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Cambridge University Press 0521548993 - Further Pure 2 and 3 Hugh Neill and Douglas Quadling Frontmatter More information

Further Pure 2 & 3


Hugh Neill and Douglas Quadling
Series editor Hugh Neill

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Cambridge University Press 0521548993 - Further Pure 2 and 3 Hugh Neill and Douglas Quadling Frontmatter More information

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, S ao Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521548991
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Cambridge University Press 2005

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2005 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN-13 978-0-521-54899-1 paperback ISBN-10 0-521-54899-3 paperback Cover image
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Cambridge University Press 0521548993 - Further Pure 2 and 3 Hugh Neill and Douglas Quadling Frontmatter More information

Contents
Introduction Module FP2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Further Pure 2 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions Rational functions Maclaurin series Hyperbolic functions Graphs of rational functions Polar coordinates Revision exercise 1 Series and integrals Approximations and errors The NewtonRaphson method Integration using trigonometric functions Reduction formulae Revision exercise 2 Module FP3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Further Pure 3 First order differential equations Lines and planes Linear differential equations The vector product Complex numbers in polar form Revision exercise 3 De Moivres theorem Further trigonometry Calculus with complex numbers Groups Subgroups Isomorphisms of groups Revision exercise 4 Practice examinations for FP3 Answers to FP2 Answers to FP3 Index 217 238 262 278 294 317 320 336 359 369 391 407 419 422 426 440 456 The graph of y = f(x)
2

page iv

3 19 34 53 76 93 117 120 133 151 166 186 197 207 211

Practice examinations for FP2

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Cambridge University Press 0521548993 - Further Pure 2 and 3 Hugh Neill and Douglas Quadling Frontmatter More information

Introduction
Cambridge Advanced Level Mathematics has been written especially for the OCR modular examination. It consists of one book or half-book corresponding to each module. This book combines the last two Pure Mathematics modules, FP2 and FP3. The OCR specication does not require that FP2 is taken before FP3. In this book, the modules are almost independent, and large parts of FP3 can be tackled before FP2. The books are divided into chapters roughly corresponding to syllabus headings. Some sections include work which goes beyond the examination specication. These sections are marked with an asterisk ( ) in the section heading. Occasionally within the text paragraphs appear in a grey box. These paragraphs are usually outside the main stream of the mathematical argument, but may help to give insight, or suggest extra work or different approaches. References are made throughout the text to previous work in modules C1 to C4. It is expected that students still have access to these books in the classroom, even if they do not have a copy for their personal use. Numerical work is presented in a form intended to discourage premature approximation. In ongoing calculations inexact number appear in decimal form like 3.456... signifying that the number is held in a calculator to more places than are given. Numbers are not rounded at this stage; the full display could be, for example, 3.456 123 or 3.456 789. Final answers are then stated with some indication that they are approximate, for example 3.46 correct to 3 signicant gures. There are plenty of exercises, and each chapter contains a Miscellaneous exercise which includes some questions of examination standard. There are also two Revision exercises for each module, with many questions taken from OCR examination papers, and two practice examination papers for each module. The authors thank Lawrence Jarrett and Richard Davies, who read the book very carefully and made many extremely useful comments, and OCR and Cambridge University Press, in particular Rufus Curnow, for their help in producing this book. However, the responsibility for the text, and for any errors, remains with the authors.

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Module FP2
Further Pure 2

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1 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions


Throughout the course you have gradually been increasing the number of functions that you can differentiate and integrate. This chapter extends this development to inverse trigonometric functions. When you have completed it, you should

r know the derivatives of tan1 x, sin1 x and cos1 x r know the integrals corresponding to these derivatives

r be familiar with other inverse trigonometric functions and relations between them r use these relations to differentiate other inverse trigonometric functions. 1.1 The inverse tangent
The simplest of the inverse trigonometric functions to differentiate is tan1 x. You can do this directly from the denition, that y = tan1 x is the number such that tan y = x and 1 <y< 2
1 2

You know, from a general result about inverse functions (see C3 Section 2.9) that its graph is <x< 1 . the reection in the line y = x of the part of the graph of y = tan x for which 1 2 2 This is shown in Fig. 1.1.
y
1 2

y = tan1 x

1 2
Fig. 1.1

The equation tan y = x is not in the form y = . . . , but it can be differentiated using the method for curves dened implicitly described in C4 Chapter 8. The derivative with respect to x of dy tan y is sec2 y , and the derivative of x is 1, so dx tan y = x sec2 y dy =1 dx 1 dy = . dx sec2 y

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4

Further Pure 2

But this isnt really satisfactory. When you differentiate y = tan1 x, you expect an answer in terms of x, not y. However, this is easily dealt with. Since sec2 y = 1 + tan2 y, and tan y = x, sec2 y = 1 + x2 , so 1 dy . = dx 1 + x2

1 d . tan1 x = dx 1 + x2 It is interesting that the derivative of tan1 x is not any sort of trigonometric function, but a 1 rational function. This may remind you of what happens with ln x, whose derivative doesnt x involve logarithms or exponentials. Notice that, since 1 + x2 1, the gradient of the graph in Fig. 1.1 is less than or equal to 1 throughout its length. Example 1.1.1 Differentiate with respect to x

(a) tan1 1 x, 3

(b) tan1 x2 .

Both derivatives can be found by using the chain rule. (a) 1 d tan1 1 x= 3 dx 1+ 1 x 3
2

1 3

To write this more simply, multiply top and bottom of the fraction by 9, to get 9 1 3 d 3 = tan1 1 x= . 3 2 dx 9 + x2 9 1+ 1 x 9 (b) 1 2x d tan1 x2 = 2x = . dx 1 + ( x 2 )2 1 + x4

1 3 . +1 x2 9

Example 1.1.2 Find tan1 x dx

In C4 Example 2.1.3,

using integration by parts. This works because the derivative of ln x is a rational function of x, and doesnt involve a logarithm. You can nd tan1 x dx in a similar way, and for the same reason. dv = 1, so that v = x, dx 1 x d x. 1 + x2

ln x dx was found by writing the integrand as ln x 1 and

Writing u = tan1 x and

tan1 x dx = tan1 x x

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1 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions
5

You should recognise this last integral,

f ( x) dx, which is ln |f(x)| + k (see C4 Section 2.4). So f(x) x dx = 1 + x2 So


1 2

x dx, as a constant multiple of the form 1 + x2

2x dx = 1 + x2
1 2

1 2

ln(1 + x2 ) + k.

tan1 x dx = x tan1 x

ln(1 + x2 ) k.

1.2

Inverse sine and cosine


The method of differentiating sin1 x and cos1 x is similar to that for tan1 x, but there are some small complications. The easier and more important is sin1 x, so begin with this. The denition is that y = sin1 x is the number such that sin y = x and 1 y 1 . 2 2

Its graph is shown in Fig. 1.2. The domain of the function is 1 x 1.


y
1 2

y = sin 1 x

1 1 2

Fig. 1.2

Differentiating this equation by the implicit method gives sin y = x cos y dy =1 dx dy 1 = . dx cos y

Again this derivative has to be expressed in terms of x, and this time the relation you want is cos2 y + sin2 y = 1, so that cos y = 1 sin2 y, which is 1 x2 . But should the sign be + or ? To answer this, look at the graph in Fig. 1.2. You can see that the gradient of the graph is always positive, so the + sign must be chosen. So replacing cos y by 1 x2 , 1 dy = . dx 1 x2

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6

Further Pure 2

Example 1.2.1 Find the domains, and the derivatives with respect to x, of (a) sin1 1 x, 5 (b) sin1 (1 x).

x (a) The domain of sin1 x is 1 x 1, so the numbers in the domain of sin1 1 5 x 1. The domain is therefore 5 x 5. must satisfy the inequalities 1 1 5 Using the chain rule, d sin1 1 x= 5 dx = = 1 1
2 1 x 5

1 5

1
1 2 x 25

5 1

1
1 2 x 25

1 . = 25 x2 (b) The numbers in the domain of sin1 (1 x) must satisfy the inequalities 1 1 x and 1 x 1, that is x 2 and x 0. The domain is therefore 0 x 2. Using the chain rule, d sin1 (1 x) = dx = 1 1 (1 x)2 1 (1)

25 1

1 (1 2x + x2 ) 1 = . 2 x x2

You can nd the derivative of cos1 x using the same method as for sin1 x. This is left for you to do for yourself in Exercise 1A Question 7. But there is an even easier way.
y y = cos 1 x
1 2

y=1 4 1 y = sin 1 x 1 2
Fig. 1.3

1 x

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1 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions
7

Figure 1.3 shows the graphs of y = sin1 x and y = cos1 x drawn using the same axes. You can see that the graphs are reections of each other in the line y = 1 . So, for each value of x, the 4 gradient of y = cos1 x is minus the gradient of y = sin1 x. That is, d 1 d cos1 x = sin1 x = . dx dx 1 x2 If 1 < x < 1, d 1 sin1 x = dx 1 x2

and

d 1 cos1 x = . dx 1 x2

The derivatives of tan1 x, sin1 x and cos1 x are important and you should remember them.

You may be surprised that the derivatives of sin1 x and cos1 x are stated for 1 < x < 1, and not for the whole domain 1 x 1. It is easy to see why from Fig. 1.3. When x = 1 and x = 1 the tangents to the graphs are parallel to the 1 y-axis, so that the gradient is undened. Also of course has no meaning 1 x2 for these values of x.

Exercise 1A
1 Find the derivatives of the following with respect to x. (a) tan1 2x (e) sin1 x (b) sin1 1 x 3 1 (f) tan (x x) (c) x tan1 x (g) sin1 1 x2 (d) (sin1 x)2

2 Find the minimum point of the graph of y = x2 4 tan1 x. 3 State the natural domain (that is, the largest possible domain) of the function f(x) = 5x 3 sin1 x. Find the turning points on the graph of y = f(x), and sketch the graph. Hence nd the range of the function. 4 Repeat Question 3 for the function f(x) = 5x 4 sin1 x. 5 The tangent to y = (tan1 x)2 at the point where x = 1 cuts the y-axis at the point P . Find the y-coordinate of P . 6 Find the maximum value of f(x) = (sin1 x)2 cos1 x in the interval 0 < x < 1. 7 Find d d cos1 x by the method used in Section 1.2 to nd sin1 x. dx dx

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8

Further Pure 2

1.3

The corresponding integrals


The derivatives in Sections 1.1 and 1.2 can also be interpreted as integrals. From d 1 it follows that tan1 x = dx 1 + x2 1 dx = tan1 x + k. 1 + x2

And from

1 d sin1 x = you can deduce dx 1 x2 1 dx = sin1 x + k. 1 x2

d 1 1 cos1 x = to obtain dx = cos1 x + k , 2 dx 1x 1 x2 but there is no point in using two different forms for the same integral, and sin1 x + k is simpler. What is the connection between k and k ? You could also use Example 1.3.1 1 1 d x. Find 1 + x2 0
1 0

1 1 dx = tan1 x 0 1 + x2 = tan1 1 tan1 0 =

0 = .
1 4

1 4

1 for 0 x 1, and 1 + x2 identify the area represented by the integral in Example 1.3.1. It is interesting that the number appears in calculating an area which has nothing to do with a circle. Use a graphic calculator to display the graph of y = Example 1.3.2 1 1 d x. Find 1 x2 0

1 This integral needs a little more care. Notice that the integrand is not dened 1 x2 when x = 1, because 1 12 = 0. So this is an improper integral, and it must be calculated as a limit. 1 1 x2

Use a graphic calculator to display the graph of y =

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1 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions
9

Begin by nding, for a number s such that 0 < s < 1,


s 0

1 1 x2

dx = sin1 x = sin1 s.

s 0

= sin1 s sin1 0
1 2

The graph of y = sin1 x in Fig. 1.2 shows that, as x 1, sin1 x


1 0

. So

1 1 x2

dx = lim
s 1 s 1 1 2

1 dx 1 x2 0 = lim(sin1 s ) =

You will nd that you often want to nd integrals like those at the beginning of this section in 1 1 a slightly more general form, as dx or dx, where a is a positive number. a2 + x 2 a2 x 2 dx It is easy to do this by using the substitution x = au. Then = a, so du 1 dx = a2 + x 2 1 a du a2 + a2 u2 a = du a2 (1 + u2 ) 1 1 = du a 1 + u2 1 = tan1 u + k a 1 x = tan1 + k, a a 1 a du 2 a a2 u2 a du a2 (1 u2 ) a 1 du a 1 u2 sin1 u + k x sin1 + k. a

and 1 dx = 2 a x2 = = = =

You will need to remember these results, either in the forms given at the beginning of the section or in these more general forms. If a > 0, 1 x 1 dx = tan1 + k, a2 + x 2 a a 1 x dx = sin1 + k. 2 2 a a x

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10

Further Pure 2

1 for 2 x 2. Find the volume of the solid formed 4 + x2 when the region bounded by this curve and parts of the lines x = 2, x = 2 and the x-axis is rotated though a complete revolution about the x-axis. Figure 1.4 shows the graph of y =
y y= 1 4 + x2 x
Fig. 1.4

Example 1.3.3

The volume is given by the integral


2 2

y2 d x =

(1 ( 1 )) 4 4 1 1 1 2 = 2 2 = 4 .
= The volume of the solid is
1 4

1 dx 2 2 4 + x x 2 tan1 = 1 2 2 2 1 = 1 (tan 1 tan1 (1)) 2


1 2

2.

Example 1.3.4 1 Find dx, where a and b are positive constants. a2 b2 x2 If bx is written as au, then a2 b2 x2 becomes au a 1 u2 . So, substituting x = , b 1 dx = 2 a b2 x2 a2 a2 u2 , which simplies to

1 a 1 1 du = du 2 b b a 1u 1 u2 1 bx 1 + k. = sin1 u + k = sin1 b b a

Example 1.3.5 1 1 d x. Find 2 + 6x + 5 9 x 1

Since 9x2 + 6x + 5 = (3x + 1)2 + 4, substitute 3x + 1 = 2u. Then


2 1

dx = 2 ; also when 3 du x = 1 and 1, u = 1 and 2 respectively. So the integral becomes 4u2 1 2 du = +4 3


1 6 2 1

= 1 (tan1 2 tan1 (1)) = 1 (tan1 2 + tan1 1). 6 6

1 du = u2 + 1

1 6

tan1 u

2 1

If you want a numerical answer, dont forget to put your calculator into radian mode. The value is 0.315, correct to 3 decimal places.

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1 Differentiating inverse trigonometric functions
11

Exercise 1B
1 Evaluate the following denite integrals. Give each answer as an exact multiple of if possible; otherwise give the answer correct to 3 signicant gures. 3 5 1 1 1 1 (c) dx (b) d x dx (a) 2 2 4 + x2 25 + x 1 4x 0 1 (d)
1 3

1 dx 3 + x2

(e)
0

2 x2

dx

(f)

25 x2

dx

3 Find the following improper integrals. (a)


0 5

2 Find the following innite integrals. 1 1 (b) dx (a) d x 2 9 + x2 1 + x 0 1 1 25 x2 dx (b)


3 3

(c)

2 1

1 dx 100 + x2 1 4 x2 dx

5 By completing the square and then using a substitution of the form x = a + bu, nd the following indenite integrals. 1 1 1 (c) dx (b) dx (a) dx 2 2 2 4x 12x + 25 x + 6x + 13 x + 2x + 2 (d) 1 dx 5 4 x x2 (e) 1 dx 8 + 6 x 9 x2 (f) 1 dx 10x x2

4 Use a substitution of the form x = cu for a suitable value of c to nd the following indenite integrals. 1 1 1 (b) dx dx (c) (a) dx 2 2 9 + 4x 4 9x 1 4 x2 1 1 1 (f) dx (e) dx dx (d) 2 + 3 x2 1 + 9 x2 4 5 x2

1 dx 9 x2

(c)

6 Evaluate the following denite integrals. Give your answers to 3 signicant gures. In some parts you may need to use one of the methods described in Question 4 and Question 5. (a)
0 2

(d)
0

1 dx x2 + 25

(b)
1

(g) 7 Find

1 1

1 dx 3 + 2 x x2

1 dx 9 + 25x2

(e)
1

1 dx 1 + 16x2 1 9 x2 1 4 x2 dx dx

(c) (f)
0

1 1 1

1 dx x2 6x + 25 1 16 9x2 1 4 x x2 dx

(h)

0.5 0.5

8 Show that the rule

1 x 1 dx = tan1 + k remains true if a < 0, but that a2 + x 2 a a 1 x dx = sin1 + k doesnt. 2 2 a a x

1 dx, where a and b are positive constants. a2 + b2 x2

(i)
1

dx

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