c · γ 2 − bc sin βγ · βγ 2 π π π π 1 − {b3 · β 2 + 3b2 c · γ 2 + 3bc2 · β 2 + c3 · γ 2 } 3! π 1 + {bc3 + b3 c} sin βγ · βγ 2 3! π π π 1 + {b5 · β 2 + 5b4 c · γ 2 + 10b3 c2 · β 2 5! π π π + 10b2 c3 · γ 2 + 5bc4 · β 2 + c5 · γ 2 − 1 5! b5 c + π 5·4 2 3 b c + bc5 sin βγ · βγ 2 − . π π 1 b·β2 +c·γ2 3! 3π 2 + 3b2 c · β π γ 2 + 3bc2 · β 2 γ π + c3 · γ 3( 2 ) . SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. . . namely. by expanding the terms of the sine. In a similar manner the terms on the third line can be restored to b3 · β that is. By restoring the minus. where we have the square of a sum of successive terms. 2·3 π π π π By adding these two expansions together we get the expansion for β b γ c . 42 where the coeﬃcients are those of the binomial theorem. . . Similarly. 2! π π π and this is equal to π π 1 b·β2 +c·γ2 2! 2 . .

50 Substitute the calculated values of cos βγ and sin βγ (page 459). In the example on p. γ = 60 //30 . 50. Prove that if αa . 1·2 Example. 459 let b = 25 and c = 50◦ .) Prob. with due modiﬁcation for multiplicity of value. calculate out the cosine and the directed sine of the product angle. but for the simpler and earlier case of coplanar quaternions.” It forms the key to the higher development of space analysis. Calculate the ﬁrst four terms of the series when b = γ = 90◦ //90◦ . Find the equivalent of a quadrantal version round i + √ j + √ k followed 2 2 2 2 2 √ 1 3 3 by a quadrantal version round i + j + k. 49. In the above example calculate the cosine and the directed sine up to and inclusive of the fourth power of the binomial. π (b · β 2 + c · γ 2 )2 = −{b2 + c2 + 2bc cos βγ + 2bc(sin βγ ) 2 } =− 1 100 + 1 25 + 2 50 cos βγ − 2 50 (sin βγ ) 2 . Hence βbγc = 1 + b · β 2 + c · γ 2 + π π 1 2 b·β2 +c·γ2 2! π π π π 1 1 3 + b·β2 +c·γ2 + b·β2 +c·γ2 3! 4! π π π 2 43 4 + . 100 β = 0◦ //0◦ . (Ans. 51. 1 .—Let b = π 1 10 π ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ and c = 1 5 . 48. then sin βγ sin γα sin αβ = = .3 π π Extension of the Binomial Theorem. π √ 3 1 1 Prob. that is. Prob. Hence the expansion for a power of a successive binomial is given by π 2 b·β2 +c·γ2 π π n = bn · β n 2 + nbn−1 c · β (n−1)( 2 ) γ 2 + π π π n(n − 1) n−2 2 (n−2)( π ) π 2 γ b c ·β + etc. . β b .—We have proved above that ebβ 2 ecγ 2 = π ebβ +cγ 2 provided that the powers of the binomial are expanded as due to a successive sum.” He was led to this view by not distinguishing between vectors and quadrantal quaternions and between simultaneous and successive addition. c= 1 . Prob. that algebraic property may be considered to exist. 53. Prob.ARTICLE 9. γ c denote the three versors of a spherical triangle. sin a sin b sin c 3 At page 386 of his Elements of Quaternions.9735. 52. The above demonstration was ﬁrst given in my paper on “The Fundamental Theorems of Analysis generalized for Space. = eb·β +c·γ π 2 . From the fundamental theorem of spherical trigonometry deduce the polar theorem with respect to both the cosine and the directed sine. β = 30 //45 . 2 4 4 ◦ Prob. cos = .. Hamilton says: “In the present theory of diplanar quaternions we cannot expect to ﬁnd that the sum of the logarithms of any two proposed factors shall be generally equal to the logarithm of the product. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. the order of the terms in the binomial must be preserved..

Article 10

Composition of Rotations.

A version refers to the change of direction of a line, but a rotation refers to a rigid body. The composition of rotations is a diﬀerent matter from the composition of versions. Eﬀect of a Finite Rotation on a Line.—Suppose that a rigid body rotates θ radians round the axis β passing through the point O, and that R is the radius vector from O to some particle. In the diagram OB represents the axis β , and OP the vector R. Draw OK and OL, the rectangular components of R. β θ R = (cos θ + sin θ · β 2 )rρ = r(cos θ sin θ · β 2 )(cos βρ · β + sin βρ · βρβ ) = r{cos βρ · β + cos θ sin βρ · βρβ + sin θ sin βρ · βρ}. When cos βρ = 0, this reduces to β θ R = cos θR + sin θV(βR). The general result may be written β θ R = SβR · β + cos θ(VβR)β + sin θVβR. 44

π π

ARTICLE 10. COMPOSITION OF ROTATIONS.

45

Note that (VβR)β is equal to V(VβR)β because SβRβ is 0, for it involves two coincident directions. Example.—Let β = li + mj + nk , where l2 + m2 + n2 = 1 and R = xi + yj + zk ; then SβR = lx + my + nz V(βR)β = mz − ny l i nx − lz m j ly − mx n k

and l m VβR = x y i j Hence β θ = (lx + my + nz )(li + mj + nk ) + cos θ mz − ny l i n z . k nx − lz m j ly − mx n k n z . k

l m + sin θ x y i j

To prove that β b ρ coincides with the axis of β 2 ρ 2 β 2 . Take the more general −b versor ρθ . Let OP represent the axis β , AB the versor β 2 , BC the versor ρθ . Then (AB )(BC ) = AC = DA, therefore (AB )(BC )(AE ) = (DA)(AE ) = DE . Now DE has the same angle as BC , but its axis has been rotated round P by −b π b 2 ρ 2 β 2 will coincide with β b ρ.1 the angle b. Hence if θ = π 2 , the axis of β The exponential expression for β 2 ρ 2 β 2 is e− 2 bβ 2 + 2 πρ 2 + 2 bβ 2 which may be expanded according to the exponential theorem, the successive powers of the

1 This theorem was discovered by Cayley. It indicates that quaternion multiplication in the most general sense has its physical meaning in the composition of rotations.

−b π b 1 π 1 π 1 π

−b

π

b

ARTICLE 10. COMPOSITION OF ROTATIONS.

46

trinomial being formed according to the multinomial theorem, the order of the factors being preserved. Composition of Finite Rotations round Axes which Intersect.—Let β and γ denote the two axes in space round which the successive rotations take place, and let β b denote the ﬁrst and γ c the second. Let β b × γ c denote the single rotation which is equivalent to the two given rotations applied in succession; the sign × is introduced to distinguish from the product of versors. It has been shown in the preceding paragraph that βbρ = β

−b 2

ρ2 β2;

π

b

**and as the result is a line, the same principle applies to the subsequent rotation. Hence γ c (β b ρ) = γ
**

−c 2

(β β

−b 2 −b 2

ρ 2 β 2 )γ 2 )ρ 2 (β 2 γ 2 ),

π b c

π

π

c

= (γ

−c 2

because the factors in a product of versors can be associated in any manner. Hence, reasoning backwards, β b × γ c = (β 2 γ 2 )2 . Let m denote the cosine of β 2 γ 2 , namely, cos b c b c cos − sin sin , 2 2 2 2

b c b c

and n · ν their directed sine, namely, cos then β b × γ c = m2 − n2 + 2mn · ν. c c b b c b sin · γ + cos sin · β − sin sin sin βγ · βγ ; 2 2 2 2 2 2

—When b and c are inﬁnitesimals. −b 2 Prob. 57. as might be supposed. −(sin 2 Prob. 58. and that its axis is γ 2c β . Prove that the cosine of (β 2 γ 2 )2 diﬀers from the cosine of β b γ c by c b sin 2 sin βγ )2 . and through an angle double of the external angle of the triangle. calculate β θ R. 60.—The expression (β 2 γ 2 )2 is not. π b π Prob. Find the single rotation equivalent to i 2 × j 2 × k 2 . identical with β b γ c . 3 π . Prove that successive rotations about radii to two corners of a spherical triangle and through angles double of those of the triangle are equivalent to a single rotation about the radius to the third corner. and Sin β b ×γ c = b · β + c · γ . Prove by means of the exponential theorem that γ −c β b γ c has an angle b. π π π b c b c . Prove by multiplying out that β ρ 2 β 2 = {β b ρ} 2 . and (β 2 γ 2 )2 by SU . Compare the axes of (β 2 γ 2 )2 and β b γ c . Prob. 4 b c and R = 2i − 3j + 4k. 61. In the ﬁgure β b is represented by P Q. 62. Let β = 90◦ //90◦ . The former reduces to the latter only when β and γ are the same or opposite. which is the parallelogram rule for the composition of inﬁnitesimal rotations. θ = π . c b c b β 2 γ 2 by ST . Prob. 47 Observation. which is twice ST . γ c by QR. Corollary. 54. 55. Let β = 30◦ //45◦ . Prob. Find the value of β b × γ c when β = 0◦ //90◦ and γ = 90◦ //90◦ . R = −i + 2j − 3k. calculate β θ R. 59. Prob. θ = Prob. 56. Prob. cos β b ×γ c = 1. The cosine of SU diﬀers b c from the cosine of P R by the term −(sin 2 sin 2 sin βγ )2 It is evident from the ﬁgure that their axes are also diﬀerent.ARTICLE 10. β b γ c by P R. COMPOSITION OF ROTATIONS.

1 Algebraic imaginary. 32 composition of. 4 Coplanar vectors. 19 Association of three vectors. 24 Components of quaternion. 32 Meaning 48 . iv. 17 of versor.Index Algebra of space. 33 Cyclical and natural order. 1 of the plane. 30 for vector product of two vectors. 7 of two simultaneous components. 25 Distributive rule. 32 of simultaneous vectors in space. 19 Quotient of. 41 Hamilton’s view. 17 Argand method. 16 Addition of. 35 Coaxial Quaternions. 24 Electric motor rule. 1 Cayley. 13 Bibliography. 24 Exponential theorem in spherical trigonometry. 17 of reciprocal of quaternion. 19 Hospitalier system. 16 Composition of any number of simultaneous components. 3 Imaginary algebraic. 43 Hamilton’s analysis of vector. 30 for second partial product of three vectors. 9. 34 Mass-vector. 34 of mass-vectors. 41 Cartesian analysis. 33 condition for couple vanishing. 43 Hayward. 44 of located vectors. 32 Maxwell. 1 Binomial theorem in spherical analysis. 15 Determinant for scalar product of three vectors. 28 of two vectors. 17 Kennelly’s notation. 45 Central axis. 28. 21 of successive components. 3 idea of quaternion. 3 Located vectors. 9 Couple of forces. 16 view of exponential theorem in spherical analysis. 18 of ﬁnite rotations. 18 Product of. 19 Complete product of three vectors. 27 Dynamo rule. 6 of coaxial quaternions.

14 Quaternions of two simultaneous components. ﬁnite. 25 vector. 44 Rules for dynamo. 25 scalar. 9. 37 /. 1 advantage over Cartesian analysis. 9. 23 for versors. 10 geometrical meaning. 18 Reciprocal of a quaternion. 6 Product complete. 10. 11 1 2π 49 Rayleigh. 1 Quotient of two coaxial quaternions. 29 Polygon of simultaneous components. 38 Quaternion quotient of two. 9. 7 Spherical trigonometry. 38 of two spherical versors. 10 of two coplanar vectors. 26 of two vectors in space. 16 of a vector. 12 product of two. 4 Partial products. 12 Relation of right-handed screw. 4 polygon of. 15 Notation for vector. 29 Rotations. 3 S. 37 binomial theorem. 40 of two coplanar vectors. 10 reciprocal of. 39 Spherical versor. 9 Screw. 24 of coaxial quaternions. 40 Quadrantal versor. 25 partial. 4 19 . 13 of three spherical versors. 9. 38 of two sums of simultaneous vectors. 4 parallelogram of. 3 Opposite vector. 17 of a vector. 38 for vectors. 11. 24 Simultaneous components. 9 of two quadrantal versors. 39 deﬁnition of. 24 for expansion of product of two quadrantal versors. 14 relation to vector analysis. 1 of two successive components. 11 vinculum over two axes. 37 Natural order. relation of right-handed. 5 of second partial product of three vectors. 19 of three coplanar vectors. 29 resolution of second partial product. 25 of three vectors. 21 dot. 17 of three successive components. 1 foundation of. 5 Space-analysis. 41 fundamental theorem of.3 as index. 12 Parallelogram of simultaneous components. 6 product of two sums of. 24 Resolution of a vector. 26 resolution of.INDEX of of of of of of of . Stringham. 10 V. 16 14 deﬁnion of. 25 Scalar product. 16 Square etymology of. 19 Successive components. 3 composition of. Coaxial. 38 product of three.

3 Vector co-planar. 4 Vector analysis deﬁnition of. 3 opposite of. 35 Total vector product of three vectors. 31 Unit-vector. 38 rules for.INDEX composition of. 38 product of three general spherical. 16. 3 dimensions of. 1 Vector product. 3 successive. 31 of two vectors. 37 50 . 1 relation to Quaternions. 21 notation for. 9 deﬁnition of. 12 reciprocal of. 3 Torque. 7 Tait’s analysis of vector. 40 product of two general spherical. 38 product of two quadrantal. 11 of three vectors. 11 Versor components of. 3 in space. 12 simultaneous.

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