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Business Multinational Finance, 12e (Eiteman, et al) Chapter 11 Transaction Exposure 11.

1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Multiple Choice 1) ________ exposure deals with cash flows that result from existing contractual obligations. A) Operating B) Transaction C) Translation D) Economic Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 2) ________ exposure measures the change in the present value of the firm resulting from unexpected changes in exchange rates. A) Operating B) Transaction C) Translation D) Accounting Answer: A Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 3) Each of the following is another name for operating exposure EXCEPT ________. A) economic exposure B) strategic exposure C) accounting exposure D) competitive exposure Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 1 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) Transaction exposure and operating exposure exist because of unexpected changes in future cash flows. The difference between the two is that ________ exposure deals with cash flows already contracted for, while ________ exposure deals with future cash flows that might change because of changes in exchange rates. A) transaction; operating B) operating; transaction C) operating; accounting D) none of the above Answer: A Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 5) ________ exposure is the potential for accounting-derived changes in owner's equity to occur because of the need to translate foreign currency financial statements into a single reporting currency. A) Transaction B) Operating C) Economic D) Accounting (aka translation) Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 6) Losses from ________ exposure generally reduce taxable income in the year they are realized. ________ exposure losses may reduce taxes over a series of years. A) accounting; Operating B) operating; Transaction C) transaction; Operating D) transaction; Accounting Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 7) Losses from ________ exposure generally reduce taxable income in the year they are realized. ________ exposure losses are not cash losses and therefore, are not tax deductible. A) transaction; Operating B) accounting; Operating C) accounting; Transaction D) transaction; Translation Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 2 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. True/False 1) As a generalized rule, only realized foreign exchange losses are deductible for tax purposes. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 2) Many MNE s manage foreign exchange exposure centrally, thus gains or losses are always matched with the country of origin. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Topic: 11.1 Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure Skill: Recognition 11.2 Why Hedge? Multiple Choice 1) MNE cash flows may be sensitive to changes in which of the following? A) Exchange rates. B) Interest rates. C) Commodity prices. D) all of the above Answer: D Diff: 1 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Recognition 2) Assuming no transaction costs (i.e., hedging is "free"), hedging currency exposures should ________ the variability of expected cash flows to a firm and at the same time, the expected value of the cash flows should ________. A) increase; not change B) decrease; not change C) not change; increase D) not change; not change Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Conceptual 3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3) Which of the following is NOT cited as a good reason for hedging currency exposures? A) Reduced risk of future cash flows is a good planning tool. B) Reduced risk of future cash flows reduces the probability that the firm may not meet required cash flows. C) Currency risk management increases the expected cash flows to the firm. D) Management is in a better position to assess firm currency risk than individual investors. Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Recognition 4) Which of the following is cited as a good reason for NOT hedging currency exposures? A) Shareholders are more capable of diversifying risk than management. B) Currency risk management through hedging does not increase expected cash flows. C) Hedging activities are often of greater benefit to management than to shareholders. D) All of the above are cited as reasons NOT to hedge. Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Recognition True/False 1) Hedging, or reducing risk, is the same as adding value or return to the firm. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Conceptual 2) There is considerable question among investors and managers about whether hedging is a good and necessary tool. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Recognition 3) The key arguments in opposition to currency hedging such as market efficiency, agency theory, and diversification do not have financial theory at their core. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Conceptual 4 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Essay 1) Does foreign currency exchange hedging both reduce risk and increase expected value? Explain, and list several arguments in favor of currency risk management and several against. Answer: Foreign exchange currency hedging can reduce the variability of foreign currency receivables or payables by locking in a specific exchange rate in the future via a forward contract, converting currency at the current spot rate using a money market hedge, or minimizing unfavorable exchange rate movement with a currency option. None of these hedging techniques, however, increases the expected value of the foreign currency exchange. In fact, expected value should fall by an amount equal to the cost of the hedge. Generally, those in favor of currency risk management find value in the reduction of variability of uncertain cash flows. Those opposed to currency risk management argue the NPV of such activities are $0 or less and that shareholders can reduce risk themselves more efficiently. For a more complete answer to this question, see page 4 where the author outlines several arguments for and against currency risk management. Diff: 3 Topic: 11.2 Why Hedge? Skill: Analytical 11.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Multiple Choice 1) The stages in the life of a

03/. billing. D) sell.000. and billing exposure. Answer: A Diff: 3 Topic: 11.000 B) gain. If the exchange rate changes to $2.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Analytical 6 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. 2000 Answer: B Diff: 3 Topic: 11. In your diagram. a put option hedge. A) $3. A) $2.000 B) $3. these stages of transaction exposure may be identified as A) backlog. The U.000 or $1.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Recognition 5 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.000 D) .4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 9 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. firm is at risk today of a loss if A) the exchange rate changes to $2. Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: 11.000. $1.000 C) loss.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Recognition 6) A ________ hedge refers to an offsetting operating cash flow such as a payable arising from the conduct of business. $2000 C) loss. Inc.38.000. The current exchange rate is $2. and backlog exposure.05/ the U. The purchase was made in June with payment due six months later in December. $2. Draw a diagram showing the possible outcomes of these hedging alternatives for a foreign currency receivable contract. A) financial B) natural C) contractual D) futures Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: 11. The spot exchange rate is $1.000.000 C) $3.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Conceptual 7 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.500. Answer: D Diff: 2 Topic: 11. is $3. Finally. it will ________ euro 2. 2000 D) gain. OTI is considering several hedging alternatives to reduce the exchange rate risk arising from the sale. (Note: Assume the forward currency receivable is British pounds and the put option strike price is $1. D) all of the above Answer: D Diff: 3 Topic: 11. the account is payable in three months.S. 6-month borrowing rate is 8% (or 4% for 6 months) The U. A) Forward market hedge B) Money market hedge C) Options market hedge D) All of the above are contractual hedges.500. If OTI chooses to hedge its transaction exposure in the forward market.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 2) Refer to Instruction 11. $2000 B) gain.S. firm sells merchandise today to a British company for 100. premium price is 1. 2) A U.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Conceptual 2) In efficient markets. $1. and billing exposure.01/ the U. The current exchange rate is $2.52/ and the current spot rate is $1. while the forward hedge is a function of the forward rates quotation. the price of the option is $0. The next time period is the time lag between taking an order and actually filling or delivering it. and an uncovered position. and the firm chooses to avoid any hedging techniques designed to reduce or eliminate the risk of changes in the exchange rate.40. and the firm chooses to avoid any hedging techniques designed to reduce or eliminate the risk of changes in the exchange rate. C) the exchange rate doesn't change. A) of loss. firm will realize a ________ ________.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Analytical 3) A U.S. A) buy.S. B) billing. In order. Inc. The first time period is the time between quoting a price and reaching an actual sale agreement or contract.5% for 6 months) The U. the put option strike price.S.4 Management of an Account Payable Multiple Choice Instruction 11.45/euro 1) Refer to Instruction 11. the time it takes to get paid after delivering the product. 1. Inc.000. the amount they pay in six months will be ________. 2000 Answer: A Diff: 3 Topic: 11.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Analytical 8 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.38.5% for 6 months) The Euro zone 6-month lending rate is 7% (or 3. The difference is the cost of the money market hedge is determined by the differential interest rates. Diff: 3 Topic: 11. and option hedges. OTI chooses to hedge its transaction exposure in the forward market at the available forward rate.40/euro The six month forward rate is $1.450. quotation. 6-month lending rate is 6% (or 3% for 6 months) December call options for euro 625.05/.000 forward at a rate of ________.000 B) $3. and show the possible results for a money market hedge. Essay 1) Currency risk management techniques include forward hedges.S.625. Because this is a sizable contract for the firm and because the contract is in euros rather than dollars. To help the firm make a hedging decision you have gathered the following information. B) the exchange rate changes to $2. $1. The required amount in dollars to pay off the accounts payable in 6 months will be ________.40. If the exchange rate changes to $2. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Topic: 11. A) loss.48/. or the highest acceptable purchase price for this project.5% OTI's forecast for 6-month spot rates is $1.transaction exposure can be broken into three distinct time periods. backlog.2.50/.43/euro The budget rate. backlog.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Analytical 4) A U. (OTI) has just signed a contract to purchase light rail cars from a manufacturer in Germany for euro 2.2: Use the information for the following problem(s).500.3 Measurement of Transaction Exposure Skill: Recognition True/False 1) The structure of a money market hedge is similar to a forward hedge.2. 3) Refer to Instruction 11.450.S.42. $2. D) quotation. the account is payable in three months. If OTI chooses NOT to hedge their euro payable. and the firm chooses to avoid any hedging techniques designed to reduce or eliminate the risk of changes in the exchange rate. Inc. B) buy. firm sells merchandise today to a British company for 100.S. be sure to label the X and Y-axis.2. 2000 D) gain. 5) ________ is NOT a commonly used contractual hedge against foreign exchange transaction exposure.03/. money market hedges. a forward hedge.500.000 D) unknown today Answer: D Diff: 3 Topic: 11. Oregon Transportation Inc. firm sells merchandise today to a British company for 100. 11. the account is payable in three months.000 C) 3. C) quotation. and quotation exposure.03/ . firm will realize a ________ of ________.450. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Topic: 11. interest rate parity should assure that the costs of a forward hedge and money market hedge should be approximately the same.00/.38/euro OTI's cost of capital is 11% The Euro zone 6-month borrowing rate is 9% (or 4. Inc.) Answer: The student should draw and label a diagram that looks similar to the one found on page 14.04 the forward rate is $1. C) sell. The current exchange rate is $2. strike price $1.500.

Inc.2. $125. A) $52.000 C) worse off. the firm's only choice is to remain unhedged. 125. A) forwards B) options C) money markets D) call and puts Answer: A Diff: 2 Topic: 11.2. the most common type of hedging instruments are ________.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 5) Refer to Instruction 11.000 B) better off.5 Risk Management in Practice Skill: Recognition 2) According to the authors. the group typically responsible for transaction exposure management.000 Answer: A Diff: 3 Topic: 11. the type of foreign exchange risk most often hedged by firms is ________. Answer: C Diff: 3 Topic: 11. OTI would be ________ by an amount equal to ________ with a forward hedge than if they had NOT hedged and their predicted exchange rate for 6 months had been correct.$3.) A) $52.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 7) Refer to Instruction 11. 50.000. The cost of a put option to OTI would be ________.275 Answer: B Diff: 3 Topic: 11.40/euro. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Topic: 11.2. $50.125 D) $58. $50.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical True/False 1) When attempting to manage an account payable denominated in a foreign currency.275 D) There is not enough information to answer this question. at present. D) gain. B) loss.575.000 Answer: B Diff: 3 Topic: 11. A) loss.5 Risk Management in Practice Skill: Recognition 11 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.500 B) $55. .000. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Topic: 11. is NOT usually considered a profit center.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 4) Refer to Instruction 11. A) Backlog exposure B) Quotation exposure C) Anticipated exposure D) none of the above Answer: C Diff: 2 Topic: 11. this will result in a "foreign exchange accounting transaction ________" of ________. A) translation exposure B) transaction exposure C) contingent exposure D) economic exposure Answer: B Diff: 2 Topic: 11.000.5 Risk Management in Practice Skill: Recognition 3) According to a survey by Bank of America.5 Risk Management in Practice Skill: Recognition True/False 1) The treasury function of most firms. 2) According to a survey by Bank of America.5 Risk Management in Practice Skill: Recognition 12 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. A) better off. $125.000 D) worse off. 50.5 Risk Management in Practice Multiple Choice 1) ________ are transactions for which there are. Inc. 125.2. If OTI locks in the forward hedge at $1.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Analytical 10 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. What is the cost of a call option hedge for OTI's euro receivable contract? (Note: Calculate the cost in future value dollars and assume the firm's cost of capital as the appropriate interest rate for calculating future values. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Topic: 11. C) gain.000. firms that employ proportional hedges increase the percentage of forward-cover as the maturity of the exposure lengthens.4 Management of an Account Payable Skill: Recognition 11.388 C) $56.500 B) $55. 6) Refer to Instruction 11. when firms do hedge.38/euro. no contracts or agreements between parties. Answer: D Diff: 3 Topic: 11. Inc.388 C) $58. and the spot rate when the transaction was recorded on the books was $1.