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PART I. INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In the process of worldwide industrialization, the needs for studying English become more and more inevitable. Especially for the knowledge of the specific job, translators must understand deeply all the skills of the job and must be ready for the translation into second language if necessary. In Vietnam, anyone coming into career, he or she must prepare all the knowledge of job not only in Vietnamese but in English as well. Deriving from translating technical documents of the paint company, the researcher realizes the mistakes in translating paint documents which made by himself or by his colleagues Certainly, in order to get the skills of translation better, anyone who works as translators should analyze thoroughly the mistakes and find out the solutions to correct and avoid in the future. 2. Aims of study and research questions Analysis on semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English is a very complicated matter for the researchers, especially for the translators in the field of paint terminology in particular and in English in general. The study aims at: - Finding out the mistakes in translating paint terminology from English into Vietnamese with the specific evidences. - Suggesting the solutions to the problems to improve the current situation of translating and avoid mistakes in the future. Thanks to these ideas, the researcher will be aware of some suitable ways to avoid the mistakes and correct themselves at work. * Some research questions deducted from the study are as follows: - What are the mistakes that the translators make when translating the documents?

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- What are the solutions to these problems? 3. Scope of study In this study, it is impossible to cover all the mistakes - concerning matters. The researcher just focuses on the documents that he has been translated from English into Vietnamese – basing on his experience on the paint document translation. And from comparison with another 15 translators in 5 sheets of technical documents, the researcher takes the most popular examples that he has observed, he recognizes three of the most common mistakes in the translated documents as follows: - At word level: Resin (chất tạo màng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. (Someone translates resin into “nhựa”.) Vehicle (chất mang, dung môi dẫn) = solvent + binder resin (Someone translates vehicle into “phương tiện”.) - At sentence level: “Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan.” Vietnamese sentence must be “Công nghệ Hải Phòng bản quyền của hãng Chugoku – Nhật Bản”, but some translators take in Vietnamese as “Công nghệ của công ty Sơn Hải Phòng là theo li xăng của hãng Sơn Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. - At paragraph level “Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment, free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more, which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels, which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis”. The result should be “Trong số những nghiên cứu về sơn quan trọng không chỉ đối chất lượng sơn mà còn với môi trường biển, công nghệ chống hà không chứa hợp chất cơ thiếc và đồng được chú trọng cải tiến. Phương pháp tốt nhất này là để giải các chất chống hà và tạo nên quá trình chống hà thông qua các giai đoạn thủy phân” The investigated issues in relation to the research are as follows:

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- A general view of paint technical and other documents - An analysis of the meanings of all the paint terminology and the mistakes created in translation. 4. Methods of research Initializing the study, the researcher take advantages of some methods which help him do the research in the right direction. There are two methods the researcher uses are survey coming from documents observation and statistics applied with analysis and synthesis. Encouraging two above methods, the researcher carries out the corresponding tasks as - Collecting and classifying examples and - Comparing the usage of language between Vietnamese and English 5. Instruments for data collection, subjects Deriving from the career, the researcher finds the subject of the study and makes an effort to deal with. It is obvious that working as a translator of the paint documents, the researcher has ever got the difficulties in the job. ”Mistakes and how to correct them in translating”, which is the reason for the subject. The two data collection instruments used in the study are Description of experience and Description of observation. * Description of experience To fulfill this study, the researcher has worked at Haiphong Paint Join Stock Company for over 3 years. The experience he can get is through such all the documents he has done with in translation as Technical data sheets, paint specifications, catalogue, and color collection cards, etc. And some international documents which are related to the Paint Marketing and paint checking are ASTM (American Standard for Testing Measurement), ISO (International Standard Organization), and JIS (Japanese International Standard), TCVN (Vietnamese Standard).

and presentation. Introduction includes the rationale. Methods of data analysis and presentation The data or documents for this study are analyzed and shown in the methods of . method of research with instruments for data collection. in the laboratory of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company (1 year) and in Technical Service Department (over 2 years). . All these things can improve the knowledge of the researcher in both English and Vietnamese deeply. methods of data analysis. and the information must be updated regularly and immediately. the thesis is composed of three main parts: Part 1. 6. the competition among companies is higher and more technological.Overviewing of all the documents and finding out the general mistakes. table of content and appendices. scope of the study. after that.4 Paint companies’ websites are also the resources for the researcher to do the study. * Description of observation The researcher is professional in the field of paint. In the fact of worldwide economy. the researcher has ever been trained on paint production. checking and inspection at Technical center in Japan (2 months). the researcher shows the document in the form of the assessment and classification of all the documents. 7. That is the reason why website is a useful instrument to get the information the most easily. especially paint document translation.Basing on the research methodology and some kinds of analysis. which can help the researcher understand and translate paint documents into a second language easily. aims of study and research questions. . the subject. Structure of thesis Apart from the acknowledgement. To help himself be able to understand all the phenomena of paint checking and inspection. There are so many paint companies in the world.

importance of developing translating skill and the main reasons for translating mistakes. limitations of the study and some suggestions for further study . the functions of translation. Mistake analysis. recommendations for mistake correction Part 3. Description of selected documents basing on the analysis of characteristics of paint terminology. Chapter 3. Development consists of three chapters: Chapter 1.5 Part 2. Conclusion involves a brief summary of main points. Chapter 2. some conclusions induced from the results of the study. Literature review discusses the definition of translation.

The text to be translated is called the "source text. for instructions issued by companies. It is used for multilingual notices in public places.1.” Nida (1959) Often it is rendering meaning of signs. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter focuses on the theoretical knowledge concerning semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English including factors affecting the translation for the people who read and write the paint technical documents. artificial and fraudulent. symbols (both verbal and non-verbal) by means of other signs. since by using another language. DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1. Hence. it may be seen as complicated. symbols in the same language or in other languages.org/wiki/Translation). he/she is always pursuing facts and words. for technical staffs where it is too often produced from the native into the foreign language by . On the other hand. Since a translator works on a text." that communicates the same message in another language. as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another.wikipedia. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple." and the language that it is to be translated into is called the "target language". firstly with respect to meaning and secondly with respect to style. And. the language user may be pretending to be someone he/she is not. 1. but a perfect or ideal translated version may never be obtained. What is translation? Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text. 1. “Translation consists of producing in the target language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message.6 PART II. he/she is always trying to extent his/her knowledge and improve his/her means of expression. the final product is sometimes called the "target text. so a satisfactory translation is always possible.en." (www.2. working in translation has its own interests and its own excitement. Functions of translation Translation functions as a means of communication and information transferring. likewise called a "translation.

etc. a text may be pulled in ten different directions: . it is really a meaningful word for the daily conversation but it can not be applied for the technical matter. to convey information. For example the word “Heavy duty”. In the field of paint. notions. Its volume has increased with the rise of new technology. bidding folio. studying specific materials. papers. we must understand like “Industrial paint”. and beliefs in the paint field to the others. textbooks or for technical documents of for advertisement. sometimes we read a technical document. for official documents such as treaties and contracts. customs. Translation is greatly demanded for the need of common understanding among companies and technicians. may be understood “Nhiệm vụ nặng nề”. but in all paint documents. correspondence. for reports. articles. And this well-known example is repeatedly reminded by all translators as a valuable experience of profession. especially when translating such “semi-technical” terms. Millions of books and texts translated everyday help to transfer ideas. the increase in the number of new inventions in science and the growth of the terminology. HOW MANY FORCES PULL A TRANSLATION According to Peter New mark. either fully or partly accepted. These are absorbed and considered in various directions and lead to the common agreement at different levels. advice and recommendations for every branch of knowledge.7 natives as a matter of nation pride.

The truth (the facts of the matter) 5. language has been divided into different skill areas. children learn the skills of reading and writing. 1. Importance of developing translating skill Although translating skill has been cared by anyone who is related to the reading and writing foreign language technical documents.3. Thanks to these skills coordination. Translator 8. Therefore. Target language norms 7. Target language settings and tradition text Matters discussed in this study are involved in directions 3 and 7 between English and Vietnamese. Target language culture 10. As the child grows in their language ability and use. especially in translating. These can be discussed in the framework of how we can understand our first language. combined with listening. Target language readership 6. Source language settings and tradition 9. These problems are the results of the translators’ unawareness of the translating skill. there are still many problems in reading and writing. Source language writer 2. A child can first learn to practice language by speaking. For the purpose of analysis. the understanding of a language will be developed and can be improved day by day. Then. the different skills are most often integrated with each other so that they are being used in coordination with each other. Source language culture 4. . this section is going to discuss the importance of translating the paint document along with the analysis of the knowledge for the translators of paint technical documents.8 1. when school begins. Source language norms 3.

A qualified translator must have good background knowledge of the career in both languages . which are easy to understand for all the learners of English as a second language. it is also a requirement that a qualified translator has capability or skills of translating so as to transfer messages from Vietnamese into English and vice versa. he may also understand and translate it into Vietnamese immediately. they cannot. Moreover. All they have to do is to have both the knowledge of their specialism or career and the ability of the second language understanding. all the activities of the translator are aimed to how they can understand technical terms and translate a technical document into another language. It is true to say that being able to read all the words in a sentence is quite different from being able to comprehend or understand and analyze the technical terminologies and the English grammar with meanings. In a company. They have no solutions to remember these words. In general. For the purpose of foreign language translating. the understanding of a foreign language can be built up and developed by learners. you must practice English translating in daily life. Which do you understand more of? Of course.9 In the same way. Vietnamese is the answer but if you can understand English as well as Vietnamese. After reading and listening. That is why the translating skill can be improved when they read the technical documents daily. the translator responds and understands. but they still cannot translate well. This is very much like children. some translators have memorized hundreds of words and many grammar rules. They can practice a foreign language day by day to create a new habit an understanding of a foreign language.Vietnamese and English. the translators who have not much exposure to some rarely-used words. Just think of all English documents you read in one day and compare with the documents in Vietnamese. The meaning of technical terminology is conveyed and understood in contexts. they may forget the meaning. Furthermore. when they can read out all the words in the document but they cannot understand what the meanings of the words are. Many people can read and understand the English technical documents but when they translate from Vietnamese into English. . But how they can remember these words depends very much on how often they practice using them or writing them down in the memory books. while a staff is reading an English document.

To be able to produce good translation.1.1. the practice of translation belongs to the linguistic realm. That is to say that he/she is capable of using his mother tongue effectively to express the ideas. Insufficient language competence First and foremost. especially when the text strictly requires proper writing style. one must be a good writer. Subjective causes A translation of high quality must be the work of a skillful translator. many would-be translators learning at university nowadays do not know a remarkably large number of specific Vietnamese words are often used in technical documents. the target language is the Vietnamese language. the source language.4.10 1.1. the target language in English – Vietnamese translation.4. Translation. The incompetence may be of Vietnamese. Vietnamese is known for its sophisticated grammatical rules on which not all Vietnamese people hold appropriate knowledge. 1. Reasons for translating mistakes There are. “Finish” term . many things that contribute to the success of translators. Insufficient knowledge on either of the two areas may lead to translations of poor quality. Language incompetence can be observed in the areas: the vocabulary and the grammatical structures. The followings are some typical factors affecting translating English documents. This causes limitations in their practice of translation when they work for a company. In the English – Vietnamese translation. and/or of English. in fact. Noticeably. is most of the time direct consequence of a poor or insufficient target language competence. Thus. * Insufficient target language (Vietnamese) competence Before becoming a translator. let alone students who are still learning to become translators. In fact. 1. hence. only a few Vietnamese translators excel at their own mother tongue. the translator must be competent in both the source and target languages and have extensive background knowledge of different fields. the primary reason of a poor translation must be the insufficiency of the translator’s language competence.4.

formal or informal. before becoming a translator. therefore. Along with a considerable basic vocabulary that can be used in texts neutral in stylistics. In other words. sometimes even more. English contains many word layers. This requires all translators to ceaselessly enlarge their vocabulary. and run-on sentences. The more you learn. Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary. hence cannot translate naturally. this is a totally erroneous opinion. Almost all English – Vietnamese translators are native Vietnamese or overseas Vietnamese. Vietnamese language users are known for over-using commas instead of conjunctions. it is difficult for them to have an expertlike English vocabulary as well as grammatical structures. it is very easy to translate into Vietnamese because it has the same meaning of the daily life when we do something okay. Lack of vocabulary in any of these layers may cause serious mistakes of a translated text. in shipbuilding field. it means “hoàn thiện” (complete a ship). But in paint field.11 likes these. In this case. translators must master both the source and the target languages. a person must first and foremost be a bilingual. * Insufficient source language (English) competence It is easy to learn English but it is difficult to master it. Just like Vietnamese. They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. To my mind. To better the quality of translation. Some people think that lack of English language competence is justifiable for Vietnamese translators because it is not their mother tongue. Most Vietnamese unskilled translators lack both . the more complicated you find English is. which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. Vietnamese grammatical structures are just as diverse as that of any other language. Besides. Overcoming these weaknesses is crucial to the improvement of English – Vietnamese translations. as observed. especially academic ones. Most Vietnamese people can intuitively use these structures but fail to connect them with certain foreign language. translators must “equip” themselves with terminology vocabulary so as to be as flexible as possible in their translation. it means “sơn phủ” (the last paint layer in the painting system).

But in this case. So Vietnamese sentence must be “Công nghệ Hải Phòng bản quyền của hãng Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. for architecture. it is critical to understand that the sufficiency in both languages is not enough for a translator. Haiphong Paint Company has been authorized from Chugoku Company to produce and sell paint products. First is Haiphong Paint and “Công ty sơn Hải Phòng” because the translator always considers Haiphong Paint Company is unique. On the other hand. Finally. for industry. In paint industry.” and in Vietnamese “Công nghệ của công ty Sơn Hải Phòng là theo li xăng của hãng Sơn Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. has some meanings such as “giấy phép. “Li xăng” is the borrowing word which has been used so much by the translator that he forgets the original meaning of “license” to be “bản quyền”. they tend to abuse the words and phrases they know and risk making themselves sound improper in certain contexts. “License” as you know. So. for offshore projects. Or other fields related to the paint industry such as construction.2. we must understand all kind of paints: paint for ships. cấp quyền.1. social norms. bản quyền.12 the academic words in their English vocabulary. The art of translation requires a lot more than proficiency in languages. And the same thing in “License” and “li xăng”. That is why. be aware of the differences between the two languages so that he/she can easily find an equivalent whenever necessary or at least know how to make himself/herself understood when encountering untranslatable concepts. 1.4. For example. such as religions. and so on. One of the other crucial criteria is the terminology. bằng cấp. as anything about Haiphong Paint is about Haiphong Paint Company. comparing between a sentence in English: “Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan. The meaning “giấy phép” seems to be used for the laws documents and for registration. traditional customs. this includes competent knowledge of almost all aspects. This kind of combined knowledge can be gained . This may explain why bilingual people are not always good translators. chứng chỉ. In the process of translation. we should understand the suitable meaning like “bản quyền”. Maybe. etc. Inadequate terminology In fact. and historical awareness. đăng ký”. there are wrong habits of the translator. without which the translation would be made with mistakes. traffic road. He/she needs to flexibly compare and contrast. shipbuilding industry. But this sentence has been used for advertisement to show the power and authorization.

“sơn chống rỉ”.13 along with the process of learning English and learning translation. However. there is a great spreading of learning English of the office staffs who are working at banks. is obviously inadequate.1. As a result. It is crucial that translators also pay much attention to their own language. Objective causes 1. For instance. Delving deeper into this colorful technology. you may translate the word “primer” as “sơn lót”. This is also the main cause of the so-called “disaster of the translation art”. only a few translators are aware of this. Nevertheless. “sơn lớp nền”.2. …depending on the context. with a view to clarifying one important objective reason of mistakes in English – Vietnamese translation. without their own efforts to explore new things. some prominent variances are mentioned below: English grammar is very inflexible compared to other languages. and the Vietnamese language belongs to the Austro-Asiatic family. students know just a little about the companies today and these companies are related to each other. A word in English may mean a lot of other words in Vietnamese.4. Vietnamese people know about this but the knowledge they acquire. “sơn lót phân xưởng”. “sơn lớp 1”. Recently. For example. the Vietnamese language does not always use articles and the rules are not as clear as those of the English language. Therefore the two languages have various differences in terms of vocabulary and grammatical rules. English goes by very strict structures while the Vietnamese language is much more flexible. after graduating from universities. we will see that it is not easy to be an expert in various Vietnamese techniques. . Linguistic differences between English and Vietnamese The English language belongs to the Indo-European language family. Some English vocabulary is peculiar.4. they get into so much difficulty. One of the big problems here is that office staffs can do everything in Vietnamese but if there are any documents in foreign language or even they must contact with foreigners. the Vietnamese language.2. hotels or companies. 1.

native English speakers to get a full command of the language. It can be said for sure that if anyone who knows little about paint field. has a tendency to convert nouns to verbs. Career differences For a translator. or “mẫu sơn” is the same as “specimen”. He/she can translate everything but sometimes correctly or incorrectly. This problem comes from inexperienced translators. Some careers are in the same row such as Marine time. “paint”.4.2. especially American English. he/she must take in that “weathering” is a testing method for the paint under all the natural and human factors influence happening in the environment. The technicians cannot fully understand it until they look at the translated handouts. ”layer” …. All of these peculiarities of English grammar often make it difficult for non. “sample”.2. đất và các khoáng vật chứa trong đó khi tiếp xúc trực tiếp với môi trường không khí” (http://vi. Paint is also test under the condition of weather influence.org/wiki/Phong_h%C3%B3a). soils and their minerals through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere”. the understanding of the terminology in the job he/she translate is very important. Therefore. It is completely correct if it is translated into Vietnamese “Phương pháp thử độ bền thời tiết của sơn”. in Vietnamese: “Phong hóa là quá trình phá hủy đá. “lacquer”. For examples: a word “weather” you write down in the form of gerund “weathering” in the sentence “Testing method for coating weathering”. “varnish”. but for the qualified translator. only by understanding which career he is in. They think “Weathering is the decomposition of Earth rocks. It is also difficult when it comes to translating English writing into other languages. a Vietnamese word “sơn” has many meanings in translated English case such as “film”. “bitumen”. he/she is more likely to translate into Vietnamese like this: “Kiểm tra thử quá trình phong hóa của màng sơn”. “panel”… depending on the context. . English. but it is also a rendering of career concepts from one language to another. The word “phong hóa” is only inferred from the translator who does not know the method and the properties of paint. 1. Translation is not simply a linguistic transformation of texts.wikipedia. and which terminology he uses can a translator make the technician understand the handouts.14 On the contrary. This is problematic for speakers of the Vietnamese language who cannot as easily convert nouns to verbs. “coating”.

Main characteristics of language of paints 2. This study can be limited to one language or can cover more than one language at the same time (multilingual terminology.15 Shipbuilding. More details will be discussed in Chapter 3 about translation strategies and how to avoid mistakes. through research and analysis of terms in context. “for the sake of pure language” (Venuti. be it linguistic or cultural. Construction or Banking. the shortened form of technical terms (or terms of art) which are defined within a discipline or specialized field. bilingual terminology. and so forth) or may focus on studies of terms across fields.com/terminology). for the purposes of documenting and promoting correct usage. there are always strategies for certain mistakes correction. DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED DOCUMENTS This chapter presents the necessary understandings of the paint terminology and its characteristics. Unless a translator is capable of breaking through “decayed barriers” of his own career competence and opening his mind to new and sometimes alien concepts. The discipline Terminology studies among other things how such terms of art come to be and their interrelationships within a culture. not merely a rough combination of words.1. it is noteworthy that despite many challenges when translating from English to Vietnamese and despite the actual untranslatability. 2.1. find their own ways to overcome them to produce a high quality re-creation. terminology is defined as the study of terms and their use. Terminology According to Wikipedia (http://wikipedia. Terminology. skilled translators still can. denotes a more formal discipline which systematically studies the labeling or designating of concepts particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activities. and must. therefore. his translation cannot be considered successful. CHAPTER 2. Stock Exchange. . In other words. Terms are words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. Not to be confused with "terms" in colloquial usages. Inspecting.1. To conclude this chapter. and the documents as well as three types of mistakes will also be described. 2000).

epoxy.1. Homo sapiens.e. index terms) used in an information retrieval context are not the same as "terms" used in the context of terminology. biocide. “to declare” instead of the verbs “to say”.1. In the field of paint translation.2. Field is a variant used for reflective language to emphasize terminology. it is very difficult to translate from English into Vietnamese because English in technical documents has been developed for a long time in the developed countries with high technology. Characteristics of paint terminology 2. a group of people or a specific field. The system of terminology of science and technology is often Latin words such as: otorhinolaryngology.1. 2. “to state”. as they are not always technical terms of art. 2. electro-encephalography. Take these examples relating to the dialect of British English and American English: British English Depot Flammable Gear level Mobile phone Polystyrene * Register Register is one kind of language variants used for one specific situation.2. especially in the field of paint.2. alkyd. Origin of terminology Terminology of paint lies in the area of science and technology.1.2. The challenges in Vietnamese here must be finding out the field of American English Terminal Inflammable Stick shift Cell phone Styrofoam . etc or comes from Latin: “to assert”. Variants of terminology * Dialects Dialect is commonly used in a community. In three parameters of register which are Field. One of the most characterized variants in English technical documents is geographical dialect between English language of British English and of American English.16 Terminology is not connected to information retrieval in any way but focused on the meaning and conveyance of concepts. “to purify” instead of the verb “to clean”. “to contaminate” instead of the verbs “to soil”. "Terms" (i. acrylic. Tenor and Mode.

“Bền mãi với thời gian”. "environment-friendly". “long-live performance” which have different meanings and are translated generally into Vietnamese "thân thiện với người dùng". thân thiện với môi trường”.2. Results from data collection . . there are many types of technical documents.Documents for coating testing methods: coming form ASTM.Technical documents: painting specifications. safety data sheets. “cellosovle”. Description of documents 2. Besides.1. painting maintenance….Bidding documents: painting systems applied for the projects. color cards .2. construction documents in which there are the components of paint requirements. “solvesso”. "thân thiện với gia đình". some terms are rarely used and cannot be found out in the dictionary of Oxford such as “polymer ester silyl”.Advertisement: Catalogues.2. 2. chemistry subjects. "family-friendly". ISO.Certificates: product certificates. TCVN.2. which are used not only in the field of paint but in other industries as well. quality certificates… . Paint technical documents can take from many places which can be either the paint specific documents or other documents such as projects. technical data sheets. international standard books. 2. Classifying the documents In this study. contracts. etc. JIS-K (Japan). . guidance of paint application.17 meaning which has the same one with the long development history of English technical documents. “silance". Apart from the ordinary documents used for daily conversation such as letters. turnover reports… . The most typical examples are words "user-friendly".

This can be explained that these types of documents need to be shown in the world. From the observation. sentence and paragraph.18 This section presents the results collected from the survey and from observation of 15 translators who work with 5 types of documents. the some main points will be discussed as follows. All of them are going to be discussed in the Chapter 3 after the analysis of the results in this chapter. there are many sheets of documents which the translators work with everyday.2 translators S explains for mistakes of 2 – 4 translators U explains for mistakes of 4 – 8 translators A explains for mistakes of > 8 translators From the result of the survey. especially to the customers who buy the paints products. Of course. in each type of document.2 (Note: N-never. Word R A R S A Sentence R U N S O Paragraph R U N S O . O-often. So. A-always is frequency of mistakes) In the tables 2.2. which helps the manufacturer get the belief from the customers. three most common mistakes are found out. the researcher has worked with 75 sheets of technical documents. study the below: Mistake level Document Advertisement Technical documents Certificates Bidding documents Testing methods Table 2. In the limit of time and area of presentation. they are mistakes at three levels of word. N explains for mistakes of 0 translators O explains for mistakes of 0 . The correctness must be highest. U-usually. S-sometimes. * It is very important that the documents of advertisement and certificates get the lowest level of mistakes. R-rarely.

chapter 3 will be discussed the way how to correct mistakes. They often include at least 5 pages. If there is no practice in the field of paint. these types of documents are quite common and contain a few of technical words. That is why they are easy to be translated with so few mistakes. the researcher discovers that these documents contain so many terms (technical words) that make the translators feel dizzy. That is why the mistakes are unavoidable at all levels of word.19 On the other hands. They can understand all the documents. Besides. It is the reason why the frequency of mistakes in all levels is the problem for the translators. in the translation between English and Vietnamese. bidding documents are often longer than certificates and advertisement. However. the mistakes at sentence level and paragraph level are the important things that need taking care of and avoiding. Most of these documents are only used for the technicians. or they are always in the specific form. In general. and they apply the knowledge to their experiments. Coming from these matters. From the researcher’s survey. . even 100 pages. this chapter reviews the mistakes levels basing on the characteristics of paint terminology. they cannot translate these types of documents. All types of document have been scanned by researcher in the appendix of this thesis. it has been revealed that the most common mistakes are at word level. * The same explanation for the bidding documents. However. sentence and paragraph. * The differences in the documents of technology and testing methods are easily recognized.

Mistake analysis Take a look at these documents: .1.20 CHAPTER 3. MISTAKE ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MISTAKE CORRECTION 3.

It supplies the information of one kind of paint. And this is Vietnamese version from an unskilled translator .21 This is the document coming from Japan.

22 Comparing with the translated version of a skilled one: .

The same as the word resin. Some words can be translated Solvent (dung môi) A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid. Vehicle (chất mang. In fact in the field of paint. which leads to wrong translation. terminology is used fluently or not. Resin (chất tạo màng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. In my opinion. I will analyze all the mistakes in the way of basing on the collected documents characteristics. Incompetence in properties of paint For the best translators. dung môi dẫn) = solvent + resin When looking at the word ”vehicle”. leaving the dissolved substance behind. we think it is like ”car”. in Vietnamese. or gaseous solute. resulting in a solution. vehicle is a kind of chemical substance.1. Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. we often consider it “nhựa”. Study these examples: a.1. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation. These are called organic solvents. or something relates to the moving machine. easy to be remembered or not. liquid.23 And now. the most important thing is terminology. Here are some other examples: Wall-paint (sơn nước): is the same meaning with emulsion paint . The most common solvent in everyday life is water. However. “truck”. there are three kinds of mistakes that the translators are more likely to make: 3. the translators must analyze deeply each related word to the field of paint in both English and Vietnamese languages.

. In this case. borrowing is very much likely a solution. Therefore. there are many new words which must be used in English original sound or word. Etching: is the coating of primer 3. the proud with every project long live performance” “Công trình” In English: “Experience” “Đầu tư” In English: “Member” It is clear to see that “Công trình” and “Experience”. as well as “Đầu tư” and “Member” is not correct translation. For example: Base: the basing substance to constitute a coating Paste: a kind of coating substance is ready to replace coating with some added powders. (Someone that does not work in paint will translate “chất làm cứng”) Silicon Coating: sơn chịu nhiệt Touch-up: Sơn dặm Striped coat: Sơn lưng b. therefore. experience means all the projects in which paint product are used.2. Some words have no Vietnamese equivalent. cannot be translated into Vietnamese. Context matters Study these examples: “Sơn Hải Phòng.24 Hardener (đóng rắn): used to make the paint film be created in chemical reaction. In the technical documents. But in the context of advertising the experience of the paint projects which Haiphong paint has supplied. niềm tự hào cùng mọi công trình bền mãi với thời gian” In English: “Haiphong paint.1.

3. These people often see the word “license” and they understand what it means. However. That’s why. the would-be translator must make an effort to correct the mistake basing on the basic grammar and career experience. Trên cơ sở kinh nghiệm.1. The matter here is mistake in grammar. they are the members of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company.25 In the case of member. it appears that the grammar applied is something wrong. Basing the experience from the colleagues who work as qualified translators. Habit of English translator In this part. công nghệ truyền thống đặc biệt được chuyển giao công nghệ sản xuất sơn theo Lixăng của hãng Chugoku Marine Paints” In English: “Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company was established in 25th January 1960. Some suggested ways to correct the mistakes will be discussed in section 3. it will become the big problems in the future.2. there is no Subject for the second sentence. there are many mistakes and misunderstanding in the process of translation. But up to now. below. In English version.3. special technology licensed from Lixang Technology of Chugoku Marine Paints of Japan” We can see the bold words. . Moreover. Lixăng is used very naturally because the translators always hear about the lixăng from Vietnamese people who are not professional in English. is like shareholder. what is heard (the sound) becomes the word in writings. in fact. they have been running independently from Haiphong Paint JS Company. Take a look at the following examples: “Công ty cổ phần Sơn Hải Phòng thành lập ngày 25 tháng 01 năm 1960. whenever they want to use it. In general. when we look at the above paragraph. they are subsidiary companies. they use the word “lixăng As a result. I would like to mention the bad habit of the translators which is repeatedly and unconsciously used. if the translators can not correct them immediately. the capital which is invested from Haiphong Paint JC Company. In fact. Basing on the long-timed experience.

he also needs flexibility in the use of words and does not translate mechanically basing on an English – Vietnamese dictionary.1.1. They have a relatively good sense of plural and singular form in English – Vietnamese translation. . Translate English nouns with Vietnamese verbs or adjectives . Besides. problems can only be solved if the translator works hard to accumulate both his English and Vietnamese vocabulary to a level that he is capable of choosing the right word in any case to produce a natural translation.Paint is a long-live performance product: Sơn bền mãi với thời gian . Choose the right word At the level of words.It is a coating of cutting and weldability: Đó là lớp sơn bền hàn cắt. The following examples are extracted from some paint translators. Overcoming linguistic problems 3.2. They may be the strategies to overcome linguistic difficulties. It is crucial for a translator to fully understand all the denotations and connotations of a word so that he can avoid making any loss of connotational meanings.It is the shop with the red and green sign: Đó là cửa hàng có biển hiệu xanh đỏ. 3.1. To do that. . Recommendations for mistake correction It is highly recommended that translators and translation learners equip themselves with as many translation techniques as possible.2. This is particularly noticeable as we deal with English uncountable nouns. the translator must avoid the rigid use of parts of speech with the following techniques: a. Plural form to singular form and vice versa Translation at word level includes the ability to proper switch between the plural form and singular form so that the translation best suits the mindset of Vietnamese readers. b. or the tactics to make your translation widely accepted by target language readers in specific English terms.26 3.2.

ensuring the properties of thép và đảm bảo được các chỉ tiêu về độ phủ. At phrase level. độ dày cũng như các chỉ tiêu cơ lý và coverage.2. Coating is created on the steel Lớp sơn được hình thành trên bề mặt surface. it is meant both the structure of the phrase and the sentence. you should make a transposition. Table 3. phụ gia để tạo nên sản phẩm sơn. (ASTM D1014. At sentence level. market achievement.1. a. Vietnam ink and paint Association is Hiệp hội sơn mực Việt Nam vẫn đang in the process pursuing solutions of a tìm kiếm giải pháp cho những cải cách công number of technology improvement and nghệ và tìm mở rộng thị trường. Transpositions Transposition is a translation technique in which the translator reverses the order or place of certain words or phrases when necessary to improve the naturalness of the sentence. are mixed in additives to dung môi và bột màu. Choose the right structure By structure. translators should choose the best word order possible so that their translation would sound more Vietnamese.1. hóa học. For example. 5. in pre-mixing with solvent and Suggested Vietnamese version Chất tạo màng được trộn với các loại color pigment. when translating this English sentence into Vietnamese. it is necessary not only to switch the positions of certain parts of the sentence but also to replace some structures unfamiliar to Vietnamese readers.2. Original version: Allow the proper drying time between coat for multiple paint systems and before exposure as required by the coatings manufacturer and include in the test.27 English Resins. Switch between plural and singular form 3. sau đó nghiền với các produce paint. thickness as well as chemical and physical.1) Suggested Vietnamese version: .

can make the sentence too complicated for an average Vietnamese reader to fully understand. most of the times. The result should be “Trong số những nghiên cứu về sơn quan trọng không chỉ đối chất lượng sơn mà còn với môi trường biển. Replacements Replace passive voice with active voice: Needless to say. b. precautions must be taken to preserve the clean surface. For example. trước khi sơn lên tấm mẫu. The excessive use of markers like “mà”. free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more. cần xác định thời gian khô cụ thể. công nghệ chống hà không chứa hợp chất cơ thiếc và đồng được chú trọng cải tiến. Suggested Vietnamese version: Sau khi chuẩn bị bề mặt xong. the solution is breaking it into smaller ones to translate. or ‘salami’ technique): It would be unnatural to try to translate an English long complex sentence to a Vietnamese sentence of the same structure.28 Trước khi thi công các lớp sơn theo đúng yêu cầu của nhà sản xuất hoặc theo hệ thống sơn nhiều lớp cũng như tiến hành thử nghiệm. chúng ta cần chú ý giữ sạch bề mặt mẫu. “nơi mà”. passive voice in the original English text should be replaced with active voice in Vietnamese. which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels. Phương pháp tốt nhất này . Observe the replacements in these sentences: Original version: After surface preparation. which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis”. with sentences like “Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment. etc. if the panels are stored prior to coating. Replace a complex sentence with two or more simple sentences (Splitting technique.

Cả hai loại đều là sơn lót và Cera best có đặc tính chống rỉ nhiều hơn. heat resistant performance. We visited 2 shipyards at Hiroshima where one kind of shop primer (Cerabond 2000) is applied only whereas other coatings are supplied by Hempel. Consider the following short paragraph: Nowadays. In any areas of a job.2.2. Dealing with linguistic untranslatability It is never easy to deal with linguistic challenges in translation. However. Cerabond 2000 is the most effective shop primer coating. translators should keep in mind that sometimes an effort to translate correctly is not as valuable as a suitable substitution. Chúng ta cần phải phân biệt hai loại sơn Cerabond và Cerabest. we must understand the properties of paint which can only help to translate. chịu nhiệt. Terminology competence To avoid mistakes over issues of terminology. Both are inorganic coating but Cerabond is shop primer type and Cerabest is looked as an anti-corrosive one. Chúng tôi đã thăm 2 nhà máy đóng tàu tại Hiroshima nơi mà Cerabond 2000 đã được thi công trong khi các sơn phủ khác là của hãng Hempel. 3. NMK… Shop primer and anti corrosive are the same. Cerabond 2000 là loại sơn lót hiệu quả nhất. KCC. KCC. people get many difficulties to get acquainted with the . there are techniques that translators can apply when necessary for the untranslatability to some extent. Overcoming terminology problems 3.29 là để giải các chất chống hà và tạo nên quá trình chống hà thông qua các giai đoạn thủy phân” 3.2. such as specific English words in documents. but in above case. This kind is very difficult unless you have a copious linguistic and even terminology. NMK… It would be rather unwise to translate it as: Ngày nay.2. It is necessary to distinguish between Cerabond and Cerabest. customers prefer inorganic shop primer to epoxy shop primer because they have high weldabilily.1.2.3. khách hàng ưa chuộng các loại sơn lót vô cơ hơn là sơn lót gốc epoxy bởi chúng có khả năng chịu hàn cắt.1.

2. we find it easy to look for some English specific word has the meaning similar to the major use.2. 1. A translator. For example. even in Vietnamese. an adaptation is a translation procedure whereby the translator replaces the terms reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text. Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary. hàm không bay hơi – Nonvolatile content”. in the Vietnamese chemical documents. In paint field.2. The names are presented in the following table: No. we say “tâm tuyến” in Vietnamese. Consider the meaning of the terminology. we can not understand what it means.antirust. especially academic ones. a. According to Wikipedia. which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. For example. “bền thời tiết – weathering”. anticorrosive”.30 terminology. At first we hear it. “chống rỉ . “undercoat”. easy to notice and can remember. however. Dealing with terminology untranslatability Untranslatability is unavoidable due to the numerous differences between the two languages. “bền uốn – bending”. “anti rust”… 3. in construction. and we can not explain it in Vietnamese. we often get the terms such as “hàm rắn. we find it difficult to know how to use it. “hàm ẩm . English Chrome Vietnamese Cờ rôm . many proper names are modified so that it would at least sound familiar to Vietnamese readers. This requires all translators to ceaselessly enrich their vocabulary.humidity”. They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. “finish”. “humidity”. Free translation In some studies. “chống hà – antifouling” . For example. can resort to a number of translation procedures to compensate. this new reality would be more usual to the audience of the target text. free translation is also called adaptation. But when we say it in English “center-line”. When we gets the Vietnamese words.

Vietnamese people are now familiar with terms like “người chơi” (indicating a player in a gameshow). It can be said that these names have been made Vietnamese.” (Nguyễn Mạnh Hùng & Lê Quốc Hạnh. “thân thiện với môi trường” (environmental friendly). Polyurethane Epoxy Alkyd Rubber Chlorided Pô li u rê than Ê pốc xi An kít Cao su clo hóa Table 3.loan. the words “tỷ lệ base và đóng rắn”. c. it would be almost impossible for target language readers to comprehend the concepts unprecedented in their culture. “sơn lưng”… In these examples. 4. Free translation of proper names All the above names are also the same as the original English because Vietnamese readers can immediately relate them to some image on their mind. many words must come from the English specific terms which makes the translators and readers be able to understand. It has been discussed in many books on lexicology and translation. and “định hướng khách hàng” (client. In fact. 5. . 3. What the thesis wants to emphasize is the translation. 2003) Translation-loans do not only resolve problems of terminology untranslatability but also help increase one language’s vocabulary.oriented). b. special kind of borrowings. For instance.31 2.2. Borrowing Borrowing is not a new method. but undergo the process of translation. Otherwise. it is very difficult to take in if we translate “base/harderner rate – tỷ lệ chất nền/đóng rắn” or some time of the use of “sơn lưng” makes it more difficult for the readers to understand instead of “stripe coat”. Paraphrase and translator’s note We can see that the translators sometimes should employ the technique of paraphrasing (also known as periphrasis). Translation-loans “are not taken into the vocabulary of another language more or less in the same phonemic shape in which they have been functioning in their own language. in paint constitution. For example.

translators can also use techniques like paraphrase or calque. However. nevertheless. . the translator may keep the original word or phrase without paraphrasing. the terminology or any further explanation. This translator’s note helps readers better understand the text. but then add a footnote or endnote to the target text providing additional information. pertaining to the limits of the translation. Besides. these techniques cannot be used successfully without the translator’s willingness to diligently study with a view to gaining his terminology along with his linguistic competence. it is generally considered a failure in translation attempt by many professional translators.32 On the other hand. The above-mentioned techniques are useful for translators when trying to compensate the untranslatability.

This is to show translators. the translation procedure (choosing equivalents for words and sentences in the target language). etc. . What I attempt to do in this thesis is to contribute my humble study to that great research work by pointing out the mistakes in Paint technical documents to clarify English terminology and Vietnamese terminology that may trouble whom working in translation which is very close to my everyday work. the interpretation and analysis of the source language text. the appropriate norms of the target language. 1. a brief overview and a summary of the main chapters are provided. the study on translation as the transformation of a written text in one language to that in another language has been carried out long before the formation of this thesis and undoubtedly will be continued ever after. huge efforts are needed to improve the quality of translations. and c. the reformulation of the text according to the writer's intention. Although the practice of translation is honored for its noble task. Summary of main points Since its very beginning.33 PART 3. Thus. CONCLUSION This chapter provides a conclusion for this thesis. Peter Newmark wrote in 1988 about the three basic translation processes: a. the potential traps they may get caught in when rendering English texts into Vietnamese in terms of technical documents. suggestion for further research and a final comment are made. the reader's expectation. Finally. especially would-be translators who are still studying in various universities in Vietnam to become translation professionals. the strengths and weaknesses of the thesis are discussed. Firstly. translation has not ceased to play its indispensable role of transferring messages across languages and cultural barriers. Secondly. b.

. Furthermore. 2. however. especially would-be translators and inexperienced ones to be fully aware of what mistakes they may easily make before seeking ways to avoid them. people can find clear definitions and constructive suggestions for mistakes corrections. Specific examples are taken from technical documents and bidding documents and from previously published books. Part II of this thesis discusses the mistakes analysis and translation recommendations a translator may employ when encountering a difficult situation in which he may risk turning his translation into an wrong combination of words. the others are briefly mentioned as they may have appeared frequently here and there in other publications. the author limited the types of mistakes mentioned to ensure they are popular ones that translators should pay the most attention to. Then I looked at the semantically terminologies mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English in detail. In the course of this thesis. By the classification and examples cited as well as the description of selected documents. It is organized in a way that helps readers find it easy to get the general ideas about the issue. In this thesis. however. I attempted to help readers of this thesis. the causes and corrections. The causes of terminology mistakes in the paint document translation as discussed in Part 2 can be considered a classification of common mistakes that may make the translations get in trouble. Finally. I have examined the previous literature on the theory of translation. This thesis. These are factors that may make the thesis stand out from other studies also touching on the issue. the reformulation of the text. few of them emphasize the mistakes occurring during the process of translation. discusses in detail this phenomenon with relevant examples. Especially chapter 3. Some of recommendations are emphasized for they are likely to help translators much in their professional practice. especially ones on English – Vietnamese translation. I outlined the analysis of this issue in three main parts on mistakes in translation. the aims and scope of the thesis is consistent from the beginning to the end.34 This thesis is concerned with only the third process. Some conclusions induced from the results of the study Though there have been many books on English –Vietnamese translation so far.

Moreover. its strengths and limitations. Besides.35 3. more studies should be carried out to identify and how to cope with common mistakes in these translations. there are some limitations in this study. issues mentioned are still somewhat general. I want to significantly contribute to the study of English – Vietnamese translations in universities and on the media through this thesis. 4. Limitations of the study Although the thesis has been completed. Digging into current publications to find common pitfalls recommended. Vietnam will further integrate into the world economy and the opening economic policies will need the demand for communication in English. examples cited are limited due to the short-time exploration from the author and some books and articles sparsely collected. studies on what can be called a pure Vietnamese language and how to maintain it through the processes of translation should be implemented. Hopefully. This does not cause any bias because the classification was carried out independently. These studies are supposed to bring readers an overview of the contemporary situation of Vietnamese translated works. it can be considered a companion of all people who are seeking to improve their English – Vietnamese translation skills as well as the quality of their translations. Due to the limited time of research and the broad scope it is concerned with. This progress requires translations of high quality. But to some extent it may not be very diverse. especially for the specifically technical companies. that may harm the quality of translations is . Thus. Suggestions for further study In the time to come. In my opinion. mainly from English to Vietnamese and vice versa. In conclusion. and how to improve it. readers of this thesis can find it useful in their work and study or at least see it as a reference worth looking at.

Hanoi: Education Publishing House.html 4.) Theory of Translation.d. UK. Rout ledge Taylor and Francis group. 2006. Lê Huy Trường. Catchword (n. Combining Translation into the Second Language and Second Language Learning: An Integrated Computational Approach.catch-word. 2. 7. 6.36 REFERENCES 1. Retrieved May 17. the University of Edinburgh. 8. Hanoi: Culture and Information Publishing House. New York: Prentice Hall. S.com/glossary. P. 2006. Nguyễn Quốc Hùng (2005). Glossary of Naming Techniques and Linguistic Concepts. Interpreting and Translation Course Book.d.edu.Việt . Doctoral dissertation. from http://www. Bassnett. (2002). & Đặng Xuân Thu (1999 ). 9. 1988). (October. from http://www. C. Hanoi: Education Publishing House. Bùi Tiến Bảo. Hanoi: Social Sciences Publishing House. Huỳnh Trung Tín. A Textbook of Translation. 3. Shei. Đặng Đình Thiện. Hướng dẫn kỹ thuật dịch Anh .htm 5. 2006. & Nguyễn Ngọc Tuyền (n. Newmark. Translation studies. & Trần Huy Phương (1998 ).ctu. A Grammar of the English Language.vn/coursewares/supham/ltdich/index. 2002. Retrieved May 10. . Translation and Grammar.). Lê Văn Sự (2003). Retrieved May 9.

2006.pdf . The Translation Studies Reader. 11. from www. Venuti.htm 10. (2001).uk/cals/staff/shei/phd2/thesis_revised2. Yan Fu and the Tasks of the Translators (p.37 from http://www. Wright. L.ac. 4).swan.wsc.uni-erlangen. Retrieved April 28. D. London: Routledge. (2000).de/pdf/wright.

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