This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ASHRAE, SMACNA, LEED, EPA, OSHA, NIOSH, NYCDOH, ACGIH, AIHA… what do these have to do with building air quality?
Victor D’Amato, CIH, CSP
Reston, VA 703-689-9482, ext, 111 www.atriumehs.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Problem • Everyone faces indoor air or environmental quality issues in one way or another. • Plethora of guidelines, standards, recommendations, etc….but no clear rules. Solution (well, at least part of it) • Understand what’s out there • Understand how it’s inter-related • Understand the scope and limitations
Let’s Start From The End!
HVAC System Layout .IAQ Basics .
Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) vs Building Related Illness (BRI) .
throat irritation •Headaches •Fatigue •Reduced concentration •Irritability •Dry skin •Nasal congestion •Difficulty breathing •Nose bleeds •Nausea • Cause(s) not recognizable • Complaints/symptoms relieved after exiting building . nose.Sick Building Syndrome • A persistent set of symptoms in ~20% •Eye.
Building Related Illness • Clinically recognized disease • Exposure to indoor pollutants • Recognizable causes • • • • • • Legionnaire’s disease Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Humidifier/Pontiac fever Asthma Allergies Respiratory diseases .
ASHRAE 62-1999 .Acceptable Indoor Air Air in which there are no known contaminates at harmful concentrations and which a substantial majority (usually ~80%) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.
Factors Affecting Indoor Air Quality • Source: there is a source of contamination or discomfort indoors. • Occupants: building occupants are present. • HVAC: the HVAC system is not able to control existing air contaminants and ensure thermal comfort (temperature and humidity conditions that are comfortable for most occupants). • Pathways: one or more pollutant pathways connect the pollutant source to the occupants and a driving force exists to move pollutants along the pathway(s). . or within the mechanical systems of the building. outdoors.
DESIGN RENOVATE EPA ASHRAE ASHRAE LEED MAINTAIN “ACCEPTABLE” BUILDING AIR QUALITY LIFE CYCLE SMACNA CONSTRUCT LEED SMACNA ASHRAE COMMISSION .
” • Scope: All commercial.1 What Is It? • Title: “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality” • Purpose: “…to specify minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality that will be acceptable to human occupants and are intended to minimize …adverse health effects.ASHRAE Standard 62. and high-rise residential buildings It’s the ventilation standard … . institutional.
1-2004 is a prerequisite for any LEED credits under the New Construction (NC) criteria . both now (UMC) and in the future (IMC) • More stringent than codes in some cases (may help establish the “standard-of-care”) • Less stringent than codes in some cases • Compliance with Std 62.1 • It’s the basis for many ventilation codes.ASHRAE Standard 62.
1 Require? • General requirements (Sect 4 and 5) – To reduce generation of indoor contaminants and introduction of outdoor contaminants • Ventilation requirements (Sect 6) – To dilute and remove indoor contaminants • Construction. startup. operation and maintenance requirements (Sect 7 and 8) – To assure installation/operation as designed .What Does Std 62.
assuming typical space contaminant sources and source strengths • 6.1.Std 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP). Requires analysis of contaminant sources.1-2007 Section 6.1 using the IAQP does NOT meet LEED NC EQp1 .2 IAQ Procedure (IAQP). Prescribes procedures and outdoor air rates.1. concentration targets and perceived air quality targets and calculation of outdoor air rates needed to assure IAQperformance specified Compliance with Standard 62.0 Procedures • 6.
15 µg/m3 Rolling 3-Month Average 3 1.5 µg/m Quarterly Average 0.100 ppm 1-hour 3 150 µg/m 24-hour 15.5 ppm 3-hour (Arithmetic Mean) (1300 µg/m3) 24-hour .075 ppm (2008 std) 0.14 ppm Annual (Arithmetic Mean) 24-hour 8-hour 8-hour Secondary Standards Level Averaging Time None Same as Primary Same as Primary Same as Primary None Same as Primary Same as Primary Same as Primary Same as Primary Same as Primary Pollutant Carbon Monoxide Lead Nitrogen Dioxide Particulate Matter (PM10) Particulate Matter (PM2.053 ppm Annual (100 µg/m3) (Arithmetic Mean) 0.12 ppm 0.0 µg/m3 35 µg/m3 0.08 ppm (1997 std) 0.VRP .03 ppm 0.5) Ozone Sulfur Dioxide 1-hour Same as Primary Annual 0.Outdoor Air Quality National Ambient Air Quality Standards Primary Standards Level Averaging Time 9 ppm 8-hour (10 mg/m3) 35 ppm 1-hour (40 mg/m3) 0.
Ventilation Rate Procedure Minimum Ventilation Rates .
Must specify target concentration and exposure time. Must specify target perceived air quality in terms of percent satisfied • Design Approaches.IAQ Procedure . referencing cognizant authority.Section 6. along with sources and source strengths • Contaminant Concentration..air cleaner efficiency) . Must identify contaminants of concern. and other parameters (e. for each C of C • Perceived IAQ.g. Must follow an acceptable design procedure to find required zone and system airflow rates.3 • Contaminant Sources.
LEED IEQ • Goal is to design and construct buildings that minimize the potential for IAQ concerns – Control Sources – Appropriate HVAC design – Minimize potential pathways .
coatings. paints. systems furniture and seating . flooring systems.LEED – Control Sources • Environmental Tobacco Smoke • Selection of materials – Low emitting adhesives. sealants. composite wood and agrifiber products.
75 ppm Maximum concentration IAQ mgmt Plan – 27 ppb or 0.008 % formaldehyde .Buyer Beware Construction Adhesive – VOC compliant <0.008 X 10.000 = 80 ppm PEL formaldehyde 0.027 ppm .
LEED – Control Sources • Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan – During construction and prior to occupancy Chemical Contaminant Formaldehyde Particulates (PM10) Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 4-Pheylcyclohexene (4-PCH) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maximum Concentration 27 parts per billion (ppb) 50 µg/m3 500 µg/m3 6. <2 ppm above outdoors .5 µg/m3 9 ppm.
HVAC • Design according to ASHRAE 62.LEED .1 • Ventilation requirements are based on space utilization .
e.PATHWAYS • Isolate areas of hazardous materials or processes – Separation of storage rooms. etc i. workrooms.LEED . slab to slab walls and isolated ventilation .
• LEED certification doesn’t mean building occupants won’t have IAQ concerns – the LEED process does. . however.SUMMARY • LEED shouldn’t be the driver behind building design and construction. and should minimize their occurrence. it is a method for verifying sustainable design/construction decisions and methods. address 3 of the 4 factors recognized as affecting IAQ.
SMACNA .IAQ GUIDELINES FOR OCCUPIED BUILDINGS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Chapter 3 – Control Measures – HVAC Protection – Source Control – Pathway Interruption – Housekeeping – Scheduling .
IAQ GUIDELINES Chapter 4 – Managing the Process • Assigning Responsibilities • Initial Planning • On-going Management • Selecting IAQ Controls • Identify sources of odors and dusts • Locate areas potentially affected by project • Identify “polluting” construction activities • Classify potential problems by severity • Identify control options • Select specific control measures .SMACNA .
SMACNA .IAQ GUIDELINES • – – – Appendix C – Planning Checklist Potential Emissions – Source & Class Pathway – Affected Areas & Worst Case Controls – Options & Comments • Appendix D – Inspection Checklist .
developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.EPA • 1991 Building Air Quality. provides practical suggestions on preventing. identifying. • Still relevant today! . and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings.
1-2007 • • Minimum outdoor (fresh) air (OA) rates Based on number of occupants.Established Criteria • Ventilation for IAQ – ASHRAE 62. C • • • • bioeffluents • Thermal Comfort – ASHRAE 55-2004 • Recommended temperature based on season and relative humidity . space size and activity level Minimum outdoor (fresh) air (OA) rates Based on number of occupants and activity level Designed to maintain CO2 <700 ppm above outdoor levels Objective is to control • Ventilation for Dilution – ASHRAE 62.1-2007 App.
Established Criteria • OSHA • Occupational Exposure Levels for • Volatile organic compounds • Asbestos • Lead • EPA • Radon • Lead in paint (LBP) and lead dust .
Assessment and Control • The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Remediation and Post-Remediation Verification of Mold in Buildings – Visual inspection and verification of the presence of mold growth is critical – Recommend that a comparison of indoor air sample results to outdoor air sample results – Results may be used to assess if an indoor source is contributing to indoor fungal spore concentrations . Assessment. Bioaerosols.Established Criteria • The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
• the predominant type of fungi measured indoors is different than the predominant type measured outdoors. • potentially pathogenic fungi are measured indoors.Established Criteria • ACGIH and AIHA .Any of the following conditions found in air sampling results may indicate an indoor fungal source is present and further evaluation and investigation is warranted: • concentrations of fungi measured indoors are significantly greater than those measured outdoors.000 colony forming units of culturable (viable) fungi per cubic meter of air (cfu/m3) as a possible indicator of indoor contamination • . or. or. OSHA refers to an indoor airborne concentration of 1.
5 .0 .5 68.78.5 ppm 8-hr TWA 1.75 ppm 8-hr TWA AL: 0.800 mg/m for n-hexane) PEL: 0.0 Summer Temperature 74.000 CFU/m 3 ASHRAE 9 ppm 8-hr TWA 35 ppm 1-hr TWA 700 ppm above outdoor Depends on compound ACGIH/AIHA 35 ppm 8-hr TWA 5.5 .5 .5% (5.0 .0 73.0 .000 ppm 8-hr TWA Depends on compound 3 (176 mg/m for n-hexane) Ceiling: 0. 0.000 ppm) by weight (EPA) • Lead Dust: 40 ug/ft2 floors/ 250 ug/ft2 window sills (EPA/HUD) Relative Humidity 30-50% 50-60% 60-70% Winter Temperature 68.0 .79.less than outdoor .no know pathogens Formaldehyde Airborne Mold Not Specified Not Specified • Radon: 4 pCu/L (EPA Action Level) • Lead Paint: 1 mg/cm2 (by XRF).74.74.76.similar prevalence to outdoors .0 68.80.3 ppm .Recognized IAQ Guidelines CO CO2 VOCs OSHA PEL: 50 ppm 8-hr TWA 5000 ppm 8-hr TWA Depends on compound 3 (1.0 72.
5 ug/g < LOD 2 .5 ug/g > LOD > 10 ug/g > 8 ug/g .10 ug/g 1 .8 ug/g > 10 ug/g > 2 U/g > 0.Recommended Criteria For Allergens • There are no established regulatory standards RECOMMENDATIONS Allergen Fungal (mold) Spores Dust Mites Cat Dog Cockroach Rat Mouse LOW SIGNIFICANT HIGH Depends on genus and species < 2 ug/g < 1 ug/g < 10 ug/g < 2 U/g < 0.
ANY QUESTIONS? .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?