# Stereographic Projection

• Planar and linear elements are measured in the field, recorded in the notebook, and plotted on the map. • Often, analysis of the orientation data is needed and this is done with the powerful stereographic projection. • Stereographic projection is widely used in mineralogy, rock mechanics, etc. Any discipline that needs to handle orientations of lines and planes.

one in upper hemisphere and the other in lower hemisphere – spherical projections of the line. . • A line passing through the center of the sphere intersects the sphere at two points.Step I: Projection Sphere • Orientation rather than Position! • A plane passing the center of a sphere intersects the sphere with a great circle (a plane cutting a sphere but not passing its center intersects the sphere with a small circle). • The great circle is the spherical projection of the plane.

• The projection is called stereographic projection. or the bottommost point – Upper hemisphere projection. we project the spherical projections on to the equator plane.Step II: Stereographic Projection • In order to obtain a 2D projection. . • The viewpoint can be at the topmost point of the projection sphere: Lower hemisphere projection (used in structural geology). Sometimes both hemispheres are needed.

• Plotting planes as poles to the planes • Reading pitch of lines on their containing planes • Intersection line of two planes • Angle between two planes . • Reading the dip of a plane from its plot. • Plotting lines as points.Plotting Planes and Lines (in-class practice) • Plotting planes as great circles. • Reading the plunge of a line from its plot.

A OB f o OB line f eo ng Plu F B h Pitc H Real space P O Apparent dip of plane AOEP G δ E D C OA OF OB OH OC OG OD OE Spherical projection OA Plunge direction of OB OF Plunge of OB Pitch of OB OB OC OH Apparent dip of plane AOEP Plane AOEP OD Pole of plane AOEP δ OE OG Angle of dip Direction of dip Plane AOEP Stereographic projection .

No rth M Q Plunge of lineation P Real space rth No Intersection lineation M Q P Spherical projection North be gle An tween M & P Q P M Plane normal to intersection Stereographic projection Plunge of lineation Intersection lineation Direction of plunge (trend) .

Jiang’s office to ask questions… .• Please read the assigned materials about stereographic/equal area projection if you still have problems. Or you can come to Prof.