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foreword
1hemanuIacIuringindusIryplacesheavydemandonpumps,wheniIcomesIo
opIimumoperaIion,highreliabiliIyandlowenergyconsumpIion.1hereIore,
GrundIoshasdevelopedIhePumphandbook,whichinasimplemannerdeals
wiIhvariousconsideraIionswhendimensioningpumpsandpumpsysIems.
WehaveelaboraIedahandbookIorengineersandIechnicianswhoworkwiIh
designandinsIallaIionoIpumpsandpumpsysIems,conIaininganswersIoa
widerangeoIIechnicalpumpspecihcquesIions.1hePumphandbookcaneiIher
bereadIromoneendIoIheoIherorparIlyonspecihcIopics.
1hehandbookisdividedinIoSchapIerswhichdealwiIhdiIIerenIphaseswhen
designingpumpsysIems.
1hroughouIchapIer1wemakeageneralpresenIaIionoIdiIIerenIpumpIypes
andcomponenIs.RerewealsodescribewhichprecauIionsIoadopIwhendealing
wiIhviscousliquids.lurIher,IhemosIusedmaIerialsaswellasdiIIerenIIypesoI
corrosionarepresenIedhere.1hemosIimporIanIIerminologiesinconnecIion
wiIhreadingIhepumpperIormancearepresenIedinchapIer2.ChapIer3deals
wiIhsysIemhydraulicsandsomeoIIhemosIimporIanIIacIorsIoconsiderIoobIain
opIimumoperaIionoIIhepumpsysIem.AsiIisoIIennecessaryIoad|usIIhepump
perIormancebymeansoIdiIIerenIad|usImenImeIhods,IhesearedealIwiIhin
chapIer4.ChapIerSdescribesIheliIecyclecosIsasenergyconsumpIionplaysan
imporIanIroleinIoday'spumpsandpumpsysIems.
WesincerelyhopeIhaIyouwillmakeuseoI1hepumphandbookandhndiIuseIulin
yourdailywork.
SegmenIDirecIor 8usinessDevelopmenIManager
AllanSkovgaard Claus8ærnholdINielsen
Chapter1Designcfpumpsandmctcrs......................7
Secticn1.1Pumpccnstructicn............................................................ 8
1.1.1 1hecentrifugaIpump.................................................................. 8
1.1.2 Pumpcurves 9
1.1.3 CharacIerisIicsoIIhecenIriIugalpump 11
1.1.4 MosIcommonend-sucIionand
in-linepumpIypes 12
1.1.S lmpellerIypes(axialIorces) 14
1.1.6 CasingIypes(radialIorces) 1S
1.1.7 Single-sIagepumps 1S
1.1.8 MulIisIagepumps 16
1.1.9 Long-coupledandclose-coupledpumps 16
Secticn1.21ypescfpumps...................................................................17
1.2.1 SIandardpumps 17
1.2.2 SpliI-casepumps 17
1.2.3 RermeIicallysealedpumps 18
1.2.4 SaniIarypumps 20
1.2.S WasIewaIerpumps 21
1.2.6 lmmersiblepumps 22
1.2.7 8oreholepumps 23
1.2.8 PosiIivedisplacemenIpumps24
Secticn1.3MechanicaIshaftseaIs..................................................27
1.3.1 1hemechanicalshaIIseal's
componenIsandIuncIion29
1.3.2 8alancedandunbalancedshaIIseals 30
1.3.3 1ypesoImechanicalshaIIseals 31
1.3.4 SealIacemaIerialcombinaIions34
1.3.S lacIorsaIIecIingIhesealperIormance36
Secticn1.4Mctcrs.................................................................................... 39
1.4.1 SIandards 40
1.4.2 MoIorsIarI-up 46
1.4.3 volIagesupply 47
1.4.4 lrequencyconverIer 47
1.4.S MoIorproIecIion 49
Secticn1.5liquids.......................................................................................53
1.S.1 viscousliquids S4
1.S.2 Non-NewIonianliquids SS
1.S.3 1heimpacIoIviscousliquidsonIhe
perIormanceoIacenIriIugalpump SS
1.S.4 SelecIingIherighIpumpIoraliquid
wiIhanIiIreezeS6
1.S.S CalculaIionexample S8
1.S.6 CompuIeraidedpumpselecIionIordenseand
viscousliquids S8
Secticn1.6MateriaIs................................................................................ 59
1.6.1 WhaIiscorrosion! 60
1.6.2 1ypesoIcorrosion 61
1.6.3 MeIalandmeIalalloys6S
1.6.4 Ceramics 71
1.6.S PlasIics 71
1.6.6 kubber 72
1.6.7 CoaIings 73
Chapter2lnstaIIaticnandperfcrmance
reading.............................................................................................................75
Secticn2.1PumpinstaIIaticn............................................................ 76
2.1.1 NewinsIallaIion76
2.1.2 LxisIinginsIallaIion-replacemenI76
2.1.3 PipeßowIorsingle-pumpinsIallaIion 77
2.1.4 LimiIaIionoInoiseandvibraIions 78
2.1.S Soundlevel(L) 81
Secticn2.2Pumpperfcrmance........................................................ 83
2.2.1 RydraulicIerms83
2.2.2 LlecIricalIerms 90
2.2.3 LiquidproperIies93
1abIeofContents
Chapter3SystemhydrauIic.................................................... 95
Secticn3.1Systemcharacteristics.................................................96
3.1.1 SingleresisIances97
3.1.2 ClosedandopensysIems 98
Secticn3.2PumpsccnnectedinseriesandparaIIeI...................101
3.2.1 Pumpsinparallel101
3.2.2 PumpsconnecIedinseries 103
Chapter4Perfcrmanceadjustment
cfpumps..................................................................................................... 105
Secticn4.1Adjustingpumpperfcrmance..............................106
4.1.1 1hroIIleconIrol107
4.1.2 8ypassconIrol107
4.1.3 ModiIyingimpellerdiameIer 108
4.1.4 SpeedconIrol 108
4.1.S ComparisonoIad|usImenImeIhods110
4.1.6 OveralleIhciencyoIIhepumpsysIem 111
4.1.7 Lxample.kelaIivepowerconsumpIion
whenIheßowisreducedby20° 111
Secticn4.2Speed-ccntrcIIedpumpscIuticns.................... 114
4.2.1 ConsIanIpressureconIrol 114
4.2.2 ConsIanIIemperaIureconIrol 11S
4.2.3 ConsIanIdiIIerenIialpressureina
circulaIingsysIem 11S
4.2.4 llow-compensaIeddiIIerenIial
pressureconIrol116
Secticn4.3AdvantagescfspeedccntrcI.................................117
Secticn4.4Advantagescfpumpswithintegrated
frequencyccnverter............................................................................... 118
4.4.1 PerIormancecurvesoIspeed-conIrolled
pumps119
4.4.2 Speed-conIrolledpumpsindiIIerenIsysIems119
Secticn4.5frequencyccnverter.................................................... 122
4.S.1 8asicIuncIionandcharacIerisIics122
4.S.2 ComponenIsoIIheIrequencyconverIer122
4.S.3 SpecialcondiIionsregardingIrequency
converIers124
Chapter5lifecycIeccstscaIcuIaticn....................... 127
Secticn5.1lifecycIeccstsequaticn............................................ 128
S.1.1 lniIialcosIs,purchaseprice(C
ic
) 129
S.1.2 lnsIallaIionandcommissioningcosIs(C
in
) 129
S.1.3 LnergycosIs(C
e
) 130
S.1.4 OperaIingcosIs(C
o
) 130
S.1.S LnvironmenIalcosIs(C
env
) 130
S.1.6 MainIenanceandrepaircosIs(C
m
) 131
S.1.7 DownIimecosIs,lossoIproducIion(C
s
) 131
S.1.8 DecommissioninganddisposalcosIs(C
o
) 131
Secticn5.2lifecycIeccstscaIcuIaticn
~anexampIe................................................................................................132
Appendix.........................................................................................................133
A) NoIaIionsanduniIs134
8) UniIconversionIables 13S
C) Sl-prehxesandGreekalphabeI 136
D) vapourpressureanddensiIyoIwaIeraI
diIIerenIIemperaIures 137
L) Orihce138
l) ChangeinsIaIicpressuredueIochange
inpipediameIer 139
G) Nozzles 140
R) NomogramIorheadlossesin
bends,valves,eIc 141
l) PipelossnomogramIorcleanwaIer20´C142
!) PeriodicalsysIem143
K) PumpsIandards 144
L) viscosiIyIordiIIerenIliquidsasaIuncIion
oIliquidIemperaIure14S
lndex..................................................................................................................151
Chapter1.Designofpumpsandmotors
Secticn1.1:Pumpccnstructicn
1.1.1 1hecenIriIugalpump
1.1.2 Pumpcurves
1.1.3 CharacIerisIicsoIIhecenIriIugalpump
1.1.4 MosIcommonend-sucIionandin-line
pumpIypes
1.1.S lmpellerIypes(axialIorces)
1.1.6 CasingIypes(radialIorces)
1.1.7 Single-sIagepumps
1.1.8 MulIisIagepumps
1.1.9 Long-coupledandclose-coupledpumps
Secticn1.2:1ypescfpumps
1.2.1 SIandardpumps
1.2.2 SpliI-casepumps
1.2.3 RermeIicallysealedpumps
1.2.4 SaniIarypumps
1.2.S WasIewaIerpumps
1.2.6 lmmersiblepumps
1.2.7 8oreholepumps
1.2.8 PosiIivedisplacemenIpumps
5ection1.1
Pumpconstruction
1.1.11hecentrifugaIpump
ln1689IhephysicisIDenisPapininvenIedIhecenIriIugal
pumpandIodayIhiskindoIpumpisIhemosIusedaround
Ihe world. 1he cenIriIugal pump is builI on a simple
principle. Liquid is led Io Ihe impeller hub and by means
oIIhecenIriIugalIorceiIisIlungIowardsIheperipheryoI
Iheimpellers.
1he consIrucIion is Iairly inexpensive, robusI and simple
andiIshighspeedmakesiIpossibleIoconnecIIhepump
direcIly Io an asynchronous moIor. 1he cenIriIugal pump
providesasIeadyliquidIlow,andiIcaneasilybeIhroIIled
wiIhouIcausinganydamageIoIhepump.
Now leI us have a look aI Iigure 1.1.1, which shows Ihe
liquid's Ilow Ihrough Ihe pump. 1he inleI oI Ihe pump
leadsIheliquidIoIhecenIreoIIheroIaIingimpellerIrom
where iI is Ilung Iowards Ihe periphery. 1his consIrucIion
gives a high eIIiciency, and is suiIable Ior handling pure
liquids.Pumps,whichhaveIohandleimpureliquids,such
as wasIewaIer pumps, are IiIIed wiIh an impeller IhaI is
consIrucIed especially Io avoid IhaI ob|ecIs geI sIocked
insideIhepump,seesecIion1.2.S.
lI a pressure diIIerence occurs in Ihe sysIem while Ihe
cenIriIugal pump is noI running, liquid can sIill pass
IhroughiIdueIoiIsopendesign.
AsyoucanIellIromIigure1.1.2,IhecenIriIugalpumpcan
be caIegorised in diIIerenI groups. kadial Ilow pumps,
mixed Ilow pumps and axial Ilow pumps. kadial Ilow
pumps and mixed Ilow pumps are Ihe mosI common
Iypes used. 1hereIore, we will only concenIraIe on Ihese
IypesoIpumpsonIheIollowingpages.
Rowever, we will brieIly presenI Ihe posiIive displacemenI
pumpinsecIion1.2.8.
1he diIIerenI demands on Ihe cenIriIugal pump's
perIormance, especially wiIh regards Io head, Ilow, and
insIallaIion, IogeIher wiIh Ihe demands Ior economical
operaIion,areonlyaIewoIIhereasonswhysomanyIypes
oIpumpexisI.ligure1.1.3showsIhediIIerenIpumpIypes
wiIhregardIoIlowandpressure.
lig.1.1.2.DiIIerenIkindsoIcenIriIugalpumps
lig.1.1.1.1heliquid'sIlowIhroughIhepump
kadiaIfIowpump MixedfIowpump AxiaIfIowpump
lig.1.1.3.llowandheadIordiIIerenIIypesoIcenIriIugalpumps
1 2
2
4
4
6
6
10
1
10
1
2
4
6
10
2
2
4
6
10
3
2
4
6
10
4
H
[m]
D[m
3
Js]
2 4 6 10
2
2 4 6 10
3
2 4 6 10
4
2 4 6 10
5
MuItistageradiaI
fIowpumps
5ingIe-stageradiaI
fIowpumps
MixedfIowpumps
AxiaIfIowpumps
8
1.1.2Pumpcurves
8eIore we dig any IurIher inIo Ihe world oI pump
consIrucIion and pump Iypes, we will presenI Ihe
basic characIerisIics oI pump perIormance curves. 1he
perIormance oI a cenIriIugal pump is shown by a seI
oI perIormance curves. 1he perIormance curves Ior a
cenIriIugal pump are shown in Iigure 1.1.4. Read, power
consumpIion,eIIiciencyandNPSRareshownasaIuncIion
oIIheIlow.
Normally, pump curves in daIa bookleIs only cover Ihe
pump parI. 1hereIore, Ihe power consumpIion, Ihe P
2
-
value, which is lisIed in Ihe daIa bookleIs as well, only
covers Ihe power going inIo Ihe pump - see Iigure 1.1.4.
1he same goes Ior Ihe eIIiciency value, which only covers
IhepumpparI(K=K
P
).
ln some pump Iypes wiIh inIegraIed moIor and possibly
inIegraIedIrequencyconverIer,e.g.cannedmoIorpumps
(see secIion 1.2.3), Ihe power consumpIion curve and Ihe
K-curvecoverboIhIhemoIorandIhepump.lnIhiscaseiI
isIheP
1
-valueIhaIhasIobeIakeninIoaccounI.
ln general, pump curves are designed according Io lSO
9906 Annex A, which speciIies Ihe Iolerances oI Ihe
curves.
- O+]-9°,
- R+]-7°,
- P+9°
- -7°.
WhaIIollowsisabrieIpresenIaIionoIIhediIIerenIpump
perIormancecurves.
Head,theDH-curve
1he OR-curve shows Ihe head, which Ihe pump is able
Io perIorm aI a given Ilow. Read is measured in meIer
liquid column |mLCj, normally Ihe uniI meIer |mj is
applied. 1he advanIage oI using Ihe uniI |mj as Ihe uniI
oImeasuremenIIorapump'sheadisIhaIIheOR-curveis
noIaIIecIedbyIheIypeoIliquidIhepumphasIohandle,
seesecIion2.2IormoreinIormaIion.
H
[m]
H
[Z]
50
40
70
£fficiency
60
50
40
20
10
2
12
4
6
8
10
0
30
30
20
10
0
10
0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
P
2
[kW]
NP5H
(m)
Power consumption
NP5H
lig.1.1.4.1ypicalperIormancecurvesIoracenIriIugal
pump.Read,powerconsumpIion,eIhciencyandNPSR
areshownasaIuncIionoIIheßow
lig.1.1.S.1hecurvesIorpowerconsumpIionandeIhciencywill
normallyonlycoverIhepumpparIoIIheuniI-i.e.P
2
andK
P
P
1
P
2
H M

HM HP
D
H
[m]
50
60
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
D [m
3
Jh]
lig.1.1.6.AIypicalOR-curveIoracenIriIugalpump,
lowßowresulIsinhighheadandhighßowresulIs
inlowhead
9
£fficiency,theK-curve
1heeIIiciencyisIherelaIionbeIweenIhesuppliedpower
andIheuIilisedamounIoIpower.lnIheworldoIpumps,
IheeIIiciencyK
P
isIherelaIionbeIweenIhepower,which
Ihe pump delivers Io Ihe waIer (P
R
) and Ihe power inpuI
IoIheshaII(P
2
).
where.
UisIhedensiIyoIIheliquidinkg]m
3
,
gisIheacceleraIionoIgraviIyinm]s
2
,
OisIheIlowinm
3
]sandRisIheheadinm.
lorwaIeraI20
o
CandwiIhOmeasuredinm
3
]handRinm,
IhehydraulicpowercanbecalculaIedas.
AsiIappearsIromIheeIIiciencycurve,IheeIIiciencydepends
onIheduIypoinIoIIhepump.1hereIore,iIisimporIanIIo
selecIapump,whichIiIsIheIlowrequiremenIsandensures
IhaIIhepumpisworkinginIhemosIeIIicienIIlowarea.

Powerconsumption,theP
2
-curve
1herelaIionbeIweenIhepowerconsumpIionoIIhepump
and Ihe Ilow is shown in Iigure 1.1.8. 1he P
2
-curve oI mosI
cenIriIugalpumpsissimilarIoIheoneinIigure1.1.8where
IheP
2
valueincreaseswhenIheIlowincreases.
NP5H-curve(NetPositive5uctionHead)
1he NPSR-value oI a pump is Ihe minimum absoluIe
pressure (see secIion 2.2.1) IhaI has Io be presenI aI Ihe
sucIionsideoIIhepumpIoavoidcaviIaIion.
1he NPSR-value is measured in |mj and depends on Ihe
Ilow, when Ihe Ilow increases, Ihe NPSR-value increases
as well, Iigure 1.1.9. lor more inIormaIion concerning
caviIaIionandNPSR,goIosecIion2.2.1.
50
60
70
80
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
D [m
3
Jh]
H
[Z]
8
10
6
4
2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
P
2
[kW]
lig.1.1.7.1heeIhciencycurveoIaIypicalcenIriIugalpump
lig.1.1.8.1hepowerconsumpIioncurveoIaIypical
cenIriIugalpump
10
0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 D [m
3
Jh]
NP5H
[m]
K
p
=
P
H

P
2
=
U
.
g
.
D
.
H
P
2
lig.1.1.9.1heNPSR-curveoIaIypicalcenIriIugalpump
P
H
=2.72
.
D
.
H[W]
10
5ection1.1
Pumpconstruction
1.1.3Characteristicsofthe
centrifugaIpump
1he cenIriIugal pump has several characIerisIics and in
Ihis secIion, we will presenI Ihe mosI imporIanI ones.
LaIer on in Ihis chapIer we will give a more Ihorough
descripIionoIIhediIIerenIpumpIypes.
- 1henumbercfstages
Depending on Ihe number oI impellers in Ihe pump, a
cenIriIugal pump can be eiIher a single-sIage pump or a
mulIisIagepump.
- 1hepcsiticncfthepumpshaft
Single-sIage and mulIisIage pumps come wiIh horizonIal
or verIical pump shaIIs. 1hese pumps are normally
designaIed horizonIal or verIical pumps. lor more
inIormaIion,goIosecIion1.1.4.
- SingIe-sucticncrdcubIe-sucticnimpeIIers
DependingonIheconsIrucIionoIIheimpeller,apumpcan
beIiIIedwiIheiIherasingle-sucIionimpelleroradouble-
sucIionimpeller.lormoreinIormaIion,goIosecIion1.1.S.
- CcupIingcfstages
1hepumpsIagescanbearrangedinIwodiIIerenIways.in
seriesandinparallel,seeIigure1.1.10.
- Ccnstructicncfthepumpcasing
WedisIinguishbeIweenIwoIypesoIpumpcasing.voluIe
casing and reIurn channel casing wiIh guide vanes. lor
moreinIormaIion,goIosecIion1.1.6.
lig1.1.10.1winpumpwiIhparallel-coupledimpellers
11
1.1.4Mostcommonend-suctionandin-Iinepumptypes
£nd-suctionpump = 1heIiquidrunsdirectIyintotheimpeIIer.InIetandoutIethavea
90°angIe.5eesection1.1.9
In-Iinepump = 1heIiquidrunsdirectIythroughthepumpin-Iine.1hesuctionpipeandthedischarge
pipearepIacedoppositeoneanotherandcanbemounteddirectIyinthepipingsystem
5pIit-casepump = PumpwithanaxiaIIydividedpumphousing.5eesection1.2.2
HorizontaIpump = PumpwithahorizontaIpumpshaft
VerticaIpump = PumpwithaverticaIpumpshaft
5ingIe-stagepump = PumpwithasingIeimpeIIer.5eesection1.1.7
MuItistagepump = PumpwithseveraIseries-coupIedstages.5eesection1.1.8
Long-coupIedpump = PumpconnectedtothemotorbymeansofafIexibIecoupIing.1hemotorand
thepumphaveseparatebearingconstructions.5eesection1.1.9
CIose-coupIedpump = ApumpconnectedtothemotorbymeansofarigidcoupIing.5eesection1.1.9
HorizontaI
CIose-coupIed CIose-coupIed
£nd-suction
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed
MuItistage
12
5ection1.1
Pumpconstruction
13
MuItistage
HorizontaIJVerticaI
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed CIose-coupIed CIose-coupIed
In-Iine
5pIit-case
5ingIe-stage
Long-coupIed
HorizontaI
14
1.1.5ImpeIIertypes(axiaIforces)
A cenIriIugal pump generaIes pressure IhaI exerIs Iorces
onboIhsIaIionaryandroIaIingparIsoIIhepump.
Pump parIs are made Io wiIhsIand Ihese Iorces.
lI axial and radial Iorces are noI counIerbalanced in Ihe
pump,IheIorceshaveIobeIakeninIoconsideraIionwhen
selecIingIhedrivingsysIemIorIhepump(angularconIacI
bearingsinIhemoIor).lnpumpsIiIIedwiIhsingle-sucIion
impeller, large axial Iorces may occur, Iigures 1.1.11 and
1.1.12. 1hese Iorces are balanced in one oI Ihe Iollowing
ways.
· MechanicallybymeansoIIhrusIbearings.1heseIypes
oIbearingsarespeciallydesignedIoabsorbIheaxial
IorcesIromIheimpellers
· 8ymeansoIbalancingholesonIheimpeller,
seeIigure1.1.13
· 8ymeansoIIhroIIleregulaIionIromasealring
mounIedonIhebackoIIheimpellers,seeIigure1.1.14
· DynamicimpacIIromIhebackoIIheimpeller,see
Iigure1.1.1S
·1heaxialimpacIonIhepumpcanbeavoidedbyeiIher
usingdouble-sucIionimpellers(seeIigure1.1.16).
lig.1.1.11.Single-sucIion
impeller
lig.1.1.12.SIandardpumpwiIh
single-sucIionimpeller
lig.1.1.13.8alancingIheaxialIorces
inasingle-sIagecenIriIugalpump
wiIhbalancingholesonly
lig.1.1.14.8alancingIheaxialIorces
inasingle-sIagecenIriIugalpump
wiIhsealinggapaIdischargesideand
balancingholes
lig. 1.1.1S. 8alancing Ihe axial Iorces in
a single-sIage cenIriIugal pump wiIh
bladesonIhebackoIIheimpellers
lig.1.1.16.8alancingIheaxial
Iorcesinadouble-sucIion
impellerarrangemenI
AxialIorces
5ection1.1
Pumpconstruction
1.1.6Casingtypes(radiaIforces)
kadial Iorces are a resulI oI Ihe sIaIic pressure in Ihe
casing. 1hereIore, axial deIlecIions may occur and lead
Io inIerIerence beIween Ihe impeller and Ihe casing. 1he
magniIudeandIhedirecIionoIIheradialIorcedependon
IheIlowraIeandIhehead.
When designing Ihe casing Ior Ihe pump, iI is possible
Io conIrol Ihe hydraulic radial Iorces. 1wo casing Iypes
are worIh menIioning. Ihe single-voluIe casing and Ihe
double-voluIe casing. As you can Iell Irom Iigure 1.1.18,
boIhcasingsareshapedasavoluIe.1hediIIerencebeIween
Ihemis,IhaIIhedouble-voluIehasanguidevane.
1he single-voluIe pump is characIerised by a symmeIric
pressure in Ihe voluIe aI Ihe opIimum eIIiciency poinI,
which leads Io zero radial load. AI all oIher poinIs,
Ihe pressure around Ihe impeller is noI regular and
consequenIlyaradialIorceispresenI.
As you can Iell Irom Iigure 1.1.19, Ihe double-voluIe casing
developsaconsIanIlowradialreacIionIorceaIanycapaciIy.
keIurnchannels(Iigure1.1.20)areusedinmulIisIagepumps
and have Ihe same basic IuncIion as voluIe casings. 1he
liquid is led Irom one impeller Io Ihe nexI and aI Ihe same
Iime, Ihe roIaIion oI waIer is reduced and Ihe dynamic
pressure is IransIormed inIo sIaIic pessure. 8ecause oI Ihe
reIurn channel casing's circular design, no radial Iorces are
presenI.
1.1.75ingIe-stagepumps
Generally, single-sIage pumps are used in applicaIions,
which do noI require a IoIal head oI more Ihan 1S0 m.
Normally, single-sIage pumps operaIe in Ihe inIerval oI
2-100m.
Single-sIage pumps are characIerised by providing a low
headrelaIiveIoIheIlow,seeIigure1.1.3.1hesingle-sIage
pumpcomesinboIhaverIicalandahorizonIaldesign,see
Iigures1.1.21and1.1.22.
1S
DJDopt 1.0
VoIute casing
DoubIe-voIute
casing
k
a
d
i
a
I
f
o
r
c
e

lig.1.1.18.Single-voluIecasingDouble-voluIecasing
lig.1.1.22.verIicalsingle-sIage
in-lineclose-coupledpump
lig. 1.1.21. RorizonIal single-sIage
end-sucIionclose-coupledpump
kadiaIforces lig.1.1.17.Single-sucIion
impeller
lig.1.1.19.kadialIorceIorsingle-anddouble-voluIecasing
lig.1.1.20.verIicalmulIisIage
in-linepumpwiIhreIurn
channelcasing
keIurnchannel
lig.1.1.2S.Long-coupledpump
wiIhbasiccoupling
lig.1.1.26.Long-coupledpumpwiIhspacercoupling
16
1.1.8MuItistagepumps
MulIisIage pumps are used in insIallaIions where a high
headisneeded.SeveralsIagesareconnecIedinseriesand
IheIlowisguidedIromIheouIleIoIonesIageIoIheinleI
oI Ihe nexI. 1he Iinal head IhaI a mulIisIage pump can
deliver is equal Io Ihe sum oI pressure each oI Ihe sIages
canprovide.
1he advanIage oI mulIisIage pumps is IhaI Ihey provide
highheadrelaIiveIoIheIlow.LikeIhesingle-sIagepump,
Ihe mulIisIage pump is available in boIh a verIical and a
horizonIalversion,seeIigures1.1.23and1.1.24.
1.1.9Long-coupIedandcIose-coupIed
pumps
lcng-ccupIedpumps
Long-coupled pumps are pumps wiIh a Ilexible coupling
IhaI connecIs Ihe pump and Ihe moIor. 1his kind oI
coupling is available eiIher as a basic coupling or as a
spacercoupling.
lIIhepumpisconnecIedIoIhemoIorbyabasiccoupling,
iI is necessary Io dismounI Ihe moIor when Ihe pump
needsservice.1hereIore,iIisnecessaryIoalignIhepump
uponmounIing,seeIigure1.1.2S.
On Ihe oIher hand, iI Ihe pump is IiIIed wiIh a spacer
coupling, iI is possible Io service Ihe pump wiIhouI
dismounIing Ihe moIor. AlignmenI is Ihus noI an issue,
seeIigure1.1.26.
CIcse-ccupIedpumps
Close-coupled pumps can be consIrucIed in Ihe Iollowing
Iwo ways. LiIher Ihe pump has Ihe impeller mounIed
direcIly on Ihe exIended moIor shaII or Ihe pump has a
sIandardmoIorandarigidoraspacercoupling,seeIigures
1.1.27and1.1.28.
lig.1.1.24.RorizonIalmulIisIage
end-sucIionpump
lig.1.1.23.verIical
mulIisIagein-linepump
lig. 1.1.27. Close-coupled pump wiIh
rigidcoupling
8asiccoupIing
type
Long-coupled
pumpwiIh
Ilexiblecoupling
Close-coupled
pumpwiIh
rigidcoupling
5pacercoupIing
(option)
lig.1.1.28.DiIIerenIcouplingIypes
5ection1.1
Pumpconstruction
17
lig.1.2.1.Long-coupledsIandardpump
lig.1.2.2.8areshaIIsIandardpump
lig.1.2.3.Long-coupledspliI-casepump
lig.1.2.4.SpliI-casepump
wiIhdouble-sucIionimpeller
1.2.15tandardpumps
lewinIernaIionalsIandardsdealwiIhcenIriIugalpumps.
ln IacI, many counIries have Iheir own sIandards, which
more or less overlap one anoIher. A sIandard pump is
a pump IhaI complies wiIh oIIicial regulaIions as Io Ior
exampleIhepump'sduIypoinI.WhaIIollows,areacouple
oIexamplesoIinIernaIionalsIandardsIorpumps.
· LN733(DlN242SS)appliesIoend-sucIioncenIriIugal
pumps,alsoknownassIandardwaIerpumpswiIha
raIedpressure(PN)oI10bar.

· LN228S8(lSO28S8)appliesIocenIriIugalpumps,also
knownassIandardchemicalpumpswiIharaIed
pressure(PN)oI16bar,seeappendixK.
1he sIandards menIioned above cover Ihe insIallaIion
dimensions and Ihe duIy poinIs oI Ihe diIIerenI pump
Iypes.AsIoIhehydraulicparIsoIIhesepumpIypes,Ihey
varyaccordingIoIhemanuIacIurer-Ihus,noinIernaIional
sIandardsareseIIorIheseparIs.
Pumps,whicharedesignedaccordingIosIandards,provide
Iheend-userwiIhadvanIageswiIhregardIoservice,spare
parIsandmainIenance.
1.2.25pIit-casepumps
A spliI-case pump is a pump wiIh Ihe pump housing
dividedaxiallyinIoIwoparIs.ligure1.2.4showsasingle-
sIage spliI-case pump wiIh a double-sucIion impeller.
1he double-inleI consIrucIion eliminaIes Ihe axial
Iorces and ensures a longer liIe span oI Ihe bearings.
Usually, spliI-case pumps have a raIher high eIIiciency,
are easy Io service and have a wide perIormance range.
5ection1.2
1ypesofpumps
5ection1.2
1ypesofpumps
18
1.2.3HermeticaIIyseaIedpumps
lIcomesasnosurpriseIhaIapump'sshaIIlead-inhasIobe
sealed.Usually,IhisisdonebymeansoIamechanicalshaII
seal, see Iigure 1.2.S. 1he disadvanIage oI Ihe mechanical
shaIIsealisiIspoorproperIieswheniIcomesIohandling
oI Ioxic and aggressive liquids, which consequenIly leads
Io leakage. 1hese problems can Io some exIenI be solved
byusingadoublemechanicalshaIIseal.AnoIhersoluIion
IoIheseproblemsisIouseahermeIicallysealedpump.
We disIinguish beIween Iwo Iypes oI hermeIically sealed
pumps.CannedmoIorpumpsandmagneIic-drivenpumps.
ln Ihe Iollowing Iwo secIions, you can Iind addiIional
inIormaIionabouIIhesepumps.
Cannedmotorpumps
AcannedmoIorpumpisahermeIicallysealedpumpwiIh
IhemoIorandpumpinIegraIedinoneuniIwiIhouIaseal,
seeIigures1.2.6and1.2.7.1hepumpedliquidisallowedIo
enIerIheroIorchamberIhaIisseparaIedIromIhesIaIor
byaIhinroIorcan.1heroIorcanservesasahermeIically
sealedbarrierbeIweenIheliquidandIhemoIor.Chemical
pumps are made oI maIerials, e.g. plasIics or sIainless
sIeelIhaIcanwiIhsIandaggressiveliquids.
1he mosI common canned moIor pump Iype is Ihe
circulaIor pump. 1his Iype oI pump is Iypically used in
heaIing circuiIs because Ihe consIrucIion provides low
noiseandmainIenance-IreeoperaIion.
lig.1.2.S.LxampleoIasIandardpumpwiIhmechanicalshaIIseal
Liquid
AImosphere
Seal
lig.1.2.7.CirculaIorpump
wiIhcannedmoIor
MoIorcan
lig.1.2.6.ChemicalpumpwiIhcannedmoIor
MoIorcan
Magnetic-drivenpumps
ln recenI years, magneIic-driven pumps have become
increasingly popular Ior IransIerring aggressive and Ioxic
liquids.
As shown in Iigure 1.2.8, Ihe magneIic-driven pump is
made oI Iwo groups oI magneIs, an inner magneI and
anouIermagneI.Anon-magneIizablecanseparaIeIhese
Iwogroups.1hecanservesasahermeIicallysealedbarrier
beIween Ihe liquid and Ihe aImosphere. As iI appears
Irom Iigure 1.2.9, Ihe ouIer magneI is connecIed Io Ihe
pump drive and Ihe inner magneI is connecIed Io Ihe
pump shaII. Rereby Ihe Iorque Irom Ihe pump drive is
IransmiIIedIoIhepumpshaII.1hepumpedliquidserves
as lubricanI Ior Ihe bearings in Ihe pump. 1hereIore,
suIIicienIvenIingiscrucialIorIhebearings.
19
lig.1.2.8.ConsIrucIionoImagneIicdrive
lig.1.2.9.MagneIic-drivenmulIisIagepump
Can
lnnermagneIs OuIermagneIs
Can
lnnermagneIs
OuIermagneIs
20
lig.1.2.10.SaniIarypump
lig.1.2.11.SaniIaryselI-primingside-channelpump
1.2.45anitarypumps
SaniIary pumps are mainly used in Ihe Iood, beverage,
pharmaceuIical and bio-Iechnological indusIries where iI
isimporIanIIhaIIhepumpedliquidishandledinagenIle
mannerandIhaIIhepumpsareeasyIoclean.
lnorderIomeeIprocessrequiremenIsinIheseindusIries,
Ihe pumps have Io have a surIace roughness beIween
3.2 and 0.4 µm ka. 1his can be besI achieved by using
Iorged or deep-drawn rolled sIainless sIeel as maIerials
oI consIrucIion, see Iigure 1.2.12. 1hese maIerials have a
compacIpore-IreesurIaceIinishIhaIcanbeeasilyworked
upIomeeIIhevarioussurIaceIinishrequiremenIs.
1hemainIeaIuresoIasaniIarypumpareeaseoIcleaning
andeaseoImainIenance.
1he leading manuIacIurers oI saniIary pumps have
designedIheirproducIsIomeeIIheIollowingsIandards.

£H£DC-£uropeanHygienic£quipmentDesignCroup
DHD -DuaIifiedHygienicDesign
3-A -5anitary5tandards:
3A0J3A1:IndustriaIJHygienic5tandard
kas3.2µm
3A2:5teriIe5tandard
kas0.8µm
3A3:5teriIe5tandard
kas0.4µm
SandcasIing
PrecisioncasIing
kolledsIeel
lig.1.2.12.koughnessoImaIerialsurIaces
5ection1.2
1ypesofpumps
1.2.5Wastewaterpumps
A wasIewaIer pump is an enclosed uniI wiIh a pump
and a moIor. Due Io Ihis consIrucIion Ihe wasIewaIer
pump is suiIable Ior submersible insIallaIion in piIs.
ln submersible insIallaIions wiIh auIo-coupling sysIems
double rails are normally used. 1he auIo-coupling sysIem
IaciliIaIes mainIenance, repair and replacemenI oI Ihe
pump. 8ecause oI Ihe consIrucIion oI Ihe pump, iI is
noI necessary Io enIer Ihe piI Io carry ouI service. ln
IacI, iI is possible Io connecI and disconnecI Ihe pump
auIomaIically Irom Ihe ouIside oI Ihe piI. WasIewaIer
pumps can also be insIalled dry like convenIional pumps
inverIicalorhorizonIalinsIallaIions.LikewiseIhisIypeoI
insIallaIion provides easy mainIenance and repair like iI
provides uninIerrupIed operaIion oI Ihe pump in case oI
IloodingoIIhedrypiI,seeIigure1.2.14.
Normally,wasIewaIerpumpshaveIobeableIohandlelarge
parIicles.1hereIoreIheyareIiIIedwiIhspecialimpellersIhaI
makeiIpossibleIoavoidblockageandclogging.DiIIerenI
IypesoIimpellersexisI,single-channelimpellers,double-
channel impellers Ihree and Iour-channel impellers and
vorIeximpellers.ligure1.2.1SshowsIhediIIerenIdesignsoI
Iheseimpellers.
WasIewaIerpumpsusuallycomewiIhadrymoIor,which
is lP68 proIecIed (Ior more inIormaIion on lP-classes,
go Io secIion 1.4.1). MoIor and pump have a common
exIendedshaIIwiIhadoublemechanicalshaIIsealsysIem
inaninIermediaIeoilchamber,seeIigure1.2.13.
WasIewaIerpumpsareableIooperaIeeiIherinIermiIIenIly
orconIinuouslydependingonIheinsIallaIioninquesIion.

lig.1.2.14.WasIewaIerpumpIordryinsIallaIions
lig.1.2.1S.lmpellerIypesIorwasIewaIer
vorIex
impeller
Single-channel
impeller
Double-channel
impeller
21
lig.1.2.13.DeIailoIasewagepump
IorweIinsIallaIions
1.2.6ImmersibIepumps
AnimmersiblepumpisapumpIypewhereIhepumpparI
is immersed in Ihe pumped liquid and Ihe moIor is kepI
dry. Normally, immersible pumps are mounIed on Iop oI
or in Ihe wall oI Ianks or conIainers. lmmersible pumps
are Ior example used in Ihe machine Iool indusIry Ior
example in spark machine Iools, grinding machines,
machining cenIres and cooling uniIs or in oIher indusIrial
applicaIions involving Ianks or conIainers, such as
indusIrialwashingandIilIeringsysIems.
Pumps Ior machine Iools can be divided in Iwo groups.
Pumps Ior Ihe clean side oI Ihe IilIer and pumps Ior Ihe
dirIy side oI Ihe IilIer. Pumps wiIh closed impellers are
normallyusedIorIhecleansideoIIheIilIer,becauseIhey
provideahigheIIiciencyandahighpressureiInecessary.
Pumps wiIh open or semi-open impellers are normally
used Ior Ihe dirIy side oI Ihe IilIer, because Ihey can
handlemeIalchipsandparIicles.
lig.1.2.16.lmmersiblepump
22
5ection1.2
1ypesofpumps
1.2.78orehoIepumps
1wo Iypes oI borehole pumps exisI. 1he submerged
borehole pump Iype wiIh a submersible moIor, and Ihe
deep well pump wiIh a dry moIor, which is connecIed
Io Ihe pump by a long shaII. 1hese pumps are normally
usedinconnecIionwiIhwaIersupplyandirrigaIion.8oIh
pump Iypes are made Io be insIalled in deep and narrow
boreholesandhaveIhusareduceddiameIer,whichmakes
IhemlongerIhanoIherpumpIypes,seeIigure1.2.17.
1he borehole pumps are specially designed Io be
submerged in a liquid and are Ihus IiIIed wiIh a
submersible moIor, which is lP68 proIecIed. 1he pump
comesinboIhasingle-sIageandamulIisIageversion(Ihe
mulIisIage version being Ihe mosI common one), and is
IiIIedwiIhanon-reIurnvalveinIhepumphead.
1oday,Ihedeepwellpumphasbeenmoreorlessreplaced
by Ihe submerged pump Iype. 1he long shaII oI Ihe deep
well pump is a drawback, which makes iI diIIiculI Io
insIallandcarryouIservice.8ecauseIhedeepwellpump
moIor is air-cooled, Ihe pump is oIIen used in indusIrial
applicaIions Io pump hoI waIer Irom open Ianks. 1he
submersible pump cannoI handle as high IemperaIures
because Ihe moIor is submerged in Ihe liquid, which has
IocooliI.
lig.1.2.17.Submersiblepump
23
1.2.8PositivedispIacementpumps
1heposiIivedisplacemenIpumpprovidesanapproximaIe
consIanI Ilow aI Iixed speed, despiIe changes in Ihe
counIerpressure.1womainIypesoIposiIivedisplacemenI
pumpsexisI.
· koIarypumps
· keciprocaIingpumps
1he diIIerence in perIormance beIween a cenIriIugal
pump, a roIary pump and a reciprocaIing is illusIraIed
Io Ihe righI, Iigure 1.2.18. Depending on which oI Ihese
pumpsyouaredealingwiIh,asmallchangeinIhepump's
counIerpressure resulIs in diIIerences in Ihe Ilow.
1he Ilow oI a cenIriIugal pump will change considerably,
Ihe Ilow oI a roIary pump will change a liIIle, while Ihe
Ilow oI a reciprocaIing pump will hardly change aI all.
8uI, why is Ihere a diIIerence beIween Ihe pump curves
Ior reciprocaIing pumps and roIary pumps! 1he acIual
seal Iace surIace is larger Ior roIary pumps Ihan Ior
reciprocaIingpumps.So,evenIhoughIheIwopumpsare
designed wiIh Ihe same Iolerances, Ihe gap loss oI Ihe
roIarypumpislarger.
1hepumpsareIypicallydesignedwiIhIheIinesIIolerances
possible Io obIain Ihe highesI possible eIIiciency and
sucIioncapabiliIy.Rowever,insomecases,iIisnecessary
Io increase Ihe Iolerances, Ior example when Ihe pumps
have Io handle highly viscous liquids, liquids conIaining
parIiclesandliquidsoIhighIemperaIure.
PosiIive displacemenI pumps are pulsaIe, meaning IhaI
IheirvolumeIlowwiIhinacycleisnoIconsIanI.
1hevariaIioninIlowandspeedleadsIopressureIlucIuaIions
dueIoresisIanceinIhepipesysIemandinvalves.
O
R
R
2 3
1
3
2 1
lig.1.2.19.ClassiIicaIionoIposiIivedisplacemenIpumps
5impIex
DupIex
5impIex
DupIex
1ripIex
MuItipIex
lig.1.2.18.1ypicalrelaIionbeIween
IlowandheadIor3diIIerenIpumpIypes.
1)CenIriIugalpumps
2)koIarypumps
3)keciprocaIingpumps
24
5ection1.2
1ypesofpumps
keciprocating
kotary
PIunger
Diaphragm 5teamDoubIe-acting
Power
5ingIe-acting
DoubIe-acting
Cear
Lobe
CircumferentiaIpiston
5crew
Vane
Piston
fIexibIemember
5crew
5ingIerotor
MuItipIerotor
Positive
dispIacement
pumps
+
Dosingpumps
1he dosing pump belongs Io Ihe posiIive displacemenI
pumpIamilyandisIypicallyoIIhediaphragmIype.Diaphragm
pumps are leakage-Iree, because Ihe diaphragm Iorms
asealbeIweenIheliquidandIhesurroundings.
1hediaphragmpumpisIiIIedwiIhIwonon-reIurnvalves
- one on Ihe sucIion side and one on Ihe discharge side
oIIhepump.lnconnecIionwiIhsmallerdiaphragmpumps,
IhediaphragmisacIivaIedbyIheconnecIingrod,whichis
connecIed Io an elecIromagneI. 1hereby Ihe coil receives
IheexacIamounIoIsIrokesneeded,seeIigure1.2.21.
ln connecIion wiIh larger diaphragm pumps Ihe
diaphragm is Iypically mounIed on Ihe connecIing rod,
which is acIivaIed by a camshaII. 1he camshaII is Iurned by
meansoIasIandardasynchronousmoIor,seeIigure1.2.22.
1he Ilow oI a diaphragm pump is ad|usIed by eiIher
changing Ihe sIroke lengIh and]or Ihe Irequency oI Ihe
sIrokes. lI iI is necessary Io enlarge Ihe operaIing area,
Irequency converIers can be connecIed Io Ihe larger
diaphragmpumps,seeIigure1.2.22.
¥eI, anoIher kind oI diaphragm pump exisIs. ln Ihis case,
Ihe diaphragm is acIivaIed by means oI an excenIrically
driven connecIing rod powered by a sIepper moIor or a
synchronous moIor, Iigures 1.2.20 and 1.2.23. 8y using a
sIeppermoIordriveIhepump'sdynamicareaisincreased
and iIs accuracy is improved considerably. WiIh Ihis
consIrucIioniIisnolongernecessaryIoad|usIIhepump's
sIroke lengIh because Ihe connecIion rod is mounIed
direcIlyonIhediaphragm.1heresulIisopIimisedsucIion
condiIionsandexcellenIoperaIionIeaIures.
So IhereIore, iI is simple Io conIrol boIh Ihe sucIion
side and Ihe discharge side oI Ihe pump. Compared Io
IradiIional elecIromagneIic-driven diaphragm pumps
which provide powerIul pulsaIions, sIepper moIor-driven
diaphragm pumps make iI possible Io geI a much more
sIeadydosageoIaddiIive.
lig.1.2.21.SolenoidspringreIurn
1.2.22.Cam-drivespringreIurn
1.2.23.Crankdrive
lig.1.2.20.Dosingpump
+
2S
Chapter1.Designofpumpsandmotors
Secticn1.3:MechanicaIshaftseaIs
1.3.1 1hemechanicalshaIIseal'scomponenIs
andIuncIion
1.3.2 8alancedandunbalancedshaIIseals
1.3.3 1ypesoImechanicalshaIIseals
1.3.4 SealIacemaIerialcombinaIions
1.3.S lacIorsaIIecIingIhesealperIormance
5ection1.3
MechanicaIshaftseaIs
lromIhemiddleoIIhe19S0smechanicalshaIIseals
gainedgroundinIavouroIIheIradiIionalsealingmeIhod
-IhesIuIIingbox.ComparedIosIuIIingboxes,mechani-
calshaIIsealsprovideIheIollowingadvanIages.
- 1heykeepIighIaIsmallerdisplacemenIsandvibraIions
inIheshaII
- 1heydonoIrequireanyad|usImenI
- SealIacesprovideasmallamounIoIIricIionandIhus,
minimiseIhepowerloss
- 1heshaIIdoesnoIslideagainsIanyoIIheseal's
componenIsandIhus,isnoIdamagedbecauseoI
wear(reducedrepaircosIs).
1he mechanical shaII seal is Ihe parI oI a pump IhaI
separaIes Ihe liquid Irom Ihe aImosphere. ln Iigure 1.3.1
you can see a couple oI examples where Ihe mechanical
shaIIsealismounIedindiIIerenIIypesoIpumps.
1hema|oriIyoImechanicalshaIIsealsaremade
accordingIoIheLuropeansIandardLN127S6.
8eIorechoosingashaIIseal,IherearecerIainIhings
youneedIoknowabouIIheliquidandIhusIhe
seal'sresisIanceIoIheliquid.
- DeIermineIheIypeoIliquid
- DeIermineIhepressureIhaIIheshaIIsealisexposedIo
- DeIermineIhespeedIhaIIheshaIIsealisexposedIo
- DeIermineIhebuilI-indimensions
OnIheIollowingpageswewillpresenIhowamechanicalshaII
sealworks,IhediIIerenIIypesoIseal,whichkindoImaIerials
mechanical shaII seals are made oI and which IacIors IhaI
aIIecIIhemechanicalshaIIseal'sperIormance.
28
lig.1.3.1.PumpswiIhmechanicalshaIIseals
1.3.11hemechanicaIshaftseaI's
componentsandfunction
1hemechanicalshaIIsealismadeoIIwomaincomponenIs.
aroIaIingparIandasIaIionaryparI,andconsisIsoIIheparIs
lisIed in Iigure 1.3.2. ligure 1.3.3 shows where Ihe diIIerenI
parIsareplacedinIheseal.
- 1hesIaIionaryparIoIIhesealisIixedinIhepump
housing.1heroIaIingparIoIIhesealisIixedonIhe
pumpshaIIandroIaIeswhenIhepumpoperaIes.
- 1heIwoprimarysealIacesarepushedagainsIeachoIher
byIhespringandIheliquidpressure.DuringoperaIion
aliquidIilmisproducedinIhenarrowgapbeIweenIhe
IwosealIaces.1hisIilmevaporaIesbeIoreiIenIersIhe
aImosphere,makingIhemechanicalshaIIsealliquidIighI,
seeIigure1.3.4.
- SecondarysealsprevenIleakageIromoccurring
beIweenIheassemblyandIheshaII.
- 1hespringpressesIhesealIacesIogeIhermechanically.
- 1hespringreIainerIransmiIsIorqueIromIheshaIIIo
Iheseal.lnconnecIionwiIhmechanicalbellowsshaII
seals,IorqueisIransIerreddirecIlyIhroughIhebellows.

5eaIgap
During operaIion Ihe liquid Iorms a lubricaIing Iilm
beIween Ihe seal Iaces. 1his lubricaIing Iilm consisIs oI a
hydrosIaIicandahydrodynamicIilm.
- 1hehydrosIaIicelemenIisgeneraIedbyIhepumped
liquidwhichisIorcedinIoIhegapbeIweenIhesealIaces.
- 1hehydrodynamiclubricaIingIilmiscreaIedby
pressuregeneraIedbyIheshaII'sroIaIion.
lig.1.3.4.MechanicalshaIIsealinoperaIion
LubricationfiIm
Liquidforce
5pringforce
Vapour
£vaporation
begins
lig.1.3.3.MaincomponenIsoIIhe
mechanicalshaIIseal
kotatingpart
5tationarypart
5haft
PrimaryseaI
5econdaryseaI
PrimaryseaI
5econdaryseaI
5pring
5pringretainer
MechanicaI shaft seaI Designaticn
Seal face (primary seal)
Secondary seal
Spring
Spring retainer (torque transmission)
Seat (seal faces, primary seal)
Static seal (secondary seal)
Potating part
Stationary part
lig.1.3.2.1hemechanicalshaIIseal'scomponenIs
29
1.3.28aIancedandunbaIancedshaftseaIs
1o obIain an accepIable Iace pressure beIween Ihe
primarysealIaces,IwokindoIsealIypesexisI.abalanced
shaIIsealandanunbalancedshaIIseal.
8aIancedshaftseaI
ligure 1.3.6 shows a balanced shaII seal indicaIing where
IheIorcesinIeracIonIheseal.
UnbaIancedshaftseaI
ligure 1.3.7 shows an unbalanced shaII seal indicaIing
whereIheIorcesinIeracIonIheseal.

Several diIIerenI Iorces have an axial impacI on Ihe seal
Iaces. 1he spring Iorce and Ihe hydraulic Iorce Irom Ihe
pumpedliquidpressIhesealIogeIherwhileIheIorceIrom
Ihe lubricaIing Iilm in Ihe seal gap counIeracIs Ihis. ln
connecIion wiIh high liquid pressure, Ihe hydraulic Iorces
canbesopowerIulIhaIIhelubricanIinIhesealgapcannoI
counIeracIIheconIacIbeIweenIhesealIaces.8ecauseIhe
hydraulicIorceisproporIionaIeIoIheareaIhaIIheliquid
pressure aIIecIs, Ihe axial impacI can only be reduced by
obIainingareducIionoIIhepressure-loadedarea.
1heIhicknessoIIhelubricaIingIilmdependsonIhepump
speed, Ihe liquid IemperaIure, Ihe viscosiIy oI Ihe liquid
and Ihe axial Iorces oI Ihe mechanical shaII seal. 1he
liquidisconIinuouslychangedinIhesealgapbecauseoI
- evaporaIionoIIheliquidIoIheaImosphere
- Iheliquid'scircularmovemenI
ligure 1.3.S shows Ihe opIimum raIio beIween Iine
lubricaIionproperIiesandlimiIedleakage.AsyoucanIell,
IheopIimumraIioiswhenIhelubricaIingIilmcoversIhe
enIiresealgap,excepIIoraverynarrowevaporaIionzone
closeIoIheaImosphericsideoIIhemechanicalshaIIseal.
LeakagedueIodeposiIsonIhesealIacesisoIIenobserved.
WhenusingcoolanIagenIs,deposiIsarebuilIupquicklyby
IheevaporaIionaIIheaImospheresideoIIheseal.When
Ihe liquid evaporaIes in Ihe evaporaIion zone, microscopic
solids in Ihe liquid remain in Ihe seal gap as deposiIs
creaIingwear.
1hese deposiIs are seen in connecIion wiIh mosI Iypes
oI liquid. 8uI when Ihe pumped liquid has a Iendency
Io crysIallise, iI can become a problem. 1he besI way Io
prevenI wear is Io selecI seal Iaces made oI hard maIerial,
suchasIungsIencarbide(WC)orsiliconcarbide(SiC).
1henarrowsealgapbeIweenIhesemaIerials(app.0.3µm
ka) minimises Ihe risk oI solids enIering Ihe seal gap and
IherebyminimisesIheamounIoIdeposiIsbuildingup.
Pressure
Liquid Pumppressure
5tationary
seaIface
kotating
seaIface
Vapour Atmosphere
£ntrance
inseaI
£xitinto
atmosphere
5tartof
evaporation
1atm
lig.1.3.6.lnIeracIionoI
IorcesonIhebalanced
shaIIseal
lig.1.3.7.lnIeracIionoI
IorcesonIheunbalanced
shaIIseal
A
5pringforces
HydrauIicforces
ContactareaofseaIfaces
8
A 8
HydrauIicforces
ContactareaofseaIfaces
lig.1.3.S.OpIimumraIiobeIweenIinelubricaIion
properIiesandlimiIedleakage
30
5ection1.3
MechanicaIshaftseaIs
31
1hebalancingraIio(K)oIamechanicalshaIIsealisdeIined
asIheraIiobeIweenIheareaAandIhearea(8).K=A]8
K=8alancingraIio
A=AreaexposedIohydraulicpressure
8=ConIacIareaoIsealIaces
lor balanced shaII seals Ihe balancing raIio is usually
aroundK=0.8andIorunbalancedshaIIsealsIhebalancing
raIioisnormallyaroundK=1.2.
1.3.31ypesofmechanicaIshaftseaIs
WhaI Iollows is a brieI ouIline oI Ihe main Iypes oI
mechanical shaII seals. O-ring seal, bellows seal, and Ihe
one-uniIseal-IhecarIridgeseal.
0-ringseaIs
ln an O-ring seal, sealing beIween Ihe roIaIing shaII and
IheroIaIingsealIaceiseIIecIedbyanO-ring(Iigure1.3.9).
1heO-ringmusIbeableIoslideIreelyinIheaxialdirecIion
Io absorb axial displacemenIs as a resulI oI changes
in IemperaIures and wear. lncorrecI posiIioning oI Ihe
sIaIionaryseaImayresulIinrubbingandIhusunnecessary
wearonIheO-ringandonIheshaII.O-ringsaremadeoI
diIIerenIIypesoIrubbermaIerial,suchasN8k,LPDMand
lKM,dependingonIheoperaIingcondiIions.
8eIIcwsseaIs
A common IeaIure oI bellows seals is a rubber or meIal
bellows which IuncIions as dynamic sealing elemenI
beIweenIheroIaIingringandIheshaII.
kubberbeIIcwsseaIs
1hebellowsoIarubberbellowsseal(seeIigure1.3.10)can
bemadeoIdiIIerenIIypesoIrubbermaIerial,suchasN8k,
LPDM and lKM, depending on Ihe operaIing condiIions.
1wo diIIerenI geomeIric principles are used Ior Ihe
designoIrubberbellows.
·loldingbellows
·kollingbellows.
lig.1.3.8.WearraIeIordiIIerenIbalancingraIios
1emperature (
o
C)
0 20 40 0 80 00 20 40
Wear rate comparative
k = 1.15
k = 1.00
k = 0.85
lig.1.3.9.O-ringseal
lig.1.3.10.kubberbellowsseal
Advantagesand
disadvantagescf
0-ringseaI
Advantages:
SuiIableinhoIliquidand
highpressureapplicaIions
Disadvantages:
DeposiIsonIheshaII,
suchasrusI,mayprevenI
IheO-ringshaII
sealIrommovingaxially
Advantagesand
disadvantagescf
rubberbeIIcwsseaI
Advantages:
NoIsensiIiveIodeposiIs,
suchasrusI,onIheshaII
SuiIableIorpumping
solid-conIainingliquids
Disadvantages:
NoIsuiIableinhoIliquidand
highpressureapplicaIions
kubberbeIIowsseaIwithfoIding
beIIowsgeometry
32
MetaIbeIIcwsseaIs
ln an ordinary mechanical shaII seal, Ihe spring produces
Ihe closing Iorce required Io close Ihe seal Iaces. ln a
meIal bellows seal (Iigure 1.3.11) Ihe spring has been
replaced by a meIal bellows wiIh a similar Iorce.
MeIal bellows acI boIh as a dynamic seal beIween Ihe
roIaIing ring and Ihe shaII and as a spring. 1he bellows
have a number oI corrugaIions Io give Ihem Ihe desired
springIorce.
CartridgeseaIs
lnacarIridgemechanicalshaIIseal,allparIsIormacompacI
uniIonashaIIsleeve,readyIobeinsIalled.AcarIridgeseal
oIIersmanybeneIiIscomparedIoconvenIionalmechanical
shaIIseals,Iigure1.3.12.
fIushing
ln cerIain applicaIions iI is possible Io exIend Ihe
perIormance oI Ihe mechanical shaII seal by insIalling
Ilushing, see Iigure 1.3.13. llushing can lower Ihe
IemperaIure oI Ihe mechanical shaII seal and prevenI
deposiIs Irom occurring. llushing can be insIalled eiIher
inIernally or exIernally. lnIernal Ilushing is done when a
small Ilow Irom Ihe pump's discharge side is bypassed
Io Ihe seal area. lnIernal Ilushing is primarily used Io
prevenI IurIher heaI generaIion Irom Ihe seal in heaIing
applicaIions.LxIernalIlushingisdonebyaIlushingliquid
andisusedIoensureIrouble-IreeoperaIionwhenhandling
liquidsIhaIareabrasiveorconIaincloggingsolids.
lig.1.3.11.CarIridgemeIal
bellowsseal
Advantagesand
disadvantagescfcartridge
metaIbeIIcwsseaI
Advantages:
NoIsensiIiveIodeposiIs,
suchasrusIandlimeon
IheshaII
SuiIableinhoIliquidand
high-pressureapplicaIions
LowbalancingraIioleads
IolowwearraIeand
consequenIlylongerliIe
Disadvantages:
laIiqueIailureoIIhe
mechanicalshaIIsealmay
occurwhenIhepumpisnoI
alignedcorrecIly
laIiquemayoccurasa
resulIoIexcessive
IemperaIuresorpressures
lig.1.3.12.CarIridgeseal
Advantagesofthe
cartridgeseaI:
· LasyandIasIservice
· 1hedesignproIecIsIhe
sealIaces
· Preloadedspring
· SaIehandling
lig1.3.13.llushingdeviceoIa
singlemechanicalshaIIseal
5ection1.3
MechanicaIshaftseaIs
33
DoubIemechanicaIshaftseaIs
Double mechanical shaII seals are used when Ihe liIe
span oI single mechanical shaII seals is insuIIicienI due
Io wear caused by solids or Ioo high]low pressure and
IemperaIure. lurIher, double mechanical shaII seals are
usedinconnecIionwiIhIoxic,aggressiveandexplosiveliquids
IoproIecIIhesurroundings.1woIypesoIdoublemechanical
shaII seals exisI. 1he double seal in a Iandem arrangemenI
andIhedoublesealinaback-Io-backarrangemenI.
DcubIeseaIintandem
1his Iype oI double seal consisIs oI Iwo mechanical shaII
seals mounIed in Iandem, IhaI is one behind Ihe oIher,
placedinaseparaIesealchamber,seeIigure1.3.14.
1hesealIypeisusedwhenapressuriseddoublemechanical
shaII seal mounIed in a back-Io-back arrangemenI is noI
necessary.

1he Iandem seal arrangemenI has Io be IiIIed wiIh a
quenchingliquidsysIemwhich

- absorbsleakage
- moniIorsIheleakageraIe
- lubricaIesandcoolsIheouIboardsealIoprevenIicing
- proIecIsagainsIdry-running
- sIabilisesIhelubricaIingIilm
- prevenIsairIromenIeringIhepumpincaseoIvacuum
1hepressureoIIhequenchingliquidmusIalwaysbelower
IhanIhepumpedliquidpressure.
1andem-circuIaticn
CirculaIion oI quenching liquid via a pressureless Iank, see
Iigure 1.3.14. Ouenching liquid Irom Ihe elevaIed Iank is
circulaIedbyIhermosiphonacIionand]orbypumpingacIion
inIheseal.
1andem-deadend
OuenchingliquidIromanelevaIedIank,seeIigure1.3.1S.No
heaIisdissipaIedIromIhesysIem.
1andem-drain
1he quenching liquid runs direcIly Ihrough Ihe seal chamber
IobecollecIedIorreuse,ordirecIedIodrain,seeIigure1.3.16.
lig.1.3.16.1andemsealarrangemenIwiIhquenchliquidIodrain
s
s
DuenchIiquid
PumpedIiquid
s
s
DuenchIiquid
PumpedIiquid
s
s Pumped
Iiquid
lig. 1.3.1S. 1andem seal arrangemenI wiIh quench liquid dead
end
lig.1.3.14.1andemsealarrangemenIwiIhquenchliquid
circulaIion
34
1.3.45eaIfacemateriaIcombinations
WhaI Iollows is a descripIion oI Ihe mosI imporIanI
maIerial pairings used in mechanical shaII seals Ior
indusIrial applicaIions. 1ungsIen carbide]IungsIen
carbide, silicon carbide]silicon carbide and carbon]
IungsIencarbideorcarbon]siliconcarbide.
1ungstencarbideJtungstencarbide
(WCJWC)
CemenIed IungsIen carbide covers Ihe Iype oI hard meIals
IhaI are based on a hard IungsIen carbide (WC) phase and
usually a soIIer meIallic binder phase. 1he correcI Iechnical
IermiscemenIedIungsIencarbide,however,IheabbreviaIed
IermIungsIencarbide(WC)isusedIorconvenience.
CobalI-bonded(Co)WCisonlycorrosionresisIanIinwaIeriI
IhepumpincorporaIesbasemeIal,suchascasIiron.
Chromium-nickel-molybdenum-boundedWChasa
corrosionresisIanceequalIoLN14401.
SinIered binderless WC has Ihe highesI corrosion
resisIance. Rowever, iIs resisIance Io corrosion in liquids,
such as hypochloriIe, is noI as high. 1he maIerial pairing
WC]WChasIheIollowingIeaIures.
- LxIremelywearresisIanI
- veryrobusI,resisIsroughhandling
- Poordry-runningproperIies.lncaseoIdry-running,Ihe
IemperaIureincreasesIoseveralhundreddegreesCelsius
inveryIewminuIesandconsequenIlydamagesIheO-rings.
lI a cerIain pressure and a cerIain IemperaIure are
exceeded, Ihe seal may generaIe noise. Noise is an
indicaIion oI poor seal operaIing condiIions IhaI in Ihe
long Ierm may cause wear oI Ihe seal. 1he limiIs oI use
dependonsealIacediameIeranddesign.
1oaWC]WCsealIacepairing,Iherunning-inwearperiod
wherenoiseisIobeexpecIedmaylasI3-4weeks,alIhough
Iypically,nonoiseoccursduringIheIirsI3-4days.
DcubIeseaIinback-tc-back
1his Iype oI seal is Ihe opIimum soluIion Ior handling
abrasive, aggressive, explosive or sIicky liquids, which
would eiIher wear ouI, damage or block a mechanical
shaIIseal.
1he back-Io-back double seal consisIs oI Iwo shaII
sealsmounIedback-Io-backinaseparaIesealchamber,
seeIigure1.3.17.1heback-Io-backdoublesealproIecIs
IhesurroundingenvironmenIandIhepeopleworking
wiIhIhepump.
1hepressureinIhesealchambermusIbe1-2barhigher
IhanIhepumppressure.1hepressurecanbegeneraIed
by.
- AnexisIing,separaIepressuresource.Many
applicaIionsincorporaIepressurisedsysIems.
- AseparaIepump,e.g.adosingpump.
s
lig.1.3.17.
8ack-Io-backsealarrangemenI
5eaIchamberwith
barrierpressureIiquid
PumpedIiquid
8arrierpressureIiquid
5ection1.3
MechanicaIshaftseaIs
5iIiconcarbideJsiIiconcarbide
(5iCJ5iC)
Siliconcarbide]siliconcarbide(SiC]SiC)isanalIernaIiveIo
WC]WC and is used where higher corrosion resisIance is
required.
1heSiC]SiCmaIerialpairinghasIheIollowingIeaIures.
- verybriIIlemaIerialrequiringcareIulhandling
- LxIremelywearresisIanI
- LxIremelygoodcorrosionresisIance.SiC(O
1
s
,O
1
P
and
O
1
G
)hardlycorrodes,irrespecIiveoIIhepumpedliquid
Iype.Rowever,anexcepIioniswaIerwiIhverypoor
conducIiviIy,suchasdemineralisedwaIer,whichaIIacks
IheSiCvarianIsO
1
s
andO
1
P
,whereasO
1
G
iscorrosion-
resisIanIalsoinIhisliquid
- lngeneral,IhesemaIerialpairingshavepoordry-running
properIieshowever,IheO
1
G
]O
1
G
maIerialwiIhsIandsa
limiIed period oI dry-running on accounI oI Ihe
graphiIeconIenIoIIhemaIerial
lordiIIerenIpurposes,variousSiC]SiCvarianIsexisI.
D
1
s
,dense-sintered,fine-grained5iC
AdirecI-sinIered,Iine-grainedSiCwiIhasmallamounIoI
Iinypores.
lor a number oI years, Ihis SiC varianI was used as a
sIandard mechanical shaII seal maIerial. Pressure and
IemperaIurelimiIsareslighIlybelowIhoseoIWC]WC.
D
1
P
,porous,sintered,fine-grained5iC
A varianI oI Ihe dense-sinIered SiC. 1his SiC varianI has
largecircularclosedpores.1hedegreeoIporosiIyisS-1S°
andIhesizeoIIhepores10-S0µmka.
1hepressureandIemperaIurelimiIsexceedIhoseoIWC]WC.
3S
ConsequenIly, in warm waIer, Ihe O
1
P
] O
1
P
Iace maIerial
pairing generaIes less noise Ihan Ihe WC]WC pairing.
Rowever, noise Irom porous SiC seals musI be expecIed
duringIherunning-inwearperiodoI3-4days.
D
1
C
seIf-Iubricating,sintered5iC
SeveralvarianIsoISiCmaIerialsconIainingdrylubricanIs
are available on Ihe markeI. 1he designaIion O
1
G
applies
Io a SiC maIerial, which is suiIable Ior use in disIilled or
demineralisedwaIer,asopposedIoIheabovemaIerials.
PressureandIemperaIurelimiIsoIO
1
G
]O
1
G
aresimilarIo
IhoseoIO
1
P
]O
1
P
.
1hedrylubricanIs,i.e.graphiIe,reduceIheIricIionincase
oI dry-running, which is oI decisive imporIance Io Ihe
durabiliIyoIasealduringdry-running.
CarbonJtungstencarbideorcarbonJ
siIiconcarbidefeatures
Seals wiIh one carbon seal Iace have Ihe Iollowing
IeaIures.
- 8riIIlemaIerialrequiringcareIulhandling
- WornbyliquidsconIainingsolidparIicles
- GoodcorrosionresisIance
- Gooddry-runningproperIies(Iemporarydry-running)
- 1he selI-lubricaIing properIies oI carbon make Ihe
seal suiIable Ior use even wiIh poor lubricaIing
condiIions (high IemperaIure) wiIhouI generaIing
noise. Rowever, such condiIions will cause wear oI
Ihe carbon seal Iace leading Io reduced seal liIe. 1he
wear depends on Ihe pressure, IemperaIure, liquid
diameIerandsealdesign.
Low speeds reduce Ihe lubricaIion beIween Ihe seal
Iaces, as a resulI, increased wear mighI have been
expecIed.Rowever,IhisisnormallynoIIhecasebecause
IhedisIanceIhaIIhesealIaceshaveIomoveisreduced.
36
- MeIal-impregnaIed carbon (A) oIIers limiIed corro-
sion resisIance, buI improved mechanical sIrengIh,
heaIconducIiviIyandIhusreducedwear
- WiIh reduced mechanical sIrengIh, buI higher
corrosion resisIance, synIheIic resin-impregnaIed
carbon (8) covers a wide applicaIion Iield. SynIheIic
resin-impregnaIed carbon is approved Ior drinking
waIer

- 1he use oI carbon]SiC Ior hoI waIer applicaIions may
cause heavy wear oI Ihe SiC, depending on Ihe
qualiIy oI Ihe carbon and waIer. 1his Iype oI wear
primarily applies Io O
1
S
]carbon. 1he use oI O
1
P
,
O
1
G
oracarbon]WCpairingcausesIarlesswear.1hus,
carbon]WC,carbon]O
1
P
orcarbon]O
1
G
arerecommended
IorhoIwaIersysIems
1.3.5factorsaffectingtheseaI
performance
As menIioned previously, no seal is compleIely IighI. On
Ihe nexI pages, we will presenI Ihe Iollowing IacIors,
which have an impacI on Ihe seal perIormance. Lnergy
consumpIion, noise and leakage. 1hese IacIors will be
presenIed individually. Rowever, iI is imporIanI Io sIress
IhaI Ihey are closely inIerrelaIed, and Ihus musI be
consideredasawhole.

£nergyconsumption
lIcomesasnosurpriseIhaIpowerisneededIomakeIhe
sealroIaIe.1heIollowingIacIorsconIribuIeIoIhepower
consumpIion,IhaIisIhepowerlossoIamechanicalshaII
seal.
- 1hecenIriIugalpumpingacIionoIIheroIaIingparIs.
1hepowerconsumpIionincreasesdramaIicallywiIh
IhespeedoIroIaIion(IoIheIhirdpower).
- 1hesealIaceIricIion.
lricIionbeIweenIheIwosealIacesconsisIsoI
- IricIioninIheIhinliquidIilmand
- IricIiondueIopoinIsoIconIacIbeIweenIhe
sealIaces.
1he level oI power consumpIion depends on seal design,
lubricaIingcondiIionsandsealIacemaIerials.
ligure 1.3.18 is a Iypical example oI Ihe power consumpIion
oIamechanicalshaIIseal.1heIigureshowsIhaIupIo3600
rpm IricIion is Ihe ma|or reason Ior Ihe mechanical shaII
seal'senergyconsumpIion.

5peed (rpm)
0
0
0
00
0
200
20
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
Power Ioss (W)
3600
lig.1.3.18.PowerconsumpIionoIa12mm
mechanicalshaIIseal
Pumping
action
friction
5ection1.3
MechanicaIshaftseaIs
37
8ar
25
20
15
10
5
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 0 80 90 100 110 °C
Ncise
Duty range
lig.1.3.20.kelaIionbeIweenduIyrangeandspeed
5peed at 3000 rpm
5peed at 1800 rpm
5peed at 1200 rpm
5peed at 600 rpm
Lnergy consumpIion is, especially in connecIion wiIh
sIuIIingboxes,animporIanIissue.AsyoucanIellIrom
Ihe example, replacing a sIuIIing box by a mechanical
shaII seal leads Io considerable energy savings, see
Iigure1.3.19.
Noise
1he choice oI seal Iace maIerials is decisive Ior Ihe
IuncIionandIheliIeoIIhemechanicalshaIIseal.Noise
isgeneraIedasaresulIoIIhepoorlubricaIingcondiIions
in seals handling low viscosiIy liquids. 1he viscosiIy
oI waIer decreases wiIh increasing IemperaIure. 1his
means IhaI Ihe lubricaIing condiIions decrease as Ihe
IemperaIure rises. lI Ihe pumped liquid reaches or
exceeds boiling IemperaIure, Ihe liquid on parI oI Ihe
sealIaceevaporaIes,whichresulIsinaIurIherdecrease
in Ihe lubricaIing condiIions. A speed reducIion has Ihe
sameeIIecI,seeIigure1.3.20.
Leakage
1he pumped liquid lubricaIes Ihe seal Iace oI a
mechanical shaII seal. 1hus, beIIer lubricaIion means
less IricIion and increased leakage. Conversely, less
leakage means worse lubricaIing condiIions and
increased IricIion. ln pracIice, Ihe amounI oI leakage
and power loss IhaI occur in mechanical shaII seals can
vary.1hereasonisIhaIleakagedependsonIacIorswhich
are impossible Io quanIiIy IheoreIically because oI Iype
oI seal Iaces, Iype oI liquid, spring load, eIc. 1hereIore,
Iigure1.3.21shouldbeperceivedasaguideline.
1o read Ihe leakage raIe curve correcIly (Iigure 1.3.21),
youhaveIogoIhroughIoursIeps.
Step1.keadIhepressure-inIhiscaseSbar
Step2.30mmunbalancedshaIIseal
Step3.Speed3000rpm
Step4.LeakageraIe0.06ml]h
Dw(mm)1008
100U
8=baIanced
U=unbaIanced
n
(
m
i
n

-
1 )
3
6
0
0
3
0
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
5
0
0
80U
60U
40U
0.001 0.01 0.06 0.1 1 LeakageD(mIJh)
DifferentiaIpressuretobeseaIedp(bar) 1 10 5 100
30U
20U
808
608
408
208
308
lig.1.3.21.LeakageraIes
lig.1.3.19.SIuIIingboxversusmechanicalshaIIseal
5tandard pump 50 mLC, 50 mm shaft and 2900 rpm
Lnergy consumption
Stuffing box 2.0 kwh
Mechanical shaft seal 0.3 kwh
Leakage
Stuffing box 3.0 l/h (when mounted correctly)
Mechanical shaft seal 0.8 ml/h
Chapter1.Designofpumpsandmotors
Secticn1.4:Mctcrs
1.4.1 SIandards
1.4.2 MoIorsIarI-up
1.4.3 volIagesupply
1.4.4 lrequencyconverIer
1.4.S MoIorproIecIion
MoIorsareusedinmanyapplicaIionsalloverIheworld.
1hepurposeoIIheelecIricmoIorisIocreaIeroIaIion,IhaIis
IoconverIelecIricenergyinIomechanicalenergy.Pumpsare
operaIed by means oI mechanical energy, which is provided
byelecIricmoIors.
1.4.15tandards
N£MA
1he NaIional LlecIrical ManuIacIurers AssociaIion (NLMA)
seIssIandardsIorawiderangeoIelecIricproducIs,including
moIors. NLMA is primarily associaIed wiIh moIors used in
NorIh America. 1he sIandards represenI general indusIry
pracIicesandaresupporIedbyIhemanuIacIurersoIelecIric
equipmenI. 1he sIandards can be Iound in NLMA SIandard
PublicaIion No. MG1. Some large moIors may noI Iall under
NLMAsIandards.
l£C
1he lnIernaIional LlecIroIechnical Commission (lLC) seIs
sIandards Ior moIors used in many counIries around Ihe
world. 1he lLC 60034 sIandard conIains recommended
elecIrical pracIices IhaI have been developed by Ihe
parIicipaIinglLCcounIries.
lig.1.4.1.LlecIricmoIor
lig.1.4.2.NLMAandlLCsIandards
5ection1.4
Motors
40
Directivesandmethodsofprotection-
£x-motors
A1LX(A1mosphèreLXplosible)reIersIoIwoLUdirecIives
abouIdangeroIexplosionwiIhindiIIerenIareas.1heA1LX
direcIive concerns elecIrical, mechanical, hydraulic and
pneumaIic equipmenI. As Io Ihe mechanical equipmenI,
IhesaIeIyrequiremenIsinIheA1LXdirecIiveensureIhaI
pumpcomponenIs,suchasshaIIsealsandbearingsdonoI
heaI up and igniIe gas and dusI. 1he hrsI A1LX direcIive
(94]9]LC) deals wiIh requiremenIs puI on equipmenI Ior
use in areas wiIh danger oI explosion. 1he manuIacIurer
hasIoIulhlIherequiremenIsandmarkhisproducIswiIh
caIegories. 1he second A1LX direcIive (99]92]LC) deals
wiIh Ihe minimum saIeIy and healIh requiremenIs IhaI
IheuserhasIoIulhl,whenworkinginareaswiIhdangeroI
explosion.DiIIerenIIechniquesareusedIoprevenIelecIric
equipmenI Irom becoming a source oI igniIion. ln Ihe
case oI elecIric moIors, proIecIion Iypes d (IlameprooI), e
(increased saIeIy) and nA (non-sparking) are applied
in connecIion wiIh gas, and DlP (dusI igniIion prooI) is
appliedinconnecIionwiIhdusI.
fIameprccfmctcrs-prctecticntype££xd{de}
lirsIoIall,IlameprooILLxd(Iypede)moIorsarecaIegory
2G equipmenI Ior use in zone 1. 1he sIaIor housing and
Ihe Ilanges enclose Ihe IlameprooI moIor parIs IhaI
can igniIe a poIenIially explosive aImosphere. 8ecause
oI Ihe enclosure, Ihe moIor can wiIhsIand Ihe pressure
IhaI goes along wiIh Ihe explosion oI an explosive
mixIure inside Ihe moIor. PropagaIion oI Ihe explosion
IoIheaImosphereIhaIsurroundsIheenclosureishereby
avoided because Ihe explosion is cooled down by means
oI Ilame paIhs. 1he size oI Ihe Ilame paIhs is deIined in
Ihe LN S0018 sIandard. 1he surIace IemperaIure oI Ihe
IlameprooIenclosureshouldalwaysbeinaccordancewiIh
IheIemperaIureclasses.
lncreasedsafetymctcrs-prctecticntype££x{e}
lncreasedsaIeIymoIors(Iypee)arecaIegory2GequipmenI
Ioruseinzone1.1hesemoIorsarenoIIlameprooIandnoI
builIIowiIhsIandaninIernalexplosion.1heconsIrucIion
oIsuchamoIorisbasedonincreasedsecuriIyagainsI
S
User Manufacturer
Zones:
Gas (G): 0, J and 2
Dust (D): 20, 2J and 22
Minor
danger
PotentieI
danger
Constant
danger
Category 3
equipment
(3CJ3D)
Category 2
equipment
(2CJ2D)
Category 1
equipment
(1CJ1D)
Zone:
0 or 20
Zone:
J or 2J
Zone:
J or 2J
Zone:
2 or 22
Zone:
2 or 22
lig1.4.4.1heexplosionoccurs
insideIhemoIorandislead
ouIoIIhemoIorIhroughIhe
IlamepaIhs.1heIemperaIure
classiIicaIionIorIlameprooI
LLxdmoIorsisvalidIor
exIernalsurIaces.
lig1.4.3.1helink
beIweenzonesand
equipmenIcaIegoriesis
aminimumrequiremenI.
lIIhenaIionalrulesare
moresIricI,IheyareIhe
onesIoIollow.
lig1.4.S.lorincreasedsaIeIy
moIorsLLxe,nosparksmay
occur.1heIemperaIure
classiIicaIioncoversboIh
inIernalandexIernalsurIaces.
lig1.4.6.WiIhnon-sparking
moIorsLxnA,noigniIionis
likelyIooccur.
41
possibleexcessiveIemperaIuresandoccurrenceoIsparks
andarcsduringnormaloperaIionandwhenapredicIable
error occurs. 1he IemperaIure classiIicaIion Ior increased
saIeIy moIors is valid Ior boIh inIernal and exIernal
surIaces, and IhereIore, iI is imporIanI Io observe Ihe
sIaIorwindingIemperaIure.
Ncn-sparkingmctcrs-prctecticntype£x{nA}
Non-sparkingmoIors(IypenA)arecaIegory3GequipmenI
Ioruseinzone2.1hesemoIorscannoIbyanymeansigniIe
apoIenIialexplosiveaImosphereundernormaloperaIion,
seeIigure1.4.6.
DustlgniticnPrccf{DlP}
1woIypesoIDusIlgniIionProoImoIorsexisI.2D]caIegory
2equipmenIand3D]caIegory3equipmenI.
2DJcategcry2equipment
ln order Io avoid sIaIic elecIriciIy Io cause igniIion, Ihe
cooling Ian on a caIegory 2 DlP moIor Ior use in zone 21
(areawiIhpoIenIialdangeroIexplosion)ismadeoImeIal.
Likewise, Io minimise Ihe risk oI igniIion, Ihe exIernal
ground Ierminal is sub|ecI Io more severe demands oI
consIrucIion. 1he exIernal surIace IemperaIure oI Ihe
enclosure,whichisindicaIedonIhemoIornameplaIeand
correspondsIoIherunningperIormanceduringIheworsI
condiIionsallowedIorIhemoIor.MoIorsIoruseinzone21
(areaswiIhpoIenIialdangeroIexplosion)haveIobelP6S
proIecIed,IhaIiscompleIelyproIecIedagainsIdusI.
3DJcategcry3equipment
1he IemperaIure indicaIed on a caIegory 3 DlP moIor Ior
use in zone 22 (areas wiIh minor danger oI explosion)
Type of
protection
Code
Standar ds Use in ATLX
category/
Zone
Principle Application
CLNLLLC
LN
|LC
60079
General
requirements
- 500l4 - 0 - 8asic electrical requirements All equipment
Oil immersion o 500l5 - 6
Category 2
Zone l
Llectrical components immersed in oil
excluding explosive atmosphere from
igniting
Transformers
Pressurised p 500l6 - 2
Category 2
Zone l
Lnclosure housing equipment is purged to
remove explosive atmosphere and pres-
surised to prevent ingress of
surrounding atmosphere
Switching and
control cabinets,
large motors
Powder filled q 500l7 - 5
Category 2
Zone l
Llectrical parts are surrounded with
power, e.g. quartz to prevent contact with
an explosive atmosphere
Llectronic devices,
e.g. capacitors, fuses
Plameproof d 500l8 - l
Category 2
Zone l
Lnclosure housing electrical equipment
which, if there is an internal explosion,
will not ignite surrounding atmosphere
control panels,

light fittings
|ncreased
safety
e 500l9 - 7
Category 2
Zone l
Additional methods are used to
eliminate arcs, sparks and hot surface
capable of igniting flammable
atmosphere
AC motors
AC motors,
, terminal
and connection boxes,
light fittings, squirrel
cage motors
|ntrinsic safety
i
a
i
b
50020
50020
- ll
- ll
Category l
Zone 0
Category 2
Zone l
Llectrical energy in equipment is limited
so that circuits cannot ignite an
atmosphere by sparking or heating
Measurement and
control equipment,
e.g. sensors,
instrumentation
Lncapsulation m 50028 - l8
Category 2
Zone l
Llectrical components embedded in
approved material to prevent contact
with explosive atmosphere
Measurement and
control devices,
solenoid valves
Type of
protection n
nA 5002l - l5
Category 3
Zone 2
Non-arcing and non-sparking
AC motors, terminal
boxes, light fittings
Note: Group || Dust atmospher es ar e covered by CLNLLLC LN 5028l-l-l and LN5028l-l-2
lig1.4.7.SIandardsandmeIhodsoIproIecIion
42
5ection1.4
Motors
corresponds Io Ihe running perIormance under Ihe worsI
condiIions allowed Ior IhaI speciIic moIor. A moIor Ior
use in zone 22 has Io be lPSS proIecIed, IhaI is proIecIed
againsI dusI. 1he lP proIecIion is Ihe only diIIerence
beIween 2D]caIegory 2 equipmenI and 3D]caIegory 3
equipmenI.
Mounting(InternationaIMounting-IM)
1hree diIIerenI ways oI mounIing Ihe moIor exisI. looI-
mounIed moIor, ßange-mounIed moIor wiIh Iree-hole
ßange (ll) and ßange-mounIed moIor wiIh Iapped-hole
ßange (l1). ligure 1.4.8 shows Ihe diIIerenI ways oI
mounIing a moIor and Ihe sIandards IhaI apply Ior Ihe
mounIings.1hemounIingoImoIorsissIaIedaccordingIo
IheIollowingsIandards.
- lLC60034-7,Codel,
i.e.designaIionlMIollowedbyIhepreviously
usedDlN42S90code
- lLC60034-7,Codell
£ncIosurecIass
(IngressProtection-IP)
1he enclosure class sIaIes Ihe degrees oI proIecIion oI
Ihe moIor againsI ingress oI solid ob|ecIs and waIer.
1he enclosure class is sIaIed by means oI Iwo leIIers lP
Iollowed by Iwo digiIs, Ior example lPSS. 1he IirsI digiI
sIands Ior proIecIion againsI conIacI and ingress oI solid
ob|ecIsandIheseconddigiIsIandsIorproIecIionagainsI
ingressoIwaIer,seeIigure1.4.9.
DrainholesenableIheescapeoIwaIerwhichhasenIered
Ihe sIaIor housing Ior insIance Ihrough condensaIion.
When Ihe moIor is insIalled in a damp environmenI, Ihe
boIIom drain hole should be opened. Opening Ihe drain
hole changes Ihe moIor's enclosure class Irom lPSS Io
lP44.
IM83
IM1001
IM85
IM3001
IMV1
IM3011
IM814
IM3601
IMV18
IM3611

fIrst dIgIt Secend dIgIt
Protectionagainstcontactand
ingressofsoIidobjects
Protectionagainst
ingressofwater
0 NospecialproIecIion
1 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
solidob|ecIsbiggerIhan
SSmm,e.g.ahand
2 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
ob|ecIsbiggerIhan12mm,e.g.
aIinger
3 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
solidob|ecIsbiggerIhan2Smm,
i.e.wires,Iools,eIc.
4 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
solidob|ecIsbiggerIhan1mm,
e.g.wires
5 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
IheingressoIdusI

6 1hemoIoriscompleIely
dusI-prooI
0 NospecialproIecIion
1 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
verIicallyIallingdropsoIwaIer,
suchascondensedwaIer
2 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
verIicallyIallingdropsoIwaIer,
eveniIIhemoIorisIilIedaIan
angleoI1S°
3 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
waIersprayIallingaIanangle
oI60°

IromverIical
4 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
waIersplashingIromany
direcIion
5 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
waIerbeingpro|ecIedIroma
nozzleIromanydirecIion
6 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
heavyseasorhigh-pressure
waIer|eIsIromanydirecIion
7 1hemoIorisproIecIedwhen
submergedIrom1ScmIo1min
waIerIoraperiodspeciIiedby
IhemanuIacIurer
8 1hemoIorisproIecIedagainsI
conIinuoussubmersioninwaIer
undercondiIionsspeciIiedby
IhemanuIacIurer

lig1.4.8.DiIIerenImounIingmeIhods
foot-mounted
motor
fIange-mounted
motorwith
free-hoIefIange
fIange-mounted
motorwith
tapped-hoIefIange
lig1.4.9.1heenclosureclassissIaIedbymeansoIIwodigiIslP
IollowedbyIwoleIIers,IorexamplelPSS
IM835
IM2001
43
framesize
ligure 1.4.11 gives an overview oI Ihe relaIion beIween
Irame size, shaII end, moIor power and Ilange Iype and
size.lormoIorsinIramesizes63upIoandincluding31SM,
Ihe relaIionship is speciIied in LN S0347. lor moIors wiIh
Iramesize31SLandlarger,nosIandardcoversIhisrelaIion.
1heIigureshowswhereonIhemoIorIhediIIerenIvalues
IhaImakeupIheIramesizearemeasured.
llanges and shaII end comply wiIh LN S0347 and
lLC60072-1.Somepumpshaveacoupling,whichrequires
a smooIh moIor shaII end or a special shaII exIension
whichisnoIdeIinedinIhesIandards.
InsuIationcIass
1he insulaIion class is deIined in Ihe lLC 6008S sIandard
and Iells someIhing abouI how robusI Ihe insulaIion
sysIem is Io IemperaIures. 1he liIe oI an insulaIion
maIerialishighlydependenIonIheIemperaIureIowhich
iIisexposed.1hevariousinsulaIionmaIerialsandsysIems
are classiIied inIo insulaIion classes depending on Iheir
abiliIyIoresisIhighIemperaIures.
I£C100L(InthiscaseL=140mm)
1
0
0
m
m
Distancebetween
hoIes
83
Maximumtemperatureincrease
Hot-spotovertemperature
Maximumambienttemperature
10
80 105 125
40
8
[¨C]180
155
130
120
40
f H
40 40
10
15
CIass
8
f
H
Maximum ambient
temperature
(¨C)
40
40
40
Maximum
temperature increase
(k)
80
105
125
Hot-spot
overtemperature
(k)
10
10
15
Maximum
winding temperature
(1max) (¨C)
130
155
180
lig1.4.12.DiIIerenIinsulaIionclassesandIheirIemperaIureincreaseaI
nominalvolIageandload
lig1.4.10.lramesize
140mm
44
5ection1.4
Motors
1
framesize
4-poIe 6-poIe 8-poIe
free-hoIe
fIange
1apped-hoIe
fIange
[kW] [kW] [kW] (ff) (f1)
0.06,0.09 ll100 l16S
0.12,0.18 ll11S l17S
0.2S,0.37 ll130 l18S
0.SS,0.7S 0.37,0.SS ll16S l1100
1.1 0.7S 0.37 ll16S l111S
1.S 1.1 0.SS ll16S l111S
2.2,3 1.S 0.7S,1.1 ll21S l1130
4 2.2 1.S ll21S l1130
S.S 3 2.2 ll26S l116S
7.S 4,S.S 3 ll26S l116S
11 7.S 4,S.S ll300 l121S
1S 11 7.S ll300 l121S
18.S - - ll300
22 1S 11 ll300
30 18.S,22 1S ll3S0
37 30 18.S ll400
4S - 22 ll400
SS 37 30 llS00
7S 4S 37 llS00
90 SS 4S llS00
110 7S SS ll600
132 90 7S ll600
ll600
31S,3SS,400,4S0,S00 ll740
S60,630,710 ll840
S6
63
71
80
90S
90L
100L
112M
132S
132M
160M
160L
180M
180L
200L
22SS
22SM
2S0M
280S
280M
31SS
31SM
31SL
3SS
400
4S0
2-poIe
[mm]
9
11
14
19
24
24
28
28
38
38
42
42
48
48
SS
SS
SS
60
6S
6S
6S
6S
6S
7S
80
90
4-,6-,8-poIe
[mm]
9
11
14
19
24
24
28
28
38
38
42
42
48
48
SS
60
60
6S
7S
7S
80
80
80
100
100
120
2-poIe
[kW]
0.09,0.12
0.18,0.2S
0.37,0.SS
0.7S,1.1
1.S
2.2
3
4
S.S,7.S
-
11,1S
18.S
22
-
30,37
-
4S
SS
7S
90
110
132
160,200,2S0
31S,3SS,400,4S0,S00
S60,630,710
800,900,1000 800,900,1000 ll940
4
fIangesize 5haftenddiameter katedpower
3 2
lig1.4.11.1herelaIionbeIweenIramesizeandpowerinpuI
4S
5tartingmethod
DirecI-on-linesIarIing(DOL) SimpleandcosI-eIIicienI.
SaIesIarIing.
Righlocked-roIorcurrenI.
CurrenIpulseswhenswiIchingoverIromsIarIodelIa.
NoIsuiIableiIIheloadhasalowinerIia.
keducedlocked-roIorIorque.
SIar]delIasIarIing(SD)
(¥]$)
keducIionoIsIarIingcurrenIbyIacIor3.
AuIoIransIormersIarIing keducIionoIlocked-roIorcurrenIandIorque. CurrenIpulseswhenswiIchingIromreducedIoIullvolIage.
keducedlocked-roIorIorque.
SoIIsIarIer "SoII"sIarIing.NocurrenIpulses.
LesswaIerhammerwhensIarIingapump.
keducIionoIlocked-roIorcurrenIasrequired,
Iypically2-3Iimes.
keducedlocked-roIorIorque.
lrequencyconverIersIarIing NocurrenIpulses.
LesswaIerhammerwhensIarIingapump.
keducIionoIlocked-roIorcurrenIasrequired,
Iypically2Io3Iimes.
CanbeusedIorconIinuousIeedingoIIhemoIor.
keducedlocked-roIorIorque.
Lxpensive
Pros Cons
Direct-on-Iinestarting(DDL)
As Ihe name suggesIs, direcI-on-line sIarIing means IhaI
IhemoIorissIarIedbyconnecIingiIdirecIlyIoIhesupply
aIraIedvolIage.DirecI-on-linesIarIingissuiIableIorsIable
supplies and mechanically sIiII and well-dimensioned
shaII sysIems, Ior example pumps. Whenever applying
IhedirecI-on-linesIarIingmeIhod,iIisimporIanIIoconsulI
localauIhoriIies.
5tarJdeItastarting
1he ob|ecIive oI Ihis sIarIing meIhod, which is used wiIh
Ihree-phase inducIion moIors, is Io reduce Ihe sIarIing
currenI. ln one posiIion, currenI supply Io Ihe sIaIor
windings is connecIed in sIar (¥) Ior sIarIing. ln oIher
posiIions,currenIsupplyisreconnecIedIoIhewindingsin
delIa(L)onceIhemoIorhasgainedspeed.
Autotransformerstarting
As Ihe name sIaIes, auIoIransIormer sIarIing makes use
oI an auIoIransIormer. 1he auIoIransIormer is placed in
series wiIh Ihe moIor during sIarI and varies Ihe volIage
upIonominalvolIageinIwoIoIoursIeps.
5oftstarter
A soII sIarIer is, as you would expecI, a device which
ensuresasoIIsIarIoIamoIor.1hisisdonebyraisingIhe
volIageIoapreseIvolIageraiseIime.
frequencyconverterstarting
lrequencyconverIersaredesignedIorconIinuousIeeding
oImoIors,buIIheycanalsobeusedIorsoIIsIarIing.
1.4.2Motorstart-up
We disIinguish beIween diIIerenI ways oI sIarIing up
Ihe moIor. DirecI-on-line sIarIing, sIar]delIa sIarIing,
auIoIransIormer sIarIing, soII sIarIer and Irequency
converIersIarIing.LachoIIhesemeIhodshaveIheirpros
andcons,seeIigure1.4.13.
lig1.4.13.SIarIingmeIhod
46
5ection1.4
Motors
1.4.3VoItagesuppIy
1he moIor's raIed volIage lies wiIhin a cerIain volIage
range.ligure1.4.14showsIypicalvolIageexamplesIorS0
Rzand60RzmoIors.
According Io Ihe inIernaIional sIandard lLC 60038, Ihe
moIor has Io be able Io operaIe wiIh a main volIage
IoleranceoI±10°.
lormoIorsIhaIaredesignedaccordingIoIhelLC60034-
1 sIandard wiIh a wide volIage range, e.g. 380-41S v, Ihe
mainvolIagemayhaveaIoleranceoI±S°.
1he permissible maximum IemperaIure Ior Ihe acIual
insulaIion class is noI exceeded when Ihe moIor is
operaIed wiIhin Ihe raIed volIage range. lor condiIions
aIIheexIremeboundariesIheIemperaIureIypicallyrises
approx.10Kelvin.
1.4.4frequencyconverter
lrequencyconverIersareoIIenusedIorspeedconIrolling
pumps, see chapIer 4. 1he Irequency converIer converIs
Ihe mains volIage inIo a new volIage and Irequency,
causingIhemoIorIorunaIadiIIerenIspeed.1hiswayoI
regulaIingIheIrequencymighIresulIinsomeproblems.
- AcousIicnoiseIromIhemoIor,whichissomeIimes
IransmiIIedIoIhesysIemasdisIurbingnoise
- RighvolIagepeaksonIheouIpuIIromIheIrequency
converIerIoIhemoIor
50Hz 60Hz
-
-
-
460v
+_
10°
MainsvoItageaccordingtoI£C60038
230v
+_
10°
400v
+_
10°
690v
+_
10°
-
1ypicaIvoItageexampIes
50Hz
S0RzmoIorscomewiIhIheIollowingvolIages.
· 3x220-240$]380-41S¥
· 3x200-220$]346-380¥
· 3x200$]346¥
· 3x380-41S$
· 1x220-230]240
60Hz
60RzmoIorscomewiIhIheIollowingvolIages.
· 3x200-230$]346-400¥
· 3x220-2SS$]380-440¥
· 3x220-277$]380-480¥
· 3x200-230$]346-400¥
· 3x380-480$
lig1.4.14.1ypicalvolIages
lig1.4.1S.MainsvolIageaccordingIolLC60038
47
InsuIationformotorswithfrequency
converter
ln connecIion wiIh moIors wiIh Irequency converIers we
disIinguishbeIweendiIIerenIkindsoImoIors,wiIhdiIIerenI
kindsoIinsulaIion.
MctcrswithcutphaseinsuIaticn
lor moIors consIrucIed wiIhouI Ihe use oI phase
insulaIion, conIinuous volIages (kMS) above 460 v
can increase Ihe risk oI disrupIive discharges in Ihe
windings and Ihus desIrucIion oI Ihe moIor. 1his applies
Io all moIors consIrucIed according Io Ihese principles.
ConIinuousoperaIionwiIhvolIagepeaksabove6S0vcan
causedamageIoIhemoIor.
MctcrswithphaseinsuIaticn
ln Ihree-phase moIors, phase insulaIion is normally
used and consequenIly, speciIic precauIions are noI
necessary iI Ihe volIage supply is smaller Ihan S00 v.
MctcrswithreinfcrcedinsuIaticn
ln connecIion wiIh supply volIages beIween S00 and
690 v, Ihe moIor has Io have reinIorced insulaIion or be
proIecIedwiIhdelIaU]delIaIIilIers.lorsupplyvolIages
oI690vandhigherIhemoIorhasIobeIiIIedwiIhboIh
reinIorcedinsulaIionanddelIaU]delIaIIilIers.
MctcrswithinsuIatedbearings
ln order Io avoid harmIul currenI Ilows Ihrough Ihe
bearings,IhemoIorbearingshaveIobeelecIricallyinsulaIed.
1hisappliesIormoIorsIromIramesize280andup.
lig1.4.16.SIaIorwiIhphaseinsulaIion
PhaseinsulaIionalsoreIerred
Ioasphasepaper
48
5ection1.4
Motors
Motorefficiency
Generally speaking, elecIric moIors are quiIe eIIicienI.
Some moIors have elecIriciIy-Io-shaII power eIIiciencies
oI 80-93° depending on Ihe moIor size and someIimes
evenhigherIorbiggermoIors.1woIypesoIenergylosses
in elecIric moIors exisI. Load dependenI losses and load
independenIlosses.
LoaddependenIlossesvarywiIhIhesquareoIIhecurrenI
andcover.
- SIaIorwindinglosses(copperlosses)
- koIorlosses(sliplosses)
- SIraylosses(indiIIerenIparIsoIIhemoIor)
LoadindependenIlossesinIhemoIorreIerIo.
- lronlosses(corelosses)
- Mechanicallosses(IricIion)
DiIIerenImoIorclassiIicaIionscaIegorisemoIorsaccording
IoeIIiciency.1hemosIimporIanIareCLMLPinIheLU(Lll1,
Lll2andLll3)andLPAcIinIheUS.
MoIorscanIailbecauseoIoverloadIoralongerperiodoI
IimeandIhereIoremosImoIorsareinIenIionallyoversized
andonlyoperaIeaI7S°Io80°oIIheirIullloadcapaciIy.
AIIhisleveloIloading,moIoreIIiciencyandpowerIacIor
remain relaIively high. 8uI when Ihe moIor load is less
Ihan2S°,IheeIIiciencyandIhepowerIacIordecrease.
1he moIor eIIiciency drops quickly below a cerIain
percenIageoIIheraIedload.1hereIore,iIisimporIanIIo
size Ihe moIor so IhaI Ihe losses associaIed wiIh running
IhemoIorIooIarbelowiIsraIedcapaciIyareminimised.
lI is common Io choose a pump moIor IhaI meeIs Ihe
powerrequiremenIsoIIhepump.
1.4.5Motorprotection
MoIorsarenearlyalwaysproIecIedagainsIreachingIemperaIures,
which can damage Ihe insulaIion sysIem. Depending on
Ihe consIrucIion oI Ihe moIor and Ihe applicaIion, Ihermal
proIecIioncanalsohaveoIherIuncIions,e.g.prevenIdamaging
IemperaIures in Ihe Irequency converIer iI iI is mounIed on
IhemoIor.
1he Iype oI Ihermal proIecIion varies wiIh Ihe moIor Iype.
1he consIrucIion oI Ihe moIor IogeIher wiIh Ihe power
consumpIionmusIbeIakeninIoconsideraIionwhenchoosing
Ihermal proIecIion. Generally speaking, moIors have Io be
proIecIedagainsIIheIollowingcondiIions.
£rrcrscausingsIcwtemperatureincreasesin
thewindings:
- Slowoverload
- LongsIarI-upperiods
- keducedcooling]lackoIcooling
- lncreasedambienIIemperaIure
- lrequenIsIarIsandsIops
- lrequencyIlucIuaIion
- volIageIlucIuaIion
£rrcrscausingfasttemperatureincreasesin
thewindings:
- 8lockedroIor
- PhaseIailure
PercenI oí raIed load
P
e
r
c
e
n
I
0 25 50 75 150 125 100
100
20
40
60
80
1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Lííiciency
Power íacIor
C
o
s

PercenI oí raIed load
0 25 50 75 150 125 175 100
100
20
10
0
30
50
90
80
75 kW
7.5 kW
0.75 kW
70
60
40 L
í
í
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
lig1.4.17.LIIiciencyvs.load
powerIacIorvs.load
(schemaIicdrawing)
lig1.4.18.1herelaIion
beIweeneIIiciencyand
raIedloadoIdiIIerenI
sizedmoIors(schemaIic
drawing)
49
1hermaIprotection(1P)
According Io Ihe lLC 60034-11 sIandard, Ihe Ihermal
proIecIion oI Ihe moIor has Io be indicaIed on Ihe
nameplaIe wiIh a 1P designaIion. ligure 1.4.19 shows an
overviewoIIhe1PdesignaIions.
P1Cthermistcrs
P1C IhermisIors (PosiIive 1emperaIure CoeIIicienI
1hermisIors) can be hIIed inIo Ihe windings oI a moIor
during producIion or reIrohIIed aIIerwards. Usually 3
P1Cs are hIIed in series, 1 in each phase oI Ihe winding.
1hey can be purchased wiIh Irip IemperaIures ranging
Irom 90°C Io 180°C in S degrees sIeps. P1Cs have Io be
connecIed Io a IhermisIor relay, which deIecIs Ihe rapid
increaseinresisIanceoIIheIhermisIorwheniIreachesiIs
IripIemperaIure.1hesedevicesarenon-linear.AIambienI
IemperaIuresIheresisIanceoIaseIoI3willbeabouI200-
300ohmsandIhiswillincreaserapidlywhenIheIhermisIor
reachesiIsIripIemperaIure.lIIheIemperaIureincreases
anyIurIher,IheP1CIhermisIorcanreachseveralIhousand
ohms.1heIhermisIorrelaysareusuallyseIIoIripaI3000
ohmsorarepreseIIoIripaccordingIowhaIIheDlN44082
sIandardprescribes.1he1PdesignaIionIorP1CsIormoIors
smaller Ihan 11kW is 1P211 iI Ihe P1Cs are hIIed inIo Ihe
windings. lI Ihe P1Cs are reIrohIIed Ihe 1P designaIion is
1P111. 1he 1P designaIion Ior P1Cs Ior moIors larger Ihan
11kWisnormally1P111.
lndicaIionoIIhepermissibleIemperaIurelevelwhenIhemoIorisexposedIoIhermal
overload.CaIegory2allowshigherIemperaIuresIhancaIegory1does.
1echnicaIoverIoadwith
variation(1digit)
Onlyslow
(i.e.consIanI
overload)
OnlyIasI
(i.e.blockedcondiIion)
SlowandIasI
(i.e.consIanIoverload
andblockedcondiIion)
2levelsaIemergency
signalandcuIoII
1levelaIcuIoII
2levelsaIemergency
signalandcuIoII
1levelaIcuIoII
1levelaIcuIoII
NumberafIeveIsand
functionarea(2digits)
5ymboI
1P111
1P112
1P121
1P122
1P211
1P212
1P221
1P222
1P311
1P312
Category1
(3digits)
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
lig1.4.19.1PdesignaIions
1hermaIswitchandthermcstats
1hermal swiIches are small bi-meIallic swiIches IhaI swiIch
dueIoIheIemperaIure.1heyareavailablewiIhawiderange
oI Irip IemperaIures, normally open and closed Iypes. 1he
mosI common Iype is Ihe closed one. One or Iwo, in series,
areusuallyhIIedinIhewindingslikeIhermisIorsandcanbe
connecIed direcIly Io Ihe circuiI oI Ihe main conIacIor coil.
ln IhaI way no relay is necessary. 1his Iype oI proIecIion is
cheaper Ihan IhermisIors, buI on Ihe oIher hand, iI is less
sensiIiveandisnoIableIodeIecIalockedroIorIailure.
1hermal swiIches are also reIerred Io as 1hermik, Klixon
swiIches and P1O (ProIecIion 1hermique a OuverIure).
1hermalswiIchesalwayscarrya1P111designaIion.
SingIe-phasemctcrs
Single-phase moIors normally come wiIh incorporaIed
Ihermal proIecIion. 1hermal proIecIion usually has an
auIomaIic reclosing. 1his implies IhaI Ihe moIor has Io
be connecIed Io Ihe mains in a way IhaI ensures IhaI
accidenIscausedbyIheauIomaIicreclosingareavoided.
1hree-phasemctcrs
1hree-phasemoIorshaveIobeproIecIedaccordingIolocal
regulaIions. 1his kind oI moIor has usually incorporaIed
conIacIsIorreseIIinginIheexIernalconIrolcircuiI.
S0
S1
5tandstiIIheating
A heaIing elemenI ensures Ihe sIandsIill heaIing oI
Ihe moIor. 1he heaIing elemenI is especially used in
connecIion wiIh applicaIions IhaI sIruggle wiIh humidiIy
and condensaIion. 8y using Ihe sIandsIill heaIing, Ihe
moIor is warmer Ihan Ihe surroundings and Ihereby Ihe
relaIiveairhumidiIyinsideIhemoIorisalwayslowerIhan
100°.
Maintenance
1he moIor should be checked aI regular inIervals. lI is
imporIanI Io keep Ihe moIor clean in order Io ensure
adequaIe venIilaIion. lI Ihe pump is insIalled in a dusIy
environmenI, Ihe pump musI be cleaned and checked
regularly.
8earings
Normally,moIorshavealockedbearinginIhedriveendand
abearingwiIhaxialplayinIhenon-driveend.Axialplayis
required due Io producIion Iolerances, Ihermal expansion
duringoperaIion,eIc.1hemoIorbearingsareheldinplace
by wave spring washers in Ihe non-drive end, see Iigure
1.4.21.
1he Iixed bearing in Ihe drive end can be eiIher a deep-
grooveballbearingoranangularconIacIbearing.
8earing clearances and Iolerances are sIaIed according
Io lSO 1S and lSO 492. 8ecause bearing manuIacIurers
have Io IulIil Ihese sIandards, bearings are inIernaIionally
inIerchangeable.
lnorderIoroIaIeIreely,aballbearingmusIhaveacerIain
inIernal clearance beIween Ihe raceway and Ihe balls.
WiIhouI Ihis inIernal clearance, Ihe bearings can eiIher
bediIIiculIIoroIaIeoriImayevenseizeupandbeunable
Io roIaIe. On Ihe oIher hand, Ioo much inIernal clearance
will resulI in an unsIable bearing IhaI may generaIe
excessivenoiseorallowIheshaIIIowobble.
Depending on which pump Iype Ihe moIor is IiIIed, Ihe
deep-groove ball bearing in Ihe drive end musI have C3
or C4 clearance. 8earings wiIh C4 clearance are less heaI
sensiIiveandhaveincreasedaxialload-carryingcapaciIy.
1hebearingcarryingIheaxialIorcesoIIhepumpcanhave
C3clearanceiI.
- IhepumphascompleIeorparIialhydraulicrelieI
- IhepumphasmanybrieIperiodsoIoperaIion
- Ihepumphaslongidleperiods
C4bearingsareusedIorpumpswiIhIlucIuaIinghighaxial
Iorces.AngularconIacIbearingsareusediIIhepumpexerIs
sIrongone-wayaxialIorces.
Non-driveend Driveend
Non-driveendbearing 5pringwasher Driveendbearing
lig1.4.21.Cross-secIionaldrawingoImoIor
1.4.20.SIaIorwiIhheaIingelemenI
S2
MctcrswithpermanentIyIubricatedbearings
lorclosedpermanenIlylubricaIedbearings,useoneoIIhe
IollowinghighIemperaIureresisIanIIypesoIgrease.
- LiIhium-basedgrease
- Polyurea-basedgrease
1he Iechnical speciIicaIions musI correspond Io Ihe
sIandard DlN - S182S K2 or beIIer. 1he basic oil viscosiIy
musIbehigherIhan.
- S0cSI(10
-6
m
2
]sec)aI40°Cand
- 8cSI(mm
2
]sec)aI100°C
lorexampleKlüberquieI8OR72-102wiIhagrease
IillingraIiooI.30-40°.
MctcrswithIubricaticnsystem
Normally, Irame size 160 moIors and upwards have
lubricaIing nipples Ior Ihe bearings boIh in Ihe drive end
andIhenon-driveend.
1he lubricaIing nipples are visible and easily accessible.
1hemoIorisdesignedinsuchawayIhaI.
- IhereisaIlowoIgreasearoundIhebearing
- newgreaseenIersIhebearing
- oldgreaseisremovedIromIhebearing
MoIors wiIh lubricaIing sysIems are supplied wiIh a
lubricaIing insIrucIion, Ior insIance as a label on Ihe
Ian cover. AparI Irom IhaI, insIrucIions are given in Ihe
insIallaIionandoperaIinginsIrucIions.
1he lubricanI is oIIen liIhium-based, high IemperaIure
grease, Ior insIance LXXON UNlkLX N3 or Shell Alvania
GreaseG3.1hebasicoilviscosiIymusIbe
· higherIhanS0cSI(10
-6
m
2
]sec)aI40°Cand
· 8cSI(mm
2
]sec)aI100°C
ModeraIeIosIrongIorces.
PrimarilyouIwardpullon
IheshaIIend
lixeddeep-grooveballbearing(C4)
SIrongouIwardpull
onIheshaIIend
SmallIorces
(Ilexiblecoupling)
SIronginward
pressure
AxiaIforces 8earingtypesandrecommendedcIearance
Drive-end Non-drive-end
ModeraIeIorces.
PrimarilyouIwardpullon
IheshaIIend(parIly
hydraulicallyrelievedin
Ihepump)
Deep-grooveballbearing(C4)
lixeddeep-grooveballbearing(C3)
lixeddeep-grooveballbearing(C3)
lixedangularconIacIbearing
Deep-grooveballbearing(C3)
lixedangularconIacIbearing
Deep-grooveballbearing(C3)
Deep-grooveballbearing(C3)
Deep-grooveballbearing(C3)
lig.1.4.22.1ypicalIypesoIbearingsinpumpmoIors
5ection1.4
Motors
Chapter1.Designofpumpsandmotors
Secticn1.5:liquids
1.S.1 viscousliquids
1.S.2 Non-NewIonianliquids
1.S.3 1heimpacIoIviscousliquidsonIhe
perIormanceoIacenIriIugalpump
1.S.4 SelecIingIherighIpumpIoraliquid
wiIhanIiIreeze
1.S.S CalculaIionexample
1.S.6 CompuIeraidedpumpselecIionIor
denseandviscousliquids
5ection1.5
Liquids
1.5.1ViscousIiquids
1here is no doubI abouI iI, waIer is Ihe mosI common
liquid IhaI pumps handle. Rowever, in a number oI
applicaIions,pumpshaveIohandleoIherIypesoIliquids,
e.g. oil, propylene glycol, gasoline. Compared Io waIer,
IheseIypesoIliquidshavediIIerenIdensiIyandviscosiIy.
viscosiIyisameasureoIIheIhicknessoIIheliquid.
1he higher Ihe viscosiIy, Ihe Ihicker Ihe liquid. Propylene
glycolandmoIoroilareexamplesoIIhickorhighviscous
liquids. Gasoline and waIer are examples oI Ihin, low
viscousliquids.
1wokindsoIviscosiIyexisI.
x 1hedynamicviscosiIy(P),whichisnormallymeasured
inPa˜sorPoise.(1Poise=0.1Pa˜s)
x 1hekinemaIicviscosiIy(Q),whichisnormallymeasured
incenIiSIokesorm
2
]s(1cSI=10
-6
m
2
]s)
1he relaIion beIween Ihe dynamic viscosiIy (P) and Ihe
kinemaIic viscosiIy (Q) is shown in Ihe Iormula on your
righIhandside.
On Ihe Iollowing pages, we will only Iocus on kinemaIic
viscosiIy(Q).
1he viscosiIy oI a liquid changes considerably wiIh Ihe
changeinIemperaIure,hoIoilisIhinnerIhancoldoil.As
youcanIellIromIigure1.S.1,aS0°propyleneglycolliquid
increases iIs viscosiIy 10 Iimes when Ihe IemperaIure
changesIrom+20Io-20
o
C.
lor more inIormaIion concerning liquid viscosiIy, go Io
appendixL.
S4
Q=
P
U
U=densiIyoIliquid
kinematic
viscosity
Q[c5t]
Density
U[kgJm
3
]
Liquid
temperature
t[¨C]
Liquid
Water 20 998 1.004
CasoIine 20 733 0.75
DIiveoiI 20 900 93
50ZPropyIenegIycoI 20 1043 6.4
50ZPropyIenegIycoI -20 1061 68.7
lig.1.S.1.ComparisonoIviscosiIyvaluesIorwaIerandaIewoIherliquids.
DensiIyvaluesandIemperaIuresarealsoshown
1.5.2Non-NewtonianIiquids
1he liquids discussed so Iar are reIerred Io as NewIonian
Iluids.1heviscosiIyoINewIonianliquidsisnoIaIIecIedby
Ihe magniIude and Ihe moIion IhaI Ihey are exposed Io.
MineraloilandwaIerareIypicalexamplesoIIhisIypeoI
liquid.OnIheoIherhand,IheviscosiIyoInon-NewIonian
liquidsdoeschangewhenagiIaIed.
1hiscallsIoraIewexamples.
x DilaIanIliquidslikecream-IheviscosiIyincreases
whenagiIaIed
x PlasIicIluidslikecaIsup-haveayieldvalue,whichhas
IobeexceededbeIoreIlowsIarIs.lromIhaIpoinIon,
IheviscosiIydecreaseswiIhanincreaseinagiIaIion
x 1hixoIrophicliquidslikenon-drippainI-exhibiIa
decreasingviscosiIywiIhanincreaseinagiIaIion
1henon-NewIonianliquidsarenoIcoveredbyIheviscosiIy
IormuladescribedearlierinIhissecIion.
1.5.31he impact of viscous Iiquids on the
performanceofacentrifugaIpump
viscous liquids, IhaI is liquids wiIh higher viscosiIy and]
or higher densiIy Ihan waIer, aIIecI Ihe perIormance oI
cenIriIugalpumpsindiIIerenIways.
x PowerconsumpIionincreases,i.e.alargermoIormay
berequiredIoperIormIhesameIask
x Read,IlowraIeandpumpeIIiciencyarereduced
LeI us have a look aI an example. A pump is used Ior
pumping a liquid in a cooling sysIem wiIh a liquid
IemperaIure below 0
o
C. 1o avoid IhaI Ihe liquid Ireezes,
an anIiIreeze agenI like propylene glycol is added Io
Ihe waIer. When glycol or a similar anIiIreeze agenI is
addedIoIhepumpedliquid,IheliquidobIainsproperIies,
diIIerenIIromIhoseoIwaIer.1heliquidwillhave.
x LowerIreezingpoinI,I
I
|°Cj
x LowerspeciIicheaI,c
p
|k!]kg
.
Kj
x LowerIhermalconducIiviIy,O|W]m
.
Kj
x RigherboilingpoinI,I
b
|°Cj
x RighercoeIIicienIoIexpansion,E|m]°Cj
x RigherdensiIy,U|kg]m
3
j
x RigherkinemaIicviscosiIy,Q|cSIj
1heseproperIieshaveIobekepIinmindwhendesigning
a sysIem and selecIing pumps. As menIioned earlier,
Ihe higher densiIy requires increased moIor power and
Ihe higher viscosiIy reduces pump head, Ilow raIe and
eIIiciency resulIing in a need Ior increased moIor power,
seeIigure1.S.2.
O
R,P,H
R
P
H
lig.1.S.2.Changedhead,eIIiciencyandpowerinpuIIor
liquidwiIhhigherviscosiIy
SS
1.5.45eIectingtherightpumpfora
Iiquidwithantifreeze
PumpcharacIerisIicsareusuallybasedonwaIeraIaround
20°C, i.e. a kinemaIic viscosiIy oI approximaIely 1 cSI and
adensiIyoIapproximaIely1,000kg]m¹.
When pumps are used Ior liquids conIaining anIiIreeze
below 0°C, iI is necessary Io examine wheIher Ihe pump
can supply Ihe required perIormance or wheIher a
larger moIor is required. 1he Iollowing secIion presenIs
a simpliIied meIhod used Io deIermine pump curve
correcIions Ior pumps in sysIems IhaI have Io handle a
viscosiIy beIween S - 100 cSI and a densiIy oI maximum
1,300 kg]m¹. Please noIice IhaI Ihis meIhod is noI as
precise as Ihe compuIer aided meIhod described laIer in
IhissecIion.
PumpcurveccrrecticnsfcrpumpshandIinghigh
visccusIiquid
8asedonknowledgeabouIrequiredduIypoinI,O
S
,R
S
,and
kinemaIic viscosiIy oI Ihe pumped liquid, Ihe correcIion
IacIorsoIRandP
2
canbeIound,seeIigure1.S.3.
lig. 1.S.3. lI is possible Io deIermine Ihe correcIion IacIor Ior head and
powerconsumpIionaIdiIIerenIIlow,headandviscosiIyvalues
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.00
1.05
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.25
1.30
1.35
0
H
=
6
m
H

=

1
0

m
H
=
2
0
m
H
=
4
0
m
H
=
6
0
m
10
c5t
20
c5t
4
0
c5
t
6
0
c
5
t
1
0
0
c
5
t
5 c5t
1
0
c
5
t
2
0
c
5
t
4
0
c
5
t
6
0

c
5
t
1
0
0

c
5
t
5 c5
t
k
H
k
P2
D [m
3
Jh]
S6
5ection1.5
Liquids
ligure1.S.3isreadinIheIollowingway.

When k
R
and k
P2
are Iound in Ihe Iigure, Ihe equivalenI
head Ior clean waIer R
W
and Ihe correcIed acIual shaII
powerP
2S
canbecalculaIedbyIheIollowingIormula
where
R
W
. isIheequivalenIheadoIIhepumpiIIhepumped
liquidis"clean"waIer
P
2W
.isIheshaIIpoweraIIheduIypoinI(O
S
,R
W
)when
IhepumpedliquidiswaIer
R
S
. isIhedesiredheadoIIhepumpedliquid
(wiIhagenIs)
P
2S
. isIheshaIIpoweraIIheduIypoinI(O
s
,R
s
)when
IhepumpedliquidiswaIer(wiIhagenIs)
U
s
. isIhedensiIyoIIhepumpedliquid
U
w
. isIhedensiIyoIwaIer=998kg]m
3
1he pump selecIion is based on Ihe normal daIa sheeIs]
curvesapplyingIowaIer.1hepumpshouldcoverIheduIy
poinI O,R = O
S
,R
W
, and Ihe moIor should be powerIul
enoughIohandleP
2S
onIheshaII.
ligure1.S.4showshowIoproceedwhenselecIingapump
andIesIingwheIherIhemoIoriswiIhinIhepowerrange
allowed.

P
2S
= K
P2
.
P
2w
.

s
w
WaIer
WaIer
MixIure
MixIure
R
w
R
w
= k
R
.
R
S
2
1
R
R
s
P
2s
P
P
2w
O
s
O
O
5
3
4

lig.1.S.4.PumpcurvecorrecIionwhenchoosingIherighIpumpIor
IhesysIem
1he pump and moIor selecIing procedure conIains Ihe
IollowingsIeps.
·CalculaIeIhecorrecIedheadR
w

(basedonR
S
andk
R
),seeIigure1.S.41-2
·ChooseapumpcapableoIprovidingperIormance
accordingIoIhecorrecIedduIypoinI(O
S
,R
W
)
·keadIhepowerinpuIP
2W
inIheduIypoinI(O
S
,R
w
),
seeIigure1.S.43-4
·8asedonP
2W
,k
P2
,U
W
,andU
S
calculaIeIhe
correcIedrequiredshaIIpowerP
2S
,seeIigure1.S.44-5
·CheckiIP
2S
<P
2MAX
oIIhemoIor.lIIhaIisIhecase
IhemoIorcanbeused.OIherwiseselecIamore
powerIulmoIor
H
W
=k
H
.

H
5
U
s
U
w
P
25
=k
P2
.

P
2w
.

S7
1.5.5CaIcuIationexampIe
A circulaIor pump in a reIrigeraIion sysIem is Io pump a
40°(weighI)propyleneglycolliquidaI-10°C.1hedesired
Ilow is O
S
= 60 m
3
]h, and Ihe desired head is R
S
= 12 m.
KnowingIherequiredduIypoinI,iIispossibleIoIindIheOR-
characIerisIicIorwaIerandchooseapump,whichisableIo
coverIheduIypoinI.OncewehavedeIerminedIheneeded
pumpIypeandsizewecancheckiIIhepumpisIiIIedwiIha
moIor,whichcanhandleIhespeciIicpumpload.
1he liquid has kinemaIic viscosiIy oI 20 cSI and a densiIy
oI1049kg]m
3
.WiIhO
S
=60m
3
]h,R
S
=12mandQ=20cSI,
IhecorrecIionIacIorscanbeIoundinIigure1.S.3.
k
H
=1.03
k
P2
=1.15
H
W
=k
H
·H
5
=1.03·12=12.4m
D
5
=60m
3
Jh
1hepumphasIobeableIocoveraduIypoinIequivalenI
IoO,R=60m3]h,12.4m.OnceIhenecessarypumpsizeis
deIermined,IheP
2
valueIorIheduIypoinIisIound,which
inIhiscaseisP
2W
=2.9kW.NowiIispossibleIocalculaIe
IherequiredmoIorpowerIorpropyleneglycolmixIure.
1hecalculaIionshows,IhaIIhepumphasIobeIiIIedwiIh
a 4 kW moIor, which is Ihe smallesI moIor size able Io
coverIhecalculaIedP
2S
=3.SkW.
1.5.6ComputeraidedpumpseIectionfor
denseandviscousIiquids
Some compuIer aided pump selecIion Iools include a
IeaIure IhaI compensaIes Ior Ihe pump perIormance
curvesbasedoninpuIoIIheliquiddensiIyandviscosiIy.
ligure1.S.SshowsIhepumpperIormancecurvesIromIhe
examplewe|usIwenIIhrough.
1he Iigure shows boIh Ihe perIormance curves Ior Ihe
pump when iI handles viscous liquid (Ihe Iull lines) and
IheperIormancecurveswheniIhandleswaIer(Ihebroken
lines). As indicaIed head, Ilow and eIIiciency are reduced,
resulIinginanincreaseinpowerconsumpIion.
1he value oI P
2
is 3.4 kW, which corresponds Io Ihe resulI
wegoIinIhecalculaIionexampleinsecIion1.S.4.
H
[m]
H
[Z]
0
1
2
3
4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 10 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
30 40 50 60 70 80 D [m
3
Jh]
D [m
3
Jh]
P
2
[kW]
lig.1.5.5:Pumpperíormancecurves
U
5
U
w
P
25
=k
P2
.

P
2w
.

P
25
=1.15
.

2.9
.

1049
998
=3.5kW
S8
5ection1.5
Liquids
Chapter1.Designofpumpsandmotors
Secticn1.6:MateriaIs
1.6.1 WhaIiscorrosion!
1.6.2 1ypesoIcorrosion
1.6.3 MeIalandmeIalalloys
1.6.4Ceramics
1.6.S PlasIics
1.6.6kubber
1.6.7 CoaIings
60
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
lnIhissecIionyoucanreadabouIdiIIerenImaIerialsIhaI
are used Ior pump consIrucIion. Our main Iocus will be
on Ihe IeaIures IhaI every single meIal and meIal alloy
have Io oIIer. 8uI beIore we dig any IurIher inIo Ihe
worldoImaIerials,wewillhaveacloserlookaIcorrosion.
8esidesexplainingwhaIcorrosionis,wewillexamineIhe
diIIerenI Iypes oI corrosion and whaI can be done Io
prevenIcorrosionIromoccurring.
1.6.1Whatiscorrosion?
Corrosion is usually reIerred Io as Ihe degradaIion oI Ihe
meIal by chemical or elecIrochemical reacIion wiIh iIs
environmenI, see Iigure 1.6.1. When considered broadly,
corrosion may be looked upon as Ihe Iendency oI Ihe
meIal Io reverI Io iIs naIural sIaIe similar Io Ihe oxide
IromwhichiIwasoriginallymelIed.OnlypreciousmeIals,
such as gold and plaIinum are Iound in naIure in Iheir
meIallicsIaIe.
SomemeIalsproduceaIighIproIecIiveoxidelayeronIhe
surIace, which hinders IurIher corrosion. lI Ihe surIace
layerisbrokeniIisselI-healing.1hesemeIalsarepassivaIed.
Under aImospheric condiIions Ihe corrosion producIs
oI zinc and aluminium Iorm a Iairly IighI layer and
IurIhercorrosionisprevenIed.
Likewise, on Ihe surIace oI sIainless sIeel a IighI layer oI
ironandchromiumoxideisIormedandonIhesurIaceoI
IiIaniumalayeroIIiIaniumoxideisIormed.1heproIecIive
layer oI Ihese meIals explains Iheir good corrosion
resisIance. kusI, on Ihe oIher hand, is a non-proIecIive
corrosionproducIonsIeel.
kusI is porous, noI Iirmly adherenI and does noI prevenI
conIinuedcorrosion,seeIigure1.6.2.
pH (acidity)
Oxidizing agents (such as oxygen)
Temperature
Concentration of solution constituents
(such as chlorides)
8iological activity
Operating conditions
(such as velocity, cleaning procedures and shutdowns)
£nvironmentaI variabIes that affect the
corrosion resistance of metaIs and aIIoys
lig.1.6.1.LnvironmenIalvariablesIhaIaIIecIIhecorrosion
resisIanceoImeIalsandalloys
Ncn-prctectiveccrrcsicnprcduct
Prctectiveccrrcsicnprcduct
lig.1.6.2.LxamplesoIcorrosionproducIs
kustonsteeI
DxideIayeronstainIesssteeI
1.6.21ypesofcorrosion
Generally, meIallic corrosion involves Ihe loss oI meIal aI
a spoI on an exposed surIace. Corrosion occurs in various
Iorms ranging Irom uniIorm aIIacks over Ihe enIire surIace
IoseverelocalaIIacks.
1he environmenI's chemical and physical condiIions
deIermineboIhIheIypeandIheraIeoIcorrosionaIIacks.1he
condiIionsalsodeIermineIheIypeoIcorrosionproducIsIhaI
areIormedandIheconIrolmeasuresIhaIneedIobeIaken.ln
manycases,iIisimpossibleorraIherexpensiveIocompleIely
sIop Ihe corrosion process, however, iI is usually possible Io
conIrolIheprocessIoaccepIablelevels.
On Ihe Iollowing pages we will go Ihrough Ihe diIIerenI
Iorms oI corrosion in order Io give you an idea oI Iheir
characIerisIics.
Unifcrmccrrcsicn
UniIorm or general corrosion is characIerised by corrosive
aIIacks proceeding evenly over Ihe enIire surIace, or on a
largeparIoIIheIoIalarea.GeneralIhinningconIinuesunIil
Ihe meIal is broken down. UniIorm corrosion is Ihe Iype oI
corrosionwhereIhelargesIamounIoImeIaliswasIed.
LxamplesoImeIals,whicharesub|ecIIouniIorm
corrosion.
· SIeelinaeraIedwaIer
· SIainlesssIeelinreducingacids(suchasLN1.4301
(AlSl304)insulIuricacid)
Pittingccrrcsicn
PiIIing corrosion is a localised Iorm oI corrosive aIIacks.
PiIIingcorrosionIormsholesorpiIsonIhemeIalsurIace.
lIperIoraIesIhemeIalwhileIheIoIalcorrosion,measured
by weighI loss, mighI be raIher minimal. 1he raIe oI
peneIraIion may be 10 Io 100 Iimes IhaI oI general
corrosion depending on Ihe aggressiveness oI Ihe liquid.
PiIIingoccursmoreeasilyinasIagnanIenvironmenI.
LxampleoImeIalIhaIissub|ecIIopiIIingcorrosion.
· SIainlesssIeelinseawaIer
lig.1.6.3.UniIormcorrosion
lig.1.6.4.PiIIingcorrosion
61
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
Creviceccrrcsicn
Crevice corrosion - like piIIing corrosion - is a localised
IormoIcorrosionaIIack.Rowever,crevicecorrosionsIarIs
moreeasilyIhanpiIIing.CrevicecorrosionoccursaInarrow
openingsorspacesbeIweenIwomeIalsurIacesorbeIween
meIals and non-meIal surIaces and is usually associaIed
wiIhasIagnaIecondiIioninIhecrevice.Crevices,suchas
Ihose Iound aI Ilange |oinIs or aI Ihreaded connecIions,
areIhusoIIenIhemosIcriIicalspoIsIorcorrosion.
LxampleoImeIalIhaIissub|ecIIocrevicecorrosion.
· SIainlesssIeelinseawaIer
lntergranuIarccrrcsicn
As Ihe name implies, inIergranular corrosion occurs aI
grain boundaries. lnIergranular corrosion is also called
inIercrysIalline corrosion. 1ypically, Ihis Iype oI corrosion
occurs when chromium carbide precipiIaIes aI Ihe grain
boundaries during Ihe welding process or in connecIion
wiIh insuIIicienI heaI IreaImenI. A narrow region around
Ihe grain boundary may IhereIore depleIe in chromium
and become less corrosion resisIanI Ihan Ihe resI oI Ihe
maIerial. 1his is unIorIunaIe because chromium plays an
imporIanIroleincorrosionresisIance.
LxamplesoImeIalsIhaIaresub|ecIIoinIergranularcorrosion.
· SIainlesssIeel-whichisinsuIIicienIlyweldedor
heaI-IreaIed
· SIainlesssIeelLN1.4401(AlSl316)inconcenIraIed
niIricacid
SeIectiveccrrcsicn
SelecIive corrosion is a Iype oI corrosion which aIIacks
one single elemenI oI an alloy and dissolves Ihe elemenI
in Ihe alloy sIrucIure. ConsequenIly, Ihe alloy's sIrucIure
isweakened.
LxamplesoIselecIivecorrosion.
· 1hedezinciIicaIionoIunsIabilisedbrass,wherebya
weakened,porouscoppersIrucIureisproduced
· GraphiIisaIionoIgraycasIiron,wherebyabriIIle
graphiIeskeleIonisleIIbecauseoIIhedissoluIion
oIiron
lig.1.6.S.Crevicecorrosion
lig.1.6.6.lnIergranularcorrosion
lig.1.6.7.SelecIivecorrosion
Copper
Zinccorrosionproducts
8rass
62
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
£rcsicnccrrcsicn
Lrosion corrosion is a process IhaI involves corrosion
and erosion. 1he raIe oI corrosion aIIack is acceleraIed
by Ihe relaIive moIion oI a corrosive liquid and a
meIal surIace. 1he aIIack is localised in areas wiIh
high velociIy or IurbulenI Ilow. Lrosion corrosion
aIIacks are characIerised by grooves wiIh direcIional
paIIern.
LxamplesoImeIalswhicharesub|ecIIoerosioncorrosion.
· 8ronzeinseawaIer
· CopperinwaIer
Cavitaticnccrrcsicn
A pumped liquid wiIh high velociIy reduces Ihe pressure.
When Ihe pressure drops below Ihe liquid vapour
pressure, vapour bubbles Iorm (Ihe liquid boils).
ln Ihe areas where Ihe vapour bubbles Iorm, Ihe
liquid is boiling. When Ihe pressure raises again, Ihe
vapour bubbles collapse and produce inIensive
shockwaves. ConsequenIly, Ihe collapse oI Ihe vapour
bubbles remove meIal or oxide Irom Ihe surIace.
LxamplesoImeIalsIhaIaresub|ecIIocaviIaIion.
· CasIironinwaIeraIhighIemperaIure
· 8ronzeinseawaIer
Stressccrrcsicncracking{SCC}
SIress corrosion cracking (SCC) reIers Io Ihe combined
inIluence oI Iensile sIress (applied or inIernal) and
corrosive environmenI.1he maIerial can crack wiIhouI
any signiIicanI deIormaIion or obvious deIerioraIion oI
Ihe maIerial.OIIen, piIIing corrosion is associaIed wiIh
IhesIresscorrosioncrackingphenomena.
Lxamples oI meIals IhaI are sub|ecI Io sIress corrosion
cracking.
· SIainlesssIeelLN1.4401(AlSl316)inchlorides
· 8rassinammonia
lig.1.6.8.Lrosioncorrosion
lig.1.6.9.CaviIaIioncorrosion
lig.1.6.10.SIresscorrosioncracking
fIow
63
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
<
Ccrrcsicnfatigue
Pure mechanical IaIigue is when a maIerial sub|ecIed
Io a cyclic load Iar below Ihe ulIimaIe Iensile sIrengIh
can Iail.lI Ihe meIal is simulIaneouslyexposed Io a
corrosive environmenI, Ihe Iailure can Iake place aI an
even lower sIress and aIIer a shorIer Iime. ConIrary Io
a pure mechanical IaIigue, Ihere is no IaIigue limiI in
corrosion-assisIedIaIigue.
LxampleoImeIalsIhaIaresub|ecIIocorrosionIaIigue.
· AluminiumsIrucIuresincorrosiveaImosphere
CaIvanicccrrcsicn
When a corrosive elecIrolyIe and Iwo meIallic maIerials
are in conIacI (galvanic cell), corrosion increases on Ihe
leasI noble maIerial (Ihe anode) and decreases on Ihe
noblesI (Ihe caIhode). 1he increase in corrosion is called
galvanic corrosion. 1he Iendency oI a meIal or an alloy
Io corrode in a galvanic cell is deIermined by iIs posiIion
in Ihe galvanic series. 1he galvanic series indicaIes Ihe
relaIive nobiliIy oI diIIerenI meIals and alloys in a given
environmenI(e.g.seawaIer,seeIigure1.6.12).
1he IarIher aparI Ihe meIals are in Ihe galvanic series,
IhegreaIerIhegalvaniccorrosioneIIecIwillbe.MeIalsor
alloysaIIheupperendarenoble,whileIhoseaIIhelower
endareleasInoble.

LxamplesoImeIalIhaIaresub|ecIIogalvaniccorrosion.
· SIeelinconIacIwiIh1.4401
· AluminiuminconIacIwiIhcopper
1he principles oI galvanic corrosion are used in caIhodic
proIecIion. CaIhodic proIecIion is a means oI reducing
or prevenIing Ihe corrosion oI a meIal surIace by Ihe
use oI sacriIicial anodes (zinc or aluminum) or impressed
currenIs.
lig.1.6.11.CorrosionIaIigue
lig.1.6.12.Galvaniccorrosion
lig.1.6.13.GalvanicseriesIormeIalsandalloysinseawaIer
AIuminium-IessnobIe Copper-mostnobIe
64
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
1.6.3MetaIandmetaIaIIoys
On Ihe Iollowing pages, you can read abouI Ihe IeaIures
oIdiIIerenImeIalsandmeIalalloys,usedIorconsIrucIion
oIpumps.
ferrousaIIoys
lerrousalloysarealloyswhereironisIheprimeconsIiIuenI.
lerrous alloys are Ihe mosI common oI all maIerials
becauseoIIheiravailabiliIy,lowcosI,andversaIiliIy.
SteeI
SIeel is a widely used maIerial primarily composed oI iron
alloyed wiIh carbon. 1he amounI oI carbon in sIeel varies
inIherangeIrom0.003°Io1.S°byweighI.1heconIenIoI
carbonhasanimporIanIimpacIonIhemaIerial'ssIrengIh,
weldabiliIy, machinabiliIy, ducIiliIy, and hardness. As a
rule-oI-Ihumb, an increase in carbon conIenI will lead Io
an increase in sIrengIh and hardness buI Io a decrease in
ducIiliIyandweldabiliIy.1hemosIcommonIypeoIsIeelis
carbon sIeel. Carbon sIeel is grouped inIo Iour caIegories,
seeIigure1.6.14.
SIeel is available in wroughI as well as in casI condiIion.
1he general characIerisIics oI sIeel casIings are closely
comparable Io Ihose oI wroughI sIeels. 1he mosI obvious
advanIageoIsIeelisIhaIiIisrelaIivelyinexpensiveIomake,
Iorm and process. On Ihe oIher hand, Ihe disadvanIage
oI sIeel is IhaI iIs corrosion resisIance is low compared Io
alIernaIivemaIerials,suchassIainlesssIeel.
CaviIaIioncorrosionoIbronzeimpeller
LrosioncorrosionoIcasIironimpeller
PiIIingcorrosionoILN1.4401(AlSl316)
lnIergranularcorrosionoI
sIainlesssIeel
CrevicecorrosionoI
LN1.4462(SAl220S)
1mm
1ype of steeI Content of carbon
Low carbon or mild steel 0.003% to 0.30% of carbon
Medium carbon steel 0.30% to 0.45% of carbon
High carbon steel 0.45% to 0.75% of carbon
very high carbon steel 0.75% to l.50% of carbon
lig1.6.14.lourIypesoIcarbonsIeel
6S
NcduIar{ductiIe}ircn
Nodular iron conIains around 0.03-0.0S° by weighI oI
magnesium. Magnesium causes Ihe Ilakes Io become
globular so Ihe graphiIe is dispersed IhroughouI a IerriIe
or pearliIe maIrix in Ihe Iorm oI spheres or nodules. 1he
graphiIe nodules have no sharp IeaIures. 1he round shape
oI nodular graphiIe reduces Ihe sIress concenIraIion and
consequenIly, Ihe maIerial is much more ducIile Ihan grey
iron. ligure 1.6.16 clearly shows IhaI Ihe Iensile sIrengIh is
higherIornodularironIhanisIhecaseIorgreyiron.Nodular
iron is normally used Ior pump parIs wiIh high sIrengIh
requiremenIs (high pressure or high IemperaIure
applicaIions).
StainIesssteeI
SIainless sIeel is chromium conIaining sIeel alloys. 1he
minimum chromium conIenI in sIandardised sIainless
sIeelis10.S°.ChromiumimprovesIhecorrosionresisIance
oI sIainless sIeel. 1he higher corrosion resisIance is due
Io a chromium oxide Iilm IhaI is Iormed on Ihe meIal
surIace. 1his exIremely Ihin layer is selI-repairing under
IherighIcondiIions.
Molybdenum, nickel and niIrogen are oIher examples oI
Iypical alloying elemenIs. Alloying wiIh Ihese elemenIs
brings ouI diIIerenI crysIal sIrucIures,which enable
diIIerenIproperIiesinconnecIionwiIhmachining,Iorming,
welding, corrosion resisIance, eIc. ln general, sIainless
sIeel has a higher resisIance Io chemicals (i.e. acids) Ihan
sIeelandcasIironhave.
Castircn
CasI iron can be considered an alloy oI iron, silicon
and carbon. 1ypically, Ihe concenIraIion oI carbon is
beIween 3-4° by weighI, mosI oI which is presenI
in insoluble Iorm (e.g. graphiIe Ilakes or nodules).
1he Iwo main Iypes are grey casI iron and nodular
(ducIile) casI iron. 1he corrosion resisIance oI casI iron is
comparableIoIheoneIorsIeel,andsomeIimesevenbeIIer.
CasI iron can be alloyed wiIh 13-16° by weighI silicon or
1S-3S° by weighI nickel (Ni-resisI) respecIively in order Io
improve corrosion resisIance. various Iypes oI casI irons are
widely used in indusIry, especially Ior valves, pumps, pipes
andauIomoIiveparIs.CasIironhasgoodcorrosionresisIance
IoneuIralandalkalineliquids(highpR).8uIiIsresisIanceIo
acids(lowpR)ispoor.
Creyircn
lngreyiron,IhegraphiIeisdispersedIhroughouIaIerriIe
or pearliIe maIrix in Ihe Iorm oI Ilakes. lracIure surIaces
Iakeonagreyappearance(henceIhename!).1hegraphiIe
Ilakes acI as sIress concenIraIors under Iensile loads,
making iI weak and briIIle in Iension, buI sIrong
and ducIile in compression. Grey iron is used Ior Ihe
consIrucIionoImoIorblocksbecauseoIiIshighvibraIion
damping abiliIy. Grey iron is an inexpensive maIerial and
is relaIively easy Io casI wiIh a minimal risk oI shrinkage.
1haI is why grey iron is oIIen used Ior pump parIs wiIh
moderaIesIrengIhrequiremenIs.
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)


lig1.6.1S.ComparisonanddesignaIionsoIgreyiron
lig1.6.16.ComparisonanddesignaIionsoInodulariron
66
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
ln environmenIs conIaining chlorides, sIainless sIeel can
be aIIacked by localised corrosion, e.g. piIIing corrosion
and crevice corrosion. 1he resisIance oI sIainless sIeel Io
Ihese Iypes oI corrosion is highly dependenI on iIs
chemical composiIion. lI has become raIher common Io
use Ihe so-called PkL (PiIIing kesisIance LquivalenI)
values as a measure oI piIIing resisIance Ior sIainless
sIeel. PkL values are calculaIed by Iormulas in which Ihe
relaIive inIluence oI a Iew alloying elemenIs (chromium,
ChemicaI composition of stainIess steeI [wZ]
Microstructure Designation % % % % % PPL
5)
LN/A|S|/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other
Perritic l.40l6/430/ S43000 0.08 l6-l8 l7
Martensitic l.4057/43l/ S43l00 0.l2-0.22 l5-l7 l.5-2.5 l6
Austenitic l.4305/303/ S30300 0.l l7-l9 8-l0 S 0.l5-0.35 l8
Austenitic l.430l/304/ S30400 0.07 l7-l9.5 8-l0.5 l8
Austenitic l.4306/304L/ S30403 0.03 l8-20 l0-l2 l8
Austenitic l.440l/3l6/ S3l600 0.07 l6.5-l8.5 l0-l3 2-2.5 24
Austenitic l.4404/3l6L/ S3l603 0.03 l6.5-l8.5 l0-l3 2-2.5 24
Austenitic l.457l/3l6Ti/ 0.08 l6.5-l8.5 l0.5-l3.5 2-2.5 Ti > 5 x carbon 24
S3l635 Ti < 0.70
Austenitic l.4539/904L/ N08904 0.02 l9-2l 24-26 4-5 Cu l.2-2 34
Austenitic l.4547/none / 0.02 20 l8 6.l N 0.l8-0.22 43
S 3l254
3)
Cu 0.5-l
Perritic/ l.4462/ none/ 0.03 2l-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.l0-0.22 34
austenitic S32205
2)

Perritic/ l.44l0/none/ 0.03 25 7 4 N 0.24-0.32 43
austenitic S 32750
4)
Microstructure Designation % % % % % PPL
LN/ASTM/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other
Austenitic
l)
l.4308/CP8/ 192600 0.07 l8-20 8-ll l9
Austenitic
l)
l.4408/CP8M/ 192900 0.07 l8-20 9-l2 2-2.5 26
Austenitic
l)
l.4409/CP3M/ 192800 0.03 l8-20 9-l2 2-2.5 N max. 0.2 26
Austenitic l.4584/none/ none 0.025 l9-2l 24-26 4-5
N max. 0.2
35

Cu l-3
Perritic/
Austenitic l.4470/CD3MN/ 192205 0.03 2l-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.l2-0.2 35
Perritic/ l.45l7/CD4MCuN/ N 0.l2-0.22
Austenitic 193372 0.03 24.5-26.5 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 Cu 2.75-3.5 38

molybdenum and niIrogen) on Ihe piIIing resisIance is
Iaken inIo consideraIion. 1he higher Ihe PkL, Ihe higher
IheresisIanceIolocalisedcorrosion.8eawareIhaIIhePkL
valueisaveryroughesIimaIeoIIhepiIIingresisIanceoI
asIainlesssIeelandshouldonlybeusedIorcomparison]
classiIicaIionoIdiIIerenIIypesoIsIainlesssIeel.
ln Ihe Iollowing, we will presenI Ihe Iour ma|or Iypes oI
sIainlesssIeel.IerriIic,marIensiIic,ausIeniIicandduplex.
1)
ConIainssomeIerriIe
2)
AlsoknownasSAl220S,
3)
Alsoknownas2S4SMO,
4)
AlsoknownasSAl2S07
S)
PiIIingkesisIanceLquivalenI(PkL).Cr°+3.3xMo°+16xN°.
lig1.6.17.ChemicalcomposiIionoIsIainlesssIeel
67
ferritic{magnetic}
lerriIic sIainless sIeel is characIerised by quiIe good
corrosion properIies, very good resisIance Io sIress
corrosion cracking and moderaIe Ioughness. Low alloyed
IerriIic sIainless sIeel is used in mild environmenIs
(Ieaspoons, kiIchen sinks, washing machine drums,
eIc.) where iI is a requiremenI IhaI Ihe componenI is
mainIenance-Ireeandnon-rusIing.
Martensitic{magnetic}
MarIensiIicsIainlesssIeelischaracIerisedbyhighsIrengIh
and limiIed corrosion resisIance. MarIensiIic sIeels are
used Ior springs, shaIIs, surgical insIrumenIs and Ior
sharp-edgedIools,suchasknivesandscissors.
Austenitic{ncn-magnetic}
AusIeniIic sIainless sIeel is Ihe mosI common Iype
oI sIainless sIeel and is characIerised by a high
corrosion resisIance, very good IormabiliIy, Ioughness
and weldabiliIy. AusIeniIic sIainless sIeel, especially
Ihe LN 1.4301 and LN 1.4401 are used Ior almosI any
Iype oI pump componenIs in Ihe indusIry. 1his kind oI
sIainlesssIeelcanbeeiIherwroughIorcasI.

LN1.430SisoneoIIhemosIpopularsIainlesssIeelIypes
oI all Ihe Iree machining sIainless sIeel Iypes. Due Io iIs
highsulphurconIenI(0.1S-0.3Sw°),IhemachinabiliIyhas
improved considerably buI unIorIunaIely aI Ihe expense
oI iIs corrosion resisIance and iIs weldabiliIy. Rowever,
over Ihe years Iree machining grades wiIh a low sulphur
conIenIandIhusahighercorrosionresisIancehavebeen
developed.
lI sIainless sIeel is heaIed up Io S00°C - 800°C Ior a
longer period oI Iime during welding, Ihe chromium
mighIIormchromiumcarbideswiIhIhecarbonpresenIin
Ihe sIeel.1his reduces chromium's capabiliIy Io mainIain
IhepassiveIilmandmighIleadIoinIergranularcorrosion
alsoreIerredIoassensiIisaIion(seesecIion1.6.2).
lIlowcarbongradesoIsIainlesssIeelareusedIheriskoI
sensiIisaIionisreduced.SIainlesssIeelwiIhalowconIenI
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
oI carbon is reIerred Io as LN 1.4306 (AlSl 304L) or LN
1.4404 (AlSl 316L). 8oIh grades conIain 0.03° oI carbon
compared Io 0.07° in Ihe regular Iype oI sIainless sIeel
LN 1.4301 (AlSl 304) and LN 1.4401 (AlSl 316), see
illusIraIion1.6.17.
1hesIabilisedgradesLN1.4S71(AlSl3161i)conIainasmall
amounIoIIiIanium.8ecauseIiIaniumhasahigheraIIiniIy
Ior carbon Ihan chromium, Ihe IormaIion oI chromium
carbides is minimised. 1he conIenI oI carbon is generally
lowinmodernsIainlesssIeel,andwiIhIheeasyavailabiliIy
oI 'L' grades Ihe use oI sIabilised grades has declined
markedly.
ferritic-austeniticcrdupIex{magnetic}
lerriIic-ausIeniIic (duplex) sIainless sIeel is characIerised
byhighsIrengIh,goodIoughness,highcorrosionresisIance
and excellenI resisIance Io sIress corrosion cracking and
corrosionIaIigueinparIicular.
lerriIic-ausIeniIic sIainless sIeel is Iypically used in
applicaIions IhaI require high sIrengIh, high corrosion
resisIance and low suscepIibiliIy Io sIress corrosion cracking
or a combinaIion oI Ihese properIies. SIainless sIeel
LN1.4462iswidelyusedIormakingpumpshaIIsandpump
housings.
68
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
NickeIaIIoys
Nickel base alloys are deIined as alloys in which nickel
is presenI in greaIer proporIion Ihan any oIher alloying
elemenI. 1he mosI imporIanI alloying consIiIuenIs are
iron, chromium, copper, and molybdenum. 1he alloying
consIiIuenIs make iI possible Io Iorm a wide range oI
alloy classes. Nickel and nickel alloys have Ihe abiliIy Io
wiIhsIand a wide varieIy oI severe operaIing condiIions,
Ior insIance corrosive environmenIs, high IemperaIures,
highsIressesoracombinaIionoIIheseIacIors.
RasIelloys
1M
alloysarealineoIcommercialalloysconIaining
Ni, Mo, Cr, and le. Nickel base alloys, such as lnconel
1M

Alloy62S,RasIelloys
1M
C-276andC-22arehighlycorrosion
resisIanIandnoIsub|ecIIopiIIingorcrevicecorrosionin
low velociIy seawaIer, and do noI suIIer Irom erosion aI
highvelociIy.

1he price oI nickel base alloy limiIs iIs use in cerIain
applicaIions. Nickel alloys are available in boIh wroughI
and casI grades. Rowever, nickel alloys are more diIIiculI
IocasIIhanIhecommoncarbonsIeelsandsIainlesssIeel
alloys. Nickel alloys are especially used Ior pump parIs in
IhechemicalprocessindusIry.
CopperaIIoys
PurecopperhasexcellenIIhermalandelecIricalproperIies,
buIisaverysoIIandducIilemaIerial.
Alloying addiIions resulI in diIIerenI casI and wroughI
maIerials, which are suiIable Ior use in Ihe producIion oI
pumps, pipelines, IiIIings, pressure vessels and Ior many
marine,elecIricalandgeneralengineeringapplicaIions.
8rasses are Ihe mosI widely used oI Ihe copper alloys
because oI Iheir low cosI, Iheir easy or inexpensive
IabricaIion and machining. Rowever, Ihey are inIerior in
sIrengIhIobronzesandmusInoIbeusedinenvironmenIs
IhaIcausedezinciIicaIion(seeselecIivecorrosion).
ked brass, bronze and copper nickels in parIicular have,
compared Io casI iron a high resisIance Io chlorides in
aggressiveliquids,suchasseawaIer.lnsuchenvironmenIs,
brassisunsuiIablebecauseoIiIsIendencyIodezinciIicaIe.
All copper alloys have poor resisIance Io alkaline liquids
(high pR), ammonia and sulIides and are sensiIive Io
erosion. 8rass, red brass and bronze are widely used Ior
makingbearings,impellersandpumphousings.

1} leoJ ron be oJJeJ os on ollcyinq element tc imprcve
the morhinobility.
2} 8rcnze ron be ollcyeJ with oluminium tc inrreose strenqth.
lig1.6.18.CommonIypesoIcopperalloys
69
1itanium
PureIiIaniumhasalowdensiIy,isquiIeducIileandhasa
relaIivelylowsIrengIh.Rowever,whenalimiIedamounI
oIoxygenisaddediIwillsIrengIhenIiIaniumandproduce
Iheso-calledcommercial-puregrades.AddiIionsoIvarious
alloying elemenIs, such as aluminium and vanadium
increase iIs sIrengIh signiIicanIly, aI Ihe expense oI
ducIiliIy. 1he aluminium and vanadium alloyed IiIanium
(1i-6Al-4v) is Ihe "workhorse" alloy oI Ihe IiIanium
indusIry.lIisusedinmanyaerospaceengineandairIrame
componenIs. 8ecause IiIanium is a high-price maIerial, iI
isnoIyeIamaIerialwhichisoIIenusedIormakingpump
componenIs.
1iIanium is a very reacIive maIerial. As iI is Ihe case Ior
sIainlesssIeel,IiIanium'scorrosionresisIancedependson
Ihe IormaIion oI an oxide Iilm. Rowever, Ihe oxide Iilm
is more proIecIive Ihan IhaI on sIainless sIeel. 1hereIore,
IiIanium perIorms much beIIer Ihan sIainless sIeel in
aggressive liquids, such as seawaIer, weI chlorine or
organicchlorides,IhaIcausepiIIingandcrevicecorrosion.
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
AIuminium

Pure aluminium is a lighI and soII meIal wiIh a densiIy
oI abouI a Ihird oI IhaI oI sIeel. Pure aluminium has a
high elecIrical and Ihermal conducIiviIy. 1he mosI common
alloying elemenIs are silicon (silumin), magnesium, iron and
copper. Silicon increases Ihe maIerial's casIabiliIy, copper
increases iIs machinabiliIy and magnesium increases iIs
corrosionresisIanceandsIrengIh.
1heobviousadvanIagesoIaluminiumareIhaIIhemaIerial
naIurally generaIes a proIecIive oxide Iilm and is highly
corrosion resisIanI iI iI is exposed Io Ihe aImosphere.
1reaImenI, such as anodising, can IurIher improve Ihis
properIy. Aluminium alloys are widely used in sIrucIures
where a high sIrengIh Io weighI raIio is imporIanI, such
as in Ihe IransporIaIion indusIry. lor example, Ihe use oI
aluminium in vehicles and aircraIIs reduces weighI and
energyconsumpIion.
On Ihe oIher hand, Ihe disadvanIage oI aluminium is IhaI
iI is noI sIable aI low or high pR and in chloride-conIaining
environmenIs.1hisproperIymakesaluminiumunsuiIableIor
exposure Io aqueous soluIions especially under condiIions
wiIh high Ilow. 1his is IurIher emphasised by Ihe IacI IhaI
aluminium is a reacIive meIal, i.e. has a low posiIion in Ihe
galvanic series (see galvanic corrosion) and may easily suIIer
Irom galvanic corrosion iI coupled Io nobler meIals and
alloys.
Deigati a ayig eeet
1000-series Unalloyed (pure) >99° Al
2000-series
Copper is Ihe principal alloying elemenI, Ihough oIher
elemenIs (magnesium) may be speciIied
3000-series Manganese is Ihe principal alloying elemenI
4000-series Silicon is Ihe principal alloying elemenI
S000-series Magnesium is Ihe principal alloying elemenI
6000-series
Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elemenIs
7000-series
Zinc is Ihe principal alloying elemenI, buI oIher elemenIs,
such as copper, magnesium, chromium, and zirconium
may be speciIied
8000-series
OIher elemenIs (including Iin and some liIhium
composiIions)

CP: commercial pure (titanium content above 99.5%)
lig1.6.19.Ma|oralloyingelemenIsoIaluminium
lig1.6.20.1iIaniumgradesandalloycharacIerisIics
70
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
1.6.4Ceramics
Ceramic maIerials are deIined as inorganic, non-meIallic
maIerials, which are Iypically crysIalline in naIure. 1hey
are composed oI meIallic and non-meIallic elemenIs.
CommonIechnicalceramicsarealuminiumoxide(alumina
- Al
2
O
3
), silicon carbide (SiC), IungsIen carbide (WC), and
siliconniIride(Si
3
N
4
).
Ceramics are suiIable Ior applicaIions which require high
IhermalsIabiliIy,highsIrengIh,highwearresisIance,and
highcorrosionresisIance.1hedisadvanIageoIceramicsis
Ihe low ducIiliIy and high Iendency Ior briIIle IracIures.
Ceramics are mainly used Ior making bearings and seal
IacesIorshaIIseals.
1.6.5PIastics
SomeplasIicsarederivedIromnaIuralsubsIances,suchas
planIs,buImosIIypesareman-made.1heseareknownas
synIheIicplasIics.MosIsynIheIicplasIicscomeIromcrude
oil,buIcoalandnaIuralgasarealsoused.
1here are Iwo main Iypes oI plasIics. 1hermoplasIics and
IhermoseIs (IhermoseIIing plasIics). 1he IhermoplasIics
areIhemosIcommonkindoIplasIicusedworldwide.
PlasIics oIIen conIain addiIives, which IransIer cerIain
addiIional properIies Io Ihe maIerial. lurIhermore,
plasIics can be reinIorced wiIh Iiberglass or oIher Iibres.
1hese plasIics IogeIher wiIh addiIives and hbres are also
reIerredIoascomposiIes.
LxamplesoIaddiIivesIoundinplasIics
· lnorganicIillersIormechanicalreinIorcemenI
· ChemicalsIabilisers,e.g.anIioxidanIs
· PlasIicisers
· llamereIardanIs
1hermopIastics
1hermoplasIicpolymersconsisIoIlongpolymermolecules
IhaI are noI linked Io each oIher, i.e. have no cross-links.
1heyareoIIensuppliedasgranulesandheaIedIopermiI
IabricaIionbymeIhods,suchasmouldingorexIrusion.
Awiderangeisavailable,Iromlow-cosIcommodiIyplasIics
(e.g. PL, PP, PvC) Io high cosI engineering IhermoplasIics
(e.g. PLLK) and chemical resisIanI Iluoropolymers (e.g.
P1lL,PvDl).P1lLisoneoIIheIewIhermoplasIics,which
is noI melI-processable. 1hermoplasIics are widely used
Ior making pump housings or Ior lining oI pipes and pump
housings.
1hermosets
1hermoseIs harden permanenIly when heaIed, as cross-
linking hinders bending and roIaIions. Cross-linking is
achieved during IabricaIion using chemicals, heaI, or
radiaIion, Ihis process is called curing or vulcanizaIion.
1hermoseIs are harder, more dimensionally sIable, and
morebriIIleIhanIhermoplasIicsandcannoIberemelIed.
lmporIanI IhermoseIs include epoxies, polyesIers,
and polyureIhanes. 1hermoseIs are among oIher Ihings
usedIorsurIacecoaIings.
PP
PL
PvC
PLLK
PvDP
PTPL`
Abbreviaticn PcIymer name
Polypropylene
Polyethylene
Polyvinylchloride
Polyetheretherketone
Polyvinylidene fluoride
Polytetrafluoroethylene
`1rade name. 1eIlon°
Linear polymer chains
1hermcpIastics
£Iastcmers
1hermcsets
8ranched polymer chains
weakly cross-linked polymer chains
Strongly cross-linked polymer chains
lig1.6.22.DiIIerenIIypesoIpolymers
lig1.6.21.OverviewoIpolymernames
71
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
1.6.6kubber
1he Ierm rubber includes boIh naIural rubber and
synIheIic rubber. kubbers (or elasIomers) are Ilexible long-
chainpolymersIhaIcanbesIreIchedeasilyIoseveralIimes
Iheir unsIreIched lengIh and which rapidly reIurn Io Iheir
original dimensions when Ihe applied sIress is released.
kubbers are cross-linked (vulcanized), buI have a low cross-
link densiIy, see Iigure 1.6.22. 1he cross-link is Ihe key Io
Ihe elasIic, or rubbery, properIies oI Ihese maIerials. 1he
elasIiciIyprovidesresiliencyinsealingapplicaIions.DiIIerenI
componenIs in a pump are made oI rubber, e.g. gaskeIs
andO-rings(seesecIion1.3onshaIIseals).lnIhissecIionwe
will presenI Ihe diIIerenI kinds oI rubber qualiIies and Iheir
main properIies as regards IemperaIure and resisIance Io
diIIerenIkindsoIliquidgroups.
AI IemperaIures up Io abouI 100°C niIrile rubber is an
inexpensivemaIerialIhaIhasahighresisIanceIooiland
Iuel. DiIIerenI grades exisI - Ihe higher Ihe acryloniIrile
(ACN)conIenI,IhehigherIheoilresisIance,buIIhepoorer
isIhelowIemperaIureIlexibiliIy.NiIrilerubbershavehigh
resilience and high wear resisIance buI only moderaIe
sIrengIh. lurIher, Ihe rubber has limiIed weaIhering
resisIanceandpoorsolvenIresisIance.lIcangenerallybe
useddownIoabouI-30°C,buIcerIaingradescanoperaIe
aIlowerIemperaIures.
LIhylene propylene has excellenI waIer resisIance which
is mainIained Io high IemperaIures approximaIely 120-
140°C.1herubberIypehasgoodresisIanceIoacids,sIrong
alkalis and highly polar Iluids, such as meIhanol and
aceIone. Rowever, iI has very poor resisIance Io mineral
oilandIuel.
fIucrceIastcmers{fkM}
lluoroelasIomerscoverawholeIamilyoIrubbersdesigned
Io wiIhsIand oil, Iuel and a wide range oI chemicals
including non-polar solvenIs. oIIers excellenI
resisIance Io high IemperaIure operaIion (up Io 200°C
depending on Ihe grade) in air and diIIerenI Iypes oI oil.
rubbers have limiIed resisIance Io sIeam, hoI waIer,
meIhanol,andoIherhighlypolarIluids.lurIher,IhisIype
oI rubber has poor resisIance Io amines, sIrong alkalis
and many Ireons. 1here are sIandard and special grades
-IhelaIIerhavespecialproperIies,suchasimprovedlow-
IemperaIureorchemicalresisIance.

Silicone rubbers have ouIsIanding properIies, such as low
compression seI in a wide range oI IemperaIures (Irom
-60°C Io 200°C in air), excellenI elecIrical insulaIion and
are non-Ioxic. Silicone rubbers are resisIanI Io waIer,
some acids and oxidizing chemicals. ConcenIraIed acids,
alkalines, and solvenIs should noI be used wiIh silicone
rubbers. ln general, Ihese Iypes oI rubber have poor
resisIance Io oil and Iuel. Rowever, Ihe resisIance oI lMO
silicone rubber Io oil and Iuel is beIIer Ihan IhaI oI Ihe
siliconerubberIypesMO,vMO,andPMO.
PerIluoroelasIomers have very high chemical resisIance,
almosIcomparableIoIhaIoIP1lL(polyIeIraIluoreIhylene,
e.g. 1eIlon
k
). 1hey can be used up Io high IemperaIures,
buIIheirdisadvanIagesarediIIiculIprocessing,veryhigh
cosIandlimiIeduseaIlowIemperaIures.
Common types of copper aIIoys
N8k
Abbreviaticn
Nitrile rubber
£PDM, £PM Lthylene propylene rubber
fkM Pluoroelastomers viton
P
Siloprene
P
8una-N
P
ffkM Perfluoroelastomers
Chemraz
P
Kalrez
P
M0, VM0, PM0, fM0 Silicone rubber
Ccmmcn name
£xampIes cf
trade name
Nordel
P
lig1.6.23.kubberIypes
72
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
1.6.7Coatings
ProIecIive coaIing - meIallic, non-meIallic (inorganic)
ororganic-isacommonmeIhodoIcorrosionconIrol.1he
mainIuncIionoIcoaIingsis(asideIromgalvaniccoaIings,
such as zinc) Io provide an eIIecIive barrier beIween Ihe
meIal(subsIraIe)andiIsenvironmenI.1heyallowIheuse
oI normal sIeel or aluminium insIead oI more expensive
maIerials. ln Ihe Iollowing secIion we will examine
Ihe possibiliIies oI prevenIing corrosion by means oI
diIIerenIcoaIings.
MeIallicandnon-meIallic(inorganic)coaIingsandorganic
coaIings.
MetaIIiccoatings
MetaIIicccatingsIessncbIethanthesubstrate
Zinc coaIings are commonly used Ior Ihe proIecIion oI
sIeel sIrucIures againsI aImospheric corrosion. Zinc has
Iwo IuncIions. iI acIs as a barrier coaIing and iI provides
galvanic proIecIion. Should an exposed area oI sIeel
occur, Ihe zinc surIace preIerenIially corrodes aI a slow
raIe and proIecIs Ihe sIeel. 1he preIerenIial proIecIion
is reIerred Io as caIhodic proIecIion. When damage is
small,IheproIecIivecorrosionproducIsoIzincwillIillIhe
exposedareaandsIopIheaIIack.
MetaIIicccatingsncbIerthanthesubstrate
LlecIroplaIing oI nickel and chromium coaIings on sIeel
are examples oI meIallic coaIings IhaI are nobler Ihan
IhesubsIraIe.UnlikegalvaniccoaIingswhereIhecoaIing
corrodes near areas where Ihe base meIal is exposed,
any void or damage in a barrier coaIing can lead Io an
immediaIebasemeIalaIIack.
To protect the base steel,
zinc coating sacrifices itself
slowly by galvanic action.
Steel coated with a more noble
metal, such as nickel, corrodes
more rapidly if the coating
is damaged.
lig1.6.24.Galvanicvs.barriercorrosionproIecIion
73
Paints
As menIioned above, painIs are an imporIanI class oI
organic coaIing. ligure 1.6.2S shows several Iypes oI
organic coaIings. A Iypical painI IormulaIion conIains
polymeric binders, solvenIs, pigmenIs and addiIives. lor
environmenIal reasons, organic solvenIs are increasingly
beingreplacedbywaIerorsimplyeliminaIed,e.gpowder
coaIing. PainIed meIal sIrucIures usually involve Iwo or
morelayersoIcoaIingappliedonaprimarycoaIing,which
isindirecIconIacIwiIhIhemeIal.
1.Designofpumpsandmotors
1.1Pumpconstruction,(10)
<
Non-metaIIiccoatings
(inorganiccoatings)
Conversion coaIings are an imporIanI caIegory oI non-
meIalliccoaIings(inorganic).
Ccnversicnccatings
Conversion coaIings are Iormed by a conIrolled corrosion
reacIion oI Ihe subsIraIe in an oxidised soluIion.
Well-knownexamplesoIconversioncoaIingsareanodising
orchromaIingoIaluminium,andphosphaIeIreaImenIoI
sIeel. Anodising is mainly used Ior surIace proIecIion oI
aluminium,whilechromaIingandphosphaIingareusually
used Ior pre-IreaImenI in connecIion wiIh painIing.
8esides improving painI adhesion, iI helps Io prevenI Ihe
spreadingoIrusIunderlayersoIpainI.
Drganiccoatings
Organic coaIings conIain organic compounds and are
availableinawiderangeoIdiIIerenIIypes.OrganiccoaIings
areappliedIoIhemeIalbymeIhodsoIspraying,dipping,
brushing,liningorelecIro-coaIing(painIappliedbymeans
oI elecIric currenI) and Ihey may or may noI require
heaI-curing. 8oIh IhermoplasIic coaIings, such as
polyamide, polypropylene, polyeIhylene, PvDl and P1lL and
elasIomer coaIings are applied Io meIal subsIraIes Io
combine Ihe mechanical properIies oI meIal wiIh Ihe
chemical resisIance oI plasIics buI painIs are by Iar Ihe
mosIwidelyusedorganiccoaIing.
PhysicaI states of common organic coatings
Pesin Solvent- water- Powder Two comp.
type based based coating liquid
Acrylic X X X
Alkyd X X
Lpoxy X X X X
Polyester X X X
Polyurethane X X X X
vinyl X X X
lig1.6.2S.PhysicalsIaIesoIcommonorganiccoaIings
74
5ection1.6
MateriaIs
Chapter2.InstaIIationandperformancereading
Secticn2.1:PumpinstaIIaticn
2.1.1 NewinsIallaIion
2.1.2 LxisIinginsIallaIion
2.1.3 PipeßowIorsingle-pumpinsIallaIion
2.1.4 LimiIaIionoInoiseandvibraIions
2.1.S Soundlevel(L)
Secticn2.2:Pumpperfcrmance
2.2.1 RydraulicIerms
2.2.2 LlecIricalIerms
2.2.3 LiquidproperIies
CorrecIadviceandselecIionoIpumpIypeIoraninsIallaIion
has larger implicaIion Ihan whaI meeIs Ihe eye. 1he
larger Ihe pumps, Ihe greaIer Ihe cosIs wiIh respecI
Io invesImenI, insIallaIion, commissioning, running
and mainIenance - basically Ihe liIe cycle cosI (LCC). An
exIensive producI porIIolio combined wiIh compeIenI
adviceandaIIer-salesserviceisIheIoundaIionoIacorrecI
selecIion. 1he Iollowing analysis, recommendaIions and
hinIs are general Ior any insIallaIion, buI Io a greaIer
exIenI relevanI Ior medium-sized and large insIallaIions.
We will presenI our recommendaIions Ior Iwo Iypes oI
insIallaIion.NewandexisIinginsIallaIions.
2.1.1NewinstaIIation
- lIIhepipeworkhasnoIbeenplannedyeI,youcanbase
Ihe selecIion oI pump Iype on oIher primary selecIion
criIeria, e.g. eIIiciency, invesImenI cosIs or liIe cycle
cosIs (LCC). 1his will noI be covered in Ihis
secIion. Rowever, Ihe general guidelines, which are
presenIed, also apply Ior pipework IhaI has noI yeI
beenplanned.
- lIIhepipeworkhasalreadybeenplanned,IheselecIion
oIpumpisequivalenIIoreplacingapumpinanexisIing
insIallaIion.
76
2.1.2£xistinginstaIIation-repIacement
1he Iollowing Iive sIeps will help you make an opIimum
pumpselecIionIoranexisIinginsIallaIion.
Pre-investigaticncftheinstaIIaticnshcuIdincIude
thefcIIcwingccnsideraticns:
- 8asicpipeIlow-pipesinandouIoIIhebuilding,e.g.
Iromground,alongIloororIromceiling
- SpeciIicpipeworkaIIhepoinIoIinsIallaIion,e.g.
in-lineorend-sucIion,dimensions,maniIolds
- Spaceavailable-widIh,depIhandheighI
- AccessibiliIyinconnecIionwiIhinsIallaIionand
mainIenance,IorinsIancedoorways
- AvailabiliIyoIliIIingequipmenIoralIernaIively
accessibiliIyoIsuchequipmenI
- lloorIype,e.g.solidorsuspendedIloorwiIhbasemenI
- LxisIingIoundaIion
- LxisIingelecIricinsIallaIion
PrevicuspumpinstaIIaticn
- Pumpmake,Iype,speciIicaIionsincludingoldduIy
poinI,shaIIseal,maIerials,gaskeIs,conIrolling
- RisIory,e.g.liIeIime,mainIenance
futurerequirements
- DesiredimprovemenIsandbeneIiIs
- NewselecIioncriIeriaincludingduIypoinIsand
operaIingIimes,IemperaIure,pressure,liquid
speciIicaIions
- SuppliercriIeria,e.g.availabiliIyoIspareparIs
Adviscry
- Ma|orchangesmighIbebeneIicialinalongorshorI
IermorboIhandmusIbedocumenIed,e.g.insIallaIion
savings,liIecyclecosIs(LCC),reducIiononenvironmenIal
impacIlikenoiseandvibraIionsandaccessibiliIyin
connecIionwiIhmainIenance
SeIecticn
- MusIbebasedonacusIomer-agreedlisIoIprioriIies
lorIheselecIionoIIhecorrecIpumpIypeandadviceon
insIallaIion,IwomainareasareimporIanI.PipeIlowand
limiIaIionoInoiseandvibraIions.1heseIwoareaswill
bedealIwiIhonIheIollowingpages.
5ection2.1
PumpinstaIIation
2.1.3PipefIowforsingIe-pumpinstaIIation
ligure2.1.1isbasedonsingle-pumpinsIallaIion.lnparallelinsIallaIionsaccessibiliIyplaysa
ma|orroleIorhowgoodapumpchoiceis.
1heevaluaIioncriIerionisassimplepipeworkaspossible,henceasIewbendsaspossible.
Pipewcrk
1o the pump:
Ion fIoor
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice
Cood choice Cood choice
Cood choice Cood choice
Least good choice Least good choice
Least good choice
Least good choice
Cood choice
8est choice
8est choice
8est choice 8est choice
8est choice
8est choice
Not appIicabIe
from ground
A. In-Iine cIose-coupIed
(horizontaI or verticaI
mounting)
from ceiIing
WaII-
mounted
from the pump:
AIong fIoor
AIong fIoor
1o ground
1o ceiIing
1o ground
1o ceiIing
WaII-
mounted
AIong fIoor
1o ceiIing
Pump type
1o ground
C. £nd-suction Iong-coupIed
(onIy horizontaI mounting)

8. £nd-suction cIose- coupIed
(horizontaI or verticaI
mounting)
5cores:
8est choice
Cood choice
Least good choice
Not appIicabIe
lig.2.1.1PipeworkandpumpIype
77
AccessibiliIyplaysama|orroleinhowwellaspeciIicpump
choiceisinconnecIionwiIhinsIallaIionoIseveralpumps
in parallel. 1he accessibiliIy is noI always easy Ior in-line
pumps insIalled in parallel because oI Ihe pipework, see
Iigure 2.1.2. As iI appears Irom Iigure 2.1.3, end-sucIion
pumpsinsIalledinparallelprovideeasieraccessibiliIy.
2.1.4Limitationofnoiseandvibrations
1o achieve opIimum operaIion and minimise noise and
vibraIion, iI may be necessary Io consider vibraIion
dampening oI Ihe pump in cerIain cases. Generally, Ihis
should always be considered in Ihe case oI pumps wiIh
moIors above 7.S kW. Smaller moIor sizes, however, may
also cause undesirable noise and vibraIion. Noise and
vibraIion are generaIed by Ihe roIaIion in moIor and
pump and by Ihe Ilow in pipes and IiIIings. 1he eIIecI
on Ihe environmenI depends on correcI insIallaIion and
Ihe sIaIe oI Ihe enIire sysIem. 8elow we will presenI 3
diIIerenI ways oI limiIing noise and vibraIion in a pump
insIallaIion.loundaIion,dampenersandexpansion|oinI.
foundation
lloor consIrucIions can be divided inIo Iwo Iypes. Solid
IloorandsuspendedIloor.
5oIid-minimumriskoInoisedueIobad
IransmissionoIvibraIions,seeIigure2.1.4.
5uspended-riskoIIloorampliIyingIhenoise.
8asemenIcanacIasaresonancebox,
seeIigure2.1.S.
1hepumpshouldbeinsIalledonaplaneandrigidsurIace.
lour basic ways oI insIallaIion exisI Ior Ihe Iwo Iypes
oI Iloor consIrucIion. lloor, plinIh, IloaIing plinIh and
IoundaIionsuspendedonvibraIiondampeners.
lig.2.1.3.
3end-sucIionpumpsinparallel,easiermainIenaceaccess
becauseoIpipework
lig.2.1.4.SolidIloorconsIrucIion
lig.2.1.S.SuspendedIloorconsIrucIion
lig.2.1.2.
3in-linepumpsinparallel,limiIedmainIenance
accessbecauseoIpipework
fIccr
ScIidgrcund
fIccr
WaII
Crcundñccr
8asement
fIccr
ScIidgrcund
78
5ection2.1
PumpinstaIIation
fIccr
DirecImounIingonIloor,hencedirecIvibraIion
Iransmission,seeIigure2.1.6.
PIinth
PoureddirecIlyonconcreIeIloor,henceasIloor,see
Iigure2.1.7.
fIcatingpIinth
kesIingonadeadmaIerial,e.g.sand,hence
reducedriskoIvibraIionIransmission,seeIigure2.1.8.

fcundaticnsuspendedcnvibraticndampeners
OpIimumsoluIionwiIhconIrolledvibraIion
Iransmission,seeIigure2.1.9.
As a rule oI Ihumb, Ihe weighI oI a concreIe IoundaIion
shouldbe1.SxIhepumpweighI.1hisweighIisneededIo
geIIhedampenersIoworkeIIicienIlyaIlowpumpspeed.
lig.2.1.6.lloor
lloor8aseplaIePumpuniI
lig.2.1.10.1hesame
IoundaIionrulesgo
IorverIicalin-line
pumps
lig.2.1.7.PlinIh
lloorPlinIh8aseplaIePumpuniI
lig.2.1.8.
lloaIingplinIh
lloorSandPlinIh8aseplaIePumpuniI
lig.2.1.9.loundaIion
suspendedon
vibraIiondampeners
lloor
vibraIiondampenersloundaIion8aseplaIePumpuniI
PumpuniI

loundaIion
vibraIion
dampeners
lloor
79
Dampeners
1he selecIion oI Ihe righI vibraIion dampener requires
IheIollowingdaIa.
- lorcesacIingonIhedampener
- MoIorspeedconsideringspeedconIrol,iIany
- kequireddampeningin°(suggesIedvalueis70°)
1he deIerminaIion oI Ihe righI dampener varies Irom
insIallaIion Io insIallaIion buI a wrong selecIion oI
dampenermayincreaseIhevibraIionlevelincerIaincases.
1hesuppliershouldIhereIoresizevibraIiondampeners.
Pumps insIalled wiIh vibraIion dampeners musI always
have expansion |oinIs IiIIed aI boIh Ihe sucIion and Ihe
dischargeside.1hisisimporIanIinorderIoavoidIhaIIhe
pumphangsinIheIlanges.
£xpansionjoints
Lxpansion|oinIsareinsIalledIo.
- absorbexpansions]conIracIionsinIhepipework
causedbychangingliquidIemperaIure
- reducemechanicalsIrainsinconnecIionwiIhpressure
wavesinIhepipework
- isolaIemechanicalnoiseinIhepipework(noIIormeIal
bellowsexpansion|oinIs)
Lxpansion |oinIs musI noI be insIalled Io compensaIe Ior
inaccuraciesinIhepipework,suchascenIredisplacemenI
ormisalignmenIoIIlanges.

Lxpansion |oinIs are IiIIed aI a disIance oI minimum 1 Io
1.S
.
DNdiameIerIromIhepumponIhesucIionsideaswell
as on Ihe discharge side. 1his prevenIs Ihe developmenI oI
IurbulenceinIheexpansion|oinIs,resulIinginbeIIersucIion
condiIions and a minimum pressure loss on Ihe pressure
side. AI high waIer velociIies (>S m]s) iI is besI Io insIall
largerexpansion|oinIscorrespondingIoIhepipework.
lig.2.1.11.lnsIallaIionwiIhexpansion|oinIs,vibraIiondampenersand
Iixedpipework
8aseplaIe
PumpuniI
vibraIion
dampeners
lloor
Lxpansion
|oinI
loundaIion
80
5ection2.1
PumpinstaIIation
ligures 2.1.12-2.1.14 show examples oI rubber bellows
expansion|oinIswiIhorwiIhouIIiebars.
Lxpansion|oinIswiIhIiebarscanbeusedIominimiseIhe
Iorces caused by Ihe expansion |oinIs. Lxpansion |oinIs
wiIhIiebarsarerecommendedIorsizeslargerIhanDN100.
An expansion |oinI wiIhouI Iie bars will exerI Iorce on
Ihe pump Ilanges. 1hese Iorces aIIecI Ihe pump and Ihe
pipework.
1he pipes musI be Iixed so IhaI Ihey do noI sIress Ihe
expansion |oinIs and Ihe pump, see Iigure 2.1.11. 1he Iix
poinIs should always be placed as close Io Ihe expansion
|oinIs as possible. lollow Ihe expansion |oinI supplier's
insIrucIions.
AIIemperaIuresabove100°CcombinedwiIhahighpressure,
meIalbellowsexpansion|oinIsareoIIenpreIerreddueIo
IheriskoIrupIure.
2.1.55oundIeveI(L)
1he sound level in a sysIem is measured in decibel (d8).
Noise is unwanIed sound. 1he level oI noise can be
measuredinIheIollowingIhreeways.
1.Pressure-L
p
.1hepressureoIIheairwaves
2.Power-L
W
.1hepoweroIIhesound
3.lnIensiIy-L
l
.1hepowerperm
2
(willnoIbe
coveredinIhisbook)
lIisnoIpossibleIocompareIheIhreevaluesdirecIly,buIiI
ispossibleIocalculaIebeIweenIhembasedonsIandards.
1heruleoIIhumbis.
lig.2.1.14.MeIal
bellowsexpansion
|oinIswiIhIiebars
lig.2.1.12.kubberbellows
expansion|oinIswiIhIiebars
lig.2.1.13.kubber
bellowsexpansion
|oinIswiIhouIIie
bars
SmaIIerpumps,e.g.1.5kW:l
w
=l
P
+11d8
largerpumps,e.g.110kW:l
w
=l
P
+16d8
120
100
80
60
40
20
20 S0 100 200 1 2 S 10 20kRz S00Rz
0
lrequency
kRz
PainthreshoId
Lp(d8)
1hreshoIdofhearing
5peech
Music
lig.2.1.1S.1hresholdoIhearingvs.Irequency
81
1he LU Machine DirecIive prescribes IhaI sound levels
have Io be indicaIed as pressure when Ihey are below 8S
d8(A)andaspowerwhenIheyexceed8Sd8(A).
Noise is sub|ecIive and depends on a person´s abiliIy
Io hear, e.g. young vs. old person. 1hereIore, Ihe above-
menIioned measuremenIs geI weighI according Io
Ihe sensibiliIy oI a sIandard ear, see Iigure 2.1.1S. 1he
weighIing is known as A-weighIing (d8(A)), expressed as
e.g.L
pA
,andIhemeasuremenIsaread|usIeddependingon
Irequency.lnsomecasesiIincreasesandinoIhercasesiI
decreases, see Iigure 2.1.16. OIher weighIings are known
as8andCbuIIheyareusedIoroIherpurposes,whichwe
donoIcoverinIhisbook.
lncaseoIIwoormorepumpsinoperaIion,Ihesoundlevel
canbecalculaIed.lIiIispumpswiIhIhesamesoundlevel
Ihe IoIal sound level can be calculaIed adding Ihe value
Irom Iigure 2.1.17, e.g. 2
.
pumps is Lp + 3 d8, 3
.
pumps is
Lp + S d8. lI Ihe pumps have diIIerenI sound level, values
IromIigure2.1.18canbeadded.
lndicaIions oI sound level should normally be sIaIed as
Iree Iield condiIions over reIlecIing surIace, meaning Ihe
sound level on a hard Iloor wiIh no walls. GuaranIeeing
values in a speciIic room in a speciIic pipe sysIem is
diIIiculIbecauseIhesevaluesarebeyondIhereachoIIhe
manuIacIurer. CerIain condiIions could have a negaIive
impacI (increasing sound level) or a posiIive impacI
on Ihe sound level. kecommendaIions Io insIallaIion
and IoundaIion can be given Io eliminaIe or reduce Ihe
negaIiveimpacI.

d8(A)
10
0
10 100 1000
-10
-20
-30
-40
-S0
-60
-70
-80
10000Rz
4 8 12 16 20 24
S
10
1S
2 4 6 8 10
1
2
2.S
1.S
0.S
3
lig.2.1.16A-weighIingcurve
lig.2.1.17lncreaseoIIheIoIalsoundpressurelevelwiIh
equalsources
lig. 2.1.18 lncrease oI Ihe IoIal sound pressure level wiIh
diIIerenIsources
£xperiencevaIues:
kiseof Perceivedas:
+3d8 !usInoIiceable
+Sd8 ClearlynoIiceable
+10d8 1wiceasloud
82
5ection2.1
PumpinstaIIation
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
When you examine a pump, Ihere are several Ihings
you have Io check. 8esides checking Ihe pump's physical
condiIion, Ior insIance iI iI is rusIy or makes abnormal
noise, you have Io know a number oI values in order Io
be able Io Iell iI Ihe pump perIorms as iI is supposed
Io. On Ihe nexI pages, we will presenI Ihree groups oI
values you may need Io Iocus on when you examine a
pump's perIormance. Rydraulic Ierms, elecIrical Ierms,
mechanicalIermsandliquidproperIies.
2.2.1HydrauIicterms
WhenyouwanIIoexaminepumpperIormance,Ihereare
a number oI values you need Io know. ln Ihis secIion, we
will presenI Ihe mosI imporIanI hydraulic Ierms. llow,
pressureandhead.
fIow
llow is Ihe amounI oI liquid IhaI passes Ihrough a pump
wiIhin a cerIain period oI Iime. When we deal wiIh
perIormance reading, we disIinguish beIween Iwo Ilow
parameIers.volumeIlowandmassIlow.
VcIumefIcw{0}
volume Ilow is whaI we can read Irom a pump curve or
puI in anoIher way, a pump can move a volume per uniI
oI Iime (measured in m
3
]h) no maIIer Ihe densiIy oI Ihe
liquid.WhenwedealwiIhe.g.waIersupply,volumeIlow
is Ihe mosI imporIanI parameIer, because we need Ihe
pump Io deliver a cerIain volume, e.g. oI drinking waIer
orwaIerIorirrigaIion.1hroughouIIhisbookIheIermIlow
reIersIovolumeIlow.
MassfIcw{0
m
}
Mass Ilow is Ihe mass, which a pump moves per uniI oI
Iimeandismeasuredinkg]s.1heliquidIemperaIurehasan
inIluenceonhowbigamassIlowIhepumpcanmoveperuniI
oIIimesinceIheliquiddensiIychangeswiIhIheIemperaIure.
lnconnecIionwiIhheaIing,coolingandair-condiIionsysIems,
IhemassIlowisanessenIialvalueIoknow,becauseIhemass
isIhecarrieroIenergy(seeReaIcapaciIy).
lig.2.2.1.CalculaIionexamples
£xampIes Unit
Water
VoIume fIow D 10 m
3
Jh
Density 998 943 kgJm
3
Mass fIow D
m
9980 9403 kgJh
2.77 2.62 kgJs
at 20
¨
C at 120
¨
C
D
m
D
m

.

D

D
= =
,
83
Pressure(p)
Pressure is a measure oI Iorce per uniI area. We
disIinguish beIween sIaIic pressure, dynamic pressure
and IoIal pressure. 1he IoIal pressure is Ihe sum oI Ihe
sIaIicpressureandIhedynamicpressure.
Staticpressure
1hesIaIicpressurep
sIa
isIhepressure,whichismeasured
wiIhapressuregaugeplacedperpendicularIoIheIlowor
inanon-movingliquid,seeIigure2.2.2.
Dynamicpressure
1he dynamic pressure p
dyn
is caused by liquid velociIy.
DynamicpressurecannoIbemeasuredbyanormalpressure
gauge,buIiscalculaIedbyIheIollowingIormula.
1
2
where.
UisIhedensiIyoIIheliquidin|kg]m
3
j
visIhevelociIyoIIheliquidin|m]sj
Dynamic pressure can be converIed inIo sIaIic pressure
by reducing Ihe liquid velociIy and vice versa. ligure 2.2.3
showsaparIoIasysIemwhereIhepipediameIerincreases
IromD
1
IoD
2
,resulIinginadecreaseinliquidspeedIromv
1

Iov
2
.AssumingIhaIIhereisnoIricIionlossinIhesysIem,
IhesumoIIhesIaIicpressureandIhedynamicpressureis
consIanIIhroughouIIhehorizonIalpipe.
1
2
So, an increase in pipe diameIer, as Ihe one shown in
Iigure2.2.3resulIsinanincreaseinIhesIaIicheadwhich
ismeasuredwiIhIhepressuregaugep
2
.
lnmosIpumpingsysIems,Ihedynamicpressurep
dyn
has
aminorimpacIonIheIoIalpressure.lorexample,iIIhe
velociIyoIawaIerIlowis4.Sm]s,Ihedynamicpressureis
around0.1bar,whichisconsideredinsigniIicanIinmany
pumpingsysIems.LaIeroninIhischapIer,wewilldiscuss
dynamic pressure in connecIion wiIh deIermining Ihe
headoIapump.
lig. 2.2.2. Row Io deIermine Ihe sIaIic pressure p
sIa
, Ihe dynamic
pressurep
dyn
andIheIoIalpressurep
IoI

lig.2.2.3.1hesIaIicpressureincreasesiIIheliquidvelociIyisreduced.
1hehgureappliesIorasysIemwiIhinsignihcanIIricIionloss
D
2
D
1
p
sIa
p
IoI
p
dyn
A
P
8
p
1
p
2
v
1
v
2
p
sIa
p
IoI
p
dyn
p
IoI
p
sIa
p
sIa
p
IoI
D
84
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
2
4
6
8
10
12
H(m)
D
DuIy poinI Ior brine aI 20´C
DuIy poinI Ior waIer aI 20´C
DuIy poinI Ior waIer aI 9S´C
DuIy poinI Ior diesel aI 20´C
7
.
3

m
1
0
.
2

m
1
0
.
6

m
1
2
.
7
5

m
1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar
8rineaI20°C
1300kg]m
3
1bar=7.3m
WaIeraI20°C
997kg]m
3
1bar=10.2m
WaIeraI9S°C
960kg]m
3
1bar=10.6m
DieseloilaI20°C
800kg]m
3
1bar=12.7Sm
lig. 2.2.S. Pumping Iour diIIerenI liquids aI 1 bar aI Ihe discharge side
oI Ihe pump resulIs in Iour diIIerenI heads (m), hence Iour diIIerenI
duIypoinIs
Measuringpressure
Pressure is measured in e.g. Pa (N]m¹), bar (10
S
Pa) or PSl
(lb]in¹).WhenwedealwiIhpressureiIisimporIanIIoknow
IhepoinIoIreIerenceIorIhepressuremeasuremenI.1wo
IypesoIpressureareessenIialinconnecIionwiIhpressure
measuremenI.AbsoluIepressureandgaugepressure.
AbscIutepressure{p
abs
}
AbsoluIe pressure is deIined as Ihe pressure above
absoluIe vacuum, 0 aIm, IhaI is Ihe absoluIe zero Ior
pressure.Usually,Ihevalue"absoluIepressure"isusedin
caviIaIioncalculaIions.
Caugepressure
Gauge pressure, oIIen reIerred Io as overpressure, is Ihe
pressure, which is higher Ihan Ihe normal aImospheric
pressure (1 aIm). Normally, pressure p is sIaIed as gauge
pressure, because mosI sensor and pressure gauge
measuremenIs measure Ihe pressure diIIerence beIween
IhesysIemandIheaImosphere.1hroughouIIhisbookIhe
IermpressurereIersIogaugepressure.
Head(H)
1heheadoIapumpisanexpressionoIhowhighIhepump
can liII a liquid. Read is measured in meIer (m) and is
independenI on Ihe liquid densiIy. 1he Iollowing Iormula
showsIherelaIionbeIweenpressure(p)andhead(R).
where.
RisIheheadin|mj
pisIhepressurein|Pa=N]m
2
j
UisIheliquiddensiIyin|kg]m
3
j
gisIheacceleraIionoIgraviIyin|m]s
2
j

Normally, pressure p is measured in |barj, which equals
10
S
Pa.Rowever,oIherpressureuniIsareusedaswell,see
Iigure2.2.4.
1herelaIionbeIweenpressureandheadisshowninIigure
2.2.S where a pump handles Iour diIIerenI liquids. 1he
head oI Ihe pump depends on Ihe Iype oI liquid. As iI
appears Irom Ihe Iigure, Ihe pumping oI diIIerenI liquids
resulIsindiIIerenIheadsandhencediIIerenIduIypoinIs.

1 Pa = 1 NIm
2
10
-S
1 9.87
.
10
-4
7S0
.
10
-S
1.02
.
10
-4
7S0
1.02
.
10
-S
1 10
S
0.987 10.2 1.02
760 1.013 1.013
.
10
S
1 10.33 1.033
736 0.981 0.981
.
10
S
0.968 10 1
73.6 0.0981 0.981
.
10
4
' Physical aImosphere '' 1heoreIical aImosphere
0.0968 1 0.1
Pa bar
Cenversien tabIe fer pressure units
atm* at** mH
2
D mmHg
1 bar
1 atm
1 at = 1 kpIcm
3
1 m H
2
D
lig.2.2.4.ConversionIableIorpressureuniIs
8S
lig.2.2.6.SIandardend-sucIionpumpwiIhdimensiondiIIerenceon
sucIionanddischargeporIs
Hcwtcdeterminethehead
1he pump head is deIermined by reading Ihe pressure on
IheIlangesoIIhepumpp
2
,p
1
andIhenconverIIhevalues
inIohead-seeIigure2.2.6.Rowever,iIageodeIicdiIIerence
inheadispresenIbeIweenIheIwomeasuringpoinIs,asiI
isIhecaseinIigure2.2.6,iIisnecessaryIocompensaIeIor
Ihe diIIerence. lurIhermore, iI Ihe porI dimensions oI Ihe
Iwo measuring poinIs diIIer Irom one anoIher Ihe acIual
headhasIobecorrecIedIorIhisaswell.
1he acIual pump head R is calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing
Iormula.
where.
RisIheacIualpumpheadin|mj
pisIhepressureaIIheIlangesin|Pa=N]m
2
j
RisIheliquiddensiIyin|kg]m
3
j
gisIheacceleraIionoIgraviIyin|m]s
2
j
hisIhegeodeIicheighIin|mj
visIheliquidvelociIyin|m]sj
1he liquid velociIy v is calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing
Iormula.
where.
visIhevelociIyin|m]sj
OisIhevolumeIlowin|m
3
]sj
DisIheporIdiameIerin|mj
When combining Ihese Iwo Iormulas, head R depends
on Ihe Iollowing IacIors. 1he pressure measuremenIs
p
1
and p
2
, Ihe diIIerence in geodeIic heighI beIween Ihe
measuring poinIs (h
2
-h
1
), Ihe Ilow Ihrough Ihe pump O
andIhediameIeroIIheIwoporIsD
1
andD
2
.
1he correcIion due Io Ihe diIIerence in porI diameIer is
causedbyIhediIIerenceinIhedynamicpressure.lnsIeadoI
calculaIingIhecorrecIionIromIheIormula,IheconIribuIion
canbereadinanomogram,seeappendixl.
h
2
h
1
v
1
p
1
D
1
D
2
v
2
p
2
86
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
CaIcuIaticnexampIe
ApumpoIIhesameIypeasIheoneshowninIigure2.2.7
isinsIalledinasysIemwiIhIheIollowingdaIa.
O=240m
3
]h
p
1
=0.Sbar
p
2
=1.1bar
Liquid.WaIeraI20
0
C
SucIionporIdiameIerD
1
=1S0mm
DischargeporIdiameIerD
2
=12Smm.
1hediIIerenceinheighIbeIweenIheIwoporIswhereIhe
pressuregaugesareinsIalledish
2
-h
1
=3SSmm.
WearenowableIocalculaIeIheheadoIIhepump.
AsiIappearsIromIhecalculaIion,IhepressurediIIerence
measured by pressure gauges is abouI 1.1 m lower Ihan
whaI Ihe pump is acIually perIorming. 1his calls Ior an
explanaIion.lirsI,IhedeviaIioniscausedbyIhediIIerence
in heighI beIween Ihe pressure gauges (0.36 m) and
second, iI is caused by Ihe diIIerence in porI dimensions,
whichinIhiscaseis0.77m.
lig. 2.2.7. SIandard end-sucIion pump wiIh diIIerenI
dimensionsoIsucIionanddischargeporIs(Lxample)
h
2
- h
1
= 3 mm

1
= 3.77 m]
2
p
1
= .5 bar
D
1
= 15 mm
D
2
= 125 mm
v
2
= .43 m]
2
p
2
= 1.1 bar

87
lig.2.2.8.1hesysIempressureR
sIa
inaclosedsysIem
hasIobehigherIhanIhephysicalheighIoIIheinsIallaIion
lI Ihe pressure gauges are placed aI Ihe same geodeIic
heighI, or iI a diIIerenIial pressure gauge is used Ior Ihe
measuremenI, iI is noI necessary Io compensaIe Ior Ihe
diIIerence in heighI (h
2
-h
1
). ln connecIion wiIh in-line
pumps, where inleI and ouIleI are placed aI Ihe same
level, Ihe Iwo porIs oIIen have Ihe same diameIer. lor
Ihese Iypes oI pumps a simpliIied Iormula is used Io
deIermineIhehead.
DifferentiaIpressure{Ap}
1he diIIerenIial pressure is Ihe pressure diIIerence
beIween Ihe pressures measured aI Iwo poinIs, e.g. Ihe
pressure drops across valves in a sysIem. DiIIerenIial
pressureismeasuredinIhesameuniIsaspressure.
Systempressure
1hesysIempressureisIhesIaIicpressure,whichispresenI
aIapoinIinIhesysIem,whenIhepumpsarenoIrunning.
SysIem pressure is imporIanI Io consider when you deal
wiIh a closed sysIem. 1he sysIem pressure in (m) R
sIa
in
IhelowesIpoinImusIalwaysbehigherIhanIheheighIoI
IhesysIeminorderIoensureIhaIIhesysIemisIilledwiIh
liquidandcanbevenIedproperly.
h

Dry cooler
Chiller
R
sysI
> h
R
sysI
88
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
NPSR
O
R
lig..2.2.12.NPSR-curve
CavitaticnandNPSH
CaviIaIionoccurssomewhereinapumpwhenIhepressure
islowerIhanIhevapourpressureoIIheliquid,seeIigures
2.2.9and2.2.10.
When Ihe pressure on Ihe sucIion side drops below
Ihe vapour pressure oI Ihe liquid, (Iigure 2.2.10 yellow
doI). small vapour bubbles Iorm. 1hese bubbles collapse
(implode) when Ihe pressure rises (Iigure 2.2.10 red doI)
and releases shock waves. ConsequenIly, impellers can
be damaged by Ihe energy released. 1he raIe oI damage
IoIheimpellerdependsonIheproperIiesoIIhemaIerial.
SIainlesssIeelismoreresisIanIIocaviIaIionIhanbronze,
and bronze is more resisIanI Io caviIaIion Ihan casI iron,
seesecIion1.6.3.
CaviIaIion decreases Ilow (O) and head (R), which leads
Io reduced pump perIormance, see Iigure 2.2.11. Damage
due Io caviIaIion is oIIen only deIecIed when Ihe pump
isdismanIled.lurIhermore,caviIaIionresulIsinincreased
noise and vibraIions, which can consequenIly damage
bearings,shaIIsealsandweldings.
CaIcuIaticncftheriskcfcavitaticn
1o avoid caviIaIion, Ihe Iollowing Iormula is used Io
calculaIeIhemaximumsucIionhead.
h
max
-MaximumsucIionhead
R
b
- AImospheric pressure aI Ihe pump siIe, Ihis is Ihe
IheoreIicalmaximumsucIionliII,seeIigure2.2.13
R
I
-lricIionlossinIhesucIionpipe
NPSR = NeI PosiIive SucIion Read (is Io be read aI Ihe
NPSR curve aI Ihe highesI operaIional Ilow), see Iigure
2.2.12.
b
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

|
P
a
]
lmpellerinleI lmpellerouIleI
a
p
p
1
vapourpressure
p
lig..2.2.9.lmplosionoIcaviIaIionbubblesonIhebackoIimpellervanes
O
R
Curve when
pump caviIaIes
lig..2.2.10.DevelopmenIoIpressureIhroughacenIriIugalpump
lig..2.2.11.PumpcurvewhenpumpcaviIaIes
a=frontofimpeIIervanes
b=8ackofimpeIIervanes
a
b
a=frontofimpeIIervanes
b=8ackofimpeIIervanes
89
ImpIodingvapourbubbIes
1heNPSRvalueindicaIesIowhaIexIenIIhepumpisnoI
ableIocreaIeabsoluIevacuum,IhaIisIoliIIaIullwaIer
column10.33mabovesealevel,seeIigure2.2.13.
NPSR can eiIher be named NPSR
r
(required) or NPSR
a

(available).
NPSR
required
1herequiredsucIionheadIorIhepump
NPSR
available
1heavailablesucIionheadinIhesysIem
1he NPSR value oI a pump is deIermined by IesIing
according Io lSO 9906 and is made in Ihe Iollowing
way. 1he sucIion head is reduced while Ihe Ilow is kepI
aI a consIanI level. When Ihe diIIerenIial pressure has
decreased by 3°, Ihe pressure aI Ihe pump's sucIion side
is read, and Ihe NPSR value oI Ihe pump is deIined. 1he
IesIingisrepeaIedaIdiIIerenIIlows,whichIormIhebasis
oIIheNPSRcurveinIheend.
PuIinanoIherway.WhenIheNPSRcurveisreached,Ihe
leveloIcaviIaIionissohighIhaIIheheadoIIhepumphas
decreasedby3°.
R
v
- vapour pressure oI Ihe liquid, Ior more inIormaIion
concerningvapourpressureoIwaIer,goIoappendixD.
R
s
-SaIeIyIacIor.R
s
dependsonIhesiIuaIionandnormally
varies beIween 0.S m and 1 m and Ior liquids conIaining
gasupIo2m,seeIigure2.2.1S.
2.2.2£IectricaIterms
WhenyouwanIIoexamineapumpperIormance,youneed
IoknowarangeoIvalues.lnIhissecIionwewillpresenI
IhemosIimporIanIelecIricalvalues.PowerconsumpIion,
volIage,currenIandpowerIacIor.
Liquidwithair
Q|m
3
ís]

R

|
m
]
NPSR
VentedIiquid
lig..2.2.1S.1ypicalNPSR-curveIorliquidconIaininggas
NP5H
H
b
H
f
h
H
v
20
15
12
10
8,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
1,5
120
110
90
100
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Hv
(m)
tm
(¨C )
150
130
140
25
35
45
40
30
lig.. 2.2.14. SysIem wiIh indicaIion oI Ihe
diIIerenI values IhaI are imporIanI in
connecIionwiIhsucIioncalculaIions
Height above
sea IeveI
(m)
0
500
1000
2000
1.013 10.33
0.935
100
9.73
0.899
0.795
9.16
8.10
99
96
93
8arometric
pressure
p
b
(bar)
Water
coIumn
H
b
(m)
8oiIing point
of water
(¨C)
lig..2.2.13.8aromeIricpressureabovesealevel
90
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
Powerconsumption(P)

PumpsaremadeoIseveralcomponenIs,seehgure2.2.16.
1hepowerconsumpIionoIIhediIIerenIcomponenIsis
designaIedinIheIollowingway.
P
1
1hepowerinpuIIromIhemainsor,puIinanoIher
way,IheamounIoIpowerIheconsumerhasIo
payIor
P
2
1hepowerinpuIIoIhepumporIhepowerouIpuI
IromIhemoIor.OIIenreIerredIoasshaIIpower
P
H
Rydraulicpower-IhepowerIhaIIhepump
IransIersIoIheliquidinIheshapeoIIlow
andhead
lor Ihe mosI common pump Iypes, Ihe Ierm power
consumpIion normally reIers Io P
2
. Power is measured
inW,kW.
LIhciencyinconnecIionwiIhpumpsnormallyonlycovers
Ihe eIhciency oI Ihe pump parI K
P
. A pump's eIhciency is
deIermined by several IacIors, Ior insIance Ihe shape oI
Ihe pump housing, Ihe impeller and diIIuser design and
IhesurIaceroughness.lorIypicalpumpuniIsconsisIingoI
boIh pump and elecIric moIor, Ihe IoIal eIhciency K
1
also
includesIheeIhciencyoIIhemoIor.
lI a Irequency converIer is included as well, Ihe eIhciency
oIIheenIireuniIalsohasIoincorporaIeIheeIhciencyoI
IheIrequencyconverIer.
P
1
P
2
P
H
lig. 2.2.16. Pump uniI wiIh indicaIion oI diIIerenI power
consumpIionlevels
91
VoItage(U)
Like pressure drives Ilow Ihrough a hydraulic sysIem,
volIage drives a currenI (l) Ihrough an elecIrical circuiI.
volIage is measured in volIs (v) and can be eiIher direcI
currenI(DC),e.g.1.SvbaIIery-oralIernaIingcurrenI(AC),
e.g.elecIriciIysupplyIorhouses,eIc.Normally,pumpsare
suppliedwiIhACvolIagesupply.
1helayouIoIACmainssupplydiIIersIromonecounIryIo
anoIher. Rowever, Ihe mosI common layouI is Iour wires
wiIh Ihree phases (L1, L2, L3) and a neuIral (N). 8esides
Ihese Iour wires, a proIecIive earIh connecIion (PL) is
addedIoIhesysIemaswell,seeIigure2.2.17.
lor a 3x400 v]230 v mains supply, Ihe volIage beIween
any Iwo oI Ihe phases (L1, L2, L3) is 400 v. 1he volIage
beIweenoneoIIhephasesandneuIral(N)is230v.
1heraIiobeIweenIhephase-phasevolIageandIhephase-
neuIral volIage is deIermined by Ihe Iormula on your
righI.
CurrenIisIheIlowoIelecIriciIyandismeasuredinampere
(A).1heamounIoIcurrenIinanelecIricalcircuiIdepends
onIhesuppliedvolIageandIheresisIance]impedancein
IheelecIricalcircuiI.
Power(P)andpowerfactor(cosJorPf)
Power consumpIion is indeed oI high imporIance when
iI comes Io pumps. lor pumps wiIh sIandard AC moIors,
Ihe power inpuI is Iound by measuring Ihe inpuI volIage
and inpuI currenI and by reading Ihe value cosJ on Ihe
moIor]pumpnameplaIe.cosJisIhephaseanglebeIween
volIageandcurrenI.cosJisalsoreIerredIoaspowerIacIor
(Pl). 1he power consumpIion P
1
can be calculaIed by Ihe
Iormulas shown on your righI depending on wheIher Ihe
moIorisasingle-phaseoraIhree-phasemoIor.
L
1
L
2
L
3
N
PL
400V1hree-phasesuppIy
230V5ingIe-phasesuppIy
lig.2.2.17.Mainssupply,e.g.3x400v
]
]
ACsingle-phasemoIor,e.g.1x230v

ACIhree-phasemoIor,e.g.3x400v

92
5ection2.2
Pumpperformance
1hevolIagebeIweenanyIwophases(L1,L2,L3)
isIora3x400v]230vmainssupply,400v.
1he volIage beIween one oI Ihe phases and
neuIral (N) is 230v. 1he raIio beIween Ihe
phase-phase volIage and Ihe phase-neuIral
volIageis.

2.2.3Liquidproperties
WhenyouaremakingyoursysIemcalculaIions,Ihereare
IhreeproperIiesyoumighIneedIoknowabouIIheliquid
in order Io make Ihe righI calculaIions. Liquid IemperaIure,
densiIy,andheaIcapaciIy.
1he liquid IemperaIure is measured in °C (Celcius), K
(Kelvin), or °l (lahrenheiI). °C and K are acIually Ihe
same uniI buI 0°C is Ihe Ireezing poinI oI waIer and 0K
isIheabsoluIezero,IhaIis-273.1S°C-IhelowesIpossible
IemperaIure. 1he calculaIion beIween lahrenheiI and
Celcius is. °l = °C
.
1.8 + 32, hence Ihe Ireezing poinI oI
waIer is 0°C and 32°l and Ihe boiling poinI is 100°C and
212°l.

1hedensiIyismeasuredinkg]m
3
or

kg]dm
3
.
1he heaI capaciIy Iells us how much addiIional energy a
liquidcanconIainpermasswheniIisheaIed.LiquidheaI
capaciIydependsonIemperaIure,seeIigure2.2.18.1hisis
used in sysIems Ior IransporIing energy, e.g. heaIing, air-
con and cooling. Mixed liquids, e.g. glycol and waIer Ior
air-conhavealowerheaIcapaciIyIhanpurewaIerhence
higher Ilow is required Io IransporI Ihe same amounI oI
energy.
93
-40 -20 0 20 60 80 40 100 120´C
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.4
0.S
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
k!/kgK kcal/kgK
0° pure waLer
20°
34°
44°
S2°
lig.2.2.18.ReaIcapaciIyvs.IemperaIureIoreIhyleneglycol
Chapter3.5ystemhydrauIic
Secticn3.1:Systemcharacteristics
3.1.1 SingleresisIances
3.1.2 ClosedandopensysIems
Secticn3.2:PumpsccnnectedinseriesandparaIIeI
3.2.1 Pumpsinparallel
3.2.2 PumpsconnecIedinseries
5ection3.1
5ystemcharacteristics
Previously, in secIion 1.1.2 we discussed Ihe basic
characIerisIics oI pump perIormance curves. ln Ihis
chapIer we will examine Ihe pump perIormance curve aI
diIIerenI operaIing condiIions as well as a Iypical sysIem
characIerisIic. linally, we will Iocus on Ihe inIeracIion
beIweenapumpandasysIem.
AsysIem'scharacIerisIicdescribesIherelaIionbeIweenIhe
IlowOandheadRinIhesysIem.1hesysIemcharacIerisIic
dependsonIheIypeoIsysIeminquesIion.WedisIinguish
beIweenIwoIypes.ClosedandopensysIems.
- CIcsedsystems
are circulaIing sysIems like heaIing or air-condiIioning
sysIems, where Ihe pump has Io overcome Ihe IricIion
lossesinIhepipes,IiIIings,valves,eIc.inIhesysIem.
- 0pensystems
are liquid IransporI sysIems like waIer supply sysIems. ln
such sysIems Ihe pump has Io deal wiIh boIh Ihe sIaIic
head and overcome Ihe IricIion losses in Ihe pipes and
componenIs.
When Ihe sysIem characIerisIic is drawn in Ihe same
sysIemoIco-ordinaIesasIhepumpcurve,IheduIypoinI
oIIhepumpcanbedeIerminedasIhepoinIoIinIersecIion
oIIheIwocurves,seeIigure.3.1.1.
Open and closed sysIems consisI oI resisIances (valves,
pipes, heaI exchanger, eIc.) connecIed in series or
parallel,whichalIogeIheraIIecIIhesysIemcharacIerisIic.
1hereIore, beIore we conIinue our discussion on open
and closed sysIems, we will brieIly describe how Ihese
resisIancesaIIecIIhesysIemcharacIerisIic.
lig.3.1.1.1hepoinIoIinIersecIionbeIweenIhepumpcurveandIhesysIem
characIerisIicisIheduIypoinIoIIhepump
96
3.1.15ingIeresistances
Lvery componenI in a sysIem consIiIuIes a resisIance
againsI Ihe liquid Ilow which leads Io a head loss across
every single componenI in Ihe sysIem. 1he Iollowing
IormulaisusedIocalculaIeIheheadlossLR.
AH=k
.
D
2
k is a consIanI, which depends on Ihe componenI in
quesIion and O is Ihe Ilow Ihrough Ihe componenI. As iI
appearsIromIheIormula,IheheadlossisproporIionalIo
IheIlowinsecondpower.So,iIiIispossibleIolowerIhe
Ilow in a sysIem, a subsIanIial reducIion in Ihe pressure
lossoccurs.
kesistancesccnnectedinseries
1he IoIal head loss in a sysIem consisIing oI several
componenIsconnecIedinseriesisIhesumoIheadlosses
IhaI each componenI represenIs. ligure 3.1.2 shows a
sysIem consisIing oI a valve and a heaI exchanger. lI we
do noI consider Ihe head loss in Ihe piping beIween Ihe
IwocomponenIs,IheIoIalheadlossLR
IoI
iscalculaIedby
addingIheIwoheadlosses.
AH
tot
=AH
1
+AH
2
lurIhermore, Iigure 3.1.2 shows how Ihe resulIing curve
will look and whaI Ihe duIy poinI will be iI Ihe sysIem
is a closed sysIem wiIh only Ihese Iwo componenIs. As
iI appears Irom Ihe Iigure, Ihe resulIing characIerisIic
is Iound by adding Ihe individual head losses LR aI a
given Ilow O. Likewise, Ihe Iigure shows IhaI Ihe more
resisIanceinIhesysIem,IhesIeeperIheresulIingsysIem
curvewillbe.
lig.3.1.2:1heheadlossíorIwocomponenIsconnecIedinseries
isIhesumoíIheIwoindividualheadlosses
97
kesistancesccnnectedinparaIIeI
ConIrary Io connecIing componenIs in series, connecIing
componenIs in parallel resulI in a more IlaI sysIem
characIerisIic. 1he reason is IhaI componenIs insIalled
in parallel reduce Ihe IoIal resisIance in Ihe sysIem and
IherebyIheheadloss.
1hediIIerenIialpressureacrossIhecomponenIsconnecIed
in parallel is always Ihe same. 1he resulIing sysIem
characIerisIic is deIined by adding all Ihe componenIs'
individual Ilow raIe Ior a speciIic LR. ligure 3.1.3 shows
asysIemwiIhavalveandaheaIexchangerconnecIedin
parallel.
1he resulIing Ilow can be calculaIed by Ihe Iollowing
IormulaIoraheadlossequivalenIIoLR
D
tot
=D
1
+D
2
3.1.2CIosedandopensystems
AsmenIionedpreviously,pumpsysIemsarespliIinIoIwo
Iypes oI basic sysIems. Closed and open sysIems. ln Ihis
secIion,wewillexamineIhebasiccharacIerisIicsoIIhese
sysIems.
CIcsedsystems
1ypically, closed sysIems are sysIems, which IransporI
heaIenergyinheaIingsysIems,air-condiIioningsysIems,
process cooling sysIems, eIc. A common IeaIure oI Ihese
IypesoIclosedsysIemsisIhaIIheliquidiscirculaIedand
isIhecarrieroIheaIenergy.ReaIenergyisinIacIwhaIIhe
sysIemhasIoIransporI.
Closed sysIems are characIerised as sysIems wiIh pumps
IhaI only have Io overcome Ihe sum oI IricIion losses,
which are generaIed by all Ihe componenIs. ligure 3.1.4
shows a schemaIic drawing oI a closed sysIem where
a pump has Io circulaIe waIer Irom a heaIer Ihrough a
conIrolvalveIoaheaIexchanger.
lig.3.1.3.ComponenIsconnecIedinparallelreduceIheresisIancein
IhesysIemandresulIinamoreIlaIsysIemcharacIerisIic
lig.3.1.4.SchemaIicdrawingoIaclosedsysIem
98
5ection3.1
5ystemcharacteristics
AllIhesecomponenIsIogeIherwiIhIhepipesandIiIIings
resulIinasysIemcharacIerisIicasIheoneshowninIigure
3.1.S.1herequiredpressureinaclosedsysIem(whichIhe
sysIemcurveillusIraIes)isaparabolasIarIinginIhepoinI
(O,R)=(0,0)andiscalculaIedbyIheIollowingIormula.
H=k
.
D
2
As Ihe Iormula and curve indicaIe, Ihe pressure loss is
approachingzerowhenIheIlowdrops.
0pensystems
Open sysIems are sysIems, where Ihe pump is used Io
IransporI liquid Irom one poinI Io anoIher, e.g. waIer
supply sysIems, irrigaIion sysIems, indusIrial process
sysIems. ln such sysIems Ihe pump has Io deal wiIh
boIhIhegeodeIicheadoIIheliquidandIoovercomeIhe
IricIionlossesinIhepipesandIhesysIemcomponenIs.
WedisIinguishbeIweenIwoIypesoIopensysIem.
· OpensysIemswhereIheIoIalrequiredgeodeIicliII
isposiIive.
· OpensysIemswhereIheIoIalrequiredgeodeIicliII
isnegaIive.
0pensystemwithpcsitivegecdeticheadligure
3.1.6showsaIypicalopensysIemwiIhposiIivegeodeIic
liII.ApumphasIoIransporIwaIerIromabreakIankaI
groundlevelupIoarooIIankonIheIopoIabuilding.
lirsIoIall,IhepumphasIoprovideaheadhigherIhan
IhegeodeIicheadoIIhewaIer(h).Secondly,Ihepump
hasIoprovideIhenecessaryheadIoovercomeIheIoIal
IricIionlossbeIweenIheIwoIanksinpiping,IiIIings,
valves,eIc.(R
I
).1hepressurelossdependsonIheamounI
oIIlow,seeIigure3.1.7.
lig.3.1.S.1hesysIemcharacIerisIicIoraclosedsysIemisa
parabolasIarIinginpoinI(0,0)
lig.3.1.6.OpensysIemwiIhposiIivegeodeIicliII
lig. 3.1.7. SysIem characIerisIic IogeIher wiIh Ihe pump perIormance
curveIorIheopensysIeminIigure3.1.6
D
O
1
99
1he Iigure shows IhaI in an open sysIem no waIer Ilows
iI Ihe maximum head (R
max
) oI Ihe pump is lower Ihan
Ihe geodeIic head (h). Only when R > h, waIer will sIarI
Io Ilow Irom Ihe break Iank Io Ihe rooI Iank. 1he sysIem
curve also shows IhaI Ihe lower Ihe Ilow raIe, Ihe lower
IheIricIionloss(R
I
)andconsequenIlyIhelowerIhepower
consumpIionoIIhepump.
So, Ihe Ilow (O
1
) and Ihe pump size have Io maIch Ihe
need Ior Ihe speciIic sysIem. 1his is in IacI a rule-oI-
Ihumb Ior liquid IransporI sysIems. A larger Ilow leads
Io a higher pressure loss, whereas a smaller Ilow leads Io
a smaller pressure loss and consequenIly a lower energy
consumpIion.
0pensystemwithnegativegecdeticIift
A Iypical example oI an open sysIem wiIh negaIive
requiredheadisapressureboosIersysIem,e.g.inawaIer
supplysysIem.1hegeodeIichead(h)IromIhewaIerIank
bringswaIerIoIheconsumer-IhewaIerIlows,alIhough
IhepumpisnoIrunning.1hediIIerenceinheighIbeIween
Ihe liquid level in Ihe Iank and Ihe alIiIude oI Ihe waIer
ouIleI(h)resulIsinaIlowequivalenIIoO
o
.Rowever,Ihe
headisinsuIIicienIIoensureIherequiredIlow(O
1
)IoIhe
consumer. 1hereIore, Ihe pump has Io boosI Ihe head Io
Ihe level (R
1
) in order Io compensaIe Ior Ihe IricIion loss
(R
I
) in Ihe sysIem. 1he sysIem is shown in Iigure 3.1.8
and Ihe sysIem characIerisIic IogeIher wiIh Ihe pump
perIormancecurveareshowninIigure3.1.9.
1he resulIing sysIem characIerisIic is a parabolic curve
sIarIingaIIheR-axesinIhepoinI(0,-h).
1he Ilow in Ihe sysIem depends on Ihe liquid level in Ihe
Iank.lIwereduceIhewaIerlevelinIheIankIheheighI(h)
isreduced.1hisresulIsinamodiIiedsysIemcharacIerisIic
andareducedIlowinIhesysIem,seeIigure3.1.9.
lig.3.1.8.OpensysIemwiIhnegaIivegeodeIicliII
lig.3.1.9.SysIemcharacIerisIicIogeIherwiIhIhepump
perIormancecurveIorIheopensysIeminhgure3.1.8
100
5ection3.1
5ystemcharacteristics
1oexIendIheIoIalpumpperIormanceinasysIem,pumps
areoIIenconnecIedinseriesorparallel.lnIhissecIionwe
willconcenIraIeonIheseIwowaysoIconnecIingpumps.

3.2.1PumpsinparaIIeI
PumpsconnecIedinparallelareoIIenusedwhen
x IherequiredIlowishigherIhanwhaIonesinglepump
cansupply
x IhesysIemhasvariableIlowrequiremenIsandwhen
IheserequiremenIsaremeIbyswiIchingIheparallel-
connecIedpumpsonandoII.
Normally,pumpsconnecIedinparallelareoIsimilarIype
and size. Rowever, Ihe pumps can be oI diIIerenI size, or
oneorseveralpumpscanbespeed-conIrolledandIhereby
havediIIerenIperIormancecurves.

1o avoid bypass circulaIion in pumps, which are noI
running, a non-reIurn valve is connecIed in series wiIh
each oI Ihe pumps. 1he resulIing perIormance curve
Ior a sysIem consisIing oI several pumps in parallel is
deIermined by adding Ihe Ilow, which Ihe pumps deliver
aIaspeciIichead.
ligure 3.2.1 shows a sysIem wiIh Iwo idenIical pumps
connecIed in parallel. 1he sysIem's IoIal perIormance
curveisdeIerminedbyaddingO
1
andO
2
IoreveryvalueoI
headwhichisIhesameIorboIhpumps,R
1
=R
2
.
8ecauseIhepumpsareidenIicalIheresulIingpumpcurve
hasIhesamemaximumheadR
max
buIIhemaximumIlow
O
max
isIwiceasbig.loreachvalueoIheadIheIlowisIhe
doubleasIorasinglepumpinoperaIion.
D=D
1
+D
2
=2D
1
=2D
2
lig. 3.2.1. 1wo pumps connecIed in parallel wiIh similar
perIormancecurves
101
5ection3.2
PumpsconnectedinseriesandparaIIeI
ligure3.2.2showsIwodiIIerenIsizedpumpsconnecIedin
parallel.WhenaddingO
1
andO
2
IoragivenheadR
1
=R
2,
Ihe
resulIing perIormance curve is deIined. 1he haIched area
inIigure3.2.2showsIhaIP1isIheonlypumpIosupplyin
IhaIspeciIicarea,becauseiIhasahighermaximumhead
IhanP2.
Speed-ccntrcIIedpumpsccnnectedinparaIIeI
1he combinaIion oI pumps connecIed in parallel and
speed-conIrolled pumps is a very useIul way Io achieve
eIIicienIpumpperIormancewhenIheIlowdemandvaries.
1hemeIhodiscommoninconnecIionwiIhwaIersupply]
pressure boosIing sysIems. LaIer in chapIer 4, we will
discussspeed-conIrolledpumpsindeIail.
A pumping sysIem consisIing oI Iwo speed-conIrolled
pumps wiIh Ihe same perIormance curve covers a wide
perIormancerange,seeIigure3.2.3.
One single pump is able Io cover Ihe required pump
perIormance up unIil O
1
. Above O
1
boIh pumps have Io
operaIe Io meeI Ihe perIormance needed. lI boIh pumps
arerunningaIIhesamespeedIheresulIingpumpcurves
looklikeIheorangecurvesshowninIigure3.2.3.
PleasenoIeIhaIIheduIypoinIindicaIedaIO
1
isobIained
wiIh one pump running aI Iull speed. Rowever, Ihe
duIy poinI can also be achieved when Iwo pumps are
runningaIreducedspeed.1hissiIuaIionisshowninIigure
3.2.4 (orange curves). 1he Iigure also compares Ihe Iwo
siIuaIions wiIh regard Io eIIiciency. 1he duIy poinI Ior
one single pump running aI Iull speed resulIs in a bad
pump eIIiciency mainly because Ihe duIy poinI is locaIed
Iar ouI on Ihe pump curve. 1he IoIal eIIiciency is much
higher when Iwo pumps run aI reduced speed, alIhough
Ihe maximum eIIiciency oI Ihe pumps decreases slighIly
aIreducedspeed.
Lven Ihough one single pump is able Io mainIain Ihe
required Ilow and head, iI is someIimes necessary due
Io eIIiciency and Ihus energy consumpIion Io use boIh
pumps aI Ihe same Iime. WheIher Io run one or Iwo
pumpsdependonIheacIualsysIemcharacIerisIicandIhe
pumpIypeinquesIion.
lig3.2.2.1wopumpsconnecIedinparallelwiIhunequal
perIormancecurves
lig.3.2.3.1wospeed-conIrolledpumpsconnecIedinparallel(samesize).
1heorangecurveshowsIheperIormanceaIreducedspeed
lig. 3.2.4. One pump aI Iull speed compared Io Iwo pumps aI reduced
speed.lnIhiscaseIheIwopumpshaveIhehighesIIoIaleIIiciency
102
5ection3.2
PumpsconnectedinseriesandparaIIeI
3.2.2.Pumpsconnectedinseries
Normally, pumps connecIed in series are used in
sysIemswhereahighpressureisrequired.1hisisalso
IhecaseIormulIisIagepumpswhicharebasedonIhe
seriesprinciple,i.e.onesIageequalsonepump.ligure
3.2.S shows Ihe perIormance curve oI Iwo idenIical
pumpsconnecIedinseries.1heresulIingperIormance
curve is made by marking Ihe double head Ior each
Ilow value in Ihe sysIem oI co-ordinaIes. 1his resulIs
inacurvewiIhIhedoublemaximumhead(2˜R
max
)and
Ihe same maximum Ilow (O
max
) as each oI Ihe single
pumps.
ligure3.2.6showsIwodiííerenIsizedpumpsconnecIed
in series.1he resulIing períormance curve is íound by
addingR
1
andR
2
aIagivencommonílowQ
1
=Q
2
.
1he haIched area in íigure 3.2.6 shows IhaI P2 is Ihe
onlypumpIosupplyinIhaIspeciíicareabecauseiIhas
ahighermaximumílowIhanP1.
As discussed in secIion 3.2.1, unequal pumps can be
a combinaIion oI diIIerenI sized pumps or oI one or
several speed-conIrolled pumps. 1he combinaIion oI
a Iixed speed pump and a speed-conIrolled pump
connecIed in series is oIIen used in sysIems where a
highandconsIanIpressureisrequired.1heIixedspeed
pumpsuppliesIheliquidIoIhespeed-conIrolledpump,
whose ouIpuI is conIrolled by a pressure IransmiIIer
P1,seeIigure3.2.7.
lig.3.2.S.1woequalsizedpumpsconnecIedinseries
lig.3.2.6.1wodiIIerenIsizedpumpsconnecIedinseries
lig. 3.2.7. Lqual sized Iixed speed pump and speed-conIrolled pump
connecIed in series. A pressure IransmiIIer P1 IogeIher wiIh a speed
conIrollerismakingsureIhaIIhepressureisconsIanIaIIheouIleIoIP2.
D
103
Chapter4.Performanceadjustmentofpumps
Secticn4.1:Adjustingpumpperfcrmance
4.1.1 1hroIIleconIrol
4.1.28ypassconIrol
4.1.3ModiIyingimpellerdiameIer
4.1.4SpeedconIrol
4.1.SComparisonoIad|usImenImeIhods
4.1.6OveralleIhciencyoIIhepumpsysIem
4.1.7Lxample.kelaIivepowerconsumpIionwhenIheßow
isreducedby20°
Secticn4.2:Speed-ccntrcIIedpumpscIuticns
4.2.1ConsIanIpressureconIrol
4.2.2ConsIanIIemperaIureconIrol
4.2.3ConsIanIdiIIerenIialpressureinacirculaIingsysIem
4.2.4llow-compensaIeddiIIerenIialpressureconIrol
Secticn4.3:AdvantagescfspeedccntrcI
Secticn4.4:Advantagescfpumpswithintegrated
frequencyccnverter
4.4.1PerIormancecurvesoIspeed-conIrolledpumps
4.4.2Speed-conIrolledpumpsindiIIerenIsysIems
Secticn4.5:frequencyccnverter
4.S.18asicIuncIionandcharacIerisIics
4.S.2ComponenIsoIIheIrequencyconverIer
4.S.3SpecialcondiIionsregardingIrequencyconverIers
5ection4.1
Adjustingpumpperformance
When selecIing a pump Ior a given applicaIion iI is
imporIanI Io choose one where Ihe duIy poinI is in Ihe
high-eIIiciency area oI Ihe pump. OIherwise, Ihe power
consumpIionoIIhepumpisunnecessarilyhigh-seeIigure
4.1.1.
Rowever,someIimesiIisnoIpossibleIoselecIapumpIhaI
IiIs Ihe opIimum duIy poinI because Ihe requiremenIs oI
IhesysIemchangeorIhesysIemcurvechangesoverIime.
1hereIore, iI can be necessary Io ad|usI Ihe pump
perIormancesoIhaIiImeeIsIhechangedrequiremenIs.
1he mosI common meIhods oI changing pump
perIormanceare.
x 1hroIIleconIrol
x 8ypassconIrol
x ModiIyingimpellerdiameIer
x SpeedconIrol
ChoosingameIhodoIad|usIingIhepumpperIormanceis
basedonanevaluaIionoIIheiniIialinvesImenIIogeIher
wiIhIheoperaIingcosIsoIIhepump.AllmeIhodscanbe
carried ouI conIinuously during operaIion aparI Irom Ihe
modiIying impeller diameIer-meIhod. OIIen, oversized
pumps are selecIed Ior Ihe sysIem and IhereIore iI is
necessary Io limiI Ihe perIormance - IirsI oI all, Ihe Ilow
raIeandinsomeapplicaIionsIhemaximumhead.
On Ihe Iollowing pages you can read abouI Ihe Iour
ad|usIingmeIhods.
lig..4.1.1.WhenselecIingapumpiIisimporIanIIochooseapump
whereIheduIypoinIiswiIhinIhehigheIhciencyarea.

[m]
50
40
30
20
10
40
20
30
10
0
60
70
50
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 D [m
3
Jh]
106
S
xx
4.1.11hrottIecontroI
AIhroIIlevalveisplacedinserieswiIhIhepumpmakingiI
possibleIoad|usIIheduIypoinI.1heIhroIIlingresulIsina
reducIionoIIlow,seeIigure4.1.2.1heIhroIIlevalveadds
resisIance Io Ihe sysIem and raises Ihe sysIem curve Io a
higherposiIion.WiIhouIIheIhroIIlevalve,IheIlowisO
2
.

WiIhIheIhroIIlevalveconnecIedinserieswiIhIhepump,
IheIlowisreducedIoO
1
.
1hroIIle valves can be used Io limiI Ihe maximum Ilow. 8y
adding Ihe valve, Ihe maximum possible Ilow in Ihe sysIem
islimiIed.lnIheexample,IheIlowwillneverbehigherIhan
O
3
,eveniIIhesysIemcurveiscompleIelyIlaI-meaningno
resisIanceaIallinIhesysIem.WhenIhepumpperIormance
isad|usIedbyIheIhroIIlingmeIhod,Ihepumpwilldelivera
higherheadIhannecessaryIorIhaIparIicularsysIem.
lIIhepumpandIheIhroIIlevalvearereplacedbyasmaller
pump, Ihe pump will be able Io meeI Ihe wanIed Ilow O
1
,
buIaIalowerpumpheadandconsequenIlyalowerpower
consumpIion,seehgure4.1.2.
4.1.28ypasscontroI
lnsIead oI connecIing a valve in series wiIh Ihe pump, a
bypass valve across Ihe pump can be used Io ad|usI Ihe
pumpperIormance,seeIigure4.1.3.
Compared Io Ihe IhroIIle valve, insIalling a bypass valve
will resulI in a cerIain minimum Ilow O
8P
in Ihe pump,
independenI on Ihe sysIem characIerisIics. 1he Ilow O
P
is
Ihe sum oI Ihe Ilow in Ihe sysIem O
S
and Ihe Ilow in Ihe
bypassvalveO
8P.

1he bypass valve will inIroduce a maximum limiI oI head
supplied Io Ihe sysIem R
max
, see Iigure 4.1.3. Lven when
IherequiredIlowinIhesysIemiszero,Ihepumpwillnever
run againsI a closed valve. Like iI was in Ihe case wiIh
Ihe IhroIIling valve, Ihe required Ilow O
S
can be meI by a
smallerpumpandnobypassvalve,IheresulIbeingalower
IlowandconsequenIlyalowerenergyconsumpIion.
lig..4.1.2.1heIhroIIlevalveincreasesIheresisIanceinIhesysIem
andconsequenIlyreducesIheßow.
R
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q

Pump
Smaller pump
kesulIing characIerisIic
SysIem
1hroIIle valve
R
v
R
s
R
Q
8P
Q
S
Q
P
R
max
R
P
Q

Pump
Smaller
pump
kesulIing characIerisIic
SysIem
8ypass valve
Q
s
Q
8P
SysIem
1hroIIle valve
R
p
R
v
R
s
SysIem
8ypass valve
Q
8P
Q
S
Q
P
R
P
lig..4.1.3.1hebypassvalvebypassesparIoIIheßowIromIhepump
andIherebyreducesIheßowinIhesysIem
107
4.1.3ModifyingimpeIIerdiameter
AnoIherwayoIad|usIingIheperIormanceoIacenIriIugal
pump is by modiIying Ihe impeller diameIer in Ihe pump
meaning, reducing Ihe diameIer and consequenIly
reducingIhepumpperIormance.
Obviously, reducing Ihe impeller diameIer cannoI be
done while Ihe pump is operaIing. Compared Io Ihe
IhroIIling and bypass meIhods, which can be carried ouI
during operaIion, modiIying Ihe impeller diameIer has
Io be done in advance beIore Ihe pump is insIalled or in
connecIionwiIhservice.1heIollowingIormulasshowIhe
relaIion beIween Ihe impeller diameIer and Ihe pump
perIormance.

Please noIe IhaI Ihe Iormulas are an expression oI an
ideal pump. ln pracIice, Ihe pump eIIiciency decreases
whenIheimpellerdiameIerisreduced.lorminorchanges
oI Ihe impeller diameIer D
x
> 0.8
.
D
n
, Ihe eIIiciency is
only reduced by a Iew °-poinIs. 1he degree oI eIIiciency
reducIion depends on pump Iype and duIy poinI (check
speciIicpumpcurvesIordeIails).
As iI appears Irom Ihe Iormulas, Ihe Ilow and Ihe head
change wiIh Ihe same raIio - IhaI is Ihe raIio change
oI Ihe impeller diameIer in second power. 1he duIy
poinIs Iollowing Ihe Iormulas are placed on a sIraighI
line sIarIing in (0,0). 1he change in power consumpIion
is Iollowing Ihe diameIer change in IourIh power.
4.1.45peedcontroI
1he lasI meIhod oI conIrolling Ihe pump perIormance
IhaI we will cover in Ihis secIion is Ihe variable speed
conIrol meIhod. Speed conIrol by means oI a Irequency
converIer is wiIhouI no doubI Ihe mosI eIIicienI way oI
ad|usIing pump perIormance exposed Io variable Ilow
requiremenIs.
xx xx
R
R

D
lig.4.1.4.ChangeinpumpperIormancewhenIheimpeller
diameIerisreduced
108
5ection4.1
Adjustingpumpperformance

1heIollowingequaIionsapplywiIhcloseapproximaIionIo
howIhechangeoIspeedoIcenIriIugalpumpsinIluences
IheperIormanceoIIhepump.
1he aIIiniIy laws apply on condiIion IhaI Ihe sysIem
characIerisIic remains unchanged Ior n
n
and n
x
and Iorms
a parabola Ihrough (0,0) - see secIion 3.1.1. 1he power
equaIion IurIhermore implies IhaI Ihe pump eIIiciency is
unchangedaIIheIwospeeds.
1he Iormulas in Iigure 4.1.S show IhaI Ihe pump Ilow (O)
is proporIional Io Ihe pump speed (n). 1he head (R) is
proporIionalIoIhesecondpoweroIIhespeed(n)whereas
Ihe power (P) is proporIional Io Ihe Ihird power oI Ihe
speed.lnpracIice,areducIionoIIhespeedwillresulIina
slighIIallineIIiciency.1heeIIiciencyaIreducedspeed(n
x
)
canbeesIimaIedbyIheIollowingIormula,whichisvalid
IorspeedreducIiondownIoS0°oIIhemaximumspeed.

linally,iIyouneedIoknowpreciselyhowmuchpoweryou
cansavebyreducingIhepumpspeed,youhaveIoIakeIhe
eIIiciency oI Ihe Irequency converIer and Ihe moIor inIo
accounI.
lig.4.1.S.SysIemcharacIerisIicsIordiIIerenIaIIiniIyequaIions
109
4.1.5Comparisonofadjustmentmethods
Now IhaI we have described Ihe Iour diIIerenI ways oI
changing Ihe perIormance oI a cenIriIugal pump, we will
havealookaIhowIheydiIIerIromoneanoIher.
WhenweconsiderIhepumpandiIsperIormance-changing
device as one uniI, we can observe Ihe resulIing OR-
characIerisIicoIIhisdeviceandcompareIheresulIoIIhe
diIIerenIsysIems.
1hrcttIeccntrcI
1heIhroIIlingmeIhodimpliesavalveconnecIedinseries
wiIh a pump, see Iigure 4.1.6a. 1his connecIion acIs as
a new pump aI unchanged maximum head buI reduced
IlowperIormance.1hepumpcurveR
n
,Ihevalvecurveand
Ihe curve covering Ihe compleIe sysIem - R
x
, see Iigure
4.1.6b.
8ypassccntrcI
WhenavalveisconnecIedacrossIhepump,seeIigure4.1.7a,
IhisconnecIionacIsasanewpumpaIreducedmaximum
head and a OR-curve wiIh a changed characIerisIic. 1he
curvewillIendIobemorelinearIhanquadraIic,seeIigure
4.1.7b
McdifyingimpeIIerdiameter
1he impeller reducing meIhod does noI imply any exIra
componenIs.ligure4.1.8showsIhereducedOR-curve(R
x
)
andIheoriginalcurvecharacIerisIics(R
n
).
SpeedccntrcI
1he speed conIrol meIhod (Iigure 1.4.9) resulIs in a
newOR-curveaIreducedheadandIlow.1hecharacIerisIics
oI Ihe curves remain Ihe same. Rowever, when speed
is reduced Ihe curves become more IlaI, as Ihe head is
reducedIoahigherdegreeIhanIheIlow.
Compared Io Ihe oIher meIhods Ihe speed conIrol
meIhodalsomakesiIpossibleIoexIendIheperIormance
range oI Ihe pump above Ihe nominal OR-curve, simply
by increasing Ihe speed above nominal speed level oI
Ihe pump, see Ihe R
y
-curve in Iigure 4.1.9. lI Ihis over-
synchronous operaIion is used, Ihe size oI Ihe moIor has
IobeIakeinIoaccounI.
R
n
R
x
R
y
Speed conIroller
R
n
R
x
D
lig.4.1.8.lmpellerdiameIerad|usImenI
lig.4.1.9.SpeedconIrollerconnecIedIoapump
R
n
R
x
valve
1hroIIle valve
lig.4.1.6.1hroIIlevalveconnecIedinserieswiIhapump
a
b
R
n
R
x
valve
8ypass valve
lig.4.1.7.8ypassvalveconnecIedacrossIhepump
a
b
110
5ection4.1
Adjustingpumpperformance
4.1.6DveraIIefficiencyofthepumpsystem
8oIhIheIhroIIlingandIhebypassmeIhodinIroducesome
hydraulicpowerlossesinIhevalves(P
loss
=kOR).1hereIore,
IheresulIingeIIiciencyoIIhepumpingsysIemisreduced.
keducing Ihe impeller size in Ihe range oI D
x
]D
n
>0.8
does noI have a signiIicanI impacI on Ihe pump
eIIiciency. 1hereIore, Ihis meIhod does noI have a
negaIiveinIluenceonIheoveralleIIiciencyoIIhesysIem.
1he eIIiciency oI speed-conIrolled pumps is only aIIecIed
Io a limiIed exIenI, as long as Ihe speed reducIion does
noI drop below S0° oI Ihe nominal speed. LaIer on, we
willdiscoverIhaIIheeIIiciencyhasonlyreducedaIew°-
poinIs,andIhaIiIdoesnoIhaveanimpacIonIheoverall
runningeconomyoIspeed-conIrolledsoluIions.
4.1.7 £xampIe: keIative power consumption
whenthefIowisreducedby20Z
ln an given insIallaIion Ihe Ilow has Io be reduced Irom
O = 60 m
3
]h Io S0 m
3
]h. ln Ihe original sIarIing poinI
(O = 60 m
3
]h and R = 70 m), Ihe power inpuI Io Ihe
pumpisseIrelaIivelyIo100°.DependingonIhemeIhod
oI perIormance ad|usImenI, Ihe power consumpIion
reducIion will vary. Now, leI us have a look aI how
Ihe power consumpIion aIIecIs each oI Ihe perIormance
ad|usImenImeIhods.
111
1hrcttIeccntrcI
1he power consumpIion is reduced Io abouI 94° when
IheIlowdrops.1heIhroIIlingresulIsinanincreasedhead,
seeIigure4.1.10.1hemaximumpowerconsumpIionisIor
some pumps aI a lower Ilow Ihan Ihe maximum Ilow. lI
IhisisIhecase,IhepowerconsumpIionincreasesbecause
oIIheIhroIIle.
8ypassccntrcI
1o reduce Ihe Ilow in Ihe sysIem, Ihe valve has Io reduce
Ihe head oI Ihe pump Io SS m. 1his can only be done by
increasingIheIlowinIhepump.AsiIappearsIromIigure
4.1.11,IheIlowisconsequenIlyincreasedIo81m
3
]h,which
resulIs in an increased power consumpIion oI up Io 10°
above Ihe original consumpIion. 1he degree oI increase
dependsonIhepumpIypeandIheduIypoinI.1hereIore,
in some cases, Ihe increase in P
2
is equal Io zero and in a
IewrarecasesP
2
mighIevendecrease

aliIIle.
McdifyingimpeIIerdiameter
WhenIheimpellerdiameIerisreduced,boIhIheIlowand
Ihe head oI Ihe pump drop. 8y a Ilow reducIion oI 20°,
Ihe power consumpIion is reduced Io around 67° oI iIs
originalconsumpIion,seeIigure4.1.12.
SpeedccntrcI
When Ihe speed oI Ihe pump is conIrolled, boIh Ihe Ilow
andIheheadarereduced,seeIigure4.1.13.ConsequenIly,
IhepowerconsumpIionhasreducedIoaround6S°oIIhe
originalconsumpIion.

WheniIcomesIoobIainingIhebesIpossibleeIIiciency,Ihe
impellerdiameIerad|usImenImeIhodorIhespeedconIrol
meIhod oI Ihe pump are Ihe besI suiIed Ior reducing Ihe
Ilow in Ihe insIallaIion. When Ihe pump has Io operaIe
in a Iixed, modiIied duIy poinI, Ihe impeller diameIer
ad|usImenI meIhod is Ihe besI soluIion. Rowever, when
we deal wiIh an insIallaIion, where Ihe Ilow demand
varies,Ihespeed-conIrolledpumpisIhebesIsoluIion.
R |mj
O |m
3
]hj
O
P
2
76
100°
94°
70
SS
S0 60
lig.4.1.10.kelaIivepowerconsumpIion-IhroIIleconIrol
R |mj
O |m
3
]hj
O
P
2
70
100°
110°
SS
S0 60 81
lig.4.1.11.kelaIivepowerconsumpIion-bypassconIrol
O |m
3
]hj
P
2
100°
67°
S0 60
R |mj
O
70
SS
lig.4.1.12.kelaIivepowerconsumpIion-modiIyingimpellerdiameIer
O |m
3
]hj
P
2
100°
6S°
S0 60
R |mj
O
70
SS
O
lig.4.1.13.kelaIivepowerconsumpIion-speedconIrol
=ModiIiedduIypoinI
=OriginalduIypoinI
=ModiIiedduIypoinI
=OriginalduIypoinI
=ModiIiedduIypoinI
=OriginalduIypoinI
=ModiIiedduIypoinI
=OriginalduIypoinI
112
5ection4.1
Adjustingpumpperformance
Continuous
adjustment
possibIe?
¥es
¥es
No
¥es
1he resuIting performance
curve wiII have
keduced D
keduced H and changed
curve
keduced D and H
keduced D and H
Method
1hrottIe controI
1hroIIle valve
8ypass controI
8ypass valve
Speed conIroller
D
Modifying impeIIer
diameter
5peed controI
DveraII efficiency
of the pump
system
ConsiderabIy
reduced
5IightIy reduced
5IightIy reduced
65Z
67Z
110Z
94Z
ConsiderabIy
reduced
keIative power
consumption by 20Z
reduction in fIow
R
n

R
x
valve
R
n

R
x
valve
R
n

R
x
R
n

R
x
R
y
lig.4.1.14.CharacIerisIicsoIad|usImenImeIhods.
Summary
ligure4.1.14givesanoverviewoIIhediIIerenIad|usImenI
meIhods IhaI we have presenIed in Ihe previous secIion.
LachmeIhodhasiIsprosandconswhichhaveIobeIaken
inIo accounI when choosing an ad|usImenI meIhod Ior a
sysIem.
113
AsdiscussedinIheprevioussecIion,speedconIroloIpumps
isaneIIicienIwayoIad|usIingpumpperIormanceIoIhe
sysIem. ln Ihis secIion we will discuss Ihe possibiliIies oI
combining speed-conIrolled pumps wiIh Pl-conIrollers
and sensors measuring sysIem parameIers, such as
pressure, diIIerenIial pressure and IemperaIure. On Ihe
Iollowing pages, Ihe diIIerenI opIions will be presenIed
byexamples.
4.2.1ConstantpressurecontroI
A pump has Io supply Iap waIer Irom a break Iank Io
diIIerenIIapsinabuilding.

1he demand Ior Iap waIer is varying, so IhereIore Ihe
sysIem characIerisIic varies according Io Ihe required
Ilow.DueIocomIorIandenergysavingsaconsIanIsupply
pressureisrecommended.
As iI appears Irom Iigure 4.2.1, Ihe soluIion is a speed-
conIrolled pump wiIh a Pl-conIroller. 1he Pl-conIroller
compares Ihe needed pressure p
seI
wiIh Ihe acIual supply
pressurep
1
,measuredbyapressureIransmiIIerP1.
lI Ihe acIual pressure is higher Ihan Ihe seIpoinI, Ihe
Pl-conIroller reduces Ihe speed and consequenIly Ihe
perIormanceoIIhepump,unIilp
1
=p
seI
.ligure4.2.1shows
whaIhappenswhenIheIlowisreducedIromO
max
IoO
1
.
1he conIroller sees Io iI IhaI Ihe speed oI Ihe pump is
reducedIromn
n
Ion
x
inorderIoensureIhaIIherequired
discharge pressure is p
1
= p
seI
. 1he pump insIallaIion
ensures IhaI Ihe supply pressure is consIanI in Ihe Ilow
range oI 0 - O
max
. 1he supply pressure is independenI
on Ihe level (h) in Ihe break Iank. lI h changes, Ihe Pl-
conIrollerad|usIsIhespeedoIIhepumpsoIhaIp
1
always
correspondsIo

IheseIpoinI.
p
1
h
O
1
R
1
SeIpoinI p
seI
8reak
Iank
AcIual value p
1
Pressure
IransmiIIer
Pl-
conIroller
Speed
conIroller
1aps
P1
H
D O
1
h O
max
p
seI
n
x
n
n
lig.4.2.1.WaIersupplysysIemwiIhspeed-conIrolledpumpdelivering
consIanIpressureIoIhesysIem
5ection4.2
5peed-controIIedpumpsoIutions
114
4.2.2ConstanttemperaturecontroI
PerIormance ad|usImenI by means oI speed conIrol is
suiIableIoranumberoIindusIrialapplicaIions.ligure4.2.2
showsasysIemwiIhanin|ecIionmouldingmachinewhich
hasIobewaIer-cooledIoensurehighqualiIyproducIion.
1he machine is cooled wiIh waIer aI 1S
o
C Irom a cooling
planI.1oensureIhaIIhemouldingmachinerunsproperly
andiscooledsuIIicienIly,IhereIurnpipeIemperaIurehas
Io be kepI aI a consIanI level, I
r
= 20
o
C. 1he soluIion is a
speed-conIrolled pump, conIrolled by a Pl-conIroller. 1he
Pl-conIroller compares Ihe needed IemperaIure I
seI
wiIh
Ihe acIual reIurn pipe IemperaIure I
r
, which is measured
by a IemperaIure IransmiIIer 11. 1his sysIem has a Iixed
sysIem characIerisIic and IhereIore Ihe duIy poinI oI Ihe
pump is locaIed on Ihe curve beIween O
min
and O
max
. 1he
higher Ihe heaI loss in Ihe machine, Ihe higher Ihe Ilow
oI cooling waIer needed Io ensure IhaI Ihe reIurn pipe
IemperaIureiskepIaIaconsIanIleveloI20
o
C.

4.2.3ConstantdifferentiaIpressureina
circuIatingsystem
CirculaIing sysIems (closed sysIems), see chapIer 3, are
well-suiIed Ior speed-conIrolled pump soluIions. lI is an
advanIage IhaI circulaIing sysIems wiIh variable sysIem
characIerisIic are IiIIed wiIh a diIIerenIial pressure-
conIrolledcirculaIorpump,seeIigure4.2.3.
1he Iigure shows a heaIing sysIem consisIing oI a heaI
exchanger where Ihe circulaIed waIer is heaIed up and
delivered Io Ihree consumers, e.g. radiaIors, by a speed-
conIrolled pump. A conIrol valve is connecIed in series aI
each consumer Io conIrol Ihe Ilow according Io Ihe heaI
requiremenI.
1hepumpisconIrolledaccordingIoaconsIanIdiIIerenIial
pressure, measured across Ihe pump. 1his means IhaI
Ihe pump sysIem oIIers consIanI diIIerenIial pressure in
IheO-rangeoI0-O
max
,depicIedasIhehorizonIallinein
Iigure4.2.3.
lig.4.2.2.SysIemwiIhin|ecIionmouldingmachineandIemperaIure-
conIrolledcirculaIorpumpensuringaconsIanIreIurnpipeIemperaIure

lig.4.2.3.ReaIingsysIemwiIhspeed-conIrolledcirculaIorpumpdelivering
consIanIdiIIerenIialpressureIoIhesysIem
11S
4.2.4fIow-compensateddifferentiaI
pressurecontroI
1he main IuncIion oI Ihe pumping sysIem in Iigure 4.2.4
is Io mainIain a consIanI diIIerenIial pressure across Ihe
conIrolvalvesaIIheconsumers,e.g.radiaIors.lnorderIo
doso,IhepumphasIobeableIoovercomeIricIionlosses
inpipes,heaIexchangers,IiIIings,eIc.
AswediscussedinchapIer3,IhepressurelossinasysIem
isproporIionalIoIheIlowinsecondpower.1hebesIway
IoconIrolacirculaIorpumpinasysIemlikeIheoneshown
inIheIigureonyourrighI,isIoallowIhepumpIodelivera
pressure,whichincreaseswhenIheIlowincreases.
WhenIhedemandoIIlowislow,IhepressurelossesinIhe
pipes, heaI exchangers, IiIIings, eIc. are low as well, and
IhepumponlysuppliesapressureequivalenIIowhaIIhe
conIrol valve requires, R
seI
-R
I
. When Ihe demand oI Ilow
increases, Ihe pressure losses increase in second power
and IhereIore Ihe pump has Io increase Ihe delivered
pressure,depicIedasIhebluecurveinIigure4.2.4.
Such a pumping sysIem can be designed in Iwo diIIerenI
ways.
- 1hediIIerenIialpressureIransmiIIerisplacedacrossIhe
pumpandIhesysIemisrunningwiIhIlow-compensaIed
diIIerenIialpressureconIrol-DP1
1
,seeIigure4.2.4.
- 1he diIIerenIial pressure IransmiIIer is placed close Io
Ihe consumers and Ihe sysIem is running wiIh
diIIerenIialpressureconIrol-DP1
2
inIig.4.2.4.
1he advanIage oI Ihe IirsI soluIion is IhaI Ihe pump, Ihe
Pl-conIroller, Ihe speed conIrol and Ihe IransmiIIer are
placedcloseIooneanoIher,makingIheinsIallaIioneasy.
1hisinsIallaIionmakesiIpossibleIogeIIheenIiresysIem
as one single uniI, see secIion 4.4. ln order Io geI Ihe
sysIemupandrunning,pumpcurvedaIahaveIobesIored
inIheconIroller.1hesedaIaareusedIocalculaIeIheIlow
and likewise Io calculaIe how much Ihe seIpoinI R
seI
has
Io be reduced aI a given Ilow Io ensure IhaI Ihe pump
perIormancemeeIsIherequiredbluecurveinIigure4.2.4.
1he second soluIion wiIh Ihe IransmiIIer placed in Ihe
insIallaIion requires more insIallaIion cosIs because Ihe
IransmiIIerhasIobeinsIalledaIIheinsIallaIionsiIeand
Ihe necessary cabling has Io be carried ouI as well. 1he
perIormance oI Ihis sysIem is more or less similar Io Ihe
IirsI sysIem. 1he IransmiIIer measures Ihe diIIerenIial
pressureaIIheconsumerandcompensaIesauIomaIically
IorIheincreaseinrequiredpressureinorderIoovercome
IheincreaseinpressurelossesinIhesupplypipes,eIc.
Speed
conIroller
SeIpoinI R
seI
AcIual value R
1
O
1
Pl-
conIroller

DP11
DP12
O
1
O
max
R
seI
R
I
R
1
n
x
n
n
D
H
lig.4.2.4.ReaIingsysIemwiIhspeed-conIrolledcirculaIorpump
deliveringIlow-compensaIeddiIIerenIialpressureIoIhesysIem
116
5ection4.2
5peed-controIIedpumpsoIutions
K
a
p
i
I
e
l

1

S
A large number oI pump applicaIions do noI require Iull
pump perIormance 24 hours a day. 1hereIore, iI is an
advanIage Io be able Io ad|usI Ihe pump's perIormance
in Ihe sysIem auIomaIically. As we saw in secIion 4.1,
Ihe besI possible way oI adapIing Ihe perIormance oI
a cenIriIugal pump is by means oI speed conIrol oI Ihe
pump. Speed conIrol oI pumps is normally made by a
IrequencyconverIeruniI.
On Ihe Iollowing pages we will have a look aI speed-
conIrolled pumps in closed and open sysIems. 8uI beIore
wediganyIurIherinIoIheworldoIspeedconIrol,wewill
presenI Ihe advanIages IhaI speed conIrol provides and
Ihe beneIiIs IhaI speed-conIrolled pumps wiIh Irequency
converIeroIIer.
keducedenergyccnsumpticn
Speed-conIrolled pumps only use Ihe amounI oI energy
needed Io solve a speciIic pump |ob. Compared Io oIher
conIrol meIhods, Irequency-conIrolled speed conIrol
oIIers Ihe highesI eIIiciency and Ihus Ihe mosI eIIicienI
uIilizaIionoIIheenergy,seesecIion4.1.
lcwIifecycIeccsts
As we will see in chapIer S, Ihe energy consumpIion oI a
pumpisaveryimporIanIIacIorconsideringapump'sliIe
cyclecosIs.1hereIore,iIisimporIanIIokeepIheoperaIing
cosIs oI a pumping sysIem aI Ihe lowesI possible level.
LIIicienIoperaIionleadsIolowerenergyconsumpIionand
Ihus Io lower operaIing cosIs. Compared Io Iixed speed
pumps,iIispossibleIoreduceIheenergyconsumpIionby
upIoS0°wiIhaspeed-conIrolledpump.
Prctecticncftheenvircnment
Lnergy eIIicienI pumps poluIe less and Ihus do noI harm
IheenvironmenI.
lncreasedccmfcrt
Speed conIrol in diIIerenI pumping sysIems provides
increased comIorI. ln waIer supply sysIems, auIomaIic
pressure conIrol and soII-sIarI oI pumps reduce waIer
hammer and noise generaIed by Ioo high pressure in Ihe
sysIem. ln circulaIing sysIems, speed-conIrolled pumps
ensure IhaI Ihe diIIerenIial pressure is kepI aI a level so
IhaInoiseinIhesysIemisminimised.
keducedsystemccsts
Speed-conIrolled pumps can reduce Ihe need Ior
commissioning and conIrol valves in Ihe sysIem.
1hereIore, Ihe IoIal sysIem cosIs can be reduced.
5ection4.3
AdvantagesofspeedcontroI
117
ln many applicaIions, pumps wiIh inIegraIed Irequency
converIerisIheopIimumsoluIion.1hereasonisIhaIIhese
pumps combine Ihe beneIiIs oI a speed-conIrolled pump
soluIionwiIhIhebeneIiIsgainedIromcombiningapump,
a Irequency converIer, a Pl-conIroller and someIimes
also a sensor]pressure IransmiIIer in one single uniI
-seeIigure4.4.1.
A pump wiIh inIegraIed Irequency converIer is noI |usI
a pump, buI a sysIem which is able Io solve applicaIion
problemsorsaveenergyinavarieIyoIpumpinsIallaIions.
AsregardsreplacemenI,pumpswiIhinIegraIedIrequency
converIers are ideal as Ihey can be insIalled insIead oI
fxed speed pumps aI no exIra insIallaIion cosI. All IhaI
is required is a power supply connecIion and a IiIIing oI
IhepumpwiIhinIegraIedIrequencyconverIerinIhepipe
sysIem, and Ihen Ihe pump is ready Ior operaIion. All
Ihe insIaller has Io do is Io ad|usI Ihe required seIpoinI
(pressure)aIIerwhichIhesysIemisoperaIional.
WhaIIollowsisabrieIdescripIionoIIheadvanIagesIhaI
pumpswiIhinIegraIedIrequencyconverIerhaveIooIIer.
£asytcinstaII
Pumps wiIh inIegraIed Irequency converIer are |usI as
easyIoinsIallasIixedspeedpumps.AllyouhaveIodois
Io connecI Ihe moIor Io Ihe elecIrical power supply and
Ihe pump is in operaIion. 1he manuIacIurer has made all
inIernalconnecIionsandad|usImenIs.
0ptimaIenergysavings
8ecauseIhepump,IhemoIorandIheIrequencyconverIer
are designed Ior compaIibiliIy, operaIion oI Ihe pump
sysIemreducespowerconsumpIion.
0nesuppIier
One supplier can provide pump, Irequency converIer
and sensor which naIurally IaciliIaIe Ihe dimensioning,
selecIion, ordering procedures, as well as mainIenance
andserviceprocedures.
lig.4.4.1.PumpuniIwiIhinIegraIed
IrequencyconverIerandpressureIransmiIIer
+
SeIpoinI
Pl-
conIroller
lrequency
converIer
5ection4.4
Advantagesofpumpswithintegrated
frequencyconverter
P1
118
Wideperfcrmancerange
Pumps wiIh inIegraIed Irequency converIer have a
very broad perIormance range, which enables Ihem Io
perIorm eIIicienIly under widely varied condiIions and Io
meeI a wide range oI requiremenIs. 1hus, Iewer pumps
can replace many Iixed speed pump Iypes wiIh narrow
perIormancecapabiliIies.
4.4.1.Performancecurvesofspeed-
controIIedpumps
Now, leI us have a closer look aI how you can read a
speed-conIrolledpump'sperIormancecurve.
ligure 4.4.2 shows an example oI Ihe perIormance curves
oIaspeed-conIrolledpump.1hehrsIcurveshowsIheOR-
curveandIhesecondcurveshowsIhecorrespondingpower
consumpIioncurve.
AsyoucanIell,IheperIormancecurvesaregivenIorevery
10°decreaseinspeedIrom100°downIoS0°.Likewise,
Ihe minimum curve represenIed by 2S° oI Ihe maximum
speedisalsoshown.AswehaveindicaIedinIhediagram,
youcanpoinIouIaspeciIicduIypoinIORandhndouIaI
which speed Ihe duIy poinI can be reached and whaI Ihe
powerconsumpIionP
1
is.
4.4.2 5peed-controIIedpumpsindifferent
systems
Speed-conIrolledpumpsareusedinawiderangeoIsysIems.
1he change in pump perIormance and consequenIly Ihe
poIenIial energy saving depend on Ihe sysIem in quesIion.
AswediscussedinchapIer3,IhecharacIerisIicoIasysIem
isanindicaIionoIIherequiredheadapumphasIodeliver,
in order Io IransporI a cerIain quanIiIy oI liquid Ihrough
Ihe sysIem. ligure 4.4.3 shows Ihe perIormance curve and
IhesysIemcharacIerisIicoIaclosedandanopensysIem.

70
H
[m]
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 D [m
3
Jh]
D [m
3
Jh]
35
6
4
2
0
P
1
[kW]
100Z
90Z
86Z
80Z
70Z
60Z
50Z
25Z
lig4.4.2.PerIormancecurveIoraspeed-conIrolledpump
lig 4.4.3. SysIem characIerisIic poinI oI a closed and an open
sysIem

R

CIosedsystem Dpensystem

Pumpcurve
5ystem
characteristic
Pumpcurve
5ystem
characteristic
119
Speed-ccntrcIIedpumpsincIcsedsystems
ln closed sysIems, like heaIing and air-condiIioning sysIems,
IhepumphasonlyIoovercomeIheIricIionlossesinIhepipes,
valves,heaIexchangers,eIc.ln Ihis secIion, we will presenI
an example wiIh a speed-conIrolled pump in a closed
sysIem.1heIoIalIricIionlossbyaIullIlowoI1Sm
3
]his16m,
seeIigure4.4.4.
1he sysIem characIerisIic sIarIs in Ihe poinI (0,0), Ihe red
lineinIigure4.4.S.1heconIrolvalvesinIhesysIemalways
need a cerIain operaIing pressure, so IhereIore Ihe pump
cannoIworkaccordingIoIhesysIemcharacIerisIic.1haIis
why some speed-conIrolled pumps oIIer Ihe proporIional
pressure conIrol IuncIion, which ensures IhaI Ihe pump
will operaIe according Io Ihe orange line shown in Ihe
Iigure. As you can Iell Irom Ihe Iigure 4.4.S, Ihe minimum
perIormanceisaroundS7°oIIheIullspeed.lnacirculaIing
sysIem operaIion aI Ihe minimum curve (2S° oI Ihe Iull
speed) can be relevanI in some siIuaIions, Ior example
whenwedealwiIhnighI-IimeduIyinheaIingsysIems.
+
O=1Sm
2
]h
Consumers
8oiler
orlike
lig.4.4.4.ClosedsysIem
H
[m]
4
8
12
16
20
24
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 D [m
3
Jh]
D [m
3
Jh]
14 16
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
P
1
[kW]
60Z
70Z
80Z
90Z
99Z
100Z
25Z
50Z
lig.4.4.S.Aspeed-conIrolledpumpinaclosedsysIem
120
5ection4.4
Advantagesofpumpswithintegratedfrequencyconverter
Speed-ccntrcIIedpumpsincpensystems
1hesysIemcharacIerisIicaswellasIheoperaIingrangeoI
IhepumpdependonIheIypeoIsysIeminquesIion.
ligure4.4.6showsapumpinapressureboosIing]waIer
supplysysIem.1hepumphasIosupplyO=6.Sm
3
]hIoIhe
Iap, which is placed h = 20 m above Ihe pump. 1he inleI
pressureIoIhepumpp
s
is1bar,IhepressureaIIheIapp
I

hasIobe2barandIheIoIalIricIionlossinIhesysIemby
IullIlowp
I
is1.3bar.
ligure 4.4.7 shows Ihe OR-curve oI a pump, which is
able Io meeI Ihe requiremenIs described beIore. ¥ou can
calculaIe Ihe required head aI zero Ilow (R
o
) by using Ihe
equaIiononyourrighI.
lIyouneedIocalculaIeIhemaximumheadaIaIlow(O)oI
6.Sm
3
]h,IhisisIheequaIionIouse.
998
.
9.81
H
max
=H
o
+ =30.2+ =43.5m
p
f
p .
g
1.3
.
10
5
1ocoverIhisapplicaIionIromzeroIlowIomaximumIlow
O=6.Sm
3
]hIhepumpoperaIesinarelaIivenarrowspeed
band, IhaI is Irom abouI 6S° oI Ihe Iull speed and up Io
99° oI Ihe Iull speed. ln sysIems wiIh less IricIion loss
Ihe variaIion in speed will be even smaller. lI no IricIion
loss, Ihe minimum speed in Ihe above case is abouI 79°
speed.
As you can Iell Irom Ihe previous Iwo examples, Ihe
possible variaIion in speed and consequenIly in power
consumpIion is highesI in closed sysIems. 1hereIore, Ihe
closed sysIems accounI Ior Ihe highesI energy saving
poIenIial.
h=20m
lig.4.4.6.Pumpina
waIersupplysysIem
p
t
=2bar
p
s
=1bar
p
f
=1.3bar
D=6.5m
3
Jh
H
p
t
- Pressureattappingpoint
p
s
- 5uctionpressure
p
f
-frictionIoss
D - fIowrate
h - 5taticIift
H
[m]
60
50
40
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D [m
3
Jh]
D [m
3
Jh]
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
P
1
[kW]
90Z
80Z
70Z
60Z
50Z
25Z
100Z
+
2
lig.4.4.7.Aspeed-conIrolledpumpinanopensysIem
p
t-
p
s
p .
g 998
.
9.81
H
o
=h+ =20+ =30.2m
(2-1)
.
10
5
121
4.5.2.Componentsofthefrequency
converter
ln principle, all Irequency converIers consisI oI Ihe same
IuncIional blocks. 1he basic IuncIion is as menIioned
previously,IoconverIIhemainsvolIagesupplyinIoanew
ACvolIagewiIhanoIherIrequencyandampliIude.
1he Irequency converIer IirsI oI all recIiIies Ihe incoming
mainsvolIageandIhensIoresIheenergyinaninIermediaIe
circuiI consisIing oI a capaciIor. 1he DC volIage is Ihen
converIed inIo a new AC volIage wiIh anoIher Irequency
andampliIude.
8ecause oI Ihe inIermediaIe circuiI in Ihe Irequency
converIerIheIrequencyoIIhemainsvolIagehasnodirecI
inIluence on Ihe ouIpuI Irequency and Ihus Io Ihe moIor
speed.lIdoesnoImaIIeriIIheIrequencyisS0Rzor60Rz
asIherecIiIiercanhandleboIhsiIuaIions.AddiIionally,Ihe
incomingIrequencywillnoIinIluenceIheouIpuIIrequency,
asIhisisdeIinedbyIhevolIage]IrequencypaIIern,which
is deIined in Ihe inverIer. Keeping Ihe above-menIioned
IacIs in mind, using a Irequency converIer in connecIion
wiIhasynchronousmoIorsprovidesIheIollowingbeneIiIs.
- 1hesysIemcanbeusedinboIhS0and60cycle
areaswiIhouIanymodiIicaIions
- 1heouIpuIIrequencyoIIheIrequencyconverIeris
independenIonIheincomingIrequency
- 1heIrequencyconverIercansupplyouIpuIIrequencies
higherIhanmainssupplyIrequency-makes
oversynchronousoperaIionpossible.
As you can Iell Irom Iigure 4.S.2, Ihe Irequency converIer
consisIsoIIhreeoIhercomponenIsaswell.AnLMCIilIer,
aconIrolcircuiIandaninverIer.
As menIioned earlier, speed conIrol oI pumps involves a
IrequencyconverIer.1hereIore,iIwillberelevanIIohave
acloserlookaIaIrequencyconverIer,howiIoperaIesand
IinallyIodiscussrelaIedprecauIionsbyusingIhisdevice.

4.5.18asicfunctionandcharacteristics
lI is a well-known IacI IhaI Ihe speed oI an asynchronous
moIor depends primarily on Ihe pole number oI Ihe moIor
and Ihe Irequency oI Ihe volIage supplied. 1he ampliIude
oI Ihe volIage supplied and Ihe load on Ihe moIor shaII
also inIluence Ihe moIor speed, however, noI Io Ihe same
degree. ConsequenIly, changing Ihe Irequency oI Ihe
supply volIage is an ideal meIhod Ior asynchronous moIor
speedconIrol.lnorderIoensureacorrecImoIormagneIisaIion
iIisalsonecessaryIochangeIheampliIudeoIIhevolIage.
AIrequency]volIageconIrolresulIsinadisplacemenIoIIhe
IorquecharacIerisIicwherebyIhespeedischanged.ligure
4.S.1showsIhemoIorIorquecharacIerisIic(1)asaIuncIion
oI Ihe speed (n) aI Iwo diIIerenI Irequencies]volIages. ln
Ihe same diagram is also drawn Ihe load characIerisIic
oI Ihe pump. As iI appears Irom Ihe Iigure, Ihe speed is
changedbychangingIrequency]volIageoIIhemoIor.
1he Irequency converIer changes Irequency and volIage,
so IhereIore we can conclude IhaI Ihe basic Iask oI a
IrequencyconverIerisIochangeIheIixedsupplyvolIage]
Irequency, e.g. 3x400 v] S0Rz, inIo a variable volIage]
Irequency.
lig.4.S.1.DisplacemenIoImoIorIorquecharacIerisIic
Q
7
f
2
f
1
f
1
>f
2
lig.4.S.2.luncIionalblocksoIIheIrequencyconverIer
MainssuppIyAC
LMC
hlIer
kecIiher
lnIer-
mediaIe
circuiIDC
lnverIer
ConIrolcircuiI
5ection4.5
frequencyconverter
122
1he£MCfiIter
1his block is noI parI oI Ihe primary IuncIion oI Ihe
IrequencyconverIerandIhereIore,inprinciple,couldbeleII
ouIoIIheIrequencyconverIer.Rowever,inorderIomeeI
Ihe requiremenIs oI Ihe LMC direcIive oI Ihe Luropean
UnionoroIherlocalrequiremenIs,IheIilIerisnecessary.
1he LMC IilIer ensures IhaI Ihe Irequency converIer does
noIsendunaccepIablyhighnoisesignalbackIoIhemains
Ihus disIurbing oIher elecIronic equipmenI connecIed Io
Ihe mains. AI Ihe same Iime Ihe IilIer ensures IhaI noise
signalsinIhemainsgeneraIedbyoIherequipmenIdonoI
enIer Ihe elecIronic devices oI Ihe Irequency converIer
causingdamageordisIurbances.
1heccntrcIcircuit
1heconIrolcircuiIblockhasIwoIuncIions.lIconIrolsIhe
IrequencyconverIerandaIIhesameIimeiIIakescareoI
Ihe enIire communicaIion beIween Ihe producI and Ihe
surroundings.
1heinverter
1he ouIpuI volIage Irom a Irequency converIer is
noI sinusoidal like Ihe normal mains volIage is. 1he
volIage supplied Io Ihe moIor consisIs oI a number oI
square-wave pulses, see Iigure 4.S.3. 1he mean value oI
Ihese pulses Iorms a sinusoidal volIage oI Ihe desired
Irequency and ampliIude. 1he swiIching Irequency can
be Irom a Iew kRz up Io 20 kRz, depending on Ihe
brand.1oavoidnoisegeneraIioninIhemoIorwindings,a
Irequency converIer wiIh a swiIching Irequency
above Ihe range oI audibiliIy (¯16 kRz) is preIerable.
1his principle oI inverIer operaIion is called PWM (Pulse
WidIh ModulaIion) conIrol and iI is Ihe conIrol principle
whichisusedmosIoIIeninIrequencyconverIersIoday.
1hemoIorcurrenIiIselIisalmosIsinusoidal.1hisisshown
inIigure4.S.4(a)indicaIingmoIorcurrenI(Iop)andmoIor
volIage. ln Iigure 4.S.4 (b) a secIion oI Ihe moIor volIage
is shown. 1his indicaIes how Ihe pulse]pause raIio oI Ihe
volIagechanges.
t
U
motor
MeanvaIueofvoItage
1=1Jfm
lig4.S.3.ACvolIagewiIhvariableIrequency(Im)and
variablevolIage(U
moIor
)
0
0
*
* DetaiI
lig4.S.4.a)MoIorcurrenI(Iop)andmoIorvolIageaIPWM(PulseWidIh
ModulaIion)conIrol.b)SecIionoImoIorvolIage
a b
123
4.5.35peciaIconditionsregarding
frequencyconverters
8y insIalling and using Irequency converIers or pumps
wiIh inIegraIed Irequency converIers, Ihere are some
condiIions,whichIheinsIalleranduserhaveIobeaware
oI. A Irequency converIer will behave diIIerenIly aI Ihe
mains supply side Ihan a sIandard asynchronous moIor.
1hisisdescribedindeIailbelow.
Ncn-sinuscidaIpcwerinput,three-phasesuppIied
frequencyccnverters
A Irequency converIer designed as Ihe one described above
will noI receive sinusoidal currenI Irom Ihe mains. Among
oIher Ihings Ihis inIluences Ihe dimensioning oI mains
supplycable,mainsswiIch,eIc.ligure4.S.Sshowshow
mainscurrenIandvolIageappearIora.
a)Ihree-phase,Iwo-polesIandardasynchronousmoIor
b) Ihree-phase,Iwo-polesIandardasynchronousmoIor
wiIhIrequencyconverIer.
lnboIhcasesIhemoIorsupplies3kWIoIheshaII.
A comparison oI Ihe currenI in Ihe Iwo cases shows Ihe
IollowingdiIIerences,seehgure4.S.6.
- 1hecurrenIIorIhesysIemwiIhIrequencyconverIer
isnoIsinusoidal
- 1hepeakcurrenIismuchhigher(approx.S2°
higher)IorIheIrequencyconverIersoluIion
1his is due Io Ihe design oI Ihe Irequency converIer
connecIingIhemainsIoarecIiIierIollowedbyacapaciIor.
1he charging oI Ihe capaciIor happens during shorI Iime
periods in which Ihe recIiIied volIage is higher Ihan Ihe
volIageinIhecapaciIoraIIhaImomenI.
As menIioned above, Ihe non-sinusoidal currenI resulIs in
oIhercondiIionsaIIhemainssupplysideoIIhemoIor.lora
sIandardmoIorwiIhouIaIrequencyconverIerIherelaIion
beIween volIage (U), currenI (l) and power (P) is shown
in Ihe box on your righI hand side. 1he same Iormula
cannoI be used Ior Ihe calculaIion oI Ihe power inpuI in
connecIionwiIhmoIorswiIhIrequencyconverIers.
lig4.S.Sa).1hree-phase,Iwo-pole
sIandardasynchronousmoIor
lig4.S.Sb).1hree-phase,Iwo-pole
sIandardasynchronousmoIorwiIh
IrequencyconverIer
MainsvoItage 400V 400V
MainscurrentkM5 6.4A 6.36A
Mainscurrent,peak 9.1A 13.8A
Powerinput,P1 3.68kW 3.69kW
cosM,
powerfactor(Pf)
cosM=0.83 Pf=0.86
5tandardmotor Motorwithfrequency
converter
lig.4.S.6.ComparisonoIcurrenIoIasIandardmoIorandaIrequency
converIer
a b
5ection4.5
frequencyconverter
124
ln IacI, in Ihis case, Ihere is no saIeway oI calculaIing
Ihe power inpuI based on simple currenI and volIage
measuremenIs, as Ihese are noI sinusoidal. lnsIead, Ihe
power musI be calculaIed by means oI insIrumenIs and
on Ihe basis oI insIanIaneous measuremenIs oI currenI
andvolIage.
lI Ihe power (P) is known as well as Ihe kMS value oI
currenIandvolIage,Iheso-calledpowerIacIor(Pl)canbe
calculaIedbyIheIormulaonyourrighIhandside.
Unlike whaI is Ihe case when currenI and volIage are
sinusoidal, Ihe power IacIor has no direcI connecIion
wiIh Ihe way in which currenI and volIage are displaced
inIime.
When measuring Ihe inpuI currenI in connecIion wiIh
insIallaIion and service oI a sysIem wiIh Irequency
converIeriIisnecessaryIouseaninsIrumenIIhaIiscapable
oImeasuring"non-sinusoidal"currenIs.lngeneral,currenI
measuring insIrumenIs Ior Irequency converIers musI be
oIaIypemeasuring"1ruekMS".
frequencyccnvertersandearth-Ieakagecircuit
breakers{£lC8}
LarIh-leakage circuiI breakers are used increasingly as
exIra proIecIion in elecIrical insIallaIions. lI a Irequency
converIer is Io be connecIed Io such an insIallaIion iI
musI be ensured IhaI Ihe LLC8 insIalled is oI a Iype
which will surely brake - also iI Iailure occurs on Ihe
DC side oI Ihe Irequency converIer. ln order Io be sure
IhaI Ihe LLC8 always will brake in case oI earIh-leakage
currenIIheLLC8'sIobeusedinconnecIionwiIhIrequency
converIer musI be labelled wiIh Ihe signs shown in
Iigures4.S.7and4.S.8
8oIhIypesoIearIh-leakagecircuiIbreakerareavailablein
IhemarkeIIoday.
lig4.S.7.LabellingoIIheLLC8IRUVLQJOHSKDVHIUHTXHQF\FRQYHUWHUV
lig4.S.8.LabellingoIIheLLC8IorIhree-phaseIrequencyconverIers
12S
£nergyccsts90
lnitiaIccsts5-8
Maintenanceccsts2-5
Chapter5.LifecycIecostscaIcuIation
Secticn5.1:lifecycIeccstsequaticn
S.1.1lniIialcosIs,purchaseprice(C
ic
)
S.1.2lnsIallaIionandcommissioningcosIs(C
in
)
S.1.3LnergycosIs(C
e
)
S.1.4OperaIingcosIs(C
o
)
S.1.SLnvironmenIalcosIs(C
env
)
S.1.6MainIenanceandrepaircosIs(C
m
)
S.1.7DownIimecosIs(lossoIproducIion)(C
s
)
S.1.8DecommissioninganddisposalcosIs(C
o
)
Secticn5.2:lifecycIeccstscaIcuIaticn~anexampIe
5ection5.1
LifecycIecostsequation
lnIhissecIionwewillIocusonIheelemenIsIhaImakeup
a pump's liIe cycle cosIs (LCC) in order Io undersIand whaI
LCC is, which IacIors Io consider when we calculaIe iI and
howIocalculaIeiI.linally,wewillillusIraIeIhenoIionliIe
cycle cosIs by an example. 8uI beIore we dig any IurIher
inIoliIecyclecosIs,weneedIoundersIandwhaIIhenoIion
covers.
1heRydrauliclnsIiIuIe,LuropumpandIheUSDeparImenI
oILnergyhaveelaboraIedaIoolcalledIhePumpLiIecycle
cosIs (LCC), see Iigure S.1.1. 1he Iool is designed Io help
companies minimise Ihe wasIe and maximise Ihe energy
eIIiciencyindiIIerenIsysIemsincludingpumpingsysIems.
LiIe cycle cosI calculaIions are a decision-making Iool IhaI
canbeusedinconnecIionwiIhdesignoInewinsIallaIions
orrepairoIexisIinginsIallaIions.
1heliIecyclecosIs(LCC)consisIoIIheIollowingelemenIs.
C
ic
lniIialcosIs,purchaseprice
C
in
lnsIallaIionandcommissioningcosIs
C
e
LnergycosIs
C
o
OperaIingcosIs(labourcosIs)
C
emv
LnvironmenIalcosIs
C
m
MainIenanceandrepaircosIs
C
s
DownIimecosIs(lossoIproducIion)
C
d
Decommissioning]disposalcosIs
ln Ihe Iollowing paragraphs, each oI Ihese elemenIs is
described. As iI appears Irom Iigure S.1.2, Ihe energy cosIs,
iniIialcosIsandmainIenancecosIsareIhemosIimporIanI.
lig.S.1.2.1ypicalliIecyclecosIsoIacirculaIing
sysIeminIheindusIry
1ypicaIIifecycIecosts
lniIialcosIs
MainIenancecosIs
LnergycosIs
1heIifecycIeccstscfapumpisanexpressicncfhcw
muchitccststcpurchaseinstaIIcperatemaintain
anddispcsecfapumpduringitsIifetime.
lig.S.1.1.AguideIoliIecyclecosIsanalysisIorpumpingsysIems
LCCiscalculaIedbyIheIollowingIormula.
Lcc = c
Ic
+ c
In
+ c
e
+ c
e
+ c
m
+ c
s
+ c
emv
+ c
d
128
5.1.1InitiaIcosts,purchaseprice(C
ic
)
1he iniIial cosIs (C
ic
) oI a pump sysIem includes all
equipmenI and accessories necessary Io operaIe Ihe
sysIem, e.g pumps, Irequency converIers, conIrol panels
andIransmiIIers,seeIigureS.1.3.
OIIen, Ihere is a Irade-oII beIween Ihe iniIial cosIs and
Ihe energy and mainIenance cosIs. 1hus, in many cases
expensive componenIs have a longer liIeIime or a lower
energyconsumpIionIhaninexpensivecomponenIshave.
5.1.2InstaIIationandcommissioningcosts
(C
in
)
1heinsIallaIionandcommissioningcosIsincludeIhe
IollowingcosIs.
· lnsIallaIionoIIhepumps
· loundaIion
· ConnecIionoIelecIricalwiringandinsIrumenIaIion
· lnsIallaIion,connecIionandseI-upoIIransmiIIers,
IrequencyconverIers,eIc.
· CommissioningevaluaIionaIsIarI-up
AswasIhecaseIorIheiniIialcosIs,iIisimporIanIIocheckIhe
Irade-oIIopIions.lnconnecIionwiIhpumpswiIhinIegraIed
Irequency converIer, many oI Ihe componenIs are already
inIegraIed in Ihe producI. 1hereIore, Ihis kind oI pump is
oIIensub|ecIIohigheriniIialcosIsandlowerinsIallaIionand
commissioningcosIs.
lig.S.1.3.LquipmenIIhaImakesupapumpingsysIem
Pump
ControI
paneIs
frequency
converter
1ransmitter
InitiaIcosts
1000
lniIialcosIs
SysIem1
S200
SysIem2
7300
0
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
lig.S.1.4.lniIialcosIsoIaconsIanIspeedpumpsysIem
(sysIem1)andaconIrolledpumpsysIem(sysIem2)
129
5.1.3£nergycosts(C
e
)
lnIhema|oriIyoIcases,energyconsumpIionisIhelargesI
cosIinIheliIecyclecosIsoIapumpsysIem,wherepumps
oIIenrunmoreIhan2000hoursperyear.AcIually,around
20° oI Ihe world's elecIrical energy consumpIion is used
IorpumpsysIems,seeIigureS.1.S.
WhaIIollowsisalisIoIsomeoIIheIacIorsinIluencingIhe
energyconsumpIionoIapumpsysIem.
· LoadproIile
· PumpeIIiciency(calculaIionoIIheduIypoinI),see
IigureS.1.6
· MoIoreIIiciency(IhemoIoreIIiciencyaIparIialload
canvarysigniIicanIlybeIweenhigheIIiciencymoIors
andnormaleIIiciencymoIors)
· Pumpsizing(oIIenmarginsandroundupsIendIo
suggesIoversizedpumps)
· OIhersysIemcomponenIs,suchaspipesandvalves
· UseoIspeed-conIrolledsoluIions.8yusingspeed-
conIrolledpumpsinIheindusIry,iIispossibleIoreduce
IheenergyconsumpIionbyupIoS0°
5.1.4Dperatingcosts(C
o
)
OperaIingcosIscoverlabourcosIsrelaIedIoIheoperaIion
oI a pumping sysIem. ln mosI cases Ihe labour cosIs
relaIed Io Ihe pumps are modesI. 1oday diIIerenI Iypes
oI surveillance equipmenI make iI possible Io connecI
Ihe pump sysIem Io a compuIer neIwork, making Ihe
operaIingcosIslow.
5.1.5£nvironmentaIcosts(C
env
)
1he environmenIal cosIs cover Ihe disposal oI parIs and
conIaminaIionIromIhepumpedliquid.1heenvironmenIal
IacIor's conIribuIion Io Ihe liIe cycle cosIs oI a pumping
sysIeminIheindusIryismodesI.
lig.S.1.S.LnergyconsumpIionworldwide
Pumpsystems
20Z
Dtheruse
80Z
lig.S.1.6.ComparisonoIIheeIIiciencyoIanewandanexisIing
pump
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
0
20
40
60
80
D [M
3
Jh]
New
£xisting
q

130
5ection5.1
LifecycIecostsequation
131
5.1.6Maintenanceandrepaircosts(C
m
)
MainIenance and repair cosIs cover as Ihe name implies
all cosIs relaIed Io mainIenance and repair oI Ihe
pump sysIem, Ior example. Labour cosIs, spare parIs,
IransporIaIionandcleaning.

1he besI way Io obIain Ihe opIimum working liIe oI a
pump and Io prevenI breakdowns is Io carry ouI prevenIive
mainIenance.
5.1.7Downtimecosts,Iossofproduction
costs(C
s
)
DownIime cosIs are exIremely imporIanI when iI comes
IopumpsysIemsusedinproducIionprocesses.1hereason
issimple,iIcosIsaloIoImoneyIosIopaproducIion,even
Ior a shorIer period oI Iime. Lven Ihough one pump is
enough Ior Ihe required pump perIormance, iI is always
a good idea Io insIall a sIandby pump IhaI can Iake over
and make sure IhaI Ihe producIion conIinues even iI an
unexpecIed Iailure in Ihe pump sysIem should occur, see
hgureS.1.7.
5.1.8DecommissioninganddisposaI
costs(C
d
)
Depending on Ihe pump manuIacIurer, decommissioning
and disposal cosIs oI a pump sysIem are sub|ecI Io minor
variaIions. 1hereIore, Ihis cosI is seldom Iaken inIo
consideraIion.
CaIcuIatingtheIifecycIeccsts
1he liIe cycle cosIs oI a pump sysIem is made up oI Ihe
summaIion oI all Ihe above-menIioned componenIs over
IhesysIem'sliIeIime.1ypically,IheliIeIimeissaidIobein
IherangeoI10Io20years.lnIhepumpbusiness,IheliIe
cycle cosIs are normally calculaIed by a more simpliIied
Iormula wiIh Iewer elemenIs Io consider. 1his Iormula is
shownonyourrighI.
lig.S.1.7.SIandbypumpmakessureIhaIproducIionconIinuesin
caseoIpumpbreak-down
Lcc = c
Ic
+ c
e
+ c
m

LeI us have a look aI an example using Ihe simpliIied
Iormula menIioned previously. An indusIry needs a new
waIer supply pump and Iwo soluIions are Iaken inIo
consideraIion.
· AIixedspeedmulIisIagecenIriIugalpump
· AvariablespeedmulIisIagecenIriIugalpump
CalculaIionsshowIhaIcomparedIoIheIixedspeedpump,
Ihe variable speed pump consumes 40° less energy.
Rowever,IheiniIialcosIs(C
ic
)oIIhevariablespeedpump
isIwiceashighasIhaIoIIheIixedspeedpump.
LiIe cycle cosIs calculaIions will help deIermine which
pump Io insIall in Ihe sysIem. 1he applicaIion has Ihe
IollowingcharacIerisIics.
· 12operaIinghoursperday
· 220operaIinghoursperyear
· LiIeIimeoI10years(calculaIionperiod)
8asedonIhesedaIa,iIispossibleIocalculaIeIheliIecycle
cosIsoIIheIwosoluIions.
LvenIhoughIheiniIialcosIsoIavariablespeedpumpare
Iwice as high compared Io a Iixed speed pump, Ihe IoIal
cosIs oI Ihe IirsI-menIioned soluIion are 2S° lower Ihan
IheIixedspeedpumpsoluIionaIIer10years.
8esidesIhelowerliIecyclecosIs,Ihevariablespeedpump
provides, as discussed in chapIer 4, some operaIional
beneIiIs,e.g.consIanIpressureinIhesysIem.
1hepaybackIimeoIIhevariablespeedpumpsoluIionisa
biIlongerbecauseIhepumpismoreexpensive.Asyoucan
IellIromIigureS.1.9,IhepaybackIimeisaround2xyears,
andingeneralindusIrialapplicaIions,IhisisconsideredIo
beagoodinvesImenI.
Pumptypes
OperaIinghoursperday hours 12 12
1otaIcosts £uro 38,303 28,688
LnergycosIs Luro 33,284 20,066
4S,000
40,000
3S,000
30,000
2S,000
20,000
1S,000
10,000
S,000
0
MainIenancecosIs Luro 1,417 1,417
Pumpprice Luro 3,602 7,204
LlecIricalpowerprice Luro]kWh 0.07 0.07
1otaIenergyconsumption kWh 495,264 298,584
CalculaIionperiod years 10 10
Workingdaysperyear days 220 220
AveragepowerconsumpIion kW 18.76 11.31
fixed
speed
VariabIe
speed
variablespeed lixedspeed
Pumpprice
MainIenancecosIs
LnergycosIs
£
u
r
o
lig.S.1.8.LiIecyclecosIsoIaIixedandavariablespeedpump
4S,000
40,000
3S,000
30,000
2S,000
20,000
1S,000
10,000
S,000
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
£
u
r
o
¥ears
lixedspeed
variablespeed
lig.S.1.9.PaybackIimeIoraIixedandavariablespeedpump
5ection5.2
LifecycIecostscaIcuIation-anexampIe
132
Appendix
A) Notationsandunits
8) UnitconversiontabIes
C) 5I-preñxesandCreekaIphabet
D) Vapourpressureanddensityofwateratdifferenttemperatures
£) Driñce
f) Changeinstaticpressureduetochangeinpipediameter
C) NozzIes
H) NomogramforheadIossesinbends,vaIves,etc.
I) PipeIossnomogramforcIeanwater20¨C
I) PeriodicaIsystem
k) Pumpstandards
L) ViscosityfordifferentIiquidsasafunctionofIiquidtemperature
AppendixA
Notationsandunits
1he Iable below provides an overview oI Ihe mosI
commonly used noIaIions and uniIs in connecIion wiIh
pumpsandpumpsysIems.
134
UnitconversiontabIes
1heconversionIablesIorpressureandßowshowIhe
mosIcommonlyuseduniIsinconnecIionwiIhpumping
sysIems
PascaI
(=Newtonper
squaremetre)
Pa,(NJm
2
)
1Pa
1bar
1kpJm
2
1mWC
1at
1atm
1psi
Pressure
1Pa
1bar
1kpJm
2
1mWC
1at
1atm
1psi
1
10
S

9.8067
9806.7
98067
10132S
689S
10
-S
1
9.807
.
10
S
0.09807
0.9807
1.013
0.0689S
0.1020
10197
1
10
3
10
4
10333
703.1
1.020
.
10
-4
10.20
10
-3
1
10
10.33
0.7031
1.020
.
10
-S
1.020
10
-4
0.1
1
1.033
0.07031
9.869
.
10
-4
0.9869
0.9678
.
10
-4
0.09678
0.9678
1
0.06804
1.4S0
.
10
-4
14.S0
1.422
.
10
-3
1.422
14.22
14.70
1
atm at(kpJcm
2
) kpJm
2
mWC
kiIopond
persquare
metre
meter
Water
CoIumn
1echnicaI
atmosphere
PhysicaI
atmosphere
poundper
squareinch
bar
bar psi(IbJin
2
)
Cubicmetre
persecond
m
3
Js
1m
3
Js
1m
3
Jh
1IJs
1UkCPM
1U5CPM
1m
3
Js
1m
3
Jh
1IJs
1UkCPM
1U5CPM
1
2.778
.
10
-4

10
-3

7.S77
.
10
-S

6.309
.
10
-S
3600
1
3.6
0.02728
0.02271
1000
0.2778
1
0.07S77
0.06309
1320
3.667
13.21
1
0.8327
1S6S1
4.403
1S.8S
1.201
1
UkCPM 1IJs UkCPM
Litre
persecond
CaIIon(Uk)
perminute
CaIIon(U5)
perminute
Cubicmetre
perhour
m
3
Jh
fIow(voIume)
1emperature
1heIormulaslisIedbelowshowhowIoconverIIhemosIcommonlyuseduniIsIorIemperaIure.
lromdegreesCelsiusIoKelvin. 1|Kj=273.1S+I|
o
Cj
lromdegreesCelsiusIodegreeslahrenheiI. I|
o
lj=32+1.8I|
o
Cj
Degrees
CeIsius
¨C
0
100
- 17.8
273.1S
373.1S
2SS.3S
32
212
0
¨f
Degrees
fahrenheit
keIvin
k
t
¨C
1
1
9]S
1, t
1 ¨C =
1 k =
1 ¨f =
1
1
9]S
S]9
S]9
1
¨f
t t
k
Appendix8
13S
AppendixC
factor Prefix 5ymboI
10
9
10
6
10
3
10
2
10
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
-6
10
-9
1,000,000,000
1,000,000
1,000
100
10
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000.001
0.000.000.001
giga G
mega M
kilo k
hekIo h
deka da
deci d
cenIi c
milli m
mikro µ
nano n
Creek aIphabet
AlIa A o
8eIa B |
Gamma I ¸
DelIa A o
Lpsilon E c
ZeIa Z ,
LIa H q
1heIa O u
!oIa I i
Kappa K k
Lambda A ì
My M µ
Ny N v
Ksi KE ko
Omikron O o
Pi H t
kho P µ
Sigma E o
1au T t
¥psilon Y u
li u |
Khi X _
Psi + ¢
Omega O u
5I-preñxesandCreekaIphabet
136
Vapourpressureanddensityofwateratdifferenttemperatures
1hisIableshowsIhe
vapourpressurep|barj
andIhedensiIyU|kg]m
3
j
oIwaIeraIdiIIerenI
IemperaIuresI|
o
Cj.
Likewise,IheIableshows
Ihecorresponding
absoluIeIemperaIure1|Kj.
VapcurpressurepanddensityUcfwateratdifferenttemperatures
t[°C] 1[k] P[bar] U[kgJm
3
] t[°C] 1[k] P[bar] U[kgJm
3
] t[°C] 1[k] P[bar] U[kgJm
3
]
0 273.1S 0.00611 0999.8 138 411.1S 3.414 927.6
1 274.1S 0.006S7 0999.9 61 334.1S 0.2086 982.6 140 413.1S 3.614 92S.8
2 27S.1S 0.00706 0999.9 62 33S.1S 0.2184 982.1 14S 418.1S 4.1SS 921.4
3 276.1S 0.007S8 0999.9 63 336.1S 0.2286 981.6 1S0 423.1S 4.760 916.8
4 277.1S 0.00813 1000.0 64 337.1S 0.2391 981.1
S 278.1S 0.00872 1000.0 6S 338.1S 0.2S01 980.S 1SS 428.1S S.433 912.1
6 279.1S 0.0093S 1000.0 66 339.1S 0.261S 979.9 160 433.1S 6.181 907.3
7 280.1S 0.01001 999.9 67 340.1S 0.2733 979.3 16S 438.1S 7.008 902.4
8 281.1S 0.01072 999.9 68 341.1S 0.28S6 978.8 170 443.1S 7.920 897.3
9 282.1S 0.01147 999.8 69 342.1S 0.2984 978.2 17S 448.1S 8.924 892.1
10 283.1S 0.01227 999.7 70 343.1S 0.3116 977.7
180 4S3.1S 10.027 886.9
11 284.1S 0.01312 999.7 71 344.1S 0.32S3 977.0 18S 4S8.1S 11.233 881.S
12 28S.1S 0.01401 999.6 72 34S.1S 0.3396 976.S 190 463.1S 12.SS1 876.0
13 286.1S 0.01497 999.4 73 346.1S 0.3S43 976.0 19S 468.1S 13.987 870.4
14 287.1S 0.01S97 999.3 74 347.1S 0.3696 97S.3 200 473.1S 1S.S0 864.7
1S 288.1S 0.01704 999.2 7S 348.1S 0.38SS 974.8
16 289.1S 0.01817 999.0 76 349.1S 0.4019 974.1 20S 478.1S 17.243 8S8.8
17 290.1S 0.01936 998.8 77 3S0.1S 0.4189 973.S 210 483.1S 19.077 8S2.8
18 291.1S 0.02062 998.7 78 3S1.1S 0.436S 972.9 21S 488.1S 21.060 846.7
19 292.1S 0.02196 998.S 79 3S2.1S 0.4S47 972.3 220 493.1S 23.198 840.3
20 293.1S 0.02337 998.3 80 3S3.1S 0.4736 971.6 22S 498.1S 2S.S01 833.9

21 294.1S 0.0248S 998.1 81 3S4.1S 0.4931 971.0 230 S03.1S 27.976 827.3
22 29S.1S 0.02642 997.8 82 3SS.1S 0.S133 970.4 23S S08.1S 30.632 820.S
23 296.1S 0.02808 997.6 83 3S6.1S 0.S342 969.7 240 S13.1S 33.478 813.6
24 297.1S 0.02982 997.4 84 3S7.1S 0.SSS7 969.1 24S S18.1S 36.S23 806.S
2S 298.1S 0.03166 997.1 8S 3S8.1S 0.S780 968.4 2S0 S23.1S 39.776 799.2
26 299.1S 0.03360 996.8 86 3S9.1S 0.6011 967.8 2SS S28.1S 43.246 791.6
27 300.1S 0.03S64 996.6 87 360.1S 0.6249 967.1
28 301.1S 0.03778 996.3 88 361.1S 0.649S 966.S 260 S33.1S 46.943 783.9
29 302.1S 0.04004 996.0 89 362.1S 0.6749 96S.8 26S S38.1S S0.877 77S.9
30 303.1S 0.04241 99S.7 90 363.1S 0.7011 96S.2 270 S43.1S SS.0S8 767.8
27S S48.1S S9.496 7S9.3
31 304.1S 0.04491 99S.4 91 364.1S 0.7281 964.4 280 SS3.1S 64.202 7S0.S
32 30S.1S 0.047S3 99S.1 92 36S.1S 0.7S61 963.8
33 306.1S 0.0S029 994.7 93 366.1S 0.7849 963.0 28S SS8.1S 69.186 741.S
34 307.1S 0.0S318 994.4 94 367.1S 0.8146 962.4 290 S63.1S 74.461 732.1
3S 308.1S 0.0S622 994.0 9S 368.1S 0.84S3 961.6 29S S68.1S 80.037 722.3
36 309.1S 0.0S940 993.7 96 369.1S 0.8769 961.0 300 S73.1S 8S.927 712.2
37 310.1S 0.06274 993.3 97 370.1S 0.9094 960.2 30S S78.1S 92.144 701.7
38 311.1S 0.06624 993.0 98 371.1S 0.9430 9S9.6 310 S83.1S 98.700 690.6
39 312.1S 0.06991 992.7 99 372.1S 0.9776 9S8.6
40 313.1S 0.0737S 992.3 100 373.1S 1.0133 9S8.1 31S S88.1S 10S.61 679.1
320 S93.1S 112.89 666.9
41 314.1S 0.07777 991.9 102 37S.1S 1.0878 9S6.7 32S S98.1S 120.S6 6S4.1
42 31S.1S 0.08198 991.S 104 377.1S 1.1668 9SS.2 330 603.1S 128.63 640.4
43 316.1S 0.08639 991.1 106 379.1S 1.2S04 9S3.7 340 613.1S 146.0S 610.2
44 317.1S 0.09100 990.7 108 381.1S 1.3390 9S2.2
4S 318.1S 0.09S82 990.2 110 383.1S 1.4327 9S0.7 3S0 623.1S 16S.3S S74.3
46 319.1S 0.10086 989.8 360 633.1S 186.7S S27.S
47 320.1S 0.10612 989.4 112 38S.1S 1.S316 949.1
48 321.1S 0.11162 988.9 114 387.1S 1.6362 947.6 370 643.1S 210.S4 4S1.8
49 322.1S 0.11736 988.4 116 389.1S 1.746S 946.0 374.1S 647.30 221.2 31S.4
S0 323.1S 0.1233S 988.0 118 391.1S 1.8628 944.S
120 393.1S 1.98S4 942.9
S1 324.1S 0.12961 987.6
S2 32S.1S 0.13613 987.1 122 39S.1S 2.114S 941.2
S3 326.1S 0.14293 986.6 124 397.1S 2.2S04 939.6
S4 327.1S 0.1S002 986.2 126 399.1S 2.3933 937.9
SS 328.1S 0.1S741 98S.7 128 401.1S 2.S43S 936.2
S6 329.1S 0.16S11 98S.2 130 403.1S 2.7013 934.6
S7 330.1S 0.17313 984.6
S8 331.1S 0.18147 984.2 132 40S.1S 2.8670 932.8
S9 332.1S 0.19016 983.7 134 407.1S 3.041 931.1
60 333.1S 0.19920 983.2 136 409.1S 3.223 929.4
AppendixD
137
Appendix£
10
100
1000
1
10
100
1000
1
D

[
m
3
J
h
]
D
r
i
f
i
c
e

[
m
m
]
R
=
2
.S
R
=
1
0
0
R
=
4
0
R
=
1
6
R
=
6
.3
R
=
4
R
=
1
0
R
=
2
S
R
=
6
3
Dn=32
Dn=40
Dn=S0
Dn=6S
Dn=80
Dn=100
Dn=12S
Dn=1S0
Dn=200
Dn=2S0 Dn=300
Drifice
As discussed in chapIer 3, Ihe duIy poinI oI a pump is
ad|usIed by adding a resisIance in connecIed series wiIh
Ihepump.lnpracIice,Ihisisnormallydonebyplacingan
oriIiceinIheouIleIIlangeoIIhepump.
1heIollowinggraphprovidesIheoriIicediameIerd|mmj
based on Ihe pipe]porI dimension DN |mmj, Ihe Ilow O
|m
3
]hjandIherequiredheadlossAR|mj.
£xampIe:
1heheadoIapump,wiIhanouIleIIlangeoI12Smm,
hasIobereducedby2SmaIaIlowoI1S0m
3
]h.
DN=12Smm,LR=2Sm,O=1S0m
3
]hŸ
lIisnecessaryIoinsIallanoriIicewiIhadiameIeroIS9mm.
d D DN
Drifice
H
138
0.01
0.10
1
10
1 10 100 1,000 10,000
fIow[m
3
Jh]
D
1
JD
2
=
H

[
m
]
S
0
]
3
2
6
S
]
4
0
8
0
]
S
0
6
S
]
S
0
8
0
]
6
S
1
0
0
]
8
0
1
2
S
]
1
0
0
2
S
0
]
1
S
0
1
0
0
]
6
S
1
2
S
]
8
0
1
S
0
]
1
0
0
1
S
0
]
1
2
S
1
S
0
]
2
0
0
2
S
0
]
2
0
0
3
0
0
]
2
S
0
3
S
0
]
3
0
0
4
0
0
]
3
S
0
S
0
0
]
4
0
0
Change in static pressure due to change
inpipediameter
As described in chapIer 2.2, a change in pipe dimension
resulIs in a change in liquid velociIy and consequenIly, a
changeindynamicandsIaIicpressure.
When Ihe head has Io be deIermined (see page 86), Ihe
diIIerenceinIheIwoporIdimensionsrequiresacorrecIion
oIIhemeasuredhead.
'RhasIobeaddedIoIhemeasuredheadoIIhepump.

2
.
g

2
2

1
2
=
g
.

2

.
O
2
=
.

D
2
4
1
D
1
4
1
_

where.
v
1
isIheliquidvelociIyinIheinleIporIin|m]sj
v
2
isIheliquidvelociIyinIheouIleIporIin|m]sj
OisIheIlowraIein|m
3
]sj
gisIheacceleraIionoIgraviIyin|m]s
2
j
D
1
isIhediameIeroIIheinleIporIin|mj
D
2
isIhediameIeroIIheouIleIporIin|mj
1hegraphshowsIhe'RvalueIorIypicalseIsoIporI
dimensionsD
1
]D
2
asaIuncIionoIIheIlowO.lnIhis
caseIlowOismeasuredin|m
3
]hjandIhe'Ris
measuredin|mj.
Appendixf
£xampIe:
ApumpwiIhaninleIporIoI2S0mmandanouIleI
porIoI1S0mmispumping300m
3
]h.Rowmuch
doesIhediIIerenceinporIdimensionaIIecIIhe
measuredhead!
D1=2S0mmD2=1S0mmO=300m
3
]h
AsiIappearsIromIhegraph,IhediIIerencein
headisLR=1m.
139
AppendixC
1.00
0.10
0.01 0.1 1 10
10.00
100.00
D [m
3
Jh]
d =
p

[
b
a
r
]
1
.
0
1
.
S
2
.
0
2
.
S
3
.
S
4
.
0
S
.
0
6
.
0
7
.
0
8
.
0
9
.
0
NozzIes
The relation between the nozzle diameter d [mm], the
needed flow Q [m
3
/h] and the required pressure before
the nozzle p [bar] is found by the nomogram below. We
assume that the nozzle has a quadratic behaviour:


D
1
D
2
=
p
1
p
2

n
where n = 0.5. Some nozzles have a lower n value (check
with the supplier).
fIow
D [m
3
Jh]
NozzIe diameter
d [mm]
Pressure
p [bar]
£xampIe:
AnozzleoI3.SmmhasIosupply1m
3
]h.WhaI
isIherequiredpressureinIronIoIIhenozzle!
O=1m
3
]h,d=3.SmmŸ
p=4.8bar
140
AppendixH
141
AppendixI
142
AppendixI
PeriodicaIsystem
1
H
Rydrogen
X
He
Relium
3
Li
LiIhium
4
8e
8eryllium
5
8
8oron
6
C
Carbon
7
N
NiIrogen
8
D
Oxygen
9
f
lluorine
10
Ne
Neon
11
Na
Sodium
12
Mg
Magnesium
13
AI
Aluminium
14
5i
Silicon
15
P
Phosphorus
16
5
Sulphur
17
CI
Chlorine
18
Ar
Argon
19
k
PoIassium
20
Ca
Calcium
21
5c
Scandium
22
1i
1iIanium
23
V
vanadium
24
Cr
Chromium
25
Mn
Manganese
26
fe
lron
27
Co
CobalI
28
Ni
Nickel
29
Cu
Copper
30
Zn
Zinc
31
Ca
Gallium
32
Ce
Germanium
33
As
Arsenic
34
5e
Selenium
35
8r
8romine
36
kr
KrypIon
37
kb
kubidium
38
5r
SIronIium
39
¥
¥IIrium
40
Zr
Zirconium
41
Nb
Niobium
42
Mo
Molybdenum
43
1c
1echneIium
44
ku
kuIhenium
45
kh
khodium
46
Pd
Palladium
47
Ag
Silver
48
Cd
Cadmium
49
In
lndium
50
5n
1in
51
5b
AnIimony
52
1e
1ellurium
53
I
lodine
54
e
Xenon
55
Cs
Caesium
56
8
8arium
57

LuIeIium
72
Hf
RaInium
73
1
1anIalum
74
W
1ungsIen
75
ke
khenium
76
s
Osmium
77
Ir
lridium
78
t
PlaIinum
79
Au
Gold
80
Hg
Mercury
81
1
1hallium
82
b
Lead
83
8i
8ismuIh
84
Po
Polonium
85
At
AsIaIine
86
kn
kadon
87
fr
lrancium
88
ka
kadium
89
Ac
AcIinium
104
kf
kuIherIordium
105
Db
Dubnium
106
5g
Seaborgium
107
8h
8ohrium
108
Hs
Rassium
109
Mt
MeiInerium
110
Ds
DamsIadIium
111
kg
koenIgenium
112
Uub
Ununbium
113
Uut
UnunIrium
114
UUq
Ununquadium
58
Ce
Cerium

Praseodymium
60
Nd
Neodymium
61
Pm
PromeIhium

Samarium
63
£u
Luropium
64
Cd
Gadolinium
65
1b
1erbium
66
Dy
Dysprosium
67
Ho
Rolmium
68
£r
Lrbium
69
1m
1hulium
70
¥b
¥IIerbium
71
Lu
LuIeIium
90
1h
1horium
91
Pa
ProIacIinium
92
U
Uranium
93
Np
NepIunium
94
Pu
PluIonium
95
Am
Americium
96
Cm
Curium
97
8k
8erkelium
98
Cf
CaliIornium
99
£s
LinsIeinium
100
fm
lernium
101
Md
Mendelevium
102
No
Nobelium
103
Lr
Lawrencium
143
Appendixk
Pumpstandards:
LN733 Lnd-sucIioncenIriIugalpumps,raIingwiIh10barwiIhbearingbrackeI
LN228S8 Lnd-sucIioncenIriIugalpumps(raIing16bar)-DesignaIion,nominal
duIypoinIanddimensions
PumpreIatedstandards:
lSO3661 Lnd-sucIioncenIriIugalpumps-8aseplaIeandinsIallaIiondimensions
LN127S6 Mechanicalseals-Principaldimensions,designaIionandmaIerialcodes
LN1092 llangesandIheir|oinIs-CircularIlangesIorpipes,valves,IiIIingsand
accessories,PN-designaIed
lSO700S MeIallicIlanges
DlN24296 Pumps,andpumpuniIsIorliquids.SpareparIs
5pecificationsetc:
lSO990S 1echnicalspeciIicaIionsIorcenIriIugalpumps-Class1
lSOS199 1echnicalspeciIicaIionsIorcenIriIugalpumps-Class2
lSO9908 1echnicalspeciIicaIionsIorcenIriIugalpumps-Class3
lSO9906 koIodynamicpumps-RydraulicperIormanceIesIs-Grades1and2
LN10204 MeIallicproducIs-1ypesoIinspecIiondocumenIs
lSO]lDlS10816 MechanicalvibraIion-LvaluaIionoImachinevibraIionby
measuremenIsonnon-roIaIingparIs
Motorstandards:
LN60034]lLC34 koIaIingelecIricalmachines
Pumpstandards
144
AppendixL
cSI
Siliconeoil
Glycerol
p.1260
lueloil
Oliveoil
p: 900
CoIIonseedoil
p: 900
lruiI|uice
p: 1000
Spindleoil
p: 8S0
Siliconeoilp: 1000
Siliconeoil
LIhylAlkoholp: 770
Milkp: 1030
Anilinep: 1030
AceIicacid
p: 10S0
WaIerp: 1000
PeIroleum
p: 800
AceIonep: 790
LIherp: 700
Mercuryp: 13S70
10000
1000
100
10
1.0
0.1
8
6
4
2
8
6
4
2
8
6
4
8
6
4
2
8
6
4
2
-10 0 10 20 30 40 S0 60 70 80 90 100°C
I
2
v
Reavy
p: 980
Mean
p: 9SS
LighI
p: 930
Gasand
dieseloil
p: 880
PeIrolp: 7S0
ViscosityoftypicaIIiquidsasafunction
ofIiquidtemperature
1hegraphshowsIheviscosiIyoIdiIIerenIliquidsaI
diIIerenIIemperaIures.AsiIappearsIromIhegraph,Ihe
viscosiIydecreaseswhenIheIemperaIureincreases.
1
KinemaIic viscosiIy
cenIiSIokes c5t
Sekunder SaybolI
Universal 55U
2
32
SAL 10
SAL no.
( aI 20
o
C)
SAL 20
SAL 30
SAL 40
SAL S0
SAL 60
SAL 70
3S
40
S0
100
200
300
400
S00
1000
2000
3000
4000
S000
10000
20000
30000
40000
S0000
100000
200000
3
4
S
10
20
30
40
S0
100
200
300
400
S00
1000
2000
3000
4000
S000
10000
20000
30000
40000
S0000
100000
Viscosity
KinemaIicviscosiIyismeasuredincenIiSIoke|cSIj
(1cSI=10
-6
m
2
]s).1heuniI|SSUjSaybolIUniversalisalso
used in connecIion wiIh kinemaIic viscosiIy. 1he graph
below shows Ihe relaIion beIween kinemaIic viscosiIy
in |cSIj and viscosiIy in |SSUj. 1he SAL-number is also
indicaIedinIhegraph.
lorkinemaIicviscosiIyabove60cSI,IheSaybolIUniversal
viscosiIyiscalculaIedbyIheIollowingIormula.
[55U]=4.62
.
[c5t]
1hedensiIiesshownin
IhegraphareIor20°C
14S
AppendixL
100
95
90
85
80
75
60
65
70
40
45
50
55
15
20
25
30
35
-5
0
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
10Z 15Z 20Z 25Z 30Z 35Z 40Z 45Z 50Z 55Z 60Z
5
10
-20
-15
-10
-50
1emperature
Concentration
wtZ=
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-5 1028 2.9 1036 3.4 104S 4.0 10S3 4.7 1060 S.7 1068 6.8 107S 8.1 1082 9.4 1089 11.1 1096 14.0
0
-20 1079 17.4 1072 14.1 1086 21.1 1094 2S.2 1101
-15 1070 10.9 1078 13.2 10SS 7.2 1063 8.8 108S 1S.8 1092 18.8 1099 23.6
-10 10S4 S.8 1046 4.9 1062 7.0 1069 8.S 1077 10.2 1084 12.1 1091 14.3 1098
31.S
18.0
-50 1107
-45 1106
-40 1098 101.2 110S
-35 1097 68.9 1089 S7.3 1104
-30 1089 40.0 1081 32.3 1096 48.1 1103
-25 1080 23.S 1088 28.7 109S 34.4 1102
2S9.7
173.7
118.6
82.7
S8.8
42.6
1018 2.0 1027 2.S 103S 2.9 1043 3.3 10S1 3.9 10S9 4.7 1066 S.S 1074 6.S 1081 7.S 1088 8.8 1094 11.0
1017 1.7 1026 2.1 1034 2.4 1042 2.8 10S0 3.3 10S7 3.9 106S 4.S 1072 S.3 1079 6.1 1086 7.1 1092 8.8
1016 1.S 1024 1.8 1032 2.1 1041 2.4 1048 2.8 10S6 3.2 1063 3.8 1070 4.4 1077 S.0 1084 S.8 1090 7.1
1014 1.3 1023 1.6 1031 1.8 1039 2.1 1047 2.4 10S4 2.8 1061 3.2 1068 3.7 107S 4.2 1082 4.8 1088 S.9
1013 1.1 1021 1.4 1029 1.6 1037 1.8 104S 2.0 10S2 2.4 10S9 2.7 1066 3.1 1073 3.S 1079 4.0 1086 4.9
1011 1.0 1019 1.2 1027 1.4 103S 1.6 1043 1.8 10S0 2.1 10S7 2.4 1064 2.7 1071 3.0 1077 3.4 1083 4.1
1009 0.9 1018 1.1 1026 1.2 1033 1.4 1041 1.6 1048 1.8 10SS 2.1 1062 2.3 1068 2.6 107S 3.0 1081 3.S
1008 0.8 1016 1.0 1024 1.1 1031 1.2 1039 1.4 1046 1.6 10S3 1.8 10S9 2.1 1066 2.3 1072 2.6 1078 3.0
1006 0.7 1014 0.9 1021 1.0 1029 1.1 1036 1.2 1043 1.4 10S0 1.6 10S7 1.8 1063 2.0 1069 2.3 1076 2.6
1003 0.7 1011 0.8 1019 0.9 1027 1.0 1034 1.1 1041 1.3 1048 1.4 10S4 1.6 1060 1.8 1067 2.0 1073 2.2
1001 0.6 1009 0.7 1017 0.8 1024 0.9 1031 1.0 1038 1.1 104S 1.3 10S1 1.S 10S8 1.6 1064 1.8 1070 2.0
999 0.6 1007 0.7 1014 0.7 1022 0.8 1029 0.9 1036 1.0 1042 1.2 1048 1.3 10SS 1.S 1061 1.6 1066 1.7
996 0.S 1004 0.6 1012 0.7 1019 0.7 1026 0.8 1033 0.9 1039 1.1 104S 1.2 10S2 1.3 10S8 1.4 1063 1.S
994 0.S 1001 0.6 1009 0.6 1016 0.7 1023 0.8 1030 0.9 1036 1.0 1042 1.1 1048 1.2 10S4 1.3 1060 1.4
991 0.S 998 0.S 1006 0.6 1013 0.6 1020 0.7 1027 0.8 1033 0.9 1039 1.0 104S 1.1 10S1 1.2 10S6 1.2
988 0.4 996 0.S 1003 0.S 1010 0.6 1017 0.6 1023 0.7 1030 0.8 1036 0.9 1042 1.0 1047 1.1 10S3 1.1
98S 0.4 992 0.S 1000 0.S 1007 0.S 1014 0.6 1020 0.7 1026 0.8 1032 0.8 1038 0.9 1044 1.0 1049 1.0
982 0.4 989 0.4 997 0.S 1003 0.S 1010 0.S 1017 0.6 1023 0.7 1029 0.8 1034 0.8 1040 0.9 104S 0.9
979 0.3 986 0.4 993 0.4 1000 0.S 1007 0.S 1013 0.6 1019 0.6 102S 0.7 1031 0.8 1036 0.8 1041 0.8
97S 0.3 983 0.4 990 0.4 996 0.4 1003 0.S 1009 0.S 101S 0.6 1021 0.6 1027 0.7 1032 0.7 1037 0.8
972 0.3 979 0.4 986 0.4 993 0.4 999 0.4 100S 0.S 1011 0.S 1017 0.6 1023 0.6 1028 0.6 1033 0.7
£thyIenegIycoI
146
AppendixL
100 96S 0.3 968 0.3 971 0.4 974 0.4 976 0.S 978 0.6 980 0.6 981 0.7 983 0.7 984 0.8 984
95 969 0.3 972 0.4 97S 0.4 978 0.S 980 0.S 982 0.6 984 0.7 986 0.7 987 0.8 988 0.9 989
0.9
1.0
90 972 0.4 976 0.4 979 0.4 982 0.S 984 0.6 986 0.6 988 0.7 990 0.8 992 0.9 993 1.0 994 1.1
85 976 0.4 979 0.4 982 0.S 98S 0.S 988 0.6 991 0.7 993 0.8 99S 0.9 996 1.0 998 1.1 999 1.2
80 979 0.4 983 0.S 986 0.S 989 0.6 992 0.7 99S 0.7 997 0.8 999 10.0 1001 1.1 1002 1.2 1003 1.3
75 982 0.S 986 0.S 989 0.6 993 0.6 996 0.7 998 0.8 1001 0.9 1003 1.0 100S 1.2 1006 1.4 1008 1.S
60 990 0.6 99S 0.6 999 0.7 1003 0.8 1006 1.0 1009 1.1 1012 1.2 1014 1.4 1017 1.7 1019 1.9 1020 2.1
65 988 0.S 992 0.6 996 0.7 999 0.8 1003 0.9 1006 1.0 1008 1.1 1011 1.3 1013 1.S 101S 1.7 1016 1.9
70 98S 0.S 989 0.S 993 0.6 996 0.7 999 0.8 1002 0.9 100S 1.0 1007 1.1 1009 1.3 1011 1.S 1012 1.6
40 1000 0.8 100S 1.0 1010 1.1 1014 1.3 1018 1.S 1022 1.8 102S 2.1 1028 2.S 1031 2.9 1033 3.S 103S
45 998 0.8 1003 0.9 1007 1.0 1011 1.2 101S 1.4 1019 1.6 1022 1.8 102S 2.1 1027 2.S 1030 3.0 1032
50 99S 0.7 1000 0.8 100S 0.9 1009 1.0 1012 1.2 1016 1.4 1019 1.6 1021 1.8 1024 2.2 1026 2.6 1028
55 993 0.6 998 0.7 1002 0.8 1006 0.9 1009 1.1 1012 1.2 101S 1.4 1018 1.6 1020 1.9 1022 2.2 1024
4.0
3.4
2.9
2.4
15 1009 1.6 101S 1.9 1020 2.3 102S 2.8 1030 3.S 1034 4.4 1038 S.S 1042 6.6 104S 7.9 1048 9.6 10S1 12.3
20 1008 1.4 1013 1.6 1019 1.9 1023 2.4 1028 2.9 1032 3.6 1036 4.4 1039 S.3 1042 6.3 104S 7.6 1048 9.6
25 1006 1.2 1011 1.4 1017 1.7 1021 2.0 1026 2.S 1030 3.0 1033 3.6 1037 4.3 1040 S.1 1042 6.1 104S 7.S
30 1004 1.1 1009 1.2 1014 1.4 1019 1.7 1023 2.1 1027 2.S 1031 2.9 1034 3.S 1037 4.2 1039 S.0 1042 6.0
35 1002 0.9 1007 1.1 1012 1.3 1017 1.S 1021 1.8 1024 2.1 1028 2.S 1031 2.9 1034 3.S 1036 4.2 1038 4.9
-5 1021 3.8 1027 4.8 1032 6.3 1037 8.7 1042 12.0 1047 16.0 10S1 20.1 10S4 23.9 10S8 29.0 1061 41.4
0 1013
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
10Z 15Z 20Z 25Z 30Z 35Z 40Z 45Z 50Z 55Z 60Z
2.6 1020 3.1 102S 3.9 1031 S.1 1036 6.8 1040 9.1 104S 11.9 1049 14.7 10S2 17.6 10S6 21.4 10S9
5 1012 2.2 1018 2.6 1024 3.2 1029 4.1 1034 S.4 1038 7.0 1043 9.0 1046 11.1 10S0 13.2 10S3 16.1 10S6 21.7
29.7
10 1011 1.8 1017 2.2 1022 2.7 1027 3.4 1032 4.3 1036 S.S 1040 6.9 1044 8.S 1048 10.1 10S1 12.3 10S3 16.2
-20 10S1 44.9 10S6 S8.1 1060 68.6 1064 82.6 1067
-15 104S 22.2 10S0 31.1 10S4 39.8 10S8 47.1 1062 S6.9 106S
-10 1039 11.4 1044 16.2 1048 22.1 10S3 27.9 10S6 33.2 1060 40.2 1063
128.2
8S.9
S8.9
-50
1emperature
Concentration
wtZ=
1077
-45 107S
-40 1070 468.8 1074
-35 1069 291.8 1072
-30 1063 1S7.1 1067 186.7 1071
-25 10S7 87.1 1062 102.S 1066 122.6 1069
2433.S
1390.3
817.6
494.4
307.2
196.0
PropyIenegIycoI
147
AppendixL
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1S00
1600
0 10

10°
20 30 40 S0 60 70 80 °C
kgJm
3
1S°
20°
2S°
30°
3S°
40°
4S°
S0°
SS°
0
1
10
100
20 2S

10°
30 3S 40 4S S0 SS 60 6S 70
°C
c5t
1S°
20°
2S°
30°
3S°
40°
4S°
S0°
80
75
60
65
70
40
45
50
55
15
20
25
30
35
0
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

|kg]m
3
j |cSIj

5Z 10Z 15Z 20Z 25Z 30Z 35Z 40Z 45Z 50Z 55Z
5
10
1emperature
Concentration
wt Z =
10S7
1060
10S8
10S6
10S4
10S2
10S0
1048
1046
1044
1042
1039
1036
1033
1030
1027
102S
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.S
0.S
1117
111S
1113
1111
1109
1107
1104
1102
1100
1097
1094
1092
1089
1086
1083
1080
1077
1.7
1.S
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
1174
1172
1170
1167
1164
1162
11S9
11S7
11S4
11S1
1148
114S
1143
1140
1137
1134
1131
2.S
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
1230
1227
1224
1222
1219 3.6
1217 3.1
1214 2.7
1211 2.3
1208 2.0
120S 1.8
1202 1.6
1199 1.S
1196 1.3
1.2
1.1
1193
1190
1186
1183
128S 1334
1283 1332
1280 1330
1277 1326
1274 6.2 1322 10.1
1271 S.1 1319 8.3
1268 4.0 131S 6.S
126S 3.4 1312 S.S
1262 2.8 1309 4.S
12S9 2.6 1306 3.9
12S6 2.3 1302 3.3
12S3 2.0 1299 2.9
12S0 1.8 129S 2.4
1246 1.6
1243 1.S
1240
1237
1384 143S
1381 1429
1377 1423
1372 1420
1367 16.8 1416 2S.4
1364 13.3 1413 19.9
1360 9.9 1410 14.4
13S7 8.2 1407 11.6
13S3 6.6 1403 8.9
1347 S.6 1396 7.S
1340 4.6 1389 6.0
1483 1S30 1SS9
1480 1S28 1SS6
1478 1S2S 1SS3
1471 1S18 1S46
1464 38.2 1S11 S1.8 1S40
1461 29.0 1S08 39.0
14S7 19.9 1S04 26.2
14S4 1S.9 1S01 20.S
14S0 12.0 1497 14.7
1443 9.9 1490 12.1
1436 7.8 1483 9.4
5odiumhydroxide
148
AppendixL
15
20
25
30
-10
-5
0
5
10
-25
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
10Z 15Z 20Z 25Z
-20
-15
1emperature
Concentration
wtZ=
1138 3.0
1090 2.3 1137 2.6
1088 2.0 113S 2.2
1086 1.7 1134 1.9
108S 1.S 1132 1.7
1083 1.3 1131 1.S
1082 1.1 1129 1.3
1082 1.0 1127 1.2
1081 0.9 112S 1.0
124S 7.7
1244 6.3
1189 4.3 1242 S.2
1188 3.6 1241 4.4
1187 3.1 1239 3.8
1186 2.6 1237 3.3
1184 2.3 123S 2.9
1182 2.0 1233 2.S
1180 1.8 1230 2.2
1178 1.6 1228 2.0
1176 1.4 1226 1.8
1173 1.3 1223 1.6
CaIciumchIoride
25
30
0
5
10
15
20
-15
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
|kg]m
3
j |cSIj
p v
5Z 10Z 15Z 20Z
-10
-5
1emperature
Concentration
wtZ=
1043 1.8
1042 1.S
1041 1.3
1040 1.1
1039 1.0
1037 0.9
1036 0.8
1082 2.2
1080 1.8
1079 1.6
1077 1.4
107S 1.2
1074 1.1
1072 0.9
1070 0.9
1120 2.9
1118 2.4
1116 2.0
1114 1.7
1112 1.S
1110 1.3
1108 1.2
1106 1.0
1103 0.9
1162 4.0
1160 3.2
11S8 2.7
11SS 2.3
11S3 1.9
11S1 1.7
1148 1.S
1146 1.3
1144 1.2
1141 1.1
NatriumchIoride
149
A
p
p
e
n
d
i
x

I
A
p
p
e
n
d
i
x

H
A
AbsoluIepressure 8S
Ad|usIingpumpperIormance 106
Aluminium 70
AsynchronousmoIor 40
A1LX(A1mosphèreLXplosible) 41
AusIeniIic(non-magneIic) 68
AuIoIransIormersIarIing 46
Axialßowpumps 8
AxialIorces 14
8
8alancedshaIIseal 30
8asiccoupling 16
8earing S1
lnsulaIedbearing 48
8ellowsseal 31
8oreholepump 23
8ypassconIrol 106
C
CannedmoIorpump 18
CarIridgeseal 32
Casing 1S
Double-voluIe 1S
Single-voluIe 1S
keIurnchannel 1S
CasIiron 66
CaviIaIion 10,89
CaviIaIioncorrosion 63
CenIriIugalpump 8
Ceramics 71
Close-coupledpump 12,13,16
ClosedsysIem 96,98
CoaIings 73
MeIalliccoaIings 73
Non-meIalliccoaIings 74
OrganiccoaIings 74
CompuIeraidedpumpselecIion S8
ConIrol 106
1hroIIleconIrol 107
8ypassconIrol 107
SpeedconIrol 108
ConsIanIdiIIerenIialpressureconIrol 11S
ConsIanIpressureconIrol 114
ConsIanIIemperaIureconIrol 11S
Copperalloys 69
Corrosion 60
CaviIaIioncorrosion 63
CorrosionIaIigue 64
Crevicecorrosion 62
Lrosioncorrosion 63
Galvaniccorrosion 64
lnIergranularcorrosion 62
PiIIingcorrosion 61
SelecIivecorrosion 62
SIresscorrosioncracking(SCC) 63
UniIormcorrosion 61
CorrosionIaIigue 64
Coupling 16
8asiccoupling 16
llexiblecoupling 16
Spacercoupling 16
Crevicecorrosion 62
D
DecommissioninganddisposalcosIs 131
Deepwellpump 23
DensiIy 10,93
UniI AppendixA
WaIer AppendixD
8rine AppendixL
Diaphragmpump 2S
DiIIerenIialpressure 88
DiIIerenIialpressureconIrol 116
DilaIanIliquid SS
DirecI-on-linesIarIing(DOL) 46
Dosingpump 2S
DoublemechanicalshaIIseal 33
DoublesealinIandem 33
Doublesealinback-Io-back 34
Double-channelimpeller 21
Double-inleI 17
Double-sucIionimpeller 11,17
Double-voluIecasing 1S
DownIimecosIs 131
Index
DusIigniIionprooI(DlP) 42
DuIypoinI 96
Dynamicpressure 84
DynamicviscosiIy S4
£
LarIh-leakagecircuiIbreaker(LLC8) 12S
LIhciency 10
LIhciencyaIreducedspeed 109
LIhciencycurve 10
LlecIricmoIor 40
llameprooImoIor 41
lncreasedsaIeIymoIor 41
Non-sparkingmoIor 42
LMCdirecIive 123
LMChlIer 123
Lnclosureclass(lP),moIor 43
Lnd-sucIionpump 12
LnergycosIs 130
Lnergysavings 111,114,117
LnvironmenIalcosIs 130
Lrosioncorrosion 63
LIhylenepropylenerubber(LPDM) 72
Lxpansion|oinIs 80
f
lerriIic(magneIic) 68
lerriIic-ausIeniIicorduplex(magneIic) 68
lerrousalloys 6S
llameprooImoIor 41
llexiblecoupling 16
lloaIingplinIh 79
llow 83
Massßow 83
volumeßow 83
UniIs Appendix8
lluoroelasIomers(lKM) 72
llushing 32
loundaIion 78
lloaIingplinIh 79
lloor 79
PlinIh 79
vibraIiondampeners 79
lramesize 44
lrequencyconverIer 47,108,118
C
Galvaniccorrosion 64
Gaugepressure 8S
GeodeIichead 99
GeodeIicliII 99
Greyiron 66
H
Read 9,8S
ReaIcapaciIy 93
RermeIicallysealedpump 18
RorizonIalpump 12,13
Rydraulicpower 10,91
I
lLC,moIor 40
lmmersiblepump 22
lmpeller 14,21
Double-channel 21
Single-channel 21
vorIeximpeller 21
lncreasedsaIeIymoIor 41
lniIialcosIs 129
ln-linepump 12,13
lnsIallaIionandcommissioningcosIs 129
lnsulaIionclass 44
lnIergranularcorrosion 62
k
KinemaIicviscosiIy S4,AppendixL
Index Index
L
LiIecyclecosIs 117,128
Lxample 132
Liquid S4
DilaIanI SS
NewIonian SS
Non-NewIonian SS
PlasIicßuid SS
1hixoIrophic SS
viscous S4
Long-coupledpump 12,13,16
LossoIproducIioncosIs 131
M
MagneIicdrive 19
MainIenanceandrepaircosIs 131
MarIensiIic(magneIic) 68
Massßow 83
Measuringpressure 8S
MechanicalshaIIseal 18,28
8ellowsseal 31
CarIridgeseal 32
MeIalbellowsseal 32
kubberbellowsseal 31
luncIion 29
llushing 32
MeIalalloys 6S
lerrousalloys 6S
MeIalbellowsseal 32
MeIalliccoaIings 73
Mixedßowpumps 8
ModiIyingimpellerdiameIer 108,110
MoIors 40
MoIoreIhciency 49
MoIorinsulaIion 48
MoIorproIecIion 49
MoIorsIarI-up 46
DirecI-on-linesIarIing(DOL) 46
SIar]delIasIarIing 46
AuIoIransIormersIarIing 46
lrequencyconverIer 46,47
SoIIsIarIer 46
MounIingoImoIor(lM) 43
MulIisIagepump 11,12,13,16
N
NLMA,moIorsIandard 40
NewIonianßuid SS
Nickelalloys 69
NiIrilerubber 72
Nodulariron 66
Noise(vibraIion) 78
Non-meIalliccoaIings 74
Non-NewIonianliquid SS
Non-sinusoidalcurrenI 124
Non-sparkingmoIor 42
NPSR(NeIPosiIiveSucIionRead) 10,89
D
OpensysIem 96,99
OperaIingcosIs 106,130
OrganiccoaIings 74
O-ringseal 31
Oversizedpumps 106
P
PainIs 74
PerßuoroelasIomers(llKM) 72
PhaseinsulaIion 48
Pl-conIroller 114
PiIIingcorrosion 61
PlasIicßuid SS
PlasIics 71
PlinIh 79
PosiIivedisplacemenIpump 24
PowerconsumpIion 10,91
Rydraulicpower 10,91
ShaIIpower 91
Pressure 84
AbsoluIepressure 8S
DiIIerenIialpressure 88
Dynamicpressure 84
Gaugepressure 8S
Measuringpressure 8S
SIaIicpressure 84
SysIempressure 88
UniIs 8S,AppendixA
vapourpressure 90,AppendixD
PressureconIrol
ConsIanIdiIIerenIialpressureconIrol 11S
ConsIanIpressure 114
ConsIanIpressureconIrol 119
ConsIanIsupplypressure 114
PressureIransmiIIer(P1) 114
ProporIionalpressureconIrol 120
P1CIhermisIors S0
PulseWidIhModulaIion(PWM) 123
Pump
Axialßowpump 8
8oreholepump 23
CannedmoIorpump 18
CenIriIugalpump 8
Close-coupledpump 12,13,16
Diaphragmpump 2S
Dosingpump 2S
RermeIicallysealedpump 18
RorizonIalpump 12,13
lmmersiblepump 22
Long-coupledpump 12,13,16
MagneIic-drivenpump 19
Mixedßowpump 8
MulIisIagepump 11,12,13,16
PosiIivedisplacemenIpump 24
kadialßowpump 8
SaniIarypump 20
Single-sIagepump 1S
SpliI-casepump 12,13,17
SIandardpump 17
verIicalpump 12,13
WasIewaIerpump 21
Pumpcasing 1S
PumpcharacIerisIic 9,96
Pumpcurve 9
PumpinsIallaIion 77
PumpperIormancecurve 9,96
PumpsconnecIedinseries 103
Pumpsinparallel 101
PumpswiIhinIegraIedIrequencyconverIer 118
PurchasecosIs 129
PWM(PulseWidIhModulaIion) 123
D
OR-curve 9
k
kadialßowpump 8
kadialIorces 1S
keinIorcedinsulaIion 48
kesisIancesconnecIedinparallel 98
kesisIancesconnecIedinseries 97
keIurnchannelcasing 11,1S
kubber 72
LIhylenepropylenerubber(LPDM) 72
lluoroelasIomers(lKM) 72
NiIrilerubber(N8K) 72
PerßuoroelasIomers(llKM) 72
Siliconerubber(O) 72
kubberbellowsseal 31
5
SaniIarypump 20
SealIace 28
Sealgab 29
SelecIivecorrosion 62
SeIpoinI 114
ShaII 11
ShaIIpower 91
ShaIIseal 28
8alancedshaIIseal 30
UnbalancedshaIIseal 30
Siliconerubber(O) 72
SingleresisIances 97
kesisIancesconnecIedinseries 97
Single-channelimpeller 21
Single-sIagepump 11,12,13,1S
Single-sucIionimpeller 11
Single-voluIecasing 1S
SoIIsIarIer 46
Soundlevel 81
Soundpressurelevel 82
Spacercoupling 16
Index Index
SpeedconIrol 106,108,110
variablespeedconIrol 108
Speed-conIrolledpumpsinparallel 102
SpliI-casepump 12,13,17
SIainlesssIeel 66
SIandardpump 17
SIandards 40
lLC,moIor 40
NLMA,moIor 40
SaniIarysIandards 20
SIandsIillheaIingoImoIor S1
SIar]delIasIarIing 46
SIaIicpressure 84
SIeel 6S
SIresscorrosioncracking(SCC) 63
SIuIhngbox 28
Submersiblepump 23
SysIemcharacIerisIic 96
ClosedsysIem 96,98
OpensysIem 96,99
SysIemcosIs 117
SysIempressure 88
1
1emperaIure 93
UniIs Appendix8
1hermoplasIics 71
1hermoseIs 71
1hixoIrophicliquid SS
1hroIIleconIrol 106,110-113
1hroIIlevalve 107
1iIanium 70
1winpump 11
U
UnbalancedshaIIseal 30
UniIormcorrosion 61
V
vapourpressure 90,AppendixD
variablespeedconIrol 108
verIicalpump 12,13
vibraIiondampeners 79
vibraIions 78
viscosiIy S4,AppendixL
DynamicviscosiIy S4
viscousliquid S4
viscousliquidpumpcurve SS
volIagesupply 47
volumeßow 83
UniIs AppendixA
voluIecasing 11
vorIeximpeller 21
WasIewaIerpump 21

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