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macroeconomie

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6.1 Introducere 6.2. Tipuri de date şi indicatori fundamentali 6.2.1 Tabele utilizate în analiza datelor 6.2.2 Reducerea datelor 6.2.3 Legăturile dintre caracteristici 6.

3 Analiza componentelor principale (ACP) 6.3.1 Metoda analizei componentelor principale 6.3.2 Geometria caracteristicilor şi indivizilor 6.3.3 Determinarea axelor principale şi a factorilor principali 6.3.4 Analiza tabelelor de proximitate 6.3.5 Studiu de caz 6.4. Clasificarea 6.4.1 Clasificarea neierarhică 6.4.2 Clasificarea ierarhică 6.4.3 Studiu de caz

TERMENI CHEIE

Analiza componentelor principale Analiza factorială Analiză discriminantă Clasificare Medie Dispersie Inerţie

Inerţie interclase Inerţie intraclase Axe principale Componente principale Factori principali Clasificare ierarhică Clasificare neierarhică

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H. Journal of Educational Psychology. 498 –520. – Analysis of a Complex of Statistical Variables into Principal Components. . 1933. vol. pag.1. (1) Hotteling. 417-441. úWLLQ H SROLWLFH HWF 'LIHUHQ HOH HVHQ LDOH vQWUH PHWRGHOH XWLOL]DWH GH F WUH VWDWLVWLF sintetizate în tabelul 6. 24.

1 1XP U GH LQGLYL]L 1XP U GH Analiza datelor 6WDWLVWLFD FODVLF mare redus caracteristici mare redus În acest capitol sunt prezentate principalele metode folosite de analiza datelor. XQ DSDUDW PDWHPDWLF PDL FRPSOLFDW ÌQ FDGUXO $' PDL vQWkOQLP DQDOL]D IDFWRULDO  DQDOL]D FRUHVSRQGHQ HORU DQDOL]D úL DQDOL]D GLVFULPLQDQW  FDUH LPSOLF . Decizii strategie Tabelul 6. 'XS R VFXUW WUHFHUH vQ UHYLVW D LVWRULFXOXL DQDOL]HL GDWHORU vQ SDUDJUDIXO DO GRLOHD vPSUHXQ FX H[HPSOH úL VWXGLL GH FD] FODVLILF ULOH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO sunt prezentate WLSXULOH GH GDWH úL LQGLFDWRULL XWLOL]D L  3DUDJUDIXO  FRQ LQH PHWRGD DQDOL]HL FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH DQDOL]HL GDWHORU úL XQ DPSO FDQRQLF 3DUDJUDIXO  GHVFULH PRGXO vQ FDUH VH HIHFWXHD] u exemplu de utilizare a acestora.Macroeconomie.

D. Într-un WDEHO GH GDWH VXQW GHVFULúL LQGLYL]LL DQDOL]D L vPSUHXQ FX FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH DIHUHQWH XQ Un individ RUDúH UHSUH]LQW HQWLWDWHD GH ED] DVXSUD F UXLD XQ REVHUYDWRU HIHFWXHD] RDUHFDUH QXP U GH REVHUYD LL 3RW IL WUDWD L FD LQGLYL]L ILUPHOH FOLHQ LL XQXL PDJD]LQ DQLPDOH UL DQL HWF 0XO LPHD LQGLYL]LORU REVHUYD L SRDWH IL XQ HúDQWLRQ GLQWU R SRSXOD LH vQ - cazul unui sondaj) sau chiDU PRGXO vQ FDUH VH HIHFWXHD] vQWUHDJD SRSXOD LH 3HQWUX DQDOL]D VWDWLVWLF VRQGDMXO UHVSHFWLY OHJLOH SUREDELOLVWH FODVLF SH FDUH HVWH HVHQ LDO OH UHVSHFW SRSXOD LD DQDOL]DW  vQ WLPS FH SHQWUX DQDOL]D GDWHORU HVWH LQWHUHVDQW VWUXFWXUD SRSXOD LHL reVSHFWLYH I U D VH GHGXFH vQ PRG QHFHVDU OHJLW LOH YDODELOH SHQWUX SRSXOD LH O FDUDFWHULVWLF DVRFLDW XQXL LQGLYLG VDX XQHL SRSXOD LL.2. Tipuri de date úL LQGLFDWRUL IXQGDPHQWDOL În cadrul A. datele sunt în general reprezentate în cadrul unor tabele (tablouri).'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU 6.

HVWH FDQWLWDWLY GDF LD YROXPXO YkQ] ULORU SURGXF LD HWF &X DOWH FXYLQWH R FDUDFWHULVWLF valoUL vQ VSD LXO R n úL DVXSUD DFHVWHLD VH SRW HIHFWXD RSHUD LLOH DOJHEULFH X]XDOH DGXQDUH VF GHUH vQPXO LUH vPS U LUH FDOFXOXO PHGLHL HWF O FDUDFWHULVWLF R ) . vârsta. profitul. UHSUH]LQW LQWULQVHF DFHOXL LQGLYLG SURSULHWDWH FH vO HYLGHQ LD] FD]XO SRSXOD LHL DQJDMD LORU XQHL R SURSULHWDWH GLQ PXO LPHD DQDOL]DW  'H H[HPSO u. HVWH QRPLQDO GDF QX SRDWH IL RUGRQDW GH H[HPSOX VH[ FXORDUH O FDUDFWHULVWLF domiciliu etc).2. în ILUPH FDUDFWHULVWLFL DU SXWHD IL YkUVWD YHFKLPHD VWDUHD FLYLO  QLYHOXO VWXGLLORU VDODULXO GRPLFLOLXO HWF Caracteristicile asociate indivizilor pot fi cantitative sau calitative.2. Exemple de astfel n VWDUHD FLYLO HWF HVWH FDOLWDWLY GDF QX HVWH DSUHFLDW QXPHULF QX LD YDORUL vQ VSD LXO GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL VXQW VH[XO SURIHVLD ORFXO QDúWHULL QLYHOXO LHUDUKLF Caracteristicile calitative pot fi cardinale sau ordinale. 2 FDUDFWHULVWLF RUGRQDW GXS XQ HVWH RUGLQDO GDF DQVDPEOXO YDORULORU SH FDUH OH SRDWH OXD SRDWH IL anumit criteriu ( de exemplu nivelul studiilor sau nivelul ierarhic). cifra de afaceri. 6.1 Tabele utilizate în analiza datelor Tabelul indivizi – caracteristici 3HQWUX FRQVWUXLHúWH WD R PXO LPH GDW GH LQGLYL]L vPSUHXQ FX FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH SH UkQGXUL DIHUHQWH ILLQG VH belul indivizi – SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFL VXE IRUP PDWULFHDO  QRWD L LQGLYL]LL VWXGLD L LDU SH FRORDQH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH FDUH vL GHVFULX 'H H[HPSOX DQJDMD LL XQHL ILUPH SXWHP FRQVWUXL WDEHOXO LQGLYL]L – caracteristici prezentat în tabelul 6. 6SXQHP F QXPHULF  R FDUDFWHULVWLF HVWH FDQWLWDWLY GDF DFHDVWD SRDWH IL DSUHFLDW SH R VFDO Exemple de caracteristici cantitative sunt: salariul. $VXSUD FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU FDOLWDWLYH QX VH SRW HIHFWXD RSHUD LLOH DOJHEULFH X]XDOH În continuare vom prezenta principalele tipuri de date utilizate în analiza datelor. .

5 2. . Decizii strategie Tabelul 6. . n . . Ionescu Vasile Popescu Claudia M F 20 7 Superioare Medii 5. . . . . .Macroeconomie. . .5 !#"¤$ % "'& ( " matrim  § ©   ) %'0 inginer 2 3 Pers. . . . TESA % "'& 1 4 " 35 1 67"& %'0 Loc § £   ¤ Bucu1 "2 3 i 8 52¦( INDIVIZI VLWXD LH PDWULPRQLDO . .2 Nume prenume Sex  ¢¡¤£¦¥ § 45 32 CARACTERISTICI Vechime Studii Salariu brut Nivel ierarhic Profesie ¨© £ copii 1 2 3 4 5 6 . .

vechime – 20 ani etc. ÌQ LQWHULRUXO WDEHOXOXL VH DIO GDWHOH HIHFWLYH ce privesc indivizii.3): VDODULX QXP U FRSLL. Pentru a putea efectua analiza datelor prezente vom separa caracteristicile cantitative de cele calitative (tabelul 6. respectiv Ionescu va fi descris prin sex – PDVFXOLQ YkUVW – 45 ani.

În FDGUXO DFHVWXL FkW úL FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDOLWDWLYH QXPH VWXGLL VH[ QLYHO LHUDUKLF SURIHVLH WDEHO VH J VHVF DWkW FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDQWLWDWLYH YkUVW  YHFKLPH Tabelul 6. n 45 32 Vechime 20 7 Salariu brut 5. . . 0 0 1 0 1 0 .3 CARACTERISTICI 9kUVW 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . n 1 0 F 0 1 6LWXD LH PDWULPRQLDO & V W QHF V GLYRU DW /RF QDúWHUH indivizi 1 0 0 0 0 1 Buc . . 1 0 Provincie 0 1 Nivel ierarhic Muncit Pers Pers tesa cond. .4 CARACTERISTICI Sex M 1 2 3 .5 1XP U FRSLL 2 3 Pentru a putea prelucra caracteristicile calitative. . vom construi un tabel în care vom asocia variabilelor calitative valori numerice disjuncte: de exemplu pentru sex vom aloca YDORULOH  SHQWUX E UED L úL  SHQWUX IHPHL 7DEHOXO  FRQ LQH R DVWIHO GH GHVFULHUH D GDWHORU Indivizi Tabelul 6. .5 2.

0 sau 1) grupând indivizii în clase GH H[HPSOX GXS JUXSH GH YkUVW VDX GH YHQLW.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU În tabelXO DQWHULRU VXQW HYLGHQ LDWH  FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDOLWDWLYH DVRFLDWH FHORU n indivizi. 8WLOLWDWHD DFHVWHL UHSUH]HQW UL GHULY GLQ IDSWXO F D DFHVWRUD vQ DFHVW PRG VH SRW UHSUH]HQWD vQ DFHODúL WDEORX GH GDWH DWkW YDULDELOHOH FDQWLWDWLYH FkW úL YDULDELOHOH FDOLWDWLYH vQ H[SULPDUH QXPHULF  FHHD FH YD SHUPLWH DQDOL]D FDQWLWDWLY (YLGHQW vQ DFHDVW FDQWLWDWLY  'H DVHPHQHD HVWH SRVLELO V UHSUH]HQW P úL YDULDELOHOH FDQWLWDWLYH VXE IRUPD UHSUH]HQWDUH DYHP R UHSUH]HQWDUH D GDWHORU FDOLWDWLYH VXE IRUP variabilelor indicative (cele care pot lua valori disjuncte.RQHVFX 9DVLOH HVWH E UEDW F V WRULW Q VFXW vQ %XFXUHúWL úL FDUH IDFH parte din conducerea firmei. $FHVWH FDUDFWHULVWLFL vQUHJLVWUHD]  PRGDOLW L GLVWLQFWH vQ FDUH SRW IL vQFDGUD L LQGLYL]LL vQUHJLVWUD L 'H H[HPSOX .

1) unde X UHSUH]LW Tabele de proximitate (apropiere. distan 'DF GLVRFLHUH LDU DFHVWHD . $VWIHO GDF GH FRQWLQJHQ DVHPHQHD WDEHO LQGLYL]LL DX IRVW UHJUXSD L úL QX PDL SRW IL GLVWLQúL vQ PRG GH FRQWLQJHQ SRW IL GHWHUPLQDWH SOHFkQG GH úL OD YDULDELOHOH LQGLFDWLYH 7DEHOHOH YRP FRQVLGHUD FDUDFWHULVWLFD VLWXD LH PDWULPRQLDO UH]XOW GLQ SURGXVXO FHORU GRX YRP QRWD FX DIHUHQW  UHVSHFWLY SHQWUX QLYHOXO LHUDUKLF YRP PDWULFH UHVSHFWLY nota cu X2 PDWULFHD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH WDEHOXO X1 matricea t X1 X2 = X WDEORXO GH FRQWLQJHQ  (6. )DSWXO F XQ LQGLYLG IDFH SDUWH GLQWU-o DQXPLW FODV vO YRP LQGLFD SULQ PHQ LRQDUHD FLIUHL  vQ ORFD LD SRWULYLW  7DEHOH GH FRQWLQJHQ Un tabel de coQWLQJHQ UHVSHFWLY YRU FRQ LQH GHVFULH OHJ WXULOH FH H[LVW GH DSDUL LH DOH vQWUH GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDOLWDWLYH FRQVLGHUD L DVRFLD L FX IUHFYHQ HOH LQGLYL]LORU caracteristicile analizate. 7DEHOXO Caracteristici & V WRULW 1HF V WRULW 'LYRU DW Muncitori 10 2 1 H[LVW  Personal TESA 3 4 5 PXQFLWRUL F V WRUL L  Tabelul 6.5 Personal conducere 5 1 2 SHUVRDQH GLQ FRQGXFHUHD 'H H[HPSOX vQ ILUP ILUPHL GLYRU DWH HWF Într-XQ individual. 3HQWUX H[HPSOXO FRQVLGHUDW DQWHULRU GDF VLWXD LD PDWULPRQLDO FRQWLQJHQ DIHUHQW FH VH DIO vQ SR]L LD YRP FRQVWUXL WDYHOXO GH FRQWLQJHQ vQWUH GH úL QLYHOXO LHUDUKLF YRP RE LQH vQ ORFD LD LHUDUKLF (i.j) QXP UXO GH LQGLYL]L FX  FRQ LQH WDEHOXO statutul matrimonial i j.

L GH DVHP QDUH VDX GH VH SRW FRQVWUXL SHQWUX R PXO LPH GH LQGLYL]L VXQW GHILQLWH SURSULHW SRW IL GHVFULVH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO XQHL P VXUL DWXQFL WDEHOHOH GH SUR[LPLWDWH 'H H[HPSOX WDEHOXO GLVWDQ HORU GLQWUH SULQFLSDOHOH RUDúH DOH 5RPkQLHL constituie un H[HPSOX GH WDEHO GH SUR[LPLWDWH 8Q DVWIHO GH WDEORX HVWH vQ JHQHUDO VLPHWULF úL .

Macroeconomie. Decizii strategie FRQ LQH QXPHUH SR]LWLYH DQDORJH GLVWDQ HORU VDX LQYHUVHORU GLVWDQ HORU.

 ([LVW FDUH DFHDVW UHJXO QX HVWH UHVSHFWDW  UHVSHFWLY vQ FD]XO GLVWDQ HORU GH WLS  úL VLWXD LL vQ neeuclidian. oricare ar fi a.b) = d (b.b) oricare ar fi a. oricare ar fi a.a) = 0.b.b) ≥ 0 .b ∈ A. ii) d (a.c ∈ A LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXODU LQHJDOLWDWHD WULXQJKLXODU QX HVWH vQGHSOLQLW .b ∈ A.c) + d (c. 9RP GHILQL QR LXQHD GH GLVWDQ $SOLFD LD SURSULHW L d:A→R VH QXPHúWH GLVWDQ GDF úL QXPDL GDF UHVSHFW XUP WRDUHOH i) d (a.a). (simetrie) iv) d (a. iii) d (a.b) ≤ d (a. oricare ar fi a ∈ A.

 DWXQFL YRP VSXQH F .

2.5) c) dispersia σ = σ2 ÌQ WDEHOXO  VXQW SUH]HQWDWH GRX VHULL GH vQUHJLVWU UL PHGLLOH úL GLVSHUVLLOH (6.QXP UXO GH vQUHJLVWU UL xi – YDORDUHD vQUHJLVWU ULL L pi – IUHFYHQ HOH GH DSDUL LH DOH FDUDFWHULVWLFLL xi.2 Reducerea datelor PHQWUX 'DW D VLQWHWL]D R PXO LPH GH GDWH VXQW IUHFYHQW XWLOL]D L ³LQGLFDWRULL UHGXúL´ HWF $VWIHO GH LQGLFDWRUL VXQW PHGLD PHGLDQD GLVSHUVLD FRYDULDQ D DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF ILLQG R PXO LPH GH vQUHJLVWU UL YRP FDOFXOD a) media x= 1 n ⋅ ∑ xi n i =1 n i =1 PHGLD DULWPHWLF VLPSO  (6.3) x = ∑ p i xi PHGLD DULWPHWLF SRQGHUDW  unde : n . x .2) (6. b) DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF σ 2= 1 n ∑ xi − x n i =1 n ( ) 2 sau 2 (6.4) σ 2 = ∑ p i ⋅ xi − x i =1 ( ) (6. 7RWXúL QX HVWH VXILFLHQW 3HQWUX R GHVFULHUH PDL V FDUDFWHUL] P R PXO LPH GRDU SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO PHGLHL YRP GHWHUPLQD úL DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF  UHVSHFWLY FRPSOHW dispersia.media. 'DF d UHSUH]LQW un operator de disimilaritate GLVFRUGDQ 6.6) SHQWUX FDUH VXQW FDOFXODWH .

2 σ 1 = 804. &RYDULDQ D GLQWUH GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL VH FDOFXOHD] DVWIHO σ xy = σ xy )( ) = ∑ p ⋅ (x − x )⋅ (y − y ) n i =1 i i i 1 n ∑ xi − x ⋅ y i − y sau n i =1 ( (6.504 1 x = 25.8) . Pentru caractHUL]DUHD &RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH YRP FRHILFLHQWXO FRUHOD LH OLQLDU  UHVSHFWLY UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU GLQWUH GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDQWLWDWLYH VH GHWHUPLQ astfel: r (x. cea de-D GRXD vQUHJLVWUDUH HVWH PXOW PDL HWHURJHQ  FX LQGLYL]L PDL GLVSHUVD L 2EVHUYD LH 0HGLD úL GLVSHUVLD DUH VHQV GRDU SHQWUX YDULDELOH FDQWLWDWLYH QX úL SHQWUX variabile calitative.FRYDULQ D GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL σ x . y ) = σ xy σ x ⋅σ y (6.7) unde: σ xy .  /HJ WXULOH GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL A) OHJ WXUD GLQWUH GRX SUH]HQWDWH FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDQWLWDWLYH vQ FRQWLQXDUH DFHVWRU DQDOL]HD] OHJ WXUL OHJ WXULOH XWLOL]D OLQLDUH FH H[LVW GH vQWUH 0HWRGHOH caracteristici.584 2 Chiar daF PHGLD HVWH DFHHDúL SHQWUX DPEHOH vQUHJLVWU UL DFHVWHD QX VXQW OD IHO deoarece dispersiile lor nu coincid. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total . σ y .dispersiile caracteristicilor x úL y.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Nr.2 σ 2 = 1165. Crt. Astfel.QGLFDWRULL UHGXúL SHQWUX FHOH GRX Tabelul 6.6 x1 x2 15 17 35 57 34 24 27 13 8 22 252 3 25 32 79 23 45 2 7 15 21 252 VHULL VXQW x = 25.

unde Exemplul 1.Macroeconomie. Decizii strategie &RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU VH GHILQHúW e astfel: r = 1− 2 i =1 ∑ (y n i =1 i ∑ ui n 2 −y ) 2 (6. 6H FRQVLGHU úL VXSUDID D DFHVWRUD  vQUHJLVWU UL.b SDUDPHWULL GUHSWHL GH UHJUHVLH FDUH variabilele x úL y.9) r – FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU  ui = yi –a x –b. cu a.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 6XSUDID 3UH \. 3UH XO HVWH YDULDELOD DUDW OHJ WXUD GLQWUH GDWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO  FDUH GHVFULX SUH XO XQRU DSDUWDPHQWH y. Pentru aceste date s-DX FDOFXODW PHGLLOH GLVSHUVLLOH FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH UHVSHFWLY dreapta de regresie cDUH GHVFULH OHJ WXUD GLQWUH YDULDELOH Tabelul 6. Crt. LDU VXSUDID D HVWH YDULDELOD x.7 Nr.

y este în Grafic. (x) (m ) 28 50 55 60 48 38 86 68 33 45 2 (milione lei) 130 280 264 320 258 350 306 255 150 235 511 2548 -un sistem de axe x. 3UH GLQ UHSUH]HQWDUHD vQWU y 6XSUDID [.1. norul de puncte ce rezulW figura 6.

Figura 6.10) .1 'UHDSWD GH UHJUHVLH FDUH GHVFULH OHJ WXUD GLQWUH VXSUDID úL SUH HVWH y=ax+b+u cu u – DEDWHUHD GLQWUH \ úL GUHDSWD GH UHJUHVLH (6.

'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU ∑ u i2 = ∑ (y − ax − b) i =1 i =1 n n 2 (6. 2EVHUYD LL Parametrii dreptei de regresie sunt a = 3. iar dreapta de regresie este ui VXQW ]HUR úL VHULLOH VHULL PDL R c) d) e) GDF 'DF &X r = 1 DWXQFL FRUHOD LD HVWH SHUIHFW GHRDUHFH GLIHUHQ HOH VH FRQIXQG  r = -1 DWXQFL FRUHOD LD HVWH SHUIHFW QHJDWLY find identic. y = (51.11) Centrul de greutate al norului este dat de x.707 ˆ = 3.89 DSDUWDPHQW úL VXSUDID D DFHVWXLD FHHD FH LQGLF R OHJ WXU SXWHUQLF vQWUH SUH XO XQXL %. respectiv valorile medii ale caracteristicilor considerate. dar de semne contrare.524 úL b = 74.524 x + 74. FkW FRHILFLHQWXO OHJ WXU GH FRUHOD LH HVWH PDL SXWHUQLF SXWHUQLF QHJDWLY   FRPSRUWDPHQWXO FHORU GRX FX DWkW H[LVW R OHJ WXU PDUH vQWUH YDULDELOHOH DQDOL]DWH UHVSHFWLY GDF VH DSURSLH GH – DWXQFL H[LVW f) Cu cât r VH DSURSLH GH ]HUR FX DWkW OHJ WXULOH VXQW PDL VODEH úL QX VH SRW HIHFWXD SUHGLF LL FX SULYLUH OD HYROX LD XQHL YDULDELOH DQDOL]kQG R SH FHDODOW  - În exemplul anterior r = 0.8).707 Deci y ( ) a) r ≤ 1 SHQWUX RULFH VHULH úL LQGLF b) GDF r = 0 DWXQFL QX H[LVW QLFL RUL]RQWDO  SDQWD GUHSWHL GH UHJUHVLH R OHJ WXU vQWUH x úL y. 254.1.

Acest indicator este utilizat frecvent în cadrul analizei datelor. VH FXQRDúWH WDEHOXO GH FRQWLQJHQ WDEHOXO . /HJ WXUD GLQWUH GRX YDULDELOH FDOLWDWLYH vQWUH YDULDELOHOH FDOLWDWLYH QX VH SRW XWLOL]D WDEHOH  FDUDFWHULVWLFL  D FDOLWDWLYH VWDWLVWLFD XQHL DOWH YDULDELOH FH YD GLQWUH GRX 3HQWUX D GHVFULH OHJ WXULOH FH H[LVW $VWIHO FODVLF SHQWUX D P VXUD de date indivizi – FDUDFWHULVWLFL FL GRDU WDEHOH GH FRQWLQJHQ GHSHQGHQ D SURSXQH GHWHUPLQDUHD SH ED]D WDEHOXOXL GH FRQWLQJHQ S WUDW urma o lege cKL ℵ 2).

13) (6. Vom nota: suma elementelor de pe linia i cu ni• = ∑ nij suma elementelor de pe coloana j cu n• j = ∑ nij suma elementelor din tabel n = j (6.8 2ULJLQH VRFLDO Nivel ierahic Muncitor Personal TESA Personal de conducere Total Personal de conducere 11 1 23 35 UDQ Muncitor 107 60 16 183 Altele 75 31 40 146 Total 207 210 81 390 14 10 2 26 Fie nij HOHPHQWXO VLWXDW OD LQWHUVHF LD OLQLHL i cu coloana j.12) (6. FH GHVFULH VDODULD LL PDL DOHV vQ FD]XO DQDOL]HL FRUHVSRQGHQ HORU Exemplul 2  3HQWUX R ILUP XQHL ILPH vQ UDSRUW FX QLYHOXO LHUDUKLF úL RULJLQHD VRFLDO Tabelul 6. .14) ∑∑ n i j i ij .

unde p úL q UHSUH]LQW QXP UXO GH PRGDOLW i posibile pentru variabilele calitative analizate. 2 'DF GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL VXQW LQGHSHQGHQWH DWXQFL YDORDUHD OXL D HVWH DSURSLDW GH ]HUR LDU GDF DUH R YDORDUH PDUH DFHDVWD YD LQGLFD R OHJ WXU SXWHUQLF .j n   2   nij  = n ⋅  ∑∑ − 1  i j ni • ⋅ n• j    2 (6. pi prin ni• n úL D OXL pj prin n• j n ). În exemplul nostru D2 = 69.15) FRQIRUP UHOD LHL  XUPHD] R OHJH ℵ 2 cu Atunci variabila D2 FDOFXODW (p–1)(q-1) grade de libertate. 'DF pij YD P VXUD SUREDELOLWDWHD GH D DYHD VLPXOWDQ PRGDOLW LOH i úL j. aceasta va GHSLQGH GRDU GH SUREDELOLW LOH PDUJLQDOH pi úL pj ( pentru datele noastre pij este estimat prin nij / n .2. Aplicând testul ℵ 2 variabilei D2 RE LQHP SHQWUX R YDULDELO FX  JUDGH GH OLEHUWDWH (date de (p-1)(q-1). Decizii strategie ni • ⋅ n• j    nij − n D2 = ∑  ni • ⋅ n• j i.Macroeconomie.

Cum D2 = 69.2  PDL PDUH GHFkW  UH]XOW F YRP UHVSLQJH LSRWH]D GH LQGHSHQGHQ  &.81. úL FX R SUREDELOLWDWH GH  GH D IL LQGHSHQGHQW RE LQHP GLQ WDEHOXO OHJLL ℵ 2 o valoare de 16.

în timp GH  YD LQGLFD R OHJ WXU .16) GH ]HUR YD LQGLFD OLSVD OHJ WXULORU GLQWUH YDULDE SXWHUQLF  y O valoare a lui η DSURSLDW FH R YDORDUH DSURSLDW ile. /HJ WXUD GLQWUH R YDULDELO FDOLWDWLY FDOLWDWLY úL R YDULDELO FDQWLWDWLY y GHSLQGH GH R YDULDELO FDQWLWDWLY x GDF FHL Qi LQGLYL]L GHVFULúL prin modalitatea i a variabilei calitative au aceleaúL YDORUL yi FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH YDULDELOHL cantitative xi $EVHQ D OHJ WXULL HVWH P VXUDW GH F WUH UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH η definit astfel: 2 YDULDELO η 2= σy σ i (6.

Aici fiecare individ va fi descris de coordonatele sale.3. xi1 .'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU 6. xi2  LDU DQDOL]D GDWHORU GLVSRQLELOH VH HIHFWXHD] XúRU FKLDU úL YL]XDO ÌQ ILJXUD  VXQW SUH]HQWDWH FkWHYD GLQWUH OHJ WXUile posibile. 6. ÌQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH DYHP GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL ( ) x2 x2 x2 x1 D.1 Metoda analizei componentelor principale x1 úL x2 HVWH XúRU GH UHSUH]HQWDW vQ SODQ HYROX LD DFHVWRUD SUin intermediul norului de puncte aferent indivizilor. respectiv tablouri în care sunt HYLGHQ LDWH p caracteristici pentru n indivizi.3 Analiza componentelor principale (ACP) $QDOL]D FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH HVWH R PHWRG FDUDFWHUL]HD] WDEORXUL LQGLYL]L VSHFLILF DQDOL]HL GDWHORU SULQ FDUH VH -caracteristici de tip numeric.

$EVHQ D OHJ WXULL GLQWUH E.

/HJ WXU x1 SXWHUQLF &.

….fp ale coordonatelor unui GUHSWH GLQ FRPSRQHQ D VD 3HQWUX D GHWHUPLQD DFHVW SODQ HVWH VXILFLHQW V J VLP GRX d1 úL d2 sunt perpendiculare.17) i VXQW SURLHF LLOH FRRUGRQDWHORU SXQFWXOXL .f2.β j ) ei pe d1 úL d2. atunci vom avea: d 2 (f i .2. (6.α unde i úL j )+ d (β 2 i . d1 úL d2.. &XP GHSHQGHQ HOH GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL QX VXQW vQ PRG QHFHVDU OLQLDUH GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH UHGXFHP GLVWRUVLXQLOH JHQHUDWH GH SURLHF LH FkW PDL PXOW SRVLELO (YLGHQW HVWH QHFHVDU GHILQLUHD SODQXOXL SH FDUH VH YD HIHFWXD SURLHF LD UHVSHFWLY D LQGLYL]L QX VXQW vQ PRG QHFHVDU S VWUDWH SULQ SURLHFWDUHD ORU vQ SODQ ÌQ DFHVWH FRQGL LL YRP F XWD V SODQXOXL SH FDUH GLVWDQ HOH VXQW FHO PDL ELQH FRQVHUYDWH 3HQWUX GHWHUPLQDUHD DFHVWXLD YRP adopta criteriul ma[LPL] individ pe un plan. $EVHQ D OHJ WXULL x1 între variabile variabile Figura 6. f j ) = d 2 ( α i . 'DF VXQW WUHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL DWXQFL vQF HVWH formarea a trei grupe omogene SRVLELO V UHSUH]HQW P JHRPHWULF PXO LPHD LQGLYL]LORU XWLOL]kQG VSD LXO WULGLPHQVLRQDO vQV UHSUH]HQWDUHD JHRPHWULF 3ULQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL VSD LXO LQWHUPHGLXO OD GRDU QX PDL HVWH SRVLELO  DQDOL]HL FHOH FRPSRQHQWHORU HVHQ LDOH úL SHQWUX PDL PXOW GH  FDUDFWHULVWLFL YRP F XWD V UHGXFHP vQ FHOH SULQFLSDOH DSRL V p GRX  UHSUH]HQW P JHRPHWULF SODQXO GHWHUPLQDW GH DFHVWHD LQGLYL]LL FRQVLGHUD L $FHDVWD VH YD UHGXFH OD SURLHFWD rea indivizilor din p-dimensional într-un plan. 'DF ULL PHGLHL S WUDWHORU vQWUH SURLHF LLOH f1.

x în care ponderile sunt considerate egale.QVWUXPHQWHOH PDWHPDWLFH XWLOL]DWH YRU IL FHOH iar analiza FDOFXOXOXL FDUDFWHULVWLFL JUXSDWH vQ FDOH GLVWLQFWH DOH matriceal... PD[LPL]kQG PHGLD GLVWDQ HOor d 2 (β i .. (6..dp drepte perpendiculare între ele. β j ). c 1 i 2 i 3URLHF LD SXQFWXOXL d1 SULQ PD[LPL]DUHD PHGLHL GLVWDQ HORU d2( α i . Acestea vor reprezenta axele principale ale norului de puncte.. xi2 . xip p i ( ).α j ).. ) pe axele principale conduce la Aceste noi coordonate se numesc componente principale. u k p IRUPHD] IDFWRUXO SULQFLSDO X . u 2 .d4..3. apoi ei de coordonate xi1 . )LHFDUH FRPSRQHQW ck HVWH GDW GH YHFWRUXO FH GHVFULH FRRUGRQDWHOH FHORU Q LQGLYL]L SH axa dk úL YD IL R FRPELQD LH OLQLDU D FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU LQL LDOH k p c k = u1k ⋅ x 1 + u 2 ⋅ x 2 + .19) . Analiza componentelor principale este una din cele mai bune metode de reducere a UHSUH]HQWDUH JHRPHWULF GDF FHOH QXP UXOXL GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL VHPQLILFDWLYH úL SHUPLWH R EXQ LQL LDOH 5HGXFHUHD GDWHORU QX YD SXWHD IL HIHFWXDW LQGHSHQGHQWH úL DX FRHILFLHQ LL GH FRUHOD LH QHQXOL $&3 HVWH R PHWRG IDFWRULDO p FDUDFWHULVWLFL LQL LDOH QX VXQW GHRDUHFH UHGXFHUHD QXP UXOXL GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL QX VH face printr-R UH]XOW F VLPSO VHOHF LH FL SULQ FRQVWUXF LD GH QRL FDUDFWHUL OLQLDU  GH OD FHOH LQL LDOH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO ³IDFWRULORU´ &XP DYHP GH D IDFH FX FRPELQD LL OLQLDUH HVWH R PHWRG úL stici la care se ajunge pornind - $OWH PHWRGH IDFWRULDOH SURPRYDWH GH DQDOL]D GDWHORU VXQW DQDOL]D FRUHVSRQGHQ HORU analiza canoniF FDQRQLF DQDOL]D IDFWRULDO GLVFULPLQDQW  DFHVWH PHWRGH DQDOL]kQG UHSUH]HQW UL VWXGLD] FDUDFWHULVWLFL QXPHULFH FH MRDF FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDOLWDWLYH DJHEUHL OLQLDUH úL DOH JHRPHWULFH DOH GDWHORU 6SHFLILFXO $&3 HVWH DFHOD F úL DQDOL]D GLVFULPLQDQW VWXGLD] DFHODúL URO vQ WLPS FH DQDOL]D FRUHVSRQGHQ HORU VWXGLD] .…. + u k p ⋅x ...18) k &RHILFLHQ LL k u1k . x ... determinarea unor noi coordonate. Decizii strategie $VWIHO YRP F XWD PDL vQWkL d2  SHUSHQGLFXODU SH d1.. Se poate continua în acest mod determinând d3... (c . c . q caracteristici (pentru q < p) D GDWHORU 'HFL FHD PDL EXQ VH RE LQH FX DMXWRUXO UHSUH]HQWDUH D GDWHORU FX DMXWRUXO D primelor q componente principale.. 1/n SHQWUX WR L LQGLYL]LL ( 1 2 p ) (6..2 *HRPHWULD FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU úL LQGLYL]LORU OD QRUXO GH SXQFWH DO LQGLYL]LORU GHWHUPLQDW vQ VSD LXO PorninG GH FRYDULDQ úL GHILQL XUP WRDUHOH HOHPHQWH FHQWUXO GH JUHXWDWH DO QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH PDWULFHD FRHILFLHQ LORU GH FRUHOD LH p-dimensional vom PDWULFHD GH YDULDQ - Centrul de greutate al norului de puncte (g) va fi un individ fictiv ce are drept coordonate media caracteristicilor de tip k pentru cei n indivizi: g = x .Macroeconomie... 6.

/HJ WXULOH GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL OXDWH GRX FkWH GRX .'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Definim de asemenea abaWHULOH PHGLL S WUDWLFH SHQWUX FHOH p caracteristici. σ 2j .

YRU IL GHVFULVH GH FRYDULDQ HOH σ ij VDX GH FRHILFLHQ LL GH FRUHOD LH rij (vor fi de calculat p(p-1)/2 FRHILFLHQ L.

 σ 12 σ 12  2  σ 21 σ 2  .   . σ 2 p  . ..  . ..xi ) = 1.    .. . ... $VWIHO YRP construi matricea V – QXPLW PDWULFH GH YDULDQ – FRYDULDQ FDUH YD FRQ LQH SH GLDJRQDOD SULQFLSDO DEDWHULOH PHGLL S WUDWLFH DOH FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU  LDU vQ UHVW FRYDULDQ HOH GLQWUH caracteristicile j úL k.  GLDJRQDOD SULQFLSDO YRP . V = .. . .   σ p1 . σ 1 p   .  . σ2 p  YDORDUHD úL vQ UHVW YRP DYHD 0DWULFHD FRHILFLHQ LORU GH FRUHOD LH GH FRUHOD LH VH FRQVWUXLHúWH vQ PRG DVHP Q WRU SH 1 (deoarece r (xi.

. . r  p1 S r12 1 . 0 . . 0 ... . r1 p   . . . DYHD  1   r21  .  . .. r2 p  .. . R=  .   . =  . . . 2 . . FRHILFLHQ LL GH FRUHOD LH GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH j úL k.   .. . . .  0  1 0DWULFHD GH YDULDQ D1 / σ 0 1/ σ .. . 1/ σ RE LQHP UHOD LD PDWULFHDO          p  R = D1 / σ V D1 / σ .. ..  ... Notând cu D1/s matricea diagoQDO  1 / σ   0  . FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH UHFRQVWUXF LD j 0 j . ..atunci centrul de greutate al norului de puncte va fi plasat în originea sistemului de axe ce descrie norul de puncte.20) – respectiv vom centra j tabelului de date luând x = x − x .. 'DF YRP FRQVLGHUD F SULQ WRDWH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH VXQW GH PHGLH QXO (6. 1  PDWULFL -FRYDULDQ úL PDWULFHD FRHILFLHQ LORU GH FRUHOD LH VXQW WUDWLFH GH GLPHQVLXQH p x p úL VLPHWULFH GHRDUHFH σ ij = σ ji respectiv rij = rji .

Macroeconomie. Decizii strategie Notând cu X matricea cu n V = tX D X. unde: tX – UHSUH]LQW PDWULFHD OLQLL úL p coloane cu datele centrate (considerate de medie ]HUR.

( ) 2 SULP SUREOHP VLPSO HVWH DFHHD D P VXU ULL GLVWDQ HL GLQWUH LQGLYL]L FHHD FH VH UHGXFH OD  HVWH FHD HXFOLGLDQ  7RWXúL DSDUH SUREOHPD FRPSDU ULL GLVWDQ a GHILQL R PHWULF &HD PDL VDX R GLVWDQ FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU GLVWLQFWH FXP DU IL YkUVWD VDODULXO VDX QXP UXO GH FRSLL 9RP GHILQL R GLVWDQ GH WLS HXFOLGLDQ DVWIHO 1 d 2 = a1 x1 − x1 2 ( ) 2 2 + a 2 x12 − x 2 ( ) 2 + .22) FHHD FH UHYLQH OD D vQPXO L ILHFDUH FDUDFWHULVWLF a j .. deci este un vector din Rp.24) mkj putem scrie matriceal formula Notând cu M GLVWDQ HL PDWULFHD IRUPDW GLQ HOHPHQWHOH d 2 (e1 . HXFOLGLHQH D[HOH WUHEXLH V ILH 7RWXúL SHQWUX D SXWHD FRQVLGHUD GLVWDQ HOH XQJKLXO SHUSHQGLFXODUH FHHD FH QX HVWH vQWRWGHDXQD DGHY UDW SHQWUX QRUXO GH SXQFWH LQL LDO 3HQWUX D[H REOLFH vQWUH FDUH H[LVW  IRUPXOD GLVWDQ HL vQWUH GRX SXQFWH devine: k d 2 = x1k − x 2 ( ) + (x 2 j 1 − x 2j ) 2 k − 2 x1k − x 2 x1j − x 2j cos θ ( )( ) (6...   0 p 2 . .      ..  0 .. + a p x1p − x 2p .   pn   0 0 . xip .  ÌQ FRQWLQXDUH YRP SUHVXSXQH F WRDWH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH VXnt centrate.23) ÌQ IRUPD FHD PDL JHQHUDO YRP GHILQL GLVWDQ D GLQWUH GRL LQGLYL]L DVWIHO k d 2 (e1 ... cu aj pozitiv. e2 ) = ∑∑ m kj x1k − x 2 x1j − x 2j . . k =1 j =1 n p ( )( ) (6... . DWXQFL YRP DYHD XUP WRDUHD UHOD LH PDWULFHDO  (6.. . 6SD LXO LQGLYL]LORU VSD LXO Fiecare individ este reprezentat de un punct cu p coordonate. xi2 . deci ei = xi1 .  .  .25) ... e2 ) = t (e1 − e2 )⋅ M ⋅ (e1 − e2 ) (6. FX ( ) 2 (6. D – HVWH PDWULFHD GLDJRQDO D SRQGHULORU D= .21) X WUDQVSXV   p1 0 .

'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Matricea M WUHEXLH V ILH VLPHWULF úL SR]LWLY GHILQLW RDUHFDUH 3HQWUX FD]XO SDUWLFXODU în care M este matricea unitate. rHOD LD GH PDL VXV HVWH FKLDU WHRUHPD OXL 3LWDJRUD IRUPXOD SHQWUX GLVWDQ H HXFOLGLHQH.

26) HXFOLGLDQ vQ FDUH matricea M VH QXPHúWH PHWULFD VSD LXOXL Cele mai utilizate metrici utilizate în cadrul analizei componentelor principale sunt FHOH GDWH GH PDWULFLOH GLDJRQDOH FHHD FH FRQVW vQ SRQGHUDUHD FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU Frecvent este XWLOL]DW PHWULFD M = D . 0 2 2 M = D1 / σ 2   .  0  2 1 0 1/ σ . Produsul scalar a doi vectori . DP vQ]HVWUDW VSD LXO LQGLYL]LORU FX R VWUXFWXU (6. e2 ÌQ DFHVW FD] VSXQHP F M = t e1 ⋅ M ⋅ e2 .   0 1/ σ 2 p  . definit prin intermediul matricii M este: e1 . 0  FHHD GH XQLWDWHD GH P VXU UDSRUWXO $FHDVWD SUHVXSXQH vPS U LUHD ILHF UHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL FX DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF FH IDFH FD GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH LQGLYL]L V HVWH I U QX PDL GHSLQG xi/σj GLPHQVLXQH. . . care are forma: 1/ σ 2 1 / σ   0 =  ..   .

cp care vor fi GUHDSW  'DF D HVWH YHFWRUXO XQLWDU DO OXL d iar M este x UH]XOW e1 = t e1 Ma = t (Ma )e1 (deoarece M HVWH VLPHWULF Luând u = M a UH]XOW . cu valorile c1. Cu alte cuvinte. alegând convenabil matricea T se poate reduce metrica la matricea unitate I.x2. metrica D1 / σ 2 UHVWDELOHúWH GHRDUHFH DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF 2EVHUYD LH 2ULFH PHWULF VLPHWULF  SR]LWLY GHILQLW D ILHF UHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL YD IL  SRDWH IL VFULV FD SURGXV GH M matrici M = tT T.xp SURLHF LD XQXL individ QRX FDUDFWHULVWLF c. $VIHO YRP DORFD ILHF UHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL DFHHDúL LPSRUWDQ XQ HFKLOLEUX vQWUH LQGLIHUHQW GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL dispersia sa.…. 'DF SH R GUHDSW YRP SOHFD GH OD XQ VLVWHP GH D[H RUWRQRUPDWH YD GHWHUPLQD R  d SURLHF LLOH SXQFWHORU PHWULFD XWLOL]DW SHQWUX ei SH DFHVW x1. T ⋅ e2 I (6.….c2. Atunci produsul scalar între e1 úL e2 va fi: e1 . e2 M = t e1 ⋅ M ⋅ e2 = t e1 t T ⋅ T ⋅ e2 = t (T ⋅ e1 )⋅ (T ⋅ e2 ) = T ⋅ e1 . ÌQ FRQWLQXDUH YRP SUH]HQWD PRGXO vQ FDUH VH GHWHUPLQ FRRUGRQDWHOH XQXL LQGLYLG GXS modificarea sistemului de axe.27) Cu alte cuvinte.

29) . p (6.28) GLUHFW  n  j  c = X ⋅u =  u x ∑ j i   j = 1   i =1. (6.

Decizii strategie c YD IL R FRPELQD LH OLQLDU M = I atunci u = a. 'DF Vom numi LQHU LH centrul de greutate: ℘= $FHDVW GH ]HUR.QHU LD D QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH PHGLD S WUDWHORU GLVWDQ HORU FHORU D FHORU p FDUDFWHULVWLFL LQL LDOH SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO IDFWRULORU u. .Macroeconomie.

30) FX FHQWUXO GH FDQWLWDWH P VXUD greutate (cu alte cuvinte dispeUVLD greutate g. JOREDO D QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH. DUDW F n puncte la ∑p i i ⋅ ei YD 2 M = ∑ pi t ei Mei i GHS UWDUHD SXQFWHORU QRUXOXL vQ UDSRUW (6.

h ) GH IRUPXOD OXL +X\JKHQV (6. diferit de centrul de greutate: ℘h = ∑p i i ⋅ d 2 (ei .32) VH RE LQH GDF h = g.h) Deci ℘h este întotdeauna mai mare decât ℘ LDU YDRDUHD PLQLP 'H DLFL RE LQHP F SXQFWH HVWH HFKLYDOHQW D F XWD XQ SODQ FH DVLJXU (6.31) /HJ WXUD GLQWUH ℘ úL ℘h HVWH GDW ℘h = ℘ + d 2 (g. n PD[LPL]DUHD LQHU LHL SURLHF LLORU FHORU FX GHWHUPLQDUHD SODQXOXL FH WUHFH ³FHO PDL DSURDSH´ GH PXO LPHD SXQFWHORU QRUXOXL vQ VHQVXO PLQLPL] ULL PHGLHL S WUDWHORU GLVWDQ HORU GH OD SXQFWHOH QRUXOXL OD plan. ℘ VH PDL SRDWH GHWHUPLQD FX UHOD LD 9RP SUHVXSXQH F SODQXO SULQFLSDO úL PDL PXOW D[HOH SULQFLSDOH WUHF vQWRWGHDXQD SULQ ℘ = Tr (MV) GLDJRQDOD SULQFLSDO . De asemenea. 2 LQHU LH QXO VDX DSURSLDW WR L LQGLYL]LL VXQW LGHQWLFL VDX DSURDSH LGHQWLFL FRQIXQGD L FX FHQWUXO GH 6H SRDWH DU WD XúRU IDSWXO F GLVWDQ H vQWUH SXQFWHOH QRUXOXL LQHU LD ℘ VHWH HJDO FX PHGLD S WUDWHORU FHORU n(n-1)/2 'H DVHPHQHD SXWHP GHILQL LQHU LD vQ UDSRUW FX XQ DOW SXQFW h. centrul de greutate al norului de puncte.

35) . respectiv suma elementelor de pe 2EVHUYD LL • • 'DF M = I DWXQFL LQHU LD HVWH caracteristici.34) (cu Tr (MV) desemnând urma matricei MV. (6. 'DF M = D atunci avem: 1/ s2 HJDO FX VXPD DEDWHULORU PHGLL S tratice asociate celor p Tr(MV) = Tr (D1 / s 2 V ) = Tr (D1 / sVD1 / s ) = Tr (R ) = p deci urma matricei MV HVWH HJDO FX QXP UXO GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL (6.

.36) cu alte cuvinte cosinusul unghiului dinWUH GRX GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU 'DF vQ FD]XO VSD LXOXL LQGLYL]LORU QH LQWHUHVHD] FDUDFWHULVWLFL FHQWUDWH HVWH FRHILFLHQWXO vQ VSHFLDO GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH SXQFWH vQ FD]XO VSD LXOXL FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU YRU IL PDL LPSRUWDQWH XQJKLXULOH GLQWUH DFHVWHD b) caracteristici determinate de un tablou de date 'DF x1. 6SD LXO FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU )LHFDUH FDUDFWHULVWLF HVWH vQ UHDOLWDWH R OLVW VSD LXO S WUDWLFH DOH GH YDORUL QXPHULFH FX DOWH FXYLQWH OH YRP FRQVLGHUD FD XQ YHFWRU GLQ n dimensLRQDO QXPLW VSD LXO FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU Rn. x2.. a) Metrica 3HQWUX PHWULF  DGLF VWXGLHUHD V DSURSLHULL GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL WUHEXLH V vQ]HVWU P VSD LXO FX R GHWHUPLQ P R PDWULFH GH RUGLQ Q SR]LWLY GHILQLW  SUREOHP GHRDUHFH DFHDVW PHWULF úL VLPHWULF  'DF ILH GDW SHQWUX VSD LXO LQGLYL]LORU VH SXQH SUREOHPD DOHJHULL PHWULFLL XWLOL]DWH  SHQWUX VSD LXO FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU QX PDL DSDUH DFHDVW WUHEXLH V GH SRQGHULOH indivizilor pi. Argumentele pentru folosirea acestei metrici sunt: • 3URGXVXO VFDODU D GRX FRYDULDQ D F aracteristici xj úL xk este t x j ⋅ D ⋅ x k = ∑ pi ⋅ xij ⋅ xik . XQ vQWUH QLFL R OHJ WXU VH GHWHUPLQ OLQLDU SULQ ceea ce se reduce la alegerea unor noi D[H VXEVSD LX YHFWRULDO vQ VSD LXO LQGLYL]LORU 0XO LPHD WXWXURU FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU RE LQXWH SULQWU XQ DVIHO GH SURFHGHX IRUPHD] - W DO VSD LXOXL FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU 'DF DU WDW FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH YD IL F QRX QX H[LVW RE LQXWH FDUDFWHULVWLFL DWXQFL DFHVW VXEVSD LX HVWH GH GLPHQVLXQH S DOWIHO HVWH GH GLPHQVLXQH PDL PLF  $VD FXP DP PDL UHOD LD c = X u  vQ FDUH X UHSUH]LQW IDFWRUXO DVRFLDW OXL FRPSRQHQWHL SULQFLSDOH c. xp VXQW FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH P VXUDWH DVXSUD FHORU Q LQGLYL]L DWXQFL YRP RE LQH QRL FDUDFWHULVWLFL XWLOL]kQG FRPELQD LL OLQLDUH GH WLSXO c = u1 ⋅ x 1 + u 2 ⋅ x 2 + .'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU • Pentru o matrice M RDUHFDUH LQHU LD HVWH HJDO FX VXPD DEDWHULORU carecteristicilor transformate prin intermediul matricii T. + u p ⋅ x p . …. xk x ⋅ x j k = σ jk k σ j⋅σ (6. • Norma unei caracteristici x j HVWH DEDWHUHD PHGLH S D ³OXQJLPHD ³ XQHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL YD IL HJDO σ 2j . $EDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF 2 t σc = c ⋅ D ⋅ c = t u ⋅t x ⋅ x ⋅ u = t u ⋅ V ⋅ u (6. cu alte cuvinte FX DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF  Într-XQ VSD LX produsului scalar: cos θ HXFOLGLDQ XQJKLXO θ GLQWUH GRL YHFWRUL VH GHWHUPLQ SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO jk = x j .37) .. cu M = tT T. chiar i =1 WUDWLF n σ jk pentru cazul caracteristicilor centrate.

λp GHVFULVH vQ RUGLQH GHVFUHVF WRDUH 9RP FRQVLGHUD QRLOH D[H DOH VSD LXOXL LQGLYL]LORU FD ILLQG YHFWRULL SURSULL DL PDWULFHL FH YDULDQ -FRYDULDQ 2EVHUYD LH  FHHD FH FRQGXFH OD OLQLDUL]DUHD RSHU atorului liniar asociat lui V. cu alte cuvinte c HVWH FRPELQD LD OLQLDU D xi GH GLVSHUVLH PD[LPDO  $[HOH úL IDFWRULL SULQFLSDOL v1. Cum d1 este axa prinFLSDO D QRUXOXL FRPSRQHQWHOH ci sunt dispersate maxim posibil. vp (pentru cazul în care M = I ) sunt vectorii SURSULL DL PDWULFHL GH YDULDQ – FRYDULDQ 9 YHFWRUL SURSULL DVRFLD L YDORULORU SURSULL λ1. VXQW VROX LLOH HFXD LHL • • 5HDPLQWLP F det(V . cu ci i GUHDSW PD[LP  Aceasta P VXULOH DOJHEULFH ei pe d1 (deoarece d1 trece prin centrul de greutate al norului de puncte). Decizii strategie  'HWHUPLQDUHD D[HORU SULQFLSDOH úL D IDFWRULORU SULQFLSDOL S WUDWHORU La începutul acestui paragraf am definit d1 GLVWDQ HORU SURLHF LLORU SXQFWHORU D[D SULQFLSDO  SULQ SURSULHWDWHD F SH PHGLD QRUXOXL SUHVXSXQH PD[LPL]DUHD LQHU LHL SURLHF LLORU  UHVSHFWLY D DOH SURLHF LLORU OXL a d1 HVWH p ⋅ c ∑ i i2 .Macroeconomie. …. λ2. YDORULOH SURSULL DVRFLDWH XQHL PDWULFH V 9HFWRULL SURSULL DVRFLD L VXQW DFHL YHFWRUL Xi FH VDWLVIDF UHOD LD V ui = λi ui -GDF ui este un vector colRDQ OD GUHDSWD DVRFLDW YDORULL SURSULL λi. uj V = λj uj – GDF uj este un vector linie la stânga asociat valorii proprii λj . v2.λ I ) = 0. …. 0DWULFHD YDULDQ HL FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH YD IL vQ DFHVW FD] λ  1  V =   0  λ 2 0     .  λ p  FkWH GRX  Componentele principale vor fi decL QHFRUHODWH GRX LQL LDOH SULQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL QHFRUHODWH GH GLVSHUVLH PD[LPDO 3HQWUX D GHWHUPLQD GLUHFW D[HOH IDFWRULL úL FRP Prin metoda analizei componentelor principale se înlocuiesc cele p caracteristici úL FX LPSRUWDQ GHVFUHVF WRDUH ponentele principale în raport cu X PDWULFHD GDWHORU LQL LDOH.

YRP IDFH XUP WRDUHOH WUDQVIRUP UL V ⋅ u = λ ⋅ u = TV t T ⋅ u ⇒ t T ⋅ TV tT ⋅ u = λ t T ⋅ u ⇒ MVu = λ ⋅ u D UH]XOW F (6.37) Cum u = M UHJXODW .

axele principale vor fi vectorii proprii ai matricei VM. &RPSRQHQWHOH SULQFLSDOH VH RE LQ GLQ UHOD LD c = X u. iar factorii principali vor fi vectorii proprii ai matricei MV. MVMa=λMa  DGLF V M a = λ a (deoarece M este Cu alte cuvinte. (6.38) .

&RQWULEX LD SULPHORU GRX HVHQ LDO  &X FkW DFHDVW vQ SODQXO SULQFLSDO HVWH PDL EXQ  VH HIHFWXHD] YDORUL SURSULL vQ WRWDO LQHU LH D QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH HVWH FRQWULEX LH HVWH PDL PDUH FX DWkW UHSUH]HQWDUHD SXQFWHORU În unele cazuri se poate reduce studiul caracteristicilor doar la primele q FRPSRQHQWH FHOH FDUH DX R FRQWULEX LH GH SHVWH  F vQ WRWDOXO LQHU LHL DSUHFLLQG UHVWXO FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU DX R FRQWULEX LH QHVHPQLILFDWLY  0HWRGD SHUPLWH VWDELOLUHD RUGLQLL úL LPSRUWDQ HL FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU VWXGLDWH  6. $FHDVW PDWULFH VH FDOFXOHD] FRRUGRQDWHOH SH D[HOH SULQF ipale) sunt D LQGLYL]LORU SH XQ VSD LX GH GLPHQVLXQH T vQ FDUH GLVWDQ HOH VH YRU P VXUD SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO SURFHQWDMXOXL LQHU LH  ÌQ FRQFOX]LH HVWH VXILFLHQW V FDOFXO P YHFWRULL SURSULL SHQWUX D RE LQH R UHSUH]HQWDUH DQDOL] IDFWRULDO 2EVHUYD LH D XQXL WDEHO DO GLVWDQ HORU $SOLFDUHD PHWRGHL $&3 SHQWUX XQ DVHPHQHD WLS GH GDWH VH QXPHúWH 6. SOHFDUH YRU IL IL FRQVLGHUD L SXQFWH vQWU XQ VSD LX GH GLPHQVLXQH S QHFXQRVFXW vQ]HVWUDW FX R PHWULF DFHVWH GLVWDQ H VXQW HXFOLGLHQH SHQWUX vQFHSXW úL vQ DFHVW FD] FHL Q LQGLYL]L SRW LQFOXVH vQ WDEORXO GLVWDQ HORU GLQWUH FHL Q LQGLYL]L 0 tabel indivizi-FDUDFWHULVWLFL úL V ÌQV GLVWDQ HORU GLQWUH LQGLYL]L DP FXQRDúWH FRRUGRQDWHOH SH D[H RUWRJRQDOH FKLDU DUELWUDUH DWXQFL V FRPSRQHQWHOH SULQFLSDOH F FDUH IRUPHD] VH HIHFWXH]H R $&3 - -ar putea construi un vQV GRDU SH ED]D vectorii proprii ai matricei X M t X D. Raportul λk / ℘ VH QXPHúWH FRQWULEX LD D[HL N OD LQHU LD WRWDO  este mai mDUH FX DWk HVWH PDL EXQ REVHUYD LLOH 2 YDORDUH SURSULH QXO LQL LDOH FX XUPD PDWULFHL V. Tr LDU λ1 + λ2 ) / ℘ va YDORDUH P VXUD JUDGXO GH DSODWL]DUH D QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH SH SODQXO SULQFLSDO &X FkW DFHDVW UHSUH]HQWDUHD QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH vQ DFHVW SODQ 1XP UXO GH YDORUL SURSULL QHQXOH YD GD GLPHQVLXQHD VSD LXOXL vQ FDUH VH HIHFWXHD] YD LQGLFD H[LHWDQ D XQHL UHOD LL OLQLDUH vQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH 2EVHUYD LL • • • • • Valorile proprii ordonate λ 5HSUH]HQWDUHD JUDILF k DUDW RUGLQHD LPSRUWDQ HL FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU vQ SODQXO GHWHUPLQDW GH D[HOH SULQFLSDOH FHOH ce corespund valorilor proprii λ1 úL λ2 ).3. În continuare vom prezenta XQ VWXGLX GH FD] UHVSHFWLY XQ H[HPSOX GH DQDOL] D componentelor principale pornind de la datele cu privire la cheltuielile publice efectuate în )UDQ D vQWUH DQLL  – 1971. Datele sunt prezentate în tabelul 6.3. sunt prezentate procentual princLSDOHOH FKHOWXLHOL SXEOLFH SUHY ]XWH vQ EXJHW SHQWUX ILHFDUH DQ GLQ FHL .5 Studiu de caz. respectiv a MV úL GH DVHPHQHD HVWH LQHU LD WRWDO ℘.4 Analiza tabelelor de proximitate GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH LQGLYL]L FX DOWH FXYLQWH HVWH FXQRVFXW WDEHOXO GH SUR[LPLWDWH ÌQ XQHOH DSOLFD LL QX VXQW FXQRVFXWH YDORULOH OXDWH GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL GDU VXQW FXQRVFXWH 8Q H[HPSOX vQ acest caz îl poate constitui studiul caracteristicilor unor produse. Astfel.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Suma valorilor proprii : λ1 + λ2 + …+ λp HVWH FRQVWDQW úL HJDO V.9. caracteristici apreciate R DQDOL] P UFL DOH XQXL SURG 3UHVXSXQHP F 'DF 'DWHOH GH VXELHFWLY GH F WUH FRQVXPDWRUL GRDU SH ED]D ³GLVWDQ HL´ GLQWUH SURGXVH 3HQWUX D SXWHD HIHFWXD D FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH WUHEXLH V HSUH]HQW P JUDILF GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH HOHPHQWH us de exemplu).

9 10.2.1 28.4 11.8 10.6 6.4 13.8 6. Structura cheltuielilor publice în perioada 1872-1971(%) Tabelul 6.8 6. 4.4 38.2 3.8 12.4 4.9 7. 1.1 0.7 2.3.9 13.4 8.1 2.3 0.0 9.1 9.2 12.8 33.6 5.5 0.2 0. 3.8 0.6 0.2 25. 4.9 12.5 7.6 9.6 8.6 25.1 15.3 7.9 10.3 8.8 20.2 0.0 0 0.9.9 1.4 1. André úL 5 'HORUPH /¶pYROXWLRQ CORDES.7 6.8 CI 0.5 8.9.1 0.7 7.2 6.3 4.5 19.3 40.2 10.3 20.7 24.1 3.4 0 0 1.4 26.1 7.5 1.4 12.6 14.3 0.0 8.1 11.4.5 7. 12.4 11.4 0.8 0.9 0 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1.1 23.6 1.9 2.8 2. 3.5.1 42.3 34.1 8.5 31.6 0.2 ) Dispersiile celor 11 caracteristici sunt: si = ( 2.0 4.3 8.7 4.9 Nr.7 1.4 29. 7.4 29. 1.4 3.7 0.9 0.7 1.2 3.5.4 1.2.3 6.4 4. 4.7 4. 4.2 0.5 0.6 9.9 9.4 0.7 10.6 1.1 3.1 1.6 1.3 13.5 12.5 0.2 7. 1976 GHV GpSHQVHV SXEOLTXHV HQ )UDQFH  – 1971) rapport 6HPQLILFD LD WLSXULORU GH FKHOWXLHOL HVWH XUP WRDUHD ADS LOC AGR VR EDU APA ACS TR CI DAT DIV – $GPLQLVWUD LH SXEOLF – /RFXLQ H – $JULFXOWXU – Veterani de r ]ERL – (GXFD LH úL FXOWXU – $S UDUH – $FWLYLW L VRFLDOH – Transporturi – &RPHU úL LQGXVWULH – 'DWRULH SXEOLF .9 3.3 2.2 5.6 15.7 0.6 2.4 0.9 11.1 4.5 0.3 1.4 9.5 9. 4.8 12.8 6.Diverse Mediile celor 11 caracteristici sunt coordonatele centrului de greutate: g = ( 12.3 7.1 5.1. 8.8.8 4.0 16.6 0.7 1.7 15.3 10.5 8.5 8.2.9 5.1 TR 6. 4.7 11.7 0.5 10. Cepremap.5 0 0 0 0.6 5.3 0.9 7.0 9.6 10.5 15.6 10.9 8.4 7.3 VR APA 26.0 3. 2.2 4.4 0.8 37.3.5 18.0 10.2 DIV 2.0 0.6 1.4 9.0 27.0 12.1 9.8 5.4 7.0 1.5 5.6 9.0 EDU 2.0 41.7 7.4 11.2 18. Decizii strategie FRQVLGHUD L 9RP DYHD  GH LQGLYL]L UHSUH]HQWD L GH DQL úL UHVSHFWLY  FDUDFWHULVWLFL reprezentate de tipul de cheltuieli publice efectuate.1 10.3 5.8 1.6 11.0 18.5 19.4 7.8 ACS 2.6 1.0 19.3 6.3 23.1 12. 19.2.5 36.4 3.8 DAT 41.5 LOC 0.9 28.2 6.7 1.4 23.9 5.6 4.5 1.8 19.Macroeconomie.1 1.1 9.5 8. 1 ) .8 2.4 1. Paris.0 4.1 1.0 9.2 0.6 8.3.0 5.8 3.6.8 AGR 0.9 4.5 4.5 6. 2.3.0 5.4 29.1 13.6 0.3 4.2 27. 30.0 9.4 6.0 1.9 2.7 19.0 10.8 13.1 35.7 5.8 8.5 1. crt.3 1.8 1.1 3.7 Sursa: C.3 1.2.4 3.3 3.5 21.7 38.7 36.8 41. 5.2 26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 An 1872 1880 1890 1900 1903 1906 1909 1912 1920 1923 1926 1929 1932 1935 1938 1947 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 ADS 18.2 6.2.4 12. 9.7 32.3 1.0 2.4 12.0 14.

56 0.1 96.38 -0.69 -0.49 0.6 84.88 0.54 -0.73 0.99 0.28 AGR 1 0.55 DAT 1 DIV 'LQ DQDOL]D PDWULFLL GH FRUHOD LH VH GHVSULQG SULPHOH LQWHUSUHW UL - FRHILFLHWXO GH FRUHOD LH GLQWUH FKHOWXLHOLOH SHQWUX ORFXLQ H úL FHOH SHQWUX LQGXVWULH úL FRPHU GRX HVWH GH  FHHD FH DUDW R OHJ WXU SXWHUQLF  DSURDSH OLQLDU vQWUH FHOH FDUDFWHULVWLFL &X DOH FXYLQWH FHOH GRX WLSXUL GH FKHOWXLHOL DX HYROXDW vQ DGPLQLVWUD LH úL FHOH D OHJ WXULORU GLQWUH DFHODúL VHQV vQ PDUHD PDMRULWDWH D DQLORU DQDOL]D L - ÌQ VFKLPE FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH GLQWUH FKHOWXLHOLOH SHQWUX SHQWUX LQGXVWULH úL FRPHU HVWH  FHHD FH DUDW OLSVD FRPSOHW aceste tipuri de cheltuieli.21 -0.12 0.76 -0.04 -0. Crt. Astfel factorii principali s-DX RE LQXW SULQ GLDJRQDOL]DUHD PDWULFLL GH FRUHOD LH 5 9DORULOH SURSULL DWDúDWH PDWULFLL X pentru metrica M = D sunt prezentate în tabelul 1/ s2 6.98 2.69 0.8 1.7 9.03 0.11 TR 1 0.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU 0DWULFHD GH FRUHOD LH D FHORU  FDUDFWHULVWLFL HVWH V= ADS AGR CI TR LOC EDU ACS VR APA DAT DIV 1 -0.9 75.10 Tabelul 6. 0HWULFD XWLOL]DW D IRVW D1 / s 2  FHHD FH D SUHVXSXV FHQWUDUHD úL UHGXFHUHD FHORU  caracteristici.26 0.20 0.15 -0.3 63.3 18.16 -0.31 0.6 100 100 6XPD YDORULORU SURSULL HVWH HJDO FX QXP UXO GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL GHRDUHFH D IRVW DOHDV metrica M = D1 / s 2 .23 0.42 -0.06 0.05 1.53 ACS 1 -0.20 -0.05 -0. Ultima valoare proprie este 0 deoarece cele 11 caracteristici sunt corelate printr-R UHOD LH OLQLDU ILLQG SURFHQWH GLQ FKHOWXLHOLOH SXEOLFH VXPD ORU HVWH .17 -0.15 ADS 1 0.8 0.5 0.27 0.02 -0.25 EDU 1 0.6 11.04 0 11 vQ LQHU LH 45.38 VR 1 0.10 Nr.1 0.81 0.57 -0.44 LOC 1 0.16 -0.02 APA 1 0.4 0 100 % cumulat 45.62 0.81 -0.6 91.2 98 99.13 -0.29 -0.1 99.67 -0.47 0.04 -0.10 0.3) Calculele prezentate în continuare au fost efectuate cu ajutorul pachetului de programe SPADN.45 -0.52 -0. deci va fi 11.23 0.71 0.29 0.1 1.60 -0.15 0.0 6.09 0.89 0.80 -0.05 -0.00 0.5 5. 7RWXúL SHQWUX D YHULILFD FHOH DILUPDWH WUHELXH V DSURIXQG P DQDOL]HOH úL SULQ WUDVDUHD norului de puncte aferent în planul axelor principale (vezi figura 6.44 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 total Valoare proprie 4.35 CI 1 0.

 .

35.77 -0. 0.14 0. 0. 0.017 -0. deoarece cu cât acesta este mai mare. Componentele c1 úL F2 vor da coordonatele indivizilor în planul principal.24 c2 1. 0.08.32. 0.37.08 2. 0.11 sunt indicate coordonatele celor 24 de indivizi în planul determinat de axele principale.21.42 -2. -0. -0.17 -1.37.63 -0.24.06 -2.07.14 -1.67 -1.27. 0. -0. Este dificil de apreciat de la ce procent în sus putem neglija componentele U PkQ VHPQLILFDWLY  SULQFLSDOH FDUH DX PDL U PDV $FHDVWD GHSLQGH vQ SULPXO UkQG GH QXP UXO GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL studiate.20 2.12 c2 -1.69 3.08) Reprezentarea indivizilor în planul principal t În tabelul 6. -0.47 0.52.14 3.90 -2.70 3.61 1.40. -0.83 An 1932 1935 1938 1947 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 c1 0.25 -2.75 -.28.14 -1.31 0. -0.06. -0.01 -0. -0.96 2.25 ) v2 = ( -0. UHSUH]HQWDUHD vQ SODQXO GHWHUPLQDW GH D[HOH SULQFLSDOH )LJXUD  LOXVWUHD] .88 2.10.91 -1.98 -1.43 -2. 0.02 -2.11 An 1872 1880 1890 1900 1903 1906 1909 1912 1920 1923 1926 1929 c1 -2. cu atât ponderea primelor componente poate VF GHD úL WRWXúL V Primii doi vectori principali v1 úL Y2 sunt: t v1 = (-0.66 -0.77 -2.42. -0.56.44.06 3. 0.13 -0.22 -0. -0.34 -1.09 2 SULP REVHUYD LH HVWH DFHHD F H[LVW SDWUX JUXSH GLVWLQFWH ELQH LQGLYLGXDOL]DWH - grupa 1 – DQLL GLQDLQWH GH SULPXO U ]ERL PRQGLDO grupa 2 – DQLL GLQWUH FHOH GRX U ]ERDLH PRQGLDOH grupa 3 – DQLL GH LPHGLDW GXS FHO GH-DO GRLOHD U ]ERL PRQGLDO grupa 4 – perioada dintre anii 1956 – 1971. 0.11 -0.23 -0.96 2.13.37 1.00.Macroeconomie.34 -2.81 -0. Decizii strategie 3ULPHOH GRX SXQFWH GHFL VHPQLILFDWLY  YDORUL SURSULL UHSUH]LQW DQDOL]HL GRDU OD DSUR[LPDWLY  SULPHOH GRX GLQ LQHU LD WRWDO FRPSRQHQHWH D QR rului de HVWH UHVWUkQJHUHD SULQFLSDOH 2EVHUYD LH .30 1.15.40 1.93 2. Tabelul 6.27 0.

3 &XP ILJXUD RE LQXW WUHEXLH DQDOL]DW FRQIXQG úL FDOLWDWHD PDL VXV HVWH R SURLHF LH QX WUHEXLH V VH FRQIXQGH DSURSLHULOH dintre punctele din planul pULQFLSDO FX FHOH UHDOH GLQ VSD LXO LQGLYL]LORU ÌQ DFHVWH FRQGL LL PDL UHSUH]HQW ULL vQ ILHFDUH SXQFW UHVSHFWLY GH D DQDOL]D XQJKLXULOH YDORDUHD FRVLQXVXOXL VH DSURSLH GH  DWXQFL SURLHF LD VH YDORDUHD FRVLQXVXOXL VH DSURSLH GH ]HUR DWXQFL SRW F DSURDSH WR L DQLL VXQW ELQH ILJXUD L SRDWH PDL SX LQ PXOWH HOHPHQWH VODE úL UHSUH]HQWDWH DFHDVWD VH GDF GLQWUH YHFWRUL úL SURLHF LLOH ORU 'DF FX YHFWRUXO LQL LDO vQV DSDUH SUREOHPH GH LQWHUSUHWDUH D UH]XOWDWXOXL RE LQXW 'LQ DQDOL]D FRVLQXVXULORU UH]XOW ÌQ GDWRUHD] FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH VH RE LQ anii  úL  FDUH DX XQ FRVLQXV GH  PDL LQHU LHL UHGXVH D SODQXOXL SULQFLSDO úL YD IL QHFHVDU DQDOL]D SODQXULORU GHILQLWH de componentele principale 3.QWHUSUHWDUHD FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH úL D D[HORU SULQFLSDOH 8QD GLQWUH FHOH PDL GHOLFDWH SUREOHPH HVWH DFHHD D LQWHUSUHW ULL VHPQLILFD LHL FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH FDUH VXQW vQ UHDOLWDWH R FRPELQD LH OLQLDU D FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU GH plecare.5 etc. D. . SuQW start.4.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Axa 2 1923 1928 1935 1900 1932 1929 1938 1968 1962 1890 1903 1900 1920 1872 1909 1906 1912 1953 1971 1959 1958 1965 Axa 1 1947 1880 1950 Figura 6.

respectiv coeficientul de úL ck este egal cu componenta j din vectorul propriu k vQPXO LW FX WUDWHORU FRHILFLHQ LORU GH FRUHOD LH GLQWUH [M úL Fk este k.De aicL UH]XOW ÌQ FD]XO S D1 / s 2 . UDSRDUWHORU GH FRUHOD LH vQWUH FRPSRQHQWHOH SULQFLSDOH úL QRVWUX WDEHOXO FDUDFWHULVWLFL HVWH XUP WRUXO . DGRSWDWH GRX SXQFWH GH YHGHUH SH GH R SDUWH VXQW DQDOL]DWH FRUHOD LLOH FX SDUWH VXQW DQDOL]D L LQGLYL]LL WLSLFL SHQWUX PXO LPHD GH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH LQL LDOH LDU SH GH DOW &HUFXO FRUHOD LLORU &DOFXOXO FRUHOD LLORU GLQWUH FRPSRQHQWHOH SULQFLSDOH úL FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH LQL LDOH HVWH XúRU GH HIHFWXDW vQ FD]XO PHWULFLL FRUHOD LH OLQLDU GLQWUH [ F j λ k .

61 -0.81 -0.14 0.79 0. x j ≤ 1. 3HQWUX D GRXD FRPSRQHQW D SULPHL REVHUY P F 'DF YRP úL FHO DORFDW DGPLQLVWUD LHL UHSUH]HQWD ILHFDUH SHQWUX '$7 úL $3$ 3XQFWHOH VLWXDWH OD VWkQJD HVWH GH  RUL PDL PLF GHFkW SULQFLSDO  D F UHL LPSRUWDQ SULQFLSDOD RSR]L LH VH J VHúWH vQWUH EXJHWXO DORFDW YHWHUDQLORU GH U ]ERL FDUDFWHULVWLF SULQWU -un punct într-un sistem de axe DFHVWHD VH YRU vQVFULH XúRU IDSWXO GHWHUPLQDW GH SULPHOH GRX FRPSRQHQWH SULQFLSDOH DWXQFL REVHUY P F vQ LQWHULRUXO XQXL FHUF GH UD] F  r 2 c1 . AGR.xj) -0.12 &DUDFWHULVWLF ADS AGR CI TR LOC EDU ACS VR APA DAT DIV 3ULPD DFWLYLW LORU FRPSRQHQW r(c1.14 0.72 0. x j + r 2 c 2 .30 -0.55 SULQFLSDO úL HVWH r(c2.93 0.74 -0.29 -0.83 -0.89 -0. UHSUH]HQWDUH DUH SHQWUX FDUDFWHULVWLFL DFHODúL URO SH FDUH vQ DUH SODQXO SULQFLSDO pentru indivizi.11 SR]LWLY FRUHODW FX SURFHQWXO úL GLQ EXJHW DORFDW FX VRFLDOH FRPHU XOXL LQGXVWULHL UHVSHFWLY DJULFXOWXULL QHJDWLY FRUHODW FKHOWXLHOLOH GHVWLQDWH DS U ULL QD LRQDOH úL SO SULPD FRPSRQHQW SHUPLWH V SULQFLSDO DSDUH R SULP LL GDWRULHL SXEOLFH &X DOWH FXYLQWH vQ UDSRUW FX PDL JUXSDUH D FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU LQL LDOH $FHDVWD QH LQWHUSUHW P SR]L LD LQGLYL]LORU SH SODQXO SULQFLSDO FX FkW XQ LQGLYLG VH VLWXHD] OD GUHDSWD vQ SODQ FX DWkW VH YD GHS UWD GH PHGLH SULQ YDORUL PDUL DOH FDUDWHULVWLFLORU $&6 &.Macroeconomie.xj) -0.4 $QDOL]D $FHDVW DFHVWHL UHSUH]HQW UL SHUPLWH LQWHUSUHWDUHD FRPSRQHQWHORU SULQFLSDOH úL observarea grupurilor de cararcetristici corelate negativ sau pozitiv. .22 0.01 -0.34 -0. concomitent cu valori mici în medie corespund apropierii caracteristicilor.63 -0.82 0. Decizii strategie Tabelul 6. VR DAT ( ) ( )  $FHVWD VH QXPHúWH FHUFXO FRUHOD LLORU  VH UHPDUF EDU ACS DIV APA TR ADS AGR CI LOC Figura 6.17 0.40 0.10 0.

'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU E.

/RFXO úL LPSRUWDQ D LQGLYL]LORU 2EVHUYkQG F vQ RUGLQH FURQRORJLF  DFHDVWD YD SHUPLWH V SXQHP FKHOWXLHOLORU SXEOLFH UHVSHFWLY GH -a lungul axei 1 anii sunt aproape HYLGHQ HYROX LD WHPSRUDO D vQ PRG GHWHUPLQDQW D[D FRQWULEX LH YD IL Fk  GDWRUDW vQ 6H SRW GHWHUPLQD LQGLYL]LL FDUH FDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQ FDOFXOXO FRQWULEX LHL XQXL SXQFW OD IRUPDUHD D[HL N $FHDVW 2 /λ pi ⋅ cik k  FDUH HVWH SDUWHD GLQ DEDWHUHD PHGLH S WUDWLF D FRPSRQHQWHL LQGLYLGXOXL L $VIHO SHQWUX D[D  D[D  DQLORU   úL  $FHDVW LQWHUHVHD] FRQWULEX LLOH GRPLQDQWH UHYLQ DQLORU  úL  LDU SHQWUX V DQDOL] P úL LQWHUSUHWDWH QX DUH VHQV GHFkW vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH QH LQWHUHVHD] indivizii ce fac parte din norul de puncte. 'LQ DFHVW PRWLY GXS VH UHLD DQDOL]D ILH HOLPLQD L úL DSRL V . În cazul unor sondaje sau alegeri aleatoare PDL SX LQ LQGLYL]LL úL PDL PXOW FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH DFHVWRUD ÌQ DFHVW FD] $&3 VH YD D FHUFXOXL FRUHOD LLORU DQDOL] HVWH DFHHD D LQIOXHQ HL GDWHORU DEHUDQWH LGHQWLILFDUHD DFHVWRU GLILFXOWDWH LPSULPDW VHPQLI GH DFHVW rezuma la studierea caracteristicLORU DGLF 2 DOW 'DF LQGLYLG DEHUDQW LQIOXHQ HD] LQGLYL]L HVWH UHFRPDQGDELO V YRP DQDOL]D IRUPDUHD D[HORU úL FRQWULEX LD LQGLYL]LORU vQ IRUPDUHD D[HORU SULQFLSDOH XQ icativ analiza.

Tocmai de aceea în continuare vom prezenta metode de cODVLILFDUH úL QX DOJRULWPL 6.4. Clasificarea &ODVLILFDUHD vúL SURSXQH FD SULQ PHWRGHOH VDOH V JUXSH]H LQGLYL]LL XQHL PXO LPL GDWH într-XQ QXP U PDL PLF GH FODVH RPRJHQH $OWIHO VSXV YRP UHGXFH QXP UXO GH LQGLYL]L SULQWU ([LVW GRX PDUL WLSXUL GH PHWRGH GH FODVLILFDUH D GDWHORU -o DVRFLHUHD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH D GDWHORU - PHWRGH QHLHUDUKLFH vQ XUPD F URUD UH]XOW GLUHFW R SDUWL LH vQUW XQ QXP U IL[DW GH - clase. În cadrul metodelor de clasificare datele sunt organizate fie în tabele de proximitate (sau de disimilaritate) între cei n LQGLYL]L DQDOL]D L SULQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL FDQWLWDWLYH ILH vQ WDEHOH FH FRQ LQ FRRUGRQDWHOH LQGLYL]LORU vQ FD]XO FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU FDOLWDWLYH GHILQLUHD XQHL GLVWDQ H FX Pentru cazul caUDFWHULVWLFLORU FDOLWDWLYH YD IL QHFHVDU ÌQ XOWLPLL DQL DOJRULWPLL GH FODVLILFDUH DX FXQRVFXW R HYROX LH H[SRQHQ LDO  R GDW dezvoltarea mijloacelor electronice de calcul. Decizii strategie 6.4.1 &ODVLILFDUHD QHLHUDUKLF JUXS P FHL ÌQ FD]XO FODVLILF ULL QHLHUDUKLFH QH SURSXQHP V vQFkW LQGLYL]LL GLQ DFHHDúL FODV V n indivizi în k clase astfel ILH FkW PDL VH ILH FkW PDL DVHP Q WRUL SRVLELO LDU FODVHOH V individualizatH 'DF 3HQWUX DFHDVWD HVWH QHFHVDU GHILQLUHD XQXL FULWHULX JOREDO SULQ FDUH V P VRDUH DSURSLHUHD VDX GLVWDQ D. PHWRGH LHUDUKLFH vQ XUPD F URUD UH]XOW H[HPSOX vQ DFHVW VHQV vO SDUWL LL vQ FODVH GLQ FH vQ FH PDL PDUL 8Q ]RRORJLH vQ VSHFLL JHQXUL FRQVWLWXLH FODVLILF ULOH GLQ familii. ordine etc.Macroeconomie.

GLQWUH LQGLYL]LL DFHOHLDúL FODVH GHFL FDOLWDWHD XQHL SDUWL LL YRP GLVSXQH GH XQ DVHPHQHD FULWHULX FHO SX LQ GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH WHRUHW ILH UH LQXW YDULDQW ic. am putea FRQVWUXL WRDWH JUXS ULOH SRVLELOH úL DSRL V QXP UXOXL PDUH GH GDWH DQDOL]DWH DFHDVW  GH PLOLRDQH GH SRVLELOLW DOJRULWPLL RSWLP  3ULQFLSLLOH GH ED] FH VWDX OD HODERUD L FDXW V L UHVSHFWLY $ GHWHUPLQH FHD PDL EXQ  ÌQ UHDOLWDWH GDWRULW HVWH H[FOXV  FKLDU úL SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO L.

…. GLVSHUVLD FODVLILF ULL VH SRDWH UHGHILQL SULQ F XWDUHD XQHL SDUWL LL GH k HOHPHQWH GLQ PXO LPHD LQL LDO ℘ FDUH YD IL HOHPHQWXO SULQFLSDO DO FODVLILF ULORU UHSUH]LQW FHQWUXOXL V X GH JUHXWDWH 2 FODV va fi cu atât mai RPRJHQ FX FkW LQHU LD VD YD IL PDL PLF  ÌQ DFHVW FRQWH[W ILH ℘1.….QHU LD LQWHUFODVH úL LQWUDFODVH LQGLYL]L DL PXO LPLL FD SXQFWH vQ VSD LXO HXFOLGLDQ SUREOHPD D Considerând cei n celor n indivizi. g2. ÌQ DFHVW FRQWH[W DSURSLDW GH FHD FDOFXODWRDUHORU 'H H[HPSOX  LQGLYL]L SRW IL JUXSD L vQ  FODVH GLVWLQFWH vQ QX PDL SX LQ GH 4 R 14  SRVLELOLW DSUR[LPDWLY  PDMRULW FkW VROX LH PDL HODERUDUHD LL DOJRULWPLORU HVWH PD[LPL]DUHD LQHU LHL LQWHUFODVH úL PLQLPL]DUHD LQHU LHL LQWUDFODVH . respectiv vom avea: .QHU LD XQXL QRU GH SXQFWH SXQFWHORU QRUXOXL vQ MXUXO .℘2.℘k LQHU LLOH ILHF UHL clase calculate în raport cu centrele lor de greutate g1.gk 6XPD DFHVWRU LQHU LL VH QXPHúWH LQHU LH LQWUDFODVH úL R YRP QRWD FX ℘w.

40) ℘b = cu: ∑ j =1 k pj d2 (gj . g2. ….'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU ℘w = ∑ j =1 k ℘j (6. gk DOH ILHF UHL FODVH úL g PXO LPH YRP FDOFXOD LQHU LD DVRFLDW  FDUH VH YD QXPL LQHU LH LQWHUFODVH : (6.ponderea clasei j în total.39) 'HFL SHQWUX D DYHD FODVH FkW PDL RPRJHQH LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH PLF  &RQVLGHU P DFXP PXO LPHD FHQWUHORU GH JUHXWDWH ℘w WUHEXLH V ILH FkW PDL centrul de gUHXWDWH DO QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH LQL LDO 3HQWUX DFHDVW g1. . g) pj .

GLVWDQ D HXFOLGLDQ de greutate al norului de puncte.LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH necesar ca ℘b V ILH FkW PDL PDUH j la centrul 2 YDORDUH PDUH D LQHU LHL LQWHUFODVH YD LQGLFD R EXQ VHSDUDUH D FODVHORU GHFL HVWH Teorema lui Huyghens UHOD LH FH HVWH HFKLYDOHQW GHVFULH OHJ WXUD GLQWUH LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH úL LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH FX UHJXOD GH DGXQDUH D GLVSHUVLLORU. ℘b . GH OD FHQWUXO GH JUHXWDWH DO FODVHL d2 (gj . g) .

 UHVSHFWLY ℘w + ℘b = ℘ &X PXO LPLL DOWH FXYLQWH VXPD LQHU LLORU LQWHUFODVH úL HJDO úL LQWUDFODVH SHQWUX RULFH (6. Pas 2 ÌQ MXUXO ILHF UXL FHQWUX VH JUXSHD] LQGLYL]LL GLQ PXO LPH FDUH VXQW FHL PDL DSURSLD L *HRPHWULF DFHDVWD VH UHGXFH OD vPS U LUHD VSD LXOXL vQ k zone definite în planul mediatoarelor segmentelor cicj. c2. …. Metoda centrelor mobile $FHDVW PHWRG SUHVXSXQH SDUFXUJHUHD XUP WRULORU SDúL Pas 1. .41) SDUWL LR nare a FX n de puncte în k FODVH HVWH FRQVWDQW DFHVW FRQWH[W SUREOHPD F FX LQHU LD WRWDO LQWHUFODVH ÌQ PD[LPL] ULL SUREOHPD PLQLPL] ULL LQHU LHL LQWUDFODVH 2EVHUY P vQV DFHVW FULWHULX QH SHUPLWH V SDUWL LH vQ ℘w. Se stabilesc k centre arbitrare c1. A. k LQHU LHL ℘b D QRUXOXL GH SXQFWH HVWH HFKLYDOHQW FRPSDU P GRDU GRX SDUWL LL FX DFHODúL QXP U GH FODVH &HD PDL EXQ PDUH GHFkW FHD PDL EXQ FODVH YD DYHD vQWRWGHDXQD R LQHU LH LQWHUFODVH PDL SDUWL LH vQ k+1 FODVH GHFL YD IL ³PDL SX LQ EXQ ´ /D OLPLW  FXP FODV  YRP RE LQH fiecare indiviG SRDWH IL FRQVLGHUDW R VLQJXU LQGLYLG HVWH FKLDU FHQWUXO GH JUHXWDWH DO FODVHL VDOH 1RL YRP F XWD R vPS U LUH vQ ℘w = 0. ck . deoarece fiecare k clase úL DPHOLRUkQG VXFFHVLY stabilite a-SULRUL SRUQLQG “peUIRUPDQ HOH³ DFHVWHLD 9RP SUH]HQWD GRX GH OD R SDUWL LH GH VWDUW DOHDWRDUH PHWRGH GH FODVLILFDUH úL DQXPH PHWRGD ³FHQWUHORU PRELOH´ úL metoda “nucleelor mobile (dinamice)”.

QFRQYHQLHQWXO DFHVWHL PHWRGH HVWH F RE LQH PDL SX LQ GH V QX VH RE LQ VH SRW RE LQH FODVH YLGH FX DOWH FXYLQWH YRP GHSLQGH GH SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH úL HVWH SRVLELO SDUWL LH vQ UDSRUW FX SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH k clase..Macroeconomie.. respectiv centrul PDL FX QLFL XQXO GLQ LQGLYL]LL GLQ PXO LPH. DQWHULRU 'DF 6H FRPSDU DFHDVWD LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH RE LQXW nu estH PDL EXQ  DWXQFL QH RSULP úL FRQVLGHU P SDUWL LD RE LQXW DFHVW SDV FHD PDL EXQ SRVLELO  'DF QX DWXQFL YRP UHYHQL OD SDVXO  UHJUXSkQG LQGLYL]LL LQ jurul centrelor de greutate stabilite la pasul 3. 2EVHUYD LH ÌQ SUDFWLF V D GHPRQVWUDW IDSWXO F - DFHVW DOJRULWP FRQYHUJH UDSLG F WUH LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH VH PLFúRUHD]  VROX LD ILQDO  vQ   GH LWHUD LL GHRDUHFH OD ILHFDUH HWDS - . Pas 4. Pentru claseOH DVWIHO IRUPDWH VH FDOFXOHD] ÌQ SDUWL LD DVWIHO RE LQXW VH FDOFXOHD] LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH GXS JUXSDUH FX FHD RE LQXW OD SDVXO OD FHQWUHOH GH JUHXWDWH (1) (1) g1(1) .. g 2 . În plus VROX LD ILQDO RSWLPXO JOREDO FL GRDU FHD PDL EXQ B) Metoda nucleelor mobile (dinamice) (PLOH 'LQGD\ D GH]YROWDW R PHWRG GH FODVLILFDUH FH SRDWH IL FRQVLGHUDW SULQWU R JHQHUDOL]DUH D PHWRGHL FHQWUHORU PRELOH 'LIHUHQ D IXQGDPHQWDO vQ FD]XO PHWRGHL FHQWUHORU PRELOH FODVD HVWH GHILQLW V X GH JUHXWDWH FDUH HVWH IRDUWH SRVLELO V vQ FD]XO PHWRGHL QXFOHHORU PRELOH VH SOHDF QX FRLQFLG GH OD GLQWUH DFHVWHD HVWH XUP WRDUHD vQ WLPS FH -un singur punct.. Decizii strategie Pas 3. g k .

6H DOHJ DOHDWRU VDX GXS XQ DQXPLW k nucOHH SHQWUX ILHFDUH FODV FkWH XQXO. q LQGLYL]L SHQWUX ILHFDUH FODV  Acest grup de FRQVWUXLP vPS U LUHD q LQGLYL]L YD IRUPD ³QXFOHXO´ FODVHL LDU GDF ELQH GHFkW R IDFH FHQWUXO V HVWH ELQH DOHV YD UHSUH]HQWD FODVD UHVSHFWLY GH JUHXWDWH $FHVWH QXFOHH QH YRU SHUPLWH V pe cele k clase dorite. $OJRULWPXO GH GHWHUPLQDUH HVWH XUP WRUXO Pas 1.

 Pas 2. GLVWDQ HOH GH OD DFHúWLD OD QXFOHH QXPLW FULWHULX.

ÌQ FDGUXO LQHU LD LQWUDFODVH FODVH VH DOHJ DOWH ILHF UHL q puncte. 6H FDOFXOHD] Pas 4. GLVWDQ HOH ID Pas 6. q puncte de k ori (respectiv 3HQWUX SXQFWHOH DOHVH DQWHULRU VH JUXSHD] LQGLYL]LL GLQ PXO LPH vQ UDSRUW FX Pas 3. PDL PDUH GHFkW QX YRP UHOXD DOJRULWPXO GH OD 3HQWUX D SXWHD GHUXOD DFHVW DOJRULWP DYHP QHYRLH GH WUHL IXQF LL R IXQF LH SULQ FDUH V FDUH V VH P VRDUH GLVWDQ D GH OD XQ LQGL - vid la nucleu. reprezentative pentru clasa LQkQG FRQW GH UHVSHFWLY  $FHVWH SXQFWH YRU IRUPD QRXO QXFOHX 3HQWUX QRLOH QXFOHH VH IDFH R UHJUXSDUH D LQGLYL]LORU PXO LPLL GH DFHVWHD 6H FDOFXOHD] FHD RE LQXW LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH SHQWUX FODVHOH QRX IRUPDWH 'DF DQWHULRU DWXQFL QH RSULP 'DF DFHDVWD HVWH Pas 5. pasul 4. VH DOHDJ FHOH R D GRXD IXQF LH SULQ FDUH SHQWUX LQGLYL]LL XQHL FODVH V UHSUH]LQWH FHO PDL ELQH FODVD UHVSHFWLY  q puncte .

0HWRGHOH GHVFHQGHQWH SRUQHVF GH OD D FRQVLGHUD PXO LPHD LQL LDO DSRL V VH HIHFWXH]H VHSDUDUHD DFHVWHLD vQ FODVH F 9RP SUH]HQWD vQ FRQWLQXDUH R PHWRG 3ULQFLSLXO GH ED] GH FODVLILFDUH DVFHQGHQW  ât mai mici. 6LVWHPXO GH JUXSDUH YD IL XUP WRUXO GDW ILLQG R SDUWL LH vQ k + 1 clase.4. n-2 clase etc. apoi a n-1 clase. 0HWRGHOH DVFHQGHQWH ILHFDUH FkWH R FODV SUHVXSXQ GH OD PXO LPHD LQGLYL]LORU FRQVLGHUD L úL DSRL SULQ JUXS UL VXFFHVLYH V VH WUHDF OD XQ QXP U GLQ FH vQ FH PDL FD R VLQJXU FODV úL mic de clase. clase ce se includ în sens ascendent. n clase.'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU - R D WUHLD IXQF LH FDUH YD P VXUD FDOLWDWHD XQHL SDUWL LL GHILQLWH FHOH WUHL IXQF LL DOJRULWPXO SRDWH IL SXV HIHFWLY vQ SUDFWLF  2 GDW 2EVHUYD LH &D úL vQ FD]XO PHWRGHL FHQWUHORU PRELOH FDOLWDWHD XQHL SDUWL LL GHSLQGH GH DOHJHUHD QXFOHHORU LQL LDOH 9RP REVHUYD F O modalitate de a elimina acest inconvenient este aceea de a alege PDL PXOWH QXFOHH LQL LDOH GH D FDOFXOD SDUWL LLOH DVWIHO RE LQXWH úL GH D DOHJH SH FHD PDL EXQ  YRU H[LVWD LQGLYL]L FDUH VH YRU JUXSD SHUPDQHQW vQ DFHOHDúL FODVH LQGLIHUHQW VXEFODVH RPRJHQH HVWH DFHHD F DQDOL]D úL QXP UXO IRUPHORU IRUWH HVWH GLIHULW GH SDUWL LRQDUHD UDSLG vQ GH SXQFWHOH GH SOHFDUH $FHVWH JUXSXUL GH LQGLYL]L VH QXPHVF ³IRUPH IRUWH´ DOH PXO LPLL GH SXQFWH LQL LDOH úL IRUPHD] 3UREOHPD GH ED] FODVHORU vQ FDUH GRULP V $FHVWH PXO LPL vQV PHWRGH k QXP UXO SDUWL LRQ P PXO LPHD SHUPLW k clase a indivizilor unei DFHVW QXP U QX DUH LQFRQYHQLHQWXO RE LQHULL XQXL QXP U IL[DW GH FODVH 'DF FRUHVSXQGH FRQILJXUD LHL PXO LPLL UH]XOWDWXO HVWH QHVHPQLILFDWLY ÌQ FD]XO vQ FDUH QXP UXO GH LQGLYL]L GLQ PXO LPH HVWH IRDUWH PDUH DWXQFL HVWH PDL FRPRG V XWLOL] P PHWRGHOH de clasificare ierarhice.2 ÌQ &ODVLILFDUHD LHUDUKLF FX SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH V FODVLILFDUHD VH SOHFH LHUDUKLF VH SRDWH IDFH SULQ PHWRGH UDSRUW ascendente sau prim metode descendente. gruparea în k FODVH VH YD RE LQH UHJUXSkQG GRX GLQ FODVHOH SDUWL LHL PDL PDUL ÌQ DFHVW FRQWH[W YRU IL n – 2 SDUWL LL GH GHWHUPLQDW FX n QXP UXO LQGLYL]LORU GLQ PXO LPHD DQDOL]DW . conform criteriilor de clasificare. 6.

b. e. c. unde k LQGLF LQGLFHOH k HVWH PDL DVHPHQHD vQ ILJXUD  VH REVHUY FH LD YDORULOH  LHUDUKLF SH FDUH VH DIO vQ SDUWHD GUHDSW      $FHVW LQGLFDWRU VH QXPHúWH FODVD UHVSHFWLY  grad de agregare . SDUWL LL HVWH LQFOXV HVWH DFHOD DO FRQVWUXLULL SHQWUX vQFHSXW D În acest caz avem de-D IDFH FX FODVLILFDUHD vQWU-R FODV D SDUWL LHL XUP WRDUH LHUDUKLF  GHRDUHFH ILHFDUH FODV X]XDO VXE IRUP GH DUERUH D XQHL 5H]XOWDWXO XQHL DVHPHQHD FODVLILF UL VH UHSUH]LQW Exemplul 1 XUP )LH PXO LPHD GH puncte (indivizi) a. d. Vom avea succesiv QXP UXO GH FODVH RE LQXW vQ PRPHQWXO UHVSHFWLY PDUH FX DWkW SDUWL LD HVWH PDL HWHURJHQ  úL DUDW 'H D DUERUHOXL GH FODVLILFDUH vQF XQ LQGLFDWRU QLYHOXO WRDUHOH SDUWL LL UHSUH]HQWDWH vQ ILJXUD  DO FODVLILF ULL Pk UHSUH]LQW &X SDUWL LD FkW k.

5 0 a Figura 6.5 2 0. D RE LQH FODVHOH FDUH QH LQWHUHVHD]  VDX V vO FRQVLGHU P OD QLYHOXO Pk. iar k YD LQGLFD QXP R FRQVWLWXLH UXO 3ULQFLSDOD SUREOHP D PHWRGHORU GH FODVLILFDUH LHUDUKLF GHILQLUHD FULWHULXOXL GH UHJUXSDUH D GRX FODVH FHHD FH VH UHGXFH OD GHILQLUHD XQHL GLVWDQ H vQWUH FODVH 7R L DOJRULWPLL GH FODVLILFDUH LHUDUKLF HWDS VH YRU F XWD GRX DX vQ JHQHUDO DFHHDúL GHVI úXUDUH OD ILHFDUH FODVH FkW PDL DSURSLDWH FDUH VH YRU DJUDJD vQWUXQD VLQJXU  3URFHGHXO YD FRQWLQXD SkQ OD RE LQHUHD XQHL VLQJXUH FODVH FULWHULL SULQ FDUH YRP GHILQL GLVWDQ GLQWUH FODVH 9RP SUH]HQWD GRX A) &ULWHULXO LQHU LHL :DUG. Decizii strategie P5 = a/b/c/d/e P4 = ab/c/d/e P3 = ab/cd/e P2 = ab/cde P1 = abcde 4 2.5 'DF b c d e VH FXQRDúWD DUERUHOH GH FODVLILFDUH VH SRDWH UH LQH vQ RULFH PRPHQW R SDUWL LH U GRULW GH FODVH HVWH VXILFLHQW V W LHP DUERUHOH OD QLYHOXO GH DJUHJDUH GRULW SHQWUX într-XQ QXP de clase.Macroeconomie.

ÌQ FRQGL LOH vQ FDUH LQGLYL]LL VXQW UHSUH]HQWD L SULQ SXQFWH vQWU XQ VSD LX HXFOLGLDQ - SXWHP GHILQL FDOLWDWHD XQHL SDUWL LL SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO LQHU LHL LQWHUFODVH VDX LQWUDFODVH $P Y ]XO IDSWXO F WUHFHUHD GH OD R SDUWL LH FX k + 1 clase la una cu k FODVH SULQ UHJUXSDUHD D GRX FODVH vQWUXQD VLQJXU .

Fie A úL B GRX FODVH FH gA respectiv gB FHQWUHOH ORU GH JUHXWDWH úL pA respectiv pB ponderile claselor în ÌQDLQWHD UHXQLULL DFHVWRUD LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH HVWH GHVFULV SULQ suma a doi termeni: p A ⋅ d 2 (g A . (6. 'XS UHXQLUH UH]XOW R VLQJXU FODV GH SRQGHUH (6. g ) + p B ⋅ d 2 (g B .43) LDU FRQWULEX LD DFHVWHL FODVH OD LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH HVWH . g ). g ).42) pA + pB úL FX FHQWUXO GH JUHXWDWH gAB. (p A + p B )⋅ d 2 (g AB . FRQGXFH OD GLPLQXDUHD LQHU LHL LQWHUFODVH $VWIHO FULWHULXO GXS FDUH YRP IDFH JUXSDUHD YD IL XUP WRUXO YRP JUXSD DFHOH FODVH ]XW  $FHDVWD HVWH HFKLYDOHQW FX UHXQLUHD FHORU pentru care SLHUGHUHD GH LQHU LH HVWH FHD PDL VF PDL DSURSLDWH FODVH OXkQG GUHSW GLVWDQ SLHUGHUHD GH LQHU LH 5HDPLQWLP F JUHXWDWH DO ILHF U YRU IL UHXQLWH úL WRWDO LQHU LD LQWHUFODVH UHSUH]LQW PHGLD S WUDWHORU GLVWDQ HORU GH OD FHQWUXO GH ei clase la centrul de greutate g al norului de puncte.

e j ). A ∪ B ) = (p A + pC )⋅ δ (A.45) 'H DLFL REVHUY P F  d 2 (g .'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU Pierderea de ineU LH LQWHUFODVH HVWH  p A ⋅ d 2 (g A . g B ) p A + pB p A ⋅ g A + pB ⋅ g B . g ) + ⋅ d 2 (g B . g ) − (p A + p B )⋅ d 2 (g AB . .49) ij HVWH PLQLP úL VH modificate prin: pi ⋅ p j δ ij = ⋅ d 2 (ei .44) deoarece g AB = (6. g ) = = p A ⋅ pB ⋅ d 2 (g A . g ) − A B ⋅ d 2 (g A . g B ). C )− pC ⋅ δ (A. p A + pB C HVWH R D WUHLD FODV  DWXQFL GLVWDQ D GLQWUH FODVD A úL B va fi: δ (C .6 Deci vom SXWHD OXD FD GLVWDQ vQWUH FODVHOH A úL B cantitatea: (6. p A + pB (6. B ) p A + p B + pC (6. g AB ) = pA pB p ⋅p ⋅ d 2 (g A .48) Algoritmul Ward poate fi formalizat astfel: • vQ SULPD HWDS VH vQORFXLHVF GLVWDQ HOH d dintre punctele ei úL ej prin δij  GLVWDQ HOH (6. B ) = 'DF p A ⋅ pB ⋅ d 2 (g A . g B ) (6. C )+ (p B + pC )⋅ δ (B.6) g gA gAB gB Figura 6.47) C úL UHXQLXQHD FODVHORU δ (A. g ) + p B ⋅ d 2 (g B .46) p A + pB p A + pB p A + pB (generalizare a toremei medianei: figura 6. pi + p j • vQ HWDSD D GRXD VH YRU F XWD LQGLYL]LL SHQWUX FDUH GLVWDQ D reunesc clasele de ponderi pi + pj la nivelul indicelui de agregare ij.

i j i j ei ∈ A . ej ∈ B .49).ej)). cu ei ∈ A.e ). cu ei ∈ A. ej ∈ B .B) = sup (d (ei.B) = inf (d (ei. Decizii strategie • VH YD FRQWLQXD UHJUXSkQG FODVHOH GXS SULQFLSLXO SUH]HQWDW DQWHULRU úL UHOD LLOH GH calcul (6.Macroeconomie. (6. B ) = 1 p A ⋅ pB ∑∑ d (e .48-6.51) - criteriul mediei : d (A.52) FODVH FH 5HOD LD .50) - (6.ej)). (6. e j ∈ B . criteriul diametrului sau criteriul sup : d(A. B) 'LVWDQ H QRQ HXFOLGLHQH ÌQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH LQGLYL]L QX VXQW HXFOLGLHQH DWXQFL HVWH QHFHVDU V DGRSW P R DOW PRGDOLW L PRGDOLWDWH GH DSUHFLHUH GHRDUHFH LQHU LD QX PDL FRQVWLWXLH XQ FULWHULX RELHFWLY FODVH SHQWUX FDOFXOXO GLVWDQ HL GLQWUH FODVH 9RP GHILQL GLVWDQ D GLQWUH GRX úL A B în trei - criteriul saltului minim sau criteriul inf: d(A.

HVWH vQV WLQGH V IDYRUL]H]H UHJUXSDUHD D GRX GDWRULW SURSULHW LORU VDOH PDWH SXQFWH DSURSLDWH 5LVFXO HVWH DFHOD GH D SXQH vQ DFHHDúL FODV IRDUWH XWLOL]DW SXQFWH UHODWLY matice. vQV PDL 5HOD LD . UHSHFW FRQ LQ OD IURQWLHU vQGHS UWDWH $FHDVW GLVWDQ iv criteriul inf.

SULQ UHPHGLD] IDSWXO F vQ SDUWH DFHDVW YD FRPSDUD SUREOHP FHOH SXQFWHOH WRDWH SXQFWHOH VXQW DSURSLDWH vQWUH ele. 5HOD LD . UHVSHFWLY FULWHULXO H[DJHUHD] vQ GLUHF LD RSXV  UHVSHFWLY F vQGHS UWDWH úL GLQ DFHVW PRWLY UH]XOW sup.

d) + d( d. UHVSHFWLY FULWHULXO GLVWDQ HL PHGLL HVWH XQ FRPSURPLV vQWUH DFHVWHD 3ULQFLSDOD SUREOHP HVWH DFHHD F vQ UDSRUW FX FULWHULXO IRORVLW DSDU FODVLILF UL GLIHULWH Exemplul 2 6H FRQVLGHU R PXO LPH GH  SXQFWH vQ FDUH GLVWDQ HOH GL ntre indivizi sunt H[SULPDWH vQ WDEHOXO  2EVHUY P F GLVWDQ HOH QX VXQW HXFOLGLHQH GHRDUHFH d(c.7 a 0 3 7 3 4 b 3 0 4 4 1 c 7 4 0 2 6 PXO LPH IRORVLQG FHOH WUHL FULWHULL GH JUXSDUH 5H]XOWDWHOH VXQW . e) > d (c.13 d e 3 4 4 1 2 6 0 ½ 1/2 0 a b c d e Vom clasiILFD DFHDVW prezentate în figura 6. e) (respectiv 6 > 2 + ½) Tabelul 6.

4 ) = 3 d (c. c ) = 4 d (c . d (c. e )) = inf (4 . e )) = inf (2. (d . e )) = inf (d (b. d (a . (d .2 . b ). d (a . e )) = inf (d (a.1) = 1 d (a . d ). d ) = 3 d (b.6 ) = 2 WRUXO HOHPHQW JUXSDW inf (3. d ) = 2 d (a . d ). e ) = 6 d (d.5 3 1/2 0 d d e b a c e b a c 1/2 0 Criteriul inf Criteriul mediei Criteriul sup Figura 6. e )) = inf (d (c. d (c. e )) = inf (d (a .3 4 2. (d . e )) = inf (d (c. deci b YD IL XUP ♦ P2 =a/cbde deoarece d (a .4) = 1. e ) = 4 ♦ P3 = a/c/bdc deoarece: d (b.e) = ½ (min) deoarece: d (a .6 ) = 2 LQI . d (b.7 6ROX LH: Pentru criteriul inf: ♦ P5 = a/b/c/d/e ♦ P4 = a/b/c/de d ( a . d (a . d .75 3. (b. e ) = 1 d (a . b ) = 3 d (b.3. b ). e )) = inf (3. c ) = 7 d (b. d ) = 4 d (c . (b. d ).'HFL]LL VWUDWHJLFH úL DQDOL]D GDWHORU 3 2 1 1/ 2 0 d e b c a 7 4. d (c. d . d ). d ). e )) = inf (4. e )) = inf (3.1.4 ) = 3 d (c.

 GHFL XUP WRUXO HOHPHQW JUXSDW YD IL F ♦ (YLGHQW XOWLPD SDUWL LH YD IL 31 = acbde .3. d (a . (c . d .4 ) = 3 . d (a .7. e )) = inf (d (a . b ). e )) = inf (3. c ). 7RWXúL PDL HVWH QHFHVDU FDOFXOXO QLYHOXOXL GH DJUHJDUH d (a . b. d ). d (a .

vQ WLPS FH vQ UDSRUW FX GLVWDQ D XWLOL]DW  YRP RE LQH JUXS UL GLIHULWH D FHORUOD L LQGLYL]L ÌQ SUDFWLF HVWH UHFRPDQGDELO V XWLOL] P PDL PXOWH WLSXUL GH FODVLILF UL 'DF vQ FDGUXO úL SHQWUX FHOHODOWH FULWHULL GH FODVLILFDUH QLYHOXO GH DJUHJDUH acestora se va observa repetarea anumitor grupuri de indivizi. atunci acestea vor forma clase RPRJHQH FDUH UH]LVW OD RULFH PRGLILFDUH D FULWHULXOXL ÌQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH VH RE LQ GLIHUHQ H QX SRDW IL FODVLILFDW PDUL vQWUH FODVLILF UL DWXQFL HVWH SRVLELO FD PXO LPHD GH LQGLYL]L V semnificativ indiferent ce criteriul utilizat. . 8QD GLQWUH FHOH PDL LPSRUWDQWH GLILFXOW GLVWDQ HORU VDX D GLVLPLODULW L FH VWDX vQ ID D FODVLILF ULL HVWH GHILQLUHD LORU GLQWUH LQGLYL]L PDL DOHV vQ F]XO FHORU GHVFULúL GH FDUDFWHULVWLFL calitative. Decizii strategie ÌQ PRG DQDORJ VH FDOFXOH] úL JUXSDUHD VSHFLILF  2EVHUY P F vQ FHOH WUHL FODVLILF UL GRDU d úL e se grupea] PHUHX – deci vor forma forma forte D PXO LPLL.Macroeconomie.

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