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Academic Session 2007-09




Rohini Singh (123)
Shraddha Chandel (144)
Shubham Chawla (145)
Smriti Gautam (150)


This is to certify that the project report “MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

SYSTEM OF CMC LTD” submitted by Rohini Singh (123), Sachin Kumar
(127), Shraddha Chandel (144) and Shubham Chawla (145),student of PGDBM 1st
year, batch 2007-2009, bonafide work carried out by them.

During their tenure at the project, they were found to be sincere and
meticulous in there work. I appreciate their enthusiasm & dedication towards the
work assigned to them.

I am hopeful that they will prove to be a good professional and wish them
grand success for the future.

Date: Course Instructor:

28/03/08 Proff.Anagha Shukre

Uttar Pradesh

Management information Systems (MIS), sometimes referred to as Information

Management and Systems, are the discipline covering the application of people,
technologies, and procedures — collectively called information systems — to solving
business problems. Management Information Systems are distinct from regular
information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied
in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to
refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or
support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems,
and Executive information systems.The terms MIS and information system are often
confused. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision
making. MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology
management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT
service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. MIS has also some differences
with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not
necessarily focused on decision support.

The success of any research study depends upon a number of factors among
which the proper guidance from the experts in the industry and a faculty plays an
important role.
We would like to express our heartfelt thanks to many people. This Project
is an effort to contribute towards achieving the desired objectives. In doing so, we
have optimized all available resources and made use of some external resources,
the interplay of which, over a period of time, led to the attainment of the set goals.
We take here a great opportunity to express our sincere and deep sense of
gratitude to Proff. ANAGHA SHUKRE for giving us an opportunity to work on
this project. The support & guidance from Sir, was of great help & it was
extremely valuable.
We express our sincere thanks to all the people who, directly or indirectly,
contributed in time, energy and knowledge to this effort.

Acknowledgement .................................................................................
1. History…………………………………………………………………………
2. An Overview of Cmc Ltd......................................................................
3. Significant events in history
4. IT for common man
5. Management information system
6. Cmc world wide
7. Industry practices

CMC was incorporated on December 26, 1975, as the 'Computer Maintenance

Corporation Private Limited'. The Government of India held 100 per cent of the equity
share capital. On August 19, 1977, it was converted into a public limited company.

In 1978, when IBM wound up its operations in India, CMC took over the maintenance of
IBM installations at over 800 locations around India and, subsequently, maintenance of
computers supplied by other foreign manufacturers as well. Taking over the activities of
IBM in India, including many of its employees, helped the company to imbibe a service-
oriented culture. This is demonstrated by our long-standing customer associations and
our ability to provide high-quality and reliable service.

In 1980, we perceived the need for total IT system solutions in India, and acquired a
'solutions' orientation. We aligned our focus with the government's thrust on IT
development activities. A significant milestone in our transition from a hardware
maintenance company to a complete end-to-end IT solutions provider was 'Project
Interact' (International Education and Research for Applications of Computer
Technology), a UN project involving design, development and systems-engineering of
real-time, computer-based systems dedicated to applications in the areas of power
distribution, railway freight operations management, and meteorology.

As we evolved along the value chain, CMC forayed into systems integration, interfacing,
installation, commissioning, software development, as well as education and training,
on a national basis. Our R&D facility was set up in 1982, to undertake competency
development in niche areas in the frontiers of technology, to provide us the cutting
edge. Today, our R&D facility is housed in our Hyderabad campus, and develops
advanced solutions in areas such as real-time systems, embedded systems and
pervasive computing.

To reflect our diversified business activities, we renamed ourselves 'CMC Limited', and
obtained a fresh certificate of incorporation dated August 27, 1984.
Following a spurt in the global demand for IT services in the early 1990s, particularly in
the United States, we decided to expand our operations and market our product and
service offerings in these markets. Towards this end, in 1991, we acquired Baton Rouge
International Inc, USA (it was subsequently renamed CMC Americas, Inc, in 2003), one
of the first cross-border acquisitions by an Indian IT firm.

In 1992, the Indian government divested 16.69 per cent of CMC's equity to the General
Insurance Corporation of India and its subsidiaries who, in turn, sold part of their stake
to the public in 1996. In 1993, CMC's shares were listed on the Hyderabad Stock
Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

To service and develop our clientele in the UK and Europe, we opened a branch office
in London, in 2000. The next year, the government divested 51 per cent of CMC's
equity to Tata Sons Ltd, through a strategic sale, and CMC became a part of the Tata

In line with our strategy of offering our products and services globally, in 2003, we
opened a branch office in Dubai to tap the hitherto unexplored markets of West Asia
and Africa.

In 2004, the government divested its remaining 26.5 per cent stake in CMC to the
2. An Overview of the CMC LTD:
CMC Limited is a leading IT solutions company and a subsidiary of Tata Consultancy
Services Limited (TCS Ltd), one of the world's leading information technology
consulting, services and business process outsourcing organizations. We are a part of
the Tata group, India's best-known business conglomerate.

With 18 offices, 150 service locations, 520 non-resident locations and over 3,800 employees
worldwide, we provide a wide spectrum of unique Information Technology solutions and
services to a clientele of premier organizations in the government and private sectors.

CMC Americas, our subsidiary, services clients in the US, while our branch offices in the
UK and Dubai market our products and services in Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

Large and complex project management capabilities

since its incorporation in 1975, CMC has an enviable record of successfully building IT
solutions for massive and complex infrastructure and market projects.

Take, for instance, just three of the many major projects undertaken by us:

A passenger ticketing and reservations system for Indian Railways, which runs 6,000
passenger trains carrying over 10 million passengers a day, on a 90,000-km railway
network covering around 8,000 railway stations.
A cargo handling system is a comprehensive online real time cargo handling system
to integrate all complex and varied activities of container terminals. This system has
been implemented for several Indian and International ports.
An online transaction processing system for the Bombay Stock Exchange, which
handles millions of securities trading transactions every day.

End-to-end solutions capability

We manage turnkey projects, and have built, managed and supported our customers' IT
systems across the value chain — infrastructure, applications and business processes.
That is because our capabilities span the entire IT spectrum: IT architecture; hardware;
software (including systems and application software, development or implementation,
maintenance, and frameworks); network consulting; and IT-enabled processing

This is how we work:

Our Customer Services (CS) unit designs and builds the IT infrastructure and
Our Systems Integration (SI) unit develops applications and integrates them across
diverse hardware and software platforms
Our IT-Enabled Services (ITES) unit manages developed applications and digitisation
Our Education and Training unit provides IT education and training to users.

Extensive domain expertise and technological competencies

We have proven expertise in a wide array of applications, including real-time systems,
online systems, embedded systems, process control, transaction processing, image
processing, data communications, networking, parallel architectures, e-commerce
technologies and e-governance applications.

Our competitive edge comes from combining our technology competencies with our
understanding of verticals, straddling a range of sectors from banking and insurance,
power, mining and defence to education. Our high quality, high value IT solutions have
helped reshape businesses and delivered measurable results to our customers.

Sizable resource pool with diverse skill sets

We achieve this with the help of our resource pool of engineers trained in diverse
technologies, with vast domain knowledge and varied skill sets. Of our 3,718
employees, over 21 per cent have more than ten years of work experience. We also
have a large competency pool that works on emerging technologies and competency
areas. We have an impeccable educational profile; as many as 30 per cent of our
employees have postgraduate degrees.

We also conduct significant research into emerging technologies and competence

areas at our state-of-the-art, ISO 9001-certified R&D centre in Hyderabad, India. That is
what gives us an edge in complex, high technology projects.

The Systems Integration Business Unit's all four regions are at Level 5 (optimising level)
of the SEI's Capability Maturity Model (software).

Strong customer relationships

CMC's customer orientation and service culture lead to enduring bonds with clients. Our
distinct value proposition and service culture, coupled with our track record of
successful service delivery, are reflected in our long-standing customer relationships
with dominant players in key infrastructure, services and government sectors.

Our customers include some of the biggest organisations in India: Reserve Bank of
India, Indian Railways, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Bharat Petroleum Corporation
Limited, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, United Western Bank, Bank of India
and Bank of Baroda.
The trust reposed in us by our clients is reflected in our growing revenues from
operations such as post-implementation maintenance and support activities.

Strong service delivery chain

In the domestic market, we have established an extensive services network penetrating
the remotest geographical locations. This gives us an unmatched advantage in
servicing customers with an all-India presence, such as the railways, banks,
government entities and other organisations with countrywide operations.

Growth strategies
CMC's growth strategy focuses on capitalising on its unique skill sets and leveraging
the synergies with TCS and other Tata group companies, for growth in revenue and
profitability of our operations.

We will continue to focus on consolidating our dominant position in India, while

expanding our reach globally.
3. Significant events in history
Incorporated as 'Computer Maintenance Corporation Private Limited'

Became a public limited company

Took up the maintenance of 800 IBM installations over India. Initiated training courses, predominantly for

Commenced work on Project Interact, a UN-funded project

Set up a research and development facility to develop competencies in the frontier areas of technology

Diversified our activities to include turnkey projects, IT education and software development. Renamed
ourselves as 'CMC Limited'

First foray into biometrics, conceptualising an automatic fingerprint recognition system

Aligned business focus along vertical markets like transportation, mining, power and banking
Implemented project IMPRESS, an online passenger reservations system for the Indian Railways
Set up Indonet — a countrywide data network (renamed as ITES)

Acquired Baton Rouge International Inc, USA (BRI, later renamed in 2003 as CMC Americas, Inc) to
focus on international markets

The Government of India partially divested its holdings in CMC

CMC listed on the Indian bourses

Reorganisation of business into five strategic business units (SBUs)

Opened London branch office
Tata Sons Limited acquired a 51 per cent stake. CMC ceased to be a public sector enterprise. The board
of the company was reconstituted

CMC Centre awarded the ISO 9001:2000 Certificate by STQC. Certification services for a period
of three years
Northern region division of our systems integration SBU certified ISO 9001:2000 by STQC, for a period of
three years
Western region (SI) assessed SEI CMM Level 5 (quality level 5 of the capability maturity model for
software, version 1.1 of the Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, USA)
Eastern region (SI) assessed SEI CMM Level 4
Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM) adopted

Renamed subsidiary, BRI, as 'CMC Americas, Inc'
Opened Dubai Branch office
CMC completes the 'India Census 2001' project of scanning and file creation of 228 million
household forms

CMC ties up with Xilinx (the world's largest supplier of programmable logic solutions) to
establish Xilinx' 1st development center in Hyderabad called Xilinx-CMC India Development
Center (XIDC)
The Government of India divested its remaining 26.5 per cent stake in CMC
CMC awarded the Gold certification from Cisco Systems, for customer satisfaction, training,
support and specialization
CMC's VOICE project adjudged the first runner-up in the best eGovernance projects category at
the CSI-Nihilent eGovernance Awards 2003-04
CMC Centre, Hyderabad, Southern Region (Bangalore, Chennai & Hyderabad), Northern Region
(Delhi, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore and Raipur) and Eastern Region are assessed SEI CMM Level
5 for Systems Integration
DQ Rates TCS-CMC as No. 1 in IT Services
CMC signs The Brand Equity-Business Promotion (BE-BP) agreement with Tata Sons Ltd. This
agreement is an institutionalized process in the Tata Group to drive relationship between Tata
Sons and the signatory company. It is to collectively and cooperatively promote the TATA
BRAND which would match the brand equity of international brand names
CMC in line with TCS' business processes and practices implemented Ultimatix. Through the
Ultimatix portal, all applications (Oracle Finance & Oracle HR modules) are accessible from one
single window.
BOLT, an online trading system, developed and implemented by CMC in March 1995 for BSE,
completed 10 years of operations
Effective implementation of eGovernance can take IT to the common man, helping
national and state governments to align their services with the changing needs of both
citizens and stakeholders, as well as develop the economy.

An IT-driven eGovernance system primarily involves the creation, storage, analysis,

dissemination and use of information. It can provide vital inputs to the government's
policy-making process. It makes government processes accountable

eGovernance automates and thereby speeds up routine administrative functions. It

enables the government to work better, yields higher revenue growth and costs less,
apart from servicing citizens' needs as never before. Citizens can freely interact with
various government departments anytime, anywhere with minimal effort.

CMC's domain expertise in eGovernance can create customized solutions that address
the entire spectrum of the information technology needs of state governments, the
national government and even local self-government bodies like municipalities and zilla

We also have packages for public health authorities, hospital solutions, law and order
applications for police departments, water resources management solutions for
irrigation departments, a first-of-its-kind package for tourism departments and a
comprehensive social welfare monitoring application for tribals and other marginalised
sections of society.

Our solutions are highly scalable and inter-operable, offer seamless integration with
existing applications, enable the convergence of diverse technologies, have lower
maintenance costs and offer huge improvements in operational efficiency.

Our eGovernance offerings include:

General administration
VOICE (Versatile online information for citizen empowerment): India's first IT solution
for municipal corporations across the country
LANDS (Urban land management solution): Application software for the operation
and management of a modern urban land development authority or an urban housing
mREINS (Head of government information system): An integrated information and
decision-support system for the chief minister of a state.
TWIMS (Tribal welfare information management system): An integrated solution
including a school education management system (SEMS), a beneficiary monitoring
system (BMS), a village monitoring system (VMS) and an accounts package


KHAJANE (Treasury management system): A software that computerises all the

treasuries in a state and provides regular updates regarding state expenditure and
receipts to a central server at the secretariat.
iCOMITRAX (Computerised information system for trade tax): An end-to-end trade
tax solution that enables a state commercial taxation department to improve its
services and increase its revenues through the use of IT.


FHIMS (Family welfare and health information and monitoring system): A system for
effective monitoring of public health programmes and family welfare services
HMIS (Hospital management information system): A system to manage patient care
in a cost-effective manner, to enable effective utilisation of resources
IHC (India health care): A solution enabling rural health workers to deliver quality
health care by eliminating redundant data entry in paper registers

Law and order

FACTS (Fingerprint analysis and criminal tracking system): An advanced automatic

fingerprint identification system, using state-of-the-art digital image processing,
neural networks and pattern recognition techniques
BAS for TAM: CMC Biometric Authentication System (BAS) enables web based
applications to be authenticated more securely with biometrics
VCOPS (Versatile computerised operations for police services): An integrated
enterprise-wide tool for increasing the efficiency of police units in crime control, law
and order and administrative operations

Power utilities

PowerDesk: A consumer relationship management, billing and energy accounting

system targeted for implementation at power utilities
mPOWER: An online billing and CRM solution for power utilities

Water resources management

BAS (Basin-wide water accounting and budgeting system): A water accounting and
budgeting system with a GIS interface
CIMS (Canal irrigation management system): A comprehensive system for planning
and management of an irrigation scheme
CMS (Construction management system): Maintains data and generates reports and
queries for the planning, design, construction and monitoring of irrigation projects
MIS (Management information system): A comprehensive system for planning,
design, construction, monitoring, operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes

Travel and tourism

VISTA (Versatile information system for tourist attractions): A first-of-its-kind

integrated system that uses the power of IT to promote tourism


The primary objective of CMC's management information system is to provide a
comprehensive system facilitating the planning, design, construction, monitoring,
operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes.

The system:
Provides quick, accurate and relevant information
Improves data management and handling capacity
Provides effective sharing of data and information amongst different management
levels, as well as with associated offices

MIS has the following modules:


Data configuration
Data transfer
Document management and message handling
Coordination and reporting
Data security and systems administration
Single window information system


Land acquisition
Rehabilitation and resettlement
Resource requirement planning
Resource monitoring
Procurement monitoring
Stores and inventory
Schedule of rates
Roads and inventory
On-farm development works
Quality control
Construction monitoring and management
Command area development
Real estate and asset management

Operation and maintenance

Policy information
Project planning and investigation
Design and estimation
Operation and maintenance
Flood control
Overall monitoring and evaluation
Project modernisation / rehabilitation
Sustainable development / environmental management
Research, studies and development
Dam safety monitoring
Revenue information and billing
Command area agriculture
Integrated agriculture development
Maintenance management
Project management


Personnel management
Public relations
Legal affairs
General administration
Vigilance department
Organisation head office
Accounts and audit
Technical architecture, hardware and software platforms
MIS works on a client-server architecture. It facilitates maintenance of necessary data
as well as generation of reports and queries for administrative management,
construction management and other activities for water resources management

Functions Technology / Product

Solution platform MS Windows NT
Front-end tools Centura
Back-end tools Oracle 7
Pentium-based machines as server and

Seagate Crystal Report has been used to generate reports

The MIS client-server architecture:
Has a user-friendly, easy-to-use, secure graphical user interface (GUI)
Allows web-based interfaces for reporting
Ensures accurate and flexible reporting

Up gradation
MIS is presently being upgraded for web-based operations. The front-end will be ASP,
and the database is being upgraded to Oracle 9i.


A dedicated group drawn from experts in water resources, irrigation management,

hydraulics, and hydrology, works for the design, development and implementation of
the canal irrigation management system
CMC has extensive domain experience and understanding of the process, policies as
well as the operational and administrative management structure and style of
irrigation departments

Design, development and implementation of MIS for a World Bank-funded project in
Feasibility studies to explore the functionalities required in an MIS, and to develop a
framework for an information system

Indicative client list

Irrigation Department, Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra Krishna Valley Development Corporation (MKVDC), Pune
Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology, Government of India

CMC has designed, developed and implemented a

management information system (MIS) for this World Bank-
funded project in Maharashtra, India
The product
MIS: Management Information System
A comprehensive system for the planning, design, construction, monitoring, operation
and maintenance of irrigation schemes

The client
Irrigation Department, Government of Maharashtra
The department controlling water resources in India's most industrialised state

Development and establishment of management information systems (MIS) for six
selected major irrigation projects under the World Bank-funded Maharashtra Composite
Irrigation Project - III (restructured)

Out of the six selected irrigation projects, three schemes - Kukadi, Bhima and Krishna -
are located in the Krishna river basin. The remaining three - Upper Penganga,
Majalgaon and Jayakwadi - are located in the Godavari river basin in the state of

These six projects are administered by the chief engineer (specified projects), Pune,
and the chief engineer (specified projects), Aurangabad. Each of the six projects is
administratively divided into two circles - a project circle, headed by a superintending
engineer and a command area development (CAD) circle, headed by an administrator.
Each circle administratively controls four to five divisions, and each division, in turn, has
four to five sub-divisions.

A special analysis and evaluation cell (SAEC), headed by a superintending engineer,

coordinates and interacts with the different project circles, CADA circles and associated
institutions like the directorate of irrigation research and development (DIRD), the public
works department (PWD), the revenue department (resettlement and rehabilitation), the
quality control organisation and the agriculture department. The roles of the associated
institutions have been specified by the state irrigation department.
The primary objective of developing and establishing an MIS for the selected major
irrigation schemes was to provide a comprehensive system facilitating planning, design,
construction, monitoring, operation and maintenance of the schemes.

The system developed by CMC

Provides quick, accurate and relevant information

Improves data management and handling capacity
Provides effective sharing of data and information amongst various management
levels and with associated offices

CMC handled the study, design, development, testing and installation of the
management information system, training of officials, as well as implementation support
for the system.

MIS has the following modules:


Land acquisition
Rehabilitation and resettlement
Resource requirement planning
Procurement monitoring
Stores and inventory
Asset management
Schedule of rates
Roads and bridges
On-farm development works
Quality control
Construction monitoring and management
Works accounts

Operation and maintenance

Plan of operation and management

Drainage network monitoring maintenance management
Resource requirement planning
Coordination with water users' associations (WUAs)
Command area agriculture
Asset management
Integrated agriculture development
Maintenance management
Project management

Administration management
Personnel administration

The system is based on a client-server configuration. The server is a Pentium machine
with open SCO Unix as the operating system and open Ingres as the back-end. The
clients are 486 PCs with Gupta SQL 5.0 (with Ingres router) as the front-end, operating
in MS Windows.

MIS covers the offices of the secretary, the joint secretary and the deputy secretary of
the state irrigation department based in Mumbai, and is connected to the offices of the
chief engineers (specified projects) in Pune and Aurangabad.


CMC over the years has followed a multi-dimensional approach to support its growth
and expansion in becoming a global player.

It has 18 offices in major Indian cities and over 150 service locations, including a
sophisticated R&D centre at Hyderabad. In India, CMC operates through four strategic
business units (SBUs) - customer services, systems integration, IT-enabled services
(ITeS) and education and training (E&T), with over 160 E&T franchises operating across
the country. CMC operates Indonet, a nationwide public data network in India.

Overseas, it has a branch office in Dubai, CMC Informatics, a trading branch office in
the UK and CMC Americas, a wholly-owned subsidiary in the US.

Together with Tata Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS), our strategic partner, we are
working to target the global market with additional offerings that leverage our combined
strengths and enable us to follow common best practices.

CMC Americas Inc

CMC's wholly-owned subsidiary, CMC Americas Inc, was acquired in 1991 and called
Baton Rouge International (BRI), before being renamed in 2003.

With 11 offices in the US and a major presence in Silicon Valley, New Jersey and
Louisiana it is driving CMC's thrust towards globalisation and business development in
the US.

CMC Americas also maintains offices in San Francisco, San Jose and Irvine
(California), Chicago, Detroit and Washington DC

7. Industry practices
Banking & finance
Branch automated information system: Vijaya Bank's BRAINS boost
Banking at the speed of light: TC4s blazing benchmark
Derivatives trading system (DTSS): Derive and arrive
DpSECURE: depository Back-Office Product
Secure and BOLTed: BSE's online trading system
Total concept banking system: UWB banks on TC4
Treasury operations management: VIGILant bank, safe treasury
VIGIL-Forex: VIGILant forex treasury
VeDAS: Safe, secure and versatile depository management


Family welfare and health info (FHIMS): Health for the masses
India healthcare (IHC): Micro-managing public health
Law enforcements
Fingerprint identification: FACTS about criminals
Market participants database (MAPIN): Securities make surveillance
Better policing with vCOPS: Computerisation for police forces
Water resource management
BAS: Regulating water resources
Canal irrigation management system (CIMS): Intelligent irrigation
Construction management system (CMS): Builder's buddy
Irrigation: Info is everything - a management information system
iComitrax: Easing trade tax trauma
KHAJANE: Taming the paper tiger of government treasuries
Power utilities
MPOWER: Online billing and CRM solution for power utilities
PowerDesk: Consumer relationship management, billing and energy accounting system
General administration
Looking after Lucknow's LANDS
mREINS: The REINS of good government
The citizen's VOICE: Municipalities go online

General insurance system (GENISYS): Insurer be sure

GENISYS Configurator: A suite of components for a comprehensive insurance
IT Consultancy in insurance sector


CRYSTAL creates fine mines

DynaMine can be yours
IMMS: Mine management made easy


OSKER: Open SCADA Kernel for power management

WINSPIRE: Standard traction SCADA project for the Lucknow-Kanpur section


All is CALM on the west coast: Cargo management systems for ports
MACHanising ports: Container terminal systems
Messaging solutions: SWIM, or sink
Seabird Marine Services Pvt. Ltd.


Mumbai Port's Mission ImPOSsible

Container and Cargo Management System
Air cargo management systems
Flight Slot Allocation System
Toll Plaza Management System
GPS-based Fleet Tracking System
IT Enabled Services
London Underground Limited: Tube tales
NIRDESHAK: Road runner for Andhra's buses
Central ticketing solution
Automation of the Waybill Generation process for BSNF
Container Corporation of India: Logistically speaking
Freight Operations Information System
Service offerings
Data warehousing

Enterprise data warehouse

Business objects migration
Migration and upgradation

IT enabled services

Digitisation of Company Records - Ministry of Company Affairs

Management of Electoral Databases and Photo ID cards - Election Commission of India
Data Classification for a major Utilities company in UK
GIS based identification of unbilled records for a major Utilities Company in UK
ICR based data extraction for India Census 2001 -Registrar General of India
eRecruitment for corporates and PSUs
WayBill Processing and EDI conversion using OCR? ICR technologies for a RailRoad
Company - Texas
XML based data extraction for a global major in financial data and analytics
XML repository creation for newspapers archives