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UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL ACTION

Compiled by S.Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences

SOCIOLOGICAL MEANING It refers to an individual’s social behavior which is intended to influence the actions of one or more persons.

SOCIAL WORK /C.O. MEANING In the C.O. work, it is a group/collective/ organized effort to change social and economic conditions,

Any expenditure of effort by a group as such; all- conscious or unconscious, concerted or collective effort. The term ‘social’ means “interaction of individuals in society”, “mutual relations of men or classes”; it also includes political economic, cultural and ethical aspects. Used as a prefix to action, it carries the connotation of a collectivity and an organization working to achieve an end. The element of spontaneity and consciousness is particularly stressed by the term social.

Social action is not an alien concept to India, even though its origin is attributed to the west. The history of social action in this country dates back to eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when reformers fought against the evils of sati, child marriage, widowhood practices for women and
Lobbying is the practice of influencing decisions made by government. It includes all attempts to influence legislators and officials, whether by other legislators, constituents or organized groups. A lobbyist is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments often define and regulate organized group lobbying

Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

the devadasi system. Mahatma Gandhi with his principle of non-violence used social action to raise the status of women and dalits and brought about fundamental changes in social relationships in India. This legacy still continues as various contemporary, voluntary and professional groups are joining hands to oppose, or promote public policies and programs affecting the common people.Of late, social welfare discipline in India realized that it can’t make any dent in the field of mass poverty. Social was thus conceived as a method of social work when the inadequacy of welfare measures led to the need of social reform in the beginning of the present century in the west and around the 1960s in India
ASSUMPTIONS OF SOCIAL ACTION 1). Assumption regarding the present power structure. 2). Assumption regarding the nature of social welfare delivery mechanism 3). Assumption regarding the economic growth. 4). Assumption regarding the welfare state 5). Assumption regarding the nature of human problems. 6). Assumption regarding the human rights
1. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE PRESENT POWER STRUCTURE:

The advocates of ‘democracy’ feel that “contemporary democratic system” operating for the benefit of ‘most groups’ and consider the existing social structure fundamentally sound We claim that democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people. and responsive to the people’s needs. Whether But in reality democracy seems to be the it is true? Experience shows that Government is government off (silence) the people, buy the inaccessible to most of the people. Government people (to get votes) and far (away from) the has become a power center, with a vested people interest to maintain the status quo of the microscopic minority. Politics and Government is a power center, through which the rich and the powerful exercise control over the weak and the poor. This alienated men from the society become non-participants in the social life. This is not a healthy situation. To overcome this, the disadvantaged segments of the community need to be organized to gain more power to equitably distribute the resources and to attain the principles of democracy and social justice.
2. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE NATURE OF SOCIAL WELFARE DELIVERY MECHANISM:

Industrial revolution brought many benefits. Some gained the benefits. Many people fell behind. They became the victims of industrial revolution and they needed help to survive. Social work offered this help through provision of services. Social workers ‘helped’, ‘enabled’ and ‘even managed’ the victims of the system to adjust to it. Which is the right path? Advising the victims to adjust with the sick society or changing the system to adjust to the needs of the members.
3. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH:

There has been rising standard of life as a whole. But the distribution of income, it was felt was increasingly to the disadvantage of the poor section of the population. The oft quoted ‘Matthew effect’, i.e. ‘rich are becoming richer and poor are becoming poor’ was felt keenly. Improving economic condition along with social and psychological conditions of the poor was urgently sought, so that the poor could play equal and effective role in the society.
4. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE WELFARE STATE:

The welfare state is said to include all government functions that lead to intervention in the society for the sake of securing human well being with the exception of military intervention. But what is the nature of these interventions? The social services are products of, and responsive to a social order that values economic growth and political stability above human well being and
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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

uses social services and other helping professions try to preserve and strengthen the ideologies, behaviors and structures of the status quo. Impoverished group remains despite the welfare state.
5. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE NATURE OF HUMAN PROBLEMS

Welfare needs of the people can arise not because of any personal draw backs or shortcoming of the needy, they are caused by the inherent defects in the social system. Social action situates the problems of human rights and injustice in a systemic perspective. Personal troubles and public issues are interlinked. It must be understood in terms of public issues.
6. ASSUMPTION REGARDING THE HUMAN RIGHTS

Welfare services should be provided to the people as a matter of right, which they may be able to claim.
BASIC ASSUMPTION OF SOCIAL ACTION

There is a certain power center with a vested interest, which controls the policies and administration of welfare services in each country, which needs to be corrected.
From this we can derive three hypotheses 1. Welfare is a power game; through which the rich and the powerful exercise control over the weak and the poor. 2. The rich corner the gains of the welfare, but for that the poor has to pay. 3. There is no way to alleviate the situation unless one socializes the welfare and the clients of the system take over its administration. SOCIAL ACTION MEANING AND DEFINITIONS

The term ‘social’ means “interaction of individuals in society”, “mutual relations of men or classes”; it also includes political economic, cultural and ethical aspects. Used as a prefix to action, it carries the connotation of a collectivity and an organization working to achieve an end. The element of spontaneity and consciousness is particularly stressed by the term social.
DEFINITIONS: 1. DICTIONARY OF SOCILOGY:

Any expenditure of effort by a group as such; all-conscious or unconscious, concerted or collective effort

2. MARY RICHMOND (1922) Social action is mass betterment through propaganda and social legislation; a method of bringing about a change in the social environment of the clients. 3. PETER LEE (1937): Social action seems to suggest efforts directed towards changes in law or social structure or towards the initiation of new movements for the modification of current social practices. 4. LR GRACE. L. COYEE: Social action is the attempt to change the social environment in ways, which will make life more satisfactory. It aims to affect not individuals but social institutions, laws, customs and communities. 5. Social action is “a systematic, conscious effort directed to influence the basic social condition and policies out of which arise the problems of social adjustment and maladjustment to which our service as social workers is addressed. 6. Social action is described as an organized group effort to solve mass social problems or to further socially desirable objectives by attempting to influence the basic social and economic conditions or practices.
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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

7. Social action is a term applied to that aspect of organized social welfare activity directed towards shaping, modifying or maintaining the social institutions and policies that collectively constitute the better adjustment of the social environment.... To meet the recognized needs of the individuals and to facilitate those relationships and adjustments necessary to its own best functioning. 8. Social action may be defined as efforts to bring about change or to prevent change in current social practices and situations, through education, propaganda, persuasion or pressure on behalf of the objectives believed by the social scientists to be socially desirable. 9. Social action has been viewed by professional social workers as a means for improving mass conditions, enhancing social welfare, solving mass problems, influencing basic social conditions and policies out of which arise the problems of social adjustment and maladjustment; and changing the environment. 10. Social action may be defined as a public promotion of a cause, measure or objective in an effort to obtain support or official action. Ordinarily social action involves organized efforts to influence public opinion or official policy or executive action through enlistment of the support of groups or individuals. 11. Organized effort to change social and economic institutions as distinguished from social work or social service, the fields of which do not characteristically cover essential changes in established institutions. Social action covers movements of political reform, industrial democracy, social legislation, social justice, religious freedom and civil liberty. Its techniques include propaganda, research and lobbying. 12. Social action is an individual, group or community effort within the framework of social work philosophy and practices those aims to achieve social progress, to modify social policies, and to improve social legislation and health and welfare services. 13. MV MOORTHY: Social action is a series of endeavors concerned with awakening the people to see, as well as to foresee their own problems and attack them through the swift course of combined action or legislative enactment. 14. Social action as a strategy of limited social change at the intermediate and macro levels of society that is used in non consensus situations and employs both norm adhering and norm testing modes of intervention. 15. Social action is an organized and learned activity that attempt to influence social distribution of status, power and sources. 16. PHILIP KOTLER: Social action is defined as an undertaking of collective action to mitigate or resolve a social problem. 17. KK. JACOB: (1963) Social action is essentially an effort at initiating suitable changes and reforms to improve socio-economic conditions and to better the social climate. 18. TRESSIE ARANHA (1984): Social action is a type of social work intervention, where the change agent system (individual/group/organization) acts on behalf of the client system, to redress the injustice it is suffering, by seeking through a legitimate authority to bring about
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change in the social structures that are causing injustice.

19. G.A.A. BRITTO (1980): Social action is the method of social work which is used for/ with /by any unit of society larger than the sociologically defined communities. 20. G.A.A. BRITTO: Social action is a conflictual process of varying intensity, initiated and conducted by the masses or by a group of elites, with or without the participation of the masses in the action against the structures or institutions or policies or programs or procedures of the government and /or relevant agencies and/or power groups to eradicate/ control any mass socioeconomic political problem with a view to bringing betterment to any section of the under privileged at a level larger than that of a sociologically defined communities. 21. NANAVATHY (1965): Social action as a process of bringing about desired changes by deliberate group and community effort.... Social action does not end with the enactment and signing of social legislation, but that the execution of policies is the real test of the success or failure of social action.
22. SUGATA DAS GUPTA:

Social action is applied to that aspect of social welfare activity which is directed towards shaping or modifying the social institutions and policies that constitutes the social environment in which we live.

23. R.R. SINGH: Social action may be defined as a process of individual, institutional and/or group effort, spontaneous, self initiated or directed- which is designed at the grass roots or macro levels. To consciously and collectively deal with a situation considered unsatisfactory, through marshalling of appropriate resources and timely use of various participatory action strategies either within the legal framework or outside it. 24. H.Y. SIDDIQUI: Social action should be seen as an endeavor to bring about or prevent change in the social system through a process of making people aware of the socio political and economic realities conditioning their lives and by mobilizing them to organize themselves for bringing about the desired change, or to prevent the change that adversely affects them, through the use of whatever strategies they may find workable, with the exception of violence. In the process of social action, group work knowledge and skills will be utilized so also the techniques of community organization. But the process require additional knowledge and skills of bringing a wide variety of people and interest groups together in order to work for a common purpose; therefore the relevant skills would have to be specifically identified; this requires a very thorough understanding of the political and economic forces operating in a society and a very clear understanding or the goals to be achieved and probable strategies to be followed.
SCOPE AND GOALS OF SOCIAL ACTION:

• Scope of social action. is limited by the scope of social work • Scope of social action is limited by the understanding of the causative factors of human problems • Scope of social action. is determined by the convictions of the Social Worker

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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

Understanding Conventional

Marxist / radical

Causative factors Low level of economic development Individual inadequacy population explosion Production relationship

Remedy Economic growth Social services / counseling Changing the system.

GOALS OF SOCIAL ACTION

• • • • • • •

Prevention of changes considered as negative Solution to mass problems Improvement in mass conditions Influencing institutions, policies and practices Introduction of new mechanisms or programs Redistribution of power, resources, decision making Effect on thought and action.
Partial list of social action movements.

Animal rights movement Anti-consumerism Anti-war movement Anti-globalization movement Black Consciousness Movement Brahma Samaj Movement Charismatic movement Civil rights movement Conservation movement Counter-culture movement Co-operative movement Cultural movement Disability rights movement Ecology movement (Environmental movement) Ecofeminism Environmental Justice movement Environmental Movement Fair Trade movement Free software movement Free love Global justice movement Human rights movement Indigenous peoples movement Labor movement Landless Peoples Movement The landless workers' movement Non-cooperation movement Narmada Bacho Andolan Right to Life Student movement Squatting movement Women's liberation movement Prohibition or Temperance Movement Women's suffrage movement Treatment Action Campaign - movement struggling for HIV/AIDS treatment Neurodiversity movement advocating for the right of people who are considered neurally divergent LGBT social movements (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender social movements)

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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

Social Action in the Indian Context (Adapted from John Samuel) The nature and character of Social Action, to a large extent is shaped up by the political culture, social systems and the constitutional frame-work of the country in which it is being practised. It is the practice which makes the theory of social action and not vice versa. But the way we perceive and practise Social Action is determined by the ideological inclinations, historical settings and the value system of the proponents. One of the difficulties in getting clarity about the term social action is the fact that it is being widely and broadly used to signify a sweep of practices ranging from violent protest, report writing to lobbying, public interest litigations and civil disobedience. Though the process of advocacy encompasses one or more of such components, mistaking the use of one component to Social Action is to miss the woods for the trees. The concept and practice of Social Action in India can be located from three different streams; firstly, from the history of socio-religious reforms movement and nationalist struggle for the Indian independence; secondly, from the dynamics of political culture and social systems prevailing in the country for the last fifty years. And finally, the prevailing practices of Social Action by non-party political formations, social action and public interest groups. The entire arena of Social Action becomes functional and meaningful in relation to the constitutional framework, character of the State and the operating political culture. In the Indian context, the process of Social Action can be better understood by locating it in the historical, political and social practices and analysing it in relation to a representative parliamentary democratic constitutional framework. Social Action in India: A historical understanding The history of Social Action can be reconstructed from the social and political practices of public policy influencing for the last two hundred years. The history of conscious and organised sociopolitical actions for public policy change can be divided into four phases. 1. The first phase is that of socio-religious reform movement from 1800 to 1857, 2. the second phase from 1857 to 1920s is that of the emergence of a nationalist movement for the Indian independence, 3. the third phase from 1920 to 1950 is that of a mass based political movement for freedom struggle; and 4. the fourth phase is from 1950s to the emergency period of 1977. Social action as a practice is not nascent in India. The tradition of influencing public policy, for eradicating social evils, goes back to the nineteenth century social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The legacy of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Thanthai periyar and Ambedkar gives significant insight into the indigenous and effective advocacy methods practised during the preindependence period. In India, there have been social action efforts on issues related to environmental degradation, rights of the dalits and tribals, women’s rights and civil rights, nuclear installations, land alienation of tribals, child labour, unorganised working sector, drug and forest policies and many other issues. Advocacy Methods in the Indian Context In many of the relatively effective social action efforts, mass mobilisation, improvised methods of non-violent protest and persuasion, public interest litigation, legislative advocacy, lobbying the bureaucrats and media advocacy were strategically and simultaneously used to build up an effective public argument. In some of the ongoing campaigns like Save Narmada Movement, grassroots mobilisation was combined with other advocacy strategies such as activating global pressure through international advocacy groups and development lobbies (Srinivasan 1992).

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ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL ACTION
Cause: A social object/undertaking that change agents believe will provide some answer to the problem. 1. Helping the victims of the social maladies; concerned with provision of aid comfort or education 2. Identifying individuals/ institutions which contribute most of the social problems and altering their behavior 3. Identifying individuals/ institutions which contribute most of the social problems and eliminating them. Change Agent: An organization/ individual whose primary mission is to advance a social cause. Change Strategy: Basic mode of influence adopted by the change agent to affect the change target. 1. It attempts to produce behavioral compliance or cooperation in the change target through the use of agency controlled sanctions (not belief/value modification] creating desired behavior through Authority (E.g. Authority, Force, Payment.) 2. It attempts to induce the desired behavior in the change target through the social object (Persuading that desired behavior serves the natural interests of the change target through logical, emotional, moral appeals (E.g. Family Planning, etc.) 3. It attempts to induce the desired behavior in the change target through internalization of new beliefs or values (Permanent change). Change Target: Ways in which influence and response can be transmitted between change agents and change targets, Media influence response channels; Personal influence/response channels. 1. Individuals, Groups of institutions designated as the targets of change efforts. 2. Victims and offending institutions. For helping cause, target is client system; for protest cause the target is power system; for revolutionary cause the target is enemy system. Public, Government, Business, Professionals.

Causes of Social Action 1. Helping cause 2. Protest cause 3. Revolutionary cause

CHANGE AGENT

CHANGE STRATEGY 1. Power Strategies 2. Persuasive Strategies. 3. Ro-education Strategies

CHANGE TARGET 1.Ultimate Target 2.Intermediate Target

Social action is defined as an undertaking of collective action to mitigate or resolve a social problem – Philip Kotler.

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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

Types of Social Action
Dr. RR. Singh

Institutional/ Social institutional / Gandhian / Institutional [Social] / Populist/Movement Militant / Gentle Citizenship/Constructive/ Non-Violent / Non-violent / Model
Sugata Das Gupta

Not Non Violent / Non Violent
Dr. G.A.A. Britto

Elitist Model/ Popular Model Legislative Action model / Economic Sanction model/ Conscientization model/Direct Mobilization model / Physical Action model /Dialectic model

ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL ACTION
PROVISION OF HELPING CAUSE INDIVIDUALS INSTITUTIONS ALTERING THEIR BEHAVIOUR COMFOR AID EDUCATION

PRESENT POWER STRUCTURE SOCIAL WELFARE DELIVERY MECHAN I SM NATURE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH THE NATURE OF HUMAN PROBLEMS THE NATURE OF HUMAN RIGHTS THE NATURE OF WELFARE STATE

E L M E N T S

CAUSE

PROTEST CAUSE

IDENTIFYING

REVOLUTIONARY CAUSE LEADERS CHANGE AGENTS

IDENTIFYING

INDIVIDUALS INSTITUTIONS

ELIMINATING THEM

SUPPORTERS

SOCIAL ACTION

CREATING DESIRED BEHAVIOUR THROUGH AUTHORITY , FORCE SANCTIONS

POWER STRATEGY CREATING DESIRED BEHAVIOUR THRO’ LOGICAL, EMOTIONAL& MORAL APPEALS

PERSUASIVE STRTEGY

ASSUMPTIONS OF SOCIAL ACTION

CHANGE STRATEGY

RE- EDUCATION STRATEGY CHANGE TARGET ULTI MATE TARGET CHANNELS INTERMEDIATE TARGET INFLUENCE CHANNELS RESPONSE CHANNELS

CREATING NEW BEHAVIOUR THROUGH INTERNALISATION OF NEW BEHAVIOUR

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Advocacy
Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes — including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions — that directly affect people’s current lives. (Cohen, 2001) Therefore, advocacy can be seen as a deliberate process of speaking out on issues of concern in order to exert some influence on behalf of ideas or persons. Based on this definition, Cohen states that “ideologues of all persuasions advocate” to bring a change in people’s lives. However, advocacy has many interpretations depending on the issue at stake, which can be different from this initial value-neutral definition. Forms of advocacy There are several forms of advocacy, which each represent a different approach in the way change is brought into society. One of the most popular forms is social justice advocacy. Although it is true, the initial definition does not encompass the notions of power relations, people’s participation and a vision of a just society that promoted by social justice advocates. For them, advocacy represents the series of actions taken and issues highlighted to change the “what is” into a “what should be”, considering that this “what should be” is a more decent and a more just society (ib., 2001.) Those actions, which vary with the political, economical and social environment in which they are conducted, have several points in common (ib., 2001.) They: question the way policy is administered participate in the agenda setting as they raise significant issues target political systems “because those systems are not responding to people’s needs” are inclusive and engaging propose policy solutions open up space for public argumentation. Some of the other forms of advocacy include: • Ideological advocacy: in this approach, groups fight, sometimes during protests, to advance their ideas in the decision-making circles. • Mass advocacy: is any type of action taken by large groups (petitions, demonstrations, etc.) • Interest-group advocacy: lobbying is the main tool used by interests groups doing mass advocacy. It is a form of action that does not always succeed at influencing political decisionmakers as it requires resources and organization to be effective. • Bureaucratic advocacy: people considered “experts” have more chance to succeed at presenting their issues to decision-makers. They use bureaucratic advocacy to influence the agenda, however at a slower pace.
• • • • • •

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Promoting advocacy against violence on women

• Legislative advocacy: legislative advocacy is the “reliance on the state or federal legislative process” as part of a strategy to create change • Media advocacy: is “the strategic use of the mass media as a resource to advance a social or public policy initiative” (Jernigan and Wright, 1996.) Public Insurance campaigns illustrate how media advocacy was used to fight alcohol and tobacco-related health issues. • In a legal/law context: An 'advocate' is the title of a specific person who is authorized/appointed (in some way) to speak on behalf of a person in a legal process. • In a political context: An 'advocacy group' is an organized collection of people who seek to influence political decisions and policy, without seeking election to public office. • In a social care context: Both terms (and more specific ones such as 'independent advocacy') are used in the UK in the context of a network of interconnected organizations and projects which seek to benefit people who are in difficulty (primarily in the context of disability and mental health).

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In the context of inclusion: Citizen Advocacy organizations (citizen advocacy programs) seek to cause benefit by reconnecting people who have become isolated. Their practice was defined in two key documents: CAPE, and Learning from Citizen Advocacy Programs.

Advocacy groups Advocacy is led by advocates or, when they are organized in groups as is the case most of the time, advocacy groups. Advocacy groups as defined by Young and Everritt are different from political parties which "seek to influence government policy by governing." They are "any organization that seeks to influence government policy, but not to govern." This definition includes social movements, sometimes network of organizations which are also focused on encouraging social change. Social movements try to either influence governments or, like the environmental movement, to influence people’s ideas or actions. Today, advocacy groups contribute to democracy in many ways. They have five key functions:
• • • • •

Give a voice to (misrepresented) citizen interests Mobilize citizens to participate in the democratic process Support the development of a culture of democracy Assist in the development of better public policy Ensure governments’ accountability to citizens.

In comparison to other countries and other the last thirty years, an increasing number (40 percent) of the Canadian population is member of an organization which has had an advocacy role and has tried to achieve political change. Such a level of participation is a positive indicator of the health of the democracy in Canada

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SAUL ALINSKY

• • • •

Born: 30 January 1909 Birthplace: Chicago, Illinois Died: 12 June 1972 Best Known As: The father of community organizing

As Barack Obama was preparing to graduate from Columbia he wasn't sure what he wanted to do with the rest of his life. Finally, in 1983, he decided to follow in the footsteps of one of his heroes, radical leftist and communist fellow traveler, Saul Alinsky. He concluded, "That's what I'll do… I'll organize black folks at the grass roots… for change." Obama moved to Chicago, Alinsky's hometown, and established himself as a community organizer. Saul Alinsky served as the inspiration behind President Barack Obama's initiative to become a community organizer in Chicago. Oddly enough, another of Alinsky's most ardent admirers turned out to be the most popular woman Hillary Rodham Clinton. Her 1969 senior thesis at Wellesley College was titled, There Is Only The Fight: An Analysis of the Alinsky Model.

Social reformer. Born in Chicago on January 30, 1909. Alinsky graduated from the University of Chicago in 1930 and remained there for two additional years studying criminology. While employed as a social worker dealing with juvenile delinquents, and, from 1933 to 1936, as a criminologist with the Alinsky Quotes • Always remember the first rule of power tactics; power is not only Illinois state penal system, he what you have but what the enemy thinks you have. gained first-hand understanding • Change means movement. Movement means friction. Only in the of the roots of social pathologyfrictionless vacuum of a nonexistent abstract world can movement discrimination, disease, or change occur without that abrasive friction of conflict. unemployment, poor housing-and • History is a relay of revolutions. the workings of the poverty • Once you accept your own death, all of a sudden you're free to live. You no longer care about your reputation. You no longer care cycle. He had already done much except so far as your life can be used tactically to promote a cause fund raising and organizational you believe in. work for various reform • Tactics mean doing what you can with what you have. movements when he decided in • The greatest enemy of individual freedom is the individual himself. 1938 to make a career of such • We must believe that it is the darkest before the dawn of a beautiful work. Moving to the back of the new world. We will see it when we believe it. yards district of Chicago-a poor working –class area near the stockyards – he enlisted the aid of labor and religious leaders in forming the Back of the Yard Council, a citizens’ organization whose purpose was to act as a pressure bloc for social improvement. Using peaceful direct action tactics, the council succeeded in vastly improving conditions in the neighborhood and, more importantly, in demonstrating to
ALINSKY, SAUL DAVID (1909-1972),
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all who participated the realities of political and economic power and their own ability to use power to achieve their own legitimate ends. In 1940, Alinsky established the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) to serve as a reservoir of money, manpower, and expertise for community organizing. After serving as a consultant to various government agencies during World War II, he returned to the IAF and undertook community organizing in areas of poor and powerless neighborhoods across the country. Working always at the invitation of local groups, he concentrated on developing indigenous leadership and on instilling the notion of self-help. Firmly opposed to paternalism either on the part of the powerful or that of self-seeking “reformers,” he was a passionate and controversial exponent of radical democracy. Among the groups that benefited from his tireless and fearless efforts were Mexican Americans in California, black citizens of ghetto neighborhoods in Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City, Missouri, and Rochester and Buffalo, New York; and, in later years, residents of numerous white middle-class neighborhoods. His success was attested to both by the number of his ardent admirers and by the vehemence of the attacks made on him by those opposed to change. Among his published works 1. "Never go outside the expertise of your people.
When an action or tactic is outside the experience of the people, the result is confusion, fear and retreat.... [and] the collapse of communication. 2. "Whenever possible, go outside the expertise of the enemy. Look for ways to increase insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty. (This happens all the time. Watch how many organizations under attack are blind-sided by seemingly irrelevant arguments that they are then forced to address.) 3. "Make the enemy live up to its own book of rules. You can kill them with this, for they can no more obey their own rules than the Christian church can live up to Christianity." 4. "Ridicule is man's most potent weapon. It is almost impossible to counteract ridicule. Also it infuriates the opposition, which then reacts to your advantage." 5. "A good tactic is one your people enjoy." 6. "A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag. Man can sustain militant interest in any issue for only a limited time...." 7. "Keep the pressure on, with different tactics and actions, and utilize all events of the period for your purpose." 8. "The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself." operations that will maintain 9. "The major premise for tactics is the development of Action is concerned with how toacreate Social constant pressure upon the opposition. It is this unceasing pressure that results in the mass organizations to seize power and give it reactions from the opposition that are essential for the success of the campaign." to the people; to realize the democratic dream of it will break through into its counter on 10. "If you push a negative hard and deep enough,equality, justice, peace.... "Better to dieside... every positive has its negative." your feet than to live on your knees.' This 11. "The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative." –Alinsky means revolution 12. Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it. In conflict tactics there are certain rules that [should be regarded] as universalities. One is that the opposition must be singled out as the target and 'frozen.'...

were Reveille for Radicals, 1947, and Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals, 1971. Alinsky died at his home in Carmel, California, on June 12, 1972. Alinsky’s Philosophy and approach: 1). The poor, the powerless, the deprived have the fight to decide for themselves; how they should live and what services should be offered to them (i.e., The Right to Self determination) 2). The poor can solve their own problems, if given the opportunity and the means (The ability of the poor to solve their own problems) 3). In order to do this, the poor must have power (Power is the means to solve the problems) 4). There are two sources of power – money and people. Poor people don’t have money, so their
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only source of power is themselves. Therefore they must organize. (The Source of Power is their numbers and their organization) 5). The people’s organization is based on self-interest. Self interest means seeking power (The basic goal of organization is to seek power) 6). The poor people organization uses direct action methods. It engages in conflict with those whom it sees as exploiters and enemies of the poor. It uses conflict as a deliberate strategy (They use conflict as a deliberate strategy to gain power).
"The first step in community organization is community disorganization. The disruption of the present organization is the first step toward community organization. Present arrangements must be disorganized if they are to be displace by new patterns.... All change means disorganization of the old and organization of the new." "An organizer must stir up dissatisfaction and discontent... He must create a mechanism that can drain off the underlying guilt for having accepted the previous situation for so long a time. Out of this mechanism, a new community organization arises....

Social Action—Alinsky & Gandhi The goal of social action is to transfer ‘power’/ and or to destablish the establishment. This goal can be achieved only by a straight, hard hitting conflict with the establishment. How to hit the establishment? It is over this the two models of social action (Alinsky & Gandhian model) differ Alinsky Destroying the individual who holds the power. Attacking the person who heads the establishment Ends should justify the means Inducing anger and hatred Defeating the enemy Secrecy is maintained in the program Planning The purpose is to make the system more functional. Attempt to change the structure of the social policy. Mahatma Gandhi Destroying the value system which keeps the power Not to crush the individual. Purpose is to change the system. Protecting the body and psyche of the so called enemy Means should justify the ends Based on love and satyagraha Winning over the enemy No secrecy. The purpose of the program is transparent Attempt to change the entire pattern of the community organization, bring political decentralization, simpler and more relevant technologies, de-institu -tionalization and deprofessionalization of the welfare system

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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

Principles followed in Gandhian Social Action
Gestures of Good Will towards the opponents Example setting Selection of typical urgently felt problems for struggles Gaining success in the attempt Theological and religious approach Moral approach Legal Technical approach Use of songs Powerful speeches Role of women Slogans Education strategy Persuasive strategy Facilitative strategy Power strategy Constructive programs Satyagraha

Principle of credibility building

Principle of Legitimization

Principle of dramatization

Principle of multiple strategies Principle of dual approach Principle of manifold programs

References 1.Siddiqui.H.Y. [Ed] Social Work and Social Action, New Delhi, Harnam Publications.[1984] 2. Singh.R.R. Reorienting Social Work Education For Social Action in 1 3 Britto.G.A.A. Some Principles of Social Action in @ 1 4 Perspectives in Social Work, Vol. XI No 2 May- Aug, 1996, Special Issue on Social Advocacy, College of Social Work, Nirmala Niketan. 5. National Center for Advocacy Studies, Pune. 6. Advocacy Movements for Health, Housing, Environment, Women & Children’s Rights, Farmers, Dalits, Human Rights.

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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

More about Social Action
Civil Disobedience, refusal to obey civil laws or decrees. This refusal usually takes the form of passive resistance. People practicing civil disobedience break a law because they consider the law unjust, wants to call attention to its injustice, and hope to bring about its repeal or amendment. They are also willing to accept any penalty, such as imprisonment, for breaking the law. Two notable examples of progress were achieved through the practice of civil disobedience in the mid-20th century. The first, the independence of India, was largely a result of the Satyagraha (Sanskrit, “truth and firmness”), programs of nonviolent resistance by Mohandas Gandhi to the British colonial laws. The second involved civil rights legislation in the United States, in which the nonmilitant efforts of Martin Luther King, Jr., played a primary role. Hunger Strike, voluntary fast undertaken as a means of protest. Hunger strikes are employed as a political weapon designed to bring notoriety to a cause and thereby apply pressure for change. Protest, expression of dissent or disapproval, especially in a formal way. Passive Resistance, to oppose or challenge a government, an occupying power, or specific laws by nonviolent methods. Fasting, demonstrating in protest, and refusal to comply with orders or laws are examples of passive resistance. refusal to obey laws or decrees, Civil Disobedience protest through abstaining from food, Fasting refusal to trade or associate with another organization, group, individual, or nation, Boycott particular incidents where passive resistance was utilized, India: Gandhi's Protest Movement; notable proponents of passive resistance, see Mohandas Gandhi; Martin Luther King, Jr.; Rajendra Prasad; Henry David Thoreau; Leo Tolstoy: Tolstoy's Moral Philosophy Nonviolence, doctrine or practice of rejecting violence in favor of peaceful tactics as a means of gaining political or social objectives. adherents of nonviolence, Asoka; Dalai Lama; Mohandas Gandhi; Indian National Congress; Kenneth Kaunda; Martin Luther King, Jr.; Albert John Luthuli; Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee specific uses of nonviolent tactics, India: Gandhi’s Protest Movement; Prague religious aspects of nonviolence, Jainism; Anabaptists Addams, Jane (1860-1935), American social reformer and Nobel laureate, born in Cedarville, Illinois, and educated at Rockford Female Seminary and Women's Medical College and in Europe. In 1889, with Ellen Starr, Addams established Hull House in Chicago, one of the first settlement houses in the U.S. Addams played a prominent part in the formation of the National Progressive Party in 1912 and of the Woman's Peace Party, of which she became chairperson in 1915. She was elected (1915) president of the International Congress of Women at The Hague, Netherlands, and president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, which was established by The Hague congress. She was a delegate to similar congresses held in Zürich, Switzerland (1919); Vienna, Austria (1921); The Hague, Netherlands (1922); Washington, D.C. (1924); Dublin, Ireland (1926); and Prague, Czech Republic (1929). She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, sharing the award with the American educator Nicholas Murray Butler. Her works include Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), Twenty Years at Hull House (1910), and The Second Twenty Years at Hull House
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Understanding Social Action - Social Action for Social Workers -_S.Rengasamy

(1930). Reformers, people who seek to change society or one of its institutions in order to help it recover or realize its original ideals. Reformers differ from revolutionaries in wanting to repair rather than destroy the existing social order. Alternating periods of reform and the increasing need for it have characterized all lasting institutions of government and religion. For information on: Nader, Ralph (1934- ), American lawyer and consumer-protection advocate, born in Winsted, Connecticut, and educated at Princeton and Harvard universities. His campaign against questionable manufacturing and design practices in the automobile industry brought him to national attention in the mid-1960s, when he published Unsafe at Any Speed (1965; revised ed. 1972). His work provided the primary impetus for the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. Other issues of corporate ethics and human safety to which he has drawn attention include environmental pollution; the danger of atomic energy plants; health hazards in food, medicine, and occupations; fraud; and the secrecy and immunities of large companies. He contributed to the enactment of the Wholesome Meat Act in 1967 Nader became a leader in the consumer-protection movement. He organized investigative teams of young lawyers, consumer specialists, and students, popularly called Nader's Raiders, to conduct surveys of numerous companies, federal agencies, and the U.S. Congress. Nader is a controversial figure; his investigations have at times been criticized as superficial and biased against big business and government.

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