VALUES ORIENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: ITS IMPLICATION TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga, Bataan

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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in Public Administration

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RODELIO M. ALBA March 2008

ii APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Public Administration, this thesis entitled “VALUES ORIENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: ITS IMPLICATION TO PUBLIC

ADMINISTRATION” has been prepared and submitted by RODELIO M. ALBA who is hereby recommended for oral examination. ADELWINA M. PINEDA, Ph.D. Adviser

Approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Public Administration by the Committee on Oral Examination.

DANILO C. GALICIA, Ph.D. Chairman

ARIEL A. BONGCO Ed.D. Critic/Member

ROGER L. NUQUI, Ph.D. Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Public Administration.

March 2008

DANILO C. GALICIA, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate Studies Bataan Peninsula State University

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT The researcher wished to convey his burning elation for the successful completion of this study to all persons who had contributed in some way from groundwork to construction and up to its completion. To his adviser, Dean Adelwina M. Pineda, Ph.D., for her sympathy and affection, her commendable counsel and supervision, her valuable time and innumerable endeavor and for her deep concern and permission to conduct this study. Likewise, to the late Dr. Lucila Manlutac-Madreo, initial preparation of this study was attributed to her for motivating the researcher to pursue and finished thesis writing; To Dr. Danilo C. Galicia and Dr. Ariel A. Bongco, his panel of examiners for their constructive analysis, suggestions and expertise they shared with the researcher; To Dr. Roger L. Nuqui who serves as statistician of the researcher; to Ms. Visitacion Velasco, St. Joseph College Instructor and to Ms. Karen Palmares, for their technical assistance; to the Chief Librarian and school personnel of Advanced Studies of Bataan Peninsula State University; likewise to the chief and personnel of the National Library for their generosity in lending precious resource materials. To Mayor Jeffrey Khonghun of Subic, Zambales, Ms. Melisa Amado – Secretary to the Mayor, Mr. Ricardo F. Otero, Jr. – Executive Secretary to the Mayor, Dr. Genaro G. Ramoso – Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator and Ms. Loretta A. Egenias – MPDC Staff for their liberal mind in checking the questionnaire for relevancy. To Mayor James L. Gordon of Olongapo City, Mr. Lino Maniago – Researcher of City Planning Department for the permission to conduct the study; Mr. Ronaldo Manila -

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Fr. Kairos Luis for the giggles that gives inspiration amidst the hardships in life. a large extent is owed to them who all cooperated in sharing their time in answering the questionnaires. namely Sr. Joseph Parish Catechists. Crisostomo Cacho and Rev. Vangie Tinga. strength and everything that is being filled. Cecile Advincula. Robert Conrad Picache – Barangay Kagawad for their personal assistance.iv Personnel Department Staff. Racquel Oliva. Above all. -Rodeliv . May Corazon Morcilla and Ronald Trance. Fatima Dalit. To his extended family. Virgilio Monje – past director and current director respectively of the researcher for their moral support and unsolicited advice. To his loving wife Cathy for her support and to their little angel. Honorable Rodel Cerezo – City Councilor and Mr. To the respondents. as well as to Msgr. Lorie Leguidleguid. perseverance. the St. to our Lord Jesus Christ. OSB. Jasmin Cuajunco. Melanie Dubria. the Almighty God who provided the knowledge. Mary Raphael Montevirgen. who acted as friend and companion in all undertakings of the researcher. Irish Chicano.

Joseph Parish Catechetical Apostolate of Olongapo City. and For My late Mother .Conchita v . For All Public Officials. For St.v DEDICATION For My Ever Supportive Wife – Cathy and our Beloved Son – Kairos Luis.

also the management related factors such as policy formulation. family related factors and management related factors have no significant effect on the values orientation on politics. 48 administrative staff and 24 sectoral groups. working experience have significant correlation with social values orientation. and the salary have significant correlation with economic values orientation. the age. and the family status have significant correlation with social values orientation. civil status. the study revealed that the respondent’s family related factors on family ties have significant correlation with political values orientation. Further. family status. The study discovered that the respondents profile such as educational attainment. Likewise on the respondent’s management related factors on leadership style have significant correlation to political vi . To acquire the required information. gender and religion has no significant correlation to any values orientation. percentage. economic and social. A total of 83 respondents were involved. The study assumed that the respondent’s profile. policy implementation. family responsibility and parental authority. the family responsibility and parental authority has no significant correlation to any values orientation. mean and Pearson product-moment correlation in order to determine the correlation of the independent variable to the dependent variables.vi ABSTRACT This descriptive research is connected with the determination of the respondent’s profile and the family related factors such as family ties. decision making and leadership style in relation to the values orientation on politics. economic and social. The statistical tool used to test the hypothesis were the frequency. an intentional written questionnaire was used and dispensed to 11 local government officials.

staff and sectoral groups so that they will learn in strengthening the set of values needed. As a whole. policy implementation and decision making has no significant correlation to any values orientation.vii values orientation. other researchers may replicate this study using other variables to refute or confirm results and findings therein. On the similar conduct. management related and values orientation of local government officials. the subsequent approaches are recommended. Policies and decision making processes must be reflective of the people’s needs and aspiration to efficiently and productively contribute to community and nation-building. Leadership concepts must be taught to city leaders and all other staff through government-related activities and programs and further education may be advised. Values Orientation Workshops (VOW) and development activities must be offered to the leaders. Family values must be strengthened as part of the training ground for leadership and management in the field of public service. vii . management related and values orientation of Local Government Officials is rejected. family related. family related. Also. the null hypothesis between the personal. there is a partially upheld significant relationship between person. Based on the abovementioned conclusion. while the policy formulation.

.. v ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………….. x LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………. 45 Conceptual Framework ………………………………………... 8 II.. Statement of the Problem …………………………………….. 1 3 4 Scope and Delimitation of the Study ………………………… 6 Notes in Chapter I …………………………………………….viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………… i APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………… ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Relevant Theories …………………………………………….. 9 Related Literature ……………………………………………. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction …………………………………………………. Significance of the Study …………………………………….. 54 Hypothesis of the Study ……………………………………… 56 viii . viii LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLES ……………………………………….. iii DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………. 11 Related Studies ………………………………………………. xii CHAPTER I.

. 112 CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………….. 72 IV. METHODS OF RESEARCH Methods and Techniques of the Study ………………………. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA On LGU Personal Profile ………………………………………. SUMMARY. 121 ix . 106 Recommendations ……………………………………………. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………. 84 On Values Orientation …………………………………………. 66 Population and Sample of the Study …………………………. 108 APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………..... 73 On Family Related Factors ……………………………………..ix Definition of Terms …………………………………………… 56 Notes in Chapter II ……………………………………………. PRESENTATION. 91 V. 68 Research Instruments ………………………………………….. 68 Data Gathering and Statistical Treatment ……………………… 69 Notes in Chapter III ……………………………………………. 62 III. 100 Findings ……………………………………………………….. 101 Conclusions ……………………………………………………. 77 On Management Related Factors ………………………………. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary ……………………………………………………….

73 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Age …………………………………………………………. 75 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Working Experience ………………………………………… 76 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Salary ……………………………………………………….. 83 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management Related Factors in Terms of Policy Formulation …………… 85 x ... 1 Paradigm of the Study……………………………………………………… 55 Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Distribution of Respondents of the Study ………………………………… 67 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Educational Attainment ……………………………………. 76 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Religion ……………………………………………………... 79 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Responsibility ……………….. 77 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Ties………………………….x LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLES Figure Title Page Fig. 81 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Parental Authority …………………. 74 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Civil Status …………………………………………………. 78 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Status ………………………. 74 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent According to Gender ……………………………………………………….

99 xi . 97 Correlation Matrix Between Family Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU …………………………………….…….. ……………………… 92 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Economic . ……………………… 96 Correlation Matrix Between Person and Values Orientation of LGU ……. ……………………… 94 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Social …………….……..………..xi 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management Related Factors in Terms of Policy Implementation ………..... 90 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Political …………..... 98 Correlation Matrix Between Management Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU ……………………………………. 87 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management Related Factors in Terms of Decision Making ……………… 89 Mean Perception and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management Related Factors in Terms of Leadership Style ……………….

Zambales ……………………………………..... 115 Questionnaire for Research Study …………………....xii APPENDICES Appendix A B C D Page Letter to the Municipal Mayor of Subic.......... 114 Letter to the City Mayor of Olongapo City ………………………. 113 Letter of Verification from the Dean ………………..... 116 xii ...

is governed by political local leaders chosen by people through the election process. One of the criteria that is silently set among the electorate is the integrity of the candidates. the more that it is a prerequisite for political leaders. Meaning. dedication and responsibility in the field of governance or in his personal. The advocacy is revitalized at a time when corruption and terrorism surfaced as major issues in this seemingly permissive community. These 1 . Olongapo City. conviction and leadership. weigh things and decide on things. a voter would have predilection for a candidate who has unblemished image and has shown honesty. ethical and value-laden lifestyle. The government is seriously taking time to urge Filipinos to look into the morals. Indeed. national and local. a sense of morality and set of values have to be brought to fore to screen would-be leaders of the community. to exude moral. These values are paramount and crucial in the way they decide for the community. People in all walks of life are summoned to partake in moral recovery program that would hopefully put an end to moral degradation. Their orientation and framework of reference have influence on the way they look at things. If ordinary people are expected to follow and observe morally upright actions and activities. highly urbanized as it is. This study delved on the values orientation of local leaders specifically the eleven (11) city councilors whose roles and responsibilities need stable foundation based on their set of values. ethos and values that may be embedded in this contemporary society. familial life.1 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The national clamor now is pegged on moral revolution.

Looking at the values orientation of the leaders based on their own perceptions and those who closely work with them and negotiate transactions with them. A few numbers of national and local public officials and even from different sectors of civil society are also clamoring for values transformation. act with patriotism and justice. Cariño (2003). integrity. it could make or unmake a citizen.2 things could be matter of life and death of the constituents. culturally weak and politically corrupt. a person bestowed with a public office must at all time be accountable to the people. loyalty. This particular interest and focus emerged in the light of a national call for national transformation. both personal and business-wise would mean tangible information and data regarding the principles. the community remains morally unstable. and. and make decisions for their own families would be the same perspectives applied for the people they govern. it is possible that the way these leaders treat problems and concerns. and efficiency. The right to hold public 2 . To borrow one of the slogans of Senator Richard Gordon. morals. economic and social change but also a change in heart and a transformation of the very core of values formation. and lead modest lives. standards. This transformation is not only political. This emphasizes that even if we change people who lead the community if they do not have the right attitude and set of values. ethics and ideals of political leaders whose main role is to direct the lives of their constituents in general. it could be about laws and policies that may adversely affect the lives and way of life of the Olongapeños. it says ‘…is not a change of Man but a change in Man’. In other words. that even the church through the pope urged pilgrims to be spiritual. serve them with utmost responsibility.

1 1.7 2.6 1. Moral recovery may possibly be done and it should start somewhere and with someone.4 1. salary and religion? How may the family related factors be described in terms of: 2. This study prompted to look at the values orientation of local leaders.3 1. family and management related factors affect the values orientation of the local government officials in Olongapo City during the Fiscal Year 2008? Specifically. 3 . work experience in the government.5 1.1 family ties. advocates for moral recovery and transformation. civil status. This is one way of knowing if values that are needed to launch a moral recovery program among individuals are embedded in the respondents and are actively operating in the light of family life and governance through leadership in the city. Statement of the Problem The major problem of the study is: How do person. educational qualification. If the government.3 office is a public trust and not a natural right. What is the profile of the elected local government officials in terms of: 1.2 1. national and local. age. gender. then it means that values orientation has weakened and needs to be strengthened. the study sought answers to the following questions: 1.

Empower their legislation function to enact ordinances consistent with the constitution of the land and for the general welfare of their constituents. family status. Local Government Unit Officials.4 policy formulation.2 3.1 3. encouraging 4 .4 2. family and management related factors affect the level of values orientation of the local government officials? 6.3 2.4 3. What are the values orientations of the local government official in terms of political. policy implementation and decision making to give credence for their efficient provision of resources and reliable outlay of environment policy that would encourage rapid growth within the community. This study will give them much needed change in their policy formulation. economic. and social? 5. this will make clear their management or leadership style for good governance through effective delivery service. policy implementation.3 3.2 2. Also. How do person. What is the implication of the findings of the study to public administration? Significance of the Study The outcomes of this study are considered significant to the subsequent personalities. parental authority and family responsibility? How may the management related factors be described in terms of: 3. decision making and leadership style? 4.

whatever sentiments and proposal should be unswervingly forwarded to the local government officials for deliberations and actions. Outcome of this study will make the organization of people understand that they have to take part in deliberations of policy that would benefit directly their sector. and most of all evaluate and strengthen their values orientation. Constituents may realize the magnitude of taking part in any policy actions drafted by lawmakers. and may possibly come across an encouraging substitute in helping the demoralized and exploited. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and people’s organization (POs) and other cooperative management may want to tapped LGU officials to become active partners in the pursuit of local autonomy. Policies were created at the onset of people’s needs in governance and delivery of basic service. Constituents. and thus may participate more actively in voicing out their sentiments that must be given credence and ought to be considered and consulted during a public hearing. Constituents will benefit from this study and be given information on the current state of public service and be able to comprehend that Policy formulation and implementation should emanate from them. work contentment can be utilized as channel for development of human resources programs not only for the local government officials but for other government offices and agencies as well. Sectoral Groups. and by entering into joint 5 . The result will also provide as devices for advance training of the local government officials in improving their organizational expertise.5 people’s popular participation and strengthening the social contract between the populace they served and the government. likewise.

They may possibly put in or attempt new factors and discover several significant data and evaluation in the light of efficient and effective public service. City Engineer. Convention Center Office. the family. the senators and congressmen would be given credence if their values orientation results in a favorable way. Environmental Sanitation & Management Office. City Health. At the national level. Sports & 6 . City Court.6 ventures in capability building and livelihood projects and to develop local constituents to become entrepreneurs that is designed to improve productivity and income. The researcher delimited the respondents of the study to the 11 local government officials. regional or national scope. City Treasurer. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study was focused on the profile variable of the local government official/respondents. James Gordon Hospital. Public Utilities. City Legal Office. and management related factors as well. City Prosecutor. totaling to 83 respondents. City Civil Registry. This study ought to present the chance to put together research problems that will look at the Public Administration of public officials in provincial. Social Welfare and Development. Public Attorney’s Office. General Services. City Veterinarian. The administrative staff comes from the City Planning and Development Office. Gordon College. with the 48 administrative staff and 24 individuals coming from different sectoral groups present in Olongapo City to validate the local government officials’ values orientation. Prospective Researchers. Budget Office. Accountant Office. City Assessor. this will bestow upon them the leadership and moral advantage as compared to the results of different social survey which narrowly based on their popularity only. Market & Slaughter House.

While the sectoral groups comes from the Youth. Lawyers. salary. The statistical tools employed in this study were the frequency. Micro Business. On the family related factors it tackles the family ties. informations and findings were derived and collected by means of the questionnaire and all conclusions which have been drawn applied to the total population presented during the current Fiscal Year 2008. mean and Pearson product-moment-correlation. family status. civil status. family and management related factors of the local government officials and their values orientation on politics. Public Affairs Office. This further examined the person. Barangay officials were not employed as respondents in this study. Differently-Abled Person. Church. family responsibility and parental authority. Transport Groups and Journalists. All facts. On the person related factors. percentage. Housewives. and religion. Vendors. age. Cooperatives. decision making and leadership style.7 Youth Development. considering that they only hold office for a few months and majority of them or more than 75% were neophyte in public administration system. Academe. Health Groups. policy implementation. 7 . and from the Labor Center. gender. while the management related factors it dwells on policy formulation. work experience. economic and social. it includes the educational qualification.

Meaning and Operationalization of a Key Concept in Public Administration. 2003. 8 . Philippines.8 Notes in Chapter I Ledivina V. NJP Printmakers. Inc. Administrative Accountability: A Review of the Evolution. Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader. Cariño.

9 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter presents the relevant theories. Chester Barnard’s Theory on Organization as Cooperative Systems: The Human Relations (1938)." and the second is "While there is variability in solutions of all the problems. and Charles Jones’ Propositional Assumptions (1984). it is neither limitless nor random but is definitely variable within a range of possible solutions. This values orientation theory seems to symbolize a deeply rooted set of culturally patterned and regulatory 9 ." while the third is "All alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred. the paradigm. the hypothesis and the definition of terms used. the related literature and studies. Relevant Theories This study was anchored on the following theories: Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck’s Theory of Values Orientation (1961). even if these relationship have not at all times been evidently confirmed in any scientific studies. It is generally understood that values of an individual influence one’s work performance." Local government officials has its own values orientation and each individual differ from the other according to their culture and family upbringing. the conceptual framework. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) developed a theory with three basic assumptions: The first one is "There is a limited number of common human problems for which all people must at all time find some solution. producing different attitudes within the same work place and organization.

he believed economic considerations were important but secondary. events in society are interpreted in different ways by different people at different times. inducements. To obtain the necessary contributions. the incentives or satisfaction offered by the organization. Organizations function through an “equilibrium” of contributions and inducements: Contributions are the efforts of members. a major function of the executive is management of an “economy of incentives. and by effective communications. people have varying degrees of access to the policy 10 . capable of being identified at the level of the cultural system.” Social and psychological incentives were primary to Barnard. Barnard (1938) maintained that an organization was a “system of consciously coordinated personal activities of two or more persons. by a willingness on the part of its members to contribute to its process. ‘social relations with others. all of which transformed into the community they served and belonged to. The inducement on the part of the local government officials may be the socialpsychological conditions of work such as ‘prestige’ in their current status as public official. Thus.’ ‘feelings of meaningful participation in decision making.’ and a ‘satisfactions derived’ from working with people having similar values orientations. second is. Jones (1984) makes a number of general observations about public policy that provide a good beginning point for consideration of policy analysis. the organization must provide satisfactions at such levels that members feel they are profiting from their relationship with it.” held together by its capacity to generate a common purpose. The following are the ‘propositional assumptions’ of Jones: First is.10 responses to the major environmental challenges facing human in every time and place. third is. many problems may result from the same event.

there are instances when the values do exist in the belief system but these are not observed. policymakers are not faced with a given problem. the theory can be a tool to modify their perceptions and desires. eleventh is. much policy is made without the problem’s ever having been clearly defined. All stated theories are related to local government officials on their manner of decision making. eight is. In addition. most problems are not solved by government. may interest them to use the past experience to predict the future and uses the present situation to test the outcome of their policy. and twelfth is. many private problems are acted on in government. sixth is. fourth is. What may be right and wrong in society is wrong in another. Values Orientation. On the values orientation of public officials. not all public problems are acted on in government. tenth is. Azanza (2001) stated that beliefs of right and wrong in society comprise their human values.11 process in government. seventh is. though many are acted on by it. fifth is. Related Literature Values Orientation is vital to human thought. policy implementation and can be induced on their personal enhancement. problems and demands are constantly being defined and redefined in the policy process. all policy systems have a bias. policy formulation. help strengthen their analytical skills and decision making. emotion and behavior. policymakers sometimes define problems for people who have not defined problems for themselves. The stability of values orientation and observance in a particular 11 . They are cross-culturally significant and compelling. no ideal policy system exists apart from the preferences of the architect of that system. ninth is.

Although external influences have been brought in by commerce. pakikisama and pakikiisa is damaging to family life because friends should not be held above the 12 . The values have been transmitted across the years from one generation to another. One popular value that a Filipino has is the “pakikisama” or a relationship which stresses smooth interpersonal relationship. Some political values that is apparently present in Philippine culture is ‘utang na loob.” is a popular statement. Azanza (2001) also mentioned that the Filipino subscribe to a set of human values which tend make them behave in a certain way. It connotes loyalty to the group and its derivative values are ‘pakikiisa’ meaning being in one with the group. communication. They are therefore part of the social and cultural heritage of the people. They continue to be considered part of the identity of the Filipino.12 culture is a research area. travel and education. economic values refers to what somebody is willing to exchange for the object he desires and social values evolves from interpersonal relations. The value of marital fidelity is in place in the people’s culture but its observance is at times in the breach rather than in compliance. personalism and euphemism. other parents.’ this denotes a sense of gratitude. One should identify with the group and should empathize with them. favoring a proscriptive orientation which tends to punish antisocial behavior and conversely reward the child for not misbehaving. the value system tends to persist. some parents follow a prescriptive child-rearing practice by constantly rewarding the child for good behavior and punishing the child for not doing what is appropriate or expected. “The Filipino is one who has and social values of the Filipino. Carried to excess. This value makes friendship a very strong bond among the group but which may lead to excess among those who do not consider that the relationship should only be for good.

it will serve as a tool if the local government officials of Olongapo City practice these values in terms of their decision making and policy formulation. the values orientation of public officials would be examined.” The individual is deterred from being self-centered and is urged to be accommodating to others when he has this value in his belief system. In this study. The practice of public administration in the country is influenced by the combined effects of Western administrative thought and technology and of the local political and administrative culture. This value encourages and leads the individual to avoid a posture or action of taking advantage of his neighbors lest his sense of fellowship be criticized as having no “kapwa tao. the whole structure that carries out the action is referred to as public administration. What underlies the action are the principles and policies that guide and control administration. It becomes necessary to clarify the relationship of the operation of the bureaucracy that 13 . Azanza (2001) stated that public administration is a process and body of policies at the same time. It contains some very significant values and features relevant to the administrative culture that can be discerned in Philippine public administration. hence the functioning of the three branches of government comprise public administration when services are delivered to the people. The second popular value is the “kapwa tao” or refers to a sense of fairness and equitable treatment of fellow members of society. and the two examples stated above are incorporated in the questionnaire under the management and leadership factor. which is the process of delivering the service. Varela (2003) stressed that the Filipino societal culture has shaped the political and administrative culture found in Philippine organizations. Where the public sees the action of government.13 household. Sometimes.

the key to successful operation is the effective utilization of human and physical resources. as it is also frequently called management. Nigro and Nigro (1992) mentioned that any definition of public administration must deal with how it is similar to. Tax money is being used. they are constantly subject to searching outside scrutiny. the purposes or goals of human organizations naturally vary. no public organization can ever be exactly the same as a private one. As has often been said. Because the legislature and the general public are directly concerned with its actions. and they are also increasingly subject to government regulation. executive and judiciary branches of government. all of which makes public relations an important element in business success. Factories. just as the problems of private ones vary from company to company. The similarities are great. public or private. While the common factor is cooperation. Another way to express it is that administration is cooperative group effort in a public or private setting. charitable agencies. must meet the challenges of its particular environment. foundations. Furthermore. so every citizen has the right to know how it is spent and to criticize the decision of public officials. In public administration. Each organization. churches – in these and every human organization. for administration as a process is by no means limited to the public sector. Private companies want satisfied clients. and their 14 . public officials operate in a goldfish bowl. private administration. This is the work of administration or. hospitals. the problems of all public organizations are not the same.14 does the service and the legislative. companies still remain private in character. The exact form of administration varies according to the kind of undertaking. everything a government agency does is the public’s business. Nevertheless. labor unions. or different from.

work experience. it is the rationale of this study to establish if the variables cited has correlation to the values orientation of local public officials. This literature has an effect to this present study particularly in the manner of local government’s transparency and accountability. Azanza (2001) opined that immersion of the person to the educative experience comes early in childhood and countries through adulthood. This is because education is deemed as the most effective means for the family and its members to attain social mobility and to ensure their position in the socio-cultural 15 . The personal related factors used in this study includes the educational qualification. and in the existence of the individual. Personal Related Factors. one goes through the training programs which apply the teaching-learning principles of education. Even after the formal stage of education. this study desires to recognize if local government officials has been actively visible in administering its policies and rightfully spend the citizen’s taxes and most of all their dedication and commitment in serving their constituents. Education is high on the priority list of every household in the use of their resources. The contention that education is a life-long continuing process has been widely accepted by social scientists and based on some studies it has been found that educational level of an individual conveys remarkable weight to his success. civil status. Education is a discipline in training and preparing an individual for society. the most extremely and broadly used social discipline is education. age. Educational Attainment.15 internal operations are to a large extent their own business and not that of the general public. salary and religion. gender.

Education should serve best for the local government officials not only life experiences. the government sets aside a major chunk of its effort and budget to education at all times. it is often maintained that the school must be relevant to society. Education is very essential in the purpose of an individual. Storey (1994) mentioned that education contributes the foundation for scholarly maturity of a person and advanced education presented the person with superior assurance in dealing with his/her superiors and/or subordinates in an organization. the right to vote was granted on them as well as running in 16 . Bustos and Espiritu (1996) claimed that. politics or public administration has a place only for male group of the society. Some people blame the school for not providing the kind of training and preparation that is needed by society. During the Spanish era. even the right to suffrage was deprived to the female class. The fact that there are many graduates of the school system who are unemployed or underemployed is cited as an example of irrelevance. But moving onwards in time.’ The contribution of education to national development has been emphasized by social scientists worldwide because the skills requirement for advances technology used in development can be acquired by way of education.16 milieu. which is pronounced s the social investment in ‘human capital formation. It is a reality that an educated person is more probable to be more useful than those who have no formal education at all. Gender. In its plan for national development. The person’s social relationship within the workplace will be more refined and acceptable.

physical characteristics which make a person male or female at birth. women public managers believed they can fulfill their duties and responsibilities with competence since they are highly educated. female managers move up more slowly in the organization’s career ladder. Compared to their male colleagues. Their research examines the career movements of women public managers in Region VI. but sex relates specifically to the biological. The words gender and sex are often used interchangeably. It s argued that the relationship between women’s greater contribution to household work and their relative inequality to men in employment and public life referred to as the relationship between “the rocking of the cradle and the ruling of the world” – remains the chief focus of research and analysis in the subject area of 17 .17 public office. Filipino civil servants are better educated than their predecessors. it explores theoretical issues of gender differences and gender equality as they relate specifically to an understanding and analysis of women and men’s contributions to household work and parenting. male and female public servants go hand in hand in serving the land. Doucet (2002) in her qualitative research with twenty-three British dual earner couples. Alfiler and Nicolas (2003) cited that the urban bias in the recruitment of bureaucrats persists. with adequate training and their family life does not compete with their career since other household members share in the housekeeping chores. It is observed that a growing number of younger women are joining the civil service. Since then. whereas gender refers to the behaviors associated with members of that sex according to the World Health Organization (2003). Being career-oriented. The attributes came from the educational opportunities to which these women have access.

the researcher will treat the variable of age.18 gender division of household labor. The researcher of this study relies on the above reference. and normally counted in years. annulment. Salcedo (2002) stated that separation. decides that there was no marriage contract at all. that gender has certainly performs a significant role in the problem under study to the values orientation of local government officials.’ Separation is the result of desertion. although the marriage remains in force. It is usually calculated on how long the person or thing existed. When one of the partners to the marriage deliberately severs his ties and leaves his family. however. Annulment is the process which makes the marriage contract null and void. Birion (2005) stated that. It is stated earlier the significance of gender towards commitment of the person to the society. the husband and wife either informally or illegally. The absolute dissolution of marriage bond is divorce. The aim of correlation of the stated premise on age is on the milieu that the local government official-respondents are in various age levels. The ideal expectation of society is that the marriage and family will endure until the death of one of the spouses. desertion. Civil Status. certain circumstances may lead to maladjustments in marital relations and the only solution acceptable is the break-up of the marriage and the family. As stated. On this point. the higher chronological age of a person requires higher effort of involvement to the society where they want assurance of satisfaction upon retirement. as age increases. the act is called ‘desertion. accountability rise high. It is a time measurement on how old a person or thing is. Age. and divorce may bring about the break-up of families. it breaks up the marriage relations partially. 18 . set up separate households.

Anthropologists refer to this kind of religious belief as animism.such as animal spirits. the growth of a pleasure philosophy. can have souls or spirits that can take on different forms to help or harm people. death alone dissolves the marriage relation. However. lack of training for marriage and parenthood. Religion often serves to help people cope with the death of relatives and friends. Sarason (2003) opined that religion allows people to know about and communicate with supernatural beings . The relevancy of the literature to this study is that. the citizenry is extremely anxious with the outcomes created with reference to the disbanding of families. Peoples of many small band and tribal societies believe that plants and animals. outcomes which are experienced mutually by the married couple and their brood. increased childlessness. the Family Code of the Philippines provides for legal separation as the alternative to divorce. Salcedo (2002) cited that the main contributing factors in divorce “are probably the various changes in women’s role. agricultural societies. less disgrace attached to divorce. religion has long been a means of asking for 19 . higher standards for married life. and it figures prominently in most funeral ceremonies.19 The Philippines does not recognize divorce. In hunting societies. the public officials as private individual has its own view and practice on his/her status. In larger. as well as people. people commonly believe that forest beings control the supply of game animals and may punish people for irresponsible behavior by making animals outwit the hunt. Religion. and spirits of the dead. gods. and the emotional immaturity of those who enter marriage. this study would look into the civil status of a public official if a single person is more adept and dedicated in public service than the married public servant.

sexuality and marriage.20 bountiful harvests. religious visionaries became leaders because people believed those leaders could communicate with the supernatural to control the fate of a civilization. during biblical times. and an inspiration to go to war. There is no need for them to work harder and to search for innovations. work. The national government and different sectors of society and even churches of different denominations are those strong advocators of moral transformation of the society has been clinging to its teachings and traditions to realize this challenge. or the Tao—is acknowledged to be the true and proper basis of all life. it is harder for a rich man to enter the gate of heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. All of life—including food. Fajardo (1994) added that. economic growth tends to be slow and primitive. suffering. the will of God. In early civilized societies. For instance. Many religions have detailed rules of purity that bear on every aspect of behavior. materialism and the pursuit of wealth were despised and discouraged. This became their greatest source of power. In fact. and people often regarded leaders as actual gods. Moreover. the bible contains many statements against wealth or materialism. Similar attitudes were shown during the time of the ancient Greek philosophers and the Scholastics led by Aquinas. a source of power for rulers. They are just contended with their simple living. and government—can be given religious significance. Buddha nature. it says that the poor are blessed for they shall inherit the kingdom of heaven. When people shy away from the pursuit of wealth. The 20 . human relations. the religious reality—whether conceived as a divine commandment. the arts. education. In this way. Such religious concepts and teachings against materialism are not favorable to economic development.

Do they seek divine intervention and divine graces for their family.’ Salcedo (1999) stated that the closeness of family ties has resulted in undermining 21 . The family is generally composed of grandparents. the point of relatedness of the above literatures lies on the elected public official’s religious life and responsibilities as good public servants. this traditional type of family is found in the rural area. These are the variables on family ties. nieces and nephews may also be found living in the same household. their wives and children. As head. does it have a significant relationship to their values orientation? Family Related Factors. Characteristically. and in policy formulation and implementation. This type of family is the ‘extended family. aunts and uncles. is identified as the ‘nuclear family. married sons. family responsibility and parental authority and the related literature gathered by the researcher relative to the problem under study.’ The primary or elementary family. but. China and Japan shows significant characteristics. Family Ties. ability. and most of all. however. composed of the father (husband). family status. the mother (wife) and their children. or achievement. in every decision making.21 elected public officials being member also of their respective church affiliation should embrace the teachings and have clear grasp of its significance to be a better Christian. he has the final authority. and unmarried sons and daughters living together in one household. and by virtue of the son’s personality. Salcedo (2002) points out that a study of family systems in India. apart from those already mentioned. the head of the family may be the oldest male with the highest status. In so doing. In the Philippines. he may transfer his power and authority to the oldest son because of his physical disability or old age.

and the welfare of the old and the young members are protected by the stronger adult members. is good in the sense that there is unity. However. it has dominant features which are not 22 . no matter how highly qualified he is. irregularities like nepotism occur. There was a time when government positions were for sale and naturally the office became a source of graft and corruption in order to compensate for the money paid for the position. which is common in the Philippines and other developing countries. They are free to pursue their economic inclinations anywhere. usually the eldest sons. Government is universalistic while family is personalistic. A job applicant. the children have to take personal care of their poor old parents. Considering the security of the parents. It was an institution to be avoided for its interests were contradictory to his welfare. The Filipino regarded the government as the means to oppress and abuse him. Adult children are financially independent from their parents. purchases of supplies and different permits. to harass him. Unlike in the less developed countries. The family is real while the government is something impersonal – an attitude that has its origin during the Spanish regime. franchises. Fajardo (1994) added that family members in western societies like the United States are more individualistic and self-reliant. This view of government has persisted and even today vestiges of this idea still exist. their family obligations are minimized. Thus the family has become the rallying point. government contracts. has to approach a relative or an influential friend or crony of the appointing power to get the job. When there is an overlap of the family and the office. Preferential treatment is extended to relatives especially in the grant of licenses.22 the individual’s loyalty to the government. to suppress his freedom and to impose a lot of burden on him. An extended family system. especially among Asians.

financially and emotionally. Ronquillo (1999) stated that the family is a place where one can come in contact with others in a free and spontaneous interaction. However. Family Status. No wonder members avoid leaving the security of the Filipino home.23 favorable to economic development. and that is losing self-reliance for the over dependent children. nowadays economic pressures have encroached on this dependence. The success of a member means the success of the whole family. conversely. Even when many have grown up and have raised their own families. Mutual dependence and mutual sharing specially of material goods are expected in the home. Another one is close family ties. There is a continuing pressure on all members to keep brothers and sisters in line. it will be the intention of this study to look the significant relationship of family to the values orientation of local government officials on political variable. they follow the wishes of their old folks. This dependence has prevented them from accepting more lucrative positions and jobs if it will separate them from their families. pressure is still extended by the parents responsible for the conduct of their children. The related literature points out that family and politics are one and relative in a manner as an organization. It is a haven of happiness and contentment when on is confronted by problems of the outside world. There is mutual dependence among the family members. As obedient children. this hamper labor mobility and the choice of better economic opportunities. especially if they are women. It is refuge from the anxieties and insecurities found outside the home. his mistakes and misdeeds are reflected also on all members of the family. Their grandparents or parents do not like their children to work in far places. many have learned to postpone 23 .

Today. are motivated by a desire to maintain or promote a higher standard of family living. The stated literature stressed that family status should be intact. loneliness. many of them married are entering the labor force. It will be the researcher’s intention to explore the significant relationship of family status to the values orientation of local government officials. more and more women. In case of disagreement. Parental Authority. the emotional strain. Busto (2003) cited that the father and mother jointly exercise parental authority over their legitimate children who are not emancipated. and to observe respect and reverence toward them always. Often.24 immediate and present benefits for future financial security by accepting overseas jobs. the remaining parent is left to raise the family. unless there is judicial order to the contrary. the father’s decision shall prevail. and anxiety become major problems for both the husband and the wife. The household standard of living rises appreciably and there is a tendency toward extravagance and the purchase of consumer goods rather in savings which earn income. Fontanilla (2002) mentioned that more and more women. Most married women try to supplement the meager incomes of their husbands. This results in temporary single parentage. and the relevancy of the literature to this study are the prepared questionnaires which was attuned to each other. Recognized natural and adopted children who are under the age of majority are under the parental authority of the 24 . Since married overseas workers leave their families behind. The resultant increase in income may also lead to value disorientation. especially in urban centers. Children are obliged to obey their parents so long as they are under parental power. The earnings of these women make an important contribution to family income and help a great deal in raising their standard of living.

except in cases of guardianship or adoption approved by the courts. It is widely accepted that a person possessing good parental authority also bestowed good governance and used authority of office in delivering public service. The emancipation of women and the assignment of important roles to the children and young adults are very strong factors in the development of a cooperative family and each individual personality is respected and given his due.25 father or mother recognizing or adopting them. and also the natural children by legal fiction are under the joint authority of the father and mother. Espiritu (1999) added on parental authority. Hence. that the father has the God-given right to rule and that the wife should be obedient to him as her lord and master are difficult to eliminate. This development is gradually putting side the old autocratic concept of the father’s unquestioned authority. Today. this research will study the approach of parental authority of the local public officials as how it reflected their authority of office. taking assertion of the above literature. that a questionable influence especially among adolescent boys is the ‘barkada. Grandparents shall be consulted by all members of the family on all important family questions. these concepts still persist in a modified form.’ a gang relationship. 25 . is on the rise. or emancipation by concession. drug use among low income teenagers as shown in various newspaper reports on crime. in cases specified by law. Though the statistics are unreliable. The courts may. Parental authority cannot be renounced or transferred. the children are heard and are given a chance to mature in their attitudes and ideas. Family Responsibility. Peralta (2002) point out that the traditional deep-rooted authoritarian ideas that children should only be seen and not be heard. deprive parents of their authority.

and parents and illegitimate children who are not natural. trade or vocation. Brothers and sisters owe their legitimate and natural brothers and sisters. parents expect the children to take one of them in return. which states that: support is everything that is indispensable for sustenance. when by a physical or mental defect. and 26 . these are: the spouses. or any other cause not imputable to the recipients. Parents give their all financial and emotional to the children to the extent of borrowing or mortgaging their property for their education in order to obtain high paying jobs and even supporting them including their wives and children if necessary. clothing and medical attendance. even beyond the age of majority. This assistance includes. help educate their siblings. Article 291 points out who among the members of the family should give support. In our local setting. article 290 of the Republic Act 386. in a proper case. parents and acknowledged natural children and the legitimate or illegitimate descendants of the latter. legitimate ascendants and descendants. although they are only of the half-blood. Busto (2003) articulated the civil code of the Philippines particularly on Title IX. according to the social position of the family. expenses necessary for elementary education and for professional or vocational training.26 Salcedo (1999) cited that within the family is some system of social security and insurance. In old age. family responsibility is indirectly referred to as support. Support also includes the education of the person entitled to be supported until he completes his education or training for some profession. the latter cannot secure their subsistence. it is very evident and part of our customs that a child who became an adult is expected to help support the family. the necessaries for life. parents and natural children by legal fiction and the legitimate and illegitimate descendants of the latter. dwelling.

public policy is political and as such it is open to differing interests and stakes. But policymaking is also a matter of theory and rationalizing an action that will 27 . and not simply a choice. this article expounds the following arguments: first. Jenkins (2007) a policy is ‘a set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions should. stakeholders with varied motives try to influence the outcome of the policy. Thus. upon whose lives the policy has impact. The other version of public policy is that it is the domain of government institutions or officials who are accountable to the public. in principle. third. decision making and leadership style and the researcher’s collected literatures which deemed related to this study. Co (2003) added to the discussion that policy is ‘public. have a role to play in shaping such policy. and fourth.27 care for the parents. This study will look into the values orientation of the local government official if this is being manifested in their own belief and practices. Jenkins understands policy making to be a process. Policy Formulation and Implementation. one view on management of policymaking holds that stakeholders/social actors including their resources – both government and non-government – contribute to the shaping of policy. public policy formulation requires not only political savvy but also managerial smartness. policy implementation. be within the power of those actors to achieve’. Although policy and policymaking can be understood in a variety of meanings and perspectives. second. especially as they age. Management Related Factors.’ the people. These are the variables on policy formulation.

officeholders more often than not. In policymaking. And in many instances. In large organizations such as government. Influence suggests relative rather than absolute power. Nigro and Nigro (1992) stated that. Power has its origins in office. there are also groups outside government. without coercive power but nevertheless exerting influence through persuasion or pressure. theoretically motivated by a vision directed at the welfare of the public. Determining a policy is about coming to an intelligent choice after a range of options is considered. the power of determination comes as an attribute of the leaders and of leadership. have the power of initiative not available to the rank and file. Co (2003) affirmed that policymaking is coming to a deliberate choice of action. or at least to initiate policymaking. An important feature of policy formulation management in the Philippine context is the role. The power to initiate policy centrally lies with the officeholders. The lines are not clearly drawn on the issue of whether public policy is a domain of government or a function of civil society. Policymaking thus involves the two dimensions of power and rationality. and the power base of the manager who is required to develop appropriate techniques for dealing with key policy legislators and with policy supporters in order to develop sufficient space to maneuver a policy proposal towards a satisfactory outcome. the general public is much concerned with 28 . Authority and legitimacy are features of power that allow leaders to carve out policies. Policy formulation is therefore a matter of making a willful choice – a decision founded on certain aspirations.28 affect the larger society. influences can be competing. However. the style.

and that scope is continually being enlarged. as are legislators. would prefer the status quo. stressing the power exercised in particular policy areas by coalitions of lobbying organizational form and policy preferences was documented. As such. The larger the scope of government. on the other hand. is selecting one position or action from several alternatives. possesses the knowledge and means to influence human destinies greatly. with dangerous consequences if errors are made in the policies adopted. and the so-called Politics of Organization emerged as a standard topic in the study of administration. Citing on the literature. interest groups. like other contemporary institutions. or changes in the organization. the media. and more insistent on participating in the formulation and administration of policies. Leveriza (1990) stressed that a decision is an action or series of action chosen from a number of possible alternatives. Decision-making. the more important the role of public policy. Other writers have analyzed the role of pressure groups – including administrative agencies – in the formulation and administration of policy. and procedures. policies. administrators. Decision Making. this study will take the importance of local government officials as policy makers on their awareness of complex interrelationships between their values and their operation of policy formulation. and others. it is important to know that inaction is an alternative to the possible solutions to a management problem. decisions 29 . Government. such as an objectives. better informed. rules. Leveriza (1990) cited that. Others. It will take into account also the concern and concept of the different public sectors or the citizenry on their role as influencer and persuader in policy making. The public is better educated. or would not face the problem squarely.29 government policies. the decision results in action. Oftentimes. however.

five. unwillingness to experiment. overreliance on one’s own experience. preconceived notions. and seven. six. Decisions are nonprogrammed to the extent that they are novel. his personal decision involves the organization. are given the opportunity to exercise making basic decisions for the organization. It is important only to know that about ninety percent of the organizational decisions are routinary. But in practice. Nigro and Nigro (1992) discussed that there are certain error in decision making. second is a basic and routine decision. very few managers. In the same manner. Cognitive nearsightedness is the human tendency to make decisions that satisfy immediate needs and to brush aside doubts of their long-range wisdom. and third is a programmed and nonprogrammed decision. and consequential. systematic procedures have been devised so that each one does not have to be treated as a unique case each time it arises. cognitive nearsightedness. theses are: one. oversimplification. it is very difficult to distinguish personal decision from organizational decision. the assumption that the future will repeat the past. to know that managers make both types of decision and that many decisions have elements of both. reluctance to decide. three. four. A manager is personally involved in his organizational decisions. except those belonging to top management. Decisions are programmed to the extent that they are repetitive and routine and to the extent that they are repetitive and routine and to the extent that definite. unstructured. The hope is that the decision will prove a good one for the future also. but the odds for such good fortune 30 . two. As such.30 may be classified as follows: first is an organizational and personal decision. It is important however.

the less involved solution may be better one. Strikes by government workers – many of them professionals – are one example. It is easier for them. harddriving consumerism is another. Yet. no matter how inferior to other. despite all the evidence of great change in citizen attitudes. Of course. Frequently 31 . Oversimplification means is that. the simpler one is more readily explained to others and therefore more likely to be adopted. Assumption that future will repeat past is that. rather than with its causes.31 are poor. The present period is. Overreliance on one’s own experience is that. in some cases. Officials may reject such oversimplification but still err in preferring a simple solution to a complicated one. in making decisions. as it is for others participating in the deliberations. however. a tendency to deal with the symptoms of the problem. somewhat more complicated alternatives. far from stable. officials must forecast future conditions and events. clientele groups. a person’s own experience may still not be the best guide. many precedents have been shattered. too many public officials blindly assume that these are only deviations from normal conduct. the assumption can safely be made that employees. many practitioners place great weight on their own previous experience and personal judgment. to understand the simpler one. and the public in general will behave much as they have in the past. Although the experienced executive should be able to make better decisions than the completely inexperienced one. A tempting immediate solution may create infinitely greater difficulties for the future. In relatively stable periods of history. The point is that the decision maker looking for any acceptable answer may take the first simple one. and people are behaving in surprising ways. or that things will soon return to normal.

Reluctant to decide is avoidance in making decision. Preconceived notion is a bias decision. officials are capable of seeing only the facts that support their biases. and it is dishonest when the facts are doctored to justify the decision. and other issues will affect their social relationships with other employees and business associates. Instead. as everyone knows from personal experience. no to the particular action taken. in truth reflect the preconceived ideas of the decision maker. purchasing. is a burdensome task. past success in a certain kind of situation may be attributable to pure luck. they consider how their decisions on hiring. firing. In many cases. the way to determine the workability of proposals is to test them in practice on limited basis. In addition. Such testing has taken place. Managers find it hard to get all the information they need. Simon claimed that under these circumstances. managers cannot always choose strategies that will maximize profit. Offsetting the exhilaration that may result from correct and successful decision and the relief that follows the terminating of a struggle to determine issues is the depression that comes from failure or error of decision and the frustration which ensues from uncertainty. but for various reasons the government environment has not in the past encouraged such experimentation. in many cases. Such decision making appears dishonest. In truth. Simon (2001) argued that as businesses grow. allegedly based on the facts. decisions. Anything else is not credible and therefore does not qualify a fact. effective decision-making becomes much more difficult.32 someone else with just as much experience has a completely solution and is just as sure that he or she is the one being practical. Unwillingness to experiment may be put in this manner. However. The making of decisions. they tend to settle for what they consider reasonable gains 32 .

if it decides to privatize certain services and makes use of market mechanisms in service delivery.the capacity or ability to lead. as in the phrase "the emperor has provided satisfactory leadership. particularly on policy analysis." The concept of enabling has varied meanings to local government practitioners. Legaspi (2003) 33 . Speaking of "leadership" which in the abstract term rather than of "leading" which in the action usually implies that the entities doing the leading has some "leadership skills. as in the phrase "she could have exercised effective leadership." Potential . This study will look into the manner on how does local government officials decide and its significance to their values orientation.giving guidance or direction." Leadership can have a formal aspect as in most political or business leadership or an informal one as in most friendships. Legaspi (2003) stated that leadership is a quality a person may have. The stated literature has its relevancy to the present study. All these meanings point out that the concept of enabling is synonymous to the development of methods of doing things to respond most effectively to the needs of the community. Public officials as administrators and policy makers have this serious duty to decide. be it simple or a much complex one and every person has this charge to make. Decision making is an every minute and everyday task. or if it develops different ways of doing things in order to meet the varied demands of the community. if it contracts out services.33 for the business." or in the concept "born to lead. Leadership. One can categorize the exercise of leadership as either actual or potential: Actual . Local government is an enabler if its role goes beyond the traditional role of direct service provider.

functional and geographical boundaries. providing public information about services and programs. NGOs or voluntary groups. Second is Focus on Determining an Effective Response – After clearly defining strategies of action. This strategic orientation ensures that the activities of the different agencies in the policy arena are not fragmented. and providing a forum for 34 . and with national government agencies. local government should determine the various modes of carrying out such strategies. but the development of different and more flexible ways of operating which are both more suited to the many and varied demands now placed on local government and most effective in meeting the needs of local communities.” To understand better the concept of enabling.34 cited that. “enabling is coming to mean not adherence to any particular political orthodoxy. These would include the following: Collaborating with other agencies in the implementation of new programs or in providing new series. creating new structures or bodies for service delivery. providing financial assistance or grants. Legaspi (2003) spelled out some practical guidelines on the meaning of enabling: first is Strategic Orientation – Local government should have a grasp of the issues and concerns affecting the community to be able to develop certain strategies to respond to such issues and problems. a collaborative working with the private sector. This then require a well developed policy process where opportunities and approaches are identified and selected and a strategic action is spelled-out. These strategies should be integrated such that they take into consideration all the traditional. It also ensures that all local viewpoints are taken into account within a wider policy context. It could mean that the local government would develop an approach which would require inter-local government collaboration.

35 discussion of community issues and concerns. Once a key role in disseminating the policy and in explaining the 35 . Such collaborative mechanisms take various forms depending on the kind of service or on the resource capacity of the local government. Local government can influence the structure of regulation at the policy formulation stage. private and voluntary organization or agencies. local government has increasingly recognized the fact that it has to work collaboratively with other existing public. Third is Setting Standards and Performance – The setting of standards and performance would ensure the achievement of goals and objectives. this requires a definition of specific roles of each body or organization which would lead to the building up of long-term relationships with and among agencies. But what is important is the development of more enduring kind of work relationships between the local government and the other organizations. It can lobby with national government and act in collaboration with other agencies in the shaping up of policy structures. By doing so. In other words. it can determine what action could add value and where it would be most effective. local government should consider its strength and weaknesses. In selecting the best mode of action. Fourth is Developing Partnerships – As community problems become more complex and challenging. Local government should involve the public in directly defining standards of service and the criteria of performance by which local government could be evaluated. Openness about standards and the attainment of performance targets would help improve public accountability. Fifth is Influencing. it can ensure that the framework is oriented towards local or community interests. Interpreting and Implementing the Regulatory Framework – Although local government works within a wide legislative framework.

local government has to provide access mechanisms to those individuals and groups who are underprivileged and are at disadvantage due to poverty. Sixth is Encouraging Access and Involvement – Recognizing the nature of the population it serves. unemployment and other factors. and explain what is meaningful to them? 36 .36 effects of the regulatory requirements to the community. that to ensure that grassroots leaders are of and for our people. They examined how the relationship between rulers and followers among pre-colonial Filipinos was transformed as a result of the entry of a different culture. There is also the value of involving users of services in decisions which directly affect them. Alfiler and Nicolas (2003) stated that among the materials reviewed three stands out for their efforts to search deep into our nation’s past and look into our historical experiences and core values as a people. communicate. Leaders no longer understand. the Filipinos had a clear notion of the qualities they expected of their leaders. an unfamiliar ideology and notions of independence. concepts. however. religion and people in our history. do they communicate with the people in a language through which the people can freely express their ideas. It asserts that for precolonial times. to establish the basic elements of the Filipino concept of leadership. they should be evaluated along the following set of criteria: Do their goals truly promote national interest? Are their actions supportive of public welfare? Are they known to be persons of unquestionable integrity? Are they not identified with other interest which may conflict with public interest? And. or empathize with the people they lead as they become separated by the use of a foreign language. He suggests.

and magaling. and pagkamasayahin or optimism cluster. citizens expect their leaders to possess the following characteristics: makatao.’ which drew from the mainsprings and documents of the experience of the Philippine Revolution of 1896 and the EDSA People Power phenomenon of 1986. 37 . These values for the core of the concept of ‘Pamathalaan’ which means ‘pamamahala kasama ni Bathala’ lies at the heart of the Moral Recovery Program of the Ramos administration. mapagkalinga. appreciated and lived. They also established in a local survey that at the barangay level. matuwid. kagandahang loob or caring and humane. in a paper entitled ‘Ang Ulirang Pamumuno sa mga Pilipino. marunong or intelligent and capable. mga katangian at pagpapahalaga na bumubuo sa isang “loob complex” or shared humanity cluster. matapat. and analyzed about a hundred articles about Filipino values in their attempt to establish core values and identify qualities which Filipinos want to see in their leaders. It defined as a native Filipino philosophy and practices of leadership. pantaypantay ang tingin sa lahat or fair and just. if fully recovered. demokratiko. may Moralidad or God-centered and with integrity. may provide the key to national and possibly global unity.37 In the citation of Alfiler and Nicolas (2003) they added that. management and/or governance rooted on sacred ancestral and heroic traditions which. malakas ang loob or courageous and strong willed. maka-Diyos. They also reviewed the outcome of international scientific surveys on human values. they came up with three clusters of core Filipino values: pagkamakatao at pakikipagkapwa-tao or relationship and social cluster respectively. makatarungan. On this basis.

A comprehensive study conducted by Miranda (2005) also examines political leadership as a strategic variable in achieving political stabilization. the “Paradux” combines the Latin word “dux” which means “leader” and a Greek prefix. who do not have ideology nor a strong organization. Fabian Ver as an example of this type. strong effective leadership can organize groups and institutions towards an 38 . The consistent and effective performance of the political leadership “enhances the legitimacy of the government as the regime and increases the probability of regime durability. Jose Rizal is cited as an example of this type. two. three. it identified four types of Filipino leaders: One. For all these aspects of stability. thus. “para” which can mean faulty. irregular or disordered. political leadership is a vital enabling factor.” The political leadership also intervenes in all national conflicts.” Filipino leaders have two dimensions: ‘organization’ and ‘ideology. and four. political. psychological and other resources. the Visionary is a leader who has an ideology and a weak organization. durability and the management of conflict. the Organization Man is a leader who has a strong organization but without an ideology.’ In combining the presence or absence of ideology with a weak or strong organization.38 On political leadership Alfiler and Nicolas (2003) cited that “Leadership over human beings is exercised when persons with certain motives and purposes mobilize. institutional. Agpalo cites Gen. so as to arouse. the Supremo is exemplified by Andres Bonifacio who had a strong organization in the Katipunan and an ideology contained in his Decalogue. engage and satisfy the motives of followers. This term applies to traditional Filipino politicians elected to either House of Congress. The study looks at three dimensions of political stability in terms of legitimacy. in competition or conflict with others.

Politicians usually take advantage of this agreement.’ this emphasizes the importance of the person with whom one has immediate face-to-face contact over the abstract rule of law of the common good. especially in elections. not 39 . Politicians dispense favors and accept or even solicit sponsorship obligations or the ‘compadre system’ from their constituents so they can depend on the support of the families who are obligated to them. it may hamper the process of democracy and thwart the true will of the people. On the negative side.39 acceptable consensus. It could result in both positive and negative behavior such as going along with the group and following what the group is doing whether he approves of the activity or not. Everybody owes a debt of gratitude to someone. Salcedo (1999) stated some political values that are manifested in Philippine culture. One expresses what one thinks the other person would like to hear. ‘Euphemism’ is stating an unpleasant truth. some are: ‘utang na loob. It is also a cause of graft and corruption. thereby assuring stability and keeping conflicts within manageable. ‘lagay’ and ‘areglo’ (fixing). It is manifested in such practices as ‘pakiusap’ (request). nepotism and favoritism. everyone also. ‘Pakikisama’ is yielding to the will of the majority or the leader of the group. not what one reason would like to hear. On the positive side. opinion or request as pleasantly as possible. It is the use of ‘white lies’ to please another person. This value system comprises a network of behavior with different degrees of connotation – it is a complicated system of mutual obligation. in some way has done something for someone who therefore owes him in return. Another value is ‘personalism.’ this denotes a sense of gratitude. the network of ‘utang na loob’ may result in strengthening cooperation and loyalty. Political. ‘palakasan’ (power and influence).

This attitude is carried over to the larger society. Too much importance is given to hiya when one compares this value with those of other cultures. Salcedo (1999) pointed that every family in the Philippines would like to raise its standard of living and that of his community.40 what one really thinks and believes. This is followed also by political dispensation and concentration of improvement programs and projects.’ Asking favors from another generally generates ‘hiya. It has its beginning within the family circle where the young may receive conflicting orders or ideas coming from different members who have priority status such as parents. ‘Hiya’ makes a person sensitive to other people’s opinions thus he gives way to ‘pakikisama. To the Filipino. This is evident in the fact that every political bigwig aims to improve his hometown above all other towns. The desire for personal success is achieved by education. uncles and aunts. focus is made among the Visayan areas. They would sacrifice comfort and spent their savings or even borrow money just so the children can obtain an education. grandparents. Economic. if he is a Visayan. Parents feel that education is the greatest legacy they can give to the children. It is about the only means toward upward mobility open to the majority of people.’ If the favor is not granted the person feels shamed. Success and economic progress are shared by his family and kin as a repayment for one’s debt of gratitude to them. In order not to hurt anyone’s feelings. Education has become virtually an end in itself. the child has learned to express his views or behave in a manner that will bring no trouble or misunderstanding within the family circle. Many an older brother and sister would 40 . When the president is Ilocano region becomes progressive. this is a highly prized art.

The nine classes are as follows: The ‘upper class consists of three levels. In contrast. They are supporters of political parties and sometimes get into politics themselves to protect their economic interest. Azanza (2001) stated that social classes in society are defined along economic consideration in these times. The next class is the ‘middle class’ with three levels. namely the upper-upper. namely: the upper-middle. the middle-lower. To these middle class levels belong the genre of professionals. The last of the classes is the ‘lower class’ which is composed of three levels. mansions. To these levels belong the marginalized groups that are immediately 41 . sports and charities. and the lower-lower. The classes are defined in relation to the ‘poverty’ line which separates those who cannot afford the basic needs in life and those who are able to get along.41 forego marriage in order to help pay for the education of the younger ones for as long as possible. They are the upper-lower. They are patrons of the arts. small enterprise owners. the social classes of the past were based on birth right or the well-defined social strata which their parents had or were able to secure by deeds and recognition. middleupper and lower-upper. Among them are the rich and famous in the mass media. bonds. and the lower-middle. industrialists and corporate taipans who own yachts. which is the assignment of groups to social levels in society. civil servants. agri-business operators. smallscale transport unit operators. To these class levels belong the tycoons. vacation houses. business magnates. private planes. Social stratification. and inland fish farmers. the middle-middle. tracts of land and foreign investments. controlling corporate stocks. when based on economic criteria becomes more easily understood than in the traditional scheme because the income groups are better defined.

one is ‘pakikialam. It has been observed that many Philippine values are barriers to development. Land and other material possession such as home and food supply are reflected in one’s value system as ‘pagpapahalaga sa sariling bahay. These groups have dismal housing condition.’ it is under the pretext of guidance and wisdom. Filipino behavior manifests this value as the tendency to regard highly the attainment of possessions. he or she is expected to act and think like the parents. Second is. social mobility in economic sense is open and unfixed. little access to education. it also suppresses the innate ability of the person to achieve more suspicion. The Filipinos need to identify the things they value so that a more responsive “Filipino” may evolve. The three levels in this class include hawkers. pedicab drivers. spear fishermen and other people on hand-to-mouth livelihood. Peralta (2002) Values need to be re-examined in order to sort out the confusion and conflict among the Filipinos. They are as follows: first is ‘paggalang.’ and ‘sa pagkain.’ which means respect for elders.’ Under this value. The most potent social mobility factor or means of improving ones social class is through education and employment.42 and slightly above and those below the poverty line. unskilled laborers. elders meddle with the business of their children and subordinates. next is ‘tungkulin ng panganay sa pamilya. suffer from malnutrition and have high rate of criminality. ‘pagmamay-ari’ or property ownership. the elder is the one responsible for the younger members of the family as well as the parents in their old age. This value is related to two attitudes which are considered negative. This attitude curtails the growth of independence in the individual. laundry workers.’ since the eldest child is next in rank to the parents. For this reason. Social. subsistence farmers. some negative 42 .

The capacity to adapt and adjust to misfortune is what it makes the Filipino possess a resilient attitude. and the individual’s response to a given situation is one of resignation. and pagpapahalaga sa pamilya. one’s prestige must be measured in terms of ability and talent. the way one uses it for the society must determine the kind of success that does not solely pertain to the person. honesty. pagkatitulado. While the ‘pagpapahalaga sa pamilya’ or the close family kinship system fundamentally structures the Filipino society. This attitude distorts the purpose of education. parents are over-protective of their children. and selfreliance. and engineers. That is why many students want to become lawyers.43 aspects arise like: ‘ang anak ay kayamanan. giving no room to develop independence and self-reliance. pakiusap and pagtatakip must give way to nationalism. Third is ‘pakikisama. 43 . Because of this value. The same lack of responsibility is present in the value.’ which is the concept of good public relations or yielding to the will of the majority. The negative character of this is to leave initiative and action to higher authorities. And the fifth is ‘pagwawalang bahala’ which is related to bahala na. doctors. It predisposes an individual to undisciplined or irresponsible behavior. ‘Ang pagkatitulado’ must be discouraged. This value rests on a belief that man is governed by a set of forces beyond his control. they are considered a source of strength and stability as well as insurance in old age.’ Children are highly valued. the undesirable forms of which are clannishness. The family demands loyalty from its members and compels them to please the whole family in any undertaking. but to elevate pakikisama. Fourth is ‘bahala na’ or I-don’t-care and come-what-may attitude.

A member of a caste must live within his or her level and the child is automatically a member of that caste. classes are defined by culture. where there may be an invisible hand that makes it operate or it may be an imposition of the people on themselves. and fourth is. social classes evolve which is the formation of social classes in accordance with common way of life. third is types of class system. and the complex stratification. wealth distinction. The arrangement is ‘stratification’ while the corresponding social significance is ‘status:’ first is. caste system. The categories and stratification of classes in society make up its class system. Social classes are arranged according to levels of differentiation. second is. the lower caste is autonomous in his economic and social life. as well as enjoyment of privileges and power or influence. It 44 . The lower caste must yield to the higher caste. elite stratification. there are five class systems in anthropology. which is a highly enforced differentiation wherein the opportunity for movement is attached to the advantage of the hereditary higher caste. This is the distinction between the caste system and slavery.44 Azanza (2001) maintained that a social class is a group that has been differentiated from other groups by virtue of its economic and political power and social privileges which confer upon the members a standing of significance or distinction. economic. the dual stratification. generally evolve over a period of time. political and cultural status. The above literature on political. They are the classless society. economic and social give credence for the purpose of this study in a manner of looking into the values orientation of local government officials. However. It is imperative for the LGU officials that as public servants they still maintain the good values they caught in their family and imbibed in their schools.

Her findings is that. Related Studies Sajonia (1998). Moscosa (2000) citing her study on comparative analysis of value orientation between the graduates of values orientation workshop and non-graduates.45 will be determined in this study the correlation of their personal. her study focused also on the relationship of values orientation which utilized the secondary school teachers as her respondents. All these three studies focused on values orientations having different set of 45 . There is no guarantee that anyone who joins public service will exhibit the necessary behaviors expected of a public servant. and no significant difference was noted in the values orientation of teachers when grouped according to categories of variables of gender. experiences and interactions with the environment. The variety of values orientations among government employees is highly contributory to the public’s unmet expectations on the public servants’ work performance. making a comparison between selected rural youth and urban youth. she concluded that the Filipino public servants and the whole bureaucracy is a potential of hope in changing its image. educational qualifications and civil status. there is no significant difference on the values orientation of teachers when classified according to length in service. These values have been formed through training. also the similar study conducted by Rojas (2001) on the perceptions of students and teachers on their values orientation and its impact on social transformation. family and management related factors to their values orientation. All public servants bring with them different values orientation as they join public service. Abella (2001) produced study on values orientation. This will serve as comparison if the values orientation of public officials produced the same stance.

46 respondents are related to this present study having the local government officials as respondents. Benedictos (2005) emphasized in his study that educational attainment of a person is beneficial and similarly it is considered as a channel for social change for the reason that it fits the person to their desired occupations or vocational opportunities. This becomes a realization of one’s worth to the society, having full potentials to dispatch their duties according to the challenge they met in the work place. It has been studied before that those who have utilized their educational attainment has been evident of performance excellence in their work. Trinidad (2004) cited that those who had higher education are inclined to be more efficient in his/her line of work than those who did not. It is also probable that those with advanced levels of education are exposed to more information and input and as a result tend to be more well-informed than those with lower levels of education. Butaran (2007) cited the studied profile and performance of employees of local government unit revealed that there is no significant difference between males and females regarding work attitude, motivation, values and job satisfaction. Butaran (2007) added that married individuals are experienced people. Their efforts are aimed at mastery, exceeding and giving beyond expectations and continuously expanding their responsibilities. Stimpson (2001) found gender differences for a caring value orientation. It was found that women considered the following adjectives to be more desirable than did men: sensitive, tender, kind, happy, cheerful, yielding, understanding, affectionate, loyal, eager to sooth hurt feelings, sympathetic, compassionate, gentle, helpful and sincere.

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47 The studies support the idea that a value system oriented more toward caring, and directed at people and relationships, is preferred by female. However, the study focused mainly on married couples and women who are studying on universities ages 18 to 22. The findings have implied that the gender difference is largely biologically based. If so, one would expect it to be present at younger ages. On the other hand, if the caring value orientation is primarily learned, then it may not appear until late adolescence. It is concluded on their work that there is a large percentage of females whose value orientation is characterized by the ability to compromise, demonstrate kindness, and forgive others; a higher priority for children; an emphasis on feelings; wanting to know what people are like inside; enjoying people; getting along with others; and having friends and the ability to cooperate and help. Hill and Lynch (2003) developed the ‘gender intensification hypothesis,’ which asserts that the gender domestic/public split becomes more pronounced for females and males during adolescence. Male adolescence in particular seems to develop a more gender-specific orientation on forgiveness and friends as they get older. This is when society’s expectations of gender-appropriate activities become more specific. In Armenia, Aslanyan (2007) made a study in one of the course in their curriculum "Introduction in Gender: History, Culture and Society" focuses on the definitions of sex and gender, history of gender and gender around the world, gender in Armenia as well as different aspects of gender, such as Gender in Anthropology, Gender and Family, Gender and Labor, Gender and Politics, Gender in Language and Culture. The course consisted of theoretical and practical parts, therefore it was taught through lectures, discussions, case studies, and role-plays. Students got assignments to

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48 gather oral stories from their mothers and female relatives about their lives, opinions regarding topics and questions raised in discussions. Students told their findings on seminars. The stories had been discussed in class and brought to hot debates among the students. Thus, some students decided to continue the work on gathering oral stories. It was decided to support this initiative and work out a questionnaire and assist students in the promotion of the project. It is worth mentioning that the course was conducted for the first time in Armenia, hence students weren’t supposed to have preliminary knowledge of gender issues of any kind. As it has been mentioned before, it was very innovative since we have no Gender Studies Program at Armenian universities. The major goal of the project was to highlight for students an introduction to gender issues across the social realm. The long-term goal of the project was to create a continuous and sustainable gender education curriculum in Armenian. This course was designed as a basis for development of similar courses in other Caucasus countries. Upon completion the course students got a comprehension of the basic concepts of gender and conceived the importance of these issues in the university curriculum. Students learned to recognize the problem and its social value; they raised a lot of interesting questions. It was interesting to observe the change of attitude, which had been demonstrated on examples students selected to illustrate their own ideas. Thus at the initial stage most of the students intended to prove the priority of patriarchal values in Armenian Society and incompatibility of women’s political participation with family life. This study and the stated set of values is closely related to associated desires and centered on relationships rather than things, which is termed as the personal related factor and related to the family variable of this study.

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Fifty percent of American marriages end in divorce. It further states that those children with parents who constantly fight have been found to be worse off than children from families in which divorce brings an end to the quarrelling. Divorce and higher levels of conflict were associated with lower levels of intimacy in students’ romantic relationships. which parental conflict was found to be detrimental to many areas of development and continued until their adulthood if not managed well by their guardians. Adult children of divorced parents are themselves more likely to divorce than are those from intact families of those who suffer parental loss through death. with more than one million experiencing the divorce of their parents each year. Results indicated that intimacy was negatively correlated with parental conflict and divorce. and attitudes. Nelson (2007) highlighted their studies on children. the variables which has the same importance are the family ties.49 Reyes (1999) undertakes her works on the relationship of socio-economic variable and family values to the development of a coastal community. and it is believed to have negative effects on relationships formed later in life. and economic. Perhaps those most affected are children. 49 . Ensign (2007) randomly selected college juniors completed questionnaires concerning marital conflict. parental authority. parental attachment. Some of the variables cited were also given emphasis at this current study which chooses the elected city officials of Olongapo City as the respondents. morality and spirituality. Parental loss through divorce is a disruption of one of the most significant relationships in a child’s life.

a good relationship with at least one parent seems to offset the negative effects of parental conflict. it is the quality of family relationships. Their study also found that children who became distant from their parents following divorce exhibited more problems than did those who maintained a close relationship with their parents. their research has suggested that the parent’s relationship has considerable influence on the child’s intimate relationships. The formation of moral values begins at early stage on the life of a person. although the intended respondents are the elected city officials of Olongapo City. Children from divorced families have been found to be sexually active at an earlier age. It noted that those who had a close relationship with their parents after divorce did not differ significantly from children who came from happily intact families in terms of psychological and social adjustment. It seems that while children of divorce parents are more vulnerable to negative outcomes.50 Booth (2004). Amato and Booth (2004). Sabado (2001) focused on the moral development of grade six students as observed by their teachers. to have more sexual partners. They also found that children from divorced families and those from intact but poor quality marriages have similarities in their attitudes toward relationships. rather. it is not necessarily the divorce itself that affects adjustment. considering there are more than a few dysfunctional behaviors get something done at an early age. expect their values orientation being distorted if not blocked. to be more likely to cohabitate. and to be more apt to marry at an earlier age. Santos (2006) stated that her study focused on the utilization of development fund of a certain municipality which also lead to policy formulation. It cited several moral practices of children which this study has the same receptiveness. the variable cited that has 50 .

Topics included the activity and state of the work community. performance measures. Pentti (2004). strategies. the respondents were asked to give their opinions on co-operation. personnel. infrastructure development and administration development. political groups.51 the same inclination to this study are the politics. the survey they conducted charted the use of the balanced scorecard indicators in measuring the performance of municipal services. process planning and production planning. visions. elected officials. Therefore a conceptual procedure is presented to formulate annual policy based on ‘quality function deployment’ techniques. economic and social. Philips (2004) pointed out the ‘quality function deployment’ which focuses on customer needs and expectations and methodically deploys them through product design. The respondents were elected officials in the local and regional authorities participating in the study. parts selection. aims and personnel management. trust. these are the social development. and a case study is presented in which it is demonstrated that the ‘quality function deployment’ can function as an indicator of problems that have to be faced if one wants to improve towards more customer orientation and better communication. The financial funds which the municipality opted to spend are intended for different development project. political 51 . leading to shorter design times and more customer-oriented products. and interaction between management. It is demonstrated that the ‘quality function deployment’ techniques can also improve the procedures that are used to formulate annual policy. cross functional as well as between lower and higher management in the policy formulation process. Relating to the activity and state of work communities in their local or regional authority.

These features were examined by presenting the respondents with statements covering the degree of trust and co-operation between these groups. whether the respondents had had the chance to 52 . how well they knew these visions and strategies. whether employees and elected officials had received enough information on the model. In addition. and local/regional authority level. and whether they received enough feedback based on these assessments. Further questions covered how the information received from the assessments was being used at that time. as well as the degree of support received from their superiors and co-workers. The respondents were asked whether any visions or strategies existed at each level. The use of performance measures was charted by asking the respondents whether activities and services were assessed on a regular basis in their work unit. sector. how much these visions and strategies influenced their work. and whose interests it should serve in the future. they gave their views on what employees thought about the use of the balanced scorecard indicators. and different parties. and how it should be measured in the future. and whether they had had the chance to participate in defining the content of these visions and strategies. The respondents gave their opinions on the chances of influencing various matters related to their jobs and decision making. and whether using it had improved performance measures. how it should be used in the future. One topic explored how well the respondents knew the annual targets of work units.52 institutions. whose interests it served at that time. The importance of visions and strategies was studied at the work unit. whether the targets were clear. Some questions pertained to how performance in political decision making was measured in local and regional authorities at present.

The respondents’ knowledge on personnel reports used in their local/regional authority was charted. One of the differentiating factors between Management and Leadership is the ability or even necessity to inspire. rewarding employees based on performance measures. time served in current elected office. Those who seem to be "Natural Leaders" and effectively inspire groups without really knowing the strategies or tactics used are considered Charismatic Leaders. and assessing whether the objectives have been reached. and whether the information received from the activities had changed the annual targets. total time served in elected offices in a local/regional authority. Background variables included the respondent's gender. will be using psychology to affect that group either consciously or unconsciously. one who can instill passion and direction to an individual or group of individuals. government or board. as well as their influence on the activities of local/regional authorities. The respondents were presented with statements on briefing for new employees. industry of employment. The conscious Leader on the other hand applies a variety of psychological tactics that affect the “reactions” of a group to the environment they exist in. Bekkers (2004) often regarded social value orientation as stable individual differences in other regarding preferences . Views on personnel strategies or personnel development plans in local/regional authorities were examined. and whether respondent is a member of a local/regional council.53 participate in defining the targets.the concern for equality and joint outcomes - 53 . age. defining the objectives. They were also asked whether these personnel reports influenced political decision making. A Leader.

little is known about their stability. Butaran (2007) cited that local government officials without a set of policies and guidelines will flounder aimlessly in its operation. showing that the stability coefficient of a linear measure of social value orientations in a panel survey over 19 months is only .22. Conceptual Framework This study concentrates on the family and management related factors of the elected local public officials of Olongapo City. threatening their validity. Second part of the study shows that the degree of altruism displayed in decomposed games and the classification of respondents in types of social value orientations depends on the place of the measurement procedure in a questionnaire. These policies and guidelines shall establish the relations between the local government officials and the general public. it would be a wise and practical move on the part of the local government officials to make a careful study of local condition. make comparison with other local government unit and be in consultation with the standard operating procedure. The first part of the study examines the longitudinal stability of social value orientations. reliability and validity. 54 . They should not be one-sided and oppressive just because local government officials are in public service. correcting for measurement errors. In the preparation and formulation of these policies and guidelines. Despite the widespread use of measures of social value orientations in social dilemma experiments.54 affecting the propensity to cooperate in experimental social dilemma situations.

Personal Related Factors: Educational qualification Gender Age Civil Status Working experience Salary Religion II.55 IV DV I. Management Related Factors: Policy formulation Policy implementation Decision Making Leadership Style Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study 55 . Family Related Factors: Family ties Family status Parental authority Family Responsibility Values Orientation in terms of: Political Economic Social III.

selecting a meal from a menu. parental authority and family responsibility. the following terms have been operationally and/or conceptually defined. The personal related factors are the educational qualification.56 It also set its restriction through the use of independent variable and dependent variable model. Independent variables include the personal. Definition of Terms To assist in more appreciation of this study. civil status. The management related factors are the policy formulation. In more formal terms. On the elected local government side. gender. decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes or cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Null Hypothesis There is no relationship between person. it is regarded as an act of settlement in every disagreement over a reviewed or endorsed policy which needs to 56 . salary and religion. Decision Making. While dependent variables concern on the values orientation of the elected local public officials on politics. economic and social. In simple terms. The family related factors are the family ties. family and management related factors. decision making and leadership style. which is largely independent of other kinds of choice similar to buying a house. age. work experience in the government. is regarded as an individual human activity focused on particular matters like attending a university or not. family and management related factors on the level of values orientation of the city local government officials. policy implementation. family status.

Every decision making process produces a final choice. 57 . usually consisting of parents and their children. or a number of domestic groups linked through descent from a common ancestor. Although the concept of consanguinity originally referred to relations by blood. A family may be defined specifically as a group of people affiliated by consanguinity. as a family home it refers to as the dwelling house where a person and his family reside. as an institution it refers to as a basic social unit which public policy cherishes and protects. family status. many anthropologists argue that the notion of "blood" must be understood metaphorically. Family. family responsibility and parental authority of local government officials of Olongapo City. denotes a domestic group of people. Ronquillo et al (2002) defined economic value as objects possessing values. An object may be more or less valuable to one individual than to others because of its relation to his or her need. marriage. some argue that there are many non-Western societies where family is understood through other concepts rather than "blood. that is. and co-residence. marriage or adoption. it shall delve on the concept of family ties. Monetary systems are based on this material-value property or objects. Economic Values. The output can be an action or an opinion. These are people or group of people living together and functioning as a single household. The final determination of the values of an object is done in terms of its exchangeability.57 reach a level of acceptance on both sides. Also. affinity. A group of people who are closely related by birth. or adoption. and the land on which it is situated." In this study. Such a value is generally determined via an exchange rate. Busto (2003) gave two definition of family. what somebody is willing to exchange for the object in question.

One who can instill passion and direction to an individual or group of individuals. Support also includes the education of the person entitled to be supported until he completes his education or training for some profession. Busto (2003) cited the Title IX. and 58 . Management often encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources. trade or vocation. Bitancor (2000) referred the local government official as the elective or appointive governing body of the local government unit in performing different functions within its territory. Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. local government officials are the mayor. such as substantial control over local affairs. Local Government Official. according to the social position of the family. In this study. financial resources. technological resources. clothing and medical attendance. even beyond the age of majority. this conveys to administration of business. dwelling. Leadership can have a formal aspect or an informal one. It is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences of a group on the individual as well as the individual on the group. Management. According to Azanza (2001). In the civil code of the Philippines it is indirectly referred to as support. including the power to impose tax. article 290 of the Republic Act 386. vice mayor and city councilors of Olongapo City.58 Family Responsibility. the organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or a particular sector of a business or of public entity. Someone able to inspire another associate with a dream into reality. which states that: support is everything that is indispensable for sustenance. Leadership.

especially the formulating of political policies by members of a government. This is generally referred to as ‘heredity. The genetic factors convey the biological characteristics already determined for the individual in terms of what his parents pass on to him or her in pro-creation. It suggests in having the task of formulating policies. management related factors consists of policy formulation. decision making and leadership style of the local government officials of Olongapo City. especially in a government. Azanza (2001) stated that personality factors are the determinants that influence the formation of an individual’s personality. to which it defined parental authority as function of father and mother jointly exercise parental authority over their legitimate children who are not emancipated. The drawing up of policies. They are the genetic factors and the non-genetic factors. age. Policy Making. The collective behavior of a group is the effect of environment and training through their parents and the social institutions. and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. salary and religion. gender. Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management.’ The non-genetic factors are the ‘environment and training’ which exert influence on the person’s behavior. Personal Related Factors. working experience. 59 .59 natural resources. policy implementation. civil status. They are factors in this study like: educational qualification. Parental Authority. Busto (2003) cited Republic Act 386. including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities. In this study. Process of making important organizational decisions.

Social Values. Refers to the accepted principles or standards of an individual or a group. management. Espiritu et al (1999) stated some political values that are present in Philippine culture. conversely. Peralta et al (2002) described social values as values arising from interpersonal relations. Public Administration. and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals.’ this denotes a sense of gratitude. financial. reward the child for not misbehaving. this are: ‘utang na loob. There are two types of social values. Political Values. whereas others are prone to behavior which is primarily antisocial such as dishonesty. It is also an effective instrument of the government’s serving the citizen as well as the vehicle for spurring their participation in the administration of the government. public administration referred to quality of management and leadership as accomplished by the local government officials of Olongapo City.60 Policies can be understood as political. An essential tool of government in the performance of achieving its functions of public service and governance. Some parents follow a prescriptive child-rearing practice by constantly rewarding the child for good behavior and punishing the child for not doing what is appropriate or expected. namely: (a) prescriptive or ‘Thou shalt’ values and (b) proscriptive or ‘Thou shalt not’ values. Values Orientation. Other parents. favoring a proscriptive orientation. Based on the assumption that individuals pursue different goals 60 . tend to punish antisocial behavior and. The conduct of some individuals is guided by values related to prosocial values such as honesty. personalism and euphemism. In this study. Leveriza (1990) defines public administration as a productive partner of politics in bringing the affairs of government to the people.

economic and social values orientation of the local government officials. A set of values may be placed into the notion of a value orientation. second is cooperative: desire to maximize joint outcomes. and the pertinent literature drawn together by the researcher in relation to the problem under study. Types of values include ethical/moral values. A value is an ambiguous concept that governs human behavior. and fifth is aggressive: desire to minimize the welfare of the other. In this study. and aesthetic values. 61 .61 when making decisions for which the outcomes affect others. It is generally distinguish between five types of value orientations: first is altruistic: desire to maximize the welfare of the other. third is individualistic: desire to maximize own welfare with no concern of that of the other. social values. doctrinal/ideological values. It is debated whether some values are innate Sajonia (1998) defines values orientation as basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite and converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Values are considered subjective and vary across people and cultures. Values Orientation Variables. These are the variables on political. fourth is competitive: desire to maximize own welfare relative to that of the other. values orientation referred to the values on political. economic and social as practiced by the local government officials of Olongapo City. The main difference between each category is the extent to which one cares about his or her own payoffs and that of the other in social dilemma situations.

“The Value Orientations Method: A Tool to Help Understand Cultural Differences. Alicia A. Inc.tom. Amelia P. Retrieved: 5 August 2007. “Effective Supervisory Job. Sarason. Alfiler and Eleanor E. Mapa. “Leadership Studies in the Philippines: A Review of the Literature. Birion. Espiritu. Inc. 1992. Mandaluyong City.” Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader.com/science/journal/02775395.” 2005. “Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library. and Mutya Publishing House. Varela. Anthropological.sciencedirect. Free School Lane.. 2002.” 2003. Nigro and Lloyd G. 1996. and Sociological Foundations of Education. “Thesis and Dissertation Writing Without Anguish. 7th edition.” Mega-Jesta Prints. Great Britain.” Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader. Nigro. Inc. http://www. Felipe Miranda. Felix A. Patrick Alain Azanza. “Modern Public Administration.” Katha Publishing Co. Ronquillo and Ofelia L. Bustos and Socorro C. New York.. Ana Maria R. World Health Organization. “Gender Equality and Gender Differences in Household Work and Parenting. 6. “Psychological.62 Notes in Chapter II Tom Gallagher. A. Nicolas. Dayrit and Griselda C. Doucet. 2005.gallagher@orst. “Human Behavior and Society. Adelaida A. Richard S. NJP Printmakers. volume 39 no. Inc. 62 .” Journal of Extension.” Geneva. Ma. Concepcion P.. Elmer G.” Katha Publishing Co. 2003. Quezon City. “The Culture Perspective in Organization Theory: Relevance to Philippine Public Administration. “Current Issues. William Storey. University of Cambridge. http//www. “Comprehensive Study on Political Leadership. 2007. De Jose. “Global Strategies for All by Year 2000. Valenzuela City. Philippines. Lucila L.” Faculty of Social and Political Sciences. 1994. Quezon City. Inc.. 2001. 2003. NJP Printmakers. 3rd Edition.edu. Benjamín C. 2003. Inc.” National Book Store. Salcedo. Fontanilla. Philippines.” Oxford University Press. 2002.” Harper and Row Publishers. Peralta. Juan C.

1999. Lucila L. Rojas. 1994. Legaspi. “The Status of Property of Supply Management of the Department of Health Hospitals Nationwide. NJP Printmakers. Manila.” Masteral Thesis 373. Inc. 2000. “Comparative Analysis of Value Orientation of the Values Orientation Workshop (VOW) Graduates and Non-graduates and Work Performance in the Department of Social Work and Development. 1998.372 Ab35f.” http://en. H. 2003. Printing Press. “Policy Analysis: A Political and Organizational Perspective.63 Feliciano R. Simon. Inc.Retrieved:5August 2007. Espiritu. “Filipino Values Orientation of Selected Rural and Urban Youth. “Perceptions of Students and Teachers in Bunawan Agricultural High School on Values Orientation and Its Impact on Social Transformation: An Assessment. University of Iloilo.3125 M85c. “Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers: Its Relationship to their Values Orientation. Inc. “An Act to Ordain and Institute the Civil Code of the Philippines.” Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader. “Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision Making Processes in Administrative Organization.. Benedictos. 2003. Marcelina Dalde Abella. Perla E. 2001. Visminda T.” Masteral Thesis. National Library.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Policies_and_guidelines. 2001.” National Book Store. Peralta. Jenkins. Fajardo. “Public Administration. Lily Marlyn Docejo Sajonia. Mandaluyong City. “Economic Development. Leveriza. Edna Estifania A. Sarah Tarala-Moscosa. Ana Maria R.” Masteral Thesis 303. “Social Issues. Co.wikipedia.. Philippines. B.” A. Jose P.” Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader.” Faculty of the Graduate School.” Masteral Thesis 658. The Business of Government. Mandaluyong City. “The Enabling Role of Local Governments. Quezon City. 2003. Philippines. Arellano V. Ma. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. 2007. 2nd edition. Republic Act 386. Adelaida A.” National Book Store. Catherine T. Busto. Bulacan State University. Ronquillo and Socorro C. 2005. NJP Printmakers. Bulacan. 63 . 1990. Salcedo. W.01107 R638p.” Katha Publishing Co. Manila. “Management of Policy Formulation: The Generics Act of 1998. V.

New York. Bataan Polytechnic State College. Nelson. Olongapo City. Lilibeth Santos. Booth. Julie Ensign. 2004. Bataan. 2007. Arturo A. Balanga. Culture and Society. 69. “Effectiveness of the Nursing Services at Subic Bay Freeport Zone. K. 2007. 64 . L. “The Relationship of Socio-Economic Variable and Family Values and the Development of a Coastal Community. Trinidad. L.” Masteral Thesis.64 Teresita F. W.5 Tri CHED. Newby. Jensen and T. J. “Effectiveness of the Skills Workbook in Statistics for Polytechnic Institution.html.” Psychological Reports. Philips et al. Ma.” http://findarticles. Lynch.” Masteral Thesis. Butaran. E. “The Effect of Political and Socio-Economic Factors on the Utilization of the Municipal Development Fund. “The Intensification of Gender-Related Role Expectations during Early Adolescence. 1999. D. Joseph College – Consortium. Retrieved: 5 August 2007. 2007. White. Avraham Scherman and Jennifer J.crc. Aslanyan. S.” Masteral Thesis. Brinkerhoff and L. Balanga. 407-414.” Journal of Marriage and the Family. P. R. M. “Factors Related to the Moral Values of Children of Working and Non-Working Mothers.ceu.” Masteral Thesis. C.” http://www. Katz and H. Hughes. Bulacan State University. “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Courtship. Stimpson. Handal. “Introduction in Gender: History. Hill and M. “The Caring Morality and Gender Differences. 2006. 2003. 2004. 2004.” Journal of Adolescence. R. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management. P. “Consequences of Parental Divorce and Marital Unhappiness for Adult Well-Being. Gliceria Reyes. 46. ”The Relationship of Family Structure and Family Conflict to Adjustment in Young Adult College Students.” Social Forces. H. Clark. Policy Formulation by Use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Techniques: A Case Study. Cecilia Sabado. D. Bataan Peninsula State University and St. Bataan Peninsula State University. 85-94. Neff. Armenia. Booth.” Masteral Thesis. 895-914. W. Amato and A. “The Relationship of Family Structure and Conflict to Levels of Intimacy and Parental Attachment. S. 69.com. Searight.hu/ocrc/syllabi/syll7082/Aslanyan. B. P. Bataan. 519. 2001.” Academic Press. B. 2004. 2001.

65 Pentti et al. Performance of Municipal Services 2004: Elected Officials. University of Kuopio, Department of Social Policy and Social Psychology, Finland, 2004. R. Bekkers. Stability, Reliability and Validity of Social Value Orientation. ICS/Department of Sociology, Utrecht University, http://www.R.Bekkers@fss.uu.nl. Retrieved: 5 August 2007. Demar G. Bitancor, “Relationship Among Personal and Related Variables, Motivation and Hygiene Factors, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Effectiveness in the Local Government Unit of Bulan, Sorsogon,” Masteral Thesis 352.05991’142 B5461, Graduate School Department, Sorsogon State College, Sorsogon, Sorsogon, 2000.

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66 CHAPTER III METHODS OF RESEARCH This chapter presents the methods and techniques of the study used by the researcher in order to acquire, examine and translate the data needed in this study. It will also include the population, research instruments, construction and validation of the questionnaire, data collection, data processing and statistical treatment. Methods and Techniques of the Study To come up with necessary facts and figure regarding the values orientation of local government officials of Olongapo City, the descriptive method of research is used. Birion (2005) stated that descriptive method is conducted to describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately. These include population census studies, public opinion surveys, fact-finding surveys, status studies, task analysis studies, questionnaire and interview studies, observation studies, job description, surveys of literature, documentary analysis, anecdotal records, critical incident reports, test score analyses and normative data. This method is suitable in a manner that it entails a survey and description of presented facts and circumstances of the values orientation of the local government officials along with the analysis and integration of information. The study tried to look at the following variables on: profile of the local government officials – respondents, family related factors, management related factors and values orientation of local government officials on political, economic and social. The first part of the questionnaire regarding the profile of the local government official – respondents contained the following variable in terms of: educational 66

67 qualification, age, civil status, gender, working experience, salary and religion. The family related factors which are the second part contained the following variables on: family ties, family status, family responsibility and parental authority. The management related factors which are the third part contained the following variables on policy formulation, policy implementation, decision making and leadership style. The values orientation of local government officials which are the fourth part contained the following variables on: political, economic and social. All facts and information were collected by means of the questionnaire. Population of the Study Table 1, illustrates the Distribution of Respondents. The respondents consist of 11 local government officials, 48 administrative staff, and 24 from different sectoral groups, with a total population of 83. Table 1 Distribution of Respondents of the Study

Values Orientation of Local Government Officials Local Government Officials Administrative Staff Sectoral Groups Total

Population 11 48 24 83

As shown in the table, the researcher employed the universal population of local government officials on the city level because a very limited numbers is involved. The population of administrative staff was determined through sampling techniques. Rivera

67

The questionnaire was presented for validation to the adviser and panel of critic as well as for corrections. non-governmental organization. salary. church.68 (1996) defined sampling as the process of getting a representative part of the population being studied. lawyers. Research Instruments The Questionnaire. It consists of four (4) parts. the selected groups came from vendors. 68 . Birion (2005) stated that the simple random sampling is strong because it is the method in which each element in the population has an equal. policy implementation. transportation. Also the population from the sectoral groups was chosen using the fishbowl technique among the 40 identified sectors present in Olongapo City. Part III contains the management related factors on policy formulation. Part II includes the family related factors such as family ties. youth and business. and it is chosen among the 41 departments and 82 sub-departments of the city hall using the simple random sampling or fishbowl technique. decision making and leadership style. improvements and suggestions. and it is bias free. civil status. and religion. family status. family responsibilities and parental authority. age. The following scales were used to qualify the responses of the values orientation of local government officials. economic and social. Part IV contains the values orientation of local government officials on political. people with disabilities. banking. medical practitioner. known and non-zero chance of being selected. gender. The survey-questionnaire was used in the data gathering of this study. Part I consist of the profile of local government officials which include: educational qualification. working experience. labor. education.

The final draft was submitted for dry-run to some local government officials of Subic. etc. and for revision. The dummy-respondents were asked to comment on all the items in the questionnaire. and sociological foundations of education. the researcher furnished a letter of permission to the Office of the City Mayor of Olongapo. upon acceptance and receiving endorsement it was coursed to the city councilors during their regular session. the questionnaire was reproduced and distributed to the respondents. theses.The event/item happens rarely or 31%-1% of the time . These comprise of books in public administration. dissertations. psychological. electronic data and internet.The event/item happens most of the time or 99%-67% of the time .69 Scale A VO O S N Equivalent Always Very Often Often Seldom Never Description . anthropological. also. journals. if they find it interesting and significant in the study. After clearly commenting and checking. The researcher collected all the essential reading resources in order to improve the questionnaires.The event/item never happens or 0% of the time Construction and Validation of Instrument. magazines.. Data Gathering Procedure. human behavior. The researcher also interviewed some individuals who practice public administration and local government officials. Joseph Graduate Studies to administer the instruments.The event/item happens all the time or 100% of the time .The event/item happens every now and then or 66%-32% of the time . the 69 . social issues. Following the authorization of concerned authorities from the Dean of Graduate Studies of Bataan Peninsula State University and Dean of St. the researcher was able to develop the initial draft of the questionnaires. From these various sources. Zambales. current issues. newspapers and featured articles.

percentage. when necessary it is conducted individually or in groups depending on the convenient time of the participants. The computation and bases of analysis of the personal related factors were described by using frequency. It employed the frequency. this does not imply one variable is the cause of the other and the other is an effect.70 administrative staff and sectoral groups was given questionnaire. percentage and average weighted mean. The researcher was responsible in furnishing the respondents questionnaire with the assistance of an individual from city hall who engender coordination to all secretaries or staff to facilitate dependable distribution and retrieval of the questionnaires. The average weighted mean is important as it represent a set of number by means of a single number. If there is a high correlation between two variables. High correlation is not an indication of cause and effect relationship. Birion (2005) on product-moment correlation categorized relationship by an index which he called the coefficient of correlation. Data Processing and Statistical Treatment Collected data was organized and undergo statistical treatment to respond the detailed problem mentioned in the study. You 70 . The family related factor. which is to operate descriptive of the entire set. mean and Pearson product-moment correlation. The frequency distribution is a statistical device that effectively classified and assembles individual data items in order to gain comprehensive messages about the pattern of variation in the data. management related factor and values orientation of the local government officials were assessed using the average weighted mean and Pearson product-moment correlation.

it isolates the specific effect of a particular independent variable controlling for the effects of other independent variables. The relationship between pairs of variables while recognizing the relationship with other variables. Multiple correlations combined the effect of all the variables acting on the dependent variable. The correlation is called co-variation because analysis is concentrated mainly on how the two determine the relationship between two variables with interval type of data. Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) articulated the same thought on partial correlation. It is positive when the items or cases or subjects who got low in one variable also got low in the other variable and those who got high in one variable are also those who got high in the other variable. Rivera (1996) defined correlation may be either positive or negative. that is. Pearson correlation is used when there are two sets of scores and would like to find if the two sets are correlated. If it is the reverse. the correlation is negative.71 cannot extrapolate causation. When deciding to correlate a number of variables. those who got high in one factor are the ones who got low in the other factor and those who got low in one factor got high in the other factor. 71 . we call this activity multiple correlations.

2006.72 Notes in Chapter III Juan C. “Thesis and Dissertation Writing Without Anguish.” Mega-Jesta Prints. “Educational Research: A Guide to the Process. Dayrit and Griselda C. and Mutya Publishing House..” Katha Publishing.. Inc. Valenzuela City. Inc. Inc. Quezon City. 72 . Elmer G. Jack R. Mapa. “Practical Guide to Thesis and Dissertation Writing. Maximiano M. Fraenkel and Norman Wallen. Benjamín C.” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rivera. Jr. 1996. and Roela Victoria Rivera. Birion. 2005. De Jose.

one (1) or 9% respondent was a doctor of medicine graduate. None of the respondents was a doctoral degree holder. This means that generally. Lastly. This also includes the analysis and interpretation of data based on the problem cited in Chapter 1 of this study. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the main results from the data gathered regarding the values orientation of the local government officials. 73 . On LGU Personal Profile Table 2 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Attainment. the respondents had at least college education except for one who was an undergraduate.73 CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION. Three (3) or 27% respondents had completed masteral courses. Four (4) or 37% respondents were college degree holders while one (1) or 9% respondent was college undergraduate. Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Attainment Educational Attainment Doctoral Degree MS/MA with Doctoral Units MS/MA Units Baccalaureate Degree College Undergraduate Others: Doctor of Medicine Total Frequency 0 2 3 4 1 1 11 Percentage 0 18 27 37 9 9 100 Noticeably. the respondents are qualified to assume posts in the government service to undertake assigned designation based on job description. but two (2) or 18% respondents were full-fledged master’s degree holders with doctoral units.

at their age. the respondents had not reached the age 50. Table 4 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status. One (1) or 9% respondent was between 18-27 years old while four (4) or 36 % respondents had age between 28-37 years old. they are still entrusted to assume government post to serve the clients. Evidently. they are assumed to have that energy and sense of direction in terms of doing their jobs. Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age 18-27 years 28-37 years 38-47 years 48-57 years 58-67 years 68 years and above Total Frequency 1 4 4 0 2 0 11 Percentage 9 36 36 0 19 0 100 Two (2) or 19 % respondents belonged to ages 58-67 years old. Four (4) or 36 % respondents belonged to ages between 38-47 years. In fact. Meaning. but this is not to say that they are no longer capable. It is good that only two (2) of them are between 58-67 years old.74 Table 3 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age. Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status Civil Status Single Married Widow/Widower Separated/Annulled/Divorced Total Frequency 2 9 0 0 11 Percentage 18 82 0 0 100 74 .

None of them was a widow or separated. Most of the respondents have family responsibilities. This means that since there was a presence of both sexes in the workplace. There were seven (7) or 64% male-respondents while there were four (4) or 36% female-respondents. there is an equal opportunity for job placement based on qualifications.75 Two (2) or 18% respondents were single while nine (9) or 82% respondents were married. Table 6 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Working Experience. Only one (1) had its last term. Lastly. Three (3) or 27 % respondents had worked for 2nd term. Table 5 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender. one (1) or 9% respondent worked for his 3rd and last term. The singles could have familial concerns but they were not disclosed in any of the unstructured interviews with them. Three (3) or 27 % respondents had worked for the 1st term without previous government post while four (4) or 37 % respondents served for the 1st terms also with previous government post. 75 . Table 5 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Gender Male Female Total Frequency 7 4 11 Percentage 64 36 100 The respondents assumed government posts regardless of gender. The data shows that the respondents work on the basis of term of office as city councilors.

100-40.100-30.000. Table 7 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Salary Salary 1.100 Frequency 0 0 11 0 0 0 Percentage 0 0 100 0 0 0 Table 8 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Religion.000 30.100-30.000 20. Generally. One hundred percent (100%) of the respondents received a salary between 20. They however clarified that they preferred not to disclose the identity of their religion for confidentiality sake.000-10.000 10.100-60. given the amount of salary they receive.100-50. Seven (7) or 64 % respondents were catholic while four (4) or 36 % respondents had not revealed their religion.76 Table 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Working Experience Working Experience 1st term w/o previous gov’t post 1st term w/ previous gov’t post 2nd term 3rd/last term Total 3 4 3 1 11 27 37 27 9 100 Table 7 shows the Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Salary. It could be gleaned here the socio-economic status of the respondents and the lifestyle they could afford to have.000-20.000 50. this means that the respondents had standard salary grade as mandated by salary standardization law and as prescribed by the code of government service. 76 .00 40.

This is seemingly embedded in the culture of Filipinos and even a highly urbanized city like Olongapo City. This also signifies a strong sense of family on the part of the LGU respondents. This means that both respondents believed that the local officials have the habit of introducing their family members to their co-workers. Item 3 had the lowest mean of 4. This familiarizes the family members and establishes association with co-workers. The mere fact that they accept relatives to stay in their house means that they have a sense of compassion and the virtue of charity and generosity with the extended family. 77 .23 or ‘Often’ from the sectoral group. there seems to be a tradition to allow relatives to stay home for some time. Item 7 had the highest man of 4.77 Table 8 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Religion Religion Roman catholic Protestant Aglipayan Iglesia Ni Kristo Muslim Others: Not Revealed Total Frequency 7 0 0 0 0 4 11 Percentage 64 0 0 0 0 36 100 On Family Related Factors Table 9 shows the Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Ties. This is a value that Filipinos are known for. This may be the lowest mean but this also speaks of the LGU respondents’ sense of family extended to their relatives.58 or ‘Always’ from the LGU respondents.97 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3.

78 . Manifests the helpfulness of family in every plan.80 4. Offers generous time for family leisure.82 LGU & Staff Descriptive Mean Rating 4. 6. the family members are hands-off in the planning activities of the LGU officials.54 or ‘Seldom’ from the sectors.59 4. Overall.73 2.93 9. Seemingly. 3. the average mean was 4. Celebrates anniversaries/birthdays.86 4. This is due to the fact that political decisions are exclusive concern of the local officials.82 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. Motivates siblings to become closer to grandparents and other relatives.75 2. The family members stay at the background so as not to influence the decision of the respondents. Prays together.78 4. 8.75 2.54 2. 4.86 4.23 2. Introduces family members to co-workers. Tolerates closeness of children to their ‘barkada. Average Weighted Mean 4. Attends religious affair together. Demonstrates humor and happiness.88 4.80 or ‘Always’ from the respondents and 2. 5. The manifestation of familial affiliation was strong enough to be perceived by the sectors and the LGU and staff themselves.92 Often Often Seldom Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often On one hand.97 Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Sectors Descriptive Mean Rating 2.80 Always Always Always Always 3. 4.13 2. Item 10 had the lowest mean of 2. Accepts extended family to live at no definite time.78 Table 9 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Ties FAMILY RELATED FACTORS Family Ties 1.67 2. It could be said that the LGU and staff had shown a sense of family ties since this was also observed by the sectors. 2.75 3. 7.75 2.’ 10.78 4.58 4.

33 3.42 4. Item 8 had the lowest mean of 3.95 or ‘Always’ from the LGU staff. They explained in one of the casual interview that the couple should have exhausted all options like counseling and therapy.05 Always Very Often Very Often Very Often Always Very Often Always Very Often Very Often Sectors Descriptive Mean Rating 3. efforts to settle or patch up marital predicaments must be taken into consideration. Considers step-parent could bring-up stepchildren.10 4. 5.22 Very Often Often Often Often Very Often Very Often Often Often Often Divorce is their last resort if ever a couple can no longer reconcile differences.95 3.25 4.80 3. 2.50 2. but in betweens. 7. Nurtures by distant relative as parent were divorce.66 3. Table 10 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Status FAMILY RELATED FACTORS Family Status 1.25 Often 3. 6.46 Always 4.75 2. Allows relative to care for siblings since parent were working remotely/abroad. 3.88 2. Supposes siblings be raised in intact unmarried parent. 4.50 3. Believes at divorce as way for irreconcilable couple. Item 7 had the highest mean of 4.54 4. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Descriptive Mean Rating 4.79 3. They added that divorce should come as an ultimate solution. On one hand.02 Very Often 4. Regards marriage as bond of love. 8.34 3. That is obvious since most of them are married and are rearing up children. 79 . Deems the absence of mother for work is good.46 Very Often 3.79 Table 10 shows the On Family Status Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Status.46 3. 10.42 or ‘Very Often’. The respondents prove that they have high regards for the sacrament of marriage. Recognizes oneself be cared for by adopted family. Regards father should work abroad.29 3. Accepts in-laws to raise siblings. 9.

These perceptions are valuable in terms of their identity and image as leaders in the community. they manifest the idea that mothers should stay home to care for the family rather than come to office for work.75 or ‘Often. This speaks of the priority and preference of the respondents on education. They contend that sending the children to school means preparing them for the future. in school and in the community regardless of the differences in blood relation or affiliation. Meaning. Overall. Items 3 and 8 had the highest mean of 3. They have a positive notion that the LGU staff would recommend parental responsibility of step parents to their step children. It is important that both groups of respondents see the value of the family status of their leaders. their perspectives and concepts of ideal family life are observed and manifested in their interaction with people in the workplace. This is also equipping the 80 .05 or ‘Very Often’ from the LGU staff and 3. the average mean was 4. Item 4 had the highest mean of 4. Item 5 had the lowest mean of 2.80 On the other hand. They explained that it is better for the children to have an adult companion at home and in whatever activities they are involved in so that parental guidance and supervision is ensured.97 or ‘Always’ from the LGU staff.22 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. Table 11 shows the Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Responsibility. They said that it is important that children are given attention and supervision to undertake their tasks at home. This is about step parents who are capable of rearing up step children. likewise.50 or “Very Often’ from the sectors. This only means that they have reasons to believe that the LGU staff has an inkling and predilection for divorce to finally settle stormy or problem-stricken marriages.

5.92 4.92 4. Offers monetary help to married siblings. the respondents see themselves to be helpful to their relatives especially in time of need. 6. Table 11 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Family Responsibility FAMILY RELATED FACTORS Family Responsibility 1. give advice even if the other party does not ask for it. 7 and 8 had the lowest mean of 4.67 3.92 4.42 3.50 or ‘Very Often’ from the sectors.17 3.38 2.86 4. 7.00 2.17 4.50 3. Divorce is their last resort if ever to their married siblings.86 4. On the other hand.13 3. 8.97 4. Apparently. Items 3.86 4. they want their children to achieve significant in the future. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4.38 3. They explained that they offer unsolicited advice because they feel oblige in supporting the family members. Endows assistance to relatives in time of needs. this item was also the highest mean from the LGU staff.86 4. 4.08 3. Presents unsolicited advice.86 or ‘Always’. Regards savings as reward for future use. Arranges household chore distribution. they give importance to health. Sends siblings to school until college. 2. 10. Prioritizes health needs.81 children with basic knowledge for further education.96 3. 3. Generally. The respondents said that it is important that their children have education. This means that there was this general impression that the LGU staff were into prioritizing education 81 .90 4. Item 5 had the highest mean of 3. Like them. Considers family above everything. Assumes responsibility to influence family in their collective decisions. and.89 Always Often They would offer money for ‘Often’. 5. 9. Provides whatever needs & wants of family.88 Descriptive Rating Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Mean Sectors Descriptive Rating Often Often Often Very Often Often Often Often Often Often Very Often 3.

This confirms the contention of the 82 . it only shows that they are also capable of demonstrating same gesture to their constituents. The sectors believed that the LGU officials were helpful enough to provide relatives in need.19 or ‘Very Often’. This sense of responsibility signifies a sense of duty and effective delineation of their real roles in the family. in terms of family responsibilities. Item 3 had the lowest mean of 2.97 or ‘Always’ from the LGU. Item 1 had the lowest mean of 4. they expect that each member of the family gives reverence to God on Sundays or in ay special occasion for religious activities. The respondents explained that children and other family members must be guided to be God-fearing and obedient to the moral and spiritual standards of the community. Table 12 shows the Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Parental Authority.89 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and 3. Overall. They said that it goes with the kind of job they have where strong leadership is required. Item 9 had the highest mean of 4.82 and schooling. the average mean was 4.17 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. Evidently. Thy said that if they could do it to their relatives.83 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. This could be the lowest but this suggests that the respondents had the tendency to believe that they are superior or better than the other family members. They explained that they do not deliberately project such image. both respondents perceived the LGU officials to be oriented and focused on their duties and functions as member of the family.67 or ‘Often’. Item 9 had the highest mean of 3. this is the same with the LGU. Again. Meaning. On the other hand.

83 3. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4.67 3.46 3. This attests to the fact that they too are leaders in the community.63 3.33 or ‘Often’. Rewards who do good.97 4. Encourages sibling to open up for any problem encountered. family activities and the like. they could use parental authority in leading their constituents.90 Descriptive Rating Very Often Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Mean Sectors 3. 2.77 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and 3.83 local officials that they are into constant guidance with their children regarding their obligation to God. Reiterates constant reminder to children’s obligation to God. Monitors studies and activities.79 3.83 4.83 4. 5.42 3.79 3. 7. Ensues siblings in strict selection of circle of friends.69 4.54 3. Table 12 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Family Related Factors in Terms of Parental Authority FAMILY RELATED FACTORS Parental Authority 1.33 3. Item 5 had the lowest mean of 3. 10.76 4. 9. the average mean was 4. 4. The firm decisions they make 83 . Punishes who do wrong.61 Descriptive Rating Very Often Very Often Very Often Very Often Often Very Often Very Often Very Often Very Often Very Often 4.90 4.86 4. Thinks always superior in the family. Commands should be carried away at all time. 6. Persuades everyone to practice diplomacy with others. Follows what had been agreed. Meaning.77 Always Very Often Overall. 3. 8.19 4.61 or ‘Very Often’ from the sector.80 4. This signifies the authority of the LGU in doing and observing what has been agreed on in terms of house rules. This means that in terms of parental authority the LGU had always exude the strong personality in terms of decision making and in giving a sense of direction to their families.67 3.

Item 4 had the highest mean of 3. or it is possible that they are responding to information that is short of veracity and authenticity. In other words. the development models may not work effectively and productively in the city. Credibility and authority in 84 .95 or ‘very Often’. The respondents explained that an accurate data would be crucial in determining issues and needs that they need to decide upon. This is somehow similar to the LGU and staff group on accuracy of data because the item was on the identification of sources of information. Item 7 had the highest mean of 5. the sectors believed that it is the attitude of the leaders and staff to verify the credibility of the source of information.00 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. They added that these are ideas that have to be studied and should not be immediately adopted. then the decisions and programs will be futile for the people. On Management-Related Factors Table 13 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Policy Formulation. The respondents said that they needed some ideas and assistance from foreign experts in order to better plan programs and projects. If those happen. they said would give them time to analyze their expediency and feasibility in the local community. The models. lest. This process requires accuracy too. On one hand. Item 5 had the lowest mean of 3. Without accuracy. This speaks of the value of accurate and verified information that the respondents acquire.84 while they compromise on one end could be a potent standard for leadership and authority in general. there is a danger of planning the wrong programs and activities for the community.63 or ‘Very Often’ from the sector group.

38 3.85 areas requiring expertise is important so that the leaders won’ be misled by wrong information. Hires professional as consultant and researcher. programs and policies that are meant to serve better the people.13 or ‘Often’. Overall.93 4. 5.85 3.71 Always Often Item 8 had the lowest mean of 3. the average mean was 4. Collects result of interview and survey.32 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. 9. This ensures them that the people are given truthful and accurate data for programs. Identifies each sources of information.95 4.25 3.21 3. Gathers information directly to the concerned party. 2.63 3. 3.71 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3. Edits content of the policy. 8. Utilizes the process of analysis and its various consequences. Depends on foreign experts and development models. 6.90 4. 7. Considers influence of lobbying groups and aid agencies.34 Descriptive Rating Always Always Always Always Very Often Always Always Always Always Always Mean Sectors Descriptive Rating Often Very Often Often Very Often Often Often Very Often Often Often Often 3. Table 13 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Policy Formulation MANAGEMENT RELATED FACTORS Policy Formulation 1. 4. Again.36 4.95 4. 10.13 3.29 3.92 5. Conducts hearing. policies and projects.00 4.32 4. This only shows the competence of the leaders when it comes to policy formulation. This means that the leaders understood the purpose of formulating 85 . the sectors saw the confidence of the LGU and staff on the ideas and insights of other experts as indicated in Item 5. Item 8 suggests that the leaders have been seeking professional opinion to come up with good projects. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4.38 3.30 3.42 3. The sectors contend that this is a positive attitude on the part of their local leaders.21 3. Verifies the accuracy of the data.88 4.

the leaders have a broad idea as to the criteria or factor that hev to be considered in the formulation of policies. In this way. Items 2 and 6 had the lowest mean of 4. In this way. the people will follow and observe the said policy. Generally. the policies are meant to better the life of the people. an ordinance on non-smoking. In other words.75 or ‘Always’. to ensure full implementation of the policy. On one hand. This suggests that the LGU and staff are into serious business in terms of implementing the policy. jaywalking and environment-related programs could well be implemented if the effects and benefits are rundown for clarity. For instance. and so on. but still take into consideration the financial requirement that is mandatory in the implementation of the policy. they said.38 or ‘Often’ from the sectors.00 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. Table 14 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Policy Implementation.86 policies. The sectors had the perception that their leaders are generally prone to exhausting all 86 . Item 2 had the highest mean of 3. The respondents believed that in order for a policy to work effectively in the community is to explain the benefits therein and its effect to the people’s lives. On one hand. The policies are sometimes used to protect the people from harm like the children and women from violence and abuse. Items 8 and 10 had the highest mean of 5. or the homeless from being evicted in the squatter’s area. coordination with sub-units and related departments shall be utilized and mobilized for faster results. the policy gets attention and is properly employed.

Implements at all cost.33 3. Relies to the financial grant of other group for implementation. Regards opposition to implementation a form of democracy.81 4. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4. so to speak. 3.87 possible options to execute the policy they formulated.27 or ‘Often’ from the sectors.13 or ‘Often’.88 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3. 9. 7.93 4.38 3.17 3. 8. 2.17 Always Often 3. Projects the policy as lead role in propelling progress.88 4. the average mean was 4.95 4. The money shall be used from paperwork to information dissemination campaigns. the policy stays in black and white. 6. money always is a requisite to get some results.33 3. Similarly. Without funds.75 4. This is to mean that the sense of urgency and stern belief on the positive outcome of the said policy always emerges. the sectors agreed with the LGU and staff on the value of funding to realize the policy that has to be implemented. Evaluates the effect of policy. 4.88 5.27 Often Item 6 had the lowest mean of 3.88 Always 3. Creates inter-agency/department coordination for implementation. Forges memorandum of agreement with receiving party of policy.00 4.33 Descriptive Rating Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Descriptive Rating Always Always Always Always Always Always Always 3. 5. Overall.00 Sectors Mean 3. This only shows the knowledge of the leaders regarding the 87 . Informs departments on procedures that will be affected.29 3. from networking to mobilization activities.13 3.21 Always Often 4.75 4. Table 14 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Policy Implementation MANAGEMENT RELATED FACTORS Policy Implementation 1.90 5. Disseminates to all concerned. It is a common knowledge that policy implementation or in launching other projects for that matter.33 Always Often 3. Observes the policy at highly strict compliance. 10.

Table 15 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Decision Making.88 discharge and execution of policies. decisions are made objectively without looking at the personalities. all aspects on dissemination. This only means that they recognize the value of their leadership as an influential factor in making decisions. the kind of leadership they have in the light of making decision is crucial in giving directions to the people they govern. This confirms the decisiveness of the leaders. Meaning. The respondents are confident that their decisions whenever they make them are effective in the light of providing better options for their constituents.00 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. On the other hand item 1 had the highest mean of 3. Item 10 had the lowest mean of 2. Having the perspectives of the issues and concerns they are confronted with. When issues are analyzed rather than the proponent of the decisions. it is easier to objectively analyze the pros and cons of 88 . This goes to show that decisions made by them are not meant to argue with other people but see the point of view of other parties. This means that the group finds their leaders to be diplomatic and comprising because they follow the consensus of the party mates. funding. it becomes easier for them to take immediate actions and respond quickly to the urgent need. In this way. Item 5 had the highest mean of 5.46 or ‘Very Often’ from the sectors.41 or ‘Seldom’. It only means that in making decisions they are able to consider all factors that can affect whatever decisions they come up with. professional consultation and networking were included as part of the plan in realizing the formulated policy. Meaning. instead issues or the agenda is given focus and attention.

41 Sectors Mean 3.42 Descriptive Rating Very Often Often Often Often Very Often Often Very Often Descriptive Rating Always Always Always Always Always Very Often Often Very Often Often Seldom 3. Political as it may be. Determines the outcome through ‘bahala na’ attitude.25 3.41 4.46 3.54 2. there is a need for enlightenment from the divine authority or Supreme Being. 10.99 or ‘Often’.00 3. 9.89 the decision. Settles with the concurrence of party mates.25 3. Delegates minor decision to subordinate. Item 3 had the lowest mean of 3.97 2. 2. The leaders are often found to be considerate of the fact that more than the political will. Consults divine intervention. Acts according to what survey says.00 3. 7. Makes a long judgment for a major decision.66 5. 6.3 or ‘Often’ from the sectors.86 or ‘Very Often’ from the LGU and staff and 3.31 4. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4. Seeks other’s opinion before deciding. This also signals the leadership skills of the LGU and staff because decision making requires stable and strong leadership qualities in order to weigh information on hand prior to final stage 89 .33 3.3 Often Often Often Often Overall. Decides on the basis of own belief and not what party mate say.25 3. 4. The decision becomes solid and stable as it will benefit the constituents. Believes in effectiveness of own decision.75 2. 8. The results suggest that the LGU and staff have the ability to consider aspects of decision-making to better serve their constituents. Table 15 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Decision Making MANAGEMENT RELATED FACTORS Decision Making 1.93 4. Finds hard time in decision making. decisions made by the leaders needed spiritual guidance too.33 3.86 Very Often 3.59 3. the average mean was 3.29 3.42 3. 5. 3.

59 Sectors Mean 3. Points out order in a strict manner.90 of decision making. 5. Table 16 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Leadership Style.33 3.25 3. programs and projects as part of their management job.25 3. 9. Opens for challenges.29 3.85 4. 3. Shares decisions with co-workers. Distributes resources in order of priorities. 4. Item 1 had a mean of 4. The respondents believed that they are capable of putting up strategies and techniques to implement their policies. be it economically or socially. The respondents deem it important also to be always prepared to any kind of challenge so that they will be able to 90 . Sets agenda/plan and accomplishment.47 4. 8.71 4.61 4.64 4.25 3. They said that it is important to be able to device approaches for better delivery of management because people need to know the programs they are involved with and from them benefit in a lot of ways.25 3.17 3. Devices approach for better delivery of management.34 or ‘Always’. 7. 2.34 4.97 4.38 3. Channels coordination accordingly.78 4.71 4. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Mean 4. Table 16 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Management-Related Factors in Terms of Leadership Style MANAGEMENT RELATED FACTORS Leadership Style 1.33 3.97 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. 6. 10. Creates network among other departments.67 Always Often Item 2 had the lowest mean of 4. Dispenses responsibilities and roles.3 Descriptive Rating Often Very Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Descriptive Rating Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always Always 4.46 3. Recognizes the talents of others.

46 or ‘Very Often’ from the sectors. the average mean was 4. This only means that the respondents have good leadership style as indicated by the descriptive ratings that surpassed seldom or never. means that they are prepared for whatever issues or problems they may encounter while they assume their post. As such. Overall. But then again. The impression from both the groups of respondents was positive. Notice that this Item is the lowest mean from the LGU and staff. The value of leadership was enhanced by the processes undertaken by the LGU and staff.67 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3. Item 2 had the highest mean of 3. Being open to challenges. the descriptive rating still suggests that the sectors see their leaders to be open for challenges. programs and projects. This means that the affiliations created with other departments mean faster access to their policies. The political environment. is intense in term of the many political issues and concerns. they said in an interview. the sectors believed that their leaders have the initiative to establish networks with other departments.3 or ‘Often from the sectors. Again.17 or ‘Often’. they need to strengthen their ability to adapt to the challenges. On Values Orientation Table 17 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Political. On one hand. People will definitely benefit from their projects because other departments are mobilized to accommodate related tasks and serve the people.91 respond with haste. Item 4 had the highest mean of 4.95 or 91 . for them. This means that the sectors found their leaders to be prepared and alert for whatever challenges that comes their way. Item 6 had the lowest mean of 3.

17 3.29 Often Often Often Often Often Very Often Very Often Often 4. The respondents contend that they seldom employ relatives as office staff. Deems popularity as a way of winning public office. However.15 2. Supports people’s agenda belong to same political clinging.38 3. 10. 3.81 4. Seemingly.21 3. Accepts principle that public office is a public trust.83 4. there is a need to clarify if the current office staffs are relatives by affinity or consanguinity.54 3. this item had the highest mean from the sectors with 3.95 4.54 4.13 3. they use their offices to serve the people. This means that the value of service and commitment to work is heightened by the contention of the leaders that they must be able to serve the people in order to give back the trust they gave during election period plus the vote of confidence they gave to their staff. Both groups said that 92 .25 Often 3. There is a contradiction on the perceptions between the LGU and the sectoral group.25 or ‘Seldom’.36 Always Often Item 7 had the lowest mean of 2.17 3. Table 17 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Political Values Orientation Political 1. Considers present bureaucracy facilitates good governance. instead.25 3.71 3.69 2.92 4. 4. This clearly signifies that the leaders have no intention of abusing their powers. 6.71 or ‘Often’ rating. Practices active involvement with people and causes.93 4. 7. 5. 2. Employs relatives as office staff and/or personnel.92 Always Always Always Always Always Always Seldom Seldom Always Always Sectors Descriptive Mean Rating Often 3.86 4. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Descriptive Mean Rating 4.13 3. Uses power of office to facilitate service and policy.92 ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. Ponders political patronage as support and trust. 8. Conforms to any policy. 9. Projects independence of mind.

They said that the priority on education is their way of keeping their children literate and will serve as their greatest legacy for the children. their salary would not suffice the 93 . Politically. the respondents had an impression that the leaders are doing well with their political obligations except for the impression that they hired relatives as office staff. This item proved that they really are focused on sending children to school because they save money for the children’s schooling. the leaders had prioritized education as one of their major responsibilities. Overall.13 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. For obvious reason. As mentioned earlier in Table 3. the respondents had little inclination in sending their children abroad. Item 3 had the highest mean of 4. Items 1 and 6 had the lowest mean of 3. There is a need to value public trust and vote of confidence. The respondents believed that their leaders generally obey existing rules and policies but have the tendency to think that political investment or patronage will be used as support and trust.93 nepotism should not be observed in government offices.63 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. Item 9 had the lowest mean of 2.29 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. The danger would be premised on the reality that political patronage may be used for political agenda that is contradicting to people’s aspirations and expectations. the average mean was 4. Item 4. Table 18 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Economic.17 or ‘Seldom’.36 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3. The leaders need to clarify this issue because generally the sectors had positive impressions with their political-related tasks. Relative to sending children to school and saving money for the said purpose. The value of fairness must be maintained so that everybody will have job access and employment opportunity.

94 financial requirements for education abroad.46 2.13 Often 2.67 3. Again. this is a matter of indirect observation on the part of the sectors.81 Very Often 4.46 Very Often 3.78 Very Often 3. 8. 6. 5. 2. Allows sibling to study abroad or in exclusive school.36 4. Otherwise. Table 18 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Economic Values Orientation Economic 1. Prioritizes family’s needs than other expenses. On one hand.63 Always 2.71 Often 3.32 Very Often Very Often Often Very Often Often 94 .98 3. Buys new clothes/dresses and personal accessories frequently. schooling shall be here in the country. 10.79 or ‘Very Often’ from the sectors. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Descriptive Mean Rating 2. 9. The impression that was imprinted on the sectoral group was that their leaders are into buying clothes and accessories as part of their personal grooming and external appearance when dealing with their constituents.25 3.79 3. Saves money for children’s schooling. The schooling would be very expensive. Obtains week-long food supply. They based their evaluation on their daily encounter with the leaders. Prefers wholesaling than retailing. With the high inflation rate and fall of dollars. Purchases expensive and durable item. it would be difficult on their part to sustain children’s education expenses abroad unless relatives and friends would support them. 3.33 Often Always Seldom Often Often Sectors Descriptive Mean Rating 3.54 3.76 Often 3.54 Seldom 3.63 Often 2.08 Often 3. 4. Practices recycling. Offers sumptuous banquet and gift to guests/visitors.17 2.17 Often 3. Eats same viand for the day. Item 10 had the highest mean of 3.54 Very Often 3. 7.

8 and 9 had the highest mean of 5.95 Item 5 had the lowest mean of 2.32 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. 2. The trust issue could be attributed to the fact 95 . The respondents believed that the value of respect for oneself and others is one of the most important virtues of a person and a leader. they had the impression that their leaders do not trust them or other people. They have reasons to believe that they are generous and helpful because they give attention to the needy. Overall. The respondents thought that they are warm and approachable to people.67 or ‘Very Often’ from the sectors. They abhor the idea of ignoring their constituents because they recognized the fact that they are in their offices to serve people and listen to their problems and concerns. 7. They explained that being approachable would give the people to easily see them for whatever purpose they have in mind. Economically.33 or ‘Often’ from the LGU and staff and 3. Item 10 had the highest mean of 3. the average mean was 3. Most of the items were given high rating which means that they have been very expensive and unmindful of cost-cutting procedures and generally adopting a simple lifestyle.54 or ‘Seldom’. according to the sectoral group. the respondents believed that their leaders need to look into the economic values they showed. This means the value of thriftiness and resourcefulness was not observed by the leaders. 4. Item 3 had the lowest mean of 1. This may come as a surprise but according to the respondents.00 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff. Table 19 shows Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Social. Items 1.91 or ‘Seldom’. The sectors believed that their leaders are not into recycling materials. They also believe that they are accommodating and approachable.

Demonstrates irritation when given comments. Shows coldness to some client. 6. Scrutinizes anything within the office work. 9. Illustrates true humility in service. 5. Socially.38 On the other hand.00 Always 5. Distrusting attitude is just a mechanism to check the veracity of the people’s request for assistance. Overall. Radiates respect to oneself. The interaction and community responsibility they 96 . 8. Item 9 had the lowest mean of 3. Reveals a character of being approachable. 4. 2. Expresses distrust to others. Table 19 Mean Perceptions and Descriptive Rating on Respondents’ Values Orientation in Terms of Social Values Orientation Social 1.00 4.00 Always 1. 3.33 3.25 3.38 3. there were also bogus people who get money or any form of assistance.18 5.20 or ‘Always’ from the LGU and staff and 3.00 5.96 that many people come to the offices of the leaders and ask for assistance which is sometimes not true and unverified.91 3.29 3. The sectors also believed that their leaders are approachable despite the fact that they have an attitude of not trusting others. the average mean was 4.33 3. the leader-respondents had generally shown good relationship to other people. Displays affection to the needy.00 3.00 or ‘Often’.67 3. 10.54 3.00 5.38 or ‘Often’ from the sectors. This confirms the perception of the LGU group when they said that they are approachable.00 3. 7. Delivers public service. Average Weighted Mean LGU & Staff Descriptive Mean Rating 5.63 3.00 Always 3.91 Seldom 5. Meaning.20 Very Often Often Always Always Always Often Always Sectors Descriptive Rating Often Often Very Often Often Often Very Often Often Often Often Very Often Often Mean 3. Manifests respect to all people.28 3.

15 .97 demonstrated were positive and appropriate for people who assume offices in the government.65 Political . The approach and treatment to people is defined by learned etiquettes and ethics on social interaction.21 -.04 .±0.58 .99 ±1 Negligible Correlation (NC) Low Relationship (LR) Moderate Relationship (MR) High Relationship (HR) Very High Relationship (VHR) Perfect Relationship (PR) Moreover.21 . Table 20 Correlation Matrix Between Person and Values Orientation of LGU Person Educational Attainment Age Civil Status Gender Working Experience Salary Religion Critical r . HR).±0.91 -. MR).54 -.01 .68 .71 -.±0. Educational attainment in person related correlated significantly with social values orientation (-.20 ±0.71 . This could be attributed to the fact that the workplace redefines the kind of 97 .47 Sig Ins Ins Ins Sig Ins Ins Critical r at .06 . Education is instrumental in refining and polishing attitudes. On Significant Relationship Table 20 shows Correlation Matrix Between Person and Values Orientation of LGU.05 level significance Legend: ±0.71 .57 .14 -.34 -.40 ±0.±0.73 .15 NC -.21 .14 -.71.57 -.54 -.30 .66 -. This means that the education and training of a person affects his social interaction with other people.±0.91 . working experience correlated also with social values orientation (-.08 .90 ±0.76 .41 . set of norms and values to be acquired.10 LR MR LR NC NC NC Values Orientation Economical -.10 NC Ins .57.11 NC NC NC NC MR NC Ins Ins Ins Ins Sig Ins Social HR MR MR MR MR LR MR Ins Ins Ins In Ins Ins Ins -.70 ±0.

social functions and the like are dependent upon the amount of salary they earn monthly or annually.71 . LR). Each member has a position to assume. co-leaders and with people who are the major clientele in the city government offices. House rules 98 .39.21 .90 ±0.01 .99 ±1 Negligible Correlation (NC) Low Relationship (LR) Moderate Relationship (MR) High Relationship (HR) Very High Relationship (VHR) Perfect Relationship (PR) Moreover.±0.10 .18 -.±0. The spending and allocation of budget for education.18 . Table 21 shows Correlation Matrix Between Family-Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU.18 Social NC MR NC NC Ins Sig Ins Ins Critical r at . This means that the economic responsibilities of the leaders are affected by the amount of money they have.70 ±0.39 .±0.91 .16 -.52 .11 -.19 .04 NC NC NC NC Ins Ins Ins Ins -.69 -.±0.05 level significance Legend: ±0. The reason is obvious.±0.36 Political LR NC NC LR Sig Ins Ins Ins Values Orientation Economical .15 -.66.64 .01 .98 socialization processes involved in working with co-employees. MR). Salary correlated significantly with economical values orientation (. Family ties correlated significantly with political values orientation (.20 ±0. Table 21 Correlation Matrix Between Family-Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU Critical r Family Related Family Ties Family Status Parental Authority Family Responsibility .84 .40 ±0.41 . The parents dictate the norms and standards observed in the house. The family is like a political organization.

rearing up children and the like.51 .±0.99 Very High Relationship (VHR) ±1 Perfect Relationship (PR) 99 .±0.36 .21 . delivery of services.91 . Meaning.01 .18 Social NC NC LR NC Ins Ins Ins Ins Critical r at . step parents and the like. leadership style in management related factors correlated significantly with political values orientation (. This is so because leadership style embraces political concerns such as roles and responsibilities. family status is concerned with the social responsibilities such as marriage.20 Negligible Correlation (NC) ±0.21 . Table 22 shows Correlation Matrix Between Management-Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU.41 .±0. MR).14 -.40 . decision making.49 .34 .23 . Family status correlated with social values orientation (.90 High Relationship (HR) ±0.40 Low Relationship (LR) ±0. MR). This could be attributed to the fact that family status is concerned with beliefs and perspectives on rearing up of children by in-laws.69.±0. resources and networking.16 -.50.20 LR LR NC NC Ins Ins Ins Ins . Table 22 Correlation Matrix Between Management-Related Factors and Values Orientation of LGU Critical r Management Related Policy Formulation Policy Implementation Decision Making Leadership Style .04 .94 . Lastly.99 on accepting visitors/relatives and the like are set to define clearly the behavior and decorum to be manifested by each member of the family.22 -.28 .71 .70 Moderate Relationship (MR) ±0.50 Political MR LR LR MR Ins Ins Ins Sig Values Orientation Economical -.05 level significance Legend: ±0.±0. This means that the leadership style is concerned with political responsibilities especially that the main respondents are political leaders who are assuming offices as city councilors. divorce.

100 CHAPTER V SUMMARY. the study sought answers to the following questions: 1. family status. Summary The major problem of the study is: How do personal.1 2. age.7 7. work experience in the government. civil status.2 1.2 2. which were derived from the findings and the recommendations for the usefulness of this study to its readers. salary and religion? How may the family related factors be described in terms of: 2.5 1. benefactors and researchers. family & management related factors affect the values orientation of the local government officials in Olongapo City during Fiscal Year 2008? Specifically. educational qualification.3 1.3 family ties.4 1. This also includes the conclusions.6 1. What is the profile of the elected local government officials in terms of: 1.1 1. gender. parental authority and 100 . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of the findings based on the gathered data relative to the problem cited in Chapter 1 of this study.

The respondents had at least college education except for one who was an undergraduate. The respondents had not reached the age 50. family and management related factors affect the level of values orientation of the local government officials? 11. economic.4 policy formulation. How do person. and social? 10. In fact. but this is not to say that they are no longer capable. Meaning. Age.101 2. The singles 101 . On LGU Personal Profile Educational Attainment. they are assumed to have that energy and sense of direction in terms of doing their jobs. the respondents are qualified to assume posts in the government service to undertake assigned designation based on job description.1 3. they are still entrusted to assume government post to serve the clients. It is good that only two (2) of them are between 58-67 years old. decision making and leadership style? 9.2 3. What is the implication of the findings of the study to public administration? Findings Problem 1.4 8. Most of the respondents have family responsibilities. Civil Status. at their age.3 3. family responsibility? How may the management related factors be described in terms of: 3. What are the values orientations of the local government official in terms of political. policy implementation. Generally.

They however clarified that they preferred not to disclose the identity of their religion for confidentiality sake. These perceptions are valuable in terms of their identity and image as leaders in the community. It could be said that the LGU and staff had shown a sense of family ties since this was also observed by the sectors. The respondents assumed government posts regardless of gender. The manifestation of familial affiliation was strong enough to be perceived by the sectors and the LGU and staff themselves. The data shows that the respondents work on the basis of term of office as city councilors.102 could have familial concerns but they were not disclosed in any of the unstructured interviews with them. This means that since there was a presence of both sexes in the workplace. Generally the respondents had standard salary grade as mandated by salary standardization law and as prescribed by the code of government service. Religion. Seven (7) or 64 % respondents were catholic while four (4) or 36 % respondents had not revealed their religion. Family Status as an indicator was “Strong”. It could be gleaned here the socio-economic status of the respondents and the lifestyle they could afford to have. On Family Related Factors Family Ties as an indicator was “Very Strong”. Gender. there is an equal opportunity for job placement based on qualifications Working Experience. Problem 2. Salary. 102 . given the amount of salary they receive. Their perspectives and concepts of ideal family life are observed and manifested in their interaction with people in the workplace.

funding. This also signals the leadership skills of the LGU and staff because decision 103 . Decision-Making was “Well Managed”. On Management Related Factors Policy Formulation was “Very Well Managed”. and so on. This sense of responsibility signifies a sense of duty and effective delineation of their real roles in the family. Generally. The policies are sometimes used to protect the people from harm like the children and women from violence and abuse. the policies are meant to better the life of the people. The LGU officials were oriented and focused on their duties and functions as member of the family.103 Family Responsibility as an indicator was “Very Strong”. This only shows the knowledge of the leaders regarding the discharge and execution of policies. all aspects on dissemination. or the homeless from being evicted in the squatter’s area. This means that the leaders understood the purpose of formulating policies. In other words. This means that in terms of parental authority the LGU had always exuded the strong personality in terms of decision making and in giving a sense of direction to their families. Parental Authority as an indicator was “Very Strong”. This attests to the fact that they too are leaders in the community. Problem 3. professional consultation and networking were included as part of the plan in realizing the formulated policy. Meaning. the leaders have a broad idea as to the criteria or factor that they have to be considered in the formulation of policies. The results suggest that the LGU and staff have the ability to consider aspects of decision-making to better serve their constituents. they said. Policy Implementation was “Very Well Managed”.

Social as an indicator on Values Orientation was “Very High”. the leader-respondents had generally shown good relationship to other people. Problem 4. the respondents believed that their leaders need to look into the economic values they showed. Leadership Style was “Very Well Managed”. Economic as an indicator on Values Orientation was “Moderately High” Economically.104 making requires stable and strong leadership qualities in order to weigh information on hand prior to final stage of decision making. Problem 5. Most of the items were given high rating which means that they have been very expensive and unmindful of cost-cutting procedures and generally adopting a simple lifestyle. The leaders need to clarify this issue because generally the sectors had positive impressions with their political-related tasks. The interaction and community responsibility they demonstrated were positive and appropriate for people who assume offices in the government. The interaction and community responsibility they demonstrated were positive and appropriate for people who assume offices in the government. Socially. On Significant Relationship Educational attainment was significantly related to social values. On Values Orientation Political as an indicator on Values Orientation was “Very High” Politically. The leader-respondents had generally shown good relationship to other people. the respondents had an impression that the leaders are doing well with their political obligations except for the impression that they hired relatives as office staff. Working 104 .

Though public administration has historically referred to government management. were the negative results that surfaced based on the perceptions of the sectoral group. dialogues and meetings and the like. Leadership style correlated significantly with political values. public administration must include education of the public. implementation and study of government policy. Family ties were significantly related with political values.105 experience was related with social values. These aspects are emphasized here because these. On Implication to Public Administration Public Administration can be broadly described as the development. some of which may be conflicting or poorly defined in law. it is imperative that the City Government looks into the management related factors used in this study so that clarity of leadership and governance perspectives may also be understood by the public or the constituents so that misinterpretation and negative impressions may be avoided. Family status was related with social values. Their planning must encompass multiple objectives. Public managers cannot divest themselves of their responsibilities. Electoral cycles and the brief tenure of many political executives make it difficult for career public 105 . Problem 6. it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations that are not acting out of self-interest. So far. Information dissemination campaign is not enough. that luxurious lifestyle is never a priority of the leaders. In other word. Salary correlated with economic values. Public Administration is linked to pursuing the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice. Given the results however. The people must be clarified that there is nepotism in the city. immersion and exposure must be provided in the form of community caucus. Another aspect that should be included is strategic planning.

the political circumstances of some public agencies lead to reactive. The context within which leaders operate must be taken into consideration to come up with effective. the following recommendations are drawn: 1. What is important here is that public administration must explore all possibilities to better serve the people. Not surprisingly. the heads of even the largest government agencies have less decision making authority than does a typical corporate CEO. Recommendations In view of the conclusions. 106 . Stakeholders are more diverse and contentious and public managers must deal with them in the "fish bowl" of public scrutiny. strategy formulation Public sector strategic management theory has wisely emphasized the need to take political contexts into account. best decisions for public service.106 managers to argue the salience of the longer range future. This is done by "meta-planning. management related and values orientation of LGU. There is no exact formula for this." the design of planning processes that incorporate the viewpoints of multiple stakeholders. rather than proactive. Family values must be strengthened as part of the training ground for leadership and management in the field of public service. the herein conclusion was drawn: There is a partially upheld significant relationship between person. family related. In governments designed to limit executive authority. Conclusion From the derived findings.

Values Orientation Workshops (VOW) and development activities must be offered to the leaders. 3. Policies and decision-making processes must be reflective of the people’ needs and aspiration to efficiently and productively contribute to community. 107 . Further education may be advised. 4.107 2. Leadership concepts must be taught to the city leaders and all other staff through government-related activities and programs. Other researchers may replicate this study using other variables to refute or confirm results and findings therein. 5. staff and sectoral groups so that they will learn together in strengthening set of values needed.and nation-building.

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1999. and Booth. 2004. “Effectiveness of the Skills Workbook in Statistics for Polytechnic Institution. “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Courtship. 2007. 46. 2004. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Lily Marlyn Docejo “Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers: Its Relationship to their Values Orientation. 2004. Katz. R. H.” Masteral Thesis 658. H. 2001. Lilibeth “The Effect of Political and Socio-Economic Factors on the Utilization of the Municipal Development Fund. M. Performance of Municipal Services 2004: Elected Officials.” Masteral Thesis. K. D. Rojas.” Masteral Thesis. and White. Hughes. B.. “Perceptions of Students and Teachers in Bunawan Agricultural High School on Values Orientation and Its Impact on Social Transformation: An Assessment. 69. University of Iloilo. W. Gliceria “The Relationship of Socio-Economic Variable and Family Values and the Development of a Coastal Community. 2004. Balanga. Brinkerhoff. 2004. Santos. 2000. Visminda T. Policy Formulation by Use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Techniques: A Case Study. 85-94.. Sarah Tarala “Comparative Analysis of Value Orientation of the Values Orientation Workshop (VOW) Graduates and Non-graduates and Work Performance in the Department of Social Work and Development. Finland.” Masteral Thesis 373. Pentti et al. Reyes. “Consequences of Parental Divorce and Marital Unhappiness for Adult Well-Being. P. Bulacan State University. Department of Social Policy and Social Psychology.110 Moscosa. Philips et al. Manila.” Journal of Marriage and the Family.” Masteral Thesis. Trinidad.” Masteral Thesis. Ma. Bataan. P. L. Bataan Polytechnic State College.5 Tri CHED. University of Kuopio. Cecilia “Factors Related to the Moral Values of Children of Working and Non-Working Mothers.3125 M85c.” Faculty of the Graduate School. 1998. Handal. Journals Amato. Sabado.01107 R638p. Sajonia. Bataan. 2006. 519. A. Teresita F. Bataan Peninsula State University. C.. L.” Social Forces. B. 110 . International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management.. 895-914. 2001. Balanga. R. Booth. and Searight.” Journal of Adolescence. S. ”The Relationship of Family Structure and Family Conflict to Adjustment in Young Adult College Students. Nelson.

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112

APPENDICES

112

113 APPENDIX A

Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga, Bataan

January 28, 2008 HON. JEFFREY D. KHONGHUN Municipal Mayor Subic, Zambales Dear Sir: This is to request permission from your good office to allow the undersigned to propose his questionnaire to the municipal councilors and their staff for a dry run. This seeks to ask if all the items were simple to comprehend, if the queries are appealing and if it were significant to the research. The study entitled “VALUES ORIENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: ITS IMPLICATION TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION,” is in partial fulfillment of the course requirement in Masteral Thesis. Your assistance will contribute to the achievement of this study. Rest assured that responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much.

Very Truly Yours, (sgd) RODELIO M. ALBA Researcher

Noted By: (sgd) DANILO C. GALICIA, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate Studies Bataan Peninsula State University 113 (sgd) ADELWINA M. PINEDA, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate Studies St. Joseph College-Olongapo

2008 To Whom It May Concern: In conformity with the validity of the questionnaire prepared by Mr. principally on the study entitled “Values Orientation of Local Government Officials: Its Implication to Public Administration”.D. Alba. (sgd) Danilo C. accurate and in order to the study being checked. Ph. Ph. Dean. Graduate Studies Bataan Peninsula State University (sgd) Adelwina M. Bongco. a graduate of Master of Arts in Public Administration. Joseph College-Olongapo (sgd) Ariel A.114 APPENDIX B Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga. Critic/Member Bataan Peninsula State University 114 . Items stipulated therein were found sufficient. the undersigned hereby confirm that it has been checked and verified. Rodelio M. Pineda. Galicia. Graduate Studies St. Bataan Graduate Studies Content Validity January 30.D. Dean. Ed.D.

Your assistance will contribute to the achievement of this study. (sgd) RODELIO M. likewise to the vice mayor office. JAMES L. Bataan February 4. Very Truly Yours. 2008 HON.” is in partial fulfillment of the course requirement in Masteral Thesis. GORDON City Mayor Olongapo City Dear Sir: This is to request permission from your good office to allow the undersigned to propose his questionnaire to your office. The study entitled “VALUES ORIENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: ITS IMPLICATION TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.115 APPENDIX C Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga. Rest assured that responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality. the councilors and their staff. ALBA Researcher 115 . Thank you very much.

116 APPENDIX D Questionnaire for Research Study Entitled “VALUES ORIENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS: ITS IMPLICATION TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION” Directions: PART 1: Please put a check in the box that corresponds to your answer. post) 1st term (with previous government post) 116 . Respondent’s Profile Name: (optional) _________________________________________________________ Educational Qualification: Doctoral Degree MS/MA with Doctoral units MS/MA units Baccalaureate Degree College Undergraduate Others: pls. specify _________________ Age: __________ Civil Status: Single Married Widow//Widower Separated/Annulled/Divorced Gender: Male Female Working Experience: 1st term (without previous government.

The subsequent degrees will be used.100 – 40.000 Others: pls.000 50.000 – 10.000 20. specify _________________ Religion: Roman Catholic Protestant Aglipayan Iglesia ni Kristo Muslim Others: pls. specify _________________ PART II Directions: This questionnaire is to evaluate the values orientation of local government officials: its implication to public administration.000 40.Always . Please rank in the basis of your recent awareness along with most objective judgment by checking the suitable score in the box.000 10.117 2nd term 3rd / last term Salary (private & public combined): 1.100 – 60.100 – 50.100 – 20. A VO .The event/item happens all the time or 100% of the time -Very Often .The event/item happens most of the time or 99%-67% of the time 117 .000 30.100 – 30.

9. 10. 118 . 8. 5. 2. Provides whatever needs & wants of family. Endows assistance to relatives in time of needs. 2. Commands should be carried away at all time. Family Status 1. Believes at divorce as way for irreconcilable couple. 7.Never . 8.The event/item happens every now and then or 66%-32% of the time . Introduces family members to co-workers. 3. 4. Arranges household chore distribution. 4. Nurtures by distant relative as parent were divorce.Often . 7. 8. 3. Accepts in-laws to raise siblings. Motivates siblings to become closer to grandparents and other relatives. Presents unsolicited advice. 7. Accepts extended family to live at no definite time. Manifests the helpfulness of family in every plan.’ 10.118 O S N . Regards father should work abroad.The event/item never happens or 0% of the time A VO O S N Family Related Factors Family Ties 1. 2. 2. Regards savings as reward for future use. Attends religious affair together. Deems the absence of mother for work is good. Allows relative to care for siblings since parent were working remotely/abroad. Demonstrates humor and happiness. Offers monetary help to married siblings. Regards marriage as bond of love. Offers generous time for family leisure. 5. Considers family above everything. Family Responsibility 1. Parental Authority 1. 3. 3. Sends siblings to school until college. Assumes responsibility to influence family in their collective decisions. 10.The event/item happens rarely or 31%-1% of the time .Seldom . 5. Prioritizes health needs. 6. 9. Considers step-parent could bring-up step-children. Tolerates closeness of children to their ‘barkada. Punishes who do wrong. Supposes siblings be raised in intact unmarried parent. Recognizes oneself be cared for by adopted family. Thinks always superior in the family. Celebrates anniversaries/birthdays. 6. 6. 4. Prays together. 9.

8. 3. Settles with the concurrence of party mates. 5. 8. 9. Regards opposition to implementation a form of democracy. 8. 7. 2. 7. 5. Edits content of the policy. 3. Rewards who do good. Forges memorandum of agreement with receiving party of policy. Consults divine intervention. Projects the policy as lead role in propelling progress. Policy Implementation 1. Makes a long judgment for a major decision. Devices approach for better delivery of management.119 4. Ensues siblings in strict selection of circle of friends. 10. Encourages sibling to open up for any problem encountered. Acts according to what survey says. 10. Believes in effectiveness of own decision. Persuades everyone to practice diplomacy with others. 2. Identifies each sources of information. 6. Disseminates to all concerned. Leadership Style 1. Depends on foreign experts and development models. 2. 4. Decides on the basis of own belief and not what party mate say. Determines the outcome through ‘bahala na’ attitude. 4.0 Policy Formulation 1. Considers influence of lobbying groups and aid agencies. 7. Management Related Factors 1. 7. 9. 4. Observes the policy at highly strict compliance. 119 . 3. Gathers information directly to the concerned party. Decision Making 1. 5. Conducts hearing. Finds hard time in decision making. 10. 6. 6. Seeks other’s opinion before deciding. Monitors studies and activities. Follows what had been agreed. Reiterates constant reminder to children’s obligation to God. Evaluates the effect of policy. Creates inter-agency/department coordination for implementation. 2. Relies to the financial grant of other group for implementation. Opens for challenges. Delegates minor decision to subordinate. Utilizes the process of analysis and its various consequences. 10. Verifies the accuracy of the data. 8. 5. 9. Hires professional as consultant and researcher. 9. Collects result of interview and survey. 6. Informs departments on procedures that will be affected. Implements at all cost.

Employs relatives as office staff and/or personnel. Considers present bureaucracy facilitates good governance. 6. 5. Buys new clothes/dresses and personal accessories frequently. 9. 2. Social 1. Dispenses responsibilities and roles. Supports people’s agenda belong to same political clinging. 6. 3. ALBA Researcher 120 . Creates network among other departments. 7. 7. 4. 7. Obtains week-long food supply. Uses power of office to facilitate service and policy.120 3. Manifests respect to all people. 6. Distributes resources in order of priorities. 8. Recognizes the talents of others. Illustrates true humility in service. Demonstrates irritation when given comments. 8. Channels coordination accordingly. RODELIO M. 5. 7. Political 1. Accepts principle that public office is a public trust. Prioritizes family’s needs than other expenses. 9. Displays affection to the needy. Practices active involvement with people and causes. 6. Purchases expensive and durable item. 5. Expresses distrust to others. 3. Thank you very much. Conforms to any policy. Ponders political patronage as support and trust. Shares decisions with co-workers. 10. 10. Scrutinizes anything within the office work. 9. 4. Deems popularity as a way of winning public office. Reveals a character of being approachable. 2. 2. Saves money for children’s schooling. 4. 8. 4. Allows sibling to study abroad or in exclusive school. 3. 5. Points out order in a strict manner. 10. Economic 1. 10. Practices recycling. Offers sumptuous banquet and gift to guests/visitors. Delivers public service. 8. Shows coldness to some client. 9. Projects independence of mind. Prefers wholesaling than retailing. Radiates respect to oneself. Sets agenda/plan and accomplishment. Eats same viand for the day.

Zambales June 13. Isabel College Manila City May 1991 TERTIARY 121 .121 CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL INFORMATION NAME ADDRESS DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH PARENTS Rodelio Makilang Alba Blk. 11 Lot 3 Sta. Bataan March 2008 Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Marketing CAP College Makati City April 2003 Confraternity in Christian Doctrine Sta. Elena Village. 1968 Manila City Rodrigo Lopez Alba Conchita Batistel Makilang (†) (†) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT GRADUATE Master in Public Administration Bataan Peninsula State University Balanga City. Calapacuan 2209 Subic.

Joseph Parish St. 2007 Participant Resource Speaker 122 .122 SECONDARY St. Pampanga January 16-21. Joseph High School Olongapo City March 1985 St. 2007 Unang Hakbang Facilitator-Seminar Workshop CBCP-NSYA Hacienda de Gracia Resort San Fernando. Joseph Elementary School Olongapo City March 1981 ELEMENTARY HONORS/AWARDS/MERITS RECEIVED Medal of Distinction Award of Recognition Award of Recognition Service Awardee Service Awardee Master in Public Administration Facilitator’s Training Commission on Youth Apostolate Animator’s Training Commission on Youth Apostolate Daughters of Charity Turn-Over Rites St. Joseph Multi-Purpose Cooperative Olongapo City SEMINARS/TRAININGS ATTENDED Delegate International Conference on Bio-Ethics and Family Edsa Shangrila Hotel Makati City January 10-12. 2007 Family Values Family and Life Vicarial Group Olongapo City March 19.

2007 Curriculum Engineering St. Joseph College Olongapo City October 2007 to Present Management Subjects and Marketing Subjects Subjects Taught College Instructor Subjects Taught ORGANIZATION Consultant to Committee on Education.123 Resource Speaker Facilitator Seminar Workshop KC Clubhouse Olongapo City June 20. Joseph PPC Hall Olongapo City August 19. 2007 Catechetics II St. 2007 Career Development Course St. Columban Parish Olongapo City August 26. Joseph Parish September 2007 Advent Recollection Young Entrepreneurs Club December 12. Olongapo City 123 . Joseph Parish Olongapo City June 1989 to Present Religion Subject and Adult and Sacramental Catechism St. 2007 Resource Speaker Participant Participant Resource Facilitator WORK EXPERIENCE Parish Catechist St. Livelihood and Employment Office of Kagawad Robert Conrad Picache Barangay Mabayuan.

Zambales Senior Adviser Commission on Youth Apostolate Diocese of Iba Iba. Joseph Youth Ministry Olongapo City 124 . Rules and Ethics. Labor and Employment Office of Kagawad Ronald Villegas Barangay East Bajac Bajac. Olongapo City Board of Director St.St. Zambales Senior Adviser – Parish Youth Coordinating Council St. Joseph Parish Youth Ministry Olongapo City Vicarial Coordinator St.124 Consultant to Committee on Education. Joseph Multi-Purpose Cooperative Olongapo City Core Group Member Diocese of Iba Integrated Pastoral Plan Key Result Area 3 Diocese of Iba Iba. Joseph Vicariate Catechetical Apostolate Olongapo City Founding Member Torch Alliance .

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