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PART I. INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In the process of worldwide industrialization, the needs for studying English become more and more inevitable. Especially for the knowledge of the specific job, translators must understand deeply all the skills of the job and must be ready for the translation into second language if necessary. In Vietnam, anyone coming into career, he or she must prepare all the knowledge of job not only in Vietnamese but in English as well. Deriving from translating technical documents of the paint company, the researcher realizes the mistakes in translating paint documents which made by himself or by his colleagues Certainly, in order to get the skills of translation better, anyone who works as translators should analyze thoroughly the mistakes and find out the solutions to correct and avoid in the future. 2. Aims of study and research questions Analysis on semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English is a very complicated matter for the researchers, especially for the translators in the field of paint terminology in particular and in English in general. The study aims at: - Finding out the mistakes in translating paint terminology from English into Vietnamese with the specific evidences. - Suggesting the solutions to the problems to improve the current situation of translating and avoid mistakes in the future. Thanks to these ideas, the researcher will be aware of some suitable ways to avoid the mistakes and correct themselves at work. * Some research questions deducted from the study are as follows: - What are the mistakes that the translators make when translating the documents?
- What are the solutions to these problems? 3. Scope of study In this study, it is impossible to cover all the mistakes - concerning matters. The researcher just focuses on the documents that he has been translated from English into Vietnamese – basing on his experience on the paint document translation. And from comparison with another 15 translators in 5 sheets of technical documents, the researcher takes the most popular examples that he has observed, he recognizes three of the most common mistakes in the translated documents as follows: - At word level: Resin (chất tạo màng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. (Someone translates resin into “nhựa”.) Vehicle (chất mang, dung môi dẫn) = solvent + binder resin (Someone translates vehicle into “phương tiện”.) - At sentence level: “Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan.” Vietnamese sentence must be “Công nghệ Hải Phòng bản quyền của hãng Chugoku – Nhật Bản”, but some translators take in Vietnamese as “Công nghệ của công ty Sơn Hải Phòng là theo li xăng của hãng Sơn Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. - At paragraph level “Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment, free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more, which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels, which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis”. The result should be “Trong số những nghiên cứu về sơn quan trọng không chỉ đối chất lượng sơn mà còn với môi trường biển, công nghệ chống hà không chứa hợp chất cơ thiếc và đồng được chú trọng cải tiến. Phương pháp tốt nhất này là để giải các chất chống hà và tạo nên quá trình chống hà thông qua các giai đoạn thủy phân” The investigated issues in relation to the research are as follows:
- A general view of paint technical and other documents - An analysis of the meanings of all the paint terminology and the mistakes created in translation. 4. Methods of research Initializing the study, the researcher take advantages of some methods which help him do the research in the right direction. There are two methods the researcher uses are survey coming from documents observation and statistics applied with analysis and synthesis. Encouraging two above methods, the researcher carries out the corresponding tasks as - Collecting and classifying examples and - Comparing the usage of language between Vietnamese and English 5. Instruments for data collection, subjects Deriving from the career, the researcher finds the subject of the study and makes an effort to deal with. It is obvious that working as a translator of the paint documents, the researcher has ever got the difficulties in the job. ”Mistakes and how to correct them in translating”, which is the reason for the subject. The two data collection instruments used in the study are Description of experience and Description of observation. * Description of experience To fulfill this study, the researcher has worked at Haiphong Paint Join Stock Company for over 3 years. The experience he can get is through such all the documents he has done with in translation as Technical data sheets, paint specifications, catalogue, and color collection cards, etc. And some international documents which are related to the Paint Marketing and paint checking are ASTM (American Standard for Testing Measurement), ISO (International Standard Organization), and JIS (Japanese International Standard), TCVN (Vietnamese Standard).
the thesis is composed of three main parts: Part 1. the competition among companies is higher and more technological. the researcher shows the document in the form of the assessment and classification of all the documents. scope of the study. the researcher has ever been trained on paint production. and presentation. table of content and appendices. . in the laboratory of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company (1 year) and in Technical Service Department (over 2 years). 6. the subject. All these things can improve the knowledge of the researcher in both English and Vietnamese deeply. and the information must be updated regularly and immediately. which can help the researcher understand and translate paint documents into a second language easily.Basing on the research methodology and some kinds of analysis. . Introduction includes the rationale. method of research with instruments for data collection.Overviewing of all the documents and finding out the general mistakes. methods of data analysis. That is the reason why website is a useful instrument to get the information the most easily. * Description of observation The researcher is professional in the field of paint. In the fact of worldwide economy. To help himself be able to understand all the phenomena of paint checking and inspection. Structure of thesis Apart from the acknowledgement. Methods of data analysis and presentation The data or documents for this study are analyzed and shown in the methods of . after that.4 Paint companies’ websites are also the resources for the researcher to do the study. There are so many paint companies in the world. checking and inspection at Technical center in Japan (2 months). especially paint document translation. aims of study and research questions. 7.
Description of selected documents basing on the analysis of characteristics of paint terminology. importance of developing translating skill and the main reasons for translating mistakes. Development consists of three chapters: Chapter 1.5 Part 2. Chapter 3. Conclusion involves a brief summary of main points. Mistake analysis. Literature review discusses the definition of translation. recommendations for mistake correction Part 3. Chapter 2. limitations of the study and some suggestions for further study . the functions of translation. some conclusions induced from the results of the study.
he/she is always trying to extent his/her knowledge and improve his/her means of expression. the language user may be pretending to be someone he/she is not. 1.2.1. it may be seen as complicated. And.en. It is used for multilingual notices in public places. as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. working in translation has its own interests and its own excitement. for instructions issued by companies. “Translation consists of producing in the target language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message. since by using another language. so a satisfactory translation is always possible." (www. symbols (both verbal and non-verbal) by means of other signs. On the other hand. Hence. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple." that communicates the same message in another language. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter focuses on the theoretical knowledge concerning semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English including factors affecting the translation for the people who read and write the paint technical documents. artificial and fraudulent. DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1. symbols in the same language or in other languages.” Nida (1959) Often it is rendering meaning of signs. but a perfect or ideal translated version may never be obtained. Functions of translation Translation functions as a means of communication and information transferring.6 PART II. Since a translator works on a text. the final product is sometimes called the "target text. likewise called a "translation. firstly with respect to meaning and secondly with respect to style. The text to be translated is called the "source text. he/she is always pursuing facts and words." and the language that it is to be translated into is called the "target language".org/wiki/Translation).wikipedia. 1. for technical staffs where it is too often produced from the native into the foreign language by . What is translation? Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text.
7 natives as a matter of nation pride. a text may be pulled in ten different directions: . papers. but in all paint documents. to convey information. for reports. articles. for official documents such as treaties and contracts. textbooks or for technical documents of for advertisement. Its volume has increased with the rise of new technology. notions. In the field of paint. sometimes we read a technical document. we must understand like “Industrial paint”. These are absorbed and considered in various directions and lead to the common agreement at different levels. HOW MANY FORCES PULL A TRANSLATION According to Peter New mark. may be understood “Nhiệm vụ nặng nề”. studying specific materials. the increase in the number of new inventions in science and the growth of the terminology. advice and recommendations for every branch of knowledge. Translation is greatly demanded for the need of common understanding among companies and technicians. and beliefs in the paint field to the others. it is really a meaningful word for the daily conversation but it can not be applied for the technical matter. correspondence. especially when translating such “semi-technical” terms. customs. bidding folio. Millions of books and texts translated everyday help to transfer ideas. For example the word “Heavy duty”. And this well-known example is repeatedly reminded by all translators as a valuable experience of profession. either fully or partly accepted. etc.
8 1. Then. Target language culture 10. when school begins. For the purpose of analysis. As the child grows in their language ability and use. children learn the skills of reading and writing. Importance of developing translating skill Although translating skill has been cared by anyone who is related to the reading and writing foreign language technical documents. These can be discussed in the framework of how we can understand our first language. Thanks to these skills coordination. language has been divided into different skill areas. Therefore. . Translator 8. this section is going to discuss the importance of translating the paint document along with the analysis of the knowledge for the translators of paint technical documents. the different skills are most often integrated with each other so that they are being used in coordination with each other. Source language settings and tradition 9. Source language culture 4. Source language writer 2.3. there are still many problems in reading and writing. Target language norms 7. 1. especially in translating. The truth (the facts of the matter) 5. combined with listening. the understanding of a language will be developed and can be improved day by day. Target language settings and tradition text Matters discussed in this study are involved in directions 3 and 7 between English and Vietnamese. These problems are the results of the translators’ unawareness of the translating skill. A child can first learn to practice language by speaking. Source language norms 3. Target language readership 6.
they cannot. After reading and listening. A qualified translator must have good background knowledge of the career in both languages . the translator responds and understands. when they can read out all the words in the document but they cannot understand what the meanings of the words are. it is also a requirement that a qualified translator has capability or skills of translating so as to transfer messages from Vietnamese into English and vice versa. Many people can read and understand the English technical documents but when they translate from Vietnamese into English. But how they can remember these words depends very much on how often they practice using them or writing them down in the memory books. the translators who have not much exposure to some rarely-used words. . you must practice English translating in daily life. Moreover. In a company.Vietnamese and English. all the activities of the translator are aimed to how they can understand technical terms and translate a technical document into another language. In general. Vietnamese is the answer but if you can understand English as well as Vietnamese. they may forget the meaning. It is true to say that being able to read all the words in a sentence is quite different from being able to comprehend or understand and analyze the technical terminologies and the English grammar with meanings. while a staff is reading an English document. Furthermore. This is very much like children. They have no solutions to remember these words. They can practice a foreign language day by day to create a new habit an understanding of a foreign language. Which do you understand more of? Of course. All they have to do is to have both the knowledge of their specialism or career and the ability of the second language understanding. which are easy to understand for all the learners of English as a second language. Just think of all English documents you read in one day and compare with the documents in Vietnamese.9 In the same way. The meaning of technical terminology is conveyed and understood in contexts. That is why the translating skill can be improved when they read the technical documents daily. but they still cannot translate well. he may also understand and translate it into Vietnamese immediately. the understanding of a foreign language can be built up and developed by learners. some translators have memorized hundreds of words and many grammar rules. For the purpose of foreign language translating.
4. many would-be translators learning at university nowadays do not know a remarkably large number of specific Vietnamese words are often used in technical documents. Reasons for translating mistakes There are. hence.1. That is to say that he/she is capable of using his mother tongue effectively to express the ideas. the source language. To be able to produce good translation. Subjective causes A translation of high quality must be the work of a skillful translator. in fact. In the English – Vietnamese translation. The incompetence may be of Vietnamese. “Finish” term . the target language is the Vietnamese language. Thus. is most of the time direct consequence of a poor or insufficient target language competence. especially when the text strictly requires proper writing style. the primary reason of a poor translation must be the insufficiency of the translator’s language competence. Noticeably. the translator must be competent in both the source and target languages and have extensive background knowledge of different fields. Language incompetence can be observed in the areas: the vocabulary and the grammatical structures. The followings are some typical factors affecting translating English documents. 1. one must be a good writer. Insufficient language competence First and foremost. Insufficient knowledge on either of the two areas may lead to translations of poor quality. Translation. * Insufficient target language (Vietnamese) competence Before becoming a translator. many things that contribute to the success of translators. and/or of English. the target language in English – Vietnamese translation. 1.10 1. the practice of translation belongs to the linguistic realm. This causes limitations in their practice of translation when they work for a company.1. let alone students who are still learning to become translators. only a few Vietnamese translators excel at their own mother tongue. Vietnamese is known for its sophisticated grammatical rules on which not all Vietnamese people hold appropriate knowledge.1. In fact.4.4.
it is very easy to translate into Vietnamese because it has the same meaning of the daily life when we do something okay. This requires all translators to ceaselessly enlarge their vocabulary. in shipbuilding field. * Insufficient source language (English) competence It is easy to learn English but it is difficult to master it. sometimes even more. To my mind. it means “sơn phủ” (the last paint layer in the painting system). it is difficult for them to have an expertlike English vocabulary as well as grammatical structures. this is a totally erroneous opinion. Besides. hence cannot translate naturally. a person must first and foremost be a bilingual. translators must master both the source and the target languages. it means “hoàn thiện” (complete a ship). They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. Some people think that lack of English language competence is justifiable for Vietnamese translators because it is not their mother tongue. and run-on sentences.11 likes these. Vietnamese grammatical structures are just as diverse as that of any other language. formal or informal. as observed. The more you learn. In this case. Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary. But in paint field. Vietnamese language users are known for over-using commas instead of conjunctions. the more complicated you find English is. Just like Vietnamese. translators must “equip” themselves with terminology vocabulary so as to be as flexible as possible in their translation. To better the quality of translation. Almost all English – Vietnamese translators are native Vietnamese or overseas Vietnamese. Lack of vocabulary in any of these layers may cause serious mistakes of a translated text. English contains many word layers. Most Vietnamese unskilled translators lack both . In other words. before becoming a translator. which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. Most Vietnamese people can intuitively use these structures but fail to connect them with certain foreign language. especially academic ones. Overcoming these weaknesses is crucial to the improvement of English – Vietnamese translations. Along with a considerable basic vocabulary that can be used in texts neutral in stylistics. therefore.
Haiphong Paint Company has been authorized from Chugoku Company to produce and sell paint products. for offshore projects.2.” and in Vietnamese “Công nghệ của công ty Sơn Hải Phòng là theo li xăng của hãng Sơn Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. This may explain why bilingual people are not always good translators. So. For example. That is why. and historical awareness. without which the translation would be made with mistakes. cấp quyền. and so on. for industry.12 the academic words in their English vocabulary. there are wrong habits of the translator. shipbuilding industry. bản quyền. we should understand the suitable meaning like “bản quyền”. comparing between a sentence in English: “Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan. Finally. Maybe.1. “Li xăng” is the borrowing word which has been used so much by the translator that he forgets the original meaning of “license” to be “bản quyền”. such as religions. But in this case. So Vietnamese sentence must be “Công nghệ Hải Phòng bản quyền của hãng Chugoku – Nhật Bản”. we must understand all kind of paints: paint for ships. đăng ký”. The art of translation requires a lot more than proficiency in languages. chứng chỉ. be aware of the differences between the two languages so that he/she can easily find an equivalent whenever necessary or at least know how to make himself/herself understood when encountering untranslatable concepts. this includes competent knowledge of almost all aspects. 1. they tend to abuse the words and phrases they know and risk making themselves sound improper in certain contexts. First is Haiphong Paint and “Công ty sơn Hải Phòng” because the translator always considers Haiphong Paint Company is unique. This kind of combined knowledge can be gained . etc. And the same thing in “License” and “li xăng”. One of the other crucial criteria is the terminology. “License” as you know. it is critical to understand that the sufficiency in both languages is not enough for a translator. as anything about Haiphong Paint is about Haiphong Paint Company. On the other hand. traditional customs. In the process of translation.4. Or other fields related to the paint industry such as construction. But this sentence has been used for advertisement to show the power and authorization. The meaning “giấy phép” seems to be used for the laws documents and for registration. traffic road. has some meanings such as “giấy phép. social norms. for architecture. He/she needs to flexibly compare and contrast. Inadequate terminology In fact. In paint industry. bằng cấp.
without their own efforts to explore new things. English goes by very strict structures while the Vietnamese language is much more flexible. Therefore the two languages have various differences in terms of vocabulary and grammatical rules. only a few translators are aware of this. One of the big problems here is that office staffs can do everything in Vietnamese but if there are any documents in foreign language or even they must contact with foreigners. with a view to clarifying one important objective reason of mistakes in English – Vietnamese translation. “sơn chống rỉ”.4. This is also the main cause of the so-called “disaster of the translation art”. Linguistic differences between English and Vietnamese The English language belongs to the Indo-European language family. …depending on the context. “sơn lót phân xưởng”. However. we will see that it is not easy to be an expert in various Vietnamese techniques. hotels or companies. “sơn lớp nền”. the Vietnamese language does not always use articles and the rules are not as clear as those of the English language. Recently. For example. after graduating from universities. Vietnamese people know about this but the knowledge they acquire.4. students know just a little about the companies today and these companies are related to each other. Some English vocabulary is peculiar. . they get into so much difficulty. is obviously inadequate.13 along with the process of learning English and learning translation.2. and the Vietnamese language belongs to the Austro-Asiatic family. the Vietnamese language.2. As a result. Objective causes 1. It is crucial that translators also pay much attention to their own language.1. Delving deeper into this colorful technology. some prominent variances are mentioned below: English grammar is very inflexible compared to other languages. Nevertheless. A word in English may mean a lot of other words in Vietnamese. you may translate the word “primer” as “sơn lót”. “sơn lớp 1”. 1. there is a great spreading of learning English of the office staffs who are working at banks. For instance.
The word “phong hóa” is only inferred from the translator who does not know the method and the properties of paint. “panel”… depending on the context. Therefore. in Vietnamese: “Phong hóa là quá trình phá hủy đá. ”layer” …. He/she can translate everything but sometimes correctly or incorrectly. only by understanding which career he is in. The technicians cannot fully understand it until they look at the translated handouts. he/she is more likely to translate into Vietnamese like this: “Kiểm tra thử quá trình phong hóa của màng sơn”. but for the qualified translator.org/wiki/Phong_h%C3%B3a). Paint is also test under the condition of weather influence. the understanding of the terminology in the job he/she translate is very important. It can be said for sure that if anyone who knows little about paint field.2. he/she must take in that “weathering” is a testing method for the paint under all the natural and human factors influence happening in the environment. This is problematic for speakers of the Vietnamese language who cannot as easily convert nouns to verbs. Some careers are in the same row such as Marine time.2. This problem comes from inexperienced translators. Career differences For a translator. soils and their minerals through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere”. or “mẫu sơn” is the same as “specimen”.14 On the contrary.4. English. especially American English. They think “Weathering is the decomposition of Earth rocks. but it is also a rendering of career concepts from one language to another. For examples: a word “weather” you write down in the form of gerund “weathering” in the sentence “Testing method for coating weathering”. đất và các khoáng vật chứa trong đó khi tiếp xúc trực tiếp với môi trường không khí” (http://vi. . Translation is not simply a linguistic transformation of texts. “bitumen”. “paint”.native English speakers to get a full command of the language. All of these peculiarities of English grammar often make it difficult for non. 1.wikipedia. It is also difficult when it comes to translating English writing into other languages. “varnish”. has a tendency to convert nouns to verbs. a Vietnamese word “sơn” has many meanings in translated English case such as “film”. “lacquer”. “sample”. and which terminology he uses can a translator make the technician understand the handouts. “coating”. It is completely correct if it is translated into Vietnamese “Phương pháp thử độ bền thời tiết của sơn”.
DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED DOCUMENTS This chapter presents the necessary understandings of the paint terminology and its characteristics. therefore. bilingual terminology. terminology is defined as the study of terms and their use.1. and must. Terms are words and compound words that are used in specific contexts.1. Construction or Banking. the shortened form of technical terms (or terms of art) which are defined within a discipline or specialized field. Main characteristics of language of paints 2. To conclude this chapter. there are always strategies for certain mistakes correction. . The discipline Terminology studies among other things how such terms of art come to be and their interrelationships within a culture. denotes a more formal discipline which systematically studies the labeling or designating of concepts particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activities. find their own ways to overcome them to produce a high quality re-creation. CHAPTER 2. and so forth) or may focus on studies of terms across fields. More details will be discussed in Chapter 3 about translation strategies and how to avoid mistakes. This study can be limited to one language or can cover more than one language at the same time (multilingual terminology. through research and analysis of terms in context. Unless a translator is capable of breaking through “decayed barriers” of his own career competence and opening his mind to new and sometimes alien concepts. Inspecting. Stock Exchange. Not to be confused with "terms" in colloquial usages. not merely a rough combination of words. 2. his translation cannot be considered successful. and the documents as well as three types of mistakes will also be described. “for the sake of pure language” (Venuti. Terminology According to Wikipedia (http://wikipedia.com/terminology). Terminology. be it linguistic or cultural. 2000). In other words.1. it is noteworthy that despite many challenges when translating from English to Vietnamese and despite the actual untranslatability. for the purposes of documenting and promoting correct usage.15 Shipbuilding. skilled translators still can.
"Terms" (i. Homo sapiens. The system of terminology of science and technology is often Latin words such as: otorhinolaryngology.2. “to purify” instead of the verb “to clean”. electro-encephalography. etc or comes from Latin: “to assert”. Tenor and Mode.1. acrylic.2. Take these examples relating to the dialect of British English and American English: British English Depot Flammable Gear level Mobile phone Polystyrene * Register Register is one kind of language variants used for one specific situation. biocide. 2. Variants of terminology * Dialects Dialect is commonly used in a community.2. 2. especially in the field of paint. The challenges in Vietnamese here must be finding out the field of American English Terminal Inflammable Stick shift Cell phone Styrofoam . alkyd.1. One of the most characterized variants in English technical documents is geographical dialect between English language of British English and of American English. Field is a variant used for reflective language to emphasize terminology. “to declare” instead of the verbs “to say”.e.16 Terminology is not connected to information retrieval in any way but focused on the meaning and conveyance of concepts. In the field of paint translation. epoxy.1. index terms) used in an information retrieval context are not the same as "terms" used in the context of terminology. “to state”. Origin of terminology Terminology of paint lies in the area of science and technology.2.1. Characteristics of paint terminology 2. In three parameters of register which are Field. as they are not always technical terms of art. a group of people or a specific field. “to contaminate” instead of the verbs “to soil”. it is very difficult to translate from English into Vietnamese because English in technical documents has been developed for a long time in the developed countries with high technology.
2.Documents for coating testing methods: coming form ASTM. Description of documents 2. technical data sheets.17 meaning which has the same one with the long development history of English technical documents. Classifying the documents In this study. 2. ISO.Technical documents: painting specifications. Paint technical documents can take from many places which can be either the paint specific documents or other documents such as projects. “solvesso”. there are many types of technical documents. Besides. which are used not only in the field of paint but in other industries as well. TCVN.1.2.2. some terms are rarely used and cannot be found out in the dictionary of Oxford such as “polymer ester silyl”. guidance of paint application. “silance".2. "environment-friendly". "family-friendly". “long-live performance” which have different meanings and are translated generally into Vietnamese "thân thiện với người dùng". etc. international standard books. thân thiện với môi trường”. "thân thiện với gia đình". quality certificates… . .Certificates: product certificates. “Bền mãi với thời gian”. turnover reports… . Results from data collection . painting maintenance…. JIS-K (Japan). The most typical examples are words "user-friendly". safety data sheets.Bidding documents: painting systems applied for the projects. . construction documents in which there are the components of paint requirements. chemistry subjects.2. Apart from the ordinary documents used for daily conversation such as letters. “cellosovle”.Advertisement: Catalogues. color cards . contracts.
three most common mistakes are found out. All of them are going to be discussed in the Chapter 3 after the analysis of the results in this chapter.2.2 (Note: N-never. U-usually.18 This section presents the results collected from the survey and from observation of 15 translators who work with 5 types of documents. From the observation. which helps the manufacturer get the belief from the customers. Of course. S-sometimes. sentence and paragraph. In the limit of time and area of presentation. R-rarely. This can be explained that these types of documents need to be shown in the world. Word R A R S A Sentence R U N S O Paragraph R U N S O . The correctness must be highest. A-always is frequency of mistakes) In the tables 2. they are mistakes at three levels of word. especially to the customers who buy the paints products. N explains for mistakes of 0 translators O explains for mistakes of 0 . study the below: Mistake level Document Advertisement Technical documents Certificates Bidding documents Testing methods Table 2. O-often. So. there are many sheets of documents which the translators work with everyday. in each type of document. the some main points will be discussed as follows. the researcher has worked with 75 sheets of technical documents.2 translators S explains for mistakes of 2 – 4 translators U explains for mistakes of 4 – 8 translators A explains for mistakes of > 8 translators From the result of the survey. * It is very important that the documents of advertisement and certificates get the lowest level of mistakes.
If there is no practice in the field of paint. It is the reason why the frequency of mistakes in all levels is the problem for the translators. Coming from these matters. However. * The differences in the documents of technology and testing methods are easily recognized. the mistakes at sentence level and paragraph level are the important things that need taking care of and avoiding. it has been revealed that the most common mistakes are at word level. They often include at least 5 pages. Besides. * The same explanation for the bidding documents. Most of these documents are only used for the technicians. All types of document have been scanned by researcher in the appendix of this thesis. In general. That is why they are easy to be translated with so few mistakes. the researcher discovers that these documents contain so many terms (technical words) that make the translators feel dizzy. they cannot translate these types of documents. these types of documents are quite common and contain a few of technical words.19 On the other hands. However. . From the researcher’s survey. That is why the mistakes are unavoidable at all levels of word. even 100 pages. and they apply the knowledge to their experiments. in the translation between English and Vietnamese. bidding documents are often longer than certificates and advertisement. or they are always in the specific form. sentence and paragraph. They can understand all the documents. chapter 3 will be discussed the way how to correct mistakes. this chapter reviews the mistakes levels basing on the characteristics of paint terminology.
1. Mistake analysis Take a look at these documents: . MISTAKE ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MISTAKE CORRECTION 3.20 CHAPTER 3.
And this is Vietnamese version from an unskilled translator .21 This is the document coming from Japan. It supplies the information of one kind of paint.
22 Comparing with the translated version of a skilled one: .
I will analyze all the mistakes in the way of basing on the collected documents characteristics. Incompetence in properties of paint For the best translators. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation. or something relates to the moving machine. Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals.1. “truck”. terminology is used fluently or not. liquid. the translators must analyze deeply each related word to the field of paint in both English and Vietnamese languages. resulting in a solution. we often consider it “nhựa”. However. dung môi dẫn) = solvent + resin When looking at the word ”vehicle”. The same as the word resin. in Vietnamese.1. The most common solvent in everyday life is water. Resin (chất tạo màng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. leaving the dissolved substance behind. These are called organic solvents. vehicle is a kind of chemical substance. In fact in the field of paint. Study these examples: a.23 And now. In my opinion. there are three kinds of mistakes that the translators are more likely to make: 3. Vehicle (chất mang. Here are some other examples: Wall-paint (sơn nước): is the same meaning with emulsion paint . or gaseous solute. we think it is like ”car”. the most important thing is terminology. which leads to wrong translation. Some words can be translated Solvent (dung môi) A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid. easy to be remembered or not.
Context matters Study these examples: “Sơn Hải Phòng. cannot be translated into Vietnamese. In the technical documents. Etching: is the coating of primer 3. Some words have no Vietnamese equivalent. . In this case. the proud with every project long live performance” “Công trình” In English: “Experience” “Đầu tư” In English: “Member” It is clear to see that “Công trình” and “Experience”. borrowing is very much likely a solution. But in the context of advertising the experience of the paint projects which Haiphong paint has supplied. there are many new words which must be used in English original sound or word.24 Hardener (đóng rắn): used to make the paint film be created in chemical reaction.2. experience means all the projects in which paint product are used. Therefore. therefore. niềm tự hào cùng mọi công trình bền mãi với thời gian” In English: “Haiphong paint. For example: Base: the basing substance to constitute a coating Paste: a kind of coating substance is ready to replace coating with some added powders. as well as “Đầu tư” and “Member” is not correct translation.1. (Someone that does not work in paint will translate “chất làm cứng”) Silicon Coating: sơn chịu nhiệt Touch-up: Sơn dặm Striped coat: Sơn lưng b.
I would like to mention the bad habit of the translators which is repeatedly and unconsciously used. In English version. Trên cơ sở kinh nghiệm. they have been running independently from Haiphong Paint JS Company. But up to now. they are the members of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company. Lixăng is used very naturally because the translators always hear about the lixăng from Vietnamese people who are not professional in English. In fact. the capital which is invested from Haiphong Paint JC Company. they are subsidiary companies. the would-be translator must make an effort to correct the mistake basing on the basic grammar and career experience. . below. special technology licensed from Lixang Technology of Chugoku Marine Paints of Japan” We can see the bold words. they use the word “lixăng As a result.25 In the case of member. if the translators can not correct them immediately. 3. is like shareholder. when we look at the above paragraph.2. Habit of English translator In this part. These people often see the word “license” and they understand what it means. Basing the experience from the colleagues who work as qualified translators. Take a look at the following examples: “Công ty cổ phần Sơn Hải Phòng thành lập ngày 25 tháng 01 năm 1960. In general. công nghệ truyền thống đặc biệt được chuyển giao công nghệ sản xuất sơn theo Lixăng của hãng Chugoku Marine Paints” In English: “Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company was established in 25th January 1960. there is no Subject for the second sentence. That’s why. it appears that the grammar applied is something wrong. However. Moreover. Some suggested ways to correct the mistakes will be discussed in section 3. The matter here is mistake in grammar. in fact. there are many mistakes and misunderstanding in the process of translation. what is heard (the sound) becomes the word in writings. Basing on the long-timed experience.1.3. whenever they want to use it. it will become the big problems in the future.
or the tactics to make your translation widely accepted by target language readers in specific English terms. the translator must avoid the rigid use of parts of speech with the following techniques: a. 3.1.It is the shop with the red and green sign: Đó là cửa hàng có biển hiệu xanh đỏ.It is a coating of cutting and weldability: Đó là lớp sơn bền hàn cắt. Translate English nouns with Vietnamese verbs or adjectives . b. . Besides. . Overcoming linguistic problems 3.2. The following examples are extracted from some paint translators. This is particularly noticeable as we deal with English uncountable nouns.2.2.1. It is crucial for a translator to fully understand all the denotations and connotations of a word so that he can avoid making any loss of connotational meanings. Recommendations for mistake correction It is highly recommended that translators and translation learners equip themselves with as many translation techniques as possible. They have a relatively good sense of plural and singular form in English – Vietnamese translation.26 3. They may be the strategies to overcome linguistic difficulties.1. Plural form to singular form and vice versa Translation at word level includes the ability to proper switch between the plural form and singular form so that the translation best suits the mindset of Vietnamese readers.Paint is a long-live performance product: Sơn bền mãi với thời gian . he also needs flexibility in the use of words and does not translate mechanically basing on an English – Vietnamese dictionary. problems can only be solved if the translator works hard to accumulate both his English and Vietnamese vocabulary to a level that he is capable of choosing the right word in any case to produce a natural translation. To do that. Choose the right word At the level of words.
(ASTM D1014.2. it is necessary not only to switch the positions of certain parts of the sentence but also to replace some structures unfamiliar to Vietnamese readers. phụ gia để tạo nên sản phẩm sơn. sau đó nghiền với các produce paint. For example.1) Suggested Vietnamese version: . when translating this English sentence into Vietnamese. translators should choose the best word order possible so that their translation would sound more Vietnamese.27 English Resins.2. a. Coating is created on the steel Lớp sơn được hình thành trên bề mặt surface. thickness as well as chemical and physical. At sentence level. Original version: Allow the proper drying time between coat for multiple paint systems and before exposure as required by the coatings manufacturer and include in the test. độ dày cũng như các chỉ tiêu cơ lý và coverage. Transpositions Transposition is a translation technique in which the translator reverses the order or place of certain words or phrases when necessary to improve the naturalness of the sentence. Choose the right structure By structure. Switch between plural and singular form 3.1. Vietnam ink and paint Association is Hiệp hội sơn mực Việt Nam vẫn đang in the process pursuing solutions of a tìm kiếm giải pháp cho những cải cách công number of technology improvement and nghệ và tìm mở rộng thị trường.1. hóa học. you should make a transposition. Table 3. in pre-mixing with solvent and Suggested Vietnamese version Chất tạo màng được trộn với các loại color pigment. 5. At phrase level. are mixed in additives to dung môi và bột màu. ensuring the properties of thép và đảm bảo được các chỉ tiêu về độ phủ. it is meant both the structure of the phrase and the sentence. market achievement.
b. For example. Phương pháp tốt nhất này . with sentences like “Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment.28 Trước khi thi công các lớp sơn theo đúng yêu cầu của nhà sản xuất hoặc theo hệ thống sơn nhiều lớp cũng như tiến hành thử nghiệm. Replacements Replace passive voice with active voice: Needless to say. free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more. chúng ta cần chú ý giữ sạch bề mặt mẫu. which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis”. trước khi sơn lên tấm mẫu. Suggested Vietnamese version: Sau khi chuẩn bị bề mặt xong. if the panels are stored prior to coating. The excessive use of markers like “mà”. or ‘salami’ technique): It would be unnatural to try to translate an English long complex sentence to a Vietnamese sentence of the same structure. most of the times. Observe the replacements in these sentences: Original version: After surface preparation. “nơi mà”. which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels. The result should be “Trong số những nghiên cứu về sơn quan trọng không chỉ đối chất lượng sơn mà còn với môi trường biển. Replace a complex sentence with two or more simple sentences (Splitting technique. etc. the solution is breaking it into smaller ones to translate. precautions must be taken to preserve the clean surface. passive voice in the original English text should be replaced with active voice in Vietnamese. công nghệ chống hà không chứa hợp chất cơ thiếc và đồng được chú trọng cải tiến. can make the sentence too complicated for an average Vietnamese reader to fully understand. cần xác định thời gian khô cụ thể.
Chúng ta cần phải phân biệt hai loại sơn Cerabond và Cerabest.29 là để giải các chất chống hà và tạo nên quá trình chống hà thông qua các giai đoạn thủy phân” 3. Cerabond 2000 là loại sơn lót hiệu quả nhất.1. there are techniques that translators can apply when necessary for the untranslatability to some extent. Dealing with linguistic untranslatability It is never easy to deal with linguistic challenges in translation. Chúng tôi đã thăm 2 nhà máy đóng tàu tại Hiroshima nơi mà Cerabond 2000 đã được thi công trong khi các sơn phủ khác là của hãng Hempel. but in above case. Cả hai loại đều là sơn lót và Cera best có đặc tính chống rỉ nhiều hơn. NMK… Shop primer and anti corrosive are the same. Consider the following short paragraph: Nowadays. khách hàng ưa chuộng các loại sơn lót vô cơ hơn là sơn lót gốc epoxy bởi chúng có khả năng chịu hàn cắt.2. Overcoming terminology problems 3.3. KCC.2. This kind is very difficult unless you have a copious linguistic and even terminology. However. We visited 2 shipyards at Hiroshima where one kind of shop primer (Cerabond 2000) is applied only whereas other coatings are supplied by Hempel. we must understand the properties of paint which can only help to translate.2. Cerabond 2000 is the most effective shop primer coating. such as specific English words in documents. translators should keep in mind that sometimes an effort to translate correctly is not as valuable as a suitable substitution. Both are inorganic coating but Cerabond is shop primer type and Cerabest is looked as an anti-corrosive one. It is necessary to distinguish between Cerabond and Cerabest.2. people get many difficulties to get acquainted with the . NMK… It would be rather unwise to translate it as: Ngày nay. In any areas of a job. Terminology competence To avoid mistakes over issues of terminology. heat resistant performance.2. customers prefer inorganic shop primer to epoxy shop primer because they have high weldabilily. 3. KCC. chịu nhiệt.1.
According to Wikipedia. we say “tâm tuyến” in Vietnamese.2. easy to notice and can remember. A translator. in construction. The names are presented in the following table: No. free translation is also called adaptation.2. many proper names are modified so that it would at least sound familiar to Vietnamese readers. anticorrosive”. Dealing with terminology untranslatability Untranslatability is unavoidable due to the numerous differences between the two languages. “hàm ẩm . “bền uốn – bending”. which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. we find it difficult to know how to use it. however. They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. we can not understand what it means. even in Vietnamese. can resort to a number of translation procedures to compensate. we often get the terms such as “hàm rắn.2. “bền thời tiết – weathering”.30 terminology. this new reality would be more usual to the audience of the target text. For example. When we gets the Vietnamese words.antirust. especially academic ones. “undercoat”. Free translation In some studies. hàm không bay hơi – Nonvolatile content”. In paint field. 1. At first we hear it. But when we say it in English “center-line”. For example. “anti rust”… 3. “humidity”. an adaptation is a translation procedure whereby the translator replaces the terms reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text. and we can not explain it in Vietnamese. “chống hà – antifouling” . a. “finish”. we find it easy to look for some English specific word has the meaning similar to the major use. English Chrome Vietnamese Cờ rôm . For example. in the Vietnamese chemical documents. Consider the meaning of the terminology. “chống rỉ . This requires all translators to ceaselessly enrich their vocabulary.humidity”. Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary.
oriented). Paraphrase and translator’s note We can see that the translators sometimes should employ the technique of paraphrasing (also known as periphrasis). Free translation of proper names All the above names are also the same as the original English because Vietnamese readers can immediately relate them to some image on their mind. b. Translation-loans “are not taken into the vocabulary of another language more or less in the same phonemic shape in which they have been functioning in their own language.31 2. 3.” (Nguyễn Mạnh Hùng & Lê Quốc Hạnh. it would be almost impossible for target language readers to comprehend the concepts unprecedented in their culture. It can be said that these names have been made Vietnamese. “thân thiện với môi trường” (environmental friendly). . but undergo the process of translation. For instance. For example.loan. in paint constitution. Otherwise. Borrowing Borrowing is not a new method. many words must come from the English specific terms which makes the translators and readers be able to understand. it is very difficult to take in if we translate “base/harderner rate – tỷ lệ chất nền/đóng rắn” or some time of the use of “sơn lưng” makes it more difficult for the readers to understand instead of “stripe coat”. special kind of borrowings. c. 4. Polyurethane Epoxy Alkyd Rubber Chlorided Pô li u rê than Ê pốc xi An kít Cao su clo hóa Table 3. It has been discussed in many books on lexicology and translation. 5. In fact. Vietnamese people are now familiar with terms like “người chơi” (indicating a player in a gameshow). the words “tỷ lệ base và đóng rắn”.2. “sơn lưng”… In these examples. and “định hướng khách hàng” (client. What the thesis wants to emphasize is the translation. 2003) Translation-loans do not only resolve problems of terminology untranslatability but also help increase one language’s vocabulary.
This translator’s note helps readers better understand the text. but then add a footnote or endnote to the target text providing additional information. Besides. it is generally considered a failure in translation attempt by many professional translators.32 On the other hand. However. pertaining to the limits of the translation. these techniques cannot be used successfully without the translator’s willingness to diligently study with a view to gaining his terminology along with his linguistic competence. the terminology or any further explanation. translators can also use techniques like paraphrase or calque. The above-mentioned techniques are useful for translators when trying to compensate the untranslatability. nevertheless. the translator may keep the original word or phrase without paraphrasing. .
huge efforts are needed to improve the quality of translations. the reader's expectation. the reformulation of the text according to the writer's intention. Firstly. Although the practice of translation is honored for its noble task. etc. Thus. b. What I attempt to do in this thesis is to contribute my humble study to that great research work by pointing out the mistakes in Paint technical documents to clarify English terminology and Vietnamese terminology that may trouble whom working in translation which is very close to my everyday work. the potential traps they may get caught in when rendering English texts into Vietnamese in terms of technical documents. the strengths and weaknesses of the thesis are discussed. 1. suggestion for further research and a final comment are made. the appropriate norms of the target language. Peter Newmark wrote in 1988 about the three basic translation processes: a. . the study on translation as the transformation of a written text in one language to that in another language has been carried out long before the formation of this thesis and undoubtedly will be continued ever after. especially would-be translators who are still studying in various universities in Vietnam to become translation professionals. a brief overview and a summary of the main chapters are provided. Summary of main points Since its very beginning. the interpretation and analysis of the source language text.33 PART 3. CONCLUSION This chapter provides a conclusion for this thesis. the translation procedure (choosing equivalents for words and sentences in the target language). This is to show translators. and c. translation has not ceased to play its indispensable role of transferring messages across languages and cultural barriers. Secondly. Finally.
the others are briefly mentioned as they may have appeared frequently here and there in other publications. however. especially ones on English – Vietnamese translation. the author limited the types of mistakes mentioned to ensure they are popular ones that translators should pay the most attention to. people can find clear definitions and constructive suggestions for mistakes corrections. 2. discusses in detail this phenomenon with relevant examples. Furthermore. These are factors that may make the thesis stand out from other studies also touching on the issue. Part II of this thesis discusses the mistakes analysis and translation recommendations a translator may employ when encountering a difficult situation in which he may risk turning his translation into an wrong combination of words.34 This thesis is concerned with only the third process. the aims and scope of the thesis is consistent from the beginning to the end. I outlined the analysis of this issue in three main parts on mistakes in translation. I have examined the previous literature on the theory of translation. the reformulation of the text. Then I looked at the semantically terminologies mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English in detail. Especially chapter 3. especially would-be translators and inexperienced ones to be fully aware of what mistakes they may easily make before seeking ways to avoid them. . By the classification and examples cited as well as the description of selected documents. This thesis. few of them emphasize the mistakes occurring during the process of translation. however. Some conclusions induced from the results of the study Though there have been many books on English –Vietnamese translation so far. Some of recommendations are emphasized for they are likely to help translators much in their professional practice. I attempted to help readers of this thesis. The causes of terminology mistakes in the paint document translation as discussed in Part 2 can be considered a classification of common mistakes that may make the translations get in trouble. In the course of this thesis. the causes and corrections. Finally. It is organized in a way that helps readers find it easy to get the general ideas about the issue. In this thesis. Specific examples are taken from technical documents and bidding documents and from previously published books.
4. that may harm the quality of translations is . issues mentioned are still somewhat general. Due to the limited time of research and the broad scope it is concerned with. more studies should be carried out to identify and how to cope with common mistakes in these translations. In my opinion. readers of this thesis can find it useful in their work and study or at least see it as a reference worth looking at. This does not cause any bias because the classification was carried out independently. Suggestions for further study In the time to come. especially for the specifically technical companies. This progress requires translations of high quality. there are some limitations in this study. But to some extent it may not be very diverse. Hopefully. Thus. In conclusion. Vietnam will further integrate into the world economy and the opening economic policies will need the demand for communication in English. examples cited are limited due to the short-time exploration from the author and some books and articles sparsely collected. I want to significantly contribute to the study of English – Vietnamese translations in universities and on the media through this thesis. its strengths and limitations. Digging into current publications to find common pitfalls recommended. Limitations of the study Although the thesis has been completed. Besides.35 3. Moreover. and how to improve it. it can be considered a companion of all people who are seeking to improve their English – Vietnamese translation skills as well as the quality of their translations. mainly from English to Vietnamese and vice versa. These studies are supposed to bring readers an overview of the contemporary situation of Vietnamese translated works. studies on what can be called a pure Vietnamese language and how to maintain it through the processes of translation should be implemented.
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