RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Business research: The systematic and objective process of gathering, recording, and analyzing data for aid in making business decision. Basic (Pure) research: Research that is intended to expand the of boundary of knowledge itself or to verify the acceptibility of a given theory. Applied research: Research undertaken to answer questions about specific problems or to make decisions about a particular course of action or policy decision.

VISUAL AIDS SUCH AS TABLES. RESEARCH REPORT: A PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS DIRECTED TO A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE TO ACCOMPLISH A SPECIFIC PURPOSE. • • • . REPORT FORMAT: THE GENERAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION FOR THE PARTS OF A WRITTEN OR ORAL RESEARCH REPORT. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. ORAL PRESENTATION: A SPOKEN SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS.COMMUNICATION. CHARTS. BAR CHART ETC. IT MAY CONTAIN EFFECTIVE VISUAL AIDS TO CLARIFY A COMPLEX POINT OR TO EMPHASIZE A MESSAGE. GIVEN TO CLIENTS OR LINE MANAGERS TO PROVIDE THEM WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO CLARIFY ANY AMBIGUOUS ISSUES BY ASKING QUESTIONS. LINE GRAPH. PRESENTATION AND FOLLOW UP • COMMUNICATION PROCESS: THE PROCESS BY WHICH ONE PERSON OR SOURCE SENDS A MESSAGE TO AN AUDIENCE OR RECEIVER AND THEN RECEIVES FEEDBACK ABOUT THE MESSAGE. PIE CHART. REPORT FORMAT.

SECONDARY DATA STUDIES. OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES. EXPERIMENTS. RESEARCH PROPOSAL: A WRITTEN STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN THAT INCLUDES A STATEMENT EXPLAINING THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND DETAILED SYSTEMATIC OUTLINE OF A PARTICULAR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. IT IS THE FRAMEWORK OR THE BLUE PRINT.RESEARCH PROPOSAL AND RESEARCH DESIGN • • • RD IS THE MASTER PLAN SPECIFYING THE METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING AND ANALYSING THE NEEDED INFO. SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DEDIGN: SURVEYS. .

Performance monitoring research: Research that regularly provides feedback for evaluation and control of business activity. • EVALUATION RESEARCH: The formal objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given activity. Data: Recorded measures of certain phenomena. Information: A body of facts that are in a format suitable for decision making.Scientific method: Techniques or procedures used to analyse the emperical evidence in an attempt to or disprove prior conceptions. Research Proposal: A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study and a detailed systematic outline of a particular research methodology. • • • • . project or program has achieved its objective.

PRIMARY DATA: DATA GATHERED AND ASSEMBLEDSPECEFICALLY FOR THE RESEARCH PROJECT AT HAND. SAMPLE: A SUBSET OR SOME PART OF A LARGER POPULATION. FIELDWORK PROCEDURES AND DATA ANALYSIS EFFORTS. • RESEARCH DESIGN: A MASTER PLAN SPECIFYING THE METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING AND ANALYSING THE NEEDED INFORMATION. THE DEFINATION OF WHAT THE RESEARCH SHOULD ACCOMPLISH.DATA COLLECTION METHODS. PRETEST: A TRIAL RUN FOR A GROUP OF RESPONDENTS USED TO SCREEN OUT PROBLEMS IN THE INTRUCTIONS OR DESIGN OF A QUESTIONNAIRE. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A DISCUSSION WITHIN THE BODY OF A RESEARCH REPORT OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: THE PURPOSE OF A RESEARCH EXPRESSES IN MEASURABLE TERMS. SECONDARY DATA: DATA THAT HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY COLLECTED FOR SOME PURPOSE OTHER THAN THE ONE AT HAND. RESEARCH REPORT: A PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS DIRECTED TO A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE TO ACCOMPLISH A SPECIFIC PURPOSE.RESEARCH: ANY EFFORT WHICH IS DIRECTED TO STUDY FOR BETTER RESULTS. RESEARCH IS AN ORGANISED SET OF ACTIVITIES TO STUDY AND DEVELOP A MODEL OR PROCEDURE/TECHNIQUE TO FIND THE RESULTS OF A REALISTIC PROBLEMSUPPORTED BY LITERATURE AND DATASO THAT OBJECTIVES ARE OPTIMESED AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE FOR IMPLEMENTATION. • • • • • • • .

DATA ANALYSIS. • • • • • • • 1.DATA COLLECTION 5. 7. OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH. .RESEARCH DESIGN. 6. PROBLEM DEFINATION.RESEARCH PROCESS. 3. 4. 2.INTREPRETATION OF THE RESULT. VALIDATION OF RESULT.

• • • • • . AFFECTIVE COMPONENT REFLECTS ONE’S GENERAL FEELINGS OR EMOTIONS TOWARDS AN OBJECT. COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIOURAL COMPONENTS. RULE OF MEASUREMENT: AN INSTRUCTION TO GUIDE ASSIGNMENT OF A NUMBER OR OTHER MEASUREMENT DESIGNATION. MEASUREMENT AND SCALE • ATTITUDE: AN ENDURING DISPOSITION TO CONSISTENTLY IN A GIVEN MANNER TO THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE WORLD. COGNITIVE COMPONENT REPRESENTS ONE’S AWARENESS OF AND KNOWLWDGE ABOUT AN OBJECT. REFLECTS A PREDISPOSITION TO ACTION.ATTITUDE. BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT INCLUDES BUYING INTENTENTIONS AND BEHAVIOURAL EXPECTIONS. COMPOSED OF AFFECTIVE. SCALE: A SCALE MAY BE DEFINED AS A SERIES OF ITEMS THAT ARE ARRANGED PROGRESSIVELY ACCORDING TO VALUE OR MAGNITUDE INTO WHICH AN ITEM CAN BE PLACED ACCORDING TO ITS QUALIFICATION.

VOICE PITCH ANALYSER ETC. • • • • • • • • . TRAFFIC COUNTERS & OTHER M/CS TO RECORD BEHAVIOUR. THE INVESTIGATOR DOES NOT CREATE AN ARTIFICIAL SITUATION. DIRECT OBSERVATION: A STRAIGHTFORWARD ATTEMPT TO OBSERVE AND RECORD WHAT NATURALLY OCCURS. A HYPOTHESIS. CONTRIVED OBSERVATION: OBSERVATION IN WHICH THE INVESTIGATOR CREATES AN ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENT IN ORDER TO TEST PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION: SITUATION IN WHICH AN OBSERVER GAINS FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE BY BEING IN OR AROUND THE SOCIAL SETTING BEING INVESTGATED. OBSERVER BIAS. MECHANICAL OBSERVATION: THIS USES VIDEO CAMERA. A DISTORTATION OF MEASUREMENT RESULTING FROM THE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR OR ACTIONS OF THE WITNESSING OBSERVER. HIDDEN OBSERVATION:SITUATION IN WHICH THE OBSERVER IS UNWARE THAT OBSERVATION IS TAKING PLACE. VISIBLE OBSERVATION: SITUATION IN WHICH THE OBSERVER’S PRESENCE IS KNOWN TO THE SUBJECT.OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENT • SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION: THE SYSTEMATIC PROCESS OF RECORDING THE BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF PEOPLE. OTHER INTRUMENTS: PUPILOMETER. OBJECTS AND OCCURANCES AS THEY ARE WITNESSED. PSYCHOGALVANOMETER.

.EXPERIMENT: A RESEARCH METHOD IN WHICH CONDITIONS ARE CONTROLLED SO THAT ONE OR MORE VARIABLES CAN BE MANIPULATED IN ORDER TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS. • • EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: THE GROUP OF SUBJECTS EXPOSED TO AN EXPERIMENT TREATMENT. CONTROL GROUP: A GROUP OF SUBJECTS WHO ARE EXPOSED TO THE CONTROL CONDITION IN AN EXPERIMENT THAT IS THEY ARE SUBJECTS NOT EXPOSED TO THE EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT. EXPERIMENTATION IS A RESEARCH METHOD THAT ALLOWS EVALUATION OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VARIABLES.

ORDINAL SCALE: A SCALE THAT ARRANGES OBJECTS OR ALTERNATIVES ACCORDING TO THEIR MAGNITUDES. A MEASUREMENT SCALE OF THE SIMPLEST TYPE. . • VALIDITY: THE ABILITY OF A SCALE OR MEASURING INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE WHAT IT IS INTENDED TO MEASURE. • ATTRIBUTE: A SINGLE CHARACTERISTIC OR FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE OF AN OBJECT. PERSON. • SENSITIVITY: A MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT’S ABOLITY TO ACCURATELY MEASURE VARIABILITY IN STIMULI OR RESPONSES. • THREE CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT: • RELIABILITY: THE DEGREE TO WHICH MEASURES ARE FREE FROM ERROR AND THEREFORE YIELD CONSISTENT RESULTS. SITUATION AND ISSUE. • RATIO SCALE: A SCALE HAVING ABSOLUTE RATHER THAN RELATIVE QUANTITIES AND POSSESSING AN ABSOLUTE ZERO. WHERE THERE IS AN ABSENCE OF A GIVEN ATTRIBUTE.NOMINAL SCALE: A SCALE IN WHICH THE NUMBERS OR LETTERS ASSIGNED TO OBJECTS SERVE AS LABELS OF IDENTIFICATION OR CLASSIFICATION.

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