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• Introduction to plant diseases • Nursery (10 examples) • Immature planting (11 examples) • Mature plantings(10 examples) • Basal stem rot and upper stem rot (including fungicide recommendations)
DEFINATION OF PLANT DISEASE
• A disease is defined as any harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes Or in layman terms…. • A disease is any abnormal condition that damages a plant and reduces its productivity or usefulness to man
TYPES OF DISEASES
• NON-INFECTIOUS (Abiotic) – Caused by certain factors that produces abnormality. Non-infectious diseases are not caused by any living organism, but are abiotic in nature. • INFECTIOUS (Biotic)
– Caused by organisms that attack plants and get their nutrition from them.
• Host – the affected plant • Pathogen – the organism causes the disease. It can be spread from a diseased plant to a healthy plant
COMMON CAUSES OF DISEASE
Type Cause Description Deficiency or excess of essential elements Deficiency or excess of water Symptom Visual (no special equipment needed) Visual Examples Nitrogen deficiency, iron deficiency, zinc deficiency Wilting, excessive number of spears, skirting of green frond Heat canker, sunscald, lightning injury, crown fracture scorching, bending of growing point NonNutrition Infectious (Abiotic) Moisture
Temperature, wind, rainfall etc.
Salt, air pollutants, herbicides contaminations etc.
Moisture 4 .Nutrition Suffocation of roots in flooding area .Yellowing of lower fronds caused by Mg deficiency .
Crown Fracture – Meterological factor ( strong wind) Toxic chemical – glyphosate herbicide phytotoxicity 5 .
COMMON CAUSES OF DISEASES Type Infectious (Biotic) Cause Fungi Description Grow as tiny threadlike filaments. Very tiny rodshaped or spherical particles. Very tiny organisms without a cell wall. no definite shape. Cell division Equipment Microscope (occasionally a hand lens) Bacteria Viruses Cell division Use host cells to multiply Microscope Electron microscope Phytoplasma Cell division (vegetative) Eggs Electron microscope Microscope (naked eye for larger forms) Nematodes FUNGUS / FUNGI – Ganoderma boninense 6 . Microscopic wormlike organism How They Reproduce Spores. composed of RNA with a protein coat. fruiting structures may develop from these filaments Single-celled organisms.
BACTERIA VIRUSES 7 .
PHYTOPLASMA NEMATODES 8 .
DISEASE MANAGEMENT • Prevent or delay the introduction of pathogens or reduce initial pathogen populations and retard their subsequent increase • Four basic methods of infectious disease management: – Exclusion – Eradication – Host resistance – Protection (including the use of fungicides) NURSERY DISEASES 9 .
many fungi & bacteria Schizophyllum commune Glomerella cingulata. many bacteria & fungi symptoms : radicle discoloration extend backwards. soak in 0.yellowish or greenish blue lesions with spores control : maintain moisture < 17%. Melanconium elaeidis Pythium sp & Rhizoctonia sp Curvularia eragrostidis Drechslera ( Helminthosporium ) halodes Corticium solani EARLY LEAF DISEASES BLAST CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOT CORTICIUM LEAF SPOT SPEAR OR BUD ROT Phytophthora sp. secondary infection of Fusarium spp BROWN GERM DISEASE cause : precise cause not known.2% thiram solution for few minutes 10 . Botryodiplodia palmarum.NURSERY DISEASES BROWN GERM DISEASE SCHIZOPHYLLUM SEED INFECTION not known.
SCHIZOPHYLLUM SEED INFECTION cause : Schizophyllum commune symptoms : small white patches of fungal growth on outer seed surface control : maintain moisture < 17% SCHIZOPHYLLUM SEED INFECTION 11 .
EARLY LEAF DISEASES cause : Botryodiplodia spp symptoms : dark brown lesions usually found on distal part of the leaves. most commonly encountered leaf disease in nurseries EARLY LEAF DISEASES 12 .i.16% a. and surrounded by pale brown halo control : spraying with thiram at 0.
EARLY LEAF DISEASES cause : Melanconium spp symptoms : dark brown lesions usually found on distal part of the leaves. brown or black in colour bordered by pale yellow halo control : spraying with thiram at 0. and surrounded by pale brown halo control : spraying with thiram at 0. most commonly encountered leaf disease in nurseries EARLY LEAF DISEASES cause : Glomerella spp symptoms : small brown water soaked spots develop between the veins.16% a. most commonly encountered leaf disease in nurseries 13 .i.i.16% a.
i. ( Thiram 80 WP at 20 g per 10 litres water) DRECHSLERA LEAF SPOT 14 . pin point spots of brown colour which is pale turning to brown later control : spray thiram at 0.16% a.DRECHSLERA LEAF SPOT cause : Drechslera halodes symptoms : bright yellow discoloration first appear in spear or youngest fully open fronds.
HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF DISEASE cause : Helminthosporium spp symptoms : bright yellow discoloration first appear in spear or youngest fully open fronds.i.16% a. ( Thiram 80 WP at 20 g per 10 litres water) HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF DISEASE 15 . lesions turning to brown later control : spray thiram at 0.
( Antracol 70 WP at 30 g / 10 litres water ) CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT causal agent : Curvularia eragrostidis spray Antracol 70 WP at 31 g per 10 litres water 16 . circular translucent yellow spots.CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT cause : Curvularia eragrostidis symptoms : early symptom is small . enlarged into light brown spots with distinct yellow-orange halo control : spray propineb at 0.21% a.i.
CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT 17 .
severe category CORTICIUM LEAF ROT cause : Corticium solani symptoms : lesions are initially irregular. pale.dead. olive-green patches bounded by a violetbrown zone. eventually becoming dark brown and dry spot control : normally no control is required 18 .
sanitation removal 19 .CORTICIUM LEAF ROT PESTALOTIOSIS LEAF SPOT cause : Pestalotiopsis spp symptoms : irregular shaped large orange-red lesions control .
affected roots showing vascular strands and the 'skin' control : adequate watering 20 .PESTALOTIOPSIS LEAF SPOT BLAST cause : co-infection of Pythium sp & Rhizoctonia solani symptoms : whole plant dies and turning brown very quickly.
BLAST frond drying root decay NURSERY SPEAR ROT 1) Phytopththora Disease symptoms : localized rotten areas on median leaflets of spear more dark brown rotting with no margin entire spear rotten away Severity of damage : affect median leaflets only Control recommendation : sanitation removal 21 .
NURSERY SPEAR ROT 2) non Phytophthora Disease symptoms : • dark brown or water soaked lesion on exposed part of spear • water soaked colourless lesions . affected areas are desiccated Severity of damage : • secondary infection after insect attack Control recommendation : • sanitation removal NURSERY BUD ROT Disease symptoms : • early indication is closely packed basal leaflets due to reduction in petiole growth • youngest leaf rots from base upwards • rotting of bud not related to spear rot Severity of damage : • affected seedlings are killed Control recommendation : • no known control so far • sanitation removal 22 . enlarge into pale brown in colour with orange brown border • when frond opens up .
DISEASES OF IMMATURE PLANTINGS DISEASES OF IMMATURE PLANTINGS HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOTS CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT CROWN DISEASE CHARCOAL BASE ROT BASAL STEM ROT WITHER TIP DISEASE SOOTY MOULDS CEPHALEUROS LEAF SPOT Drechslera halodes Curvularia eragrostidis unknown Ustilina deusta Ganoderma boninense Fusarium sp many fungi Cephaleurus virescens 23 .
MARASMIUS INFECTION cause : Marasmius spp symptoms : • lower fronds affected first ( brown colour dry fronds ) • appearance of whitish fungal growth Placing EFB too close to the basal stem and generally wet conditions due to frequent raining MARASMIUS INFECTION 24 .
MARASMIUS INFECTION severity : • Palm can be killed when fungus has grown into the shoot apex control : • remove EFB and create a gap 15 cm • cut and remove all infected fronds • spraying of fungicide ( traizoles ) HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOTS cause : Helminthosporium spp symptoms : •early symptom is tiny pin size spots •later enlarged into small brown spots •from far the affected fronds are yellow to brown in colour control : spray thiram at 0.16% a.i. ( Thiram 80 WP at 20 g per 10 litres water) 25 .
( Thiram 80 WP at 20 g per 10 litres water) 26 .HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOTS HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF SPOTS Common leaf disease when palms suffer stress conditions Severely affected fronds turn brown and dry up control : spray thiram at 0.i.16% a.
HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF DISEASE cause : Helminthosporium spp symptoms : bright yellow discoloration appear in spear or youngest fully open fronds control : spray thiram at 0. ( Thiram 80 WP at 20 g per 10 litres water) HELMINTHOSPORIUM LEAF DISEASE 27 .i.16% a.
SPEAR ROT and BUD ROT • Disease symptoms : shorter inner fronds rotting of spear at the base spear killed quickly bud rot occur and apical growing point destroyed palm split can see rotting cavity and bad smell liquid SPEAR ROT and BUD ROT Spear rotting at base Shorter inner fronds 28 .
physiological or genetic symptoms : • frond bending • rotting of leaf tissue in mid rib 29 .SPEAR ROT and BUD ROT Severity of damage : localized importance and many affected palms are killed Control recommendation : no known cure sanitation removal CROWN DISEASE cause : not known.
CROWN DISEASE CROWN DISEASE control : no action required.3 years of age 30 . recover on its own at 2 .
enlarged into light brown spots with distinct yellow-orange halo CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT 31 . circular translucent yellow spots.CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT cause : Curvularia eragrostidis symptoms : early symptom is small .
NO EFFECTIVE CURE TODATE IMMATURE PALMS PLANTED IN DISEASE PRONE AREAS CAN BE INFECTED AND KILLED SYMPTOMS • 1 SIDE YELLOWING OF FRONDS • PALM GROWTH RETARDED • FRONDS SHOWING NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS CONTROL • SANITATION REMOVAL 32 . GANODERMA SPP.i.CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT control : spray propineb at 0.21% a. ( Antracol 70 WP at 30 g / 10 litres water ) BASAL STEM ROT BASAL STEM ROT CAUSED BY FUNGAL PATHOGENS.
BASAL STEM ROT YELLOWING AND DRYING OF FRONDS ON ONE SIDE OF PALM 33 .
CHARCOAL BASE ROT cause : Ustulina deusta symptoms : • oldest fronds become yellow & die. • progressive all leaves affected and entire canopy die control : sanitation removal CHARCOAL BASE ROT 34 .
SOOTY MOULDS cause : many fungi symptoms : patches of black fungal growth usually associated with sucking insects Or mostly on the lower surface of the lower fronds (not associated with sucking insects ) SOOTY MOULDS 35 .
SOOTY MOULDS • spray Rogor 40 @ 12. reddish colour on severely infected fronds 36 .5 ml per 10 litres water to control the sucking insects and the sooty moulds will disappear • spraying with protective fungicide to control fungi CEPHALEURUS LEAF SPOT cause : Cephaleurus viresxcens symptoms : reddish orange spots.
CEPHALEURUS LEAF SPOT CEPHALEURUS LEAF SPOT control : • generally no control required • spraying with a copper based fungicide 37 .
DISEASES OF MATURE PLANTINGS DISEASES OF MATURE PLANTINGS BASAL STEM ROT Ganoderma boninense Ganoderma boninense Phellinus noxius UPPER STEM ROT CHARCOAL BASE ROT BUNCH ROT Ustilina deusta Marasmius palmivorus Botryodiplodia theobromae Ceratocystis paradoxa BUNCH STALK ROT WITHER TIP DISEASE SOOTY MOULDS CEPHALEUROS LEAF SPOT Fusarium sp many fungi Cephaleurus virescens 38 .
G. miniatocinctum. zonatum.GANODERMA DISEASES • BASAL STEM ROT • WORLDWIDE 15 SP of Ganoderma. 1985) • G. 2004) Ganoderma boninense 39 . G. boninense ( Ho & Nawawi. Idris & Ariffin. G. boninense. tornatum (Khairudin. G. 1981) • PEN. MALAYSIA. LIKELY CAUSAL AGENTS ( Turner. 1990.
BASAL STEM ROT DRY ROT LESION 40 .
PATHOGEN ISOLATION – GSM DEVELOPED BY MPOB
BASAL STEM ROT
• Coastal estates – 85% kill at 25 years old ( Singh, 1991) • Severe yield loss of 46% from block with 67.3% BSR compared to block with 10.9% BSR (Singh, 1991) • Estate in Perak, BSR increased from 5.4% to 44.1% in 14 years (Khairudin, 1990) • Jawa soil series, 15 years old palm, BSR palm produced 43% (1st) and 19% (2nd) FFB yield compared to healthy palm (Khairudin, 1995)
BSR INLAND ESTATE
• Roots and part of basal stem killed • Visual symptoms : frond wilting & malnutrition • Several unopened new fronds: wilting of green fronds ‘skirt’ • Fruiting bodies ; disease lesion ‘dry rot’ • Trunk fracture; fallen palms
UNOPENED NEW FRONDS
SMALL CANOPY / FROND FRACTURE ‘SKIRT’
MALNUTRITION ‘YELLOWING’ FRUITING BODIES / SPOROPHORES 44 .
FALLEN PALM GANODERMA WORKSHOP 45 .
al. completely cover with soil • soil mounding in mature palm with BSR SOIL MOUNDING 46 . 1998) : 1) remove diseased tissues & expose healthy tissues for 5 to 7 days 2) burn the diseased tissues and bury the healthy tissues except the wound 3) after 7 days. wound fully covered by green Trichoderma.BSR MANAGEMENT (I) • No cure is available • Treatment of immature BSR palm ( Hakim et.
BSR MANAGEMENT (II) • Pressure injection of fungicide developed by MPOB – 10 litres of hexaconazole solution per palm • Injection of Dazomet : fumigant moved systemically downwards • Surgery to remove diseased tissues • Biological control : Trichoderma sp • Resistant planting materials : early stage of research • Sanitation at replanting Pressurized injection of fungicide (pictures supplied by Dr Idris MPOB) 47 .
SURGERY 48 .
1981) 1) high incidences in OP planted in ex coconut planting 2) low incidence in ex rubber plantings – in disease prone areas % palm with BSR = 50 % or more at 20 to 25 years COCONUT TO OIL PALM 49 .AREAS WITH REPORTED INCIDENCE (I) • First reported infecting tall palms (Thompson 1931) • BSR = disease of older palms (Turner.
AREAS WITH REPORTED INCIDENCE (II) • Replanting from oil palm to oil palm increases the risks of encountering BSR • Serious incidences of BSR in peat areas – West Johore (Rao 1990) • Serious incidences of BSR in inland lateritic areas – North Johore (Benjamim and Chee 1995) • BSR reported in more areas in Sarawak & Sabah (Ariffin & Idris 2002. Hoong per com.. Kwan per com.) OP TO OP : UNDERPLANTING 50 .
MODE OF SPREADING MODE OF SPREADING – BY ROOT CONTACT • Root contact with a source of inoculum (Turner 1981) • Root contact is an important method of infection and spread to immature palms : results of several experiments planting indicator seedlings at close distances to diseased crop residues (Khairudin 1993. 1998) 51 . Hasan and Turner.
INDICATOR SEEDLINGS PLANTED NEAR DISEASED STUMP INDICATOR SEEDLINGS PLANTED NEAR DISEASED TRUNK 52 .
FRUITING BODY ON SEEDLING KILLED BASIDIOSPORES 53 .
larvae of beetle. moth. INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GANODERMA FRUITING BODIES • Beetles. 1998) • 10 out of 13 species of insect carried basidiospores . ant.MODE OF SPREADING : ROOT CONTACT OR BASIDIOSPORES ? • BSR can spread by root contact and spore germination – more research to determine their importance as major or minor factor. 54 . (Idris and Ariffin 2004) • Dispersal of spores by insects associated with Ganoderma fruiting bodies. • Root contact is acceptable major mode of spread for BSR : results of experiments • Spore is responsible for spread of USR • Dispersal of spores by insects associated with Ganoderma fruiting bodies. termite (Chung et al. Episcapha 4maculata feeds inside the fruiting bodies and 83% have basidiospores.
INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GANODERMA FRUITING BODIES BSR : INOCULUM SOURCES ( RESIDUES OF NATIVE HOSTS OR PREVIOUS CROPS) 55 .
BOLE STILL PRESENT AFTER 14 YEARS BSR : IMMATURE PALM 56 .
leave exposed in the interrow areas A3. Mark standing diseased palms and repeat above steps at time of felling B. Mark out sub blocks or block with high incidence.100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Palm age (years) BSR % Poor Sanitation Good Sanitation BEFORE FELLING DURING REPLANTING A1. fallen diseased trunk. Cut and slice the bole & root masses. into small pieces. carry out deboling of diseased stumps and vacant points. 6 to 12 months before felling. carry out ploughing up to 60 cm depth 57 . 2mx2mx1m A2.
BOLE PRESENT AFTER 14 YEARS SIZE OF HOLE : 2M X 2M X 1M 58 .
Healthy palms : dig out bole and root masses. leave in the interrow areas 3. leave in the interrow areas 59 . Sanitation includes in replanting and land preparation contract 2. dig holes 2mx2mx1m. cut & slice crop residues . cut & slice diseased materials. carry out deboling.2M X 2M X 1M HOLE FELLING DURING REPLANTING 1. Mark BSR palms.
Sub blocks or blocks with high incidence of BSR : carry out ploughing up to 60 cm depth 2. Establish good legume cover crops to speed up decay of crop residues 60 . Sub blocks or blocks with high incidence of BSR : consider construction of wider & deeper drains to isolate disease prone areas 3.CUT & SLICE / LEAVE EXPOSED IN INTERROW AREAS LAND PREPARATION DURING REPLANTING 1.
HIGH INCIDENCE OF BSR PLANT LEGUME COVER CROPS 61 .
cut & slice diseased materials. leave in the interrow areas Frequency : 6 monthly (<10%) 4 monthly (>10%) 5. 3. dig holes 2m x 2m x 1m. 4. 2. OTHER METHODS OF CONTROL 62 . Carry out census to identify and mark BSR palms Identified BSR by fruiting bodies & dry rot lesion Mark the first palm on the road side to indicate the need to do sanitation Fell BSR palms. carry out deboling.AT EXISTING PLANTINGS 1.
Screening of beneficial microbes Prof. MPOB : Zaire x Cameroon crosses 63 . Sareah Meon Resistance screening.
UPPER STEM ROT causal agent : Phellinus noxious Ganoderma boninense UPPER STEM ROT cause : Ganoderma spp / Phellinus noxius symptoms : • upper stem rotting. • appearing of fruiting bodies control: usually not detected until too late 64 .
• erect frond appearance.DRY BASAL ROT cause : Ceratocystis paradoxa symptoms : sudden and total rotting of all mature and immature fruit bunches control: no known treatment WHITHER TIP DISEASE cause : Fusarium spp symptoms : • rotting of spear tip. • distal parts of fronds (1/3) are destroyed. control: • sanitation removal of affected parts • spraying with protective fungicide 65 .
WITHER TIP DISEASE STEM WET ROT NUMBER OF POSSIBLE CAUSES NO KNOWN CONTROL SANITATION REMOVAL 66 .
STEM WET ROT SOOTY MOULDS cause : many fungi symptoms : patches of black fungal growth usually associated with sucking insects control: • spray Rogor 40 @ 12.5 ml per 10 litres water to control the sucking insects and the sooty moulds will disappear • spraying with protective fungicide 67 .
SOOTY MOULDS CEPHALEURUS LEAF SPOT cause : Cephaleurus viresxcens symptoms : reddish orange spots. reddish colour on severely infected fronds control : • generally no control required • spraying with a copper based fungicide 68 .
ALGAL LEAF SPOT ALGAL LEAF SPOT 69 .
BUNCH STALK ROT cause : • Botryodiplodia theobromae • Ceratocystis paradoxa symptoms : twisting stalk. bunches fell to ground control : no treatment required. BUNCH STALK ROT 70 .
MARASMIUS BUNCH ROT cause : Marasmius palmivorus symptoms : whitish fungal growth. white mushroom grow on rotten bunches control : • • • • improved pollination improved sanitation nutrition ( applying bunch ash ) fungicide spraying MARASMIUS BUNCH ROT 71 .
BUNCH FAILURE cause : • inadequate pollination • hormonal herbicide • pathogenic symptoms : • fruit bunch loss of glossy appearance • fruits become desiccated & shriveled control : no treatment EXOTIC DISEASES OF OIL PALMS 72 .
C.3 3 SEVERITITY Africa Africa Africa Central America & South America Central America & South America Central America & South America 1 = seedlings .pin point hyaline spot on new fully opened fronds • spots enlarged.3 2 2. somewhat depressed. 3 = mature palms CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT cause : Cercospora palmicola.Exotic Oil Palm Diseases DISEASES Cercospora leaf spot Armillariella root & stem rot Fusarium vascular wilt Sudden wither disease Fatal yellow disease Red ring disease CAUSAL AGENTS / SCIENTIFIC NAMES Cercospora spp Armillariella mellea Fusarium oxysporium probably Phytomonas Many causes Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus 一 nematode OCCURANCE 1 3 1. elaeidis symptoms : • 1stly. 2 = immature palms . spraying of fungicide occurring in Africa 73 . changing to dark brown colour • development of brightly colour brown halo control: improve nursery management.2.
yellow fronds • necrosis of vascular strands in stem control: no proven cure treatment occurring in Africa 74 .CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT VASCULAR WILT DISEASE cause : Fusarium oxysporium symptoms : • dead of pinnae in a frond • lesion .
rachis.Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus symptoms : • red ring or red circular band discolration inside the stem red palm weevil is the vector .VACSULAR WILT (fronds. Rhynchophorus palmarum control: • mass trapping of weevils using pheromone traps • sanitation removal occurring in South and Central Americas 75 .stem) RED RING DISEASE cause : nematodes .
Brazil 76 . Nicaragua. rotting tissues at stem apex (seen after splitting the stem).RED RING DISEASE OF OIL PALM Oil palm coconut BUD & SPEAR ROT • Occurring in Central & South America • Unknown causal agent • Symptoms : spear rot . bud rot . ultimate death of palm • Panama. Ecuador.apical bud tissues affected. Colombia. rachis and leaflets affected by rotting. Peru.rotting at spear base.
D & A TEAM TO WORK ON IMPORTANT DISEASES & SPECIFIC PROBLEM. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 77 .CONCLUSION MANY DISEASES AFFECTING OIL PALMS ARE RECORDED BSR MOST IMPORTANT NURSERY DISEASES AND CURVULARIA LEAF DISEASE OF IMMATURE FIELDS SOMETIMES ARE PROBLEMATIC FOREIGN EXOTIC DISEASES ARE DEADLY AND MUST BE EXCLUDED BY STRICT QUARANTINE TRAINING OF PLANTATION PERSONNEL R.
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