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A HISTORY
OF

ART

IN

ANCIENT EGYPT.

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A HISTORY
Of

^rt

in

Ancient €ggpt
FRENCH
;

FROM THE
OF
rROFF.SSOR
I.V

GEORGES PERROT,
THE FACULTV OK
I.ETrERS, PARIS

MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE

AND

CHARLES CHIPIEZ.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND NINETY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS AND FOURTEEN STEEL AND COLOURED PLATES.
IN

THE TEXT,

AV TJVO VOLUMES.

-VOL. L

TRANSLATED AND EDITED LV

WALTER ARMSTRONG,
AUTHOR OF "ALFRED STEVENS,"

B.A.,
ETC.

Oxon.

lLon^on

:

c Ha r

man an
1883.

i >

ha

i.

l,

i.i

m itkd.

Hontion
R. Clay, Soxs,

and Tayiof,

BKEAD STREET HILL.

Th£ GETTY CENTER

UBRARY

PREFACE.
M. Perrot's name
as

a classical

scholar

and

archaeologist,

and M. Chipiez's as a penetrating

critic
is

of architecture, stand so sure of a of

high that any work from their pens

warm welcome
These
has

from

all

students of the material remains
first

antiquity.

volumes are the
for its

instalment of an undertaking which
critical analysis

aim the history and

of that great organic

growth which, beginning with the
the

Pharaohs and ending with
is

Roman Emperors,
accorded
to

forms what
this

called
in

Antique Art.
its

The
is

reception
sufficient

instalment

original

form

proof that the eulogium prefixed to the

German
this
in

trans-

lation
is

by an eminent
;

living Egyptologist, Professor
first

Georg Ebers,
work,
is

well deserved

"The
art

section,"

he says, "of

broad and comprehensive
it

in

conception, and delicate

execution

;

treats

Egyptian

in

a fashion which
it

has never previously
will,
I

been approached."
hope, enable
it

In clothing
still

in

a language which

to reach a

wider public,

my

one endeavour has

been that
or form.

it

should lose as

little

as possible, either in substance

A
this
I

certain

amount of

repetition

is

inevitable
parts,

in
in

a

work of
^

kind when issued, as this was,

in

and

one place

have ventured to omit matter which had already been given

at

some

length,

but

with that

exception

I

have followed M.

Perrot's

words as closely as the difference of idiom would allow.
repetition,

Another kind of

with which,

perhaps,

some readers

may be

inclined to quarrel, forced itself
^

upon the author as the

Page

92, Vol.

I.

VI

Preface.

lesser of

two

evils.

He was
and of

compelled either
to

to sacrifice detail

and
all

precision in attempting

carry on at once the history of

the

Egyptian

arts

their

connection with the national
his footsteps
its

religion

and

civilization, or to

go back upon

now and
decav.

aeain

in tracine

each art successively from

birth to

its

The
the

latter alternative

was

chosen as the only one consistent with

final

aim of
in

his work.

Stated

a few words,

that

aim

is

to trace the

course of the

great plastic evolution which culminated in the age of Pericles

and came

to an

end

in that of

Marcus Aurelius.
and

That evolution

forms a complete organic whole, with a

birthday, a deathday,

and an unbroken chain

of cause

effect

uniting
ot

the two.

To

objectors

who may
is

say that the art of India,
included
in

China, of
it

Japan,

should
:

have been
the
life,

the
or

scheme,
three,

may be
of
one.

answered

this

not

of

two,

but

M. Perrot has been
those
either
characteristics
to

careful,

therefore,
art

to discriminate between

of

Egyptian
beliefs

which

may

be referred
or
to

the

national

and

modes

of thought,

undeveloped material conditions, such as the want or superstitious disuse of
iron,

and those which, being determined by the
art

very nature of the problems which
starting point for the arts ot
all

has to solve, formed a

later civilizations.

By means

of

well-chosen examples he shows that the art of the Egyptians went

through the same process of development as those of other and
later nationalities,

and that the

real distingfuishincr characteristic of

the sculptures and paintings of the Nile Valley was a continual

tendency

to simplification

and generalization, arising partly from

the habit of mind and hand created by the hieroglyphic writing,
partly from the stubborn nature of the chief materials employed.

To
which

this characteristic
is

he might, perhaps, have added another,
in

sufficiently

remarkable
vitality,

an art wliich had
its

at least three

thousand years of
expression.

namely,

freedom from individual

The
in
it

realism of the Egyptians was a broad realism.
detail

There

is

no sign of that research into
art

which
in

dis-

tingui.shes

most imitative

and

is

to

be foimd even

that

than the great civilizations which formed troubles own Before the late intervened to draw attention of a western different kind to the Nile Valley. . and Miss A. to give a fresh stimulus to the interest in to and encourage those who were doing their take lead England to her proper share this discovery.Preface. we find no vestige of of an attempt its to raise art above to imitation. will be found an Appendix to the second volume. the finding of a pit full of royal mummies and Egyptian best to sepulchral objects in the mountain at Thebes had occurred history. during all those long centuries of alternate renascence and decay. posterity. Perrot's its inquiry. No suspicion expressive power seems iar have dawned on the Egyptian arts mind. which. A. of their vii immediate successors . allied to those the language of modern Egypt art criticism could In this particular is more closely nations ot the far east of whose does not come to within the scope M. Mr. Reginald Stuart Poole. B. Birch. never produced anything that be called a creation. so as in the plastic were concerned. My acknowledgments for generous assistance are due to Dr. place after A short account of which took M. Edwards. and yet. art Perrot's book was complete. and of some of the with which in it numerous objects has enriched the Boulak Museum. in the work of exploration. W.

.

Method to be Employed by us in our Study of this Architecture . . § I. The Egyptian History Religion and Influence upon the Plastic Arts 44 — 44 — 69 § That Egyptian Art did not escape the Law of Change. CIVILIZATION. 3.2 1 CONTENTS. Egypt's place in the History of the World 2. 6. — 96 Compact Construction Construction by Assemblage — 114 114 — ng 7. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF EGYPTIAN § § § § 1. . The The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants 1 The Great Divisions of Egyptian History — — 16 6— i 2 2 4. 5. 94 96 § § § § § § 2. Constitution of Egyptian Society — Influence of that Constitu21 . Decoration I. 3. PAGE INTRODUCTION i— Ixi Jxiii— Ixiv TO THE READER CHAPTER I. . Dressed Construction — 102 — 106 ro6 — 113 103 113 . tion upon Monuments of Art its § 5. General Principles of Form General Principles of Construction. — Materials . Of the place held in this wotk by the Monuments Memphite 8g Period. 4. 6. PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. and of the Limits of our Inquiry CHAPTER II. 119— 125 /) VOL. and that its may therefore be written 70 of the — 89 — 93 § 7.

§ 4.X Contents. PAGE § I. 4. THE SACRED ARCHITECTURE OF EGYPT. The Temple under The Temple under § § 3. their Sepulchral Architecture 126 163 — 163 § 2. Empire The Tomb under the New Empire 255 — 254 — 317 CHAPTER IV. The Temple under the Ancient Empire the Middle Empire the 2. § § I. CHAPTER III. The Tomb under the Ancient Empire The Mastabas of the Necropolis The Pyramids The Tomb under the Middle of Memphis — 241 165 — 189 189 — 241 241 § 3. SEPULCHRAL ARCHITECTURE. New Empire General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple — 333 — 335 335 — 433 434 — 444 318 333 . The Egyptian Belief as to a Future Life and its Influence upon .

Amenophis HI 30 31 Scribe registering merchandize 22. the plain. 5. 13. 17. 1. PAGE During the Inundation of the Nile 3 2. COLOURED The Arab Chnin. 102 102 124 Chambers „ „ Abydos General view of Karnak Seti L. n •> Boatmen Cattle Drovers 32 33 .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Karnak Scribes registering the yield of the harvest Colossi of 16 23 25 14. bas-relief at 126 „ „ „ Perspective view of the Hypostyle Hall. Karnak 360 368 376 Thebes. Shadouf The White Crown 16 16 12. 21. 15. 4. To face page . 19. The S/ieik/i-el-Bekd in the !\Larshes u 14 15 Hunting 9. 11.. Harvest scene The Bastinado Statue from the Ancient Empire 6 10 7. 28 29 18. Hoeing Ploughing 4 4 5 3. bas-reliefs in the Granite PLATES. 20. 6. from near Keneli The Pyramids. 26 27 16. The Red Crown The Pschent Seti L in his War-Chariot Rameses IL in adoration before Seti Homage to Amenophis HI Construction of a Temple at Thebes Columns in the Hypostyle Hall. 10. with the Colossi of Memnon FIO. from old Cairo Karnak. 8.

at Thebes Temple of Khons. Chephren 57. 49. 52 53 Bast Osiris 37. Bakers 35 at a Women loom 34 35 26. 45 51 35. 67. 44. Artist painting a statue 55. 31. PAGE FIG. 33. Thebes From the second court of Medinet-Abou. 59. Netting birds Shepherds in the fields 36 36 37 30. 25. Temple 63. Sekhet 40. with his wife 58. Ranmi Horus Thoth Sacrifice to 64 65 66 Apis 67 Statue from the Ancient Empire 73 Woman kneading dough 74 The Scribe Chaphre The Lady Nai Sculptor at work upon an arm Sculptor carving a statue 75 76 79 81 51. 29. 34. Winnowing corn Herdsmen From the tomb of Menofre Water Tournament Mariette's House Amenhotep. Isis nursing Horus 87 90 91 56. 32. and son Square building Rectangular and oblong building 97 97 60. Thebes Temple of Khons. or Amenophis HI. 70. .. . 54 58 59 60 61 Isis-Hathor 41. Thebes Ramesseum. The goddess 38. 66. The Libyan chain. 47. Painted bas-relief 39. Ti. 46. Ouah-ab-ra 52. above the Necropolis of Thebes 98 99 100 61. 64. 104 107 108 69. 83 85 54. 24.. 68. Temple of Khons. . Ptah 36. A Sphinx 42. 45. presented by Phre Amen (or Amnion) . 50. 28.xii List of Illustrations. 27. 65. 48.. 39 42 43 to Amen-Ra . General appearance of an Egyptian 62. Touaris 63 43. Thebes 100 100 loi loi The Egyptian Gorge or Cornice 102 Capital and Entablature of the Temple of the Deus Rediculus at Rome . The Egyptian "bond" Double-faced wall . 53.

104. Sepulchral statuettes 97. Mastaba Sakkarah Western wall in the chamber of the tomb of Ptah-Hotep 116. 93. Vignette from a of Ti J*?////. Actual condition of a Mastaba. The Mastabat-el-Faraoun to a 170 no. 79. xiii 71. Funerary amulets Pillow 160 106. Mastaba at Sakkarah 171 111. 102. 72. 83. dynasty 90. Elements of the portico PAGE 108 109 11 in Egyptian construction 75. Arrival in Egypt of a 99. 81. same Mastaba Transverse section through the chamber Figures in hiy. The tomb . Thebes Elements of wooden construction 114 116 117 Wooden Wooden I. Granaries. from a Mastaba at Gizeh . Stele of the eleventh dynasty 87. 96. Lintel of the Plan of the tomb of Tela tomb of Ti at 172 174 174 175 113. 107. FIG. 76. 88. Plan of a Mastaba with four serdabs 178 178 179 179 180 117. gifts 154 158 159 159 Lid of the coffin of loi. Mummy Man and case from the eighteenth dynasty his wife in the style of the fifth dynasty in 138 the style of the fifth 89.?/ 98. and his son Khnem. 153 carrying the funeral 100. from a bas-relief 82. 115. Preparation of the victims 92. Restoration of part of the Necropolis of Gizeh 109. . building (first system) building (second system) 118 his 85. Seti striking prisoners of war with mace 124 131 137 86. The Tomb of Sabou 167 Three mastabas at Gizeh 168 169 108. 73. 119. 78. Element of an off-set arch Arrangement of the courses Off-set semicircular arch an off-set arch iii in 112 77. representing the lands of the deceased.Scarabs 103. Transverse section through the serdabs 120. 105. Stele of Nefer-oun 139 140 91.1 List ok Illustrations. Modern pigeon house. his wife Ata. Sekhera-ka. 114. Longitudinal section of the 11 8. upon papyrus company of Asiatic emigrants women.h relief. Entef 149 152. and arrival of funeral gifts 141 Table for offerings for offerings 144 144 146 147 Another form of the table Labourers heaping up ears of corn 95. Entrance 112. 74. 84. Voussoir Arrangement of voussoirs Semicircular vault 112 112 113 So. 94.

125. at at at Beni-Hassan Beni-Hassan. Section of the above 162. 159.xiv FIU. 15S. 134. 208 209 213 213 in parallel layers 136 — Successive states of a pyramid 143. Section of the 144. through the Sarcophagus-chamber 221 and the discharging chambers of the Great Pyramid 153. 151. The Sphinx Pyramid with its 238 inclosure. Plan 150. PAGE 12 1. Fagade of a tomb 168. 156. tomb Chess players. Section of the 133. 124. and mummy-chamber i8i 182 122. Tomb Abydos 244 161. 155. 146. The Great Pyramid and the small pyramids at its foot The Three Great Pyramids from the south The Pyramid of lUahoun. 130. The upper chamber. showing some of the adjoining tombs 250 251 Interior of a tomb Beni-Hassan 252 252 253 257 169. Facade of a tomb 167. Stele of Pinahsi..arah Construction of the Pyramid of Abousir Partial section of the Stepped Pyramid 214 215 216 147. The Stepped Pyramid 142. 165. 205 132. horizontal section in perspective . 177. 128. 126. Section of the above 164. Double Mastaba at Gizeh Sarcophagus of Khoo-foo-Ankh Details of the Sarcophagus of K!ioo-foo-Ankh Bas-relief from 183 184 185 Sakkarah Head of a Mummy 188 Plans of the temples belonging to the Second and Third Pyramids . 129. 193 Plan of the Pyramid of Cheops 198 199 201 131.. Longitudinal section through the lower chambers 222 Pyramidion 230 233 237 The casing of the pyramids Plan of the Pyramids of Gizeh and of that part of the Necropolis which immediately surrounds them 157. Beni-Hassan General plan of Thebes . 145. Stepped Pyramid at Sakk. 148. 123. Meroe Method of closing a gallery by a stone portcullis 220 220 Portcullis closed in 152. Transverse section. Plan of the above 170. tomb tomb Abydos of Ma. List of Illustrations. Abydos 244 245 245 246 247 Tomb at Abydos 163. perspective. priest 166. Stele of the eleventh dynasty. well. 154. Pyramid of Cheops The southern Pyramid of Dashour Section of the Stepped Pyramid 206 207 207 135. The Pyramid of Meidoum The Mastabat-elFaraoun Funerary monument represented and elevation of a pyramid in the inscriptions at 216 219 149. Abousir 239 243 The river transport of the at Mummy 160. 127.

299 302 303 305 197. Theban tombs from the bas-reliel's Theban tomb from a bas-relief A tomb of Apis The tomb of Petamounoph The most simple form of Theban tomb Tomb as represented upon a bas-relief Stele in the Boulak Museum. 194. xv PAGE 261 265 271 172. . II. Interior of the 204. Vertical section in perspective of the Sarcophagus-chamber of the tomb 201. The tomb of Rameses VI 283 Entrance to the tomb of Rameses III Hunting scene upon a tomb at Gournah 284 2S6 287 The weighing of actions 185. 312 A Tomb on El-Assasif of the Sphinx 313 of the Sphinx The Temple The Temple Ram. in battle Painting in a royal tomb at Gournah an offering to 273 Amenophis III. showing tombs The sarcophagus of a royal scribe Canopic vase of alabaster 294 295 296 297 299 with gardens about them. 175. 184. The Temple The Bari. View of the grand gallery in the Apis Mausoleum Sepulchral chamber of an Apis bull Section in perspective of " Campbell's tomb " above 306 308 312 200. 190.ade of the 208. Entrance to a royal 179. Flaying the funerary victim 178. 214. 174. section showing the general arrangement of the temple 209. Anubis. 198.List of Illustrations. III. 192. General plan of the Great 213. 288 292 Plan and section of a royal tomb 187. 199. 188. 202. Portable tabernacle of painted wood 354 355 211. 206. 176. 189. 349 352 or sacred boat 210. tomb Plan of the tomb of Rameses II Horizontal section of the same tomb smaller Sarcophagus-chamber in the 277 282 282 181. conducting a religious procession. 193. in a funerary pavilion 1S6. Temple at Karnak Longitudinal section of the Temple of Luxor Plan of the anterior portion of the Great Temple The Great Temple at Karnak. 203. iSo. of Temple of Luxor Khons horizontal and . the Sphinx. 182. 215. 191. 196. Granite tabernacle 212. 195. at Medinet-Abou hunting . and the neighbouring parts of the Necropolis 205. or Kriosphinx wall of a temple 336 339 345 vertical Gateway and boundary 207. . FIG. . 216. Temple 324 325 331 of the Sphinx. 1S3. Rameses Rameses Rameses III. 173. Principal fa(. presenting Amen 274 275 177. inner portion Karnak as it is at present 358 361 at Karnak 363 367 369 .

at Eilithyia Temple of Amenophis IIL at Eilithyia longitudinal . from naos to the back wall 393 the portico of the 229. Longitudinal section of the smaller temple 246. Plan of the 225. 408 I09 239. 254. on the Island of Phite Luxor returning in triumph from Syria . Gherf-Hossein longitudinal section 240. Plan of the hemispeos of Derri 241. Seti. Fa9ade of the Great Temple Dayr-el-Bahari Ipsamboul 249.\nouke' suckling 436 II.. 253.. Longitudinal section of the speos at Beit-el-Wali Plan of the hemispeos of Gherf-Hossein . The The ruins battle against the Khetas. Plan of the 379 381 382 of Thothmes Abydos 223. Rameses The goddess Rameses Beit-el-Wnli 437 441 . 238. 255. Plan of speos at Beit-el-Wali 237. 409 Longitudinal section. Plan of the Temple of Luxor 218. whom he is paying homage. General plan of the buildings at Medinet-Abou 222. Longitudinal section of the Great 250.xvi FIG. II. Bird's-eye view of Luxor 219. 235.. Plan of the smaller temple 413 244. Facade of the smaller temple Ipsamboul in the smaller 411 243. Perspective of the principal Chamber temple 413 413 413 245. Plan of the 373 377 Ramesseum Bird's-eye view of the general arrangement 220. 233. Plan of the Great Temple at Medinet-Abou 224. List OF Illustrations. Temple 419 423 431 251. Temple of Gournah Facade of the naos of the Temple of Gournah Logitudinal section of the Temple of Gournah. and 226. Plan of the 230. Plan of the Chnoum 390 392 227. 228. 383 387 to at with the attributes of Osiris. 221. The The speos at speos at Addeh Addeh . Plan of the Great Temple Temple at 247. Restoration in perspective of Dayr-el-Bahari 252. Temple Temple . Perspective of the principal Hall in the Great 4x4 415 417 248. longitudinal section 403 406 406 407 407 236. PAGE 371 217. 393 396 397 398 401 section 234. The Ramesseum. Temple of Elephantine View in perspective of the Temple of Elphantin^ Longitudinal section of the Temple of Elephantine Temple of Amenophis III. 232.. between Amen. 231. Derri 409 at 242.

Chaldsea. the narratives of the Greek writers who busied themselves with those nations of Africa and Asia which preceded their own in the ways of civilization. help of those strings of hieroglyphs and of cuneiform characters. the chaff from the wheat. long to and inscriptions which. whose histories are supplied in their main lines by of hitherto neglected writings VOL.separate the truth from the falsehood. that for thousands of years lay like those of hidden beneath the Persia. we are enabled to in . the study curious discloses many new and h . and Persia. Even in the cases of Greece and Rome. as new monuments have been left discovered and more certain methods of reading their inscriptions elaborated. to our acquaintance with those empires on the Euphrates and the Nile which were already in old age when the Greeks were yet struggling to emerge from their primitive barbarism. which has distinguished our makes necessary that the history of antiquity should be rewritten. I. their classic writers. Documents soil. Day by day. times. I.INTRODUCTION. themselves to Egypt and offered the gaze of man merely excite his impotent curiosity. The it successful interpretation of the ancient writings of Egypt. we have added to the knowledge us by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. illustrated by paintings and sculptured reliefs. have now been deciphered and made to render By the up their secrets for the guidance of the historian.

Germany. and other reproductions which considera- of space and cost prevent the savant from possessing at home. art has a method and language of to its own. and the scrupulous and ingenious interpretation of their meaning. its many learned writers have in our time attempted to retrace France have each contributed works which. The difficulty of obtaining materials for self-improve- ment in this direction affords the true explanation of the absence. which often contain when they are not packed valuable collections. have conquered the But of all these w'orks the only one which favour of Europe.— ii Introduction. but dwell far from those public libraries. art. demands an amount of special knowledge which the great majority of torians his- are without . by various merits. and Our national library at the British this reproach. which obliges those who wish their taste by frequenting the visitinof learn it thoroughly to cultivate j^rincipal museums of Europe. and treats it with taste and complete history 1 — England. which have witnessed and are interesting facts of which no trace witnessing. photographs. in Livy or Tacitus . Museum is. each of antique which contains but a small portion of the accumulated remains of Some connoisseurs do not even live in a capital. is thus more arduous by the obstacles which are thrown in study of art. . in modern histories of antiquity. by perpetual tions reference to the great collections of en- gravings. betrays any deep study of Greek art. to fix the exact occupied by but those attempts have never been art. by and distant resfions at the cost of considerable trouble expense. of those laborious researches which have led to such great results since Winckelmann founded the science of archceology as we know it. perhaps. details. the only one which does not deserve Ed. have is revealed to us we many to be found in Thucydides or Xenophon. or has found no time to examine their museums. enabling us to enrich with more than one feature the picture of private and public life which they have handed down to us. The energetic search for ancient inscriptions. To take the case of Greece. place in it many attempts have been made art. absolutely successful. because the comprehension of works of oi plastic creations in the widest significance of that word. difficult The w^ay. In the effort to embrace the life of ancient times as a whole.^ rendered its still enough in itself. More than one learned author has never visited Italy or Greece. and sometimes away in cellars or at the binder's allow them to be studied by — — the curious.

from its origin to its final decadence.Introduction. in France. avoid it. competence. " is is the expression of social All this and so the history of enough. contenting themselves with the brief mention of certain works and proper names. he has Here neither a theoretic knowledge of art." we are told. But on this subject most historians say little. its sculptors. Bernhardy. They are told of . a passion as is warm and prolific as its love for poetry. such as the work. is true another truth which seems to be of a people tastes. The first edition consisted of 7 vols. following it throughout its progress and into all its transformations. is hardly Greece at all. where there. and Teuffel in but where either in England. Greece. ? for the evolution new society and of a new art To that ' this question our neighbours may ^ reply that the Gcschichfe all dcr hildcndcn Kunst of Carl Schnaase does that work has one great disadvantage 2nd ed. and its painters. " literature. or Germany. for those we ask. and with the summary statement of a few general ideas which do not even possess the merit of precision. is always forgotten. But who are not wood Geschichte der hildcnden Kunst. of wars them life. and And yet question. valuable facts. Ernest Curtius as for Mr. withthat of . 8 vols. Baehr.. is iii M. Grote. unfinished. too. in sufficient detail. And where written with left are we to find the information thus refused histories ? Europe possesses several of Greek and Roman literature. excellent manuals. but there of their literature is written for us. and conquests. corrected and augmented. down to the ej^och when Christianity and the barbaric invasions put an end to the ancient forms of civilization and prepared of a for the birth of the modern world. with engravings in the text. great talent and eloquence." . out in fact its passion for beautiful form. there are. 1865-1873. and ideas. wish to picture to themselves various the ancient world. that the indication ture. is such as those of there. cannot he alludes to the he indeed. of the succession of princes the mechanism of political and civil institutions is explained to revolutions. Much the disappointment aspects of thus prepared for those who.. nor a feeHng for it. . art quite as clear an as their litera- sentiments. without the leisure to enter deeply into detail. of Ottfried Miiller rich in . unhappily . the whole history of antique art. but in the fewest and driest phrases possible. without its architects. 8vo. a single work which retraces. and appeared between 1S43 and 1864.

he takes no account of the extreme east. and explanations which do nothing to which perplex archaeologists. be very difficult. they They were revised. Schnaase follows a geographical order. and how many important discoveries have taken place . which Assyria. us to follow the same course. we all know that the art of Tyre and Sidon was but a late reflection from that of Egypt the workshops of those two famous ports were mere factories of cheap Egyptian art objects for exportation. Persia. he has said a word of Egypt now. As one might have expected. of China and Japan but then.iv Introduction. Instead of well-considered personal views. for the are not the two best. second edition. not competence the arts of Asia. and. for a single writer to treat with equal and the chapters which treat of antique art are the least satisfacOf the eight volumes of which the work consists. have been borrowed from other well known works. Phoenicia. finding to bulk must. are quite inadequate. which To give but one example of its Phcenicians before absurdity. For reasons which have decided author is not easily understood. in most cases. will it almost certainly prevent its ever say a translator. and furnish therefore no new elements for Finally. we have vague guesses solve the many problems than brought them under its own ? The is fact is that very confusing in its results. and Egypt are discussed . and which we will explain farther on. which had no relations with the peoples on the shores of the Mediterranean until a very late date. Chaldsa. so far as art was concerned. and. by two colleagues whom Herr Schnaase called oriental art by Carl von Lutzow. No single question is exhaustively treated. years old. Those which relate to architecture. and. they do not seem to have been taken from the objects themselves. indeed. by general acknowledgment. Again. two are tory. especially. devoted to ancient times. It while makes it very tedious reading to a foreigner. Its great Germans. rather came under their influence . besides. he speaks of the . impossible. all the parts of such an extensive whole are by no means of equal value. the order adopted by the appreciation or discussion. the first part of Herr Schnaase's work is already seventeen . and that in to his assistance But the chapters in of Greece and Rome by Carl Friedrichs. The illustrations are not numerous enough to be useful. of Greece. why begin with India. and of Rome. of the Middle Ages and of modern times.

and then passes to the structures of Oceania and America before commencing upon Egypt he takes us to Mexico and Yucatan. the title Under Geschictite der Plastili. but many of the cuts are common to both works. [The word "comprehensive" must here be understood in a strictly limited sense. transmission between one phase of antique art and another." With all the improvements which a new edition might introduce. lies before us. now familiar enough to cultivated intelligences. occupies no more than 206 pages of the first volume. since Those of Cesnola and Schliemann. . . revised and corrected by Wilhelm Liibke (2 vols. the antique His plan seems to us to be open to the same here occupies 208 pages out of 720. The German writer was the first to formulate the idea. he puts the Assyrians and the His illustrations are sometimes Persians before Egypt. The author commences with Celtic monuments (dolmens and menhirs). As early as 1841 Franz Kugler published his Handbiich dcr Kiinsfgesc/iidtie. the arrangements adopted betray the defects of a severely scientific method. flourishes. The book therefore is not " down to date. that part of it which deals with antiquity can never be anything but an abridgment with the faults inherent in that kind of work. whilst still occupied with the work of Kugler. but to give an idea of its inadequacy as a history of ancient art. 1865 ? have revealed numberless points of contact and for instance. and their source is never indicated the draughtsman has taken little care to reproduce with fidelity the style of the originals or to call attention to their peculiarities finally. Ed. is now in course of publication.^ Manual of Artistic Archcrology so successful in published Winckelmann's History of Art among the Ancients. Overbeck and Liibke have each written a comprehensive history of sculpture. The book was successful. the fourth edition. . that art springs up. . wished to supply for the use of students and artists a book of a more elementary character he therefore published in i860 an 8vo volume which he called Gnmdriss der KiaistgescliicJite . . . The few illustrations are rot very good in quality. which has attended it the tliird edition. . and India before Assyria. with the society to which it belongs in a word. deserves the success only. — . far superior to that of Liibke. objection as that of Kugler he follows a geographical instead of an historical arrangement he begins with the extreme east . Stuttgart). is one of those rare books which mark an epoch in the history of the human intellect. It could never have the amplitude of treatment or the originality which made Winckelmann's History of Art and Ottfried Miiller's their day. to our own day. 8vo. which contains the results of the searches at Olympia and at Pergamus. both in Greece and Asia. that it is possible to write 1 . which embraces the whole history of art from the earliest times down. ^ Germany had long felt the want which Schnaase attempted to satisfy. better than those of Kugler. Liibke.] The word Plastili in the language of German critics has this special and restricted meaning it comprises sculpture The work of Overbeck.— Introduction. i86i. which were never thought of twenty years ago. originally in 764. and decays. it is enough to say that the whole of the antique period.

in folio. whose memory Germany holds in honour as the father of classic archaeology. 1 Praxiteles. the few cemeteries Campanian and Etruscan were still hidden in which had found their way to the light had not yet succeeded in drawing the attention of men who were preoccupied over more imNearly all Winckelposing manifestations of the Greek genius. It is an answer to the objections which made themselves heard on every side the preface to Monimicnti uicditi (Rome. even in regard to them. the he beo-an by tracing and he never rested till he had filled them in. . Whiikdmajin. Persia and Phoenicia. to embellish the temples. and the public baths. either fair In the or originals copies very few instances in which they were executed with sufficient care to be the original. which even yet is never opened without a sentiment of respect. The o-reat majority of these formed part of the crowd of . opportunities of personal inspection were confined to the figures. copies which issued from the workshops of Greece. The method of Winckelmann is there most clearly explained. which will give him a clear idea of the state of archfeology at the time when the German savant intervened to place it upon a higher footing. mann's knowledge of Egyptian art was confined to the pasticcios of the Roman epoch. with 208 plates) should also be read. the Psonius and great Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art should be read in connection with his Remarks upon the History of Art. mostly of unknown origin. even Assyria. which filled the Italian galleries. . and to the figures which passed from the Chaldcea and villa of Hadrian to the museum of Cardinal Albani. he was not well-informed. and Polycletus. which is a kind of supplement to it. 1867. of representations of that they never dated from an Scopas. the student of the life and labours of Winckelmann may consult with profit the interesting work of Carl lusti. his great work. the villas and the palaces of the masters of the world. uiid seine Zeitgenossen. This great savant. . works of the sculptors. had no existence for him . seine Werke. 2 vols. now that a century has passed away since it appeared. was not content with he followed it through to its consequences statino. However. and takes the place of that new edition of which the author's premature and tragic death deprived the world.vi Introduction.! : . marks a date beyond which modern curiosity has long penetrated. Her painted vases Greece as a whole was not known to him. Finally. Lysippus. the basilicas. Winckelits history. for some three centuries or more. sein Leben. earlier epoch than Phidias and Alcamenes. upon the to given mann's attention was which most of his comprehensive judgments were founded and His yet.a principle outlines of the science which he founded.

were collected at the beginning of this century.xplain and judge the architecture of Greece. the lines in inaugurating the study of But the work which gave him a is Zoega busied himself greatly with Egypt. into which the art treasures of Europe. by Enn. it ignorant of these.Introduction. London. 1784 1807 Museum Jl'orsleyunum. In such a case as this the clearest and most precise of verbal descriptions is of less value than any fragment of marble upon which the hand of the artist is still to be traced. of the Thesaeum. Visconti. the Bassirilievi in the Villa antichi di Roma (Rome. Gottingen). But Winckelmann rendered a great service to art by foundincr a method of study which was soon applied by Zoega and by Ennio Ouirino Visconti. It was always. begam by Visconti and continued by the Comte de i2mo. 18 19). who also published his life and a volume of his correspondence (Zoega. Winckelmann unfinished . 1820. were only known to the historian by the descriptions and allusions of the ancient authors. by their arrangement and decoration. the real monuments of was hardly competent to recognise and define true archaism or to distinguish the works of sculpture which bore the marks of the deliberate. and over-polished taste of the critical epochs. or were being continually discovered by excavation. 1797. He made the same mistake in speaking of architecture. Samtnlung seiner Bricfe und 2 vols. These two savants classified a vast follows that he ' quantity of facts ' . or nearly always. // to Museo vii. vols. Visconti.to the description of the works which filled public and private galleries.. engraved by Piroli. the statues in the pediments and sculptured friezes of the Parthenon. 8vo. at Phigalia. his opportunities as director of the all Musce Napoleon. Pio-Cleinentino. 1808) only contains the monuments with the help of the celebrated Piranesi. folio. 2 vols. and for Coptic prepared the way place Champollion. Paris. vol. Description 1794. Stuttgart. Visconti. A volume containing most of his essays was givep to the world by Welcker in 181 7 {Ahhandlungen heraiisgegeben und mit Zusiifsen hegle'itet. Monumenti Gahini delta Villa Fiueiana. Rome. Visconti took advantage of Clarac. For the collection of the materials and the execution of the plates in the IconograpJiie Grecque et Remain. masters of the fifth vii century. that he pretended to e. still less of drawing. thanks to their incessant labours. 8vo. by the edifices of Rome and Italy. 2 ii. Who would then have guessed that the following generation would have the opportunity of studying those splendid groups of decorative famous those days dreamt of looking at. among the chief scholars of 2 vols. Quir. Beurthciluug seiner Wcrke. of the temples has taught us so sculpture whose close relation to the architecture of certain much ? Who in temples at yEgina. des Antiques du Musce Royal. eclectic. or at Olympia ? Now if Winckelclassic mann was perfection. 8vo. i. 17S2 . except England. 4to. . Albani.

monuments Layard and Botta freed Nineveh from the ruins of its own buildings. and. the real ancient world. These long keep their secrets to themselves. more distinct. had been known for nearly two centuries. enlargement of the horizon was due to a rapid succession of discoveries. its its monuments in marvellous figures in preservation. but only by the inadequate not . This progress was continuous. was also marked by a great increase in the energy with which all kinds of historical studies were prosecuted. and the long peace which saw tlie growth of so rich a harv^est of talent. and again let in the light upon ancient Assyria. and more expressive. behind the rich and brilliant scenery of Graeco-Roman civilization. and These had been less tenderly treated by time and Susiana. were suddenly revealed to us. others rendered possible by feats of induction which almost amounted It seemed as though a curtain were drawn up. but after the great wars of the Revohition and the Empire its march became much more rapid. But the widest.viii Introduction. by man than the remains of Nineveh. But yesterday we knew nothing beyond the names of its kings. The imposing ruins of the palace at Persepolis and of the tombs of the kings. parte to to us. which was compiled by the savants who accompanied Bonaof . and their interpretation enables us to classify chronologically the works of architecture and sculpture which have been discovered. and little A later yet it sprang again to the day. and thus enabled us to assign to the of the country at least a relative date. . as well as the most sudden. the father of religions and of useful inventions. of the alphabet and of the The great work plastic arts. lower Chaldaea. The information thus obtained was supplemented by careful exploration of the ruins in Babylonia. Egypt iirst introduced the antiquities of that country and not long afterwards Champollion discovered the key to the hieroglyphics. some the result of persevering searches and lucky excavations. the world of the East. to genius. were accented and corrected at more than one point the divisions which he had introduced the groups into his picture were marked with greater precision which he had begun to form were rendered more coherent and compact their features became more precise. the master's rough sketch . relief history pictured by thousands of did and narrated by their accompanying inscriptions.

Eugene Burnouf succeeded in reconstructing the alphabet of Darius and Xerxes.Introduction. to requirements betrays the different materials. details which escaped us. spite of all these differences. of But. and of physical conditions. The clearly result of these searches that this ancient and discoveries was to show civilisation had sprung from two the valley of the Nile. The alphabets writing and of the arts are in each case identical. the essential outlines and the leading masses began to be clearly distinguished. . in time. and from Nineveh to Susa and Persepolis. thanks to their careful copies of and upon the and Media. were caused by differences of race. the choice of expressive means and their employment. Thus. displays community of style and unity of origin and tradition. although the the plans of of their buildings vary in obedience sculpture forms. the original sources. upon a sound basis and from authentic materials. in the basin of the Persian Gulf. in such a vast extent of country and so long a succession of empires. we owe our power to describe.Porter. descriptions ix and feeble drawings of early travellers. the one in other in c VOL. notwithstandIn the ing the variety in the languages which they served. their always same way of looking at living the same conventions and the same motives. I. the writings walls of those buildings. Every work fashioned by the hand of man which has been discovered within the boundaries given above. Ker. to the toils of artists and learned men. Flandrin provided us with more accurate and comand Texier. and from the deserts which border the Euphrates to the rocks of Media and Persia. the great civilisation which was developed in Western There were still many Asia. upon the inscribed stones of Persia plastic arts. but. who examined the country from the mountains of Armenia to the low and marshy plains of Susiana. prehensive descriptions. presented so many points of striking similarity as to prove that the various peoples represented by those famous The elements of capitals all sprang from the same original stock. were all formed upon the same cuneiform principle. and. began to be appreciated. from Babylon to Nineveh. through the shadows which every day helped to dissipate. and to the philologists who deciphered the texts and classified the monumental fragments which had travelled so far from the scene of their creation. and the local distinctions which.

from the east to the and inventions of a system of civilization which But it was not till had been elaborated in the distant Chaldsea. These pieces of good or that made by Salzmann at Rhodes. Chaldsea. who inhabited the northern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean. traces of which are still to be found both in Egypt and Assyria. Texier. and an active and prolific interchange of ideas and products began. and was the epoch which witnessed considerably nearer our the own time than These two commencement of of the long series of Egyptian dynasties civilizations by the reign Menes. and of more picturesque Lycia. First came the marbles of I . a Greek dialect. succeeded Cyprus. half of the among had already. one by one. the ancestors of the Greeks and Romans.Introduction. in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome. how the influence of these two great centres of cultivation was extended to the still barbarous tribes. It is only within the last twenty years. Cappadocia. Hamilton. While the remains of Oriental antiquity were being thus recovered piece by piece. M." such as that of the Palsestrina treasure. in by the peoples inhabiting the plateau of Asia it demonstrating the role actually played Minor. and the doubt has but lately been removed. stage by stage. supply. met and inter- mingled through the agency of the Phoenicians. become well-known first Several English and French travellers. Fellows. British Museum people vaguely conjectured that through those countries had progressed. with its art half Egyptian and half Assyrian. and its cuneiform alphabet pressed into the service of These discoveries have put us on the alert. the missing allow the archaeologist to fortune links of the chain which attaches the arts of Greece and Italy to the earlier civilizations of Egypt and Assyria. since that Phoenicia has the mission of to us. secrets no less interesting and documents no less curious were continually coming to the surface to cast new light upon the history of classic antiquity. the forms very question. inspired by the desire to clear up this 1 86 1 that an expedition. Not a year passes without some lucky " find. Renan. As for was but yesterday that the explorations of Lang and Cesnola revealed it to us. in the century. whose spoils now enrich the . west. The latter was the less ancient of the two. It still remained doubtful. described the curious the still monuments of Lydia. Phrygia. others.

Attention being once turned in this direction. so long as we were without original examples from the great epoch of Pericles. artists took to a servile imitation of nature. trace the course of her poetry without having read Sophocles. which was followed by one which made the first steps down the slope of the decadence. of sincerity and elegant severity. Art remained at a high level in Greece. acfreed in assertino. Artists declared . with all its weaknesses. after a short pause of hesitation. however.xperienced a sense of beauty never felt before they were face to face for the first time with the ideal of the Greeks. began to disfigure their works.tliat the bas-reHefs of the frieze the sculptures of the two pediments excelled anything which had previously entered into any European museum. and Thorwaldsen was occupied during several years in putting together and restoring them. followed each other in rapid succession. by a company of excavators presided over by Mr. of simplicity combined w'ith grandeur. and the most elevated of her The literary historian might as well have attempted to creations. as it had been conceived and realised at that happy period of perfection which followed the disappearance of the last traces of That period was but too short. in spite of differences in material and subject. or even the old age of the great men who had produced these works. without having heard of the Elcctra or the QLdipus Rex. The death. They were bought by Prince Louis of Bavaria in 1812. xi Museum and Both artists and connoisseurs. we were without that most necessary material for a history of Greek art. During a single lifetime a crowd of works were produced which. The statues from the pediments at ^gina. Cockerel). Emphasis and a striving for effect took the place of nobility under a pretence of sincerity. The word decadence can hardly be pronounced in connection with the admirable works produced in the fourth century before Christ. and mannerism.Introduction.^ The ' They were discovered in 181 1 amid the ruins of one of the temples at ^gina. the Parthenon. longer than elsewhere. a knowledge of the most masterly. the most pure. prised in a single generation. were all stamped with the same character of easy and frank nobility. transferred by Lord Elgin to the British in 1816. that they e. It was comarchaic hardness. They wer€ first exhibited in the Glyptothek of Munich in 1820. so ably restored by Thorwaldsen. were bousrht to form the nucleus of the collection at Munich. and yet it cannot be denied that. discoveries . was sufficient to lower the standard. .

and certain power and science. betrays to the execution. near Phigalia. The their inferiority by its inequalities and general weakness. have finally removed doubts. possess the nobility and purity which distinguish the They show abundant great buildings on the Athenian acropolis. They show us Alcamenes became when those work in what we should call " the provinces " how Phidias and . 1 The debris of the temple at Bassae was explored by the same company in the year 1812. is composition concerned. after an interval of about half a century of inaction. and the excavations recently underall taken by Germany. the consummate facility and the natural verve of the is never absent. and a whole frieze was found. distinguishes most of the works of a single epoch. but also perceptible signs of that exaggerated objectivity which we now call realism. none of the narrowness of mere fonnii/ce. had given us reason to suspect this inferiority of provincial art. with other races. with which they are almost cotemporary. which was bought by the British in 1815. Neither the statues nor the bas-reliefs. they too are the British Museum. nor any other part of the decoration of the temple at Olympia. not without a certain sense of surprise. had to follow in their progress from the and conventions of early periods to the ease and amplitude As for the friezes from the temple of in Apollo Epicurius. the results of the French expedition to the Morea and the beautiful fragments of sculpture brought to the Louvre from the banks of the Alphceus. of the figures with which Alcamenes and same may be said Paeonius ornamented the pediments and metopes of the Temple master who supplied the sketches and models of Zeus at Olympia. Each fresh discovery helps us to comprehend. none of the tyranny of a single master or school. is study of these statues stiffness very instructive in making clear to us the paths whicli sculptors of classic perfection.xii Introduction. Even before the discoveries at yEgina and Phigalia. There is none of that dull uniformity which.^ Thus brought into immediate propinquity with the marbles from the Parthenon. they afford us what the art of sculptors had to some curious information. Museum . much they preserved and how much they So lost of their complete excellence when employed upon buildings erected at less cost and far as the with less care than those of the capital. but which must have been left local artists. how much freedom and variety Greek art possessed during its best time. inequalities.

Thomas in 1879. recueillies et publices. Blouet. de Gournay. Moyau the Mausoleum . Stuart and N. and Phigalia. xiii The memorable exploration to which we have alluded. of imitators. been reconstructed and the archseologist we mean Greek architecture at its best. seientifique Expedition de Moree. Alph. A. have not only made known to us the most original and most fertile period of Greek sculpture. Poirot. the invaluable publication which contains researches.Introduction. . of Latium and Campania a few of the more adventurous among them had penetrated as far as Pa. and many others which it would take too long to enumerate. Inscriptions. the purest and the most comEvery year sees plete architecture which the world has yet seen. The smallest remains of ancient architecture are religious care . the results of their labours. . but have given us much information as to that art which.stum but it was not till 1845 that they ventured to cross the sea and to study the ruins of Greece and Athens ^ in later years they have travelled as far as Syria and Asia Minor in search of objects for their pencils.^ But the occupants of the Villa Medici were not alone in these Doubtless. A. followed by an increasing number with such reared those splendid creations which have and care by the artist . Architecture. mesurees. dates from 1845. par Paris. ordonn'ee par le Gouvernenient Fran^ais. forms the most ample and varied collection of documents open to the historian of architecture But many other architects of different among the ancients. their arrangements are is their elements are grouped. . published in the account of the of Olympia tions French expedition to the Morea. Since that time the students of the French Academy have drawn and restored all the most important monuments of Greece. 3 The restoration of the temple of Athene Pohas and of the Parthenon. - The Antiquities of Athens. London. Trezel. Measured and Delineated by J. measured and drawn with explained. Revett. et Fr. when combined with skill the statues of Phidias and Alcamenes. Sculpture. * One temple at Baalbec was restored in 1865 by M. . F.^ in the second half of the eighteenth century. by Ballu and Paccard. 1 Folio. and the temple of Athene at Priene by M. Bernier in 1878. of Halicarnassus by M. 1761. Until then they had been contented with the monumental buildings of Rome and its neicrhbourhood. the excellent example set by Stuart and Revett.'^ excited the emulation of the young architects at the French Academy in Rome. 183 1-7. dessinees. Ravoisie. their ensemble restored with a comprehension of their artistic conditions which steadily Blouet's interesting restoragains in certainty and penetration. and opened to them a new course of study.

and M. Thanks to M. comprising 691 drawings upon a ver}. 185 1. the publication of the series in its entirety was resolved upon. Ernest Vinet as secretary. Folio. and by certain unhappy applications of their system but the polychromatic principles of the Greeks are now confirmed antiquity secrets provided with yielded up which .he showed how this subtle variation was calculated to add to the beauty of the buildings. the art of Poly- gnotus. Their partisans. J. then Minister of Public Instruction. London. the But the work progresses very slowly. Paris. with plates. of Zeuxis. with M.relics of would never have been Thus Mr. that of which least is painting.large scale. did something to retard their acceptance by their absolute fashion of stating their convictions. Penrose. A commission. and These ideas were too strongly force to the figures in relief opposed to modern habits of thought to be received without strong protestations. 4to. C. nationalities have given closely. J. - F.. and explained that those walls of the Propylseum and of the Parthenon. . by Labrouste. and to augment Hittorf arrived at still more important results through their effect. and of Apelles. An hivestigation of the Prineiples of Athenian Architecture. He was the first the minute examination of the Sicilian ruins. by too many facts to be denied. . Director of Fine Arts. was appointed to superin- In 1872 this original tend the expenditure of an annual grant of 20. the. and we are obliged to take our ideas of excellence from the descriptions of ancient authors.^ Of the we know three principal branches of ancient art. Jules Simon. are in fact planned on a gentle curve . most important being the Rcstauratkm des Temples de Pcesfum. and plates in folio. 1 We have indeed the collection consisted of sixty-one restorations. all their help to the work of patiently reconstructing the past. and that the various members of the architecture were distinguished by differences of tint. l' Architecture . Hittorf.xiv Introduction. Of this we have its but few remains. too.000 francs voted by the Chamber. Penrose discovered suspected by the casual observer. to describe the important part which painting played in the decoration of Greek architecture he affirmed that in many parts of their buildings the stone or marble was painted over. and forming fifty-two bound volumes. Cliarles Blanc. polychrome chez les Grccs. 1851. In 1S81 only five sections had appeared. which seemed straight to the eye. which gave accent to the mouldings. properly speaking . 3 Restitution du Temple d'Empcdocle h Selinonte. ou.^ Examined thus artists and by the trained eyes of professional the necessary instruments.

At the most they enable us to recall. They were eagerly sought after by some of the races whom the Greeks considered barbarous. which the public persist in calling Etruscan. 5). vol. it must not be forgotten that they are Italian rather than Greek. made were in many places. with some approach to probable truth. in the Greek cities of Africa and of Magna Graecia. Campanian fashion in which the excavations have been conducted.Introduction. in spite of the indolent cities . the taste and technical methods of the Alexandrian school. ' See upon this subject panische Wandmahrei. and nearly every day the series which they have established are enriched by new discoveries. at Corinth. . Leipsic. have been discovered.numerous savants have followed his example. These vases. great though the interest may be which attaches to these works.^ Winckelmann and his immediate successors saw the ashes cleared from the first Pompeian wall-paintings. But after all. by the Graeco-Scythians of the Crimea. classified. Wolfgang Helbig's Untersuchiuigen ueber die CamM. Since the time of Winckelmann hundreds and thousands of those painted vases of burnt clay. wall-paintings of those xv which were so long buried under the ashes of Vesuvius paintings which were uncovered in great numbers under the Napoleonic domination. described. Fraementary mural paintings of the same kind have also been discovered in Rome and in a few other neighbourhoods. when compared with the productions of the fifth and fourth centuries before our era. in such a manner as to leave unsolved scarcely any of the problems upon which they could cast a light. are examples of decadence. at Athens. Corrispotidenza d Herculaneum i et Rapporfo intonw iii. Gerhard led the way in 1S31 with his famous report on the Volscian vases . and that even the best of them. But they possessed no standards by which they could define the styles of those great schools of painting which flourished in Greece between the epoch of the Persian Wars and the beginning of the Macedonian supremacy such a definition we may now however attempt with at least partial success. Vasi Volcenti /Vw/a (October i. Boissier has summed up the leading opinions in this matter in an interesting article in the Rrcue des entitled Les Peintures ^ Deux Mondes. as well as by . plained. 1873. that they are the decorations for the most part of small provincial cities. M. and have in later times been added to every year. di Archeologica. p. {Annali dcW Instituto de 1879). and ex. as we now know.

and which begin to form valuable These collections in most of the great museums of Europe. so far as its resources would allow. . From . which would belong to what we call the industrial arts. mirrors. bronze plaques and figures. the product of an art which sprang up with the first awakening of the Greek genius. gems. a savant who and who deserves that his claims to our The work in which he has brought the public mind. there is no loss which lovers of art find so hard to bear. . in each century. the painting of these vases. but it is unanimously acknowledged that they are an essentially Greek product. of a whole art which has been lost to the world ? The archaeologists of the eighteenth century never dreamt of such researches as these. . — — 1 One of the first antiquaries to whom it occurred that the examination of these little objects might lead to profitable results was the is in some danger of being forgotten. the SabelHans and the Etruscans the latter imitated them now and then more or less awkwardly. . terra-cotta bas-reliefs. and again suggestions of the hands of Apelles or Protogenes a vase here and there may have even preserved more or less faithful imitations of the actual works of those masters. glass. as the complete annihilation of the works of those great painters whom the ancients put at least upon the same level as their most famous sculptors and who would not rejoice to be able. If we study each we may find. to trace a reflection. still less of the results to which they might lead few of them suspected what valuable aid might be afforded to the historian of art and of antique civilization. the style and taste of their works. by the remains of contemporary though inferior productions. series of vases in the light of the judgments passed by the ancients upon the most celebrated by a legitimate induction. These inductions and conjectures certainly demand both prudence and delicacy of perception. when the nation ceased to be creative and prolific. followed with docility the example set by historical painters. distant and feeble perhaps.xvi Introduction. and that it reproduced. now of that of Zeuxis. and statuettes which are now so eagerly sought after. by the multitude of small objects vases. analogy with all that has passed elsewhere we are justified in believing that. and was extinguished about two hundred years before Christ. ^ painters of Greece. and the profit to be In the whole wreck of antiquity obtained from them is great. but their principle is incontestable. traces now of the style of Polygnotus. but yet faithful so far as it goes. gratitude should be recalled to Comte de Caylus.

Recherches Paris. c/rusi/iies. Morel. numerous and better sheltered than the masterpieces of they survived More fine art. we may judge from the labours of M. Henzey of the value which they possess for archaeologists. to buy them with their weight in gold. of the lighter and historians of the plastic arts attempted to define the genius of the Greeks. i romains. Their insignificance was their salvation in the overthrow of the civilisation to which they belonged. and more conspicuous than themselves. d . to find means of escape. The painted vases. sitr les Femmes voili'cs dans les I' Art G/ir. a certain number of them were sure. spite of the rough usage of man. critics Even now. In times of war and revolution the poor and humble ones of the earth easily avoid the catastrophes which overwhelm those who are richer. The small size of these objects also contributed to preserve them from destruction. for instance. 1875. d'aprcs Les Figurines antiques de terre Figurines de terre 8vo. grerqucs.^ Those statuettes. and the slower progress of destruction due to the action of nature. Thus it is that so many more fragile products of industry have survived to our time. 4to. may compare them one with another and study their smallest details.Introduction. I. 4to. objects. were manufactured in pro- digious quantities for thousands of years. 1878. and with forms of plastic expression which we should never have known without them. and in examining the technical processes of the ancients. So it was with these little memorials of antiquity. and have made us acquainted with modes of thought and life. from so many examples. 1873. from the first. have preserved for us more than one myth of which no trace can be found in poetry or sculpture and as for terracottas. VOL. both by himself and with the help of specialists. more powerful. 4to. a few of each type have therefore come down to us. the most accomplished and well-informed are not always able to repress a feeling of astonishment life together the fruits of a long spent in travelling. un Groiipe de Praxitck. and their vast numbers In gave them a greatly increased chance of being preserved. though unable. like some of our amateurs. Paris. cuite du Musee du Louvre. have shown us how narrow and inadequate were the formulae by which the early . cuite. 4to. 1767). 1752-64. in collecting. xvii which were in continual use. vol. to which the Tanagra statuettes have directed so much attention. may be et 1 consulted with advantage {Reciieil Figures de d' Aiitiqiiitls egy/Zienucs. when the latter perished. which are now classified in museums in the order of their production. who. and. 6 vols. Recherches siir Supplement.

no more than Parthenon disconcerts in Some full of these a span high. collection of terra-cottas. but Greece in her lighter and more playful moments. resemble the marbles of the dignity and grandeur. to organisation. when they passed from epic tragedy to comedy. That origin is still Greece. they afford particulars of a sometimes. the most precise and : accurate information as to dress and social customs as at Tegaea. others are of grace and playfulness in their outlines. she condescends to treat the familiar objects of domestic life. when. various claims to our gratitude. this society has . Societies were therefore founded in many different centres with the express object of meeting those wants. of a divinity and of rites which are but imperfectly described in the writings of classic authors. during fifty years of incessant activity. These little statues interest the historian for other reasons also. and for show a capricious abandon which a to their charm. for moment even those who are least insensible At the bases of such works one is apt to look of the signature some In artist of the Renaissance or of the since eighteenth century. naturally led those who were interested in the study of the remains of antique civilisation. enumerate them here. as at Tanagra. This extension of knowledge and the great discoveries upon which it was based. we mean the Instihito di Cot'rispondenza Archeologica. of course. feel the necessity of and of the importance of ensuring a steady supply of the best and most trustworthy information. but to the we may be permitted to allude good work accomplished. had also found the secret. reality they have existed ever is the fourth or third century before our era. founded in Rome in 1829. Gerhard. They sometimes give him. by the Association which has perhaps done more than any other for the progress of archaeology. notably Plato and Aristophanes. famous though obscure form of worship. breadth of view which characterised its founders. and does it with an ease of which her great writers. when they examine a figures. We cannot. nor attempt to estimate their of division of labour. But an indescribable purity of all taste suffices to betray their real origin to those who possess knowledge and delicate perceptions. leaving the representation of gods and heroes. by Thanks to the Bunsen. from the noblest eloquence to hearty expressions of enjoyment.xviii Introduction. and yet there some- thing modern in their appearance. and the Due de Luynes.

these inquiries were daily attracting a more considerable share of attention from the other learned bodies of Europe. 1874). necessary to penetrate into the past by paths as yet unexplored it was necessary to complement and control the evidence of classic authors by that of public and private inscriptions. and Vienna. which had been so exhaustively studied ever since the Renaissance. 1S79. in which really important discoveries.^ While the Roman Instituto was thus devoting itself to research.Introduction. They are accompanied by fine plates. of the wants and ideas. and bears the following title : Storia deW 8vo. There are. upon the origin and labours of the Instituto. ever since its . such as the Etruscans. Roma. month by month. antiquity than the great scholars of the last three centuries. It archseologists. the Academies of programmes Munich. permit the reproduction of objects of art on a grander scale. Didier. 1S29-1879. . Instituto Ardicotogico Germano. stand that the writings of the classic authors. Ernest Vinet in the volume entitled L' Art ct V Archeologie 74-91. ' For the history of the Instituto Archeologico. xix inauguration. one of the most learned of modern German Aprile. was also published German. of the men of antiquity. by M. 8vo. devoted an ever-increasing portion of their Men began everywhere to underto such studies. in fact. the notice written for the celebration. than had been of interest registered made . called sometimes Antiali. will also article be found interesting. 1879. dcs hiscriptions et de Belles Lellres. the most eminent European savants and their best pupils it finds fellowWith their aid it labourers and correspondents in every country. It is from the pen of Michaelis. nations. may be consulted. which. An (pp. in 1879. dalla direzione in strcnna puhblicata nelF occasione dt'Ua fcsta del 21 centrale dclF Instituto Archeologico. previously attempted. . of the personal sentiments and religious conceptions. marble. were no longer In order to learn more of it capable of affording fresh information. and assuring to its members the advantages of a regular publicity. soon established a Bullettino. or stone it was above all necessary to seek for the expression. where. in their handiwork. Some of these dissertations are so elaborate and so full of valuable matter as to have formed epochs in the history of science. was . were discussed. and with more fidelity. engraved upon bronze. been. sometimes Memorie. by their size. The Acadc'mie Berlin. an international one in the best it sense of the word brings together for a common end . all discoveries at any point of the Mediterranean basin were and volumes. and the problems to which they give rise. of the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation.

less definite than that of words. or upon those which have been imperfectly understood. like the Greeks and Latins.XX whose whole Introduction. many have been lost for ever with the fragile strips of papyrus to which they were confided. In 1830. a task which had become much more difficult than in the time of Winckelmann. have . however. aided by vast reading spirit. either upon works hitherto unnoticed. Of few in proportion to those which time the thoughts which they expressed in their too immortal languages. We it feel oppressed by the ever-growing accumulation to begin our work. and the world is now able to guess all that history may owe to them. The study. in itself. who are only known to us by but the relics of their these Others. nor ! and can neither determine where off : how to leave we cannot see the forest for the trees II. and a powerful memory generalisation. The treasures of epigraphy have been classified and shown in their full value by Boeckh. curiosity has refused to resign itself to such a loss. capable of wide passion for accurate detail which it distinguishes the philologist demanded one whose taste would . indeed transmitted to us noble masterpieces of literature masterpieces are has destroyed. to draw into the light all that has not perished beyond recovery. literature has perished. joined to a philosophical that . the time seemed to have come for the formulation of all the gathered facts and for their arrangement into groups. and it becomes very difficult to decipher when we have no words dealing with the same ideas to help us. of those remains which bear figured representations is still more complex and formidable. of facts. when we possess the art difficulty of a people without a line of their literature. The language of forms is. Another springs from the very abundance and variety of the materials to our hand. intellect. Borghesi. to collect all that the spirit of antiquity has left behind it. art. and others. It has determined to discover the unpublished. To conduct it to a successful conclusion . With the ardour for knowledge and the heroic perseverance which are among the virtues of our time. a rare combination of faculties was required breadth of . when the Roman Institute was founded.

tion of the gifts necessary for we have described we mean Carl Ottfried Miiller. no man can appreciate the subtle differences which discombined in tinguish styles and schools. another. shall £'«<z/5(/i'«7V/^/cc<'/rf7//j'/(7//r (Paris. A connoisseur is to say. As a young a philologist. p. while yet the task which last century there was born man in his first youth. 1863. He who possesses no ear. he excelled all his contemporaries in his efforts to embrace the whole of antiquity in has been called. but he should be able to read a part. or to decide. ' Leo JouEERT. that who knows design. that tion must be undergone. as in music."^ A disciple of Niebuhr and Bceckh. the language of art need not be able to compose an opera. In the art of dilate upon music. which collates manuscripts. We never cease to regret that politics have deprived literature of this judicious critic. and. or attempt to write its history. must cultivate an intimate acquaintance with Without the them. i vol. within himself. He one person. a love for beautiful forms. — — by the appearance of a copy whether or marble. and widely instructed . or to chisel a statue. its original were of bronze in Silesia a At the end of the who. Firmin-Didot. a savant and an artist Books do not teach everything. realise for himself all the varied aspects he took the greatest pleasure in the science which weighs words and syllables. to trace out and of ancient civilisation. the rules and technical processes must be learnt. for instance. Something more is necessary to those who wish to form judgments upon which reliance may be placed. any exaggeration. a " scholar of genius. unless he be both presumptuous and ignorant. he appreciated both ancient and modern works of literature. who wishes to speak of art with intelhgence must study art objects themselves. does not. and to give A special preparareasons for them which will bear discussion. but the latter are not by themselves sufficient to form a connoisseur. xxi survive the trying labour of the cabinet. A poet in his hours of leisure.Introduction. As man he studied with passion the antiques in the Dresden Museum and the gallery of casts belonging to the University of Gottingen. perceptive powers which such an educational process alone can give. 4). without who one view. who is unable to perceive the intervals which separate one note from he can neither recognise nor remember an air. no education can supply the place of natural aptitudes . gave evidence of a rare combinathe successful accomplishment of .

Calvary. all new discoveries that he made or thought he had made. . including Orchomenos in sufficient this. of the Eumcnides of yEschylus or important monographs like his Geschichten hellcnischer Stdmme tiiid Stddtc. as a His facility of arrangeless prolific spirit might have been. was production. he hastened never executed. which would have been. . ment and utterance was prodigious all that he learnt. of literary and artistic him down in his forty-second year. one of the capital works of our century. Like a man who has travelled much and who loves to tell of what he has seen. of Festus. and was like he traversed Italy and Sicily with one intoxicated with the beauty of that Athens of which he caught but a glimpse. sometimes in Latin. which.^ Besides he gave to the world learned editions of Varro. Berlin. death put an end to this project. Die Etrusker. number to form five substantial volumes. actively discussed of his the most famous and most works and finally. a work which was suggested to him by one of the publications of the There was also Prolegomena zu einer wissenBerlin Academy. . happily remain to us. which has been fruitful for good even in und die Minycr and Die Doricr. to make public. and the great picture. Kunstarchceclogische Werke.xxii Introduction. either by direct addresses to the auditors who crowded round his chair at Gottingen. In striking But the preparatory sketches of the master While he was employed in collecting materials for the work which he meant to be his highest title to honour. or by his pen to the readers of the numerous philosophical periodicals to which he contributed. &c. with indivisible unity of social all its and political life. . he issued short articles upon archaeology and the history of art. rally did by means of papers full of facts and ideas. written In his later years sometimes in German. all these experiences he hoped to make use of as the lines and colours for the great picture of ancient Greece which he meditated. schaftlichen MytJiologie. for the canvas upon which he meant to portray the Greek civilization for the benefit of the moderns. life In the last year of his continual delight. i8mo. 1873. he was not shut up in silence and meditation. All this knowledge. and the ' GescJiichte der griechischen Literatur. its errors.. perhaps. he was ever ready to take the public into his This he geneconfidence when he embarked upon a new study. of that Greece whose sun so quickly destroyed him.

The arrangement of the Handbuch is very simple. xxiii it is. forms three volumes of handbooks known under the name of the Eticydopedie Roret. 8vo. it at once took its place as the indispensable guide for all those who wished to learn something of antique art. a especially the plastic arts principal — divides — it into classes. The form of a handbitch or manual. the collection of edition has one great advantage over the German versions in the complete tables is with which it is provided. and English. They had nothing of the kind but worthless epitomes of University better off than in made to facilitate the passing examinations.eitch. It opens with an introduction in which the author defines art more petent writers with as publications. as well as the versatility with which he combined the most accurate scientific investigations v/ith a delicate appreciation of the beauty and originality of the Greek authors. — En. which Ottfried Muller gave to his work. Even now it has not been superseded. but they have all lacked his breadth of view and comprehensiveness of exposition. But of all these works. from the pen of M. those to which he himself has had continually to refer during the progress of his book. which w'ds published in Breslau in 1830. I. Nicard's - The French translation.In all the universities into which archaeology had made good its entrance. and also has enabled the pupils to supplement for themselves the lessons which they learnt from their professors. P. Nicard.Introduction. The best English translation in that by second edition of which appeared 1850. so that the translator was unable to make use of the additions and corrections with which Welcker enriched the edition of 1848. and indicates the be consulted. Since the time of Ottfried Muller several other critics have attempted to rival his achievements. the . namely. \o\. to works Then comes ' the history of Greek and Roman i art divided into HiDidhiich der Archceologie dcr Kuiisf. Italian. It appeared in 1841. They have manuals is treated by com- much care and skill as the most ambitious few being original works by savants of the first order. was well and favourably known to cultivated Germans. incomplete as has never become obsolete. this manual has formed the basis of the teaching. In this any other nation in which every branch of history and science matter the Germans are Europe. but it was not so with the French. and to all appearance it will long preserve its supremacy.^ Translated into French. But M. J. that which has perhaps rendered the greatest service to the science of archaeology is the Handbitch der Arc/i^ologie dcr Kitnsf.

whole days. and. merits which the Handbuch possesses in the highest degree. and shows great Muller cases to which he finally commits himself had been previously unknown. one which will enable us to avoid such repetitions without any important sacrifice. necessarily described and estimated in the historical division are again mentioned in the chapters which treat of theory but a better plan has yet to be found. with that of their statues. Without entering into any long discussion he sustains it . and sometimes to reject them all. superior to humanity and yet clothed with human forms. in her best gave most of its care to the representation of those beings. It will. Not that it a mere compilation. periods. the East. of the work. Greece. formed a whole mythology of art and this mythology occupies the larger portion of the second part nature and of the moral world . in which her glowing imagination personified the forces and eternal laws of was in striving to create these types. the characteristics which it gives to form. and to endow them with outward features worthy of their majesty. Things are easily found in it. the materials and processes which it employs. all the interesting discoveries of several generations of archaeologists. He which takes antique art as a whole. very often the opinion judgment. but we need here make no attempt to repel or even to discuss the objectit)ns which have been brought against it. inconvenience of leading to frequent repetition monuments which have been . be seen that a comprehensive manual had to include a history of those gods and heroes which. for previous writers were far from being unanimous as to the dates and significance of the remains which they had described. territory occupied and the partition of its remains over the by ancient civilization. and studies it constitution. therefore. and it was necessary to choose between their In such different hypotheses. the author has succeeded in classifying and condensing is into a single convenient volume. This plan has been often criticised. and the paragraphs which are devoted to Etruria and To this historical epitome succeed the theoretical its chapters. the conditions under it works. by a powerful effort of criticism. the subjects of which treats. that Grecian art produced its noblest and most ideal works.xiv Introduction. it . The chief thing in a work of the kind is to be clear and complete. It has doubtless the .

has his example found no imitators ? we been content to reprint word for word the text of that to a third edition ? A archaeologists. an independent intellect^ a pure though catholic taste. declare. recent archaeology had themselves in our museums. lately passed when the excavations at Olympia and Pergamus . The plan of his book prevents him from launching out. any intelligent editor could have satisfactorily performed what was wanted.Introduction. made no further discoveries. xxv by a few shortly stated reasons. many superb remains of Greek. into enthusiastic periods he makes no attempt at those. published a third edition in 1848. which are generally conclusive. could find their places in it without any difficulty. like Winckelmann. The second edition. We need say no more to the objectors who attack the mere form Its one real defect is that it was written thirty or of the book. however. carefully revised and forty years too soon. Etruscan. . to compose an original work. Why have thirty years. devising ? — an enterprise which he would have brought e to VOT. we perceive a sincere and individual emotion. appeared in 1835 it was the last issued during From that moment down to the day but the lifetime of M idler. corrected and completed. . few years ago one of the most eminent of our modern Carl Bernhard Stark. Why having brought his materials together. partly from the manuscript notes left by the author in his interleaved copy. in his advertisement to the reader. and Roman art have risen from their temporary graves and ranged If. brilliant descriptions which in our day seem a little overcoloured but in the very brevity of his judgments and his laconic but significant phraseology. was requested by a firm of publishers to undertake a then. indeed. were brought to an end. he would have modified it And why. that but for the respect due work which had become classic. largely augmented. at intervals of ten or fifteen years.. did he find it more useful. a new manual which should fulfil the same requirements on a system of his own T. after new revision of the Handbuch. and even easier. a few occasional corrections and additions. for more than much more than he had dared. For the Grseco-Roman period especially Muller had erected so complete a historical framework that the new discoveries W^elcker. . partly from information extracted by the editor from But why does Welcker the lectures and other writings of Muller. would have sufficed With a little care to prevent the manual from becoming obsolete.

and those . death of Ottfried Africa and Asia which The East was not discovered IMuller. It was between 1820 and 1830 that the young savant conceived the ideas which he developed in his works it was then that he first took an important part in the discussion as to the origin of the Greek nation. from the Thracian Bosphorus to the pillars of Hercules. Chaldsea and Assyria. by which the introduction was completed. When begun to Miiller first attacked this question. can follow the course of the Phoenician ships along the Mediterranean. which will not be We explained its plan and continued. Egypt alone had emerge from the obscurity which still enveloped the It was not until three years after ancient civilization of the East. published in the Raiie Critique of upon the part already remarks made some with that of Miiller the first Handbuch der Archaolope der Kunst. however. and its great colony on the Libyan Coast. Cyprus and Rhodes which were so long dependent upon the empires on the neighbouring continents. or is so near to that sea that constant communication was kept up with its shores we mean Egypt. : July 14. upon which archseologists had long been engaged. What part had foreign example taken in the birth and development of the religion. the poetry. and the philosophy of Greece. and in believing that the Greek race islands of . From 1 the traces left by the commerce and the industries of the in Stark died at Heidelberg : October. . Syrian Phoenicia. that Botta began to excavate the remains of Assyrian and nothing but the vaguest and most confused information art was to be had about the ruins in Chaldaea.^ The answer is easy. a successful conclusion had not death interrupted him after the publication of the first part. extracted from its own inner consciousness all that has made its greatness and glory. no one has been more obstinate than he in insisting upon the originality of the Greek genius. we . the arts. was to have formed three volumes. The entire work. By the East we mean is till after the that part of bordered by the Mediterranean. 8vo).XX vi Introduction. The title of his work was identical The first 256 pages of volume were published in 1878 with the sub-title Einleitender und grundA second instalment appeared in i83o. legenda. 1879. of the whole How much of it was due to suggestions Hellenic civilization ? derived from those peoples who had so long preceded the Greeks No historian has answered this question in the ways of civil life ? in a more feeble and narrow spirit than Ottfried Miiller. 1879. Asia Minor.Ty/c// (Leipsic. Now. Engelmann. his death.

1821. which give evidence ' of a similar inspiration now in the British Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor. which were conveyed to the Greeks and to the races of the Italian peninsula by the "watery highway" of the MediterFifty years ago the land routes were as little known as ranean. one of whom bore that name of Midas to which the Greeks attached so strange a legend ^ but he had sfiven no drawings of them. dotted about over the country which extends from the shores of the yEg^ean to the furthest depths of Cappadocia. of Texier. and even ideas. or of Hamilton while he was dying in Greece. xxvii we can estimate the duration of their and the amount of influence which they exercised over the various peoples who were Forty years ago this was impossible the tributary to them. A few years afterwards they drew the attention of European savants to the remains which they had discovered.31-33)' Description of some Ancient Monuments with Inscriptions and Phrygia. and thus we are enabled to recognize and describe the industrial processes and the decorative motives. was the first from which any definite knowledge of their Miiller appearance could be obtained. Syrians and Carthaginians. Murray. Wherever they passed the Phoenicians left behind them numbers of objects manufactured by them for exportation. London. and the work of Steuart. both by their style and by their symbolic devices. till 1842.Introduction. PP. The Lycian and are remains. The roads were undiscovered which traversed the those by sea. writings of ancient authors were our sole source of knowledge as to the style and taste of Phoenician art. the tombs of the Phrygian kings. or to count their stages. Leake had indeed described. knew nothing . forms. in folio. 1S42. the rock sculptures of Upper Assyria. stay in each of the countries which they visited. and these objects are now eagerly collected. those same models. in 8vo. they were exploring a far more difficult and dangerous region. . as early as 182 1. defiles of the Taurus and the high plateaux of Asia Minor. of the dis- coveries of Fellows. A stili existing in Lydia . and the ideas which they imparted were of necessity inexact and incomplete. and the marks of the Sidonian and Carthaginian makers examined and classified. remains which recall. and it was still impossible to indicate their detours.'"^ which did not appear . with Comparative Remarks on the Ancient and Modern Geography of that Country (i vol. to bring to the Greeks of Ionia and /Eolia. London.

and with whom they comWe may thus explain the exmunicated by caravan routes. or none but what was false. It was not the fault of Ottfried Muller. the external circumstances during infancy and adolescence. would be likely to fall into serious mistakes and misapprehensions. were not transported death.xxviii Introduction. and the surroundings of his youth. but materials intensity . that he was deceived as to the true origin of Greek art. Peculiarities of character and eccentricities of idea would embarrass him. Phrygians. had he but known the hereditary predisposition. which. the Cappadocians. it was that of the time in which he lived. and Lydians. whose dependants they were for the time. and who were his parents to learn the circumstances of his education. The biographer who should have no information on these points. and literature. such as their and of people their religion. Lycians. highest intellectual manifestations. . The baneful effects of his mistake are evident in . or he would give absurd explanations of them. influences which came to them partly from the Phoenicians. the partial falsity of his views and their incompleteness his much more obvious history and harmful in handbook than of any great in his of Greek literature. all pupils and followers of the Assyrians. Europe until after Miiller's The art clear intellect of Ottfried Miiller easily enabled him to perceive the absurdity of attempting to explain the birth of Greek by direct in borrowing from Egypt. the whole course of youthful study. he might It is the same with the history of a easily have understood. as the originality of the Greek intellect displayed position. partly from the people of Asia Minor. both countries He saw that the existing remains of the emphatically negatived such a sup- were wanting to him for a right judgment and duration of the influence under which the Greeks of the heroic age worked for many centuries. He would find great difficulty in explaining his hero's opinions and the prejudices and sentiments by which he may have been influenced. In writing the for his actions. travagance of the hypothesis which Miiller advocated in all his writings and. arts. itself in the plastic arts much later than in is poetry. the privileged agents of intercourse between Egypt and the East. to Museum. life it is man and attempting to account important to know where he was born. of the man whose life he was describing.

or had but a slight acquaintance with the art of the Eastern Empires but as he thought it necessary not entirely in 1835. under their guidance study the contents of one of those museum . it but he fails to perceive its vast importance. This tendency is to be seen even in in the plan of his work.Introduction. . even the Phrygians and the Lydians antiquity as a whole. He in wishes us to believe that Greece in the beginning was alone " the world. which. in 1830. similarities between the general aspects of figures. in the chapters which he devotes archaic period. of external with . These saloons chapters are very unsatisfactory. . . as Avell as in the employment of common symbols and attributes. These resemblances will strike and even astonish you. the Babylonians. of those truths which he has firmly grasped. There even to is nothing surprising the fact that Miiller." He goes no further back than the Greece described to us in the heroic poems he never has recourse to such comparisons as we are now continually making at most he lets fall at lengthy intervals a few words which seem to imply that Oriental civilization may have had something to do with the awakenincj of Greek thought and the directingintelligence. He knew well enough that the Egyptians. that she owed all her glory to the organic development of her unequalled genius. of any other displayed a more intimate combination than that Aryan nation of the life of sensibility with that of internal life. you will know not where the remains of Oriental with those from Etruria how to reply. ignore those peoples in a book which pretended to treat of it would perhaps have been better not to have relegated them to a few paragraphs at the end of his historical section. are unable to account. or to declare with that authoritative accent which never fails him in the expression of those ideas which are dear to him. the very first xxix section pages of the historical to tlie of his work. He never formally denies her indebtedness. the Phoenicians. begin with the history of Greece. he says. art are placed side by side and primitive Greece at every step you will notice resemblances of one kind or another. alone. to Attempt. Ottfried Mtiller. and if you are asked how they come to exist among clifterences which become ever more and more marked in the succession of the centuries. In these archaic remains there are like many traits for which those who. between the details of forms and the choice of motives. of her first endeavours.

Babylon. over the whole basin of the Mediterranean. the disciple and heir of Greece. His error lay in his arbitrary isolation of Greece. Pergamus. which in spite of a few more or less brusque oscillations and periods of apparent sterility. and crept up and finally — — the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.XXX Introduction. — Rome. Ale. became covered with the fairest hues of art and poetry. with the alphabet which they had invented and the forms of their own worship of Astarte. why and should he have postponed fall their history to that of the decline of Grceco-Roman art ? Would its it not have been better to put the little he had to tell us in proper place. Thebes. at the beginning of his book ? This curious prejudice makes the study of a whole series of important works more difficult and less fruitful. There is no sequence in a story so broken up. were perpetuated in and thence transferred to that of modern times and bad though it is. falsified. this. His inversion of the true chronological order makes a violent break in the continuity of the phenomena and obscures their mutual relations. were much older than the Greeks . Nineveh. Antioch. in due time. were adopted by the Greeks and carried to perfection by their unerring taste. Carthage.xandria. in dragging her from the soil in which her roots were deeply imbedded. but he did not comprehend and perhaps in the then state of knowledge it was impossible that he should comprehend that the bonds were no less close which bound the Hellenic civilization to the far more ancient system which was born upon the banks of the Nile. and turned back upon itself. Ottfried Mliller saw clearly enough the long and intimate connection between Greece and Rome. Miletus and the cities of Ionia. is not the worst result of Muller's misapprehension. to spread plains of Iran on the one itself over the hand and of Asia Minor on the other. You will there seek in vain for that which we mean to strive after in this present history of antique art a regular and uninterrupted development. while the Phoenicians carried it. setting up as its principal and successive centres. classic art. Corinth and Athens. Sidon. It prevents him from grasping the true origin of many decorative forms which. Memphis. . from which she had drawn her first nourishment and the primary elements of that varied and luxuriant vegetation which. carried the civilization of the East into the West. . coming originally from the East.

to the commencement of those centuries which are called the Middle Ages and Greece will occupy by far the most important place in our work. thanks al. . writing the history of the arts and not that of letters. in a word. numerous discoveries of the last fifty years. and We are science. . to whom she has lost nothing by herself was more just in her early legends the more exact information which is now at our command. to protect from destruction and oblivion the machinery of progress. Served by her situation on the confines of Europe and Asia and to the Thanks — — not far from Africa. It was our love for Greece or even those of Etruria and Latium. the newly-born scientific methods. to give to our readers new and better reasons for loving and admiring her than they have had . Greece was able to arrange and classify previous discoveries and to bring them to perfection. history has been at last enabled to render justice to certain nations whose activity had never before been properly understood. and which has more than once been overwhelmed for a time in epochs of national conflict and social decadence. by the superiority of the genius of her people and the marvellous aptitudes of her language. and for which he was too ready to sacrifice her predecessors and teachers. we desire and hope to make that drove us to this undertaking her life better known. a history which we wish to conduct to the point where Muller left off. . all the complex and fragile apparatus of civilization which was so often threatened with final destruction. the processes of art. nor even for calling attention to her literature. Greece which Ottfried Miiller worshipped.Introduction.so to the theories for which they afford a basis. xxxi III. to give to them their But Greece the proper place in the civilization of ancient times. This is not the place for insistence upon all that Greece has accomplished in the domains of pure thought. We shall endeavour to bring the same care and conscience. philosophy. into every division of our history but the monuments of Greece will be examined and described in much greater detail than those of Egypt and Assyria. and to the comparisons which they have suggested. to show a side of it which is not to be found in the works of her great writers. the same striving after accuracy.

in But each proportion In the and nationality will for us have an importance to the closeness of its connection with the art of Greece. and we shall endeavour to distinguish each by its peculiar and essential characteristics. but an introduction which . it and to illustrate it by the most striking remains which style has left behind. not. works of the Greek artists. They form a school. works capable. The study of oriental art will really. serve as models and teachers for our painters and sculptors. as their architects. a role which they will continue to fill until the end of time.xxxii Introduction. to the orientals on the one hand. their A works of art. than men . therefore. In no other place or time have ideas been so clearly and com- by form in no other place or time have the been so closely wedded to a strong love for It results from this that the beauty and a keen sensibility to it. be merely an introduction to our historv as a whole. like those pletely interpreted intellectual qualities of the Greeks. we shall ask how much to its they contributed to the foundations of perfection . Greek art and ultimate in the case of the ancient Italians. mutilated by time and accident as they are. combination of circumstances that is unique in the history of the world gave to the contemporaries of Pericles and Alexander the power of approaching more nearly to perfection. we shall endeavour to estimate and describe the ability shown by them in apprehending the lessons of their instructors. were superior both to their pupils and their masters. As and the Greeks excelled all other nations . of any other race or any other epoch. case of those oriental races which were the teachers of the Greeks. as may lead to the creation of great works. of giving visible expression to the highest thoughts. and the skill with which they drew from their teachers a method for the expression of their own peculiar wants and feelings and for the satisfaction of their own sesthetic desires. their sculptors. and the Etruscans and the Latins on the other. because they show to us the continual struggle of man against matter. the indispensable and eternal master. but to incite to such an ardent and intelligent study of her beauties. as some have thought. in before. found interesting. Other national styles and artistic manifestations will pass before the eye of the reader in their due order and succession they will all be . to enable us to dispense with nature. in the width and depth of their cesthetic sentiments their painters. we need feel no surprise at their central and dominating position in the history of antique art.

Appearing thus lately upon the scene. In this sense. the that ' TilllCEKS. I. in interests itself above all sequence of social phenomena and their organic development. Their actual situation was a very plastic forms.Introduction. were perfectly true. its genius and the superiority follow but we cannot . apogee in the Athens of Pericles. arrived at the power of giving clear and definite expression to his thoughts. so to speak. as we are told by Plato. It would be more than absurd in these days to accept is it Our age in the age of history others the full perfection. f . when civilization had already a long past behind it. we even proclaim with enthusiasm. to describe the springing of Greek civilization. you are but children!"^ In comparison with Egypt. without attempting to discover and explain the slow and careful stages by its Greek art as a thing self-created in which must. the of its works of plastic air. with Phoenicia. an evolution which Hegel explained by the laws of thought. and for what reasons we from our illustrious predecessor. with Chaldaea. the pre- This explanation will show how mean to separate ourselves We his admit. by means either of articulate sounds and the symbols which represent them or by the aid of Greeks could only have remained ignorant of all had been achieved before their time if they had sprung into existence in some distant and isolated corner of the world. Greece is almost modern the age of Pericles is nearer to our day than to that which saw the birth of Egyptian civilization. and which embodied in the work. a priest of Sais addressed to Solon. by efforts continued without intermission through a long centuries. is xxxiii absolutely required will be comjsletely Etruscan and epilogue. the : procession of centuries. originality of art . The history of Roman art will be its natural and necessary far. 2 2. penetrate far beyond apparent origin . or in some inaccessible island. a past of many words which. we it arrived at its in order to get at the true origin of Greek its art. by our plan of treatment. we must first study the early history of those races which surround the eastern basin of the Mediterranean. eminence of Greece. when the genius of man had. The Greece which we call ancient entered late into history. which he suspends. as he did. In this history of ours of which we are attempting to sketch the form. p. VOL. him in arbitrary isolation of Greece. "You Greeks.

. the masters of the Eastern Mediterranean inhabited. . processes. the more we study the past. INIan progresses as of those w^hich had already been established fast as he can as soon as he learns any new method of satisfying he makes his wants and ameliorating his life. we Asia. In the earliest epoch of which we have any record find them estabHshed in a peninsula. Assyrian. moreover. one of abnormal extent. —should — penetrate into the country from the neighbouring East by all the channels of communication which we have mentioned. these islands are sprinkled so thickly over the narrow seas seems to have intended them Avhich should tempt the least venturesome that nature for stepping-stones cross to from one its continent to the other. and upon another seems to hold out a hand to Africa by the innumerable islands which surround Between the shores of this peninsula and those of its shores. . would it not have been absurd for the Greeks to have turned a deaf ear and a blind eye to the experience of their predecessors to have begun again at the beginning ? Was it not better to take up the work at the point where it had been left. always Her eyes were ready to receive foreign ideas and influences. and Median empires. by the accident of geographical situation. and Asia Minor. but with years and experience he improves it and brings it nearer to perfection. the more surely do we recognize the truth contained in those myths and traditions which betray the influence exercised upon Greece by the people of To confine ourselves to the Egypt. it could not but happen.xxxiv different one. Syria. . Thus then. modes of thought.* . The Greek race thus found itself. in contact with the Egyptian. as soon as the Greek race drew itself clear from primitive examples. the fertile germs of art. which is on one hand upon the very borders of Asia. barbarism. Such being the situation of Greece. that. Introduction. while it the insular or peninsular character of most of the region which numerous colonies attached to the had the effect of greatly The Greek frontier was thus multiplying the points of contact. and was. ever turned outwards the Greek nationality was not one of those which remain for ages inaccessible to foreign merchandize and surrounding coasts like vessels at anchor. for future developments. models. and to make use. . Seeing how far civilization had advanced. he makes use of it use of it at first in its original form. always open. together with the .

a crowd of plastic elements which they had employed in the expression of their own ideas and line. re- present the accumulated efforts of countless It unknown inventors. the alphabet of art. together with that alphabet which represents the principal sounds of the voice by a few special signs. simple in a when their secrets word all those trades which seem so are known. of representing the drapery with which the forms are covered. in the fu-11 Even after Greek art had reached perfection and was of these early borrowings. was not only the material outfit of civilization that the Greeks borrowed from their predecessors they obtained. the historian of xxxv Greek art discovers siirz'ivals. We find analogous methods of indicating the human skeleton. tised eye can perceive that the The marks the facilities of such a soulless and indiscriminating eclecticism . and yet a pracGreeks were never satisfied. Introduction. and to the number of his elements for comparison.. enjoyment of her own individuality. in exact proportion to the accuracy of his researches. with merely combining in various proportions the materials furnished by the artisans of Egypt or Assyria of their origin are continually visible. stone- working and carving. glass-making. more we are struck with these resemblances. and that of Greece. which are something beyond mere coincidences. the more numerous do those features become which are common to oriental. art. another alphabet which has been happily named . sentiments. combinations of ornaments. were transported to Greece and there preserved to be handed down to our modern ornamentist. which. namely. like the sphinx. the griffin. we still find traces Sometimes it is a decorative motive. especially Assyrian. like the Phoenicians. The deeper we penetrate into what is called archaism. of accenting its articulations. certain necessary conventions. the The nearer we get to the fountain head of Greek art. but which. metallurgy. decorative forms. plastic arts. although not in themselves among the antecedent conditions of art . smith's work. He are also finds that the Greeks borrowed from the same instructors artistic. weaving. invented on the banks of the Nile or the Tigris. the palm-leaf and many others. Greek taste had not yet so transformed the details of ornamentation as to prevent us from recognizing the motives which commerce had brought for its use over the waves of the ^Egean or the mountains of Asia Minor. ceramics. forms and motives which had been employed in previous centuries and earlier civilizations. those industrial processes which. nevertheless. embroidery.

In what does its superiority consist ? How does its originality show itself. beyond the towers of Chaldsea and the domes of Nineveh. to penetrate into of those civilizations. obelisks and pyramids of Egypt. to Cyprus and Rhodes. as those of the Our route will conduct traveller towards his long-desired goal.xxxvi Introduction. far discover whence they first we must and then show. We undertake this long detour in order that we may arrive in Greece instructed by all that we have learnt on the way. and that we can only do by going back to the civilizations in which they were produced the spirit . the majesty of those pediments where live and breathe lifting into the azure the g-ods of Homer and Phidias. . and of whose art they were the heirs and continuers. The the exclusively Greek features of Greek art did we not begin by defining the foreign elements which have taken their part in the work. Greece was profoundly original in the best sense of the word. us from the shores of the Nile to those of the Euphrates and Tigris. We should be unable to grasp art of . that is. we shall see it before us. they realised their own conception. of a race that as that could not satisfy the ambitions already possessed the poetry of Hesiod and Homer. It was far superior to all that went before it it alone deserved to become classic. beyond the huge ramparts of the cities of Syria. sky the elegant severity of its marble porticoes. as our history of the past advances. and prepared to understand and to judge but during the whole voyage our eyes will be turned towards Greece. to furnish a body of rules and laws capable of being transmitted by teaching. and . we shall never cease to perceive on the horizon the sacred rock of the Athenian acropolis . the fortresses and rock-cut tombs of Phrygia and Lycia. of success. When we have crossed the threshold of the Propylsea. . by what means and with how great a measure started and how they progressed define their ideas of the beautiful. we must endeavour to . and how can its existence be explained ? These are the but in order to arrive questions which we propose to answer at a just conclusion we must begin with the study of those nations to whom the Greeks went to school. the lofty colonnades of Persepolis. over the plains of Medea and Persia and Asia Minor to But beyond the the shores of Phoenicia. by wellchosen examples.

and the temple of Wingless Victory when we have seen all Greece become covered with monuments of architecture and sculpture. cemeteries with if at last its fantastic magnificence of their decoration its we find ourselves in imperial Rome. its amphitheatres. of Pericles. In art this sketch of is our plan. Phidias and the scene of Polycletus. . retracing the first steps of human industry. w^e have reserved no place for the the art of the caverns and the which called prehistoric. than they were of found almost everywhere. among basilicas. IV. disdain. baths. thickly dispersed near the surface of the earth. and all the sumptuous evidence of its luxury. This omission may surprise some of our readers. bear the impress of the same style and the same when we have seen Praxiteles and Scopas succeed to taste have the . xxxvii visited the Parthenon. from describing the first manifestations of the plastic instinct of mankind. now and again. although we shall endeavour to comprehend and to judge with the liberality and largeness of taste and sympathy which is the honour of contemporary criticism. will it not cost us a struggle to ? quit If so many wonders and conclude our voyage of Cimon. the Etruscan . heaped among the bones of deer in the grottoes for which . we shall sometimes sigh for that ideal of pure and sovereign beauty which we adored in Greece and shall feel. the Erectha:um. after grave reflection. and we therefore beg to submit for their consideration the reasons which. pompous capitals of to Alexander describe if we cross sea to visit Veil the and Clusium. we shall now and again turn our eyes with regret to wHat we have left behind and. . the nostalgia of the exile.Introduction. and of the heirs we the the leave the Athens Lycurgus. We fully appreciate the importance of such researches. for . without rivalling those of Athens in purity of line or finesse of execution. and of the results which they have No sooner had it entered into the mind man to look for and collect the humble remains upon which so many centuries had looked with indifference. We to are actuated by neither indifference nor led. . which. have induced us to refrain from lake dwellings.

there is nothiny which is sug'g-ests writinq. has also taken these remains in hand. has attempted to classify them and to gain from them some notion of the life led by These arms. . sometimes even sprinkled upon the surface of the Pieces of flint. . buried in peat marshes and sandy shores. we have been enabled to form for ourselves a probably truthful picture. bones and pieces have been found upon which the figures of animals are of horn carved with a truth and spirit which allow their species to be at . into fishhooks. into instruments of the chase. have been carefully compared with similar objects still in use by the savage races which people the far corners of the world.— XXXviii IXTRODUCTION. . it is nowhere ences so marked as among those primitive cave-dwellers of Perigord patiently studied. to a period Chaldsea. fashioned fields and country roads. men and animals had once contended. of the life and social habits of those primitive Eurovisited the peans is not who made all. The use of similar tools and weapons. which has done so much for science. whom Christy and Edouard Lartet have so . the early human families which manufactured them. and. in All evidence that the remains question belong to a very remote antiquity. the soil from recovered been tools. to decide the former use of each of the objects By collating the observations of the various travellers who have savage races in question. bone. once and certainly recognized. or horn. plastic imitation seems to have been peculiar to a few tribes althouo-h traces of this taste are found elsewhere. so far as it goes. further examination brought to light the local differ- Thus the proneness to which prevailed then as now. amber balls which were once strung upon necklaces and bracelets fragments of rough tissue seeds and carbonized fruits earthen and of skin garments vessels made by hand and dried in the sun or simply in the open air. to say nothing of that of Greece and much nearer the primitive barbarism than to the civilization of Egypt and Rome. In some of the cave dwellings. perforated teeth. . And that general character of those early periods being established. natural The comparative method. and domestic utensils shells. But none of these remains bear the slightest trace of a system of signs for the transmission of ideas or recollections . These comparisons have enabled us discovered. and instruments which have of the old and cultivated nations of Europe. there a complete absence of metal. more this significant is still.

to reward e>vcavators on the sites of ancient Their chances are small of finding. There can be in no question of chronology. by repeat a {q. on the other hand. to light have little to say to our aesthetic perceptions they their . of which one has sometimes been called. it takes us far beyond those days of which our only knowledge comes from vague . and central races which in the full We those can never be too grateful for the persevering labours of who have .v! types with an extreme monotony . side at least must ever be lost in unfathomable obscurity. xxxix By dint of careful classification and comparison. They cast some slight illumination upon those distant ages of which humanity has preserved had. we have been enabled to discover the slow steps by which mankind raised itself from the earliest. almost shapeless. divided into the pahcolithic and neolithic epochs .Introduction.those objects of art which. beauty and elegance. of ivory. and with iron we are classic period. to the rich and varied equipment of " lacustrian civilization. of reindeer horn. carried on these researches in every corner of Europe their deserts are all the greater from the fact that they could never count upon those agreeable surprises which come now and then and historic cities. flint axe. real no desire to penetrate. They people with unknown multitudes those remote epochs into which scientific curiosity yesterday. whose total would. With the appear- ance of the former metal the tribes of northern Europe established a connection with the civilized surrounded the Mediterranean. repay any The remains which they bringamount of toil and expense. found with the bones of the mammoth in the quaternary alluvial deposits. they carry our thoughts back to a point far nearer the cradle of our race than the myths of early history or even the monumental remains of Egypt and Chalda^a. but. we have been enabled to follow the march of progress through those countless centuries whose number will never be known to us. the age of bronze followed. but of Abbeville or the caverns of Perigord when from the sands we dig up the first flint implements or those fragments of bone. but all this no recollection. perhaps." as it In this unlimited field. the main the stone age has been defined and divisions have been traced . and then came the iron age. which have preserved to us the first attempts made by man to copy the outlines of living beings. oppress our imaginations if we knew it .

the rapidity of industrial progress is like that of a falling continually accelerating. have been. added most likely to the discoveries of that which preceded it after each happy effort many generations succeeded one another Ever since they have without any further attempt to advance. as indeed maybe historically proved. people we find their successive . been under our observation. each generation. the forces at work are too numerous and it sometimes too contrary to allow us to express tical by the mathemain the physical formula which . first and still farther beyond those centuries which saw the struggling dawn of history. Where little neither written evidence nor oral tradition exist there can be question of historic order. decided not to prehistoric art. yet if The chances of error would of course be numerous us. From all analogies progress must . the actual duration of the stone age. may be applied to movement world but on the whole this law of constantly accelerated progress holds good. in the beginning.xl Introduction. This acceleration social life are too is not of course quite regular the phenomena of complex. In the art of a civilized feeling The remains silence of the stone age are not calculated to dissipate the which enshrouds those centuries. more centuries rolled away between the first chipped flints and the well polished weapons which succeeded them than But we cannot between the latter and the earliest use of bronze. measured shall least with something approaching to probable truth. modes of interpreted by expressive forms and thought we may even attempt under all but reserve to sketch their history with the sole aid of their plastic remains. . that lives. as the title we propose human race to is write a history. in question. had but do without metals. So long as man . when the at implies established relations between certain groups of facts and certain portions of time. any of estimating even within five or six thousand years. nor satisfy those whom probability and a specious hypothesis will not content. prove that it was so. unhappily. and the word history. We means do not yet possess. tradition. We have. embark upon these questions of which we have chosen declares. then. It is probable. in all probability. the savage races of the world have been practically stationary except where European commerce has to little profoundly modified the conditions of their therefore. probably we never possess. because. failed the attempt . . all other materials had. exceedingly slow body.

no starting point for any continuous movement like that which. a- . the needles. tures of the cave-dwellinofs that It is not until we reach the sculp- oerms of artistic effort. Art was born. and in truth. and it might fairly be expected that our history should commence with them. Boeotia. is nothing but an industry. . . as we believe. at Mycenae and in in these attempts is beside the question . beyond the means which he employed in his struggles with his enemies. . are works of art but we are unable to give that title to the axes and arrowheads. batons of command. the harpoons and fish-hooks. The word history cannot then be pronounced in connection with these remote periods. and a rudimentary industry. perhaps a little recklessly. which is content with be supplying the simplest wants. the great goddess mother whose worship the Phoenicians taught to the Greeks. nor can their remains be looked upon in any . could impress upon it nothing but those gross instincts which are common to man and beast we can discover nothing from his works. Art commences for us with man's first attempts to impress upon matter some form which should be the expression of a sentiment or of an idea. who moulded matter to his will with great and painful difficulty. the pins. beginning in Egypt and Chaldaea. man did not cut the figures of animals upon the handles of his tools and upon those objects which have been called. we VOL. idols which represent. it was because he found true aesthetic enjoyment in copying and interpreting living nature. interesting though it . were it not that they offer no sequence.Introduction. was prosecuted in Greece and led in time to such high developments even its competent students confess that the art of the cave-men was an isolated episode without fruition or consequence. I. with those first attempts at the representation of life. Specimens of find the first . The want of skill shown sense as works of art. The more ancient portions of our prehistoric collections do not offer the same opportunities The primitive savage they are too simple and too little varied. to those who wish to study the history of labour. mere desire on the The most hideous and disgusting of those idols in stone or terra-cotta which are found in the islands of the Greek Archipelago. the part of the workman renders him an artist. we may acknowledge. xli would have been well worth making. for any utilitarian purpose it was to give himself pleasure. the crowds of various utensils which we see in the glass cases of a pre-historic museum all this. the knives. and in his never-ending effort to procure food for himself.

but before those objects were sufficiently numerous or the relations effect countries sufficiently intimate to produce any great upon the habits of native workmen. Didier. taken from the vegetable world. and neither of bronze both far in in the neohthic age. this decoration proves that those by whom and who frequently employed it with such happy contented with beauty. ' Dktmmaire aichcologique dc la Gaiile. passed over in silence this system of ornamentation in but we . nor even in that advance in other ways of that of the cave-dwelHngs does it — — ever seem to have entered into the mind of offered to him by the organic world. still copy the types mankind.^ Towards the close of the prehistoric age the taste for ornament to less those of man becomes very marked. 68). will be seen that we could not have . had long before been roughly figured in one or two caves in the Dordogne. it is generally possible to distinguish those works which are of foreign origin and such works excluded. Like the rude efforts of the caveit men. By the help of the discoveries which have been lately made in the Troad. introduced From what we have said. and in other ancient sites. we only reach the end of the period in question. this art are found at but a few points of the vast surface over which the vestiges of primitive man are spread.xlii Introduction. results. the movements of commerce with Greece and Etruria. i. p. was imagined were not bare utility. again find historic it the it methods of classic art.shall our path when we come to treat of that pre- the Greece which preceded by perhaps two or three centuries Greece of Homer. Bertrand. figure 28. 8vo. Among the deposits to which we have alluded. to the objects This geometrical style of decoration prevailed all over central Europe until. vol. Archiologie celtiqiie et gauloise {\ vol. at Mycenae. 1876. Cavernes. Phcenician or Chaldaic manufacture. however. sought after in A secret instinct worked them and inspired them with which the desire to give some appearance of elegance use. which. with those . in the first place. but that ornament is always of the kind Hardly a single decorative motive is which we call geometric. and secondly the in they had daily Roman conquest. but. But even with the discoveries which carry us farthest back. so far as they could. Al. . we shall study the works produced by the ancestors of the Greeks before they went to school to the nations of the East. when maritime commerce had already brought to the islands and the mainland of Greece objects of Egyptian.

It was the same with a letters. Herr Conze. turned to the style in question for the decoration of their weapons. Its guiding spirit and its motives are similar. who stirred them on new attempts and further progress . One would say that from the shores of the great ocean and the Baltic to those of the Mediterranean. of their earthenware. have a popular is poetry which more or less varied and expressive. Pelasgic art did not differ. of this naive product of the imagination. Struck by this resemblance. and still practised for centuries after the dawn of Greek civilization in the great plains to the north of the Alps and the istics. furniture. have. never entirely disappears in a literature . under one form or another. at some period of their lives. in its general character- from that of the various peoples spread over the continent of Europe. their less The richly endowed among them would have stopped at that point to but for the example of their neighbours. system. all the workmen laboured for the same masters. common to all branches of the Aryan it race. a feature Semites. There is same richness. their apparel and' their personal ornaments. first The trace of this earliest spontaneous effort. has proposed that this kind of ornament shall be called Indo-European he sees. one of the most eminent of German archaeologists. the same combinations produced by a small number of never-changing linear elements. Greeks as —by the was Pelas- So long it left to its own inspiration. and finally the its human beauty and possess ! nobility. in the universality of the the . or rather uniformity. pulse from ether sources than their own they reproduced figure in all vegetable and animal forms. by numerous to the the art of nations which do not belong been shown those peoples that. human nature being the whose development has been normal. a special characteristic which may serve to distinguish from the Objections have been brought against this doctrine of which Herr Conze himself examples taken from Aryan family. poetry once inspired and critical All however. all has recognized the gravity .Introduction. is xliii it easy to form a sufficiently accurate general idea of the art practised by the forefathers of the historic gians. it has same everywhere. to use a conventional term. Danube. others advanced without iminstincts. neither interrupted nor accelerated by external causes. Among there are the nations which have that made name a in history at how few a true literature. or rather the same poverty.

which is by no means the case with the . There artistic is another consideration of still greater importance series. they can be placed in their proper historical position. but as we shall have to notice it when we treat of Greece. ScHLiEMANN. . upon time and circumstance the march along the road of progress began.xliv Introduction. Both in Greece and Italy approximate dates can be given to the monuments which it ornaments. This style therefore should be studied both for its jarinciple and for the resources of which it disposes. . Nothing could be farther from the subtlety and variety of the contours presented by living organisms. accustomed to straight lines and circles. and show the steps artist by which the succeeds in passing from one style to another. it was certain to arrive. All that had preceded it was but the vague murmuring of a wish which had not yet become self conscious but. see and 46. to the imitation of nature. it seems to us better to adjourn till then any discussion of its merits. All the rest depended upon natural gifts. figs. and guessed at the part which might be played by the plastic instincts with which it felt itself endowed. 33 and 213: Cesnola. see pis. Nothing can be much more imperfect or more conventional than the figures which we find upon some of the painted vases from Mycenae and Cyprus. In the same way the most advanced and refined forms of art draw a part of their motives and effects Irom geometrical decoration. if not always at the . and speak. feel. objects gleaned throughout central Europe. and although its rapidity was intermittent. Elsewhere force has either been wanting for this development.' upon which the workman's hand. MycemB. from curves and interlacing lines. But in spite of all this. Cyprus. or segments of circles. or evidence of the transition has escaped our researches. 44 . at last' the intellect divined the use to which it might be put. art was born with the awakening of this desire to reproduce the beauty and mobility of living forms. from all mere abstract combi- nations. has succeeded in suggesting by those means the figures of birds and fighting men. which move and struggle. which is Hfe-like and sincere it is found even in the most perfect works of its classic period. to the representation of bodies which breathe. the remains of Greece form an almost unbroken from the brilliant humble and timid attempts of nascent sculpture to the masterpieces of Phidias and Polycletus.

of movement and of thought. the Alps. times rather a tendency to the creation of than art itself. we are enabled to avoid all excursion beyond the limits implied by our title. to those great works of literature in which we took our first lessons in the art of Behind all these images and associations writing and speaking.Introduction. the work of civilization was continuous and universal. The nations which. the nations which figure upon the stage of they each had neighbours who inhistory were not isolated fluenced them. the sources of life. . . at least at sufficient competence in painting and modelling to transmit the types of a race and the images of its gods to posterity. but at a very late period . but it calls up before our eyes the brilliant cities of northern Africa and hither. before the triumph of the barbarians. . for three or four thousand years. they do not belong to the same system they were attached to it by the Roman conquest. slowly gravitated with the effluxion of time from the east to the west. by commerce or conquest each also received something from its predecessors. The student of plastic art finds in the remains of prehistoric art. or whom they influenced. and in turn transmitted the results'of its labour to those which came after it in a word. As for the populations which. with which our school-days have made us familiar it reminds us of those nations whose stories we learnt from the sacred and profane and our thoughts authors whose works we read in our youth revert to their grandiose monuments of architecture and sculpture. . . — — . the invasion of of the . from Memphis and Babylon to Athens and Rome. lived on the north of the Danube. The conventional meaning of this word postponing our study of the origin of embraces neither the primitive savages who chipped the first flint. not long. w^ere grouped round the basin of the Mediterranean. nor the cave-men. and the fall Christianity.Asia. of Greece and Italy. indeed. and the Pyrenees. xlv production of masterpieces of divine beauty. in which the nervous centres. to their masterpieces of poetry and eloquence. beyond that which is generally called antiquity. by this tendency until we come to investigate Greek and Italian art. belonged to one historical system to those who take a wide grasp of facts they are but the members and organs of one great body. and the discoveries the intelligence of an educated man tells him that in the ancient of science every day make the fact more certain as in the modern world. long before the opening of this period and during the whole of its duration. .

It had exhausted every form in which those ideas and beliefs could be had kept unchanged. pre- form the common patrimony . very language they or adopted and for all this they gave practically nothing in return. have. of the wider and more comprehensive civilization of modern Europe. a civilization which was destined to cross every sea and to spread itself over the whole surface of the globe. by many things they have no history. it They are separated from . all those tribes which the Romans called barbarous. these barbaric art. to that religion which has led to the foundation of our modern social and political systems. neither history. whose . made an important contribution to the civilization into which they plunged at so late a period. nations. existed. which have given expression to far more complex ideas than those of antiquity. furnishing to civilization nothing but a few rough materials which they themselves knew not how to use . who had nearly all. they took no part in the in the work which. . they remained in their isolation for thousands of years. These also were to have their modes of expression. As soon as the victories of the Roman legions. but dominated by analysis they were to have arts and literatures. to what we call antiquity. the Slavs and Scandinavians. rich and sonorous enough. the old world had almost finished its task. nor expressive their received them from all. throughout those ages. in that accumulation of inventions and creations which.xlvi Introduction. fixed and served by writing and realized by art. had brought them into constant communication with the maritime after centuries of confusion cities of the Mediterranean. or little changed. Hidden behind a thick curtain of mountains and forests. when clothed which it lenium after millenium. sprinkled over vast regions where no towns These races do not belong. conquerors. empire. led to substitution for of the antique system and the and violence. was being prosecuted great basin of the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean. The Celts and Teutons. then. in spite of the apparent poverty of their share. Elsewhere. they did so much to provide a foundation for those in thought and feeling which are only to be found modes of modern society. the dissolution it. and the construction of the great roads which united Rome with her most distant provinces. nor letters. they have neither literary and scientific culture nor anything that deserves the name of art. for milThe old world employed such force and vitality as remained to it in giving birth to the new.

which would be enough to occupy several lives.Introduction. — We which limit have is difterent. a civilization which stretches back nearly as far as that of Egypt and Assyria. their severe judges. and decorative painting which charms facility and design. the science of decoration has never been carried farther than by the wood-carvers. on the other hand. and although they helped to found modern society. doubtless. entered upon the scene. these nations tlie xlvii human species. in this work ? then. of the most civilized portion of late hour. but. a civilization which has produced works both of fine and of industrial art which in many respects equalled those In all those of the nations with which we are now occupied. who see nothing but their brilliant qualities they have also their detractors. may be asked. — — of our studies. But we have a We . at a was as disturbers and destroyers. they produced none of those elements left to us by antiquity and preserved for us by that Rome in whose hands the heritage of Greece was concentrated. do we refuse to Our motives may be easily divined. and sometimes of great and rare power. it Why comprehend the more ancient monuments of India and China. Those rich the marvellous delicacy of their ornamentation. countries there are buildings which impress by their mass and by called the far East -India. but equally valid. those which by their age belong to the centuries with which we are concerned. weavers and embroiderers of Hindostan. might allege our incompetence for such an extended task. These styles have their fanatical admirers . who but no one attempts to deny that each of those nations possesses an art which is always original. reasons for leaving that China. it When. inventive fancy of The representation of the human figure has never reached the purity of line or nobility of expression of a Greek statue. sculptures singular freedom of a by its skilful use of brilliant colour as well as by the its and power. or at least are chiefly struck by their shortcomings. and the potters of China and Japan. and Japan outside the and populous countries have.

there is a profound difference between Egypt or Chaldsea. We may cite printing as an example nearly two hundred years before our era the Chinese printed with blocks of wood. written characters. decisive reason.xlviii Introduction. by seas once finally. the first historic kings of Egypt and Chaldaea. It is a human family which has lived in voluntary isolation from the rest of its species. minutes and seconds. A single alphabet. the industrial and plastic arts all came to them from one or the other of those two ereat still . in the period made From this point of view. to the latest of the Roman Emperors. more — centres of civilization. concerned no doubt or hesitation is possible. and. and served all the nations of the ancient world in turn for preserving their thoughts and the idiom of their language. have. changed the face of the world not only . in a few centuries. part of the public wealth. of weights and measures. Neither Aryan India nor Turanian China belongs to the antiquity which we have defined. in the history of China do not belong The most remote epochs to antiquity as we have . useful discovery On the other hand. and forms. has given us the sexagesimal division which we still employ for the partition of a circumference into degrees. she guarded them to invent them anew. by deserts. was invented in Babylon and travelled across western Asia to be adopted by the Greeks. through the mediation of the Greek astronomers and geographers. then. and as for Indo-China and Japan they are but annexes to those two great nations religion. Down almost to our own days China and its satellites had no dealings with the western group of nations. It is far as is So China separated from western mankind by the largest of the continents. by the highest mountains in the world. in the hands of Europeans. from the time of Menes and Ourkham. by that contempt and hatred of everything foreign which such conditions of existence are calculated to engender. every and by the group of nations to whom we mean to confine our attention. has been turned to the profit of others than its authors. did she fail so closely make good use that the West had to . In the course of her long and laborious existence China has invented many things. and China. made the tour of the Mediterranean. so to speak. of her inventions. A system of numerals. that which the Phoenicians extracted from one of the forms of Egyptian writing. impassable. She was the first to discover several of those instruments and processes which.

But when China is in question our impression is very different. and other All treasures. those learned grammatical now admired by philologists. however. and through the passes which lead down to what is now called the Punjab between the ports of the Arabian and Persian gulfs and those of the lower Indus and the Malabar coast. and Arachosia. all of which came mainly by the sea route. life . bathed by an ocean which bore the fleets of Egypt. the Persians. defined the term. There was a continuous comincr and ofoine of caravans across the plateau of Iran and the deserts which lie between it and the oases of Bactriana. Assyrian.Introduction. . Greece and Rome. Read as a whole. and that would have been the sum of our loss. of metals. with all Rightly or Avrongly. all those nations included in our plan laboured for their neighbours and for their successors. their history proves to us that they each played a part in the gradual elaboration of civilized which was absolutely necessary to the total result. supplies of aromatic spices. literature. Aria. was nev'er entirely From the latter regions western Asia drew her interrupted. I. The case of India is different. and material wealth. The Assyrians. some portions of which were annexed for a time to those Empires which had their centre in the valley of the Euphrates and stretched westwards as far as the Mediterranean. though fluctuating with time. we its art. Persia. the epics and dramas of the following epoch. the religious analyses which are VOL. Chaldsea. was but the supply of the raw material for Egyptian. she was never beyond the reach of the western nations. Less remote than China. this. should not expect such a catastrophe to have had any great effect we should have been the poorer by a few upon civilization beautiful plates and vases. and the Greeks carried their arms into the basin of the Indus. a continual commercial movement went on which. all the rich and h . of precious woods. of jewels. xlix Without knowing it or wishing it. There is no evidence that up to the very last days of antique civilization the inhabitants of Hindostan with all their depths and originality of thought ever exercised such influence upon their neighbours as could have made itself felt as far as Greece. and philosophical speculations. and Phoenician industries. and should have had to do without tea. our intellects are quite equal to imagining what the world would have been like had that Empire been absolutely destroyed centuries ago. The grand lyric poetry of the Yedas.

. employment of those solid and durable materials which defend . was composed of a series of buildings surrounded by porticos. Recent researches have proved Meoasthenes to be an intelligent observer and an accurate narrator. and the fine masses of verdure with which it was surrounded. The arrangements seem general aspect was very imposing. the capital of Kalacjoka. in the midst of a vast garden. at Palibothra. began with the kiosques. worthy of the name. the true Neither Egyptians. So far as we can judge from what Megasthenes tells us of Palibothra. its great It was built upon extent. and the richness of its apartments. the most powerful sovereign in the valley of the Ganges in that in the time of Seleucus Nicator. like those of his subjects. which contained large reception halls separated from one another by courtyards in which peacocks and tame panthers wandered The columns of the principal saloons were gilt. the two at Palibothra the residence of the sovereign. It an artificial. but. terraced mound. Phoenicians Hindoo they merely visited those sea-board towns where the mixed population was more occupied with commerce than The conquerors previous to Alexander with intellectual pursuits. impressed the traveller by its situation. it was little Architecture. or decoration. With its commanding position. huts of pise or rough concrete. The at will. remained shut up in that basin of the Ganges into which no stranger penetrated in many ways no time of the until the Mohammedan reached conquest. to have had much in common with those of the Assyrian and But there was one capital distinction between Persian palaces. studied with any profit. was built of wood. did no more than reach the gates of India and reconnoitre its approaches. while Alexander himself failed to penetrate beyond the vestibule. have found buildings which they could have construction. centres of Arabs nor civilization . either for their plan. after all. intellectual brilliant and development of a race akin to the Greeks less richly endowed. or The palace of the sovereign.1 Introduction. even favoured region. and he tells us that in the richest parts of the country the Hindoos of his time had nothing better than wooden houses. the Greeks would not. it must have produced a happy and picturesque more than a collection of effect. Let us suppose that the career of the Macedonian hero had not been cut short by the fatigues and terrors of his soldiers.

there are none of those descriptions of pictures and statues which. In giving to their gods the forms and features of men. and a well marked limit is the essence is beautiful and expressive in proportion as its contours are clearly and accurately drawn. renewed the youth of the Ionic order by their bold and ingenious innovations. for the reasons which we have given. their poetry. described by poets and by artists. were of the working of stone for building. . was not so with the Hindoo deities. consequently. Under such conditions. the oldest of the Greek singers sketched advance the figures to be afterwards created by their painters and sculptors. no allusion to works of painting or sculpture in their epics and dramas. aptitude for the arts of design. in the writings of the Greek poets and dramatists. to render ideas It is the business of these arts by forms. was only in its cradle in the time of Alexander. Homer furnished the sketch from which in Phidias took his type of the Olympian Jupiter. was not so In them the persons of the gods had It neither consistence nor tangibility. and as to their painting. show us that the development of the plastic arts followed closely upon that of poetry. They are distinguished . Indian art then. It was the age of Lysippus and Apelles of those great architects who. which . we have no information. and others which are unknown. had these two forms of civilization entered of form. with the Vedic hymns. in the temples of Asia Minor. This difference between the two races may perhaps be exjDlained by the opposition between their Ignorant as they religions and. while the artists of Greece were in full possession of all their powers they had already produced inimitable master-pieces in each of the great divisions of art. . The other arts could not have been much more advanced. There is. The Hindoo genius had none of the Greek faculty for clear and well-defined imagery it betrays a certain vagueness and want of definition which is not to be combined with a complete interpreted but it . now the by one or set of qualities and again by another each of immortals her who sat down to the banquet on Olympus. had his own personal physiognomy. and yet their creative force was far from being exhausted. these people can hardly have been sculptors. what would the effect have been. moreover. H themselves against destruction by their weight and constructive repose.Introduction.

as was natural. in order to defend themselves against so many enemies. attached to the literature and the arts which reminded them of their superior origin and of that distant fatherland with which year after year it became more difficult to communicate. and of their palaces must have been in keeping everywhere no doubt were Corinthian and Ionic with these buildings. especially after the rise of the Parthian monarchy had separated it from the empire of the Seleucidae. close relations into with each other ? In all probability the result would have been similar to that which ensued when the ancestors of the Greeks began to deal with the more civilized But in the case of the Phoenicians and the people of Asia Minor. statues of the Greek gods and heroes mixed with those portraits and historic groups which had been multiplied by the scholars of Lysippus. as we have said. for which the heirs of the . Athenians. could not long hope to maintain itself. is enough to prove that several of its sovereigns must have been Should their annals ever be discovered they remarkable men.Hi Introduction. The only frontier upon which the inter- change of idea was frequent and continuous was the north-west. instead of a o-reater. this of its fall. Through the obscurity in which all the details are enveloped we They can clearly perceive that those princes were men of taste. which then overran Asia. and mere fact that it did not succumb until the year 136 B. the decoration of their cities. Athough they were obliged. moreover. . outpost of Hellenism had fallen before the attacks of those In such an isolated position it barbarians whom we call the Saci. Spartans and Cretans. would probably form one of the strangest and most interesting episodes in the history of the Greek race. Its existence must always have been precarious. and perhaps some of those easel pictures signed by famous masters. the contact between the two was never complete nor was it of long duration. the disciples had a less. which divided India from that Bactrian kingdom of which we know little more than the mere names of its princes and the date But before the end of the second century B. and. they also called skilful artists to their court and kept them there at great expense the beautiful coins which have preserved their images down to our day are evidence of this. . wall paintings. to employ those mercenary soldiers. Hindoos. were.C. aptitude for the plastic arts than their teachers.C. Thebans. and to pay them dearly for their services. of their temples.

of elements borrowed from foreign. reproduced upon their vases and in their terra-cotta figures the motives of the painting. and Calcutta. there the same mixture of Greek taste with that of India.^ In those sacred buildings which have been examined the plan of the Greek temple has not been adopted. p. the nations to the north of India were astonished and delighted by the elegance of their ornament and the variety of its forms. Leitner. but the isolated members of Greek architecture and the most characteristic details of its ornament are everywhere made use of. and on their obverse Greek inscriptions. who had were such keen competitors.are found in the north of the Punjab upon a few ancient sites where excavations have been made. and by the remains of what is now called Grsco-Buddhic art. in the selection is of types. the goldsmiths. . 1871-73. attracting much attention. are now They have been carefully studied and described Dr. Like the Scythian tribes among whom the Greek cities of the Eu. and the architecture which they left behind jewellers and armourers cut. They imported from Bactriana these products of an art which was wanting to them. an art which seems to have flourished in the upper valley of the Indus in the third or second century this That was so is These remains. and stamped them in metal. with the help perhaps of foreign artists settled amonsf them. ArchcBologisdu Zeitung. The Louvre has lately acquired some curious examples of this art. 90. sculpture. Lahore. to imitate Grecian desio-n in the courts of the Alexander . Indian rajahs. followed the Greek armies in their march towards the East with the object of supplying the wants of any colonies which might be established in those distant regions. And it was not only the Greek colonists who employed their skill. Some of them have been transported to Europe in the collection of Dr.Introduction. Die Griechische Kunst in Indien. chased. by Cunningham ^ . and soon set themselves. It is the same with the before our era. sculpture in . 1876. proved by those coins which bear on their reverse such Hindoo symbols as Siva with his bull. formerly much neglected. in the arrangement of drapery. 3 vols.xine were planted. the design. liii Artisans. while others remain in the museums of Peshawur. and those drawn from ' ^ ^ ArchcEological Survey of India. Curtius has described them and They published reproductions of the most curious among them.

and that most of them show details which imply acquaintance with Greek architectural forms and their imitation. beliefs. threw itself at the command of Alexander upon that East from which it had received its first lessons. The helmeted Athene and to Helios in his quadriga figure by the side of Buddha. because there were. and we need refer to her no more. at least in the matter of art. except now and then perhaps for purposes of illustration. whether stone-built or carved in the living rock. with which she made acquaintance very late and at a period when she had no need to take lessons from others. more than one in a less Traces of the same influence are in be found degree other parts of India. or even as the Punjab. the national. from the works of art brought in the ships of maritime traders. From all this it will be seen that we need not go as far as China. her reach. India had little or nothing to give that her arts were not developed till after her early relations with Greece. and employed this upon the decoration of it and temples. It is even possible that Greek palaces all workmen may there thus have been introduced into seaport towns. date from a period more recent than that of Alexander. in order to explain the origin of Greek During the period with which we are concerned. But as Greece borrowed nothing from India. as we have said. That.liv Introduction. marked Near the mouth of the Indus and upon the Malabar coast. is seen in the reaction by which the Greek genius. the little which we shall have to say of the products of the Hindoos will not be connected with our discussion of the origin of Greek art. the important However may be is incontestable that sacred edifices of that region. China might as well have been in the planet Saturn for all she had to do with the ancient world. when arrived at maturity. in the domain of the plastic arts. . W'e cannot treat India quite in the same fashion. precious hint as to their technique. art. moreover. the native sculptors and architects were able to obtain more than one useful suggestion. A curious though hardly an important episode in history. certain points of contact and reciprocal influences at work between her and the group of nations we are about to treat. Greece owed nothing to India. We are thus on all hands forced to this conclusion that. and it would even seem that her first stimulus was derived from the models which Greece put within : .

and comparison of its build plastic remains. our introduction both of those authors devoted a its long chapter to the definition of art and principal manifestations.Introduction. Architecture. they are vague and obscure. on one hand or the other. in such a question as this. sculpture. every one knows what we mean. We to attempt we have not undertaken a demonstration. each of these sounds has a precise meaning for those to whom our work is addressed. 0?iinis dcfinitio in jure either to objections or reservations. historical painting. periailosa. of art. But on all occasions we shall do our best to avoid the abstract and pedantic terminology which makes Ottfried Muller's first chapter so difficult to read. the definitions of art and of its essential forms shall which had been nothing of the given by previous writers. Charles words in Blanc and kindred works. to define in all terms which awake sufficiently clear and distinct ideas cultivated . painting. When short. genre our these painting. those divergencies will become evident. decoration. unless we are obliged.'' minds No satisfactory definition has ever been given of the word architecture. and only acquire precision through distinctions and developments which have to be discussed at length and again they generally lead. style. kind . and yet. and we may say the same of certain other expressions. which is certainly true in matters . which will often be found in We must refer those who want definitions of phrases to the Graniinaire dcs Arts du Dessin of It will suffice M. Neither do we feel sure that. and there from those which are commonly received. landscape painting. and will be discussed and justified to the best of our ability as the work proceeds. civilization We wish through the study. arts. says an old maxim. We have now declared the aim of our work and the route which . Iv None will of those philosophical it discussions to which Ottfried Muller and Stark thought be found in necessary to give so large a place . definitions do not lead to confusion rather than to clearness. such as industrial pages. when we use it. Why should we attempt. with much patience and ingenuity. work of criticism or aesthetic up the history of ancient description. Stark went so far as to discuss. conversation of cultivated for us that these should be taken in the ordinary meaning which they bear different branches diverge here the If our ideas of art and its men.

the text. M.Ivi Introduction. Chipiez upon and all He has also taken an active part in the revision of the text of certain chapters. as a professional man and able draughtsman. In the single edition of his great work which appeared during his own lifetime. more single-minded. Chipiez. d'uii Temple grecque hypHhre. As for the plates illustrations in we have together chosen the objects to be represented. Winckelmann inserted but a small number of ornament rather than for instruction. Huber's preface to his translation. et des tours a dtages^ de la Chaldde. In all that has to do with architecture. Chipiez.pared. p. than I had dared to hope for. we propose I In order to increase our chances of success. am in having obtained saying how fortunate I a help which I have found more helpful. tells us that their execution gave great dissatisfaction to the author. ' Histoire del Art .^ In our days. I have not written a line technical points. illustrations. in 1877. has superintended the personally execution of the drawings. j\I. however. was much noticed and discussed by connoisseurs. Huber. and in the Salons the of 1878 and 1879 he confirmed his double reputation as a skilful his Essais de Restoration draughtsman and a learned theorist . on the other hand. When forms are to be defined and com. to praise it here. in whatever language spoken or written. to which they offer an and animated commentary. can insert indispensable never suffice. until after consulting M. mere words. was awarded. Charles to neutralise my own To his Histoire critique des Origines ct de la Foi'niatioii des Ordrcs highest prizes of grecqiics. and M. xxxii. me to explain the role which we have assigned to our VI. . It remains for illustrations. have sought and obtained the collaboration of whose special knowledge is well calculated deficiencies. Without their help many descriptions and observations might remain unnecessarily obscure and doubtful. to numerous figures in their text. to follow. and those for those who undertake a work of this kind make use of the great progress which has taken place in engraving and typography. more complete. one of the Academie des Inscriptions. It would not I must confine myself to be fitting. One of his translators.

by the elegant curve which unites the two volutes. I. / . in accordance with the manner in which the skeleton was indicated under the fiesh. an Ionic column from the Erechtheum from one of the same order treated by a Roman architect. and more subtle treatment. the slightest sketch will be of more use than the longest and most minute descriptions. by the fine chiselling of its gorgerin. or statue which has formerly charmed them. if we wish to make clear the characteristics which distinguish one style from another.Introduction. picture. : . another of the fifth century. and it would be impossible to convey them to VOL. Between the contour of a figure from a Memphite bas-relief and that of one from Nineveh. Their imaginations will up for a moment some landscape. : of it a capital from the theatre of Marcellus or the Coliseum would look mean and poor. Supposing that the same model had served all three artists. one of the knee. So it will.xth century. a capital from the Erechtheum is distinguished above a Roman Ionic capital it is at once finer in design and richer in ornamentation by the side . a slight sweep of a line in order to mark more strongly the junction of the thigh and the If we placed three nude torsos side by side. and the third of the time of Hadrian. Between the contour which satisfies us and that which does not there is hardly the difference of a hair by leaning a little harder with the chisel the aspect of the one surface might have been made identical with the other. what difference is there A tenth of difference in the an inch more or less. a practised eye would at once assign its true date to each. larger. and the muscles drawn over it and attached to it. and in the third a want of vigour and firmness but it would be difficult to give by words a clear idea of what caused the difference.'' . By its double astragali. Ivii With well chosen phrases we may awake life the recollections of others. But if we wish to explain the complicated plan of some great building. . si. the archaic Greek style from that of the Phidian epoch or of the decadence. The whole history of art consists of the succession of subtle changes like these. and give renewed to any impression which they may have some fine received from some striking natural phenomenon or call work of art. it would show in the one case a lively sentiment of form combined with some dryness and rigidity in another a freer. the Assyrian from the Egyptian. and by the general delicacy of its ornament. its design and its proportions.

We demand from the draughtsman who pretends to interpret a work of art the same self-sacrifice as devotion and the same from the writer who is charged with the translation of a work of literature from one language into another we require him to forget himself. of the engraver spread a technical uniformity over them all in which differences of school and date disappeared. then. in collections of drawings from antique remains. we find ourselves in such favourable conditions for teaching and the reader explaining our ideas. We have now. give a large number of figures. and Tuscan when he takes us to Siena or Florence." We him to change his style with every change of subject. to copy the gesture. which gave to each building an individuality of its own. pictures and buildings concerned. in which absolute will accuracy and justice of proportion picturesque effects. to clothe the It seemed to the artist natural enough monuments of the past in the style of his own day required much less care than would have been needed for all and it the successful expression of the diversities of style in his models. and that we of this history. attempt to do throughout the course We shall. so that we may say of him. Every one of us has his preferences and natural affinities. But we have indicated an ideal which is not often reached. Greek in Greece. we may at least give the most faithful images of them which can shall be obtained. another for require . and even the faults of his model to be Chinese in China. But. one's remarks in the presence of the can be done is to make But it is rarely that statues. every artist his own methods and personal modes of thought. in default of the objects themselves. however. grown more exacting. It is be aimed at rather than not very long since. were reduced to dull monotony by the undiscriminating brush of the whitewasher. by the utmost precision of technical language or the The best thing that most brilliant and life-like descriptions. One will be conspicuous for his interpretation of the nobility and purity of the antique. the accent.— Iviii IXTRODUCTIOX. they were all presented under one The hand aspect. as the Latin poet says of his Proteus : — " Omnia transformat sese in miracuia rerum. just as the delicate carvings and coloured ornament of the middle asfes and the renaissance. his treatment of oriental art or of the elecrance of our eighteenth I . so far as the subtleties of style were concerned.

and. we might call and many of our remarks and theories would to understand. give the general aspect of buildings with much greater truth and completeness than a mere plan. of course. We shall sometimes.\t making more comprehensible. or have been ill reproduced. know only facts which against the party know who has Our aim in choosing our illustrations will be to place before our readers good reproductions of most of the objects which are discussed in our text. century. we demand . Fidelity in interpretation is. Most of the more important perspectives and restorations due to the learned pencil of M. for a great effect follows the praise which those who treat their model with scrupulous and intelligent respect are sure to obtain. tell prove either to nothing or to called them. so far as it. So far as possible. or even than an elevation. his honour. We shall. select such objects as have not previously been reproduced. it may become. We should be in the same position as an incompetent barrister who has made a bad choice oi become difficult witnesses . the honesty of the draughts- man even all . Chipiez will be given in plates separate from the text. or have been figured in works which are difficult of to access. when in the box. find it necessary is reproduce some famous statue or some building which to . of which we shall make frequent use.Introduction. familiar most people but even then we shall endeavour to give renewed interest to their beauties by displaying them under some fresh aspect and by increased care in the delineation of their forms. as well as the most curious or significant of the works in sculpture or painting to which we shall have to refer. Views in perspective. be unable to figure everything that figures is of interest.xistinof methods it shall see that we obtain Unless instead our illustrations had that merit they would obscure the of te. his glory. and the blame to which they who are less conscientious expose themselves. but shall each we we can at least ensure that those in which we give be interesting shall some for particular illustration or another. witnesses who. in fact. . or a picturesque sketch of ruinous remains. it and from those who are associated with us in this task will allow. lix But the mere enunciation of the principle is of vahie. of course. far as we we are concerned. So if carried to a great height. e. Our readers would search in vain for the features and characteristics to which their attention.

entrusted me with inauguration. fall short of their more elaborate companions honesty and fidelity. I have succeeded. I conceived the plan of this history. Wallon. those processes which imply the practice of . which we hope. and I found him among my auditors in those first I had also to find a publisher who lectures at the Sorbonne. find an associate in two conditions had to be fulfilled. from the painted Ti. from the Statue of Chephren and the bas-reliefs of Shalmaneser decorations to the busts of the Caesars. of the teaching of classic archceology. From the earliest Egyptian dynasties and from fabled Chaldaea to imperial Rome. I hope. would understand the wants of the public and of the critics in such In this. until. they arrived at the most happy and complete perfection which the world has seen. too. art . the creation and descent of forms the continual changes. sometimes slight and sometimes great. to posterity. Some But the majority of our in illustrations will consist of will not. to satisfy their instincts for luxury their p-ods and their kina^s. by the judicious choice and careful execution of our figures. to lodge and to transmit their own likenesses of. engravings upon zinc and wood. without eesthetic dissertations or excessive use of technical terms. and I am free to a matter. we shall review in due succession all the forms which the great nations of antiquity made of the tomb of use of to express their beliefs. and the enamelled bricks of Nineveh to the wall-paintings of Pompeii. a companion who would help me in the necessary labour and study. the it Sorbonne. We hope. at the time when M. the methods and But before had to I could be realized . undertake a work which is. to give a fair idea of this course of development even to those artists who have neither time nor patience to follow our criticisms and descriptions. who et the Acaddmie the des hiscriptions at Bclles-Lettres. too. of these plates will be coloured. We propose to trace and explain the origin and to describe. and their taste for beauty. from the Pyramids and the Tower III. to give shape to their ideas. the work. which they underwent in passing from one people to another. among the Greeks. of which the first instalment is is now submitted secretary to to the public. destined to carry far beyond the narrow limits of a Parisian lecture room. of Babel to the Coliseum.Ix Introduction.

principal results of a science. The task an arduous one. it but we are convinced that in spite of such imperfections as may contain. How far shall tell. Georges Perrot. make it we have heavier every day. which. and the continual discoveries which are reported from nearly every quarter of the ancient world. we have taken upon . allowed to conduct our history v'enture to promise that it That we cannot life but we be we may shall be the chief occupation and the dearest study of all that remains to us of and strength. perhaps with some temerity.Introduction.'' us. advance to seeingf omissions and defects pointed out even by the most benevolent and m\'self. and will cause one of the aspects of ancient civilization to be better understood. having ixi made good its claims to the gratitude of mankind. This conviction will sustain us through the labours which. resisfned As in for my colleague ourselves critics. Ct^U/ . our work will do good service. daily is progressing with a step which becomes is more assured.

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employed the ordinary perspective. Our dear help. The difference will be at once perceived. works would be a mere repetition of our notes and would only have the effect of . perhaps. and lamented Mariette had promised us that most earnest During the winter we passed in Egypt. giving a useless bulk to our volumes. upon Assyrian. As for the perspectives . and because without them we could not have the general appearance of this or that monument. but we hope that no important work will escape us altogether. From many of the books and papers which we. We against have been in some doubt this as to whetlier graphy to each section of it. or upon Phoenician art but yet it is our ambition to neglect no source of information which is likely to be really valuable. and in every case we shall give Under these circumstances a formal list of references which may be easily verified. and some precious pieces of informa- We have cited the works of M. consider the art of each of the races of antiquity in less detail we had undertaken a monograph upon Egyptian. his letters we obtained from tion. all We may ill here express our gratitude to those our enterprise and who have helped still us to his who have interested themselves make our work complete. while he his conversation enjoyed some remains of strength and voice. shall have to consult we may reproduce nothing but their titles. and yet we . but after mature reflection we should append a special bibliowe have decided We than shall. find mistakes in the hieroglyphs which occur in our These hieroglyphs have been as a rule exactly transcribed. Chipiez has sometimes which bear neither an artist's name nor the engraved from photographs. Chipiez. Maspero on almost every page.TO THE READER. It will thus be seen . Egyptologists may. that our object is not aflected by a mistake or two in such matters. sometimes that which is called axonometric jierspective. Those illustrations title of a book have been and restorations supplied by M. Whenever our drawings have not been taken directly from the originals we have been careful to indicate the source from which we obtained them. but we illustrations. do not pretend to offer a collection of texts we have only reproduced these characters on account of their decorative value. work. if of course. and we have made a point of borrowing only from authors of undoubted authorit)'. they are in every case founded upon the study and comparison of all but it would take too long to indicate in each of these accessible documents drawings how much has been borrowed from special publications and how much has been founded upon photographic evidence. JNI.

and if we have taken but one for this from his sketch-books because the arrangements of looking through them. Brune has allowed us to reproduce his plans of Karnak and Medinet-Abou. use of a process which had almost fallen into disuse from of rapidity. Arthur Rhond has lent us a plan of the temple_ of the Sphinx. Pierret. polychromatic decoration of the Egyptians should be rendered with truth and . as M. will perhaps convince our readers that is results are superior to those of chromo-lithography. volume were complete before we had the chance M. which express with such truthful precision the character of Egyptian landscape from them. whenever we were embarrassed we appealed . . Gerome opened his portfolios and allowed us to take three of those drawings. who prepared the drawings under the direction of his master. and to his indebted to M. results which. The steel engravings are In order that the by MM. we begged M. to express our acknowledgments to MM. and M. and M. its Our plates II. accurate. than have learnt more from departure for conversation from his writings. Tomaszkievicz.\iv To THE his Reader. will satisfy our readers. and XIV. We are also deeply unbiased knowledge. Guillaumot pfere and Sulpis.. difficulty and want we mean that called aquatint. in the work itself. as we hope. and Saint-Elme Gautier. its Sulpis to make XIII. a pupil of M. The artists who have visited Egypt have helped us as cordially as the learned men who have deciphered its inscriptions. Be'nedite. M. Gue'rin. M. Ramus.. the learned conservateur of the Louvre not only has he done everytliing to facilitate the work of our draughtsmen in the great museum. who have drawn for us For the architecture the principal monuments of the Boulak ar. A. Hibon. Before his Egypt — whither he went to succeed Mariette — M. much of the honour belongs to the untiring care of M. we must name M.l. he has also helped us frequently with his advice and his accumulated knowledge. Ernest Desjardins a view of the interior of that building. Gerome. Maspero was our perpetual counsellor and referee well ordered. Comte. J. which now so widely employed. Chipiez. Hector Leroux was illustration as generous it is M. whose process has been employed all these plates have been reviewed and retouched by him with minute care. precision in its refined tones and complicated which is line. G.d Lou\Te Museums. We have had occasion. Bourgoin. whose light and skilful If the process of engraving upon zinc has given point has so well engraved them. .

" 264. .. He saw it there first \i\ TheDayr-el-Bahari vault must. British consul Thebes " lio gave half to the Prince of Wales and half to the Khedive. no/e 2. 276.. Page 413. of Pinotem II. has been in the Turin Museum for many years. /itie 17. li>ie 15 from „ 2. for "Vhy^ico" rmd " Physcon. di'Me "like. „ .i" rmii " of. fool. . Appendix. p. Professor Lepsius has published a paper in a recent number of the Zeitschrift .. 182." 69. I. at . Jor " Cleanthe " read " Cleanthes. . 1845. Page .." i'assim.. The Khedive gave his half to the Louvre that of the Prince of Wales is now exhibited in the British Museum. have been known at that time." for " Sait " read " Saite Vol. Vol. The papyrus of Notemit was divided by Mustapha-Aga. therefore." for "a.ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. or traces. fiir Aigyptische Sprache in which he points out that one of the leather bands. „ . 411.. II.

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so as to show. . points of view. as a whole. - v^ I. we have no alternative but to commence with the country of the Pharaohs. the arts We may attempt we may give our attention rather to the and the sciences. or literature. we have to the choice of several determine the meaning and value of the religious conceptions which succeeded one another during that period. Egypt is the eldest daughter of civilization. I. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. K . Finally. Egypt' s Place in tJic History of the ]]'orld. One writer will confine himself to a description of manners. in attempting to assign to each its due share in the continuous and unremitting labour of progress until the birth of Christianity. In studying the past of mankind. and social and political institutions another to the enumeration and explanation of the various changes brought on by internal revolutions. to those inventions which in time have done so much to emancipate mankind from natural trammels and to make him master of his destiny. he who has the highest ambition of features into all will attempt to unite all these various a single picture. In undertakincr to group the great nations of antiquity and to present them in their proper order. by wars and conquests to what Bossuet calls " la suite ties empires.A HISTORY OF ART IN ANCIENT EGYPT CHAPTER I." . the creative activity of a race and the onward VOL.

: . more in than afford humidity for their very low-lying districts.. ItitKiain. support '^ . The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. .. it in Egypt . then." in is any case the commencement must be made with Egypt. § 2. for a certain narrow stretch of country on each hand. by describing the circumstances and the race characteristics But. in the conditions under which this early civilization was developed. When they overflow their banks it is in a violent and irregular fashion. Marieite. .. 10 (edition = Herodotus.de haute Egypte."" expressed. The first traveller in Egypt of which we have any record is Herodotus he sums up. . ii. in an often quoted phrase. orenius in the continual search for " the best. first place. by the slow accumulation of fertile earth. ornamented so many imposing monuments. 7. man appeared there when. the impression which that land of wonders made upon him " Egypt. Great floods are feared as public 1 The word is " plastic " is used throughout this work in its widest significance. no or. .— A movements of But It History of Art its in Anxient Egypt. Had the equatorial rains not been compelled to win themselves for a passage to the Mediterranean. we must give some account of the curious under which the people lived who constructed and We must begin.xist expression . Other rivers do immediate borders. Egypt began by being the bed of a torrent the soil was raised by slow degrees . a passage upon which they deposited the mud which they had accumulated on their long journey. Egypt that has preserved the earhest is attempts of man those towards outward e. p. i vol. The truth could not be better "is a present from the Nile. the country at last became equal to his . and ^ not confined to works "in the round.Mexandria. ." la Ed. involving widespread ruin and destruction. of 1872. Moures). Egypt would not have existed. that monuments Egypt that which contain the historian first of thought by written characters or plastic the permanent manifestation ^ forms and it is in will of antique art find the earliest materials for study." he says.

3 very different with the Nile. greatly facilitated the labour of the Egyptian river take- the upon its . its It rises by degrees until surface is eight or nine metres above low-water mark ^ . .:v^. a thick layer of fertile mud which can be turned over easily with the lightest plough.. — Pui'iiig the Inuiiflalinn of the Nile.aiJ. every plant spring up with extraordinary vigour and rapidity. it then begins to deposited. and in which every seed will germinate. In order to flow over those banks it eleven or twelve metres. it Every year. I. it Each year in brings with more fertility than can be exhausted the twelve months. so 1 The river should rise to this height upon the Nilometerat Cairo if there is to be a " good Nile.The Vallev misfortunes. MM ^^^^^l^'Z^^^Wy" sfe --^-^f.uch higher than in middle Egypt." In upper Egypt the banks of the river are n-. but not until it has upon the lands over which it has flowed.J^-- Fig. it and the preparation of it the autumnal seed-time restores the virtue annually taken out of the ground by the crops. foretold. fall with the same tranquillity. and unless rises it must rise to a height of some more than thirteen metres it will not have a proper eftect.^i»lfi^^. at rise a date which can be ahnost exactly begins to slowly and to spread gently over the land. itself the irrigation of the country for the whole width of the soil for \'alley. Thus nature has agriculturist . It is of the Nile and its Inhabitants.

on both banks of the river. V. 17. This advantage was thoroughly appreciated by the ancients. The drawings for the plates were made by members of the great scientific expedition of which Champollion was inenls de the head. in consequence of the happy climate of the country and the their natural fertility physical properties of the Nile.. (Descip/ion d< V Eg) fie. ant.^) Thus the first tribes established themselves . (Champollion. 4 vols. in the country under singularly favourable conditions thanks to the timely help m\\L Fig. partly coloured. to which we are greatly indebted. foUo. 2. by power of producing various kinds of aliment. from the Necropolis of Memphis. is entitled Monul' Egypte et de la A'ulnc. Many of those drawings were from the pencil of Nestor L'Hote. a constantly accumulating capital.) of the river they found themselves assured of an easy existence. r'lG. pi. pi. 3.- A that there is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. whose waters. — Hoeing . of the richest vegetable earth. Diodorus Siculus. We ' know how often the lives of those tribes who live by fishing : This work of Chanipollion's. — Ploughing. It contains 511 plates. says that "At the beginning of all things. the first men those 2 who have most were born in Egypt. and was published between the years 1833 and 1845. speaking of the Egyptians. one of sympathetically rendered the Egyptian monuments. were and their first welt fitted to nourish the . Beni-Hastan. 381 liis.

149).^ beings baton of the tax-collector to fear. i. of the world Egypt was. for in those distant times local famines were far more fatal than in these days. and they die of hunger. The peasant is he is driven on with violence. " The ' scribe of the port arrives at the he . thither the supply will be taken. 417. at the mercy of the weather seasons which are either too .The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. except in for agricultural populations.. and negroes with branches of ! palm Give us some corn bound and sent to the canal they say ' and they are not to be repulsed. dry or too wet may reduce them to famine. . by the ' excellent constitution of In all the ^taxes. 5 and the chase are oppressed by care there are some days when game is not to be found. presence." (Les Rccits de Recolte dans rancienne Egyptc. but they never failed altogether. played an important part in the collection of In this connection M.ie et a V Archiologie . they are far off and ar^. of men and women. Fig. It is evident that from the foundation to the generation 10). Those who live a pastoral life are also exposed to cruel hardships from the destruction of their flocks and herds by those epidemics against which even modern science sometimes struggles in vain. Pentaour. of countries. t. from a tomb at Gizeli. comme Elements chronologique. there are agents with rattans. his children are stripped busy over their own harvest. (CbampoUion. p. in Recueil de Travaux relatifs a la FhiMo':. all . — Harvest scene the . the most favourable its soil " (i.) may have had from starvation. . As they are everywhere. ejyptiennes et assyrieiines. pi. 4. but he always had a few onions or a few ears of maize to preserve him who received the breath of Hfe. Lieblein has quoted a passage from the well- known letter from the chief guardian of the archives of : Ameneman to the scribe station . in which he says collects the tax . . when facility of transport and elaborate commercial connections ensure In that where the demand is. Egypt. Egypt the success of the crops varied with the height of the In bad years the peasant Nile. ages the rod has.. in Egypt. his wife is bound in his as for his neighbours.

it is necessary that they should those cities which by their be able to find upon the map respective periods of supremacy represent the successive epochs of Egyptian histor)-. Memphis and Heliopolis. partly by an impassable sea. these time-honoured designations at least . thanks beneficent in king of rivers. History of Art in Ancient Ei. stretching from north to south. for the to calculate upon the forces of nature and It turn to his certain profit. (Ch. — The liastin. as names of Tanis and Sais. to man found is himself able.) A The for life. Beni-Hass. hidden as it were in a narrow valley and protected It on all sides.in. partly by deserts. " Egypt is that country which. 5. that they are to be found there in in the isolation The tribes who setded centuries so remote and even calculation. is them Egypt whose of plastic arts we propose Another favourable condition the country.iinpollion. first condition of civilization to the is a certain measure of security action of the Now. pi. The and the terms. 390. or Libya as the ancients . first In the valley of the time. that condition was created sooner Nile Egypt than elsewhere. also will Ethiopia continually recur in these pages. the Delta. occupies the north-east angle of Africa.ado . Abydos and Thebes. and U(^pcr-Egypt. Loivcr-.vit. easy then to understand that saw the birth of the most ancient of those civilizations to study. would perhaps be well of their country before some idea of the commencing our study of to give natural features their art. and of many other cities it is important therefore that our readers should know exactly what is meant by each of . beyond tradition Fig. will Middle-. could live in peace.

to the north and north-east five others . sometimes close in and form defiles. All these branches took their names from towns situated near their mouths.. except the actual valley of the Nile. one of which. that on the west the Libyan chain. Tht-se mountains. the present capital of Egypt. since their time. A large number of less important watercourses threaded their way through least have . to which may be added those districts to which the All outside this zone is uninhabited. . . Egypt. In a kw districts it is even narrower than this. this valley never exceeds an average width of more than four or five leagues. situated not far from the site of ancient Memphis. A little below Cairo.. which was little more than a glen higher up. Sand and rock cover the whole country. On the other hand.. stretches as far north on the west of the country as the Red Sea does on the east.The Valley called it. It is It is joined to east isthmus of Suez. allow'ing the passage of the canal which carries the fertilizing waters into the Fayoum. that ot Damietta. and on the north by the Mediterranean.. In Upper Egypt rain is an extremely rare phenomenon. water is carried by irrigation. bounded on the by that isthmus and the Red Sea is on the south by Nubia. the other. have either been obliterated or at become non-navirable . the Rosetta branch. For almost its whole length it is shut in between two mountain chains. in Middle Egypt the Libyan chain falls back and becomes lower. here widens out to a more imposing size. the Nile divides into two branches. that is to say for more than three-quarters of the whole length of Egypt. Strictly speaking Egypt consists simply of that part of this corner of Africa over which the n-aters of the Nile flow durinij the inundation. No water is to be found there beyond a lew wells. The ancients knew which. that on the east called the Arab.. of the Nile and Asia by the its Inhabitants. Up to the point where the river divides into several arms. the province in which the remains of the famous reservoir which the Greek writers called Lake Mceris exist. turns to the north-west. especially towards the south. all more or less exposed to exhaustion in an ever-parching atmosphere.. " It penetrates moreover far into the interior of Egypt itself. the Ethiopia of the Greeks. and produces neither corn nor vegetables nor trees nor even grass. which traversed by the Nile before its entrance into Egypt at the cataracts of Syene on the west by the desert sprinkled here and there with The desert a few oases.

was an unhealthy morass.^ As to the origin of that race.- Delta had. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 4. they said. The Nile forms several lagunes near the sea. 6 and 7. found ahnost all Egypt under the waters. and perhaps it may have shown pretty much its present form when the Egyptian race first appeared in the valley of the Nile. the site of district of Memphis. and there ancient sand ridges indicate the successive watercourses. existed long before the appearance of Menes. \. which is similar to that of tono-ues of earth ranean a capital Greek delta (A). In such general explanations as are unavoidable shall content ourselves with paraphrasing M. Here created instead wide marshy plains intersected by lakes. a plain which now comprises twenty-three thousand square but they were kilometres and is continually being added to strangely deceived when they thought and declared that Menes or Mena. and the remainder of the country. the first of all kings. Maspero. The sea. at the earliest historic period. their channels still have shifted greatly from age age and go on changing. ii. is Lower Egypt but as the earth there to marshy. pp. carried the mouths of the Nile The far beyond the normal line of the neighbouring coasts. Egyptian priests whose words have been preserved for us byHerodotus had a true idea as to how this vast plain had been created. The never-ceasing industry of its floods had already. allowed that they were connected with the white races of Europe 1 - RoBiou. on account of its triangular form. Histoire anciaine dcs Pcuples de /' Orient^ cli. With the slow passage of time the particles of earth which it brought down from the mountains of Abyssinia were deposited as mud banks upon the coast. shut in by long and sand.8 A . Maspero. the The Thebes excepted. and communicating with the MediterThe space comprised by openings here and there. between the two most distant branches of the river is called the Delta. and gradually filling up the gulf. * Herodotus." ^ waves of the Mediterranean washed the foot of the sandy plateau which is now crowned by the Great the Nile flowed into the sea at that time slightly to Pyramid the north of the site upon which Memphis was afterwards built. penetrated in those days beyond At one time . the — — . Histoire ancienite dcs Peuples de -we f Orient. . in fact. we need not enter at length It is now generally into a question so purely ethnographical.

and Even to the present day the peasants. The head. all point to this conclusion. 251 — 253). les Transactions of the Society of Histoire ancicmie. . his feet were long. 492. 16. repeated intermarriage with strangers.^ a nating in long and nervous hands. his nose short and round opened. his cheeks full and round. The C statue holds the baton in hand. its left Galcries provisoires dii Musee actual d' Antiquites egyptiennes le Vice-Roi. ^ iv.'^ Increased knowledge of the Egyptian language has enabled us to carry our researches much farther than Champollion and his successors. the peasants of Sakkarah recognised at once the feature and attitude of one of themselves. . in all the later epochs. narrow hips. have almost everywhere preserved the physiognomj" of their ancestors. A. we take away the individual peculiarities these monuments race furnish in us with following : common type of the even the most remote epochs " The average Egyptian was tall. his lips thick but not turned his rather large mouth bore an habitually out like a negro's These features are to be found soft and sorrowful expression. sinewy arms termiand powerful shoulders. and pictures. Notice lies principaux Monuments exposes dans de S." - When Mariette discovered in the necropolis at Memphis the famous wooden statue of a man standing and holding in his hand the baton of authority. by its system of pronouns. See on this subject a curious note in Bondmi's Some ObsciTal'wns on the Skeleton of an Egyptian Biblical Archaolcgv. and the study of their recovered from If statues. or fellahs. and thin muscular His knees and calves were nervous and muscular.— The Valley . • VOL. as is legs. of the Nile and its Inhabitants. and the statue has Beled " been known by that name ever since. of the rustic dignitary who managed the corvdcs and apportioned the taxation. and even His forehead was square and perhaps a sad in its expression. and flattened. Mumiuy '- pp. p. He had large muscular chest. his eyes were large and well little low. by his habit often too large and powerful for the body. ci Boulaq (1876). By many of its roots. active. was mild. 9 the anatomical examination of the bodies and Western Asia the most ancient tombs. No. . generally the case with a pedestrian race of going barefoot. bas-rehefs. ( Maspero. vol. in most of the statues of the ancient and middle empires. although the ujDper classes have lost it by . thin. I. thin. 1 the skeletons in the Their exceptional breadth of shoulder has been confirmed by an examination of mummies. ! An astonished fellah cried out : " The Sheikh-el- His companions took up the cry.

The —Statue from the Ancient Empire. The reproductions of objects in the Louvre are all from the pencil of M. the Thus. it seems to have been attached to the Semitic of family languages. and by some of the arrangements of conjugations. and Bunsen. after having belonged to that group. Drawn to by G. le Vice-Roi. Bourgoin. influences.lO A its History of Art in Ancient Egypt. With the exception of a few woodcuts from photographs the contents of the museums at Cairo and Boulak have been reproduced from drawings by M. Hebrews. and accepted by 1 Notice des priucipaux Monuincuts exposes dans S. Benfey. the proto-Semitic This opinion has been sustained with more or less plausibility by MM. their own.') Egyptians are therefore said to belong races. while their grammatical system was still in that course of formation. dis- united and subjected to diverse two families made elements a different use of the which they possessed in common. separated from it at a very early period. les Galeries provisoires dii Musee d'A7itic/uiles egyptiennes de A. From this has been concluded Egyptian and its cognate languages. by its nouns of number. J. . but the separation took place at such an early period. 582. (Boulak. and Phoenicians on the other. Saint-Elme Gautier. 6. Lepsius. tribes that the who came in to establish themselves opportunity particular the valley of the Nile had both the time and the to acquire original a very physi- and of ognomy F'lG. a Boulaq (1S76). p. Some of the idioms of these in Semitic tongues are found in Egyptian a rudimentary it state. The Boulak Museum will be referred to by the simple word Boulak. Benedite. in calcareous stone. There would thus seem to have been a community of root between the Egyptians on the one part and the Arabs.

—The S/iiii-A-i/-Be/(rf. (Coulak. .) Ilrawii b) J. liourgoin. T.Fig.

.

- Histoire des Langiies shnitiques. Maspero. came from Asia. M. 7. swallowed up dations. and If this were so the new indieenous to the African continent.). and even in its highest floods it failed to reach certain parts of the . and lotus. which remained unproductive remained so long that it changed the valley. learnt to in Little by little the new comers control the course of the floods. insufficient to decide the question of origin. rank the Copts. die Book ch.^ comers forced the earlier occupants of the country southwards without mixing with them. to them to the farthest corners of the bank them valley. et seq. across which the river worked upon both banks the desert sluggish and uncertain way its . Renan prefers to however. the Tuaregs. in soil other into districts it swamp. was simply a huge morass dotted here and there with sandy islands and waving with papyrus. Histoire See Lepsius. and to which he would refer most of the idioms of Northern Africa. 113. river when left to itself. p. was perpetually changing its bed. p. The Delta. 18. p. by the Isthmus of Suez. probably black. half of it drowned of in the waters of the Nile.The Valley M. § 4. Veber ancienne. i. Egypt must then have presented a very The different sight from its richness and fertility of to-day. and the Berbers in a family which he would call Chamitic. to the all the the From untouched by the yearly inuncrowding vegetation of a tropical marsh soil left most absolute aridity was but a step. 1870. to all appearPerhaps they found established ance. reeds. . ^ Annalime ei?ies sogenanntcn prehistorischen Steinaltcrs in ^^gypten * (in the Zcitschrijt fiir ^-Egyplische Sprache. the other half under those the Mediterranean. and Egypt gradually arose out of the waters and became in the hand of man one of the best adapted countries in the world for the development of a great civilization. The people whose physical characteristics we have described and whose idiom we have defined. But we may affirm that a Maspero. is. which.^ of the Nile and its Inhabitants. on the banks of the Nile another race. ii. '-^ A comparison of the languages then. and set themselves resolutely to the work of improvement. they neither deny nor explain. critics 13 But other of equal authority are more impressed by the differences than by the resemblances. Maspero."* and to carry How many and the 1 generations did ? it require to create the country nation We cannot 1 tell.

each of which had its own laws and its own form of worship. 8. the country of fore disappear their primitive divisions did not there- the small independent states became provinces local and were the foundation of those which the Greeks called tnviics.H A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. These districts remained almost unchanged in number and in their respective boundaries almost up to the end of the ancient world. Besides other. lies . the Egyptians had one or the and only one — the di\ision into Lower Egypt. commencement was made by the simultaneous establishment at several different points of small independent states. — Hunting in the Mar: Khemi. . Fig. from a 1 ns-relief in the tcmb of Ti. but . this administrative districts division into districts. Their union under one sceptre formed the kingdom of the Pharaohs.

one sceptre are always called. because of the colour which it bears upon painted monuments that of the North is called . and Lower Egypt was established. or heraldic imagery. of Menes. the red crown. Combined with one another they pschent. . IMiddle. The sovereigns who united the whole territory under times course of events. had often a decisive influence upon the This state of things was of sufficiently long duration to leave an ineffaceable trace upon the official language of Egypt. during which Egypt was divided into two separate a division kingdoms which in — that later of the North and that of the South. for a similar reason. To-incJi). the lords they carry on their heads two of Upper and Low^er Eg}'pt crowns. . — Sliadouf : machine for irrigating the land above the le%'el of the canals. in the royal protocols. Lower Egypt the southernmost point of This division has the advantage of corresponding exactly to the configuration of the country moreover. form the complete regal head-dress ordinarily called the In the hieroglyphics Northern Egypt is indicated b). 9. it preserves the memory of a period before the time stretched from Upper Egypt first the Delta to the cataract. During the Ptolemaic epoch a new administrative division into Upper. l'"lG. each appropriate to one of the two great divisions of That of Upper Egypt is known to their united kingdom. . and upon that which we may call its blazonry. The Middle . consisted of the or the South Country {To-rcs). Egyptologists as the white crown.The Valley of the Nile and its Inhabitants. 15 North Country {Tomera. the papyrus Southern by the lotus. or Delta and into Upper Egypt.

at the Egypt of the Greek geographers began of the southern point of and extended to a Httle south Hermopohs. art. 12. — The White Crouu. — The I'scheiil. — 1 he Red Crown. and it for the chief events of each reign. and thus give a sufficient idea of their relative positions. but will be convenient for us period with a to give here a summary of the principal epochs in Egyptian history.. we shall make frequent use of it. of We must refer our readers to the works M. Fig. Maspero and others for the lists of kings and dynasties. but with the tri-partite division Middle. The monuments of the plastic arts will be arranged into groups determined by the periods of their occurrence. to Each of those epochs corresponds an artistic . In enumerating and analysing the remains of Egyptian shall classify we- them chronologically as well as locally.i6 A Delta. and Thebes belong to Upper Egypt. 10. and if we adopted their method of speech we should be under the continual necessity of stopping the narration to define geographical positions . as it and render more definite our topographical explaFor the contemporaries of the Pharaohs both Memphis Fu. we may speak of Beni-Hassan as in and Abydos as in Upper Egypt. as well as by their geographical distribution. ^ 3- The Great Divisions of Egyptian History. Fig. Althouorh this latter division was not established until after the centuries which saw the birth of those monuments with which we will shall facilitate nations. ii. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. have to deal.

finally succeeded in freeing the whole valley of the Nile for the benefit of the eighteenth dynasty. three great revolutions in the historical development of Egypt. With the commencement of the sixth dynasty. the sacerdotal class had obtained a supremacy over the other classes of the nation. This interval of time. after centuries of war against the intruders. . From that period onwards Thebes was the capital of the country and furnished the sovereign. . VOL. I. from the eleventh dynasty to the invasion of the Hyksos or Shepherds the Nevj Empire from the shepherd kings to the Persian conquest. 17 character and individuality of its own. of historical events. like other peoples. placed a centre of the country was at number of dynasties of divine rulers before their first . the centre of gravity began to shift southwards. At the time of the shepherd invasion. " This monarchy existed for at least four thousand years. Maspero give necessary information in a brief form. sovereigns upon the rest of the country and was the chief market for Egyptian commerce and industry. which opened the in era of great foreign wars. With Thebes D . tlie political the capital and the burying-place of the human king) Memphis Memphis was kings Memphis imposed . From the eleventh to the twenty-first all the Egyptian dynasties were Theban with the single exception of the fourteenth Xoite dynasty. of the period carried the political centre of the country back towards the north. it fixed itself at Thebes. from the first to the eleventh d)-nast)' the Middle Empire. This division is inconvenient in one respect it takes too little account of the sequence : . and in the time of the eleventh dynasty. from the reign of Menes to that of Nectanebo (340 years before our era). is usually divided into three parts the Ancient Empire. and its princes. the Thebaid became the citadel of Egyptian nationality. A man called Menes (Menha or Mena in the Egyptian texts) destroyed this supremacy and lounded the Egyptian monarchy. At the beginning of its long succession of " human dynasties (the Egyptians. the longest of which political history takes note. " the In the last years of the prehistoric period.The Great special Divisions of Egyptian History. The following all paragraphs taken from the history of M. There were indeed. " Under first the nineteenth dynasty an inverse movement to that the twenty-first Tanite dynasty. under thirty consecutive dynasties. Middle Egypt. During the ninth and tenth dynasties it rested at Heracleopolis.

''a. each corresponding to the political : Egyptian history into three supremacy of one town first or province over the whole of Egypt " First Period. bring forward his date to 3. " I propose. Delta.8 — A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. We believe that the division proposed by M. <-.600 or 3. Theban empire. Supremacy of Sais and the other cities of the This period is divided into two by the Persian invasion : " First Sail period. centrated Sais. We .2. to divide periods. and above importance. '' b. " Third Period. \^. It is the . Sebennytos. from the eleventh The neio to the sixteenth dynasties. " Memphis and of the sovereigns furnished Second Period. as they believe some the Manetho to have been contemporary with each in Neither Mariette nor Maspero deny that Egypt. Memphite (the ten dynasties).500 of the dynasties of other. have no hesitation in making use of the terms Aiicienf. the best.C.shall. all — 1 ceased to be the capital. influence lost their and Thebes itself fell more than a rcndezvojis for curious . The by supremacy of her. guided r Orient. Mendes. its course of who ^ reigned in long existence. (from the twenty-first to the thirtieth dynasties." Mariette places the accession of fiftieth Mena or Menes at about the century before our era. cities of the Delta. Midille. The old Theban empire. while Bunsen and other Egyptologists B. and the Tanis. from the twenty-first to the twent)'-sixth the thirtieth dynasties.. Theban (from the eleventh to the twentieth Supremacy of Thebes and the Theban kings. into ruin and became nothing travellers. ruined by the Ethiopian and Assyrian invasions. This period is divided into two sub-periods by the Shepherd dynasties. '' Second Sail period. Maspero most suggestive of the truth as to the successive displacements of the political centre and the movement of history. in fact. Histoire ancicnne des Peuples dc is. inclusive). horn the twenty-seventh ^ to dynasties. dynasties inclusive). from the sixteenth Salt to the twentieth dynasties. was often partitioned between jDrinces Upper and Lower Egypt respectively. therefore. as occasion arises. rose into equal or superior life From in that time the political of the country con- itself the maritime districts. Bubastis. however. The nomcs of the Thebaid. and New Empire. but.

our historical materials are abundant.." of period of greatest power was . in 656.. the contemporary of Solomon and Rehoboam. Egyptian chronology becomes more certain as opportunities of comparison with the facts Hebrew history increase. the constant struggles between Egypt and its neighbours. The date of 980. this greatness was maintained by those of the nineteenth. From of two. After the accession of Psemethek I. as Renan. the real creators of history. "drew his frontiers where he pleased. its was the superiority of its civilization. the Soudan.. long anterior to the earliest traditions of the Greek race the reign Thothmes III. which made Egypt supreme over Western Asia. It is a singular thing. Khurdistan. at the same time. 19 by circumstances which need not be described here. and Armenia. In the seventh century the country . The Egyptian empire then comprised Abyssinia. multiply our opportunities for was opened to the Greeks. of this initial date.The Great Divisions ok Egvptiax History. the It Sesostris of the Greeks. taking notes which they afterwards amplified into narratives. Syria. the eighteenth dynasty. This supremacy declined during the twenty-first and twentysecond dynasties. Nubia. the names of reigning families which are ignored by Whatever may be thought has been so well said by JNI. To this dynasty belonged Rameses II. preserve history. even more than the valour of princes and soldiers. in Egypt itself. to a certain extent. but. the founder of the twentysixth dynasty. and some of the collateral dynasties must have been effaced and passed over in silence. they incline to believe that INIanetho confined himself to enumerating those The dynasties which were looked upon as the legitimate ones. that date onwards. who. that even as late as the Ptolemies. part Eounded by the kings of of Arabia." is placed by common conB. especially with Assyria. because the monuments still remaining savaii/s. who brought with them their inquiring spirit and their love for exactitude.. Mesopotamia. within a year or may be given with confidence as that of the accession of Sheshonk I. according to a contemporary expression. For that we must thank the Greek travellers who penetrated everywhere. sent in the seventeenth century. work of elimination which has been attempted by certain modern must have been undertaken. Its a lighthouse in the profourd darkness of remote antiquity.C. " Egypt remains. when the synchronic comparison. who flourished in the fifteenth century.

The exact opposite of this is the truth. these historical indications are enough to show how little foundation there is for the opinion which was held by the ancient Greeks. of some definite point from which they could measure the " They were course of time and the progress of the centuries. sometimes from the day of his own coronation. It was." ^ Even thus summarily stated. is entirely it wanting in originality. their art and their civil institutions into the country. Apercn de F Histoire dEgyptc. and as we descended the Nile. power of the Macedonian monarcliy was fully developed. The error was caused by the were true that fact that at one epoch its in the history of Egypt the Ethiopians played an important part. and even those calculations had no certain point of departure. their written characters. A sufficient to tell us that ' represents the degeneracy only p. fortresses. 66. the less ancient do the monuments become. near the southern point The nearer our steps take us to the cataracts of Ethiopia. such as it existing monuments glance is reveal to us. able to find in the latter country . They show- ever increasing signs of the decadence of love for beauty. of taste. follow the Egyptians on the banks of their each other in such chronological order that the oldest remains. they said. holy places. " If it Egypt owed political existence to monuments of a more remote antiquity. the art of Ethiopia. from Ethiopia that Egyptian civilization had come. and tombs. and temples in Ethiopia it was the Egyptians who . A colony of Ethiopian priests from the island of Meroe in Upper Nubia. Mariette. we should find the remains comparatively modern but. the Pyramids. Sometimes they counted from the commencement of the year which had witnessed the death of his predecessor. satisfied with calculating by the years of the reigning sovereign. . constructed by river. the study of all these monuments incontestably proves Ethiopia. in of the Delta. art. we should be that the sequence of towns. and of the its still Finally. in fact. Lower Egypt. they never possessed. strangely enough. had introduced their religion. are found in the north. the Egyptians never seem to have felt the want of what we call an era. carried their civilization into the midst of savage negro tribes.20 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. "It was the Egyptians who advanced up the banks of the Nile to found cities. and too long accepted by modern historians. The most careful calculations will therefore fail to enable modern science to restore to the Egyptians that which.

382. pp. it was lost in the country of the negro. Egypt was the most absolute monarch}. into three great periods. And yet it appears that the character and social condition of the At underwent any great change. and finally to Alexander. 6 and 7. younger than Memphis. in the mysterious depths of Ethiopia. flowed from the centre of Africa. During the long sequence of centuries which we have divided was more The capital was at one time in Middle than once displaced. and by which the walls of its cities were bathed. over which stretch the long shadows of the Pyramids. and so she remained till her final race never conquest. the time of the pyramid-builders. uc descend the current of time. plate 6. sought in that district . for example. from the south to the north until . and that their execution is generally mediocre. at others to turn a bold front to Asia or Ethiopia. as if tired by their long journey. At one nation had nothing to fear from external enemies. Brugsch-Bey. TJie Constitution of Egyptian Society —Infiience of that Constitution upon Monuments of Art. of Lepsius's Denknuclcr . The springs of this latter stream must be where the waters of the Nile. . period the it accordance with political necessities. ^ p. but the stream of civilization flowed in the other direction. divide into several arms before falling into the sea in that district near the modern capital. and its at a third period in Lower Egypt. and Meroe than Thebes. A good idea of this process of degradation may be gained by merely glancing through the plates to part v. § 4. that the spirit of Egyptian forms has been weakly grasped. Maspero's Hisfoire ancienne. had At various times Egypt shepherd invaders. to the kings of Assyria and Persia. Thebes is The river which Egypt worshipped. Histoire de f Egypt. to the princes of Ethiopia. shows what the caryatid became at Napata.1 The Constitution of Egyptian Society.that ever existed. at another in in Upper. may also be consulted upon the character of the Ethiopian kingdom and the monuments of Napata. 2 of the Egyptian style. we may say that as :ac inoitnt tozoards the springs of the Nile. to whom she lost her independence never again to to had submit to her foreign foes to the recover it. ." ^ We may condense all these views into a simple and easily remembered formula . the national centre of gravity Egypt.

This affiliation of the king to the god was more than a figure of speech. and Rameses III. iig-138). Successor and descendant of the deities who once reigned over the valley of the Nile. belief. the king v/as the living manifestation and incarnation of God child of the sun {Se Rd). The king was thus a supreme pontif." ^ He was ihe priest above all others. as a god I have begotten thee all thy members are divine when I approached thy I'oyal mother I took upon me the form of the sacred ram of Mendes " (hne 3rd). had the right to enter the sanctuary and to open the door of the kind of chapel in which the symbolical representation of the divinity was kept he alone saw the god face to face.22 A " History of Art in Ancient Egypt. This curious te. "the representative of Ra among the living. . The monarchy of the Incas was founded upon an almost identical pp. All the dead Pharaohs became gods. each member of which had his own special function in the complicated and gorgeous ceremonies in which he took part but the king alone. and spoke to him in the name of his people. at least in the principal temples. Such a form of worship as that of Egypt. . so that the Egyptian pantheon obtained a new deity at the death of each sovereign. whose titles may be read upon the most ancient monuments of the country. Ptah is made to speak in the following terms of Rameses II. in the words of an inscription. vii. vol. depended upon him for their orders from one end of was he who led the serried battalions of the Egyptian army. he became to them a visible deity and. was completed and rendered perpetual in another life. war or political The army still of scribes and various functionaries. required no doubt a large sacerdotal class. Piankhithis Mer-Amen we shall quote the text of famous inscription in our chapter upon the Egyptian temple. ^ See the account of the . 58. begun on earth. as he took care to proclaim whenever he wrote his name. however. the blood of the gods flowed in his veins and assured to him the sovereign power. In an inscription which is reproduced both at Ipsamboul and at Medinet-Abou. p. . and in war." His divinity. respectively: "I am thy father. 1 Maspero. The deceased Pharaohs thus constituted a series of gods to whom the reigning sovereign would of course address himself when he had anything to ask hence the the country to the other. visit to Heliopolis of the conquering Ethiopian. in prevent the king from taking his proper share affairs generally. as the people believed that his career was directed by the gods with whom he held converse.xt has lately been interpreted by E. . The pre-eminent dignity of this priestly office did not.'-^ : . . Histoire ancieiiiie. Naville {Society of Biblical Archceology. it . the immediate chief of all civil and military officers and.

.'^^^. - vt .

.

pp. which the Bibliothique Nationak at Paris. From Abydos be discovered of that spirit from which sprung the republican constitutions of Greece Italy. of Brought up from infancy in this religious veneration. to to the Egyptian kings . and the cutting of a new canal between the two seas under Nekau. I. 485-4S6. like its modern descendant. — was regulated. of any one The Egyptian labourer or artisan never dreamt of calling in question the orders to the will of a sincrle national who might be master for the time. (Mariette). sometimes by their want of discipline and licence. population. and by it every movement of the social machine. was now and then the scene of succeeded generation military revolts. in yet later times. During all those thousands of EiG. E . i. to the Mahmoudieh canal of Mehemet-Ali and that abortive alike. has led to the parliamentary governments of Christian Europe. t. has the civil whether of the town or of the fields. and ancient a spirit which.^ of Egyptian Society. 25 find living Pharaohs offering worship The give prestige which such a theory of royalty was calculated imagined. shown any desire slightest to obtain the for guarantee what we should call their rights and liberties. from the time of Menes to that of Tewfik-Pacha. sometimes by the jealousy which they inspired . without any attempt to rebel against the royal authority or even to dispute it. From the construction of the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren. iu adoration before Seti. they were the objects of adoration. to which their hereditary qualities also inclined them. ' under foreign and native kings Fr.The Constitution monuments upon which we to their predecessors. Ancient Egypt. the native soldiery but never. may easily be They obtained more than respect idolatry. Lenormant. celebrated of these preserved in famous Chamber of Ancestors from Karnak. generation among the Egyptians. years not the faintest trace is to — Raineses II. Absolute obedience man such was the constant and instinctive habit. 14. The most is now VOL. Manuel is tlie d Histoire ancienne. These were generally provoked by the presence in of foreign mercenaries.

the barrage of the Nile. as the Greeks called the species of almond which is contained in the fruit of the lotus. the Fayoum were procured in the same t. we can only refer to them . 58 (in is Recueil de Travaux. and Egyptian beans. Old men and children. all had to obey the summons. this multitude well . Each man Fig. ^ i). 2 vols. garlic. for arranging the bricks in the sun so that they might be dried and hardened. onions. to bag or basket which holds his provisions for a fortnight or a month. to who a has it . Under worked 1 The beaters for tlie great hunts which took place in the Delta and fashion. for carrying clay and water from the N ile to carries a . (From Prisse.26 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.-) the brickmakers. like troop of sheep.^ An order received by the governor. . proclaimed from one village next day the whole male the workshops. 15 — Homage to Amenophis III. another throughout his province is population driven. as the case may be a few dry cakes. Arthus Bertrand. At the end of a certain period they were relieved by fresh levies the stimulus of the rod. Le PaJ>y?-us Mallet. of the kings and the great lords. and obediently under the directions of the architect's foreman and of skilled artisans who were permanently employed upon the work they did all that could be done by men without special education. The work to which we here refer the Histoire de r Art Egyptien iaprcs les Monuments. folio. method thought of for is enterprise. These hunts were among the favourite pleasures See Maspero. p. etc. the only obtaining the necessary labour was compulsion. The more vigorous and skilful among them dressed and put in place the blocks of granite or limestone the weakest were useful for the transport of the rubbish to a distance. 1S78. generally. As the plates are not numbered.

Now. but the great bulk of the task must have . Cast your eyes upon the ruins of the Athenian Acropolis their dimensions will seem to you small in the extreme if you compare them with the buildings of Egypt and Assyria on the other hand their workmanship is equally careful throughout it is as exact and that history Even supposing the architect could easily . had been silent upon this subject. 27 from another province. from these monuments themselves. divine. employed upon those gigantic works lation .The Constitution of Egyptian Society. by the Assyrian kings. workmen (From Prisse. Those who died were buried in hasty graves dug in the sands of the desert by the natives of their own village. and all who had not succumbed to the hard and continuous work. it is impossible that such works as the Pyramids could have been begun and finished in the course of a single reign by free and remunerated Certain labour. of the Egyptian monuments at least. 16. prove that architects whole Flc. how they had been constructed. kings of the ancient empire. returned to their own places. even if it had the help of numerous slaves. perfect in the concealed parts of the structure as in those v> hich . . indeed. required the collective effort of a whole population of a popudevoting themselves night and day to complete the work when once begun. . and apparently employed by them in the construction of Nineveh. were unable to dispose of those prisoners of war captured in in myriads.) of great ability and skilful were. like ants over their subterranean city or bees over their comb. — Construction of a Temple at Thebes. The massive grandeur of some hands. is only to be explained by this levy en masse of every available pair of The races. arrangements in their design and the marvellously exact execution of the more important details of the masonry.

Karnak. from foundation to completion. in the structural details as in the painting and sculpture. — Columns in the Hypostyle Hall. 17. a certain sprinkling of who succeeded Memphis or Thebes. its By these signs its you may recognize once. hands of artisans whom long practice had made perfect and that each single individual among them had Fig. ornamental at were be visible. that.28 A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of men who had become qualified by . the whole work was in in the their trade. there was. In the gangs of docile labourers each other in the workshops of course. made it a point of honour to acquit himself worthily of the task entrusted to him.

inequalities and most of the great the required time. and the deep fissure which Mariette. commenced by Seti I. whole building 1 "The foundations of If. members of singular in could not Hence the inconsistences which have been noticed ya I i^ nin T M. of cattle . who had perforce to be confided. therefore could have nothing but their unskilled To such men as these a great part of the work labour to bestow. 29 experience for the special worlc upon which they were employed but the great majority were men suddenly taken from very different occupations. with extreme carelessness. inches high. (Coulak. 59. it The western because was hollow. and finished by Rameses consist of but a single course of generally ill-balanced masonry. Egyptian buildings in fault.^ the^ harvest. as a rule." . the almost religious care in the placing and fixing of be fairly expected from the practised be ensured. sometimes it is the foundations which are compromised the safety of the sometimes it is the built up columns of masonry. 179. tlie great temple at Abydos. Drawn hy From a tomb at Sakkarah. In spite of the strictest supervision. —Scribes registering the yieU of 9. which made the inclination of the Itineraire." : Pharaonic temples are pylon. from the oar. appear and. by their sinking. the management . . p.. 19. Bourgoin. in order that it might be complete at masonry.— The Constitution — ) of Egyptian Society. . fell built. the plough. have ^ . its divides the building in the direction of Haute-Egyple. iS. when deprived by time of their coating of stucco. v/hich might a trade guild. p. walls a source of w-eakness instead of strength. Voyage dans la The same writer speaks of Karnak in a similar strain "The major axis. which. for instance. Hence the settling which has taken place. 1' sis I i n!n J _ nln Figs.

But this defect was inseparable from the system under which the Egyptian buildings were erected. whose single word. Fig. was sufficient to depopulate a province and to fill quarries . teristic The at infinite foresight passionate love for perfection of for its own is sake. and self-respect. — Colossi of Amenophis III. The absolute and dreaded master whose gesture.. not here to be found. 20. which charac- Greek work its best time. the is very poor and mean.^o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. (statues of Memnoii) at Thebes.

and the scribes or . upon the walls of porticos and pillared halls. (gj inches higli. leading his troops to battle or bringing them home excel victorious. a monarchical art of the it was the direct expression of the sentiments and ideas society which had to create it from its foundations. for a payment In kind. was looked up to by his people as one so near akin to the gods as to be hardly distinguishable from them. — Scribe registering merchandize. in bas-reliefs upon pylons. as if by magic. . in spite of his mortahty. Sakkarah. each receiving authority directly from the king and superintending the execution of his orders. After the king came the priests. belonging to the privileged classes. to The supreme in efforts of architect and sculptor were directed all constructing for their prince a tomb which should its others magnificence and durability. or to Immortalizing him by a statue raise its which should head as much above rivals as the royal Fig. Drawn by Bourgoin. the lands to the soil. the sovereign who. They changed masters with the lands upon which they lived. sometimes . the soldiers. with the exception of the roval domain.^ The Constitution of Egyptian Societv. Kis effigy was everywhere. 21. in this sense. They possessed among them the whole valley of the Nile. of colossal statues in front of the temples. These three groups formed what we may call the upper class of Egyptian society. The art and in so beingof Egypt was. The soil was entirely In their hands. the high priest and father of his people. power surpassed the power and dignity of ordinary men. royal functionaries. and workshops with thousands of men. he was represented sometimes offering homage to the gods. the king before whom filled with his own glory and all heads were bent to the earth majesty the buildings which he caused to spring. which they were not allowed to quit without the permission of the local authorities. Seated in the form from the earth. The aoTiculturists were inere serfs attached They cultivated.

Their position did not greatly differ from that of the modern fellahs. enforced heredity of professions. — Boatmen. the artisans The Fig. it was long believed Hindoos. the and shopkeepers of the cities were in a similar condition. althouoh leral riohts were the same in both cases. The vigorous separation of classes according to the functions. l6 inches high. Tomb of Ra-ka-pou. groups. in Egyptian . like the This notion has been dispelled by more careful study that the Egyptians of their remains. (Doulak. and they must have had better opportunities of escaping from altogether. more power of coming and going than the shepherds. and pachas or for that of the sovereign. 5'h dyna>ty. beys. who is still the greatest landowner in the country. small traders and artisans enjoyed more liberty and independence. who cultivate the Egyptian soil for the benefit of the effendis. The burden of forced labour must have pressed less heavily it upon the latter class. 22. We often different find. Drawn by Bourgoin.A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. In consequence of a mistaken interpretation of historic evidence.) asfriculturists. natural consequence of their life in a city and of the character of their occupations. They lived upon their gains in the same way as the peasant upon As a the share of the harvest which custom reserved for his use. their social had castes. and the prohibition of intermarriage in never obtained a footing between the Egypt. fishermen and boatmen of the Nile.

— Cattle Drovers. it often happens that the priest and civil servant. I. 23. Drawn by Bjm-goin. 9I inches liigh. or the daughter of a general Fig. Sakkarah. of Nay. 24. (Boulak. offices of soldier and priest. 33 two members of a single family attached one to the civil service and the other to the army. of Egyptian Society. Bourgoin.) marrying the son of a priest. (Boulak. From a tomb.The Coxstitutiox writings. F . — Bakers. 5th dynasty.) servant and soldier. are united in the person of a single individual. In families which did not belong to these aristocratic classes there VOL. From the tomb of I!a-k. or of civil Fig.i-pou.

Memoire siir r Inscription t. similar things have Herodotus. 381 bis ) Such events were of frequent occurrence in all those oriental monarchies where the will of the sovereign was the supreme and undisputed law. as it is narrated upon his sepulchral inscription. in our own days. and Brugsch.34 was. born among the dregs of the population. see the history of a certain Ahmes. who. castes in the strict sense of the word. . finally raised himself to the throne. undertaken for the re-conquest of he was noticed by the king for he finally hts frequent acts of gallantry. From a tomb at Beni-Hassan. and promoted until became something in the nature of high admiral. d. rather than guilds. 1851. So). . For an earlier epoch. or the favour of the sovereign could raise a man of the lowest class up to the highest dignities of the state.' Fig. in all A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Starting as a piivate soldier for the war against the Shepherds. Avaris. In the latter days of the monarchy have an example of this in the case of we Amasis. which dates from the reign of Amosis. The but yet there was nothing approaching. p. (Champollion. the founder of the eighteenth dynasty (De Rouge. Histoire dEgypte. d' Ahnies.o. son of Abouna. 1 Even 172. i. From this it resulted that great natural talents. 25.\. or various trades were formed into corporations probability. fortunate circumstances. — Women at a loom.to an absolute rule. Chef des Nautoniers. ii. more heredity of occupation in the ordinary course the paternal employment fixed that of the children.

It images of the and chapels. statues in the recesses of their massive walls in and to the bas-reliefs their early Egyptian narrow chambers. These tombs furnish numberless themes of great interest to the historian. however. fellow When all is placed so high above his seem mere human dust about his feet. his caprice is quite sufficient to raise the most insignificant of its atoms to a level with the most illustrious. (Boulak. It is to the burial chambers at Gizeh. Drawn by Bourgoin. while they made no eftort men that his subjects to rival the splendour of the royal creations.The Constitution taken place in of Egyptian Society. the generals and officers of the army and the great civil functionaries. From a tomb. 26. Fig. that most of their care was lavished. consecrated deity. steles. and at Beni-Hassan that we must go for complete types of sepulchral architecture at those epochs to the at .) know of the owe to the classes and methods of that art in those early times we burial-places which the members of the governing style in were the habit of preparing during their lifetime in the necropolis of Memphis. at Meidoum. was upon their tombs. — Netting birds. The priests of the highest rank. the governors of the which they were buried. at their own expense. Sakkarah. we must turn for those features of civilization which remained for many centuries . to tiie 35 Turkey and Persia the master of surprise of none but Europeans. may say the same of the The Egypt of the great for us early kings belonging to the twelfth dynasty has been preserved the tombs of in upon iioii/cs Ameni and Num-Hotep. The tombs of the Memphite kings have not preserved All that we for us anything that can fairly be called sculpture. We centuries of the Middle Empire.

Drawn by Bourgoin. approached most nearly to the ideal which they pursued for so many lords centuries. (Boulak. 28. Drawn by Bourgoin.nxient Egypt. 8j mches h.. it has . in A. by these monuments we are enabled to build up piece by piece a trustworthy representation of the Egyptian people both in their labours and in their pleasures.A History of Art . thanks also to the climate and to Fig. From a tomb at Sakkarah. to these rich Thanks and monuments erected at the expense of the great burghers of Egypt. the works in which they without material change Fig. From a tomb at Sakkarah. battle any other nation of which we shall have to treat than which represents little but scenes of and conquest. — Shepherds in the held. more comprehensive and varied than .) (Boulak.-. A faithful mirror of Egyptian society. that of Assyria for instance. Finally it is from these tombs of priv'ate individuals that the best works of Egyptian artists have been obtained.^ii.) the desert sand which has preserved the art of that of Egypt appears to us them without material injury. — Wimiowhig corn. 27.

But in the large number of isolated figures. (Boulalc. even neglected the games and various pleasures in wdiich the The king laborious Egyptian sought for his well earned repose.( W %i V.activity which created and preserved the wealth of the country it has not . the complex nature of the civilization over which he presided. and by the lleisrht 1 2? iiicher." J \Sf^^]f)i)i\i. Sth clyn. upon his . — Herdsmen. 29.lm :sL Fig. indeed. cross-legged. and scenes which have come down to us. from the ploughman with his ox.) number and dimensions of the reproductions of his features reproductions which show him in the various aspects demanded by . we have illustrations of all classes that helped in the work of national development. by the size of his tomb. fi . groups. From a tomb at Sakkai-ali. preserved his first place by the importance of the religious bLiildings which he raised.The Constitution of Egyptian Society.isty. il preserved for us an exhaustive record of the never-ceasing. to the scribe crouching.

She then gave to her princes almost without an effort all they could desire or demand. might even be called democratic. Maspero and others who. istics. It was one of the fundamental principles of Egyptian morality that those who were powerful should treat the poor and feeble with Their sepulchral inscriptions tell us kindness and consideration. her teeming soil and her splendid climate. but while contrary. did not forget the " humble and meek. from the shepherd with his flock or the hunter pushing his shallop through the brakes of papyrus. with those ineffaceable character- trade so certainly imparts. all it it most placed kings and it princes above and almost apart from humanity. They tell us that the confidences whispered to them in the pictured tomb-houses of Sakkarah and Memphis complain of no misery. both of face and figure which the practice of some special Looked at from this point of view it Egyptian art was popular." on the frankly depicted them in their professional attitudes. live in intimate declare that communion with the they were by no means unhappy. from the time of Mena to that of Psemethek. to This absolute power. The art of Egypt resembled that of Greece in being a complete and catholic art. however. It was sensitive to military glory. does not seem. and at the same time it did not scorn to portray the peaceful life of the fields. speaking generally. to the directors of the great public works and the princes of the blood who governed conquered provinces or guarded the frontiers of the country at the head of ever faithful armies. with her sacrificed to the day the resources of the future. the king himself or by his agents. mat. river. ancient Egyptians. have been put in force in a hard or oppressive manner either by M. seeing everything and taking an interest in everything.38 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. except during a few violent reigns and a few moments of national crisis. . and Egypt. but that such a phrase would sound curious nection with the most absolute when used in con- monarchy which the world has ever seen. The country suffered only on those comparatively rare occasions when the sceptre passed into the hands of an incapable master or into those of some insatiable warrior who thought only of satisfying his own ambition. like him. It set itself its with all sincerity to interpret the monarchical sentiment in enthusiastic and exaggerated form. found life easy as long as she enjoyed an easy and capable administration.

showed hauteur to the haughty. and lowered the shoulders of those who raised them up. paying " arrested the ' Louvre. pi. bread to the hungry. their feudal lords 39 and and princes of the blood. I have given water to the thirsty. — From the tomb of Menofre.) theme. Maspero. (ChampoUion." that he himself on the other hand. I have not calumniated the slave in the The lengthy panegyrics of which some ears of his master. "As me. they practised is a bountiful charity which reminds us of that which the chief beauty of the Christian's morality."^ and sustenance of the Middle Egypt. Cf. in reality no more than amplifications of this — Fig. learned. the help of the distressed. wise. I have clothed the naked . and at the same " I have given time the most complete description of this virtue.— The Constitution that their kings of Egyptian Society." epitaphs consist. c. and of a sound and truthful judgment. knowing the fool from the wise man. made it a point of honour to observe They \vere not content with strict justice.. 408. are. i. functionaries of every grade. this rule. . used brute force to those who used brute force. of whom there is no lack protector against the barbarians. the nurse of the infant. the bread down-trodden. " was a man in a thousand. a all warm shelter for who were cold in the Thebaid. I have been the staff of the old man.. un Gouvcrntur de Thihes au temps de la dotizi'eme dynastie. and their The prince Entef relates that in he has arm of the violent. 30. that passport for The " Book of the Dead" is Egyptians into the other world which found upon every mummy gives us the most simple. for at Sakkarah.

40

A

HisTOKY OF Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

attention to the skilful
.

.

.

and turning his back upon the ignorant, the father of the miserable and the mother of the motherless,

the terror of the cruel, the protector of the disinherited, the defender

men stronger than themhusband of the widow, the asylum of the orphan." ^ Amoni, hereditary prince of the nome of Meh, talks in the same " I have caused sorrow to no youth under age, I have fashion. despoiled no widow, nor have I repelled any labourer, I have imprisoned no shepherd, I have never taken for the labour gangs the serfs of him who had but five, there have been no paupers, nor has any man or woman starved in my time for, although there have been years of scarcity, I have caused all the tillable land in Meh to be tilled, from the northern frontier to that of the south, and have made such arrangements and such provision for the people that there has been no famine among them I have given to the widow and to the married woman alike, and I have never made any distinction between the great and the small in my
of those whose goods were coveted by
selves, the
;
;

gifts.

-

in

Doubtless these laudatory self-descriptions may be exaggerated some respects hyperbole has ever been a favourite figure with
;

the

composers of epitaphs, and

those

of

Egypt

formed

no

As M. Maspero remarks in connection exception to the rule. with this question, " The man as he is, often differs very greatly But we may safely say that the from the man as he thinks he is."
which he set before and esteem, he would himself If only to practice, to a certain extent, the virtues of which he boasted. Many signs combine to tell us that the Egyptians of all classes The master possessed a large fund of tenderness and good-will. was often both clement and charitable the peasant, the servant, and the slave, were patient and cheerful, and that in spite of In a the fatisfue of labours which could never enrich them. country so favoured by nature, men had so few wants that they had no experience of all that is implied by that doleful word
ideal

Egyptian realized some portion of the

obtain admiration

;

dapris

Quoted by ]\Iaspero, Confarncc siir I' Histoire des Ames dans l' Egypie andenrte, les Monumcnis du Musk du Louvre {Association scicntifique de France, Bulletin hcbdomadaire, No. 594; 23 Mars, 1879). " Translated by Maspero {la Grande Liscription de Beni-Hassan, in the Recueil de Travaux rclalifs a la Fhilclogie it h FAu/teologte egyptienne et assyrienne (t.
' i.

PP- 173-174)-

The Constitution
poverty, with us.

of Egyptian Society.

41

The pure

skies

and

brilliant sunshine, the

deep

draughts of Nile water, and the moments of repose under the shadows of the sycamores, the freshness of the evening bath, the starry night with its reinvigorating breezes, were all enjoyments

which the poorest could share. We need feel no surprise therefore at the vivacity with which one of the most learned of the historians of Egypt, Brugsch-Bey, protests against the common misconception of the Egyptians " as
a race grave, serious, morose, exclusive, religious, thinking

much

of the next world, and

little

of this

;

living, in

a word, like the
cries, " that this

Trappists of former days.

Are we

to believe,"

he
it

majestic river and the fertile soil through which

flows, this azure

unclouded sun, produced a nation of living mummies, a race of solemn philosophers who looked upon life in this world Travel over as a burden to be shuffled off as quickly as possible ? Egypt examine the scenes painted and sculptured upon the walls sky with
its
;

of sepulchral chambers

;

read the inscriptions carved upon stone
will

or traced in ink upon the rolls of papyrus, and you

find

yourself compelled to modify the false notions you have imbibed as

Nothing could be more cheerful, to the Egyptian philosophers. more amusing or more frank, than the social life of this pleasureFar from wishing to die, they prayed to the gods loving people. for a long life and a happy old age they prayed that, " if possible, they might live to the perfect age of one hundred and ten."
;

They were

addicted to

all

kinds of pleasures.

They

drank, they

sang, they danced, they were fond of excursions into the country, where the sports of hunting and fishing were specially reserved for the upper class. As a natural effect of this desire for enjoyment, pleasantry which was sometimes rather free, conversation and gay jokes and what we should call chaff, were much in vogue even ^ their tombs were not sacred from their desire for a jest."
:

The

worst government, the sternest oppression, could never ex;

tinguish this natural gaiety

it

was too intimately connected with

the climate and the natural conditions of the country, conditions Never were which had never changed since the days of Menes. the Egyptians more roughly treated than under Mehemet Ali and the late viceroy their condition was compared, with justice, to that of the negroes in Carolina and Virginia, who, before the American civil war, laboured under the whips of their drivers, and
;

'

Brugsch-Bf.v, Histoire

d'Ei:yf>fe,\i\). 14. 15.
c.

VOL.

I.

42

A

History of Art in Ancient Egypt.
fruits
life

enjoyed no more of the

of their
in

own

labour than what was

barely sufficient to keep

their

bodies.

Torn from
to

their

homes and kept by
thousands
;

force In the public works, the fellahs died in
in the fields
;

those

who remained
in

had

pay the taxes

one or two years

advance

they were

never out of debt,

nominally, to the public treasury, and the rattan of the collector

extorted from them such savings as they might
of plenty, up to the last coin.

make during

years

But

still

laughter did not cease in

Look, for instance, at the children in the streets of Cairo who let out mounts to sight-seeing Europeans. Let the tourist trot or gallop as he will, when he stops he finds his donkey-boy by
!

Egypt

his side, full of spirits

and good humour

;

and yet perhaps while

Fic. 31.

— Water Tournament, from a tomb
" fare "

at

Khoum-el-Alimar. (From Prisse.)

he has been making his midday meal upon a few grains of maize tied up in a corner of his shirt. In 1862 I returned from Asia Minor in company with M. Edmond Guillaume, the architect, and I\L Jules Delbet, the doctor, We took the longest way home, by of our expedition to Ancyra.
running behind his
Syria and Egypt.

At

Cairo, Mariette, after having

shown us
"

the

museum

at Boulak, wished to introduce us to his

own

Serapeum."
passed the

He

took us for a night to his house

in the desert,

and showed us

the galleries of the

tomb of Apis by

torchlight.

We

next afternoon in inspecting those excavations in the necropolis of

Sakkarah which have led to the recovery of so many wonders of Egyptian art. The works were carried on by the labour of four hundred children and vouths, summoned by the corvc'c for fifteen

The
days

Constitution' of Egyptian Society.

43

at a time from some district, I forget which, of Middle Egypt.. At sunset these young labourers quitted their \vork and seated themselves in groups, according to their native villages, upon the still warm sand. Each drew from a little sack, containing his provision for two or three weeks, a dry cake those whose parents
;

were comfortably off had also, perhaps, a leek or a raw onion. But e\'en for such gourmands as those, the repast was not a long one. Supper over, they chattered for a time, and then went to rest the bigger and stronger among them took possession of some abandoned caves, the others stretched themselves upon the they formed bare earth but, before going to sleep they sang
; ;
;

Fig. 32.

— Mariette's

Home.

themselves into two choirs who alternated and answered one another, and this they kept up to an advanced hour of the night. I shall never forget the charm of that night in the desert, nor

upon the sea of sand. Were it its surface, and that no ray scintillated as it does even on the calmest sea, we might have thought ourselves in mid ocean. Sleep came to me reluctantly. While I listened to the alternate rise and fall of the chorus outside, I reflected upon how little those children required upon the slender wants of their fathers and mothers, who, like them, sink into their nightly sleep with a song upon their lips. I compared this easy happiness with the restless and complicated
not that no star was reflected upon
;

the weird aspect of the moonlight


44

:

A
cities

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.
the end of a few days, in the
I

existence which

we should

find, at

ambitious
travel,
forest,

of the West, and

regretted that
life in

our year of

our twelve months of unrestrained

the desert or the

had come

to

an end.

^

5.

The Egyptian

Rcligio)i

and

its

Injhicncc upon the

Plastic Arts.

have still to notice the profoundly religious character of Egyptian art. " The first thing that excites our surprise, when we examine the reproductions of Egyptian monuments which have been published in our day, is the extraordinary number of scenes
of sacrifice and worship which have
collection of plates

We

come down

to us.

In the

which we owe to contemporary archaeologists, we can hardly find one which does not contain the figure of some
receiving

deity,

with

impassive

countenance

the

prayers

or
a

offerings of a prostrate king or priest.

One would

say

that

country with so

many

sacred pictures and sculjitures, must have

been inhabited by gods, and by just enough men for the service The Egyptians were a devout people. Either by natural tendency or by force of education, they saw God pervading the whole of their universe they lived in Him and for Him. Their imaginations were full of His greatness, their words of His praise, and their literature was in great part inspired by
of their temples.^
;

gratitude for the benefits which

He
in

showered upon them.

Most
of

of

their

manuscripts which
matters,

have

come down

to

us

treat

those which are ostensibly concerned only with profane subjects, mythological names and allusions occur on every page, almost at every line." An examination into the primitive religious beliefs of the
religious

and

even

Egyptians
The

is

full

of difficulty.

In

discovering

new

papyri, in

'

saying of one of the characters of Petronius might be appHed to Egypt
is

" This country

so thickly peopled with divinities that

it is

easier to find a
life

god than
is

a man."
indicated

The place held by religious observances in the by Hkrodotus (ii. 37): "The Egyptians," he
all

daily
says,

of Egypt

clearly

"are very religious;

they surpass
^

other nations in the adoration with which they regard their deities."
anciennc, pp. 26, 27.

Maspero, Hiitotre

The Egyptian Religion and the

Plastic Arts.

45

determining the signification of signs which have Ijeen puzzHng egyptologists, the inquirer will undoubtedly do good work, and

"mMiji^m^M^mHmmmM

N

Fig. 33.

—Amenliotep

or

Amenophis

III. presented by Phre to (Champollion, pL 344.)

Amen-Ra

;

Thebes.

will

establish facts
;

importance

but even

which are sure not to lack interest and even when documents abound and when every

46

A

History of Art
is

in

Ancient Egypt.
it

separate word they contain
difficult to

understood, even then

is

very

penetrate to the root of their meaning. A ghmpse will be caught of it, I admit, by one of those efforts of inductive divination which distinguish modern research but even then it will remain to explain the primitive and only half-understood notions of five or six thousand years ago in the philosophical vocabularies It is here that the most difficult and irksome part of of to-day.
;

the task begins.

We

who

represent the old age,

or,

perhaps, the

prime, of humanity, think of these matters and speak of them as
abstractions,
to us,

while the

Egyptians,

who were

children compared

thought of them under concrete forms.

Their very ideals

were material, more or less vague and refined perhaps, but still Their only conception of a deity was of a figure larger, material. more vigorous and more beautiful than mortals the powers and If we attributes with which it was endowed were all physical.
;

attempt to express their conceptions
their meaning.
for

in abstract terms,
it

we

falsify

We

cannot avoid altering
are not to be

to a certain e.xtent,
all

exact

equivalents

found, and, in spite of

precautions,

we

give to the confused and childish ideas of ancient

religion, a precision
If,

which is entirely modern. under these reserves, we study the Egyptian theology in its most learned and refined form namely, that which it attained during the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties we shall dimly perceive that it implies a belief in the unity of the First Cause of all life. But this belief is obscured behind the numerous gods who are, in fact, emanations from its substance and manifestations of its indefatigable activity. It is in the person of these gods that Each of them has his own name, the divine essence takes form. his own figure, and his own special share in the management of

the universe
particular

;

each of them presides over the production of some
of

order

phenomena

and

insures

their

regularity.

These gods are
sons.

related to each

other as

fathers,

mothers, and

They

thus form a vast hierarchy

of beings, superior to

the series.

man, and each enjoying a dignity corresponding to his rank in There is, so to speak, most of divinity in those who are nearest to the "one God in heaven or earth who was not
begotten."

These

deities are divided into

groups of three, each

group constituting a family, like those of earth, consisting of father, mother, and son. Thus from triad to triad, the concealed god develops his sovereign powers to all eternity, or, to use an

The Egyptian

Religion and the Plastic Arts.
"

47
he

expression clear to the religious schools of ancient Egypt,
creates his

own members, which
the
science
it

are themselves gods."^

How
form

should
?

of

comparative religion class

this
?

of faith
is,

Should

be called polytheism or pantheism
is

The answer

perhaps, not of great importance, and this
its

hardly
the

the place for

discussion.
polytheists.
reflection,

It

is

certain

that,

practically,

Egyptians were by dint of long

The Egyptian
arrived at
the

priests, indeed, had,

comprehension, or at

Cause which had started the river of life that inexhaustible stream of which the Nile with its fertilising waves was the concrete image in its long journey across time and space. But the devotion of the people themselves never succeeded in mountinof above the minor divinities, above those intermediaries in whom the divine principle and attributes became personified and put on the tangibility of body necessary to make them intelligible to childish understandings. So, too, was it with artists, and for still more powerful reasons as by forms only could they express the ideas which they had conceived. Even in those religions which are most clearly and openly monotheistic and spiritual, such as Christianity, art has done something of the same kind. Aided in secret by one of the most powerful instincts of the human soul, it has succeeded, in spite of all resistance and protestation, in giving plastic expression to those parts of our belief which seem least fitted lor such treatment and it has caused those methods of expression to be so accepted by us that we see nothing unnatural in the representation under the features of an old man, of the first Person of the Trinity, of that Jehovah who, In the Old Testament, proscribed all graven Images with such Impartial rigour who, in the Evangel, described Himself as " tlie Truth and the Life." In Egypt, both sculptors and painters could multiply their images to infinity without coming into collision with dogma, without provoking the regrets or censures of its most severe
least at the contemplation, of that First

;

;

;

interpreters.

Doctrine did
it

not

condemn these

personifications,

even when
'

had been refined and elaborated by the speculative
texts.

This formula frequently occurs in the
to

To

cite

but one occasion,
{Rccueil de
t.
i.

we

find

upon a Theban invocation
relatifs

Amen,

translated by

P.PihRRET
el

Travaux
the

a la Philologie

et

a V Archeologie egyptienne
:

assyrienne,

\).

70), at

third line of the inscription

" Sculptor, thou

modelest thine own members; thou

begettest them, not having thyself been begotten."

48

A

History of Art

ix

Ancient Egypt.
In the interior of the took pleasure in
essential power,

theologians of

Thebes and HeHopoHs.
" the
' '

who contemplating One who exists by his own the only being who substantially exists." Even
temples, there was a small class of mystics
as they have often

then
"

men
"

tried,

done

since, to define the undefinable, to
I

grasp

the incomprehensible, to perceive the supreme the
shifting

am

through

and transparent

veil

of

natural

phenomena.

But

those refined metaphysics never touched and influenced the crowd,

and never will. The deity, in order to be perceived by them and to touch their feelings, must have his unity broken he must, if the expression be admissible, be cut up into morsels for them. By a process of abstraction which is as old as religion itself the
;

human

intelligence

is

led to consider separately each of the qualities
it

of existence, each of the forces which
either within

perceives to be at work

man

himself or in the exterior world.

At

first

it

thinks those forces and qualities are distributed impartially to
creation.
It

all

confounds existence with
believes, as

fetishism,
passion,

when man

life. Hence the reign of young children do, that thought,

and volition like his own, are to be found in everything he His own image seems to him reflected as in a mirror with a thousand converging facets, and he is unable to distinguish the
meets.
real condition of things outside
it.

Certain celestial and terrestrial bodies

make
fill

a particularly strong beauty, by their evil

impression upon his mind by their
or beneficial effects

size, their

the average gratitude, admiration, or terror.

him with more than Driven by the illusion which possesses him, he places the origin of those qualities which seem to him the highest and most important, in the bodies which have made so deep an impression upon his senses to them he
upon himself
;

They

which alternately excite his desire and his fear. According to circumstances a fetish might be a mountain, a rock or a river, a plant or an animal. It might be those heavenly bodies which exercised much more influence over it might be the the life of primitive man than they do over us moon and stars, which tempered the darkness of the night and diminished its terrors it might be the cloud, from whose bosom came rain and thunder above all, it might be the sun which reDifferences turned every morning to light and warm the world. everywhere one of climate and race had their modifying effect, but common characteristic is to be found. It was always to some
attributes the friendly or hostile influences
; ; ;

The Egyptian Religion and the
material and visible object that the
forces

Plastic Arts.
intellect referred

49
those
;

human

drew from its own consciousness forces which, when thus united with something tangible, constituted the first types of those divine beings whom mankind have so long adored, to whom they have turned for ages in their hope and fear. As the years passed away, man advanced beyond his primitive conceptions. He did not entirely renounce them we may indeed see reminiscences of them all around us but he super imposed others upon them which were more complex. His powers of observation, still imperfect though they were, began to insinuate into his mind a disbelief in the activity of inanimate matter, and those objects which were nearest to him, which he could touch with his hand, were the first victims of his disenchantment. Thus began
and
qualities

which

it

a long course of intellectual development, the result of which

we
to

know, although the various stages of
follow at this distance of time.
star
It

its

progress are

difficult

appears certain, however, that
^wdi polytheism.

worship formed the transition between /t'//s/iis;u

no longer attributed vital forces and pre-eminent qualities generally to bodies with which they themselves were in immediate

Men

and trees but they found no difficulty in continuing to assign them to those great luminaries whose distance and beauty placed them, so to speak outside the material world.
contact, to stones
;

As

they gradually deprived inanimate matter of the properties
it,

with which they had once gifted

they sought for new objects to

which they might attach those properties. These they found in the stars which shone in the firmament century after century,

and knew neither old age nor death and especially in the most brilliant, the most beneficent, and the most necessary of them all, in that sun whose coming they awaited every morning with an impatience which must once ha\'e been mixed with a certain amount of anxiety. The attributes which awakened intelligence had taken away
;

from the inanimate objects of the world could not be
in space.

left floating

They became

gradually and imperceptibly grouped

in

men's minds around the great luminary of day, and a bond of union was found for the different members of the group by endowing
operation

This was favoured by the constitution of contemporary language, by its idioms made up entirely of those images and metaphors which, by their frank audacity, surprise and charm us
the
VOL.
I.

sun with a personality modelled upon that of man.

H

It although it never lost all trace of their e. the person:ility and moral individuality of these gods gradually But its brilliance. pji. form the . upon the path prepared for him by Aurora a hero who . the works of the early poets. In part in the Egyptian religion. transition from the simple fetish to complete deities. allowed his imagination to endow it with the purest and noblest characteristics which the finest examples of humanity could show while the phenomena which depend upon its action are so numerous that there was no hesitation in assigning to it qualities and energies of the most various kinds. and the substance from the eye of man. Maspero in his anciaiitc. when evening came. It commenced with the first awakening of thought. gods and attained to their highest and most complete development in the some respects. full of pride and vigour. As the intellect became more capable of abstraction and analysis. belonged tranquil its the material objects which received the first distance which conceals and majestic movement. whose glance killed and devoured.. . and amid the confidence of that after his hours of sleep he would take up his eternal task with renewed vigour. so to speak. 50 in A History of Art i\ Anxient Egypt. when man endowed all visible nature with the bounding life which he felt in his own veins. No effort of intelligence was required for its commencement or for its prosecution. the nurse and father of all life. sun with its compulsory course. He was an invincible warrior. See the fine hymns quoted and translated by M. its real threw off its astral or physical characteristics. He was sometimes an angry master. went his rest amid all all the glories of an eastern sunset. Whether as Indra or as Amen-Ra. This type when once established was used for the creation of other deities. both in Egypt the Histoire and 1 in Greece. cast in the same mould. resulted that. the to luminous globe of the the same category as worship of humanity. The sun became a young hero advancing. 30-37. which were all. to those who played such an important Hellenic mythology. He was above all the untiring benefactor of mankind. there were deities who were mere entities. to who.xistence. pursued his daily path in spite of all obstacle or hindrance. it was the same cry that went up to him from Egypt and Hindostan the prayers which we find in the \'^edas and in the papyri.^ This solar god and the divinities who resemble him. breathe the same sentiments and were addressed to the same god.

centuries by tradition. fruin a bronze Height 22^04 inches. some virtue. 51 some or power. and Egyptians. Ptah. It some all requires of the subtle Jiiicssc modern out criticism to seek the and distinguish obscure roots which attach these divinities to the naturalistic beliefs of earlier aees. beautiful lu 34- —Amen Lc. define polytheism as the partition of the highest attributes oi between of of a limited number not give agents. quality. not to be at- but Ave a may is safely say that race poly- when we find these abstract deities among their theistic gods. Sometimes absolute is certainty tained. It is in this capacity chiefly that we reproduce them. Osiris of and the Apollo and Athene of the the Greeks. in ihe 1 Several of the bronzes which we reproduce may belong to the Ptolemaic epoch but they are repetitions of types and attributes which had been fixed for many . or The Auimnn. less more and ephemeral than man.^ We life may. such deities as the Amen. but. wished regard them as stronger.iure. nevertheless. as examples of those forms which seemed to the Egyptian imagination to offer the most satisfactory emblems of their gods.The Egyptian simple embodiment oi Religion and the Plastic Arts. . The could life imagination man these agents without at the same time en- dowing them with natural essential characteristics and to with the human it form. then.

and so it constitutes them into a hierarchy. Grebaut seems to have Egyptian religious very clearly indicated how far we are justified in saying that efc. Travaux. system had said its last word and was complete. 120). de (Rccueil s|)eculation at times approached monotheism . it was easily adapted to the^ national polyThe theory of emanations theism. all phenomena to a certain number of causes. M. t. Louvre. when it had succeeded in embodying in some divine personality each of those forces whose combined energy produces movement in the world or guarantees its duration. are of unequal importance.5^ A History of Art in Anciext Egypt. by efforts of conjecture. When its religious evolution follows normal course. And thus monotheism succeeds to polytheism. which it calls gods. religious speculation arrived doctrine. from a bronze in the size. 1 method in which Egyptian myth- ology described it. by the very people. and in course makes new discoveries. the work of reflection of time goes on. or gods. Still later it begins to comprehend of these causes are but for that many different names one thing. to recognize and proclaim the unity of all cause. and was even taught by the were days select class of priests who those con- the . It refers. philosophers of but the monotheistic ception Fig. In Egypt. 35 never penetrated into the — Pt. that force. on the Its it threshold of this depths were dimly perceived. the appli- they form but one cation of a single law. It next perceives that these causes. is it and analysis. Thus by by on carried reduction logic and simplification.ili. Actual minds of the great mass of the Moreover. 1 In his work entitled Des deux Yeux dii Disque solaire. or even to fetish worship. i. p.

the work of intellectual analysis and abstraction had already come to a state of maturity which it never artists. Egyptian polytheism was always more mixed. in The divinities were fewer number and consein quently more fixed and decided their individual characteristics. when They gave they to were piously pursued the precision contour the forms roughly and by the established definition which they gave to each divine figure. more Greek Greek difficult than that reached in Egypt. birth necessary. Plastic Arts. that each of them should I magihave a form and a domicile. 36. nation therefore did well in com- mencinof to distinguish and define the gods . we might almost say sketched. 53 The different gods were but the different quahties of the eternal substance.The EovrxiAN Religion and the reconciled everything. — Even in those centuries in which the ideas of the Egyptian people refined. in one sense. more strongly tinged with fetishism than that of Greece. were made comprehensible to the intellect of man by their mysterious It was and generation. Osiris. These qualities and energies were revealed by being imported into the world ot They took finite shape and form. The Fig. the three successive stages. Height 22"8 inches. the various manifestations of one creative force. artists occupied same of course. if the existence of the eods were to be brought home to mankind. that they created the gods. Their task was. of the When newly born began to make reart first presentations of Greek deities. from a bronze in the Louvre. were most elevated and which .

the ibis. Actual As for ourselves we objects of popular devotion were no no doubt that these more than ancient fetishes. 37. None of the peculiarities of Egyptian civilization struck Greek travellers with amazement than this worship of animals. A few more or less isolated thinkers were — the already seeking to formulate monotheism. are always found the the development of religious co-existed in the nation. Nephtisand many . life. Khons Sekhet. Each animals has Fig. or Khonsu. and the military class — were Osiris Isis. special phe- As for the lower orders of the people.) a bronze in been assigned. adoring Amen and Ptah. The dlitc of the nation king. other divinities less all more or nature. as the bulls Apis and Mnevis. &c.^ Later theology has ceeded subtle in more semi- suc- giving more or less and specious explanaof these tions of these forms of worship. the Louvre.54 A mind of History of Art in in Ancient Egypt. the goat of Mendes. they the knew and names of these public deities associated themselves with the great honours which were paid to them but their homage and their faith were . to one of the greater deities. the hawk. as symbol or attribute. — The goddess Bast. In the long prehistoric centuries. and Horus. abstract in their and presiding over non'vina. while the Egyptian race was occupied in making good its possession of the Nile valley and ' have Herodotus. more heartily rendered to such concrete and visible eods as the sacred animals. ii. the priest. INIouth. 75-86. . (From size.

Empire. and formed nearly the whole of their religion. at Memjihis. its vitality had come to an end. imasfination these animals. in a form which betrays the last two centuries of the . Although Thebes was did not allow their rites and ceremonies to fall into disuse. that is of Ptah.The EoYrTLAN Religion and the brineine it Plastic Arts. which guaranteed to them the free use of that It was not converted into a church until after the destruction of the temple. vegetables. were no doubt it had In an inscription cut in the time of fetish erudition which in hieroglyphs upon the wall and speculative ideas in all those Egyptian hooks which have come down to us. lasted until the time of Justinian. in Gnosticit ism was particuLirly successful past. a dead city visited for its relics of the past. among as the other races of antiquity. and some of its elaborate doctrines still continued It exercised some remains of to be transmitted. but the great mass of the people returned to simple practices which had been sanctified by thousands of j-ears. deified 55 into cultivation. others for the and it was the same with certain . the ancient religion of the race towards monotheism took a form that was either philosophical and Platonic or and as tor the cultivated spirits who wished to continue Christian lost all its highest branches. but had not that theological accumulated by its own intellectual energy. influence only on condition of being melted do>vn and re-modelled in the crucible A little colerie of thinkers set themselves to complete this of Greek philosophy. after being for three centuries subject genius. was no more killed by the Roman conquest than it was by that of the Ptolemies. But although its rites did not cease. Diocletian negotiated a treaty with the Blemmyes. was carried on up to the establisliment of Christianity. Philip the Arab. Blemmyes by Silco and the Christian kings of Ethiopia.. but is seems so is nowhere marked it in When Egypt. the worship of Vulcan. still to say that the higher (luahties of the Egyptian rehgion were superstitions then altogether In it Roman Egypt lost all the predominant. which Egypt. That of Isis. More one purely Egyptian notion may be found interpreted in the works of Alexandrian The principal sanctuaries philosophers and in the phraseology of Greek philosophy.Alexandria had its Egyptian Serapeum by the side of its Greek one. We else so phenomenon. ' We do not mean lost. We find abstract Monuments whole of its are to be found there which are Egyptian in every particular. It The old religion and theology of the Egyjjtians did not exjiire in a single day. . we find an antique hymn transcribed of a temple. Egypt. had lost to all . those peoi)le of Nubia who were at one time such redoubtable soldiers. the influence and supremacy of the its Greek but the shadow of former indepen- when all the energy and intellectual dence and national liie activity which remained to it was concentrated at the Greco-Syrian rather than Egyptian Alexandria. at Phila. at first it inexplicable. nothing but a heap of ruins. transfusion. some terror for the services which they inspired find traces of this which they rendered.^ The aspirations . which was predestined to accept by the llian Certain doctrines of Plotinus are thus best explained.

We are enabled to account for them by that inexperience which falsifies all . and in the statues of the void left beliefs by the disappearance of the national gods. painters. who Homer Greek nor Hesiod and were unable to admire the sculptors. This persistence. such as the cow and the draught ox. 9-11. these laws and forces presented themselves to their minds in the forms which had been figured and described by the sculptors. They mocked at a people who " hardly dared to bite a leek or an onion who adored divinities which (jrew in their own Qrardens. They guarded with obstinacy the ancient foundations of their early faith. Histoirc ancienne. p. qiiibus haec nascuntur ! Numina Juvenal. Ci. 46. at least. in hortis O - Sanctas gentes. we are now better able to understand the origin of these beliefs and the '-^ secret of their long duration. From end to end of the habitable earth. which becomes honourable and worthy of our sympathy when it is addressed and laborious helpers of man. this apparent recrudescence of fetishism made itself felt in Egypt alone." ^ : and a god which was nothing but a " beast wallowing on a purple carpet. religion for civilized orisjin humanity. quoted by Maspero.Alexaxdrinus. without hesitation or dispute. the gods of the Hellenic pantheon absorbed and assimilated all within the boundaries of the Roman those of other nationalities Empire. most diverse read neither and The lower classes alone.— A History Art 56 of in Ancient Egvi'T. the personification of the eternal forces of the world and of the which govern them. and writers of Greece. the judgments of infancy." Guided by a more critical knowledge of the past.EMEXs . xv. the numbers and physical characteristics of the divine types of Greece. ' to the useful for instance. It amazed and scandalized both pagans and Christians during the early centuries of Christianity. laws They accepted. in forest clearings. Thus we may see. their primitive seem to have put on a new life and to have enjoyed a restored prestige. . Porrum et ciEpe nefas violare et frangere morsu. the ancient but felled still vigorous stumps of great trees which have been send out fresh shoots to renew their youth. in the race as well as in the individual we see that they are the exaggeration of a natural sentiment. its polytheism became a kind of universal . to domestic animals. were kept free from the powerful and softening influence of poetry and art. as the Greeks boasted. and was adopted by nations of the lanwuao-e.

which M. 1760.^ This stage must never be forgotten. under the title Di/ F Egypte avccla Religion actuelle de Nigritie (i3mo). Ernest Leroux. in the excellent Manuel de I'Histoire des Religions. materialistic character of the Egyptian conceptions are very well grasped author has not endeavoured to fctichisme it is perhaps to be regretted that the make the creeds to which he gives this name of somewhat clearer. Egyptian gods. 1880). that other emerge from barbarism. " like the Chinese. 1 a bold This was perceived by the President de Brosses. religious development. Parall'ele de fAncienue Jieligioii de — ALgyptischen Mythologie (28 pp.s. 8vo). It is called Dcr ^gyptische Fetischdiinst und Gotlerglaube Prolegomena c?/r on. to 57 would be interesting life in know why . which is published in Berlin under the direction of M. and to show by what workings of the mind they were adopted and abandoned. we shall find treated. the least remote from the day of man's first appearance upon the earth. "The Egyptian religion. to whom the language is indebted for tlie use of the term fetishism as a name for a definite state of religious conception. in We can still read : with interest the book which he published anonymously Culte des Dieiix fetiches .The Egyptian It Religion and the Plastic Arts. in an essay which apjjeared in 1878 in the Zeitschrift/iir Ethnologic. and the adoration of animals. From his point of view the custom of placing a symbol of the divinity rather than an image must be traced to fetishism (pp. by Tiele. Herr Pietschmann. . It may therefore be supposed to have received more deeph'. but he points out the fact that this class of conceptions had a perennial influence over the Egyptian mind. 44 and 45 of the French version). The author denominates the religious state which we call fetishism animism. Maurice Yernes has just translated from the Dutch (i vol i2mo." he says. the deification of the king. VOL. and maintained more obstinately. if we wish to understand the jaart which art played in the figuring of the. a savant with few advantages but and inquiring spirit. With regard to the Egyptian religion. I . were alone in the world for many centuries they had to depend entirely upon their own internal forces for the accomplishment of their emancipation it is. in the temple. it . Add to this. were aided and example incited by the of races which had preceded them on the same road. tliose impressions which characterize the infancy of men as well as of mankiaid." He finds traces of this animism in the worshij) of the dead. views much the same as those which we have just described. was nothing to begin with but an organised animism. \. A great many and judicious observations and curious facts are to be found in the realistic . hardly surprising that they should have remained longer than their successors in that fetish worship which we have asserted to be the first stage of races in their eftorts to . The inhabitants of the Nile V^alley. Virchow. these beHefs were so is curiously tenacious of Egypt perhaps the reason to be found in the prodigious antiquity of Egyptian civilization civilization. on the other hand. The study of the fetish elements of the Egyptian religion has been resumed lately with competent knowledge and talent by a German egyptologist. therefore. That was the oldest which the world has seen.

Sekhet. In the next place they required some easy method for distinguishing their imaginary beings one from another. and the bird with a human head which symbolizes death. it mixed up the physical Sometimes the head of an In most of the types which characteristics created of man and beast. The though more rarely. . these forms Is The began usual explanation of to as follows. Sphinx. who were able. in the heads of different In the These the fauna of Egypt ticular Fig.) (Drawn which to it. When men embody for the eye of others the Ideas which they had formed of the divine powers. by result to the constant quantity figure. and should allow of his being at once identified and called by own name. the opposite arrangement obtains. arise fail The special characteristics of the animal made could use of were so frankly to see the difference insisted upon that no confusion Even a child could not between one deity and another. between . -Painted bas-relief. The required In was obtained a very simple manner.- itself afforded. they adopted as the foundation for their personifications the noblest living form they knew. case of each divinity. was detached and the head or body. the par- animal was selected Boiilak. adding the human a varying element animals.58 A History of Art it in Ancient Egypt. sometimes. had been consecrated which was Its symbol or at least its attribute. by Bourgoin. 38. animal surmounts the body of a man or woman . They had to give to each deity some feature which should be peculiar to him or her his self. with that of a cow. in might be. We we may even In express our surprise that the Egyptians. are instances of the latter combination. but yet or a lioness. that of man. with the head of a cat do not refuse to accept this explanation. as the case order to form part of a complex and Imaginary being. and Hathor.

But could any notion be more unhappy than that of crowning the bust of a man . 59 the days of the ancient empire. in which the the human face is allied to wings of a bird. 39. and by the disagreeable results which in extreme grotesquethey sometimes such creations as produced. and the trunk and posterior members of the most graceful and powerful of quadrupeds. Height o '50 metres. A certain beauty may be found Fig. — Sekhet. and a few others. Louvre. were not disgusted by their the strangeness of such combinations.The Egyptian Religion and the Plastic Arts. (Granite. to endow by the statues of their kings with so much purity and nobihty of form.x.) the Sphin. ness.

It may be said that the lacking all artists of Egypt were in the that to skill necessary for generalized this. With them. and even the Latins. The Hindoos multiplied the human figure by itself. with the ug-ly and ponderous head of a crocodile. Actual of execution which suggests that. 40. of which proceeding traces are to be found among the Western Asiatics. so They rough con- tented themselves that.6o or A woman History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of Apollo. they chosen". and yet by the delicacy of their contours and the problem o-eneral coherence of their charactero ization. But. our minds are never Even a fragment of a left in doubt. costume and attributes helped to mark the difference. torso can be at once recognized at sight as part of a statue of Zeus. they could have expressed anything which can be expressed by the chisel. interpretations and awkward perhaps. or of Bacchus. size. we should rather seek their explanation .) (Bronze. Louvre. and each solved it in its own manner. or they a their forms such degree as to leave no scope for such subtle differences. or flat with the slender neck and head of a snake ? Every this polytheistic nation attacked in turn. they were enabled to avoid all confusion between them. we had their oldest statues a facility — Isis-Hathor. find in Fig. and painted or carved their gods with three heads and many pairs of arms and legs. But even where these are absent. and a head of Demeter or Hera would never be confounded with one of Artemis or Pallas. the Greeks. in fact. we know. too. That they did not do with plastic so. The Greeks represented all their gods in human form.

en .3 J3 a.

.

) The Egyptian Religiox and the in Plastic Arts. form of religion which they possessed. so that foreign observers We were led to believe that the Egyptian religion began and ended in the adoration of plants and sacred animals. Fig. and that god (T ArcJieoIogie is figured with the PiERRET. for a moment. Drawn by G. 42 ( —Touaris. and its influence was so far maintained that during the decadence of the nation it a^ain became the ruling faith.^ So it is with the ibis. and sometimes. plays an important part in Egyptian The vulture symbolizes furnishes the sign by which her name It Maut. Boulak. Dictionnnire Egyptienne . sometimes as composite monsters with human bodies and animal heads. which was the earliest. namely. is written. the fetish worship. thought and some hereditary in predisposition. the bird to which we have just alluded. Its practices never fell into total neglect. that it could not be torn up even when a large part of the nation had gradually educated itself to the comprehension of the highest religious conceptions. like the vulture. who symbolizes the region of the South. The goddess Nekheb. as the symbol of maternity. its head appears over the brow of the wings forming her head-dress. That worship had struck its roots so deeply into the souls of the people. art. the spouse of Amen. have already spoken of that which we believe to be the cause of the peculiar forms under which the Egyptians figured their deities. Benedite. It supplies the character by its which the name Thoth 1 is written. The hawk. some habit of action contracted the infancy of the race and fortified by long transmission. and for many centuries the only. Take. goddess. is also represented by a vulture. The eyes and the imagination being thus educated by immemorial custom. it is not surprising that even the most cultivated section of the people should have seen nothing offensive tion of their in the representa- gods sometimes under the is complete form of an animal (Horus often symbolized under the likeness of a hawk).

we shall only quote a few lines " In America the law protects these public benefactors. then. When the early fathers of the nation first established themselves upon the banks of the Nile. With his genius for history and poetry Michelet has well understood the sentiment which gave birth to these primitive forms of worship. . sentiments which were the natural outcome of the practical services which they rendered to mankind. ^ 1 See in LOismti the chapter-headed Epuration. The whole of this beautiful chapter should be read . they receive the friendly hospitality of man as in the time of Pharaoh. damp by snakes and lizards and Fishes. left by the retreating flood all kinds of creeping things. forms which have too long provoked unjust contempt. The part played sentation of the gods. If left to decompose they would soon have bred a pestilence. and decomposing matter was recalled into the service of organic life. to be explained by the sentiments of gratitude and religious veneration of which they were the objects. After the annual inundation the frogs. as Michelet puts it. and. perished. Had these unpaid scavengers but struck work for a day. rendered the air noisome and malarious. in pools which were soon dried up by the blazing sun. was assigned the indispensable work of elimination and transformation. they found invaluable allies in those energetic birds of prey. would soon have become the earth was overrun . by these birds in the repreis Ibis. the multiplication of the inferior animals was kept within due limits. and the offal of every kind which accumulated round the dwellings of the peasantry and rapidly became putrid under the sun of Egypt. their appetite and to the powerful wings which carried them in a twinkling to wherever their presence was required. you ask an Egj-ptian fellah why he allows himself to be besieged . an office which they yet fill satisfactorily in the towus and villages of Africa. Although they no longer enjoy : L — If their ancient worship. and the alliance has been continued to their latest descendants. Thanks to (from Wilkinson). To birds of prey. only inhabitant of the country. the plague. In addition to this there were the corpses of wild and domestic animals. decomposing. Egyptian law does still more for them it respects them and loves them. by toads and ^.64 head of an A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. both in the plastic arts and in writing. and in those days human effort was not ^1 / to be reckoned upon in the work of sanitation.

he will say nothing. permitted their theology to and deafened by birds. the vulture. Older than the Pyramids. — HoiiH . it the personages of the Hellenic pantheon.The Egyptian Religion and the Plastic Arts. 44. Man's existence depends upon them. why he patiently suffers the insoknce of the crow perched upon the horn of the buffalo. the crow and the vulture. Birds are allowed to do anything. then. K . upon the persevering labour of the ibis.1 bronze in the Posno collection. the stork. 65 preceded by in The worship of the hawk. The doctrine of emanation and of successive incarnations of the deity. many centuries that of the gods who correspond to Rooted by long custom the minds of the people. they are the ancients of the country. on the hump of a camel. and the ibis. or fighting upon the date-trees and shaking down the fiuit. had." VOL. from .. did not excite the ire of the wise In. I. (Height 3S inches men of Heliopolis or Thebes.

size. for they offered the characteristic features of the animals which they had loved. the son of Amen . to us. his — . manifestation of by the hands of a sculptor the the strength and support of his life. these figures are surbut to the Egyptians they . that the Egyptians were not offended by a combination of two classes of forms which. like the statue fashioned tf. Let us attempt to do so for a moment let us make one of those intellectual efforts which are demanded from the historian.imelltd Actual . or of a statue which In which he was attached. The — took the form 'I'hoth.66 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. revealed himself in that of a he was supposed to animate. of an animal and clav. even those things which at a later epoch seemed nothing more than the grossest creations of popular These objects of veneration were therefore enabled to maintain their places by the side of the superior gods. man himself To accustomed as we are to the created types prising by Greek anthro- pomorphism. with the forms of us. and . M. and. seemed perfectly natural. respected. in the latter case. It is difficidt for with the same eyes the con- temporaries of Cheops or even of Rameses . and adored ever since us to see things as the birth of their civilization. dignity. to represent them in written characters and in plastic creations. Louvre. I'ln. to be blended superstition. and to one of his most curious and most penetrating essays. — like the king. Maspero explains that the sacred animal was it. just as he took man. we shall then understand how it was. explain and to accept anything. to enter into their ideas and sentiments so as to feel with them and to think with their brains. so differently in constituted seem and so deity unequal Fi< 45.e deity.

/^'-^L_^y^'^\ F^l:a2^:. 157.|]?'^r^ii:a^-\?=^t/"^^ [U V'' '^-^\\^Mfi\%'Xv^J^'^\.Memphis. great clearness and a rare happiness of plastic they did say with expression.|f(5J >->- ? p||^J^ii lii^^^^xf^^^t^'^^i rendered the task i ^'^Wj^^^^^ ' of the artist too easy.y|J2. the faithful and skilful interpretation of What the Egyptians wished to say. Maspero. . . of a want of taste. To accuse them.^ The Egyptian Religion and the dotibli\ to Plastic Arts.V^^•X to the plastic arts than the anthro- ^^^M0^'^^^^^^^^^'^'^^\ pomorphism of the Greeks.--.^"^'''^''|i^)^'fc^ him assurance that his meaninof would be understood at a glance without any particular effort on his part. The its value of an artistic result is in proportion to the difficulty of achievement. No more simple method of distinguishing one god from another could well be imagined than that of /a^p||v^ ! '^^\^'f'^^^"~T-^^Tf^^^-^ fAv^. to sin against both the method and the spirit of modern criticism. 46.^—-^. This necessity was a great incentive to perfection it drove him to study the human form with a continuous energy which. would be to form a very narrow conception of art. . ' i.' - .. At . .\\-'X giving to each. We do not. as they have been sometimes accused.ii_jv. Egyptian tion of divinitv is less favourable ^/i"*t^:"ri?i:Cjtrji^. mythology he was therefore obliged to make use of the most delicate and subtle distinctions of feature and contour.— Sacrifice to Apis. the employment of such an unmisthe takable sign • {(Tyi''. unhappily for himself. Apis repeated and constantly renewed the Hfe of Ptah in a he was..-~. then. as his ex- clusive head ot some well-known animal. word.. 67 use an expression dear to the Egyptians.jYiT. however. god and goddess of . wish to deny that their concep_.— -^^ Fig..*'. The Greek each sculptor had nothing beyond the his bodily form and the features of individuality to man with which to give a distinct . property. Notes siir diffcients Points de Gramma ire et d' Histoirc dans /< Reciidl de Travaux rdatifs a la Philologie et a F Archcologie egyptiennc et assyrienne. his living statue. from Marictte. in giving [|\^. vol. This latter seeks for originality and admires it.:=:r4. that the ideas of the people.^ art was. ^-r. was not required of the Egyptian sculptor or painter.^^^. and all art which is at once powerful and sincere arouses its interest. y..

his name is hardly to be of Amen. the chief divinities of the Egyptian pantheon such an attempt would be foreign to the purposes which we have in view. but we . Egyptian unity. whose capital was Memphis. the local divinity of in Now. however. . their national deity. never rose . the authors of . ^ following dynasties. or even to enumerate. allied religion have ever been so closely that it was necessary that characteristics of the we should give some account Egyptian beliefs. of the original shall make no attempt to describe. Ptah rose into but.68 A Art and History of Art in Ancient Egypt. with Isis. names of Ptah. and we shall see hereafter what magnificent temples were raised in his honour by the kings Heliopolis. 1 Herodotus. . from one end to the other of the Nile valley. ii. as if by a kind of compromise. installed Amen as the national god. . the local deity of Thebes found upon any monument earlier than the eleventh dynasty. As a city grew importance. seemed to Herodotus to be the only Under the deity whom all the Egyptians combined to adore. his dignity the first place Abydos under the is combined with that of the great god of first The two dynasties. of the country. already mentioned most of the chief deities of Egypt. so did its peculiar god. During the domination of the Hyksos. with the rise of the Theban empire he began to be a conspicuous figure in Egypt. and we shall have occasion to draw the attention of our readers to others. in speak- ing of the tombs and temples. and sometimes it came about and a divinity were imposed upon that both a dynasty of kings Egypt by the power of what we may call their native city. We have. Soutekh or Set. had their capital in the nome of Abydos. some of the dignity which he had acquired during his period course of time of supremacy. In the a number of successive deities thus held the supreme place.Osiris and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. but. the chief deity of above the second rank because Heliopolis itself was neither a royal city nor even the birthplace During all this period we hear nothing of any powerful dynasty. the nome which contained the tomb of Osiris and it was in their reign that. . spread the worship of that god of that Osiris who. each of these gods began by being no more than some particular nome or city. overshadowed the ancient divinities of the soil but the final victory of Thebes under Ahmes I. Toum. 42. each of whom preserved. the statues and bas-reliefs. even after his fall.

^ we pre-eminence which was never menaced or find no Zeus. sis under the Roman emperors. still. whose godhead was in conceived from ccntur). No such ideal existed for them as that which the popular conscience and the genius of the national poets created in the lord of Olympus. the new capital of Amenophis IV. Theban have been Aten. conquered the first place dynasties. should be realized in the visible form. Horus and Hathor were the ascendant. which should be worthy of the him as the father of gods and men. .The Egyptian Religion and the of the brilliant Plastic Arts. the local deities of the district. Neither Thebes nor Sais could give birth of this great and popular laith to a Phidias . The Egyptian artist could find no such inspiration in a long succession of gods. in Under and I the later Ptolemies. to which the intelligence of the race had mounted bv slow defrrees. 1 James Darmesteter. no one of whom succeeded in concentrating supreme power in his hands. Under the Persians they returned to to Amen. good being. Ze Dieu supreme dans la Myihohgie iiido-europ'ccnne (in the Revue de V Histoire des Religions. a questioned. 69 His successor would no doubt had Tell-el-Amarna. enjoyed a less ephemeral existence but Thebes and Amen soon regained their supremacy. until at last it an ever larger and more in was defined all the famous hymn of Cleanthe as that " which croverned thinofs accordincr to law. Again. We no frod. the worship of the in of Philae became popular and was prolonged the sixth century of our era. the solar disc. and especially Neith. like that of the Hellenes. whose pre-eminence dates back to the remote origin Aryan race. to an artist who should feel himself spurred on by work of all previous generations to produce a masterpiece in which the highest religious conception.." We ha\-e pointed out how greatly the Greek artists profited by their efforts to endow in the piety of their countrymen with an image .to century purified spirit. and the worship which was there inaugurated. in the religious sentiments of the people. as to the protector who could give back the nation its former independence and power. when the Egyptian centre of gravity was transported to the Delta. . that island sanctuary until The movement from what we of the of religious thought in Egypt was very find different shall find in Greece. no Jupiter. i88o).

still to dispel a prejudice which in spite of recent discoveries belief in exists in some minds . In regard to this we must cite the famous passage of Plato ^ " Long ago they appear to have recognized the very principle of which we are now speaking that their young citizens must be habituated to forms and strains of virtue. of art are painted or moulded in the same forms that they had ten thousand years ago (this is literally true and no exaggeration) their ancient paintings and sculptures are not a whit the immobility of : — . - Ty)V avTTiv hi T€^'r)v aTrnpyaa-fj-iva. and exhibited patterns of them in their temples and no painter or artist is allowed to innovate upon them. and those of the Sait epoch still more should he have remarked upon the characteristics modern . 656. museums and in the Description. very ancient one. before embarking upon the study of Egyptian architecture. . T/ia/ Egyptian that its Art did not escape the Law of Change. D. works which dated from the finest periods of the Theban dynasties. but are made with just the same skill. although the still more ancient monuments which now form the glory of the Boulak Museum were not yet discovered he might have perceived and pointed out the difference between the statues of Ousourtesen. E. in the Parisian attention to Egypt. The Greeks were the first to make it. vol. [Wc have quoted from Professor Jowett's English version. and they transmitted their error to us. Thothmes. etc. and painting. Laws. and History may therefore be written. v. we mean.] . Raoul-Rochette turned his He had before his eyes. To this day no alteration is allowed. sculpture. p. These they fixed. Ed. either in these And you will find that their works arts or in music. at all. first lecture at the Bibliotheque Royale. the This mistake is a Egyptian art. It may be well. We need not go back to the archaeologists of the last century. or to leave the traditional forms and invent new ones. whose credulity is to be accounted for by their lack of In 1S28 in his materials for the formation of a better judgment. 226. — — better or worse than the work of to-day. and Rameses on the one hand." This strange assertion was long accepted without question even in times. de I Egypte. § 6.— A — yo History of Art in Anxtent Egytt.

in a word. Thothmes. should remain for more than forty centuries unaffected by the law of continual. monotony of the And yet Egypt had periods of grandeur and decadence more marked than those of other countries. Renan loves'-^ to represent ancient Egypt as a sort of China. . 8\o. however. Now period that we are enabled to contrast the statues of the Ptolemaic with those of the pyramid . immovable. What he did say. walled in and fortified against the exterior world." ^ . we find nothing surprising in Mariette's language but even before these means of study were open to us. builders." We even find sentences utterly devoid of meaning. Its art was not so stationary as to prevent us from writing its history. The influence of Egypt was felt from Mesopotamia to the equator. it had its sudden moments of brilliancy and its epochs of eclipse. 10. He looks upon the country as a great plain. Marriette protests in the following almost indignant terms against certain utterances of M. green indeed and fertile. art were both superficial and false. This critic's ideas upon Egyptian 1829. M. " The fundamental of Egyptian 1865.Change Observable in Egyptian Art. such principle instance. pp. art was the absence of art. was no Chinaman." he says. i. i. old even in its infancy. change ? Coi/rs tfAri/uvwgie. even ' if almost insensible. " never attempted any as. monuments themselves to tell the truth. Was it likely. for realistic imitation. 11. but without accidents of contour to break the landscape. Egypt perished because in attacking foreign nations she provoked a reaction which was fatal to her. \ol." (p. 12. was it possible.) - ^ See the Rente des Deux Mondes of April Voyage dans la Haute Egypte." no longer be upheld. " Egyptian art. 71 those which were erected under the which distinguish the monuments of independent Egypt from Ptolemies and the Roman emperors. to those monuments which were best known and understood. Renan which seemed to him to imply the Such crude notions as this can same doctrine. and say with consummate : confidence was " From the first of the Pharaohs to the last of the ^ Ptolemies. that such a people as that which created these monuments. Her civilization went through all the different phases it went through many complete transformations. criticism should have cast more than doubt upon the assertions of Plato it should have appealed from a theory which was at variance with all historical analogies to the . the art of t^gypt never varied. " M. and arrived by a single spring at a degree of civilization which it never surpassed.

How. to borrow one of the favourite . and varied. eyes cannot perceive any but yet it movement in the small hand of a watch. fashion as that which marks the seconds. beautiful. but with a different general These full character. following one upon the other. although their evolution they are more conservative. does not enter into our purview and as for Egypt. as we have said. vaders ? May we not believe that through the clouds which obscure the causes of such changes we may catch glimpses of those periods of decadence and renascence which. . have we thus to place Egypt and China apart from There are. In the cases of both those countries there is a certain illusion. it is there . which are not well be explained by our ignorance. the details of the most varied landscape become obliterated or confused waste land and smiling fields are blended together hollows and hillocks lose the vioour of their contours. man is not expressions of German decomcs. it is true. their artistic and literary For one who is too far off or very short-sighted development. for History can admit no exception to to this law either is China or Egypt. . as elsewhere. and the monuments which have been discovered insist upon the same truth. . then. We enough acquainted with them to grasp the different political and social. can we doubt that here. For certain epochs these are very abundant. upon the whole surface of our planet. of periods of conquest and expansion and epochs of civil war or of defeat by foreign inperiods of their . there were alternations of grandeur and poverty. to use the modern phrase. contrasts and temporary eclipses occur again and again.72 A What right History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Afterwards they become rare and clumsy. some peoples who are the rest of humanity ? more attached than others to traditional customs and ancient institutions . But. China. or altogether wanting and again they reappear in great numbers and in their nobilitj'. The narratives of the Greek historians give us reason to suspect that it was so. our is a slower process. . exhausted in the end the genius of the race ? Let us take a single example the most striking of all. does move exactly in the same. and compel us to accept it. philosophy. Upon the banks of the Peiho as upon those he of the Nile. " After the sixth dynasty all documents cease they are absoluteh' — . the deeper we penetrate into her history the more are we convinced that her long career was troubled by moments of crisis similar to those which have come to other human societies.

in limestone. This is one of those sudden interruptions in the history ot EtTypt which may be compared to the temporary disappearance of those curious rivers which run pardy underground. 1877). we do hving as long after our nineteenth century as epochs of Memphite and Theban supremacy in Egypt. they will perhaps after the ' When M. C/iez ks Phanwm {Rnue des D<ux ]\foi!dfs o\ Jan. L . come to treat the history of the past. Melchoir de Vogue. I."^ Fig. /J wanting until tlie eleventli. Drawn by Bomgoin. historians. 47.Change Observable in Egyptian Art. — Statue from the Ancient Empire. Boulak. the first of tlie Middle Empire. VOL. 15.

will find similar literary the same judicial nomenclature. in a vague fashion. or that of America. The Roman civilization Roman sixteenth centuries . . and standards of same tenns for the same titles for kings and habits the . |iga£' l'"iO. and an apparent recoil of civilization but memory and imagination will leap without effort over the gap. there were great movements among the nations. — Woman k IK ading dough. seem to touch Statuette from the Ancient Empire. and republic. They will perceive that Europe.iwn by Bourgoin. that between the fall of Rome and the discovery of printing. over that period which we call the Middle Ages. we had a new religion and new inventions.[5? D ^ p ^ %ly^^^^M5^_ZZ/ in limestone. manners. -^I'wii^' :. and in Christian and Rome. government will seem to them continuations of those of Greece In that which we call antiquity. laws. monarchy. fall look upon the ages which rolled away between the of Graeco- and the revival of learning in the fifteenth and as no longer than that which divided the ancient from tlie middle empire of Egypt. In the distant future men will know. 4S.71 A History of Art in Ancient Egvpt. or the latter from the dynasties of Thebes. they criticism. Dr. empire. empire will our modern civilization. and forms of of the differences. but they will take more account of the resemblances than Our languages. and many of the differences which strike us so strongly will be imperceptible.

structed no buildings like the its greater pyramids. created in either of those are periods with as well those of the as Sait epoch. fusion like those which the reigns Trajan Charlemagne. cultivated eye has no need to run to inscriptions to enable it to distinguish Flo. and underwent periods of conovertook the nations of the West between and and and had as upon her the same influence upon them. Wars action the reaction of civilization. Bjulak. had her great convulsions like the rest of the us who among them world. — The Scribe Cliaphre.Change Observable Ctesars. between works of the ancient and of the middle empire nor will it confound works . caused their plastic expression to pass through in taste a series of changes and style. To they seem distinct enough. /3 These are different civilizations are like star clusters. in Egyptian Art. but temples were larger and their more magnificent than any of predecessors. invasions. 49. Egypt. tomb is of the The Theban time of Rameses very different from that of Memphis and the ancient empire the new empire con. but to generations which are divided from them by a vast space of time they will seem to form but one nebulous body. them for themselves . in transforming her sentiments and ideas. The differences almost school marked or those ot which enable Phidias from archai-ologists to distinguish a torso of the time one of it the will of Praxiteles Lysippus. Limestone. She met with of disasters. and. Fifth dynasty. These but differences be our our readers may perhaps discover duty to describe hereafter. It A was the same with sculpture. then.

and Ousourtesen Rameses. to reconquer the indepen- But dence which had been destroyed by the successor of Cyrus. moment was at hand when even these intermittent struggles . by Plato. Language had well as art. visited Egypt too form a Plato's still —The late in its history to Lady Nai. to then. which are arranged chronological order. In time the Egyptians were trymg by the violent but spasmodic efforts. and in Among the works executed for sculpture Rameses II. to this examine the in illustrations chapter.. tion its dialects as The pronuncia- of Lower of a Upper and that of Eg)pt was quite letters. true judgment. The The Greeks Fio Jo.76 if A they History of Art in Anxient Egvpt. local variety as well as that of different periods. except in the case few In the same way different had distinct schools of ture cities sculp- which were distinguished from one another by their traditional methods of conception and Neither under execution. in in nor art the under same the cities of the Thebes. Variety is universal in Egypt.-itue from the 19th or 20th dynasty. had character Delta. those of Abydos were more elegant and refined than those of Thebes. are we to explain the error committed and by him transposterity is ? mitted explanation easy. How. Wooden st. dissimilar. Louvre. painting. in Memphis.

gyptians would. but watching her opportunity to cast the hordes of Asia own weakness. the t. to finally 77 be abandoned. The Greeks would be better masters than their rivals from Persia. energetic especially the to second. Ill obeyed as he was. The conquest of Egypt was begun by the Ionian soldiers and merchants who were introduced into the Nile valley by Psemethek it was bloodlessly completed by the arms of . The independence of the country was maintained by the dearly bought services of Spartan and Athenian mercenaries. by any remote chance. And enterprise. Twice already had Persia crushed Egyptian revolts. as mercenary officers. but of these simultaneous undertakings uncertainty itself seem of to sense vanishing" activity power. the arts. From them instruction. devoted themselves with ardour to Philee. the language. the mythology of Greece. as travellers eager for Alexander. such as the Buildings signed with their name an are to temple at be found all Egypt a . but none the more remediable. The latter posed as disciples before the priests of Memphis and Heliopolis. and she was. a its feverish seeking to deceive and Nothing could be more precarious than the political conditions under which this activity was displayed. the literature. but the decadence had commenced Plato. the restoration of the ancient buildings of the country the construction of new ones. and freely expressed a warmth of admiration which could not fail to Hatter the national vanity. For three centuries the Egyptians had been accustomed to see the Greeks freely coming and going among them as merchants. . perhaps. and they were succumb to sovereigns of foreign blocd. the Persians should fail in their another and a graver danger would menace the Egyptian monarchy from the rapid growth of the Greek power if. the to morrow. Their still brilliant civilization might deceive a passing stranger. upon the unhappy country the " for a third time.Change Observable were to in Egyptian Art. obtain good administration and com- . Since the period of the Persian wars. — a decadence slow indeed. at least. Some more and over betray hide years after the visit of the two Nectanebos. in the Mediterranean. had spread with great rapidity and the moment might be foreseen when a supremacy founded upon intellectual worth would be confirmed by military triumph and the creation of a vast Hellenic empire. Great King " could always find troops to take part in the spoiling of a country whose riches had proved so inexhaustible.

She thus recovered confidence in herself and in her future. and . the race had conceived in its last moments of original thought.A plete History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. and the best that could be hoped fashion. and a period Under the Salt princes. and making everywhere felt the superiority of a people the fall of Jerusalem who by appropriating the useful results obtained in a long succession of centuries by more ancient races. penetrating into all parts. Thus Egypt gradually fell into the hands of strangers after the commencement of the fourth century before Christ. under the Psemethcks and Nekau. Ethiopians. or even hindrance to. numbers of the Phoenicians had established themselves in after Great it.Samaria. the shall we intervals . many Jews followed Finally. the national . the Greeks came in by thousands through their example. and the hands of her artists were so well practised. her power She existed on through the centuof rising again after calamity. Her population ries by mere force of habit. carious repose which characterized the Persian domination. established by so long a course of development. ensued which had an art of its own with distinctive features which of preIn the endeavour to trace. become wealthier. freedom in the exercise of their religion in return for their The Greeks \vere clear-sighted enough to understand their taxes. like youths before an old man. under Apries and Amasis. strono-er. and. Assyrians and Persians had by turns overrun the country. that the social conditions of the country could not be changed in a day The teachings of her religion had been or even in a century. in a machine like and instinctive Imagination was dead. and her Institutions were so solid. they were too much of connoisseurs to fail in respect form of civilization whose j^rodigious antiquity they divined. or a i^arvenu before the descendant of a long line of kings. but she lived no more. the breaches which their predecessors had made. Thus Egypt lost her power of national rejuvenation. and before which the most eminent among them were ever inclined to bow. was so homoeeneous. for was the faithful repetition of those forms which the genius of had. Egypt was delivered from her enemies and again became mistress of Syria and of the Island of Cyprus. religion to a . and better instructed than any of their forerunners. own interests they were too philosophical and large minded for any fanatical persecution of. that the monumental types which had been created in more fertile periods of her history were reproduced until a late date.

79 Egyptians had leisure neither dynasty. Nature was no longer studied or cared knew that the human figure should be divided into so many They knew that in the representation of this or that god was necessarv .ih-ali-ia. Oii. Louvre. great technical skill. the monuments intercourse a of the twenty-sixth Art became a mere collection of technical precepts. Cuey granite. height 37 inches. kept transmitted practice.K IX EgVI'TIAX ArT. 51.— ClIANGK OliSERVAI'. ty. l»ut displaying no sincere for. to invent nor to improve. and personal feeling Artists parts. perhaps. in it together and instruction the of the studio. implying. by and became mere matter of routine Flc. a certain attitude or attribute and thev carved the .I. They copied. 26th ilyna. as well as they could.

One will devote himself to the beauty of form. The sculptors whom that historian saw at work in Memphis and Thebes. And these varieties become still more marked when periods we compare the arts of difterent races or of different of Egypt with that of Assyria or Greece. to are call formed. although his contemporary and fellow-countryman. of these groups professes to make a fresh reference interpret her works ' more i. accounted for by life the fact that their creators look upon the external facts of through a the glass. with that of modern times. Thus Egyptian became conventional.8o staiues A art History of Art after in Ancient Egypt. So many centuries before their time. One will look at it in certain aspects and will bring out certain qualities. will leave in the obscurity of shadows. with the same eyes. during the reign of Augustus. art — the art antique On the other hand.xed it . We must here define the terms which we shall have occasion to employ. 8. the desires. the great resemblance which the arts of is a single time and country bear to each other. faithfully than its pre- Diodorus.^ Thought was no longer necessary to them. to successively which we Each nature. traditional it required of them the recipes. but it could not have begun with convention any more than the arts of other nations. which another. we may put it Thev brinsf to so. although its interpretations so various. was in the time of Diodorus. The due proportions and measurements had been ascertained and fi. the same races where art artists holds or either has held a lofty place. carved a statue as a modern mechanic would make the different parts of a machine they worked with a rapidity and an easy decision more characteristic of the precise workman than of the artist. 7. Let us take the example of the human figure. And yet among or those highly gifted same preoccupations. tinted with the colours of the their study of an eternal model same transient prejudices. Every work of art is an interpretation of nature. In the works of a single period and of a single people. 98. another to the accidents of colour or the expression of passion and thought. We admit that a day arrived when convention was supreme in Egyptian art. and so remained to the end. groups of simultaneously. schools. if national eenius. it is always full of striking similarity and yet two original artists never look at it . . But research must still precede discovery. are The original remains the same.

why M . many similarities. 52. art lives. be found satisfactory at points. I. and civilization to exhaustion takes its place. But sooner or later comes a time when moves. Fig. which are to be explained by There are also diversities which the indentity of race and belief. in the last days of reproductive strength and healthy maturity. however. (Chauipollion. a rich and brilliant school springs up. pi. and to in Egyptian Art. are caused either by different conditions or by the influence of some master spirit. typical forms 8i draw from them which shall be more expressive for of the real desires and sentiments of the public Between the works of these different schools.) Change Observable decessors. which it caters. Now. which it belongs becomes old and languid. If with the greatest vigour and by admirably selected means. Thebes. there are. such an interpretation VOL. — Sculptor at work upon nn arm. it often happens that just before this period of lassitude. and power ceases like the imperceptible sinking of a flood. this ardour comes to an end. iSo. and progresses. which interprets the its The creative characteristic sentiments of the civilization to which all it belongs. Wherever these schools spring up.

as Brahmanism eave birth to Buddhism. Every great period or school leaves to the generations that come after it types which have made a vivid impression upon taste and imagination. and their prestige Society can increases until it becomes little less than tyranny. The aim which they had in view was ever to restore. Such a revolution is not the work of a day. As often as a new dynasty of kings succeeded in driving out the foreign conqueror and in re-establishing the unity of the kingdom. indeed. its Thanks society was enabled to maintain the originality of Egyptian genius and the vitality of its institutions with unusual success. like its literature. ? should a better be sought for at the risk of choosing a worse This question those is it. After each period of internal commotion or foreign invasion. its art. civilization which for aees had been alone in the world. it was in . continually becomes more and more conventional. set of rules which will release the artist from his obligation of continual reference to nature. but a confession of impotence on the part of who ask From in that moment convention artificial and convention will the sense of an be supreme. but in none of their set themselves to variations did they give rise to a new religion. Art requires time As a nation thus to inclose itself in mere mechanical dexterity. the Egyptians renew the chain of their national traditions. in the establishment of Christianity.82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. In spite of the foreign elements which had been received among them. the great mass of the people remained the same down Heterogeneous constituents were to the latest days of antiquity. the invasion of the barbarians. The absorbed by the nation without leaving any apparent trace. and the fall of the Roman Empire. or by the infusion of new blood from without. religious thrall the expense of some great escape from its at only or philosophical revolution. a Enjoying a regime which was founded upon national pride. As time goes on these types become more numerous and more brilliant. in all its parts. grows old. so often was there a complete restoration. And these changes western civilization had to undergo in the early centuries of our era. and in successive acres varied sliehtlv in cjeneral colour. to the peculiar circumstances of the country. ideas which the people had formed for themselves of the ultimate destiny of humanity were developed.

set to which Egypt owed repair political themselves to had been destroyed.. and the assertion is Fit. (Champollion. respect its Thebes. iSo. Its gaze was turned backwards towards those early sovereigns who seemed transfigured by distance. 53.) equally true in to art. but whose presence in the memory kept alive the perpetual worship which had been vowed to them. — Sculptor carving n statue. in connection with politics and religion. pi. 83 its full and glorious past that Egyptian society found the ideal to which it clung in spite of all obstacles and misfortunes. and to replace upon their pedestals the statues of gods or ancestors which had been overthrown. the first idea of the artists employed was to study the ancient monuments and to try to equal thein. Every restoration is inspired by a more or less blind and This has often been asserted superstitious reverence for the past.Change Observablp: in Egyptian Art. Each of those dynasties restoration. As long as Egypt preserved her vitality. the wants of the present and external influences no doubt had their effect in introducine the temples which . When new temples and new statues were to be erected.

. It was necessary that all buildings and statues should be in harmony with the remains which subsisted from previous ages. had succeeded those of Praxiteles and Scopas. The Greeks found means to improve. upon perfection itself. the legacy of admitted principles and processes was continually increasing. but the temptation to borrow from them a point of departure. of the officiating priest. who were remarkable for docility and for dexterity of hand. for new attempts at progression. like one of those elaborate rituals which regulate every word. the weight of the past must have seemed heavier to those who attempted to revive the onward movement. the time arrived when convention was everything. The school in process of foundation accepted on trust the architectural disposition left by its predecessor.84 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. a school established in that Athens which yet possessed so many works of the archaic period. and of destruction to his When at last the decadence of the race had advanced so liberty. innovate. and in movement. was too strong to be resisted. On the one hand. both in the the modelHng. Ancient types were not servilely copied. or at least to Plato did not. To the school of Phidias. At that very time Greek art was progressing with a power and rapidity which has never been rivalled. a prestige and authority which placed them above discussion on the other. to transmit to their successors an assemblage of precepts and receipts which provided for every contingency and left no room for the exercise of fancy or discretion. schools of sculpture were nothing more than institutions for teaching pupils. it must have been conventional in a certain degree. until it became a source of embarrassment to the artist. arrangement of her buildings. and could not. because each new development had its own processes certain changes. . This conventionality must have increased at every fresh renascence. at least. far that all initiative power and independence of thought had disappeared. and expression of the statues which adorned them. and from this it resulted that each new creative effort began by imitating what had gone before. as well as its methods of looking at nature. ' ' to transmit to posterity as well as those of in the its ancestors. the more ancient of the traditional elements had acquired. the gesture. by their constant and often repeated transmission. After each recoil or pause progress of art. from its first moment. And this is equivalent to saying that. and even When Plato visited Egypt.

style. if he had seen them at all. these differences. (Champollion. perhaps. such namely. in in Egyptian Art. We are now in a better position to estimate Monuments have been brought before our eyes . works which . that they were quite distinct from the works which the sculptors of did see. 85 that his hasty journey through the Egyptian they too had seen their periods of change.) walls or in the depths of sepulchral pits. Thebes. less marked. and certainly practised observer. — Artist painting a statue. the statues of the ancient as Plato never saw empire which were hidden for so many ages in the thickness of Fig.Change Observable perceive. their difterent schools and developments of Greece. 54. cities. Even now these statues have not reached the age of ten attributed thousand years so persistently by the Greek philosopher to the early works which he seemed to him exactly the same as those which were being made in his presence. Plato could not have helped seeing. than those of but yet quite perceptible to the less rapid. pi. iSo. But although the statues of the early empire were then no more than some thirty centuries old.

every artistic career which follows its natural course and is not rudely broken through. But the time comes thinks that such con- when his this devotion choice is relaxed. The art of the pyramid builders. an art which possesses in a very high degree certain qualities for which the Egyptians have been too commonly refused credit. : different processes . always supposing that he looked at them with reasonable attention. in obedience to their it This teaching is not always rightly understood. which carry us in back farthest do not enable us to grasp. and their subjects had risen from their tombs. if they were in themselves an epitome of nature's infinite In the case of Egypt. or of a people. he has himself as produced types which he thenceforward takes pleasure in repeating. as we can the case of . is Success is then achieved. when the eye has become sure. But it is not discouraged it tries imitation very imperfect.86 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. contents of the Boulak museum. of a its first centuries. always begins by humble and sincere attempts to render what it Its awkwardness is at first extreme and its power of sees. ends sooner or in that which is technically called later in conventionality. is known to us chiefly through the excavations of Mariette and the But even before Cheops. taking its note of her answers and modifying teaching. But mannerism is never the beginning of art. Chefren. In devoting himself to the reproduction of certain features for which he has a marked preference. and the hand sufficiently well practised. now of another aspect of life . the historian might have divined by analogy. loyal effort is moment is in an artistic career which gives birth to real chefs d'ceiivre towards the end of that period. The artist stant reference to nature final is no longer required when he has made between the different methods which his art employs. for the faithful interpretation of any model whose beauty or original expression may have caught the fancy. but ever received with docility and good but the Every work which bears the marks of frank and interesting . it consults nature incessantly and humbly. school. it takes account now of one. always provided that the model never lost sight of or studied with anything short of passionate devotion. the essential charateristics of Egyptian art during Whether we speak of an individual. Nectanebo had in progress. even those discoveries diversity. and described by no very bold conjecture. Art viamicrisni. is work faith.

Fig. . — Isis nurhing Horus. 55. Height. Ptolemaic bronze . 19 inches. in the LouvTe.

.

period which. are to be found the Chephren. at the Universal Exhibitions of 1867 and . . some may say art of the too large a space. I. It will be found that a very large space in the present work. and that style was both indiThis style was vidual and original in an extraordinary degree. already formed. and reasons that may be easily divined. either by photography or otherwise. at the Boulak museum. In the plastic acts and in poetry they had their own style. the . monuments from the Memphite period are Thanks to Mariette and Lepsius. The Egyptian people had already lived so long and worked so hard that they could not free their work from certain common and irrepressible characteristics. namely. MM. It is there that the masterpieces of an art whose very existence was unsuspected by Champollion. the two statues from Meidoum. but it is in Egypt itself. in the case of other countries. first 89 attempts at plastic expression. This early art is much less known than that of the While the great museums of Europe are filled with statues and reliefs from Thebes. contemporary with the Theban and Sait dynasties. the first of the Memphite Period. that any detailed study must be made. Bourgoin and Benedite. § 7. is ancient empire. the bas-reliefs from the tomb of Ti. They have rendered with fidelity and sincerity more than one object which had never . course. selected by him the means of brineinc them to lieht and who had been mourn. but it was not yet robbed of its vitality by indolent content or petrified by mannerism it had neither renounced its freedom nor said its last word. at least. or. 1878. and many others of similar style and value. call we archaic . rude efforts of the modeller or painter but they carry us to the end of that and above all they transport us into the centre of the epoch which was to Egypt what the fifth century was to Greece. Paris still rare out of Egypt. A few specimens of these treasures. before been reproduced. but whom we now X were seen VOL. and Berlin are not without remarkable examples of the art in question. and of the limits of our inquiry. These figures have been drawn for our readers by two skilful artists. Of tlic place held in this zuoi'/c by the iiuvuiiiienls of Ihe Jllcniphile period.The Monuments Greece. We devoted to the pre-conventional had reasons for taking such a later epochs. the age of perfection.

provided far as it it be correct so goes. all with rare exceptions they belong to one category. Eugene and enMelchior de Vogiie and lifelike . historic development.90 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 56. which will bring us down to the Persian . is but his task rendered much easier when in he is able to point to existing is monuments great in support of his certainty contention. of his itself. that of works relating to They also have a death and burial. critical and his pleasure methods borne its seeing the as if of and Egyptian art replacing own motion. modest dimensions. 460. The others have done something to arouse the attention of connoiseurs but in such a matter the slightest sketch. These reflections would by themselves corporate in all justify our efforts to in- our pages. The of monuments numerous of the ancient empire less those . The art of the early dynasties has thus been practically ignored by those who have never thusiastic Egypt. by Bourgoin. Sketched Fig. — our protestations. they soon returned to Cairo. descriptions of M. See also Fig. the Theban and comparatively Salt dynasties they are of and. is of more value. and western archseologists had but slight opportunity to become acquainted with visited their characteristics. and to give tangible justification Chephren. reproductions of the more important objects with which at the necropolis at the museum Boulak Memphis has enriched but we were . then. than the most picturesque or eloquent writing. They enable special interest of their own. will treat of the remains of early Egyptian art at a length which would seem at first sight out of due proportion to their number. as a definition of style. This volume. impelled extant are by other motives than also. but later ages will also be represented by a series of monuments. against a which dates back to a remote antiquity even if all evidence had perished the critic would have no great difficulty in casting doubt upon assertions which for prejudice . us to protest. were in themselves extremely improbable. under the normal conditions of out.

and one monument only differed from another in the amount of care and manual dexterity bestowed upon it. Limits of our Inquiry. Whatever had to be done. and painting we can abandoned itself to mere copying. 91 This limit will hardly be over-passed in our choice of for examples for study. but those changes were of no very great In sculpture importance and were mostly in matters of detail. onwards. indeed introduced certain do not seem to have been borrowed from previous buildings. that Egypt was opened to the Greeks in the time of the Salt princes. that at the latter period the evolution of Egyptian it was complete. The art first is. it the resources of a great empire. with his wife and son. there w'as constant communication between Ionia and the cities of easily see that it . Our second reason is this.- —Ti. to the repetition of a lesson learnt by rote. was done in accordance with fixed tradition. From the year 650 B. 57. architectural changes w^hich Fig. and that two reasons.The conquest.C. slave to its a all own had created all that it could and had become Disposing under the Ptolemies of past.

and even perpetuate itself. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.92 the Delta. particular detail which we shall go to them for examples when any we desire to mention has not been preserved shall require to monuments. Now and then speak of the Ptolemaic remains of Egyptian art. . their transmission had come to an end before the Persian conquest. her religious conceptions and their visible symbols upon Even then the art of Egypt could dethe whole eastern world. fend. we must start from Memphis and go through Babylon and Nineveh. her literature. in the first textiles. zation. state of things was reversed Greece imposed her language. it was during the second half of the seventh century and the first half of the sixth. Thus if we wish thoroughly to understand Greece. Greeks. By the end of the sixth century. Egyptian art will be followed by us down to the moment in which it lost its creative We shall rarely have occasion to force and with it its prestige. and made them the foundation for a productiveness in which are summarized all the useful labours of antiquity. either before the time of Psemethek. after passing through the varied media of Chaldeea. As for the indirect borrowings of forms and motives which Greece received from Egypt through the Phoenicians. immediately or through the imitative powers of the Syrian manufacturers. by the power of custom and of a tradition which had been handed down through so many centuries. it had become so original and so skilful in the management of its selected methods of expression that it could not have been very After the Persian wars such inreceptive to foreign influences. any time Greek art borrowed directly from that of Egypt. and Egypt will Sidon. and vases of clay or metal. the earliest of civilinication. Tyre and But Greece will be the aim of our voyage. fell upon the Hellenic isles as refracted rays. jewels. fluences . interest us less on her own account than on account of that unique and unrivalled people who inherited her inventions and discoveries. even Egypt was represented. If at In the Ptolemaic era the would be still more powerless. Assyria or Phoenicia. but even then we for believing that such detail ior us by earlier have good reasons did in fact originate in the creative periods of the national history. carried by the Sidonian merchants to the savage ancestors of the In this roundabout manner she had probably more influence over Greece than in their periods of more direct commuThe rays kindled upon her hearth. but the day was past when it could provoke imitation.

but no remains have yet been discovered. not even yet been 93 entirely Eg)q3t of the Pharaohs has explored. directed excavations may bring . and especially at Sais. to light temples which Herodotus so greatly admired but that and who knows to exist in the ? we may find in them more than one of those motives and arrangements which at present are only known buildings of the Ptolemies and of the Roman emperors .The The Limits of our Inquiry. perhaps. Are we to believe that the splendid edifices reared in the cities of the Delta. by the twenty-sixth are loth to think dynasty. well Some the day. have perished to the last stone that it ? We is so.

of Persia and Phoenicia. circumstantial description need. but describe singly the great buildings of fertility was prolonged not attempt to shall Egypt and Assyria.— CHAPTER PRINCIPLES II. No monograph we shall found. s Method to be Employed by its in our Study of this Architecture. No such as our minute inquiries have presented them to us. and then give the general results of that study we must make ourselves thoroughly acquainted with all the phenomena. be looked for in these pages even in the case of the most important and famous buildings of Egypt. AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. those of the nations by whose teachings she profited. as such an attempt would perhaps cause us to lose sight of the main object of our work. While limiting our study in the fashion which has been described. which it borrowed from other We we must pass in review the whole artistic production of several great nations who occupied a vast surface of the globe. and whose throueh a lone course of centuries. . therefore. Our task is no easy one. We greatest possible care to our study of the details in question. the study of oriental In the enterprise which art is we have undertaken but an introduction to that of Greece. but must confine our exposition to the general laws which governed them. but upon any tomb or temple will be ourselves have examined many tombs and . we must not fail to extend our purview to every fact which may help to justify the comparison which we propose to institute between the arts of Greece and There is the must devote but one road to success in this double task. its Without an attentive examination of original elements in remains we should be unable to distinguish the the work of the Greek genius from those nations. I.

thus include in a single chapter all that relates to principal or loftily accessory openings. but we shall not give any descriptions or illustrations of those works individually we shall ideal restoration merely use them for an of the characteristic tombhouse of the ancient empire. 95 we shall. The papers. have taken them to pieces. (i vol. it is Arthus Bertrand. which remained there cgyptien d'apiis les till 1845).). The test published after the death of Prisse. perienced of egyptologists. We may. to speak figuratively. of the constructive processes employed by the Egyptians. and of the modifications enforced by the decorative forms of which they made use. from the contributions of Prisse. or by special wants. In another chapter and its capital we shall describe the variations produced by time and materials upon its proportions and its entasis. but only for the sake of giving firm definition to the type and to its main variations.Our Method temples . . by ancient tradition. in 1880. We shall ^ . : collections should be made as soon as possible. Thus. z vols. make a more particular reference to one or two sepulchres which are in unusually good preservation. of the Bibliotheque Nationale when they are classified and published we shall probably find among them several interesting documents we have only been able hurriedly to look through them. that not always easy to distinguish what belongs to the editor. of the general aspect of their buildings. In this matter our only Denkmakr Egypt Histoire de aus ^gypieii und ^thiopien (from drawings of the expedition sent into '- in 1842. and further researches have been made on the spot expressly for the present work. and with the changes which those conceptions underwent in the course of centuries. 1878. 12 vols. sketches. We shall be enabled to see how far those forms were decided by natural conditions. Temps plus recuies jusqiia la Domination romaine. perhaps. Berlin. By this analytical method of treatment we shall be enabled to give an account. which shall be at once accurate and not too long. in the Study of this Architecture. Each assertion will be justified by shall we discuss the column reference to characteristic 1 examples. when the illustrations to this work were already prepared. jMarchandon de of the most practical and exand drawings left by Prisse became the property. M. VArt Monuments Paris. for example. les no date. . It is desirable that a complete inventory of these la Faye. has this great inconvenience. 4to. we have explored the pages of Lepsius and Prisse d'Avennes ' for information relating to the sepulchres of the first six dynasties. to those placed windows which were calculated to give so little light. for this purpose. who was one . to doors and their construction. and by means of the knowledge acquired we shall endeavour to make our readers acquainted with the notions of the Egyptians upon sepulchral and religious architecture. depuis les folio.

in the case of square buildings ridge in those which are oblong in plan (Fig. in The external forms of Egyptian edifices other words. are pyramieioid .^ 1 A square building will sometimes end in a ridge. Thus in if we prolong these surfaces vertically we find that they unite at last (Fig. dedicated to his Majesty. In order to avoid repetition and to put before the reader ideas which he will have no difficulty in assimilating. a difficulty of choice richesse. by Charles Villeroi. Athens. and make their originality indisputable. We shall do the same for Assyria and Chaldaea. § 2. of the nationalities which are to be considered in our history. by the nature of the climate. and a in a point. 1842. we shall push our among Before we work of analysis and generalization farther still. . accidental variations as may be found in details of plan or ornament the arts . or Lois gi'iicrahs de Pl/iilinaisoii dcs Cohvines dans la Construction des Temples grecs de r Atitiqiiitc. for Persia and Phoenicia. the outward surfaces of their walls affect the form of a trapezium. but in all those to be which have similar aims and are constructed of Such elements are above and outside such the same materials. embark upon the study of any special class of buildings we shall endeavour to define the general and unchanging characteristics of Egyptian architecture as a whole characteristics which were fixed by the idiosyncracy of the race. . in They will each refer to some essential to element found the national architecture. except that the illustrations will partake of the generalized and abstract character of the text which they accom- pany. the vast number of remains still existing of ancient Egypt from the time of Menes to that of the Persian conquest. 59). by its beliefs and social customs. Otho I. 58). some element which is is not peculiar to any one edifice more than another.. they form part of the substantial inner constitution of of Egypt and Chaklrea. These theoretical chapters will be illustrated in the same fashion as the others. for each. and of the materials of which the architect could dispose.96 difficulty A will History of Art be an einbarras cie in Ancient Egypt. indeed. — General Priueiples of Form. 8vo. engineer. In most cases they will be simple diagrams composed for the express purpose of illustrating the definitions or descriptions to which they belong.

however.itkI oblong building. I-'IG. 97 in its when the principal facade and the corresponding one rear are vertical. and length and depth rather than in height. the pylons afford exceptions. 59 — Ktctaugular .inclined. Between these aspects VOL I. the contrasts of hill and plain. which we find in a proximity of the sea. as. tend to develop in lines. in Upper and Middle Egypt the lazy river is accompained throughout its journey from south to north by two long chains of hills. are here ( . Lower Egypt is a verdant plain. The unforeseen and sudden variations. Horizontal lines piedominate over inclined or vertical buildings. the other two being. arete. FlG. the Arab chain and the Libyan. unknown. whose summits form an almost unbroken line. intersected by canals. 58. it There no necessity away from the immediate Moreover. hardly ever rains in Egypt. therefore. for sloping roofs. and stretchinc^ from the sea to the desert. The w'as terminations of their edifices were also horizontal.) General Principles of Form. To this general rule. the natural conformation of the country had its influence upon the creations of its inhabitants. — Square building. mountainous country like Greece.

mais grand par sa simplicite' meme et par sa monotonie.^ The pecuHar its character of Egyptian architecture is owing to laternal extension. is architecture which peculiar to itself. Ch. pier. size of the Wall. are short To add ance of solidity the relative base increased by that tendency towards is to be found in every Egyptian building. imprinient a apaise le la nature un caractere de tranquillite qui assoupit 1' invagination et qui les varietes coeur. notre plaiser se borne k regarder un paysage simple. and to those wide-spreading bases and foundations which suggest the incHnation of the superincumbent walls. . In looking at one of these buildings. and column. qui viennent rompre de distance en distance la vaste uniformity de la se reproduisent toujours les terre egyptienne memes. taken moment. Granimaire des Arts all — dii Dessin (book teristic ch. 60. is its that limited by its essential to forms. of nature and the works of man which they enframe.). The pyramids of Memphis. infinite we feel that it is capable of dimensions. Similar notions are expressed by i. viii.. These characteristics give a look of sturdy power Egyptian ^: '^ Fir. Ces lignes planes qui s'allongent et se prolongent sans fin.^ is Egyptian landscape la well characterised in these lines of {\)." [We have refrained from translating this piece of word painting. Blanc in his is En. from the Voyage de Haute Egypte 116): "Pour le M.J 98 A History of Art in AnciExVt Egytt. lest - its suggestive rhythm should vanish in the process. " The wide-spreading base and thick is the distinguishing charac- of the Egyptian monuments. set. stand upon enormous . the constructive to this appear- members of Egyptian the pyramid which architecture.above the necropolis of Thebes. Blaxc. extension horizontally. and that but one of of height. et qui s'interrompent un instant pour reprendre encore leur niveau et se continuer encore. Ch. monotone. Par une singularite peut-etre unique au monde. — The Libyan chain. one of them the greatest building upon earth. there is a striking general sympathy. and suggests an idea of unbounded 1 durability. M.

for instance. its is 233 metres along one side of its base. and this extension of their bases gives them an appearance of absolutely eternal durabilitj-." This illustration has been compiled in order ' to give a general idea of the more persistent characteristics of the Egyptian temple. and only 146 in to its height as 8 to 5. that of Egypt is prisonlike in its gloom size. windows play such an important part.. 99 is An appearance of incomparable gravit)-. by which we mean an alternation of voids and solids in certain well defined of the essential arrangements One Fig.— General PRiNciriES of Form. a covered ornamenting the exterior and providing way. is The pyramid of Cheops. even the for the most lofty. All Egyptian monuments.e. that of the portico. The bases. .^ proportions. in which arrangement. ot solemnity. 6i.]. height. . Egyptian architecture is shared by many other countries. are more remarkable ! ground they cover than for their height [except the monoliths Ed. and also by their Compared to our modern architecture. i.- — General appearance of an Egyptian Temple. in it consequence of its rare openings and their small presents more imposing walls of than any other style. also stamped upon it by the small number of openings ior the admission of light of which it makes use. or for dividing the halls of the interior and either for supporting their roofs. but. Their height base far less tlian their largest horizontal diameter. relation is architecture between voids one of the most is and vital solids in any style of characteristics.

following In the case of Egypt this relation gives rise to the remarks : I. 62).lOO A History of Art i?j Axciext Egypt. mwiwm . Supports of the same kind and of the same diameter may have very different heights in one and the same building (Fig.

C — Ramer^seum. and the entablatures which they support may differ greatlv in height (Fig. 6. may vary considerably (Fig..^yy>^^yy/. ii. The spaces. v. equal to IDT each other both in average diameter and in height (Fig. In Greek . ii. or voids. p!. ^^^ Fir. 65. 33 Fig. 2. 28. t.. pi. 65).) between cohimns of one size and similar design. 66. {Description de !' Jigypte. 1^ <. Thebes.) The of proportional combinations of these elements are such that distinguished from that which they cannot be methodically classified. and in this the architecture Egypt is we call classic.— From the second court of Me<liiiet-Abou. 66).-y'--//.General Principlks ok Form. Thebes.. C^y SH. {Description.i: - -y^?'^-'': '. 66). t.--/'^/-'A' £_^ Li.

termination and the upper extremity of the voids and points invariably inserted of support. was used with such freedom. that we may say that no canon existed. and gave rise to such varied proportions. 67). is This modulus is found in the diameter of the is column.^ is An architectural member. — The Egyptian Gorge or Cornice. all entablature. edifice had so it little dependence upon the modulus that we need and. there Fig. and the standard of proportion which called based upon it must a canon. the art of Eo-ypt was not mathematical. like that of Greece. The elementary forms of an Egyptian In Egypt. 6". and fixes a mutual and invariable inter- dependence. have been a certain connection between the diameter of a column and its height. It will suffice to quote the Royal Pavilion of Medinet Abou. but there was no approach to that rigid and immutable law which had its effect upon every detail of a Greek temple. the plain between this quadrangular architrave. The modulus. this sense.I02 A is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. which is crowned by a row of battlements. in Egyptian art. Egyptian buildings are crowned Finally. art there a vioduhis which determines the quantitative relation of forms to each other. an architrave and the moulding which by the same is called the Eo-yptian gorge (Fig. ' We know but one or two exceptions to this rule. as in other countries. . in not take into consideration.

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.

have been realised without such a material the Greeks could never have created that incomparable ensemble whose different parts are so . In studying a natural architecture and in attempting to assign reasons for to its particular characteristics. But although no material can narrowly confine a skilful architect. To give but a single example. nor the Greek temples. — Materials. neither the h}-po-style halls of Egypt and Persepolis. the)- attached themselves now to one and so gave much variety to the appearance of successive buildings under one skv and destined for principle. and the ardour of its none of these must be forgotten. — Materials. its . The its innate genius of the race. the chief of materials. ^ 3. now to another. or rather in marble. such as the Parthenon. and their decorative and expressive sculpture. many circumstances have be taken into consideration. the physical and moral conditions of development. could the typical temple. have here a problem whose data do not vary. In its aspirations towards the infinite and the eternal. alone. . we cannot go so far as to say their different properties absolutely determined in the characall . the Egyptian religion raised from the surface of the earth many buildings which varied as greatly in form and aspect as they did in The climatic conditions of the world have date and situation. there are. In stone. As that for the materials employed. the spirit of its religion. certain systems and constructions which are only possible with those which possess certain properties. nevertheless. the perfection of faith civilization. teristics of Egyptian building itself to advance. but some of them act in such a complex fashion that they are extremely difficult to follow. Stone. with their architraves resting upon widely spaced columns. General Principles of Construction. Without ever being absolutely incorrect.General Prixcitles of Construction'. could have been carried out in brick. and every nation has to take them into the first consideration in We deciding upon its own architectural forms and principles. with the coffered roofs of their porticos. similar uses. can brick and wood. too. and yet its solutions have not always been the same even in a single country. can lend forms of great variety in principle and so. changed but little since the beginning of the historic period.

by moulded terra cotta (Pig. the mouldings and carved invention or ^ . as in the temple of the Deus Rediculus. The result is sometimes pleasing enough. in which the richest decoration is in complete unity with the constructive forms which it accen- tuates and embellishes.^^ <^^^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ • -''^f «S so 75 I" at '^^ Fu. 1 From the work of the Abbe Ucgeri. . v. The joints between the bricks have' to be hidden under stucco. is a masterpiece of causes.l .). 68). .-. Brick could never have led to the employment of these forms... pi. at Milan..' ornaments of stone have to be replaced. „. entitled : Le Detail B'ltiinents dcs Matcriaiix dunt se scrvaiait In Anciiiis pour la Conslnntion de icms (Rome. Those who try to imitate them in any such material have to make up for its deficiencies by various ingenious devices. intimately allied one with another. 68. oblong folio..I04 A History of Art ix Ancient Euytt. especially by the surprise which it Santa Maria delle Grazie. — Capital and entablature of the temple of the Deus Rediculus Rome. i8oo.

The often materials made use of by the sandstone.'' Sandstone and limestone. Sandstone was chiefly obtained from two localities. is 105 ft. * The alabaster quarries of to-day are all in the Arab Chain. with a profound discord between form and matter as a result. at Thebes. in a more volume which intents is practically unlimited . is never having been completely detached from the rock in which nearly g6 ft.— General Principles of Construction. higli the Rameses II. is a monolith 55 liigh. especially the latter. is almost entirely calcareous. Egyptians were granite. to speak accurately. stratified rock hke limestone . to a depth or. the most important is the nature. less skilful artists have effects was the only material Ijut where Bramante They have demanded . 1} in. where the material more despotic. The Arab Chain it cities ^ The obelisk of Queen Hatasu. near Cairo.-'' The Egyptians ' also made use of both burnt and unburnt brick. from brick which it was unable to give.'" A softer stone. between thesoutlieni slopes of the mountain Mahsarali. if its character. . less We never forget this in the case of sculpture. Granite is is not a sedimentary. at Karnak.200 tons. Of all the causes which modiiy the forms of architecture and determine genius. I. we must begin by it judgment of the rules and principles of any appreciating and describing the materials of which disposes. in Upper Egypt. 8 in.] VOL. P high and 11 ft. Ed. was employed for lining. opposite the town of that name. on the left bank of the river. are used nearly everywhere granite is of less frequent occurrence and suggests an . the So. Djebel-Alimar. its — Materials. and weighing about 1. The most celebrated of these quarries is that at Mokattani. before we may say at a correct so. near Cairo. Near the sites of all the ancient shows numerous excavations bearing witness to the activity of tlie ancient builders. the dimensions of the stones which therefore infinite to all may be cut from these masses are and purposes. important observation. 5 in. The stone of which the body of the pyramids is composed was drawn from it. we can arrive style. Djebel-Silsili in and 3 Upper Egypt. diameter at its base. statue of ft. [The obelisk which still remains .and limestone. by Bramante 105 in the kind. it a material compacted in great masses. still should is still we do so in the case of architecture.^ namely alabaster. The only granite quarries that were worked in antiquity were those of Syene now - Assouan. and the sjirings of the Wadv Siout. succeeded. thanks to the skill and tact displayed management of the burnt clay which afforded him by the plains of Lombardy failed. upon the right bank of the Nile.. at Syenc. it was quarried. near Cairo. of the materials used.

except the palm.^ (Fig. as in the pylons. and sometimes for outward decoration. ^ 4. architraves. by which a third kind of construction. The separate stones are often bound together upon their horizontal surfaces by The blocks made use of in this form of construction are usually of large dimensions.imid. lined the on the exterior by laree ones which concealed meanness of the material behind them. The constructive elements which enter into the composition of this first class of buildings are stone and brick.) Various peculiarities of construction which are comparatively seldom met with will be noticed when we come to describe the monuments in which they are to be found. these elements are horizontal or vertical. sometimes in the construction. In the first place." that construction ihe elements of which are squared upon each face and put into close juxtaposition one with another. They are arranged in horizontal bands. compressed. dressed construction. dovetails or tenons of wood. In a few buildings of the latter class metal seems to have been employed.— io6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. called construction by assemblage. materials The employment what we may call of these different '' gave birth to is. was also made use of by the Egyptians. 70. as they cover the voids by horizontal superposition. Dressed Constrticiion. Again. Concrete or pise. The horizontal elements constitute the planes. in which the elementary units were held together by being introduced one into another. sometimes for lining. . but the Egyptians also made use flat of small stones or rubble. Architraves were stone beams used to bridge over the voids and 1 We find this construction in the so-called Temple of the Sphinx. were rare enough in the valley of the Nile. This material gave rise to what we may call compact construction. between moulds or caissons of woodwork. the Egyptians built also in wood. They consist of courses and The courses form the walls. although trees. was obtained. with vertical and sometimes sloping joints. near the Great Pvr.

the portico. Whenever the . lo: which latter was composed of long and heavy slabs. the interiors the material form of support a consequence of the employed. supports take various forms of developall ment which may logical be referred In to the type which we have defined. composed of many courses of stone one upon another. These vertical supports vary greatly in size. Upon exterior surfaces.Dressed Construction. Kn.. elements support the architraves and combine them one with another. is namely. 69. courses which in this case take the name of di-nnis. — The Egyptian "lioml. to support the covering of the building. Those of small or medium dimensions are monoliths others are The vertical .

however. or of the roof- ing stones. weight mere stronger than the The walls. — D. . affirm that the number invariably decided by the length of the architraves. -Some very long monoliths are supported at regular Figs. 70.^Elements of the portico. and this necessity springs every building of any importance.. 72. architraves. they must be made up in to rest upon intermediate supports . intervals. lest they should break with their own weight or with that put upon them. This very elementary combination fulfils all the re- quirements of circulation.io8 A History of Art in An'cient Egypt. is We cannot.. always far and vertical supports are of the roof would require.uble-fac^d us of that planting arrangewall. ment in our gardens which of supports we call a quincunx. stones which form the roof are too 'small to bridge over the whole of the space comprised within two walls. to such multiplied sometimes an extent that they remind Vu. The number of supports depends upon the number of rows of the flat stones which They are form the roof. 71.

There is no force tending to thrust the walls outwards nor to Consequently. has had results upon which we cannot too strongly insist. architraves complete system of construction which. Chipiez. Both roof and architraves being horizontal. there . These simple arrangements constitute a and roof. to say. fully affect the if immobility of the supports. that determined. — Eg)-pticin construction. all the pressure upon The following woodcut shows the Fig. sections. 73.Dressed Constructiox. belonging exclusively to Egypt. 109 arrangement of supports. disruption its equilibrium is and can only be destroyed . epitomized by Ch. the walls is vertical. the proportions of the vertical and horizontal is elements of a building. its have been skil- is in the building itself no latent cause of perfect.

the Eg}-ptian builders constructed their vaults after In spite of the facilities which they a method of their own. Works in brick form the transition between the construction that we have described and that which we call compact. however. in out-of-the-way corners of the building. as said the Pharaohs Stability.than those of stone or brick. external physical causes. cases the secondary parts of such edifices. and sometimes the whole of them. moreover. which is therefore enabled to dispense with those buttresses and other lateral supports which are necessary to give stability to the edifices of many other nations. A stone roof is not often found. " for monuments of Eg^'pt is confirmed and They are built. some of them of great antiquity. however. Although the use of monoliths for roofing purposes was general Egypt. to the weather. . being confined within such narrow limits. . in eternity. that is to say. . they are introduced chiefly and in the substructures This method of construction. afforded. by long exposure by earthquakes. . it must not be thought that the architects of that country were ignorant of the art of covering voids with materials of small There are numerous size. the true originality'. they were used in antique times. They were never used in the buildings to which greater importance was attached of ereat monumental combinations. which are of much less We are.neither did it give birth to any ot those accessory forms which spring from its use. This character is most stronMv marked in stone buildings. examples of Egj-ptian vaults. but a secondary role in the development of art. disposed to believe that durabihtj." a word. of the ancient monuments of Egypt possess such vaults. but it is by no means absent from those built of materials created by human industry. they played. and maintained bv in walls of a suflicient thickness. in its highest and most simple form is the distinguishing characteristic. that is to say. never resulted in Egyp: in an architectural system . of Egyptian architecture. of building vaults. are covered in by brick vaults. and the termination is In some generally a terrace in which wood is the chief element.'^ We see then that the first impression caused by the external lines of the architectural explained by further study. 2 We may here remark that the modest dwellings of the Egj-ptian fellah are often covered by vaults of None pise.The vertical support and the architrave form the two vital elements of an Egyptian building. of compressed and kneaded clay.no by A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. or by the hand of man. and. themselves.

in such a construction. sesrniental vault will be obtained this but appearance than will be no the more superficial. —Element arch. be cut into the line the void of a continuous arch curve. are turned to which has to be covered. 1 1 may be divided vaults into two great categories. vault will be in fact a false one. Off-set vaults. of an off-set the form of inverted steps. all the stones offer which enframe the void and to the eve the form . 74. according to the method of their construction. If the face of those stones which. because. in Fic. and with their faces hollowed segment of a circle. These off-set are composed of courses to the one from (Fig. the superficial appearance of a or barrel .74-) another. Egyptian vaults I.1 Dressed Coxstructiok.

sponding drawback. (Figs. When they are the units in of such vaults are properly proportioned stable themselves. 78. They are Fig. 76. composed of voussoirs. and 79.— I 12 A lateral History of Art are vertical.) their joints (Fig. and they have no lateral thrust. in Ancient Egypt.) very convenient because it units constructive of very small Fig. These 2. Centred vaults. But this advantage has a correThese voussoirs thrust one against another . and — Arrangement builder of voussoirs. Fig. are true vaults. "]]. radiate towards one centre or This method of construction enables the to utilize is more. 78. 77. whose lateral joints are oblique. 79. dimensions. — Semicircular vault. such as bricks. Vcussoir.

some of those at Beni Hassan have flat ceilings. combined. but the radiating arch never arrived at such a development in Eg)pt as to lead to the adoption of any contrivance specially charged with the maintenance of vaults in a state of proper rigidity. I. Such bricks. This material was used buildings which were homogeneous it was poured into a mould formed by planks.— Compact Construction. This function is fulfilled by the wall in Egyptian architecture. They are not stable in themand in order to give them stability they must be kept in place by surrounding them with opposing forces which will effectually prevent their setting up any movement in the structure of which they form a part. The fact that these sepulchral chambers affected the aspect of vaulted halls. from a burnt bricks did not differ essentially from bas-relief. Compact in CoiistnictioH. in a few instances. when placed one upon another after being imperfectly dried. of moulded clay mixed with chopped straw. the heaven of Amen. Q . under the influence of the weather and their own weight. heaven. call The methods employed permit the use. VOL. which is consequently very thick. can only be explained by the supposition that a similar construction was common in the dwellings of the living. But the material had little strength. pise. to signify the canopy of ranean work. . and was far inferior to those modern concretes which have the density and durability of the hardest stone. and unFig. The Egyptians not only employed the semicircular arch they made use. others have coves. § 5. in what we may compact constrnction in considerable quantities. into one homogeneous mass so that the separate courses became undistinguishThis latter fact has been frequently noticed in Assyria. ' Another explanation has been given of the employment of the vault in subter- Marietta believed the arch to be symbolic. — Granaries.' selves. by able. So. of the pointed form. 1 1 and tend towards disintegration. One objection to this is the fact that the vault was not universal in tombs . . and many of their underground buildings have roots cut out of the rock in the form of a segmental vault. The Egyptians do not seem to have been acquainted w'ith concrete proper. which was raised as the work progressed and the mixture dried.

of course. besides which. their paintings and reliefs often represent . Carpentry. to cut through the thickness of walls in the process of excavation. and the vault must be constructed over a centring If voids ~\. the Egyptians did not carry the use of Fig. which were never of any very great interest from an artistic point of view (Fig. wood have. played a considerable part in ancient Egypt. material far a enough system to form based complete upon it. Thebes. if only for the frequency of ancient and its use in Egypt. the arrangements which had characterised their work in wood . They made It is great use of it. in spite of their of their aspect and ot the principles of their construction. 81. 81). one of those self-supporting curves which we have described under the name of vaults. Those be understood. but only in a strictly limited fashion. and that voids were mostly covered with stone or wood. the people took pleasure in copying. as may easily of it are to be found in our day. artificial — Modern pigeon house. It deserved to be mentioned. could carry the art of construction to this point in pise. must be made use of.— 114 those A who had History of Art in Ancient Egypt. On the contrary. 80). we have use of good reason to believe that they generally made this material for the quiescent body of the edifice alone. But we have no evidence that the Egyptians of wood. in the private architecture of both (Fig. Coiistriution by Assemblage. In a word. in their stone buildings. but. but it modern times need not detain us longer. In the most ancient epoch of Egyptian art. few traces edifices which were con. only found in certain well-defined parts of buildings. § 6. have to be covered in pise. all perished we can form a very good idea but. or construction by assemblage. structed of disappearance.

82). In both Egypt and Greece still we often come upon a few columns surroundings. and are in that announcing to the traveller the which has been long destroyed. This process. heaviest beams of wood will not keep architraves. But even when thus put together. i i The constructive principles which we have next to which will enable us accuracy as if have thus left traces behind them them with almost as much the carpenters of Cheops and Rameses were working notice. to describe before our eyes. of course.Construction by Assemblage. As power a general principle. though not always made use of in practice. We than in need not insist upon the characteristics which distinguish assembled construction from masonry or brickwork. and held in place by mt^chanic'al contrivances. By such methods an open structure is up by successive additions. and it when wood has to be employed to the endowed with all the solidity and resisting capable. The wooden their places when simply laid one upon another. and these additions often take the form of what we call panels. thickness in comparison with matter far inferior to those well dressed stones which. such as bolts and nails. We may look upon the different faces of a wooden building as separate pieces of construction which should be put together upon the ground before being combined with each other. being far less dense than stone. building-s of the less durable material. of which best advantage. is at least the most logical method for those who wish to make the best use of their materials. have resisted change with neither tenons nor to help cement them. The different much more line intimately allied buildings constructed of large stones. parts of the former are. one of these single faces has not much more stability than each of its constituent filled obtained. fixed Supports of dressed perfectly stable stone truly with the plumb are of themselves. standing upright amid their site desolate and of some city or famous temple But wooden supports ha\'e little their height. and the material of formed. in so many ancient walls. they will never form a homogeneous and impenetrable mass like brick or stone. the voids of which have afterwards to be . cannot which they are It is the same with maintain itself in place by its own weight. the separate pieces must be intro- is But even when thus combined duced one into another (Fig.

ii6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.. All joints are there made at a right angle. They were probably led to reject oblique lines by their unwillingness to break in upon the simple harmony of vertical and horizontal lines .s. as they may be learnt in the representations to which we have already referred. This is one of the elementary rules of the carpenter's and to form an idea how it was applied in our own country it is enough to cast an eye over any of the wooden buildings of the middle ages or of the renaissance. art. The Egyptians were not ignorant of the advantages conferred by the use of these oblique members because they employed them frequently in their furniture but they seem never to have introduced them into the construction of . members. S2. faces It In order to form a rigid must be allied by reciprocal interpenetration was necessary to call attention once for all to these general shall hereafter characteristics of wooden construction. the several at the angles. — Elements of wooden construction. their building. characteristics offered by the material in Egypt. and stable whole. elements. it is necessary to make use of a certain number of oblique Fii. because we examine the forms and motives which stone have architecture borrowed from wood in the case of other people We must now determine the particular besides the Egyptians. When a wall has to be built of wood so as neither to warp nor occasion to give way.

which were thus brought into more intimate relation than would in these days be thought necessary. the distinguishing principle of all their Thus self-deprived of a valuable resource. fulfilled in the required cohesion and This requirement they thought they had exaggerating the jaoints of connection between the some other means of giving and horizontal members. more- over. empire. . judging from the imitations of assembled construction which have been found in the tombs and»sarcophagi of the ancient Fig. they were driven to the discovery of stability to their walls.^ The consequence of this was that their wooden buildings presented much the same closed appearance (Fig. 83) as vertical Fig.- we have already noticed in their stone constructions . 83. which is 117 architecture. But the Egyptians also made use of wood for buildings very 1 In this respect there is a striking resemblance between Egyptian carpentry (see and much of the joinery of the modern Japanese. Ed. as every joint was made at right angles. — Wooden building (first system\ composed by Charles Chipiez. the pyramidal form was entirely absent.— Construction by Assemblage. and. 2 In this figure we have attempted to give some notion of what a wooden building must have been like in ancient Egypt. 83).

Fig. — Wooden building (second system). by contrast. 84. composed hy Charles Chipiez. of one . was employed were generally of small which. Those but we have now to speak of another system. The edifices upon which it . were closed from those to which we have hitherto alluded. might be called an open system of construction.ii8 different A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.

84). know them only by the figured representations which have We come down were httle calculated to outlast the This second system lends itself as little as centuries (Fig. still less could they stand up against the combined weight and thrust of a stone or brick vault. We tions. horizontal or the vertical It may have furnished either the partly used for the roofs. such a building was This allied to the portico type which has already been described. to us. side by side with . but they were distinguished by a different system of carpentering. but yet it have been used only for subshould not be passed by in silence. § 7. size. contours and mouldings. for they . polychromatic ornamentation. Decoration. horizontal lines. method of carpentry seems ordinate buildings It . Metal must have entered into the construction of these pavilions. also. the first to pyramidal and kindred forms were in it of but secondary importance. Groups of figures borrowed from the animal and vegetable kingdoms form its chief constituents. either plain or curved. This may be described in a very few words. and that with no desire to accentuate. which their style of architecture placed at their disposal. have hitherto described Egyptian architecture according to the general character of its forms and principles of construction we must now attempt to give a true idea of its method of decoration. the great constructive lines. man is seen in every attitude or vocation. which would destroy them in very summary fashion.— Decoration. to was frequently used for the construction of light decorative pavilions. They overlaid with a rich system of colour the whole inside and outside of their buildings. nor with any wish to produce merely a complicated. 119 and in this respect resembled those which we have described. In these picture decora. members. For the decoration of the vast surfaces. the Egyptians made use of paint. and it is certain that it was In all wooden structures the roof must also be of wood. by a carefully balanced set of tones. because the light walls which are proper to the material could not support the great weight of a flat stone covering. Composed of a few vertical members bound together at the top. and it had a set of principles which are as susceptible of definition as those of the most ambitious architecture.

all other southern nations. which. and with those composite forms which have been created by himself to represent his gods. The second is the employment of colour for the representation of life. The plant whose whole season of bloom is . not satisfied to use colour to give force to the lines of a building and to increase its general effect .xplained. he also makes use of it to interpret. and quadrupeds. or the round shaft of a column. The first is the employment of colour to give variety to surfaces and to distinguish different members of the architecture by the opposition of tones. which is a matter of daily experience. of the pole than the rule which much laid brighter in colour when this it is to be found both in grows in the neighbourhood our temperate climate. by the quality and quantity of their daylight and the way in which it affected their visual organs. it From cornice to foundation. and of the petals of flowers. like a gorgeous tapestry. The more intense the light. may be in said that is some particular plant which France and Norway. of the Italians. It will thus be seen that Egyptian decoration is distinguished by the intimate and constant alliance of two elements which are often separated in that of other races. whether the The decorator is face of a wall.I20 birds. of the Greeks. A building thus ornamented presents us in its with a series of pictures embodied own constitution. Images and explanatory inscriptions are sometimes cut in the stone. upon wall and column. but apparent exception only confirms we have down. Intaglio and bas-relief often lend their help to the ornament. ' We here speak of the fauna as a whole.of Art in Ancient Egypt. but at present we are concerned only It is with the fact itself. become brighter and gaver in exact proportion as we near the equator and leave the pole ^ the same rule holds good . A fishes History. disregarding particular genera and It species. notorious that the colours of birds and butterflies. and to immortalize the ideas which float through his own brain. The and of polychromatic decoration of the Egyptians is to be e. sometimes modelled in slight relief. is covered with an unending series of wall paintings. the more pleasure does the eye receive from strength and variety of colour. like that of the Assyrians. to multiply. for which purpose every surface is seized upon. envelop and embellish it without hiding any of the details of its construction. The science of optics gives us an explanation of this fact. but in either case all figures are distinguished by their proper colour as well as by the carved or modelled outlines.

and southern sun . a column. tint which also serve to give force to wall paintings comprised between a late spring and an early autumn develops itself rapidly than with us. i 2 with the habitations of mankind. VOL. which become more brilliant in colour. for the absence of those strong shadows which Attention is drawn to elsewhere help to make contours visible. during the short sister. that cupolas p. ^ We borrow these expressions from M. in some desrree. at or those sunny rocks which reflect the light in I such a fashion that they fatigue the most accustomed eyes. with his clothes and furniture. much During those fleeting summers of the north. who. the nights are an hour long. Cape Sunium. He was not surprised by the discovery that the temples of classic Sicily were painted in brilliant tones. light it receives. as in natural science. notice here. he divined beforehand some of the discoveries of our century by the innate force of his genius. a minaret. hardly seem to be modelled as they stand against the depths of the sky. The amount of light which ^ This was perceived by Goethe.1 Decoration. and more audaciousl)Delicate abrupt in their transitions from one hue to another. a dome. frankest colour notes to the exclusion of all half-tint. All three The warm and varied hues with which seem almost flat. and to accentuate their different planes. 114). " conime ddvordes par la Under colour diffusion et la rdverbdratioii dune incoinpai'able liuiiic're." {Voyage de la Haute Egyph. the dominant and bounding lines of an architectural composition by contrasts of and bas-reliefs. whose strange charm has been so often described. with the blinded are imperceptible by an eye of difference shades it sees nothing but the simplest. They also compensate. strongest. unless that be the sky in Greece. R . In art. granting that it has become so hardened that resist much more it is able to the long and hard frosts of winter. objects of a neutral do not stand out against their background. 1876. is . was very much struck with this phenomenon. He was one of the first to accept the views of Hittorf and to proclaim that the architects who had found traces of colours upon the mouldings of Greek buildings were not deceiving themselves and others. more and sun than its French or German summer.^ a burning and never clouded sun. Ch. "'Those villages which approach in colour to that Nile mud of which they are composed. polychromatic decoration endows buildings help us to distinguish them in such situations from the ground upon which they stand. hardly stand out at itself all against the back- ground. Blanx. and their shadows lose a part of their value. therefore in exact proportion to the and not six or seven. when in Egypt. as I did and round towers have their modelling almost destroyed by the strong reflections. the sun hardly descends below the horizon colour of flowers they receive. which concealed the surface of their stone and accentuated the leading lines of their architecture. I." - In Egypt. and.

) As for buildings of limestone or sandstone. ii. . round shaft of the column. but the hieroglyphs. The Egyptian habit of sprinkling figures over every surface without regard to its shape." It had been left slightly rough. especially w'here sandstone or limestone was used. During 1878. preserved the colour and surface of the {Itineraire. separated one from another by a narrow fillet which indicated the plane upon which the groups of figures had a footing. which had their beds most care- fully polished. they spread over every surface and pay no attention to the joints and other structural accidents by which they are seamed (Fig. but that country was the first to employ it upon rich and vast undertakings. vol. 85 and PL III. was so on the obelisk of Hatasu at Thebes . these figures were multiplied and developed to an extent which was limited only by the length of the wall or the height of the column. or those of the mass to Upon the which it belonged. even upon the beautiful {Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians..122 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. p. like the temples of Thebes. and she carried it to its logical conclusion with a boldness which was quite unique. Polychromy structural thus a help to our eyes in those countries where a blinding light would otherwise prevent us from appreciating the by no means peculiar to Egypt. 178.) his long sojourn in Egypt he examined the remains of the ancient civilisation with great care and patience. "The plain surface. granite of the obelisks there was always a layer of stucco. but yet we think his opinion upon this point must be There are in the Louvre certain sarcophagi and other accepted with some reserve. p. 286. once veiled the Doubtless this is true but even in a surface of the bare walls. was also peculiar to themselves." he says. '' alone received this costly decoration.) It may be said that these joints were invisible until the passage of centuries had laid them bare by destroying the stucco which. upon which traces of colour are clearly visible on the sunk beds of the figures and hieroglyphics. the architect could not believe that a beauties of their architecture. upon the bare expanse of the wall. His statement must be treated with great respect. objects in hard stone. above and below. ^ climate such as that of Egypt. granite. they are always coated . and that the gold had been laid upon a coat of white ' Wilkinson thought stucco. They were generally painted in bands of equal height. It is . she employed it more constantly and more universally than any other people. Mariette has verified that it certain that granite was often stuccoed over. 2nd ed. both from the inscription and the appearance of the monument itself he came to the conclusion that it had been gilded from top to bottom. its functions. while not the slightest vestige of anything of But it is the kind is to be found upon the smooth surface around those carvings. There is no visible connection between the bands of figures and the structures which they ornament right and left.

because the depth of the cutting is greater than the thickness of the stucco. and. This surface may be compared to a tapestry stretched over the whole Interior of the building. Egyptian buildings were new and their colour fresh. The contour of the figures is sometimes marked upon the stone ' : . there was nothing left but the crround or reverse of the stuffs The design and colour may still be distinApropos of the Temple of Khons. instead of a built-up wall which so many causes would help to settlings of the . ch. seems to have been to make and yet these sure of absolute stability." .-rs {Dan-iption ghurale ix. mingled with inscriptions which were in themselves pictures. destroy. which is the wonder This beautiful work in relief is of the temple at Abydos. these figures. which is injured by the unavoidable ! masonry and destroyed by the slightest earthquake Of this we need give but one conclusive instance. and dressed in the most vivid colours. latter the chief. or whether its powers were supplemented by the work of the chisel. would endure as long as the massive walls upon which he laid it. Jollois and D'exi'lli'e. We have here a great contrast in principle In the between the decoration and the architecture of Egypt.Decoration.. but as yet they have not opened sufficiently to do much damage to the artistic beauty of the work but It cannot be denied that the preservation of the ro3'al effigy would have been rnuch more certainly assured if the sculptor had chosen a single stone to work upon. When de Thebes. which succeeded each other in thousands upon every wall and pillar. . of indefinite duration thin coat of plaster . this method of decoration must have given them a most fascinating brilliancy. eternal walls are lined with a rich decoration which is spoiled by the fall of a piece of plaster. when once any portion of the plaster coat became detached from the wall. must have at once amused the eye and stirred the brain by the variety of their tints and of the scenes which they represented. Our third plate reproduces that admirable portrait of Seti 1. But in spite of its breadth and vivacity the system had two grave defects. sculptured upon the internal faces of four unequal stones in the wall of one of the rooms. The joints may be distinguished. The first was the fragility of the plaster surface upon which It was displayed. Whether the pencil alone were employed to trace the designs upon the smooth walls. . to continue the comparison. beneath. if not the only aim.) remark "It was upon this coat that the hieroglyphs and figures were sculptured.

more importance in that the eye of the spectator was drawn forcibly to them by the very limitation of the space reserved for . It is monotonous and confused in spite of all its Fig. is its uniformity. Thebes. guished or divined.) ICarnal-. I'l. sculptured figures had the so thoroughly.124 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. It suffers from the absence of that learned balance between plain and decorated surface which the Greeks understood In the Greek temples. S5. sti'iliing prisoners of war with his mace. (ChampolUon. richness. 204. — Seti I. The other defect in the system. but there a great difference between painted ornament which is subject to such damage and a woven hanging at any time before the threads of the woof have been discoloured and entirely worn out.

.Di= J 3ul' cn -'. =c KAR NAK 3AS RELIEFS IN THE GRANITE CKAjViBERS Imp Ch CKardon .

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absolute necessity of contrast she to perceive that by multiplying figures to infinity. Such figures ran no risk of being cut in two by the opening of the Although marvellously well adapted to joints between the stones. durability Such a decoration was only rendered possible by the use of a material which compromised coming. she went too far when she covered every surface. but they knew better how to economize the sources of effect. and that failed is not her only short- She failed to understand the value of repose and the . though carefully and skilfully allied with the architecture which they were meant to adorn. To take decorative art as a whole.Decoration. she lessened their effect and intellect. the Greeks did not make use of so many figures as the Egyptians. its . which. with her endless figure processions. and to preserve their works against the yet preserved a life destructive action of time. without choice or stint. To Egypt. and closely allied to the architecture by their subject as well as their material shape. tones distinguish between the various parts of a structure and de- fend its contours against the effect of a dazzlino- On the other hand. made them a fatigue to the eye and the . She thoroughly understood how to make \io-ht. then. belongs the credit of having been the first to discover the obligation imposed upon the architect by the sunlight of the south — to accentuate the main lines of his edifice by means difterent of colour. the places for which they were intended. did not form an integral part of it. them. 125 They were cut from separate blocks of marble. they and individuality of their own.

In the to first period of his intellectual development. Sepulchral Architecture. He from does not perceive the characteristics which distinguish him thinofs about him. He is therefore incapable of distinguishing between life such as he leads it and mere existence. In every country the forms and characteristics of the sepulchre are determined by the ideas of the natives as to the fate of their bodies and souls after life is over. than borrow his rendering . life man in is unable comprehend any but that which he experiences his own person. its Influence The most in ancient monuments which have . . and in what kind of life. In order to understand the Egyptian arrangements. As such is the tendency of his intellect. Maspero has so thoroughly understood the originality of the solution adopted by the Egj'ptians that we cannot do better.— CHAPTER III. We shall find a complete answer to our question in the collation of written texts with figured monuments. we must begin then by inquiring into their notions upon death and its consequences we must ask whether they believed in another life. yet been discovered first Egypt are the tombs they have therefore a right to the place in our sketch of Egyptian architecture. He is as yet unable to observe. nothing: could be more natural or more logical than the conception to which it leads him in presence of the problem offered to him every time that a corpse descends into the grave. at once gross and subtle. -The Egyptian Belief as to a Future Life and upon their Sepulchral Architecture. M. and he sees nothinor in nature but a repetition of himself. § I. to analyse or to generalize. to which thev had recourse for consolation. in attempting to explain the hypothesis. He dreams of no other way of being than his own.

?W|r It! "jT .

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upon another the last comer did not dethrone its predecessor but became inextricably blended with it in the popular imagination. — . 594. and as always happens in such a case. took place in the ideas of the continual Egyptians upon fact. after a certain period.^ Were we to affirm that during thousands of years no change life. a future we and of should not be believed. Maspero has often and exhaustively treated this subject. and. together with some of the reflections which those texts suggested to him. we find traces of doctrines which offer notable variations. Those lectures especially in his numerous lectures at the College de France.Sepulchral Architecture. June. M. December. " Etude sur quelques Peintures et surquelques Textes rclatifs aux Funerailles " (numbers for May. for December-June. and MayThese articles have been republished in a single volume with important Or ba. We shall not seek to determine the sense which the Egyptians attached. these successive conceptions are super-imposed one soul. sophic speculation the Egyptians modified their definition of the by a necessary consequence. in the Bulletin hebdomadaire de V Association scientifique de France. These are successive answers made during a long course of time to the eternal and As they became more capable of philonever-changing enigma. as a process of refinement. and even. 1880). 1879. and how he manaeed to harmonize ideas which seem to us inconsistent. . June. when closely examined. Maspero. nor the " Conference sur T Histoire des Ames dans rEgj. 127 of the texts which throw Hght upon this subject. actual contradictions. to the word bdi^- which has been translated soul. comparisons and illustrations he enables us to understand how the Egyptian contented himself with vague notions. 1880). of the manner in which its persistence after death must be understood.'f>ie ancicnne. No. and November. (fapii's les Monuments ' du Musce du Louvre. and. That historian has applied himself to the apprehension of every delicate shade of meaning in a system of thought which has to be grasped through the veil thrown around it by extreme difficulties of language and written character. 1878. but at the same time he has never attempted logical to endow it with a precision or By well chosen which it had no claim. o completeness to We shall not enter into those details. afforded the material for the remarkable paper in the journal asiatique entitled. Ed. We refer all those who wish to follow minutely this curious development of the Egyptian intellect to the subtle analysis of M. during those centuries when limits Egyptian empire and Egyptian thought were carried farthest afield. corrections and additions (Maisonneuve. those ideas underwent a the Under eighteenth the nineteenth dynasties.

.128 distinction A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of of a double was formed. to the westof Abydos. luminousness. a term which M. between it and khou. the conception which. and a man from a man. from the Memphite dynasties until the end. was so deeply engraved upon the soul and intellect of the race as to exercise a much stronger influence than the later more abstract and more philosophical theories. like the first teachings of infancy. and of the faintness caused by wounds or more or less transitory suspensions of animation led men to nothing but a prolonged interruption of life. of the individual. it remained unchanged in principle. some element which should resist the annihilation of death for a period much longer than the few days which make up our . in a " This doiible was a duplicate of the body matter less dense than that of the body. at least. coloured aerial. or. which were superimposed upon it. 381. the Egyptian Hades. But had it no other elements which belonged to the general disposition of humanity in those early periods of intellectual life ? Into that question we cannot enter here further than to say that Mr. Its constitution was already settled in the time of the ancient Empire. in the first chapters of his Principles this of Sociology. a child if coming from a ^ child. Maspero has rendered as the double. a woman if from a woman. if but reproducing him feature for feature. He also thinks shows how these suppose that death was that He the actual shadow cast by a man's body contributed to the formation of that belief. We shall not follow the soul and its internal light in its subterranean journey across Anient. In this primitive conception we ought to find the determining cause of the Egyptian form of tomb. and. a projection. He finds origin chiefly in the illness. Herbert Spencer. the ka. In this constitution we shall find embodied the essential idea adopted by the Egyptians when they first attempted to find some eternal element in man. which was the only portal to the kingdom of the shades nor shall we accompany them in the successive transformations which made them acquainted with every corner of the earth and sky in the infinite series of their becomes (to use the Egyptian expression) what we have to do is to trace out the most ancient of their religious conceptions. . to which it entered by a cleft. but were common to all humanity. phenomena of dreams. Mr. p.icts which prove that the beliefs in question were not confined to a single race. which the soul seems to have enveloped like a garment." 1 Cotifirencc. The Egyptians called that which does not perish as the dying man draws his last sigh. Pcga. has given a curious and plausible explanation of how its conception sleep. mortal life. Spencer's pages make us acquainted with numerous f.

which were the phrases used by the Egyptians. but have to spend in set a high value upon those houses their call virtues of which the memory " perpetuated after death. who look upon : the life upon earth as a thing of is minor importance. Both Greeks and when the funeral rites had been duly accomimage or shadow entered upon the possession of a subterranean dwellinoa life which was no more o and beran o than the continuation of that in the light.necessary And all these things it obtained from for the sustenance of its life. in EiSuAa 72 . this effect abound. in view of the short time they them. in the strictest sense of the word. on the one hand by the nourishment which they received. to provide food and drink for the support. terra censebant reliquam vitam agi mortuorum it " Sub quoted by Fustel This belief was so 16). Fustel brought the more remarkable of them S vol. of.^ 1 They looked is impatiently forward to these supplies in This expression. in the eating and drinking. on the other by the protection which they afforded even in the funeral repast they Latins believed that plished. brought them to the threshold of the good diuelling or the eternal divclling. They call their hotels. The double of the Egyptian sepulchral records corresponds exactly to the ilhinXov^ of the Greeks and the -umbra of the Latins. 129 This double had to be installed in a lodging suitable to its existence. as it were. took their parts. on fixed days. this . xxiii.Sepulchral Architecture. life we may use such a phrase. This belief clearly stated in a passage from Cicero " {Tiisc. . while they tombs 2 their eternal divellings (i. of the precarious of the dead. alive. had to be surrounded by objects which it had used in its former state. The following passage of DiODORUS is well known " This refers to the beliefs of the natives. had to be supplied with the food which was. i. 476 xxiv.^ This conception is not peculiar to Egypt. the protection with. combined naming one who was dead. is and so Od. the piety of its relations.. seems to have made a great impression upon the Greek travellers. xi. : strong that subsisted even after the universal establishment of the custom of burning the bodies of the dead. Osiris ^ • they talked of the Osiris so Ka/xdi'T<D)/ (//. which very common the Egyptian texts. ' Texts to 7. 14). . and. who like would otherwise be irritated against them and use the almost godpower attributed to his mysterious condition for the punishment of his ungrateful posterity. ^ The dead thus remained in close relation with the living.^ By these offerings alone the could the hungry and thirsty phantom which had replaced living man be kept to take care that this guished by their if The first duty of the survivors was dependent existence should not be extinneglect. 51). The dead were put under . who.

536). p. La (p. 130 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 162). of understanding what he says and answering. G. maybe consulted. Electra says when she pours a libation: " This drink has penetrated the earth 'my father has received it " (Choephoroe. shalt . for a moment. 325. Fustel de Coulange.359-364)^ Seventh edition. even as their intelligence full of proofs that these beliefs had a as the time of Demosthenes. 14). . there would then be some neglected tomb where the dead never received the neglect which would be visited of gift-bringing friends. traces of which are still found in Eastern Europe. L PP. Upon the strange persistence of this belief. a upon the city as a whole as the accomplice in such Such an argument and others like it may not seem to us to be of great judicial value. and Epirus. 4S2-484). From India to Italy all the primitive forms of fact public and private rights betray their presence. ^ In the eleventh book of the Odyssey it is only after " they have drunk deep draughts of black blood " that the shades are capable of recognising Ulysses. points of resemblance between the religion of China and that of ancient Eg}-pt in both one and the other the same want of power to develop may be found. pp. 1877. abandonment. Les Fricurseurs de JDemost/iine. late In contested cases of adoption they always laid great stress upon the dangers which would menace the city if a family was allowed to become visits extinct for want of pre- cautions against the failure of the hereditary line. 1879. "take this drink which ." said Neoptolemus. And listen to the prayer of Orestes to his dead father " Oh my father. come and drink this blood" (Hecuba. Cite antique. p. Hachette. Perrot. both the Chinese and the Egyptians failed to emerge from the condition of fetichism. 156).The speeches of the Greek orators are great hold upon the popular mind. Taking them as a whole.. in Thessaly. the life above ground and in the sunshine.'^ be content with quoting three is grateful to the dead : together in his Cite antique We " Son of Peleus. but the talent of an Isseus understood how to make it tell with an audience. 354-356).^ If they were kept waiting too long they became angry and revenged themselves upon those who because. The blood they swallowed restored and powers of thought. awoke their dormant thoughts and fecHngs and gave them ghmpses of the true hfe. if I live thou . . For this and of its consequences we may shall refer our readers to the fine work M. Some curious details relating to the funeral feasts of the Chinese are to be found in the There are some striking Comptes rendiis de V Academic des Inscriptions. and Albert Dumont {k Balkan et P Adriatigue. : have rich banquets if I die thou wilt have no portion of those smoking feasts which nourish the dead" (Choephorce. iSmo. in Albania. Woe to the family or city which was not careful to interest the dead in its stability and thus to associate them with its prosperity! ^ These beliefs seem to have been common to all ancient peoples during that period of their existence which is lost in the shadow of prehistoric times. or we should not find it so often repeated in his pleadings (see Eloque/ice politique et judiciare a Athcnes. they had caused their sufferings. the works of Heuzey {Mission arMologigue de Maca/oine.

I. the progress of centuries more elevated ideas prevailed. —Stele of the nth dynasty.'^.n o= '1 im '-4 '^^ p.. I Sii^iK)V/few i? o o «IF m^iij^ . Drawn by Bourgoin. scientific spirit between life tended to make the notion of a being suspended and death ever more strange and inadmissible. Boulak. and the development of rehgious The growth of the ^ i TT^ ! 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 \i\\J' r2^ LLnJJ-LLL II i i I ! c 4f'ln^(?J )^ /a\ p ' ! r^V ^'Tv'VC^^^^^t•'' Di .Sepulchral Architecture. I With thought.. . 86.J Fig.^i.? .

we find them in the remembrance of lost objects of affection. and we may be tempted to smile when we think of the Greek or Egyptian giving himself the are most honourable to nature. 1S5). and those ill provided with means of research and analysis. but. in a something which was not a spirit and yet survived the destruction of its organs. attempted to think with originality. in his ingenious and subtle analysis q{ primitive ideas draws our attention to their frequent inconsistencias and even positive contradictions . i. .^ culture when the diffusion of intellectual and the perfection of scientific methods add daily to our accumulations of positive knowledge. logical reflection It would seem then that observation and should soon have led to the abandonment of a theory which now At appears a period so puerile . it began to decompose their tissues.132 A History of Art its in Ancient Egypt. even in these scientific times. Mr. and it Experience accumulated organs. but if we seek for the source of its inspiration and its primitive meaning. Sociology. in the recognition by the living of the blessings which they enjoy through the long and laborious efforts There was no doubt a perishable element of their ancestors. As time rolled on men and dissolve must have found it very difficult to believe in a shadow thus placed outside the normal conditions of life. 119. in feelings broken by the supreme separation. The prestige of this illusion was increased and perpetuated by its intimate connection with several of those sentiments which Such a worship of the dead surprises and even scandalizes us by its frank materialism. but results became daily more evident that death not only put an end to the activity of the that. immediately upon its occurrence. clearness and freedom. in the gratitude of children to the parents who gave them birth and nourished their infancy. Herbert Spencer. vol. but he shows us at the same time that the most highly civilised races in these modern days ' human admit and combine ideas which are logically quite as irreconcilable as those which seem to us so absurdly inconsistent of savage races. and their actions to how much beliefs greater then be prompted by the vaguest words and notions must the influence of those confused and baseless images have been in antiquity when but a few rare minds. an element which the progress of reason was sure to destroy. perceive at when we think of the beliefs of the ancients or Custom renders us insensible to contradictions which we should {The Principles of once were we removed to a distance from them. those whose intellects demand well defined ideas are few indeed. most men allow their souls to be stirred . in the funerary ideas of Egypt. pp.

statues of was to build temples. and to they designed for adorn its walls with bas-reliefs and pictures it those vases and terra cottas which. in a plastic form. in our own day. Apollo. Their most complete. We have thought it right to dwell upon this worship of the dead and to describe its character at some length. both Guided by their hearts alone they anticipated the results at which modern thought has arrived by close and attentive study of history. and childish ideas of had no art in which to manifest their beliefs with clearness and precision. at the decoration of the tomb. full development art did not arrive at its until the of Greece. worship of the dead had lost its high place in the national conscience. have been found in thousands in the cemeteries of Greece and Italy. From a reasoned out conviction of this truth and its consequences. and another. ! . at its complete power of plastic expression. milk. trouble to feed his departed ancestors with blood. to model Zeus. but all Their ambition this was only a subordinate use of their talent. because the beliefs upon which it was based are not to be found so clearly set forth in the art of any other people. and to construct worthy dwellings for their habitation.Sepulchral Arcihtecture. after much striving. painters. clear. is to be seen in the tombs which border the Nile. They realized the complete solidarity of one human generation with but with all their simplicity. or honey. sentiments which it provoked had been a powerful instrument in the moral improvement of the first-born of civilization and a bond of union for their civil and domestic life. and art was called upon to interpret the brilliant polytheism of Homer and Hesiod. Sculptors. When the Greek cjenius had arrived. and eloquent expression. one and the other were alive to a truth which the revolutionary spirit of our days. those distant ages in which primireligion prevailed. And why is this so ? It is because the Egyptian industries were already in full possession of their resources at the period when those beliefs had their strongest In the case hold over the minds and feelings of the people. and architects still worked indeed. to give outward image to those gods. . tive On the other hand. the gods of Olympus had been created for several centuries. grateful. is often unable to grasp. with its childish and brutal contempt for the past. Pallas. philosophy now draws the principles of a high morality but long before our days this idea and the tender. They strove to give it beauty of shape and arrangement.

indeed. all And again. A well provided industry and an experienced art laid themselves out to interpret the popular beliefs and to defend the dead against final dissolution. they rapidly attained to a degree of which was only reached by other races after their development was comparatively mature. merit of being complete in their unity both of artistic form and of from the art point of intellectual conception. and in this respect the only difference between the Egj-ptians and the rest of the world is very much to the credit of the former civilization . as the their chief pre-occupation.xpressing them with sufficient force and precision. Egypt did not differ from other nations in its opinions upon the mystery of In the infancy of every race the same notions on this death. at Beni- Hassan.134 It A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. they Vv-ere enabled to push their ideas to consequences which were not to be attained by tribes which were little less than barbarous. view the Memphite tombs are more curious They have the great and important than those of later date. in guarding them more safely against the chances which might shorten the religious duration or destroy the happiness of their fulfilment of this duty was. life in the tomb. it is less complete and homogeneous. Certain details. are modified. We . the most original and the most characteristic of their genius. These do not supersede the primitive ideas they are added to them. of those at Abydos. they the later tombs. Their sepulchral architecture was. as a whole. and they bear witness to the restless efforts made by human thought to solve the problem of human destiny. the general disposition remains the same to the end. They are the offspring of a single growth. In the Empire. and are perfect are the type of in their clear logical expression. . These apparent contradictions and hesitations are of great interest to the student of the Egyptian religion. especially in the forms which we find in the In the time of the New cemeteries of the Ancient Empire. of all their creations. or the agonies of hunger and thirst. was otherwise in the valley of the Nile. from a unique conception we find traces in it of new hypotheses and novel forms of belief. It remains for us to show the use which the Egyptians made of their superiority in doing more honour to their dead. The Greek travellers rightly affirmed. matter are to be found. at Thebes. and they had no difficulty in e. arrangement and decoration do not spring. Thanks to this advantage. and but at Thebes. but latter the .

Le Dogme de /a Rhurrection. at soil of Egypt. ^ The texts also bear witness to the ideas with of embahning were undertaken. rendered a mummy the dry to almost indestructible. thou august and coffined is mummy.) countest thy meiiihcrs ivhich " Arise in To-deser (the sacred region in which the renewal of prepared). The first and most obvious necessity for the oljscure form of life which was supposed to commence as soon as the tomb had received its inmate. first. should be wanting at the that.) The Theban preservation of the object of solicitude at the earliest times.^ Embalming. and found her body much the ! teeth were in place between the slightly contracted lips the almond-shaped nails of her feet and hands were stained with ." summons resurrection intact. shall. Pierret. the ancient empire men were content Mariette says that " more examples would have to be brought together than he had been able to discover before the question of mummification under the ancient empire could be decided. which might be the debris of many other things than of a linen shroud. &c. On each of And as for linen. practised as it was by the Egyptians. nothing beyond a little dust upon the bottom of the sarcophagus. perfection until the period. as the excavations from which the their day's fellahs of the corvde returning at the enci labour. No pains. . 135 therefore. therefore." Under with comparatively simple methods. It is certain. no member. thy head replaced upon thy neck. find the ruling principle of Egyptian sepulchral architecture most clearly laid down in the cemeteries of Gizeh and Sakkarah. we companions and myself — stripped — my were travelling- a great lady of the time of Ramses of the linen cloths and bandages in which she was closely same condition as it must have been when it left the workshop of the Memphite Her black hair was plaited into fine tresses." of the gods " that (Osirian statue in the Louvre. no substance. again in Thy bones and its thy substance are re-united with thy flesh.) ." depended on life is " Thou are complete and (Egyptian funerary text.. p." {Les Tombes de I'Ancien Empire. 16. thy heart is ready for thee. were spared which could retard its dissolution and preserve the organs to which the double and the soul might one day return. body must therefore have been an but the art of embalming did not attain should not consume him. that Feuilles d'Abydos. all her embalmer in enveloped. so long.Sepulchral Architecture. that the bones found in the sarcophagi have the brownish colour and the bituminous smell of " Not mummies. (Mariette. 10. that no authentic piece of mummy cloth fronr that period is now extant secondly. was the body. and thy flesh is place. tliat which the complicated processes See P. final "It was necessary . On of the warm it remained in sands of Sakkarah and close least. p. these occasions the corpse has been discovered in the skeleton state. more than five or six inviolate sarcophagi have been found.) the earth The dead took tlie soil care to demand should not bite him.

we might have shared the sentiment attributed to Lord Evandale in Theophile Gautier's brilliant Roman de la Moviie . or in the sides of the mountain ranges and in the ravines by which they were In the whole valley of pierced. its Tombs and their Tet!a?i/s. and to prevent the ^ Passalacqua gives the following description of the mummy of a young woman " Her hair and the rotundity and surprising which he discovered at Thebes regularity of her form showed me that she had been a beauty in her time. the mummy had to be so placed that it could not be The cemeteries reached by the highest inundations of the river. and the smell of naphtha which arose from the body and from the numberless bandages which were strewn about. were therefore established either upon a plateau surrounded by the desert. 1826. had so greatly impressed the Arabs themselves that they had exhumed it more than once to show to their wives and neighbours." her condition and ornaments. and that He then gives a minute description of she had died in the flower of her youth. as at Thebes and Beni Hassan.136 henna. because It is who dug them did not foresee the gradual raising of the valley. con- sequently. moreover." {Catalogue raisonne et historique des Antiquitcs : decouvertes en Egypte. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.) ^ Rhind describes several mummy-pits . 8vo. as in the case of Memphis and Abydos. flexible and the graceful shapes but little altered under the still firm and smooth skin. secondly by placing Besides this its dwelling above the highest " Nile. and its perfect preservation. and. [>. with an effort of good-will we could almost sympathise with those emotions of tenderness and admiration which were excited in the breast of the young Englishman at the sight of the unveiled charms of that daughter of Egypt whose perfect beauty had once troubled the heart of the proudest of the Pharaohs.artifices of construction order to conceal the entrance to the tomb. as he himself remarks.^ The Hmbs were embalming should not be thrown away. no ancient tomb has been discovered which was within In order that all the expense of reach of the inundation at its highest. 153. Had it not been for its colour of tarred linen or scorched paper.first The and corpse was thus preserved from destruction. seemed to be still supported by flesh in some parts. by careful scientific embalming. the Nile. {T/iebes. doubtless only within the last few centuries that the water has penetrated into these tombs. which.) . of the level attained in recent ages by the waters of the Nile. and concludes by saying that "the peculiar beauty of the proportions of this mummy. in the necropolis of Thebes which receive this is the water of the Nile by infiltration those but." architects we shall see that the Egyptian in made use of many curious.

be brought to light. But in spite of all this pious it foresight. possess himself of the gold and jewels with which it had been adorned. Thus identified by its resemblance and its inscriptions it served to perpetuate the life of the double. It aspired to portraiture and the development of writing allowed the name and qualities of the deceased to be inscribed upon his statue. of the The had to liability mummy to accident be provided against. and nothing The body gave but one T . Boulak. sands. saying. penetrating to the sepulin the dead. destroying and thus inflicting a second death worse than the first or a thief might drag the corpse from its resting place. S7. with the greater ease. the individual characteristics of his physi. intrusion of 137 any one coming with evil intentions. more often. — Mummy case from the iSth dynasty. in the strictest sense of the word. ordinary attitude of the defunct and to mark his age and sex. with a fertility and patient ingenuity of invention which has often carried despair Into the minds of modern explorers. sometimes and subtle happened that greed of private hate or. in Enemies their might succeed chres bodies. and leave it naked and dishonoured upon the . led to the provision of artificial support for it in the shape of Art was sufficiently advanced not only to reproduce the costume and a statue. L way of their multiplication. The idea of the unhappy condition in which the double would find itself when its mummy had an been destroyed. but even to render Fig. gain. that he might.Sepulchral Architecture. ognomy. All kinds of obstacles and pitfalls are accumulated in the path of the unbidden visitor. Mariette was fond of especially in the case of the pyramids. mummy. the upset of every calculation.that there are mummies in Egypt which will never. The statues were more solid than the stood in the VOL. which was in continual danger of dissolution or evaporation in the absence of a material support.

Notes sur Points de la Grammaire et d' Hisioire. Conference. From the Louvre.^ We shall see that a special recess was prepared in the thickness or of the built up portion of the tomb for the reception of wooden stone statues. i. The images of the dead were multipHed by the piety of surviving relations. Finally. diffe rentes ^ Maspf.ro.1 Maspero. so that they might be kept out of sight and safe Fig. Calcareous stone. where they were protected by the sanctity of the place and the vigilance of the priests. chance of duration to the double twenty statues represented twenty chances more. and consequently the double was assured a duration which practically amounted to immortality.138 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. we know that persons of consideration obtained from the king permission to erect statues in the temples. Hence the astonishing number of statues which are sometimes found in a single tomb. (In et the Recueil de Trai\iiix relatifs Assyriennc. . vol. p. 88. 381. 155. Other effigies were placed in the chambers of the tomb or the courts in front of it. p.) a Philologie et a F Archeologie Egyptitnne . from all indiscreet curiosity. — Man and his wife in the style of the 5th dynasty.

down i:=C J '0 ^/m^i\^/tm Fig.xty centuries and have found an asylum in our museums where they have nothing to fear but Those which remain intact the slow effects of climate and time. that of Chephren. wife Ata. 89. would be still alive.xistence of the image. Limestone. — Sckhcm-k. to us safely through fifty or si. 139 From tions the point of view of the ancient Egyptians such precau- Many of these effigies have come were by no means futile. and thanks to the durability nothing to preserve . of the 5lh dynasty. and his son Khnem. in the st\Ii.-i. hi. may therefore count upon it immortality. the builder of the second great pyramid. If the double required from annihilation but the continued e. From the Louvre.Sepulchral Architecture.. preserved by the magnificent statue of diorite which is the glory of Boulak.

unhappily for the shade of Pharaoh. — Stele of Nefer-oua. The dead-alive had need of food and drink. was only to be prolonged by attention to conditions most of which the world itself. this posthumous existence which is so difficult of comprehension to us.I4Q of its A materia]. History of Art it in Ancient Egypt. would have every chance of lasting as long as But. together with the fruit of . which he obtained from supplies placed beside him in the tomb. could not long continue to be observed. Boulal. mxq Fig. Different kinds of dates are also found. 90.. It was entirely a material life. when these were consumed. are found in many tombs of epochs. by the ' Jars. all which seem to have been once filled with water.' and afterwards.

a .

.

et seq. beer. vegetables. — at the festival of the great burning. Etudes si/r quelques Peintures fuiierains. Maspero) monthly and half monthly festivals. corn. p. pp. nor his son in his place. a saloon which all the the incense might reach the concealed statues. See the Catalogue oi Passalacqua. Quarters of meat have also been found in them. catde. May-June. prosper the name of my father. upon which the share intended for the double was deposited and the libations poured. in all the festivals of Karneter. recently translated anew both by Isl. the five at the twelve making (of the entry of grain. note i. p. served my statues at the great temples. and elsewhere. ^ In one of the great inscriptions at Beni Hassan. My priest has verified (I chose a priest for the procured them from the irrigation of my work-people (I made him slaves. of which he had his share. Notice Monuments . of the Past. — Maspero). 1 Maspero. A conduit was reserved in the thickness of the wall by which the odour of the roast meats and perfumed fruits and the smoke of accurately. It in the tomb in for the celebration of these anni- was a kind of chapel. I Ka. to speak more relations and friends of At the foot of the stele upon which the deceased could find room. pro- bably relatives of the deceased. cakes. all the festivals on the earth But should my sepulchral priest or men (plain). opening of the year. : water..^ and they were repeated from on days fixed by tradition and sometimes by the expressed wish of the deceased. increase of the year.— ' — 143 Sepulchral ARCHtxECTURE. ^ In each opening of the serdab contrivance which in the tomb of Ti. close of the year. which are easily recognised by dieir well-preserved bones. a family might become . Maspero and Professor Birch. at the great festival. at the festival of the lesser burning. fowl. repasts which took place periodically in the tomb. vol. &:c. The first of these feasts was given upon the con- ceremonies. I sacrificed to them their food. Birch.' The Egyptians ants to preserve did not trust only to the piety of their descend- them from a final death by inanition in their At the end of a few generations that piety neglected tombs. the god of the was represented dead man the dead. at the festival of bread — Ed. p. or. Records conduct them wrongly may he not exist. at Sakkarah. 71. terminating on the hill (of Anubis).) monuments. was placed a table for offerings. xii.An open and public chamber clusion of the funeral year to year was contrived versaries. (Mariette. Chnoumhotep speaks thus " 1 caused to I I completed the existing temples of the Ka. 387. and — Maspero). are represented resembles in form des principaitx in the act of burning incense in a the Ov/xLa-nipiov of the Greek de Boulak. might grow cold and relax its care besides. at the festivals of the beginning of the year (little year. 123." intercalary days. people. master of the year. 151. beer. 1880. diminution of the Brugsch and Maspero). I ordered the sepulchral offerings of bread. fields pure herbs. sacrificing to Osiris. in the Journal Asiatiquc. 27. bread. the sycamore. perhaps.

which was maintenance priests of the to priest or who had rites perform the ceremonial described. Maspero upon the great inscription at Siout.144 extinct. the builder It of " great pyramid. 41. vol. ministers were attached to the the sepulchral chapel of Cheops. 92.believe may seem a difficult to " that foundation of the ancient empire should have sur- vived so kings Fig. even special under the Ptolemies. 93. which was deposited in a temple at Siout. Each a point of duty to give renewed princes restoring sovereign made it life to the worship of those remote who represented the first glories of the national history. Seneferu. by which offerings should be regularly made to the prince's statue. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. {Transactions of 'he Society of Biblical Archaology. 1 See the paper by M. many changes of rdgmie. pp. It All those who could afford provided against such con- tingencies as these by giving their tombs what we now call a Fig. Louvre. of They devoted to the purpose the revenues also charged with the some part of their property. national institutions Egypt. but the honours paid to the early had become one of the of — Another form offerings. (De Rouge. the founder of the siir les fourth dynasty. 1-32. ^ vii.^ We which we have find that. —Table for offerings.) in the case of It was the same a still older king. perpetual foundation. Recherches Monuments que I'on pent atlribuer aux six premieres Dynasties de Manethon. p. which has preserved for us a contract between Prince Hapi-Toufi and the priests of ApMotennou. of the table for Boulak.) .

Tombes de t Ancien Empire^ the p. art and religion. who. jewels. Toml'fs de r Ancien Eiiipin. drink. a wooden table. • the papier-mache loaves cf the All Egyptian collections contain cofters of painted wood. and other objects of which they might have need in the next lite. 71.* Mariette obtained some from tombs of the twelfth referred to the may be same 1 ^ ^ Herodotus. In the tomb of the personage called Atta. 145 Besides which there were priests attached to each necropoHs. of our museums.'-^ the Greeks sacrificed. fees. his wives and servants that they might accompany him to the next world. as for instance his food and for certain identified .72. In a few rare cases the objects destined for the nourishment of the double are represented in the round instead of being painted upon the wall. We know what treasures of this kind have been obtained from the Egyptian tombs and how they fill the cases But neither was this habit peculiar to Egypt. like those Scythians described by Herodotus. they were represented upon its walls in all the variety of their occupations and in the actual moment of labour. . clothes. L U . domestic officers whose services would be so necessary in another life. officiated at each tomb in turn. at the death of a chief.Sepulchral Architecture.87. Their services were retained much in the same way as masses are bought in our days. They were by Mariette upon some of the bas-rehefs at Sakkarah. . Traces are to be found even in the early traditions of the Hellenic race of a time when.3 A later custom which would seem to have established desire . often decorated in VOL. p. 17. It was common to all ancient people whether civilized or barbarous. she found means to give the same advantages to her dead without Those personal attendants and permitting Scythian cruelties.) The vases must have been full of water to when they were placed in tomb the stone geese may be compared modern stage. has been found. supporting terra-cotta vases and plucked geese carved in calcareous stone. were secured to them at a small expense instead of slaying them at the door of the tomb.^ The same sentiment led to the burial with the dead of all arms. So too with all objects of luxury or necessity which the double would wish to have at hand. iv. itself a little we mean the habit of placing in the tomb those statuettes which we meet with in such vast numbers after the commencement of the second Theban Empire. (Mariette. When she began to reveal herself in the arts Egypt was already too far civilized for such practices as these thanks to the simultaneous development of science.

XC. (Description upon the breast and hold instruments of agriculture such as hoes and picks. and a sack meant for grain hangs from their shoulders. They are like a mummy in appearance . As a rule they do not exceed from eight to twelve inches. Some are in limestone. seems tologists are ritual date to be one of the most ancient. of the Ritual. which served to hold these statues in the when they were placed tomb. some they are in in height. — Labourers heaping up ears of corn. 94. but there are a few which are three feet or more wood. The siije and the richness of their ornament depended upon the wealth of the deceased for whom they were made. which is Egypt- now inclined to far as the beHeve the essential parts of this period. when covered with green or blue enamel. to answer. The texts of the Ritual and of certain inscriptions call these little answerers from the verb ousheb. from a tomb dt I'&gypu:) at Gizeh. back as Memphite These statuettes are of different sizes and materials.146 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. figures It is therefore easy the most brilliant fashion. it is also explained by the picture in chapter tilling. which shows us the dead in sowing and ouskcbti or harvesting the fields of the other world. tliat Dead. and the sixth chapter of the engraved upon them. granite. The meaning of all this is to be sought in the Egyptian notions of a future life . has been called Egyptian porcelain. . and some in but as a rule made of that kind of terra cotta which. their hands are crossed Fig. Book of the dynasty.

. &c. Dictionnaire ifAirhe- See also.a Figs.ouvri-. v. a note by M. walls they saved him from fatigue and from the chance of want. -'^mmsWi f "Av. ologie egyptienne^ vol.' stitute for its tenant in the cultivation of the the help of the attendants painted and sculptured upon the seagf — ' « — Sepulchrnl stnUiettes. Pierrkt. vol. from the I. Conf. p. p. 155). to the services Maspero 12. .Sepulchral Architecture to divine the part attributed to 147 They answered With to them by the popular imagination. 96.. in connection with the personality attributed to them and which were expected from them. the name traced upon the tomb and acted as subsubterranean regions.une Tahhtte npparteiianf a M. (Reawilde Travaux. ii. PiETSCHMAXN {Dcr Ei::\ptische FetiscMicnst.) . character and significance of these statuettes. Rogers. In his desire to take has well grasped the ihis 1 is another branch of the same old idea. 95. Su7.

Such an inscription is so far biographical. natural state . of continuing in the next world his career of honour and success in this. that these scenes were not anecdotic. There are a few steles and tombs upon which the dead man seems to have caused his services to be described. The its ingenuity of their contrivances is extraordinary. . Both these interpretations have had to give way before the critical examination of the pictures themselves and the decipherment of their accompanying inscriptions. a representation of his achievements or of those over which he had presided during the others saw in them an illustration of his course of his mortal life . and a similar spirit may extend to the decorations of the stele and walls of the tomb. would forbid the accumulation there of everything which its sombre tenant might desire. future life. We visited the tomb of Ti a short chambers had been opened and cleared. cally unaltered until our day. Some believed that they were an time after its marvellous to see illustrated biography of the deceased.On the other hand the funerary statuettes were made of the most indestructible materials and the bas-reliefs and paintings were one with the These have survived practithick walls of stone or living rock. a setting forth of the joys and pleasures of the Egyptian Elysium. every precaution against the misery and final annihilation which would result from abandonment. might. lead to the death of the do7ible by inanition. no doubt. It was how form and colour had been preserved intact and fresh under the sand. Food in would not keep. By the brightness of their colours and the sharp precision of their contours these charming reliefs had the effect of a newly struck medal.148 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. As an example of such narrative . and various accidents. with the object. On a few very rare occasions they seem to be connected with circumstances peculiar to the inhabitant of the tomb. and this work which was four or five thousand years old seemed to be but lately finished. Such scenes from the daily life of the people continued to be figured upon Egyptian tombs from the old empire to the new. through comparisons easily made. moreover. It was the same with furniture and clothes the narrow dimensions of the tomb. provisioning and peopling his tomb. the Egyptian thought he could never go too far in furnishing. When their study and comparison were first begun different explanations were put forward. It was soon perceived. as we have shown.

> .o y.

.

Ti sees the stalls of the oxen and of the small animals. " To see the picking of the " flax. De Rouge. cite the long inscription of Ouna. We shall leave M. For whose benefit do they take all this trouble } If we attempt to enter into the minds of the people who traced these images and compare the pictured representations with the texts which accompany them." Again. the baker.). Maspero. supply of wheat in return.Sepulchral Architecture. the persistent fashion which figures by which the flocks and herds and other possessions of the deceased were numbered are too great for literal truth. epigraphs 151 we may . Histoire ^ A?ieieiiiie. wheat is is threshed. Conf. we shall be enabled to answer that question. and the butcher up to the sculptor. They. Tombes de l Anden Emf>in\ " . but first we must draw (i)." The Again. labours of the country. from the labourer. As a rule the in subjects occur upon the tombs again and again. characterizes traditional themes. p. Let us take by chance any one of the inscriptions which accompany the scenes figured upon the famous tomb of Ti. perhaps. seem to apply themselves to their work with an energy which excludes the notion of ideal felicity. which o^rand-vizier to the two first King-s eives us the h'fe of a sort of o o o ^ also the inscriptions upon the tombs of those of the sixth dynasty feudal princes who were is buried at Beni-Hassan. Mcmoire siir les Monuinents dcs six premieres Dynasties pp. the transport upon donkeys. and we feel that they are carrying out a task which has been imposed upon them as a dut}'. the gutters and water-channels of the tomb. 80 et seq. In the latter there are historical representations as commentaries upon the text.On the other hand the pictured tradesmen and artificers. S^e Mariette." It is is for the dead that the vintage takes place. Among a these the often reproduced painting of a band of Asiatic emigrants bringing presents to the prince and demanding. that the flax picked. like the Hebrews same in the time of Jacob. labour conscientiously. the reaping ot the corn. Maspero to sum up the ideas which presided the that the soil at the construction of the 1 Egyptian tomb. the stacking of the crops of the tomb. and here is what we " To see the picking and pressing of the grape and all the find. 88-92.xen are driven into It is for the ploughed and irrigated. 88. that the fields. supply of his wants that all these sturdy arms are employed. But all this is exceptional. one and all. that o.

362. . more than once. pp. crossing in safety the terrible barque of the gods. and he ate and drank with her gulfs of the lower world in the . 9S. in the valley Kings. iii. The real tilling. Didionnaire d' ArcMologie egyptienne. tilling. was employed by the Greeks to designate those long subterranean galleries cut in the rock of the necropolis at Thebes. and So. our readers' notice to the fact that he. uvpiy^ (flute). too. For the reason which led the Greeks to adopt a term which now seems rather fantastic. are brought together by Jomard in the third volume of the Description (Antiquites. 393). alludes to a conception of the future life which differs somewhat troni the early Egyptian notions. the statuettes placed in his ' tomb carried out for him under magic This word. pis. and housing housing. and belongs rather to the Second Theban Empire and its successors. vol. — Arrival in Egypt of a company of Asiatic emigrants (ChampoUion. modern egyptologists apply it in a more general tombs cut deeply into the flanks of the mountain. see Pierret. called the Valley of the sense to all . The chief passages in ancient aufliors in which the term is applied either to the subterranean excavations of Egypt or to other galleries of the same kind. they were meant to preserve the dead from danger and to insure him a happy e. and he crossed reaping. " The scenes chosen for the decoration of tomb walls had a magic intention whether drawn from civil life in the world or from that of Hades. his avpi'^^'^ saw himself going to the chase upon the surrounding walls and he went to the chase eating and drinking with his wife. 12-14).xistence beyond the tomb Their reproduction upon the walls of the sepulchre guaranteed The double shut up in the performance of the acts represented. on his walls were for him reaping. . them in safety. 1- IG.'52 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.

nor a Jouminl aiiaiique. after all. company of Asiatic emigrants (ChaDipollion.dotcb/c for upon the sides which they laboured . 393). \. people. thought that they were doine a service to the deceased when thev carried out all the picture of a slave might well satisfy the Fi'. and scenes represented in another world. papyri made shoes for him and cooked they carried him to hunt in the deserts or to fish in the marshes. VOL.Sepulchral Architecture. .i"/. And. The Egyptian thought that by filling his tomb with pictures he insured the reality of all the objects. have great difficulty in realising a state of mind so different from what ours has become after centuries of progress and thought. and he was thus encouraged to construct his tomb while he was yet alive. it imagination to which we moderns are in no early races had neither a long ' enough experience of pp." demands an effort of the way equal. 1S80. the mysterious ceremonies which accompanied his burial. The him certainty that they had been the cause of some benefit their regretted to consoled and supported them on their return from the cemetery where they had left ^ dead in possession of his imaginary domain. too. shadow of a master. in his The workmen painted his food . We. things. 'jS. like the sorcerer's pestle Goethe's ballad. and. 362. 419. drew water for him and carried grain. Relations. the world of vassals of the sepulchre was as real as t\\e.-.v. Those Such a belief is astonishing to us . 420. influence in all OJ the work of the fields. (. May-Tune..v. Arrival in Eijypt of a pis.

or the child to take phantom which they called the double. fiction than those which had gone before. but in the primitive days of belonged to all people alike. — The tomb of Ti . In the efforts which they made to forestall the wants of the helpless dead. Is it not natural to revenge upon the table against which he hurts tenderly to the doll which he holds in his himself. they were not content with providing the food and furniture which we find upon the walls. than to the to the mummy or statue of the deceased. Imagination had then a power over a whole race which in our days is the gift of great poets alone. or to speak arms . 99. They had a secret impression that these might be insufficient for wants renewed through eternity. representing funeral gifts. and they made another step upon the way upon By a still more curious and still bolder which they had embarked. women. them to distinguish sufficiently capable of reflection to enable the possible from the impossible. They did not appreciate the difference between living things and those which we call inanimate. They found no more difficulty in giving life to their carved and painted domestics.154 A History of Art power in Ancient Egypt. the hmds of the deceased. they attributed to prayer .'' Fig. carrying the This power to endow civilization it all things with life and personality is now reserved for the poet and the infant. They endowed all things about them with souls like their own.

presents offerings to a god.Sepulchral Architecture. a stele. . the 155 all power of multiplying. you must if you be scribes. that is to say. to the ka . the dead person. In both divisions the objects figured are looked upon as real. . The provisions which the first god . presented to him : individuals." Below this the defunct is often N son of M shown in the act of himself receiving the offerings of his family. if you wish to be in favour with the gods of your cities and to avoid the terrors of the other world. Figs. or. or even q2iasi-x&2i\. and all of good and pure things upon which the god subsists. recite the words inscribed upon this stone. to be engraved upon their tombs " Oh you who still exist upon the earth. but always served the same purpose and had the same general character. geese. the god is charg-ed to see that thev are delivered to the ritrht address. milk. In the lower division they are offered directly to him who is to profit by them . if and do not know death. beef. . as . offering to Amen. But it was not essential for the gift to be effective that it should be real. Most of these steles were adorned with painting and sculpture all tablet which varied in . The first-comer could procure all things necessary for the deceased by their enumeration in the proper form. wine. perfumes. or ministers entering into this tomb.. accompanied by his family. master of Karnak. clothes. an upright stone form and place in different epochs. . . beer. if you w'ish to be entombed in your own sepulchres and to transmit your dignities to your children. by the use of a few magic sentences. . : Under " this an inscription is carved an unchanging formula Offering to Osiris (or to some other deity. in the wall decorations. after who is usually Osiris. . liquid. We find therefore that many Egyptians caused the following invocation to jjassing strangers. first objects of the necessity to the inhabitants of the tomb.^ In the semi- which forms the upper part of most of these inscribed slabs. as the case may be) in order that he may give provision of bread. if not. scribes. Every sepulchre has of them had circle more or less complicated inscriptions. you must listen to their recital say. priests. that its image should even be given in paint or stone. in the upper. 87 and 91. thousands you love life : ' See above. . whether you be private bread. is asked to pass on to the defunct are by the intervention of Osiris the doubles of meat and drink pass into the other world to nourish the double of man. that he mav give thousands of loaves of bread.

and there we find all the . He was like a great lord sojourning in a strange country and having his wants attended to by intermediary officials assigned to his the visits . Man grows from the early glimmerings of infancy to the apogee of his wisdom and strength he then begins to decline and. de Roug^. vol. jNIaspero {Conference. and to the goodwill with which the Egyptian intellect lent itself to their bold fictions. and offerings of his friends and relations " he received had priests retained and paid to offer sacrifices to him he had slaves.). For any city placed near the eastern border 1 \Ve borrow the translation of this inscription.156 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 171 {Rcciieil de Traraax. Like house of the living. . thousands of oxen. the house of the double. at Beni-Hassan. 4to.. thousands of garments. i. beasts of burden. Maspero. but after a mystic principle of its own. when thus installed in a dwelling furnished for his use. Grande Inscription de Beni-Hassan._ Conference. that is. 282. and estates charged with his support. the inscription of Amoni-AmenemSee Maspero. p. thousands of geese. . The double. p. of the prince all ^ good and pure things to the ka. question of distance. hereditary another epigraph of the same period. as well as the reflections which precede it. A few unimportant groups of tombs have indeed been found upon the eastern bank but these exceptions to a general rule are doubtless to be explained by a . the tomb deserved the name it received. thousands of double. p. Man has his dawn and his settinsj." '^ This analogy between the house and the tomb is so complete that it embraces details which do not seem very congruous. According to M. from M. of jars of drink. bank of the Nile." the necropolis of Memphis and those of Abydos and Thebes. ends by disappearing after his death into the depths of the soil. or Entef " Thanks to all these subtle precautions. like the magnified evening . All the known pyramids were built in the west. As soon as the Egyptian began to think he perceived the most obvious of the similarities between the sun's career and that of man. more important "cities of the dead. it An invocation of the same kind is to be dates from about the twelfth d3nasty. in the west of the country. sun. etc. La prince of the nome of Meh. service. found in hait. the the tomb was strictly oriented. In Egypt the sun sets every evening behind the Libyan chain thence he penetrates into those subterranean regions of Anient across which he has to make his way before the dawn of the next The Egyptian cemeteries were therefore placed on the left day. 382).

'O chief. sees the sun rise as youthful and ardent as the Why then should not man. nor at Thebes is there a tomb which is lighted from the west or presents its inscription to the setting sun. p. of course." Thus.^SPERO. ii. towards the setting sun.^ But neither at Memphis. Maspero Hor-Khom say. p.'^ the cemeteries of the right bank we may mention that of Telhelwhere the tombs would have been too far from the city had they been dug in the Libyan Chain. 43 The tombs in the Arab Chain form. an exception to this rule. To the West. February-April." says Mariette. the dead have their eyes turned to that quarter of the heavens where the life-giving flame is each day rekindled. as thou goest toward the West. - 148). 1881. Abydos. from the shadowy depths where they dwell. In spite of these exceptions. and the Egyptians followed out the analogy by the way in which they disposed their sepulchres. Amarna : ' praisewortliy one. The cemeteries of Beni-Hassan and of Eilithyia {El-Kab) are also in the Arab Chain.. vol. were turned to the east. vol. 'D/ of the wider parts of the Nile valley. new series. *" The symbolic connection established bv man between the course of the sun . Toinhcs dc I'Aiicien Empire.and there direction. is a stele. to the West. the west was the real quarter of the dead. xix. after completing his subterranean journey and triumphing over the terrors of Anient. funcraires (Journal asiatique. ^ in the Riviie archeologique. sur quelqucs Peintures p. a burying-place in the Libyan chain would be very inconvenient both for the transport of the dead. 14. as is proved by the tearful funeral " The mourners before the ever-to-be praised songs translated by M. "four times out of five. both door and stele are more often turned towards the south. cast off the darkness of the tomb and again see the light of day ? undying hope was revivified at each dawn as by a new promise.''' not a single stele which does not face in that In the ne- Abydos.Sepulchral Architecture. that is towards the sun at its zenith.'is/«yt. They were placed in the west of their country. is In the necropolis of Memphis. and seem to be waiting for the ray which is to destroy their night and to rouse them from their long repose. the gods lament thee. "In the further wall of the chamber. p. at Abydos." {Les 1 2)." * ^ {Ibidem. oh ' Among . "It is so.^ Each morning morning before. however. to the excellent AVest ' ! " M. and for the sepulchral duties of the survivors. their natural hal. the openings through which their inmates would one day regain the This light.iitation. but their doors. and im'ariaHy facing eastwards. The unusual circumstances which took them eastward of the river forced them also to neglect the traditional law.) Mariette.' The friends who close the procession repeat. the is door of nearly every tomb cropolis of turned to the east.

more or These consisted Fig. ioo.) . they could afford they purchased places in a common tomb. Those who. (See his remarks on to explain the the tomb of Ranieses V. of the king. irrespective of class. When and to guard against the terrors of annihilation Mais. the humble peasant or boatman on the Nile was as an. the princes and nobles. on the iS5th and following pages of his Letlres d' Egypte. described were The ideas and beliefs which we have common he felt his last hour approaching. a habitation for eternity thev could not look for jovs in the other world which they had been unable to procure in that such So tombs as those which most less fully embodied the ideas we ha^e vilege described must always have remained the exclusive priof the oroverninfj classes. the priests. alive. and functionaries of every kind down scribes attached to the administration. Louvre. nth dynasty. — Lid of the coffin of Entef. the military chiefs. The painted figures If upon the helped to keep off evil influences. jusqu'en son : tre'pas. accompanied by scarabs and other charms to protect them against malignant coffin also it spirits.xious as Pharaoh himself to insure the survival of" his double to all Egyptians. to the humblest of the for those As Egyptians at least who less did not belong to this aristocracy. The less poor among them took measures to be embalmed and to be placed in a coffin of wood or papicr-niackc'. Sec. had to be content with a hut of earth or when dead. they had to be content with expensive arrangements. could not. Le riche a des honneurs que le pauvre n'a pas. expect to have a . where the mummies were heaped one upon the other and confided to the care of priests who performed the funerary rites for a whole and his own life paintings in the royal was well understood by Champollion.158 A History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. brick. who used it tombs at Thebes. when of reeds. tomb of stone or this.

his wife and children. his wife and children " Medledk.). E.Sepulchral Architecture. his wife and children. 6. Louvre. from Thebes "Psenmoutli. "Pipee. his wife and children . 1875. lii. . There are many more lists of the same kind. The above p. chamber at once. . the son of Petenhefhotep the boatman. Om/ja and ti. the mason " Amenoth. Louvre. ioi. is still used by the Nubians and Abyssinians. father of Phratreou. to heads have used from the most ancient times for the support of their This contrivance. from Hermouth " . . — I- uiierary amulets. the cowherd. his wife and children " Psenimonthis.^. necessity for continually rearranging their complicated head-dress. the papyrus 1 Upon is known as the Papyrus Casati.^ It 159 was the frequent custom to put with the dead those pillows of wood or alabaster which the Egyptians seem Pigs. " This is the list of bodies belonging to Osorvaris : — " Imouth. mention is made of a priest who charged to watch over a wliole collection of mummies. the fuller . 104. IU3. which does away with the in sleep. " Aplou. the carpenter." . 8vo. is cited from M. 102. the carpenter. The . Le Blant {Tables egypfiennes a Iiiscriplioiis grecques. — Scarabs. son of Petenefhotep.

at Thebes as well as at Memphis. allowed themselves to be surprised by death. to embellish his it Khnumhotep . Many were unable to obtain even this minimum of funeral honours. first lines of which run thus has Burial-place of the Poor.^ ' and caused their tombs to be constructed Their forethought when living and the Rhind {T/icbes. as we Whether kings while they were made their preparations alive. the fortunate ones of the world.. 83. Tombs and their Tenants. for ever by his . . corpses are found deposited surface. in the loose sand two or three feet others are roughly enveloped in a few morsels of linen. They never so often do. See also the great inscription of " The hereditary chief . 1862.. — Pillow. On the other hand... 105. On the confines of all the great cemeteries.i6o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the chapter headed 2 A : Beni-Hassan.. those in who were so easy no expense in their circumstances in this life that they could place themselves in the same happy condition in the ne. Louvre. p. They have been hastily dipped rather in a bath of natron..^ precautions have been omitted. the district Mariette. under their own eyes.). PlO. spared anything connected with their or private individuals. But those who could procure even these sHght advantages u-ere still among the favourites of fortune. Some from the of these are packed in the leaves of the palm.xt. Tomhes de V Ancien Empire. H. its See in the interesting work of Mr. they still burial. The sand seems to have been intrusted with the work of drying them. Sometimes even these slender Bodies have been found in the earth without vestige of either coffin or linen swathes. London. and they have been found in our days in the condition of skeletons. 8vo. which has dirtied than embalmed them. he has made a monument for the first time he has embellished sculptured his name for ever .

all As that for the narrow of |)it it is into which the it lowered. Whenever we moderns have opened any of those ancient tombs which have we have been met by the same discoveries. he has sculptured the names of all his household he has The workmen. when all piety or pride stimulates to the decoration of a tomb. L Y . at Boulak we find the following phrases Be found with thy dwelling finished in the funerary valley in every enterprise which thou meditatest may the morning 7vhen thy body shall he hid be present to thee. vol. chamber of Karneter assigned their place. from them that we have obtained our treasures of Egyptian All the other nations of the ancient world followed the set. the painter the care of the architect. we demand that should .' " (From the French of M. penetrated with similar ideas. many of their tombs have subsisted uninjured to our day. . in Etruria or Campania. good example thus being all or rather. Cyprus or Greece. the same astonishing The tombs are filled with precious objects sight meets our eyes. those attached to his house. : ' : Journal asiaiique. he has reckoned amongst p.] was. to the edifice which surmounts the actual grave. The palaces of the princes and rich men of Egypt were so lightly built that they have left no traces upon the soil . but it is and art. t." [Birch. ordered to be finished after their death (Suetonius. they took similar courses without borrowing one from the other. is based ujaon our belief that the tomb of the deposit confided to eternal life. p. VOL. a more or less sincere its is manifestation of the grief of a family or of society at large for the loss of one of "mortal coil " members. piety of relations spared nothinc^ that could add to the beauty i6i and were to which be the eternal convenience of dwellings resting places of their inmates. in Asia Minor. his dependants of It ranks. again to see the light of day. Ed. 165. as plain The grave in or other receptacle for the coffin is and simple the most sumptuous monuments of our cemeteries as in the most humble. " To be laid to tomb which he had made for himself and furnished with every necessary was the greatest good which the gods could insure to an Egyptian. xv. 7th series. no doubt. it empty that the vital part has escaped to rejoin the current of things a Under such conditions the tomb becomes above all commemorative structure. and chefs doeuvres of art which their depositors had intended never happily remained intact. Records of the Fast. in order to conform to the Egyptian custom that in Antony and Cleopatra commenced rest in the that tomb which Augustus 17). Maspero. their lifetime xii. In Papyrus IV. Our is funerary architecture . Augustus.— Sepulchral Architecture. Whether it be in Egypt or Phcenicia. note i). In modern is times. 67. to speak more accurately. the sculptor and given to the outside.

later. He gathers immediately about him all the . necessaries. or. most beautiful painted vases ever Identity of religious conception thus led. comforts and luxuries which he can afford and death is an illness from which there is no recovery. to which they had been So we find that the Egyptians. Schliemann. and Campania with the produced by Greek taste. for her activity. house as a house in which the dead was to lead some kind of Rich men wished their tombs to look well outside. the innumerable objects of gold and silver which now fill the museum of Athens thus the tombs of Bceotia were filled with those marvels of grace and delicate workmanship. when they built their own tombs or those of their relations. existence. Impelled by such ideas as these. were willing enough. shape of a regularly constructed but the chief object of solicitude to the proud possessor portico For tomb. Art makes no attempt to to be deep enough and properly closed. pediment and columns . such a of him there was no removal should he be discontented with his of a mountain.xcavation and of building it visible parts of the tomb. tomb as an inhabited very different. was its internal furnishing and disposition. The . into the lodging. ideas of the ancients on this matter were. even to the distant spectator. the accustomed during life. to throw a iuimdus of earth above it. as we have seen. in the sepulchres discovered by Dr. illumine darkness. the side In those sepulchres which were cut out of the fronts were carved with frieze. from end to end of . . proper name of those mysterious people) buried. but is and confines herself to the within furnishes the pretext dead The is the admiration of the living that her real incentive. he takes care to surround himself with everything want. the luxuries. a constructed building which was con- They looked upon the spicuous at a distance.i62 A its History of Art in Ancient Egypt. When a man is condemned by illness or accident to keep that his he may room. but it was to the inside that their They wished to find there all the chief attention was turned. She its leaves walls workmen the task of e. Greeks or the Etruscans. the comforts. all the more that they seemed well guarded against intrusion for the Thus the Achseans of Mycenre (if that be the sake of gain. the terra cottas of Tanagra and those of Etruria . the ancients filled their tombs with precious objects and decorated them with sumptuous art.

and many an European leaves Egypt without seeing any other ancient building. ^2. The general observations to which it has given rise have been made once for all. to funerary arrangements which bore a curious resemblance one to another. 2). The Tomb under tJic Ancient E??ipirc. Until Egypt became a mere geographical expression and her venerable civilization lost its independence and originality. Among Pyramids. exhausted. i6 J the antique world. when we describe the funeral customs of other ancient peoples. which. the most interesting to the traveller are. of course. as a whole. so that sepulchral architecture among the ancients had. upon the topmost stone of the pyramid of Cheops. We of a shall then confine ourselves to pointing out the slight differences which naturally spring up in the several interpretations common have belief to We still show how the varying circumstances of time and place caused the Egyptian tomb to pass through certain modifications of form and decoration. and above the dust thrown up by the teeming population of the city. however. and have painfully dragged and thrust him along those passages of the interior which will ever be among his most disagreeable recollections. At that distance their peaks seem light and slender from their height above the horizon (Plate I. and we shall not have to repeat them of the moderns. a very different character from that This character is more strongly marked in Egypt than anywhere else. During all this his eyes and thoughts are entirely given to the preservation of his own equilibrium. He thinks that he has qualified himself to discourse upon Egyptian architecture because a few shouting Arabs have landed him. and therefore we have studied it in detail. and he sees nothing of the real constitution of the structure he has come to visit. were never of so radical a nature as to affect its general appearance and arrangement. of those raised the tombs which date from the time of the ancient empire. the Long before his arrival at Cairo he sees the summits artificial mountains rising into the air above the vapours by the sun. In spite of the wonderful panorama which repays the fatigues . these latter remained practically unchanged. The tourist's first visit is paid to the Pyramids.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire.

' Briefe aiis ^'Egypten. We and in shall. This name was given by the labourers employed upon the excavations. xix. of which Lepsius was the the interest. we shall enters into more content ourselves with epitomizing his descriptions. which was first clearly brought to light by the many and deep excavations carried out by Mariette. Mariette was struck by the fitness of the expression. these tombs. we shall assign the first place to those private tombs. Mariette will be our constant guide in this part of our study. in their comparatively restricted dimensions. reserve the for future treatment. the Pyramids. of which the principal ones are figured in the Denkmceler. can be to perceive traced to a single type. ' Lexicographers do not seem to know the origin of foreign. Notwithstanding a few differences.164 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. or ottomans. as a whole. 23 et scq. and. of the ascent. this word . and of the overpowering. perhaps Persian. they believe it to be 2 Vol. of the Rcvtic archcologique. After having he published his opened in many In all hundreds essential . p.impression made upon the their colossal mass. Uefore the Prussian commission left Middle for Upper Egypt they had studied 130 private tombs. 1-22 and £1-89. has been known for some years past by the Arab term masiabaj^ which means literally a bench. which are found in every room of an oriental dwelling. pp. therefore. these monuments.^ This type. in dating from the Ancient Empire. our review of the successive forms taken by sepulchral architecture. their arrangement and ornamentation are less rich and expressive than those of of the many sepulchres built by private individuals. what we may call a theory of the mastaba. which are to be found necropolis of the to Memphis.^ matters we shall allow words to is speak for themselves necessary for detail than when he our purpose. Many answer latter. royal burying-places as they are. . a bench of stone or wood. (1869). which bear some resemblance to those divans. and used it ever after to designate that particular kind of tomb. first which we shall refer hereafter. The largest and best preserved are not so old as some of the tombs in mind by far are the necropolis of Memphis. as we see them to-day from being the most complete and interesting of the sepulchral monuments left to us by the early dynasties. and seemed well adapted to their long and low shapes. better to the definition of a tomb suggested Pyramids to us by our study of the national beliefs.

The same sand covered the coffinless corpse of the pauper with its kindly particles. The space over which the is monuments which we propose lett to describe are spread. .but with time 1 Ebers {. such as Heliopolis. At first there was plenty of room. and Memphis seems failed. and extends largest from AboH-Roasli to Dashour . could Excavations have apparently. there was a continual procession of corpses from Memphis and probably from towns on the other side of the Nile. in all probability. who describes the early capital of Egypt as it reaching to the foot of the Libyan chain. to have been the largest city of Egypt. It consists of a thick bed of soft limestone. For forty centuries itself. It would thus have formed a very long and rather narrow city. and of an average width ot from two to two and It was. It was easy. miles. the cemetery in the world. extends westwards of the stepped pyramid in the manner which the necropolis was developed can be readily seen. of which the seems to site may still be traced by the more or less barren hillocks strewn with blocks of granite and fragments of walls. which crop up from the plain between Gizeh and Chinbab.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. p. On the contrary. or to dig the mummy pits in its substance. at Sakkarah. and the winds might be trusted to quickly cover the grave with sand which would protect it when made. and to have boasted an antiquity which only Thinis rival. close upon the river. but in - making it 137) gives this necropolis a length of more than forty-five extend to Meidoum he seems to be exaggerating. In walking Upon the plateau which.'Egj'plen. have been confined between the canal which is called the Bahr Yitsscf and the Nile. The formation of this plateau makes it peculiarly well adapted for the purpose to which it was put. either to lay bare the rock and to construct the tomb upon it. on the bank ot the Nile.^ its and suburbs. being more than fifteen miles in length. and the corpses were strewn somewhat thinl\. it is thus.. covered by a layer of sand which varies in depth from many yards to a few feet according to the inequalities of the ground beneath it. i6t THE MASTABAS OF THE NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS.in the sand. Age after age the dead were interred by millions in this great haven of rest. therefore. to the plateau which lies along the foot of the Libyan chain. the burial-place for Memphis a half miles. in a word. to confirm the assertion of Strabo.

Sometimes these new comers even intruded into the tombs of those who had gone before them.) we shall often have to refer. The mastabas of Sakkarah will receive most of our attention. to any extent they pleased. Bourgoin is. both in arrangement and in decoration. and that without always troubling themselves to conceal their usurpation by effacing the name of the rightful owner. with his wife and all his family (c. until at last bodies were squeezed into the narrowest spaces between older inhabitants. We may quote as an interesting example of such usurpation the Theban tomb first opened by a Scottish traveller. 1862. to whose interesting work {Thebes. and the Etruscans. Each generation. that of . All the niaslabas belong to the period of the Memphite empire. the Greeks. a high official of the time of the Ptolemies. a Memphite form of Osiris. The son. when he in turn became the head of a family. 2 Mariette {Voyage dans la haute Egypte. and the most complete expression of the ideas formed by the men of that remote age concerning death and the life beyond the grave. a second which possesses sculptures of the twenty-sixth dynasty. both above and below ground. as we shall see.xtent by the non-employment of those family tombs which. The general appearance now presented by these monuments may be guessed from the sketch which JVI. differ only in unimportant details from those at Sakkarah.1 66 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. son of Menkara. Longman. iv. Those who built them were able to give free play to their fancies. each human couple marked their passage through the world by the erection of a new tomb. by a brother and sister whose statues were found in it. built a tomb for himself. 32) thought that the word Sakkarah was an ancient name derived from Socharis. eastwards. The husband and father of a family admitted into it only his wife and such of their children as died young.). Ancient and Present. The Egyptian sepulchre was a personal appanage. were made use of by the Phcenicians. economy of space had to be practised. Henry Rhind. ivith a Record of Excavations in t/ie Neeropoiis. We may therefore look upon them as the freest. in the neighbourhood of the Great Pyramid.^ The number of tombs was increased to a prodigious e. and in describing them we shall often have occasion to quote the words of Mariette. 8vo. and to develop the structure. This tomb seems to have been made in the reign of Amenophis III. we pass a first zone tombs which date from the Ancient Empire. the most spontaneous. and a third which dates from the Greek period. p. from the pyramid towards the cultivated land. but it also contained Sebau. i/s Tombs and their Tenants.^ Those which are to be found in the more northern part of the necropolis.

however. This inclination has led some people to assert that nothing more than an unfinished pyramid. their ridges. Drawn by Bourgoiii. it is to The way in which the mastabas were arranged with respect xiv. upon which these structures are planned. of Lepsius's first volume (map of the pyramids of Gizeh and panorama taken from the simimit of the second pyramid). always runs due north and south. would not meet some eight or nine hundred yards. 167 sent us of the tomb of all Sabou (Fig. — . 106). were the walls prolonged upwards. " The major axis of All the others show the same intention. in plates . and. rectangular on plan. The other mastabas figured by us have been more or less restored. and at the pyramids of Gizeh. The mastaba is a massive structure. with four faces of plain walling. Such an idea is refuted. each being inclined at a stated angle towards their common it is centre.^ The more carefully built mastabas the rectangle are oriented according to the true astronomical north. they are arranged upon a symmetrical plan so as to resemble a chess board on which all the squares are strictly oriented. or aretes. is by the fact that the divergence from the perpendicular lor in some cases so slight that. more justly to the space comprised between two hori- zontal sections of an obelisk. in those instances is where an be clearly is error of a few degrees - to be discovered.i. The mastaba might be Fig. 106. the necropolis of the west. The tomb of Sabou.The Tomb under the Ancient has " Empire.Actual condition of compared a mastab. to each other well shown and xviii. supposing the obelisk to have an oblong base.

after the pLin of Lepsius. Perspective view. {Denkmnler. pi. We the often find that the northern face " not strictly parallel to southern. Although not varying much from true orientation. I Since the time of Jomard tions still many of the mastabas have been changed by the excavadihris. builder. .) It follows that the chess-board is arrangement which is so con- spicuous at Gizeh there not here to be noticed. the mastabas of Sakkarah are not arranged with the symmetry which distinguishes those on the south and west of the Great Pyramid.^ They are sprinkled about in a rather haphazard fashion. vol. and made a great impression upon the members of the lowing are the words of Jomard {Description. Even at Sakkarah were streets between the rows of tombs." p. Fig. " Institut d'Egypte. v. and not to a difference of intention. 107. making nearly four hundred in all. another. —Three mastabas at Gireh. The sand under which many of them are buried leaves their forms easily distinguishable. in each direction. 24. vol.i68 A History of Art in Ancient EovrT. nor that on the west to that on the east. Here we find them well interspaced and there actually placed one upon another." almost to the Pyramids. monuments. and exactly aligned one with counted fourteen rows of them. a attributed to carelessness fault in on the part of the is common these tombs. into mere formless heaps of and yet the general arrangement can be clearly followed. i. 619): The fol- "From the top of the building one sees an infinite quantity of the long rectangular structures extending They are carefully oriented. but they are so the regularity of its ' The general aspect of this city of the dead. on the west of the Great Pyramid. and as many on the east.

Fig. — Restoration of part of the Necropolis of Gizeh. and parts of important monuments. The more Z VOL. 169 and they are often so narrow. Empire. with a proportionate length and thickness. such as the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. But the Sakkarah architects were more modest. " Our general notion of Egyptian architecture would lead us to fact. look for the use of huge stones in these mastabas. and. brick-built sepulchres are of two kinds also. that the being nothing more than blind inexperienced visitor may " " well fancy himself in a maze. such as the Temple of the Sphinx and the passages and chambers of the greater pyramids. The tombs upon which it was used seem to be much the oldest in the necropolis they are also the least rich and important. This latter stone was used for the Stepped Pyramid. the blocks are of an important average height of about half a yard. were constructed of very large blocks. The mastabas of stone are of two kinds those of a very : hard blue siliceous limestone and those of a softer chalky limestone which is found upon the spot. . The Sakkarah mastabas are built either of stone or brick. in certain monuments. ioS. architraves and other places where big stones were necessary. many of them alleys. " The I. Apart from the ceilings. .The Tomb under the Ancient irregularly placed.

" construction which astonishino^. like the pyramids and most of the mastabas They are confused heaps of ill assorted materials. of rubbish. mastabas Sakkarah are not homogeneous constructions of masonry and cement. the chief preoccupation of their architects should have been to give a stability to their sepulchres which would have insured their perpetuity. on the other hand. they were rarely employed. in. the are comparatively large (i5'2 x 7'2 x 56 in. appear for At first the first time about midway through the fourth dynasty. more ancient. used for the yellow bricks are a mixture of sand and pebbles with the black bricks are of earth and straw. for the retaining strength of their covering of . The core of their walls is composed of sand. sidering the ideas which the Egyptians had formed of a future Fig. Their The yellow bricks seem to be the employment begins and ends with the Ancient Empire. which of Gizeh. that of the deposit committed to their charge.). Both kinds are dried simply in the sun. in. and all The this in most cases without any cement to give it coherence.Faraoun. — The Mastabat-el. (8"8 in. with it. The black bricks. these mastabas are constructed with care on their outsides alone. but under the eighteenth dynasty and those which followed it. of would collapse but solid stone. and. a little The former latter are always small x 4-4 in. x 2'S in. 109. whether of brick or stone. they came to be exclusively used. betray an of neelieence in their is amount Conlife.I70 A The clay . is elaborate are of black brick. The whole of our description will be pervaded by " Now accounts of the minute precautions devised to that end. History of x^rt ix Ancient Egypt. of blocks of stone mingled with the flakes struck off by the masons.) . All these mastabas. while a yellowish brick others.

and the water would last long enough to satisfy at least the immediate necessities their curious position of the inhabitant of the tomb. The highest are not more than from 26 . but soil Fig.t. and that of Hapi no more than 25 ft.iba at Sakkarah. height they vary less. 6 in.The Tomb under the Ancient " Emitrk. i/i At Sakkarah the outward faces of the mastaba are not smooth. 6 in. — Entrance to a M. by the water with which they were filled. There are mastabas of all sizes. by 19 ft. Marictte. above it is sprinkled with vases buried These vases are pretty evenly distributed. . that of Ra-en-ma 169 by In 81. Each successive course is slightly set back from the one below it. they are rather more numerous covers the ceilings in that part of the chambers. the smallest about 12.i?. 149 by 74." is The roof of the mastaba . those Mariette often made use to guide him in his excavations. They were placed in of this epoch. " to 30 ft. That of Sabou measures 172 feet by 84 that of Ha-ar. high. a which circumstance of which soil of the Like which are found all the vases upon the roof of the mastabas are roughly made. under the notion that the water which they contained would quench the thirst of the dead man below. At Gizeh the walls form a smooth plane gently inclined from the perpendicular. a plain surface without irregularity of any kind but the at a slight depth. pointed at the bottom and without They each contain a thin film of yellow clay deposited handles. The flat mouths of the jars were covered with stones. no.

When the recess is found near the southern angle of the eastern face. III. in most instances. Several of these lintels. of a peculiar shape. " Still in turn. stele. found upon this face.i. ends there. in relative importance. are to be seen in the Louvre. in the depths of which a monolithic stele of white limestone covered with hieroglyphs is placed or a regular architectural fagade in . Louvre. supports more seldom than in the northern face. and more carefully built recess. epoch are carved upon this recess an unimportant we occasionally substituted. we meet with a door. comes that which is turned to the north When the entrance is in the northern wall the door is invariably at the back of a kind of vestibule. in front of which are two monolithic columns. The name of its proprietor is often carved upon the lintel.: A The is History of Art in Ancient Egypt. instead of the niche or recess. very i. : The general arrangement almost always. when there is. we then know that we have come upon a regularly completed tomb. 6th dynasty. the recess acts as substitute for one. caused by some occasionally found local circumstance which may readily be perceived. It has no internal chamber. as follows easteni At a few metres distance from the iiorthangle we come upon a quadrangular niche or recess. high and very narrow. When the . is " principal face of the mastaba turned to the east. is with or without inscription. the roof. without base or capital. the tomb begins and Fig. supporting the architrave which. either a deeper. larger. its chambers. In is four cases out of five the entrance to one. miniature with a door in the centre. the entrance is upon that which is turned to the south. — Lintel of the tomb of Tela. or rather. " Next after the eastern face. at a few metres distance from the south-eastern angle. But when. in the depths of which those long vertical this grooves which distinguish the steles of For the actual masonry of the tomb. or (2) find. This exceptional arrangement is.

it is important to study the species when fully developed and provided with all its organs. in a few. " As for the western face. the outside of the mastaba. as long as the mastaba continued to be built. The last-named of the three is the only part which is never wanting. the principles upon which it was oriented. But in these pages. In them the chamber is in a very rudimentary condition. we have no evidence that it ever played any more ambitious role than that of completing the inclosure. being represented merely by one of those external niches which Mariette has described. how this single type of sepulchre was repeated We many thousands of times with but slight variations. We have explained. with Mariette. solid. sometimes the other. the less ambitious tenants of the necropolis were contented to reproduce it. and that. When we have clearly established a general type nothing is more easy than to recognise and point out its variations. and. the former to present. upon the plateau between Memphis and the desert there gradually arose a metropolis of the dead more populous than that of the living. of the two which we have described. the serdab. we shall afterwards penetrate. — It is natural that we should first turn our attention to the This was a kind of neutral ground upon which the quick and the dead could meet. and its average size." have thus explored. It remains to describe the contents of those hu^e blocks of masonry. they are of an unaccustomed importance. in fact. We shall begin by visiting the chambers planned by the architect in the building itself. as in a natural history. . We have described its form and general aspect. too.The Tomb under the Ancient entrance is Empire. some in another of those constituent parts whose meaning and uses we shall attempt to determine. and the well. This arrangement was the earliest. receive the funeral offerings. to those recesses of the tomb which were meant to be for ever inaccessible. Many of the mastabas are. 173 arrangement is sometimes the one. The interior of a mastaba is composed of three parts the chamber. debris of ages by the paths which modern curiosity has established through the and the depths of the soil. we have noticed the materials of which it was constructed. the latter to chamber. It is always destitute of both openings and its on the south ornaments. until. It suffices to say here that some ombs are wanting in one.

in fact. 115). At its further end. in latter arrange- tomb of chamber. 112. In the tomb of which it was inscribed.— Mastaba at Sakkarah. but there are none where the walls are carved and in the stele plain. the stele proper is on the left. is lighted from the roof. " These chambers have. to the facade. then.. is sometimes quite bare. depend upon the door for light. 113.». divided into interior ' mastaba is may be tomb several chambers (there are It three in the of Ti). but generally there only one. in the roof. but the figures and the funerary inscriptions cover all the central part of the richly decorated wall (Fig. Figs. 114. sometimes covered and paintings such as those whose character and meaning we have already pointed out. " The chamber sculptures with .— Pbn of the tomb of Ti. and always facing eastwards. but there are a few instances in which they are lighted from openings A in remarkable example of the the Ti. There are some chambers stele which the walls are bare and the engraved. " At the foot of the stele there was often a table for offerings. We see. of which we reproduce the principal side. that the stele is the one indispensable part of It was. which otherwise would be is ment to be seen where the innermost complete darkness.. stands the inscribed tablet or stele. upon the formula with this complicated whole. from Prisse. |*»~_J mm Fir. that the Egyptians depended for those magical agencies by which Osiris became the active medium of transmission between the living and the dead.1/4 " ' A The is HibTORY OF Art of a in Ancient Egvft. ." Ptah-Hotep. entered by the door in the middle of as a rule.

nt MM n i\ I I M H II n I I II ly f M I JJJJJI i .

.

^ " The use of the serdab in it . The entrance was in fact left without a door. A A . the best preserved being . 114). oftener on the south than the built of north. alabaster. high. one of these was In the latter in the close to the door. of a future prison. or corridor. laid flat 771 granite. but in other instances a narrow quadrangular opening. To this rule Mariette found but two exceptions in the many hundreds of tombs which he examined. Its strict meaning is a dark subterranean opening. entirely walled in. ' The tomb of Ti had two serdabs as well as three chambers of Ti were found. or two objects in that material resembling table legs hollowed out but occasionally find. of which we shall often have to speak (Fig. Gizeh which has i'our "Sometimes there is the serdab has no communication with the other it is parts of the mastaba. is revealed by the objects which have hold one or more statues of the been found deceased. narrow. always with the exception of the mummy itself. on each side of the stele and always placed upon the ground. - This is a word of Persian origin adopted by the Arabs.^ " Not far from the chamber. at 1 16-1 19 we give the plan and three sections of a mastaba serdabs. a sort of pipe or conduit. a passage in the masonry. or limestone. some remains of which were found in place when the tomb was opened. it The workmen employed upon and their the excavations christened the ^ name has been generally adopted. is found. we at the top for the reception of offerings. it was to The Egyptians life believed these statues to be the most certain guarantees. now museum VOL. or passage. which unites the serdab with the chamber.The Tomb under the Ancient in Empire. very large stones. It is so small that the hand can only be introduced into it with difficulty. I." This chamber was left open to every comer. they for the dead. This was upon the ground (Fig. The large public hall near the entrance to the tomb was separated from the two chambers farther in by a corridor closed at two points by doors. the other in the innermost part of the mastaba. " As a rule this was the only piece of furniture in the chamber . either two small limestone obelisks. 92)." In Figs. while they were separated only by a few stones from the chamber where the 1 One of these exceptions is furnished by the tomb of Ti. cave. several statues at Boulak. and serdab. and oftener on the north than the west. Hidden from sight in their dark were protected from all violence.

i. in the public hall of the tomb. ii6. at Gizeh (Fig." So that the function of the serdab was be to afford a safe and final were. pi. . . we find a statue in one of those front courts which. and the statues ' In a Theban tomb described by M. p. to the statues.— Plan (Lepsiu-. through which See Herbert Spencer. Fig 117. pass from its supporting statues to the chapel in which spirit it is honoured. . 29 . The Iroquois contrived an opening of very small diameter in their tombs. 2 i. was open to every chance passer by. I have breathed It is also possible that this conduit may the scent of the perfumes and incense. — Longitudinal section of the same mastaba. allowed the smell of fruit and fat to intervening wall was incense and the smoke of burnt " come to their nostrils. These Fig.) m . There is an example of Lepsius {Denkiiiccler. . mastaba iii. i • i • its place.178 friends A and History of Art in Ancient Egypt. . is found among many nations. vol. . he was sometimes portrayed in high and of full life size. as well as the have been in great favour." have been intended to permit of the free circulation of the dutib/e. is Maspero {Etude to siir quelques Peintures funeraires) the tenant. Sociology. to allow it to : made speak thus " I have come. also. of n mastaba with four Serdabs. •^ . not to mention the numerous bas-reliefs upon which the figure to asylum no doubt. chamber. especially at the time of the fourth dynasty. 24. and the conduit by which the often pierced. of the deceased appeared in the or chamber i • pi. Principles of the soul of the dead could pass and repass. 44). because. And no objects other than statues have ever inscriptions No been found in a serdab. the niche which sometimes took . See No. 95 of i. 192. but that cannot dispense with an opening altogether..^ have been found in a serdab except those upon the statues. vol. Harmhabi. vol. relations met together. my . This curious it idea.^ Sometimes. 120). this in a p. f ? "* found in other situations also. But this court. seem to relief. that the of the dead can pass through a very small hole. received I have bread joining the embahiied offerings to my members.

/. square or rectangular is division./. which was freely left open.y-. never round. in continual Empire. We have not been content with visiting the chamber only. at the bottom of which the chamber in which to the the " mummy To is deposited. secrets massive walls -yet which their constructor thought to hide for ever from the eye of man. have now described all those parts of the tomb which were above ground. and have of discovered the those Fig. and nine-tenths of them were found in These precautions were not efficient .y:.The Tomb under the Ancient which they both contained were It was less or malicious hands.. ill conceived.^^/4^/imiMmmii'Myy^. We trated into the farthest recesses.section through the serdabs. we must mount . When all those which were exposed to accident should have perished. The well is an artificial in plan. —Transverse section throujih the chamber. these would still survive and would furnish to the double the material support. of burial " . we have penei. the well or pit. arrive at the opening of the well. — Transverse . the tangible body. the serdabs. Fig. 119. not arrived at the actual place we shall reach however. But even we have it. to which that phantom was obliged to attach himself unless he wished to perish entirely. 118. The serdab kept guard over its deposit the museum of Boulak contains at least a hundred statues from the ancient empire which were found at Sakkarah. through our third internal excavation. 179 danger from careto guard against such chances as these that the inventive architects of Egypt contrived a safe retreat in the heart of the massive structure which should provide a reserve of statues against every contingency.

. but.^?/:i'. or roof.xty-five or even eighty feet. but whether it opened upon the roof or upon the floor of the chamber. it must have been a very inaccessible part of the tomb. in the tomb of Ti. 122). The built part of the well is carefully .^r<'^/. on an average. staircase to a was never will be seen that the well 5^^^^^«j. upon the major axis of the Its mastaba. it is about forty feet. it has a depth of si. the well is sunk from the tloor of the largest of the internal chambers. it follows that it passes vertically first through the mastaba. As the well begins at the platform and ends in the rock carved mummy is chamber. of the mastaba (Fig." In one single instance. and.iSo A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. as a nearer to the north than to the south. As there any mastaba either within or without. it was always closed with the utmost care by means of a large flat stone. namely.*5». platform. depth varies.iS.^5^^>". however. Now and then.:v:.: " The well is generally situated rule. secondly through the rock upon which the mastaba founded.

the room with a view to which the whole structure has been planned and to which all its other parts are but accessories. 22. The sarcophagus was placed in one corner of the chamber. which he make out a few phrases which Ritual of the Dead. chamber. he contrived to seemed to belong 'to the ^ This figure is a composition by Mariette for the purpose of showing the relation between the subterranean and constructed parts of the tomb.^^-''y^ mastaba. that is to say. p. does not describe. an arrangement which is not characteristic of the mastaba. and on a few occasions of opaque black basalt. which is the mortuary chamber properly speaking. the well opening from the floor of the U])per chamber. well. does not parallel It is quite the axis of the to::y. which run not high enough to allow one to walk upright. walls ornamented in the middle of decorations. corpse of the deceased under their at a distance which varied according are large to Fig. but generally without and ornament or its inscription. In the common form of well the ropes. mummy pit could only be reached by means of * "When is the bottom of the well is reached a gaping passage seen in the is rock which forms to its southern wall. It was generally of fine limestone. I8l distinguishing In the characteristics empire. Suddenly it becomes enlarged into a small cavern. " This mortuary chamber hall is vertically under the public survivors above.— The Tomb under the Ancient constructed of large and perfect stones. It was rectangular on plan with a round-topped lid squared at the angles. like the chamber above.^»^'-M//. the depth of the well. Ed. sometimes of red granite. This passage. directed obliquely wards the south-east. however. {^Notice des principaux 3fonuments. 121." —The and mummy upper chamber.' The mortuary chambers all carefully built. so that the togrether in who came the latter for the funeral ceremonies had the feet.) [It shows. and the Empire. Of its those explored by him Mariette found but one which had ." tomb ot in this we find one of tombs of the ancient Ti the well takes the form of an of the inclined plain like a passage in the pyramids.] .

is The fits under-side of the cover into a corresponding made with a rebate at its edw which groove on the upper edge of the sarcophagus. wooden bolts were affixed to the under-side of the lid which fitted into slots in the sarcophagus and helped to render the two inseparable. pi. 22). —Double mastaba al Gizeli. which was discovered at Gizeh and belongs to the fourth dynasty (Figs. .l82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. transverse section (from Lepsius. very hard cement. i." So far as we can judge from the few human remains which have been gathered from these ancient tombs. t.. Finally. and it was this imperfection that the Egyptians attempted to neutralize. inscriptions. as if all these precautions were not enough. " The Egyptians did not always trust to the mere size and weight of thg lid for the secure closing of the sarcophagus. 124). and the two edges were bound still more tightly together by a r'lc. 123. the process of embalmment was then carried on in simple and elementary fashion. Mariette found none at Sakkarah with On the other hand we find them upon the sarcophagus at Khoo-foo-Ankh. 122.

Boulak. No scene is more frequently represented upon the walls of the public chamber of the mastaba than the killing and flaying of victims for the funeral ceremonies (Fig. when the preparation of the mummy seal better " understood. These beef bones must be the remains of the quarters of meat which were placed in the tomb for the nourishment of the dead. In later times. the vases must have held water for the double." nothing has been found there but the mummy WScMk' wm<. As for the drinkine cups. Within the sarcophagus we little find the same sobriety of sepulchral furniture. times a chamber comprised neither nor funerary statuettes. Height I -33 metres. pillow (Fig. 105) Beyond a wooden or alabaster and half a dozen drinking cups of alabaster. Perspective after Bourgoin. " As soon as the mummy was in the sarcophagus. they were air. S^'. 125 -Sarcophagus of Khoo-fno-Ankh. Somefew ox bones bestrew the ground. not to was up the sarcophagus from the outer The statues. it was the one he had used during his life. rest against the walls. Two or three large and furniture of the mummy pointed red vases. 183 by the innumerable and complicated precautions which they took to insure that the corpse should not be disturbed so careful in its envelope of stone. 125). Red granite.fr' --^-i^'"^'''^-^^^^^p^-. so far as we know. the sarcophagus sealed. and the various objects which we have described in . nor amulets of any kind. containing nothing but a thin deposit of clay. itself. their use has not yet been determined. The pillow was placed under the head of the mummy. Like those which are found upon the roof.g-^^ V - }M Fig.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire.

lu'l1lf''!!!V'!'^lli)l!lll!l^lly|||lll i^l!l^^^ . and sand. and the dead IIIIBiilii'WI . . . the A was History of Art at the in Ancient Egypt. opening bottom of the well was walled up the well itself filled with stones. earth. r'CT'TJ'i'ii! „ ti^''''!'''|^^T^)'''^l». .i84 place.

In certain Theban tombs. Liverpool. Ed. namely. [There are two in the British Museum. shall not go into all the changes which variety of taste and the progress of art introduced into the arrangement and decoration of Egyptian buildings they do not affect the general statements which we have made.^-^. and when it is found. in the museum at section of Fig. 185 the first difificulty. We. B . 98). many hands and no it time are required to remove the rubbish with which is filled. To his and have frequently had to pages and to the plates J I ^ ^ J\ 1 ^ ^ tA^ Z'^'' . 125 — I!as-relief from Sakkarah. a very fine one. case K).] r. and one. . models of fully rigged boats have been found there are some of them in the Louvre {Salle Civile. and then carried on the head to be emptied at a convenient distance. the wooden shovel and the little rush basket which is filled with a few handfuls of sand and pebbles. we must being told refer those readers who not contented with general rules but wish to know the exceptions also. i/'i~-r-*^ ^^f^ - A IF ElG. I.— The Tomb under the Ancient well little is E^nMRE. to and fro have to may be guessed how many journeys be made before a few cubic )-ards of dt'bris are It ! cleared by such means as this We make have so far followed Mariette. of the great are work of Lepsius. VOL. use of his ipsissiina verba. . Boiikak. The in only mechanical helps which the Egyptians have ever used such work are those which we ourselves have seen in the hands of Mariette's labourers. We shall not re-state the evidence which enabled Mariette to apportion the 142 painted and sculptured mastabas explored by him in 1869.

attempt to convey a true idea of the which cover the serdab.. Sometimes this chamber is nothing more than a recess in the facade. found varying depths the bowels of . We ages of the national civilization life. to which the most conspicuous place was always given. when complete. being raised well above the surface of the . in order to make our reliefs fill description complete. it leads in to the mummy chamber which the earth. . This tomb. and to destroy the unity of natural groups. to certain that those monuments form a chronological series extending over a space of from twelve to fifteen centuries. included object in the landscape living rock which (i) a built up part which. was a conspicuous and (2) a subterranean part cut in the was never more than a few feet below the surface of the sand. The constructed part inclosed a chamber which was sometimes internal and sometimes external. perhaps. in those years when it the national until put on the form and colour which retained the last days of antiquity. A didactic and analytic method is so far despotic that it compels us. the general character of Egyptian sepulchral architecture remained unchanged. alone. endeavour to estimate their style and composition but we shall postpone all such examination until we come to treat of sculpture. are we now concerned. and in which the priests officiated before the stele. The subterranean part chamber. We may sum up the foregoing details by the following general description of the Egyptian tomb as it was established in the early should. a mere frame for the stele. the sides of the chamber. and of the way in which the earliest Egyptian artists treated the human form. to separate phenomena which are intimately connected. The is is structure also contains a retreat in its thickness where the statues of the deceased were walled up. a chamber in which the relations of the deceased deposited the funeral offerings. perhaps. 1 86 the first A six History of Art dynasties. soil. We have thus been driven to separate the figured decorations of the tomb from the architectural arrangements which enframe and support them with the latter. and of the statues which by a judicious choice of examples. It is in AxciiiNT Egypt. and that during the whole of that long period. in order to marshal our facts and to make them easily understood. We should here. usually The well composed of the well and the mummy sunk from different parts of the building whole at traversing is its depth . .

been found in any serdab. the same in certain particulars by the rank by the nature of the soil. as mummy upper structure. perhaps to be explained by the progress made in the science The heads of more than one mummy have of embalming. so that after a long series of centuries in it should be pretty much the same condition cease the to as on the day after death.uard make from those images which but less were supposed to thev attached less dotible annihilation. or of later epochs. find the serdab only in the mastabas of the Memphite necropolis. 126). and took trouble to hide them. a little attention will suffice differ their identification even In in in those sepulchres instances which find most from the mastaba. Of all these elements there is but one which does not persistently reappear in monuments other than the mastaba. When they had learnt the secret of preserving the body from corruption. neither has it been met with in the tombs of the two Theban empires. they still preserve their skin. and that is the This retreat for statues has not. As always for the other parts for of the tomb. Why then do we. in Pyramids. some the we shall in chamber contrived others the whole tomb is cut in the the find the chapel. in spite of the dampness of our climates. . and.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. as a rule. as yet. and so under the guardianship of their venerated religion. importance to their safety. and by the changes ot fashion. now been exhibited in the cases of European museums for many years. they did not indeed. Sometimes we chamber in which the miraculous nourishment of the double took place. their teeth and their hair (Fig. o.'' Its absence under the Theban princes is. And yet it was connected with one of the most vital hopes of the Egyptian religion. those private tombs which were contemporary with the All over Egypt. They considered that they had done enough for their preservation by putting them in the precincts of their tombs and temples. It fulfilled in the happiest manner. we may call the public . by the size of the tomb. modified of the deceased. but always to be easily recognized. one of the conditions imposed upon the Egyptian architect by the strange conceptions of a future life which we have described. more or less distantly separated from the mummy chamber sometimes the living rock. every one of the cemeteries. that is to say. of the royal tombs of the first six dynasties. elements are to be found. no or matter where they are situated what their date. 187 of Such are the constituent elements ot the »iasfaba.

. — Head of a Mummy. v. vol. \. tombs in the neighbourhood of the Pyramids. and Atlas. and 5. especially some which face the western slope of the Second Pyramid. Aiit. 3. sometimes ceases to be vertical and becomes a long corridor with but a gentle slope. Another method of sepulture was made use of in the Ancient Empire. pi. a method which afterwards came into general use in Egypt. and may be connected without difficulty with that primitive type which we have attempted to define by its most wide-spread and constant features. Some of these sepulchral grottos declare their extreme antiquity by their imitations of wooden architecture ^ others by their inscriptions dating from . 126. 16. Louvre. 647.i88 well almost A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The Fig. it disappears. vol. or subterranean tomb. Egyptian Commission has described several rock-cut. Similar tombs are to be found near the pyramid of Mycerinus. As a rule all these variations are easily explained. we mean the /lypogeum. 4. Figs. p. ' Description tie T Egypte.

was the private tomb of the great lord or rich citizen of primitive Egypt the pyrmnid was the royal tomb for the same epoch. We were led to do so by the fact that the enormous <nass of the pyramids and their peculiarities of construction compelled their architects to separate elements which are found closely allied in the mastaba. some are in a marvellous state of preservation. with variations. THE PYRAMIDS. In the in case of the mastaba all survived or perished together. They were considering ant-hills at the foot of a may seem that in the mastaba before the pyramid we have reversed the natural order. not only for construction of well Mem- phis did not ignore the facilities offered by the easily cut limestone and mummy chamber. the themes presented to her by the generations which were ruled by her first six dvnasties. We of shall Middle Empire affords us richer and more complete e. almost a god himself. In consequence of this separation the elements in question have not all had the same fate.xamples of them than the earlier period. 189 long upon and fifth dynasties.The Tomb under the Ancient the fourth Empire. the tomb of that son of the gods. the pyramids. but also for those open parts of the tomb where the funeral rites and the ceremonies of the Ritual of the Dead were performed. but. We shall here chapter. We shall not dwell these rock-cut tombs. upon one of which the well opens which leads to the to a later mummy chamber. as the time the content ourselves with pointing out that the architects of rocks. so. while others have disappeared . The subjects rise during life. In the whole course of her long vitality Egypt did little more. than develop. indeed. should his sepulchre high above the comparatively humble tombs of his proudest mastabas. either in art or religion. As his head towered over those of his prostrate Diasiaba . . before whom all foreheads were bowed into the dust. before the sand had summit. buried them to the must have looked small enough beside servants. The most imposing those palace. It prodigious masses. the New Empire has left us the most important examples of this kind of sepulchre. They are generally composed of one or two postpone their study small sculptured chambers. after death. but.

Its origin has been sought for in the Coptic term pi-raina. simply because the orientation of the tomb was habitual with the Egyptians we have already explained Its meaning. which made. are therefore and hardly a trace to the king. have not the remotest likeness. . at the bottom ot which some modern writers would set unlucky astronomers to watch the passage of stars across the meridian. Those sloping tunnels.72. in Ancient Egypt. The words which mean a royal tomb or a tomb of any kind. de Persigny was well worthy of his policy. some stir in its time. '^ol- i- PP. The science of M. Murray. and in the term pii'-aa. and minute precautions were taken with the sole object of obstructing and concealing their entrance. and was used by pyramid are never used in that sense in any of the texts. The term was first employed by the Greeks. however. 1879). derived from Trip. and from their language it to have attempted has been adopted into that of every civilized nation. epithet which was peculiar to itself Thus the largest of them all " was called the brilliant dwelling of Choufou " the second. We obliged to make use of the private tomb in our restoration of that which trace was peculiar Philologists back the etymology of the word irvpafiU to the ancient language of Egypt. and suggested by the similarity between its shape and that of a tongue of flame. with a meaning which is scientifically exact. . 73. a composite rrvpafils. There was in both. we are told." appears therefore to be a purely Greek term. the same turn for ' ' . The four slopes of the pyramid faced to the cardinal points. They are.^ to the term Each royal pyramid had its own name. refuted by the fact that the terms which are supposed to have meant a occurs continually in Exodus. which Moses to signify the reigning Pharaoh.' says Herr Brugsch. fire. We shall not waste our time in noticing: and refuting those fantastic explanations of the pyramids which have been given in modern times. were hermetically sealed. 1 History of Egypt (¥Mg\\s\\ version. Still less need we occupy ourselves with the theory.I go left A History ok Art behind. " the great The word pyramid the third. '' . " that which is on high. height. that the pyramids were bulwarks by which the ancient Egyptians attempted to keep back the sand from the fertile valley of the Nile. We shall not trouble ourselves to prove that they were not observatories. But egyptologists now seem to be unanimous in rejecting both these derivations.

)— Ed. the neighbourhood of Memphis. Even without direct evidence we might assert that it was so. et Dc hi D(Sti>iation et dc P Utilitc fervianente des dii Pyramides nouvelle dEgypte Memoire ^ de Nubie contre les Irruptions saHonneuses dcs Sciences Dlsert. Herodotus. has been published (Trijbner. gr. 8vo. without exterior openings of any kind. xvii. -' ' FlALiN DE Persign'y. knowing as we They are . They are massive. The pyramids were hermetically sealed. . some being no more than twenty feet high. the If Empire. ." It is proved still more definitely. 191 same want of reflection and common sense. 4. 1844. by W. [An excellent translation pp. Juillct. 97. ^ Mariette. suivie s d'. They are the gigantic and impregnable their colossal dimensions have dwellings of the mummy been invoked to bear out the arguments of those who would attribute to them some other destination. but sometimes intact.^ our day thinks of either starting or discussing such theories as these. several details of their construction. a fact which is enough by itself to indicate their iunerary character. 1877. of course.///d' interpritation de la Fiible d' Osiris ct d'Isis.The Tomb under the Ancient fantastic invention.xploration and the interpretations of the Egyptian texts have confirmed the assertions of those Greek writers who were most familiar with Egypt. Paris. it such a costly barrier had been either useful or necessary should at least have been prolorrged from one end of Egypt to the other. Their e. 1S45. tombs without windows.] . Besides this. Diodorus. which stimulate to fresh research and lend themselves to many but there can be no doubt as to their different explanations .^ The Pyramids are sepulchres. such as Herodotus. 64. several obscure points in in No the history of the pyramids. as in the pyramid of ]\Iycerinus. . 1161. 1. is to be found.^ general character. but they are in fact to be found of all sizes. in would not have been found assembled. Strabo.-'^ and Strabo. simply conceived. Diodorus " Siculus. Dheloppements du adressc a V Academic 127.. k \i. because those chambers had been entered and despoiled. or rather group of pyramids. without doors. if that be possible. by the sarcophagi which have been found in the interna! chambers. 96. All entrance is forbidden even to their most carefully built corridors. Alphonse Marietta. of this work into English. c. it must be remembered that in all Egypt no pyramid. There are. either in the days of antiquity or in those of the middle ages. empty in most cases. ii. carefully sealed up tombs. p. and one all the pyramids with but few exceptions. in-8. which is not the centre of a necropolis. Itiiicraire de la Hautc-E^yptc.

^ The existence of the passage leading to the He says : " . When in the ninth century the KaHph Al-Mamoun wished to penetrate into the Great Pyramid he was only enabled to do so by breaking into it violently. As for the funerary way of including it in to be devised from that adopted in the case of the mastaba. wanting. near the centre of its northern face. right side for their attack was perhaps owing to the survival of some ancient tradition indicating the northern side to be that of the fact. it contains the well chapel. mummy chamber was not unknown Very nearly at the middle of their sides. temple. as to height. a winding passage appears. strike out lines of exploration in all been found to be in all the Perhaps too the Arabs may have been it has directions for the satisfaction of their curiosity. like archaeologists. it must always have been of the most restricted dimensions. they go straight to their point. entrance. when this is done. meeting with nothing but the solid this method at the risk of masonry shows that no external indication had been left of the opening through which the mummy had been carried in. they would have directed their attentions to it. The pyramid includes two of those four parts into which we have and the divided the typical Egyptian tomb . which leads to the coffin" (xvii. The casing seems to have been then complete and consequently the four sides of the Pyramid must have been free from ddbris and That the Arabs should have chosen the generally uniform. and thus stumbling accidentally upon the descending passage That he was reduced to employ at some distance from its mouth. Those who seek for treasure do not. 1161. guided by the traces of previous attempts made either in the time However this may be of the Persians or in that of the Romans. do the precautions which the Egyptians took elsewhere to guard but direct proof of the fact is not their tombs against intrusion . as a pyramids as yet explored. A different arrangement had therefore mummy chamber. and as it would have had to be lighted from the door alone.192 A History of Art in Ancient EoyiT. the pyramids had a stone which could be moved away . which.^ it is very certain that had they perceived any signs of an original doorway. there were obvious the thickness of the monudifficulties in the ment itself. c). p. The open part of the monument was separated from that which was The chapel or destined to be sealed up from the outer world. It would have been difficult to preserve it from being crushed by the immense weight above it. in which the successors of the prince buried in the pyramid to Strabo.

like those of the unlucky Chephren. all The any. called the The seven or eight statues is of Chephren which were found at the bottom of a pit in what Temple of the Sphinx. ness of the temple walls ? That question cannot be answered. As such vast importance the portrait statues was attached to the preservation of upon which the prolongation of life after to death was made so largely idea of hiding VOL. lower courses of masonry are still in place. was erected at some distance from the eastern face. combined with the sacredness of the spot and the vigilance of the established Fig. been discovered. I. the Assyrians. The . thrown headturns. 127. were all more or less mutilated. 193 and the priests told off for its service performed the prescribed The rites. priesthood of the necropolis. such statues as retreat foremost into the depths of the earth. the Ethiopians. to preserve the august images of the sovereign from insult or destruction. proving that this want of precaution was sometimes disastrous. In the course of so many centuries. but we may assert with confidence that it has either been destroyed by the hand of man. It is possible. during which the Hyksos. and allow us to follow the very simple plan upon which these chapels were erected and that is all.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. or.— Plans of the temples belonging to the second and third pyramids . depend. and the Persians overran the country by were not sheltered in some well dissembled must more than once have been struck off their pedestals and broken. that the Egyptians depended solely upon the profound respect which was felt for the royal person. remains of those buildings are in such a condition that traces of such an arrangement would have vanished had there been The walls have disappeared. remains of such buildinos have been found to the east of both That of Cheops has not the second and third pyramids. however. from Perring. or that it still lies under Were there any scrdabs concealed in the thickthe veil of sand. in is it not probable that the some of them the innermost recesses of the c c .

while the funerary chapel remained of modest dimensions. vol. we see cultivation develop certain organs petals. and as a consequence of the which they made to perpetuate their rank even after death. 1882. Maspero in the Reaicil de Traranx. contains a short account of the opening. and the envelope of the seeds thickened and made to shed perfume.^ Before w^e could say that such an arrangement does not exist elsewhere. together with the texts discovered. iii. effort 1 This pyramid was opened on February 28. has been published by M. No such retreats have yet been discovered in any of the galleries which have been explored by modern curiosity. It might. liv. 1881. This disproportion is to be easily The simple method of construction which distinguishes explained. We have hitherto spoken only of the social purposes of the . 3 and 4. which will perhaps never be reached by the most persevering explorer. In a word. Quite lately M. 1S81. Under at the the influence of their pride of station. pyramid. At such a distance they would not have heard the friendly voices or the magic chants nor would the scent of the incense have reached their nostrils. [Since this note was written. be too far removed from that public hall to which his relations brought their offerings and their pious homage. giving us expense of others. In the plants of our gardens and orchards. The Moniteur Ff. We see the same process of development in the tombs of the early Egyptian monarchs. Ed. we should have to take some pyramid to pieces from the first stone to the last.— 194 ^ History of Art in An'Cient Egypt. but it does not follow that they do not exist in some corner which has not yet been reached. pyramids themselves may have occurred to those who caused those monuments to be built ? It is obvious that no hiding-place could be more secure. the last king of the fifth dynasty. We find stamens changed into double flowers. it Circumstantial accounts of the discoveries to which led have not yet been published. of its office as the sepulchre of the ancient kings of Egypt. if hidden in the pyramid. however. Maspero believed that he recognized a serdab in a subterranean chamber with three niches which he found near the mummy chamber in the Pyramid of Ounas.] . or rather as the part of that sepulchre that corresponded to the least interesting parts of private tombs. the stone hiding-place which protected tlie mummy took a size which is oppressive to the imagination.yptien of March 15. a full account of the entrance and exploration of this pyramid. they would have been ill placed for the fulfilment of the office assigned to them by the Egyptian faith. be asserted that the images of the deceased would.

and an Appendix. must not be looked for in these volumes. some to the peculiarities of construction which distinguish a few. from that of their probable origin. Descriptions of these monuments. it is to be found in pre-Christian times arriving at the desired result ' Vyse (Howard). tions will refer to the Some of these observa- pyramids as a whole. 1840. monarchy As soon as a society had sprung up on the banks of the Nile to organize itself latter which attempted or headmen. so as to form an artificial hillock which should be visible from a distance over the level plain. such as that given by Baedeker or Isambert. peculiarities which do not affect that general type which seems to be as old as the Egyptian itself. London. be foreign to the purpose which we have before us. properly speaking. 1839-42. with an Account of a Voyage into Upper Egypt. The Pyramids of Gizeh. large oblong folio. Operations carried on at the Pyra/nids of Gizeh in 1837. was not yet sufficiently advanced to make use of those grandiose orders which distinguish the porticos and hypostyle temples of the Theban period. But to confine ourselves to our own province. from Actual Si/?Tey and Admeasure- ment. The two books just mentioned are within the reach of all.) .The Tomb uxdek the Ancient the Empire.) Perring (J. Such a proceeding would be a mere duplication of those excellent manuals. 8vo. The tumulus is to be found in most districts of the ancient as well as of the modern world. 195 pyramid permitted almost indefinite extension. illustrated by Notes the Spot by J. such as those contained in the great works of Vyse^ and Perring. Thanks to the precise information and the numerous figures which they contain.). We do not think it necessary that we should eive even a succinct account of the more important pyramids. to 3 vols. and References to the Several Plans. and of the materials of which they are composed. (London. (3 parts. We take the pyramids as known. make known their final The most simple way of under the directing lead of chiefs have been stuncf bv the desire to resting-place by some conspicuous sign. while architecture. and would moreover. we may content ourselves with makinof a few general observations. This was the origin of that funerary mound which modern archaeologists call a tiumiliis. We have now to consider the pyramids from another point of view. of their variet}' of form. with Sketches taken on Andrews. L. works which gave to the world the accumulated results of long and costly explorations. the seem was to heap up the earth over the corpse.

so as to fix them more But. to accumulate over the corpse of a warrior a sufficient number of spadefuls of earth to signalize it. cannot doubt that the pyramid sprang from the mound. They began. they better to construct the whole body of the tumulus in the Its size its harder material. Tradition ascribes those tumuli which are yet to be seen on the plain of Troy to the observance of this custom. in those distant ages which were called by the Egyptians themselves the times of Hor-schcsoti or slaves of Horus. with the impenetrable rock for its base and flanks of solid masonry. squared forms of brick or cut stone infallibly give to the edifice upon which they are employed one of those more or less rigid When they leave the hands forms which are defined by geometry. by uniting the various tribes under his own sceptre. found few experiments in that direction. for the worship and admiration of posterity. of is We which all is know the frequent expression display a signal. It is a tumulus in which brick and stone take the place of earth. or after a by covering them with a thin coat of brickwork. finally a increased with the constructive it skill material appliances of builders. in The its definite lines. Thanks to the facilities thus afforded. pyramids cubes of the builder they are either . by placing a few blocks of stone upon their mounds. Gijixa xeJety. or parallelopipeds. thev were enabled to build monuments upon the graves of their rulers which could offer a better resistance to injuries of time and human primitive barbarism. The built-up tumulus of masonry took a form very different. and makes it a much safer place of deposit and a much more lasting monument for the body committed to its charge.196 A among History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. The Nile mud. that Homer. from the rounded slopes of the mound. literally lo to say. The funerary architecture of Egypt commenced in the same fashion. Its birth We must have taken place after Menes had. The pyramid is but a built mound. perhaps. when moulded and dried in the sun. enemies than a few handfuls of earth and grass. gave bricks which still remain good their manufacture and their constructive use seem to have been understood by the Egyptians as soon as they emerged from . caused the whole race to take a distinct step onwards in civilization. it securely. until became first a hillock and and mountain of stone. among well as the Scythians of Herodotus and our ancestors the Gauls. This substitution adds very greatly to its chances of duration. as the Greeks of the heroic age.

tombs towards the west. . When the first pyramid was buiit upon the borders of the desert man was on the threshold of the movement to which we have referred. in it the sharp angles which form the three arttcs of the tetrahedron there had been a lack of material. \\"e may say that architecture was born on the day when man began trical to use the unyielding materials by which definite geome- development was reached he set to work to combine those elementary forms in different proportions and to add to their effect by elegance and richness of decoration. and as suffer in consequence. are built upon a base which is practically square. they possess the essential properties. Were we inclined to enter into this discussion we should rather. if looks as if the structure would The its four-sided pyramid has more dignity and more amplitude . It has been said that each face was dedicated to one of the four powers of Amen. four faces. 96. The three great pyramids at Gizeh Hke most of these structures. placed back to back in pairs. whence the hoped-for resurrection was to The three-sided pyramid would not have lent itself to such is There also something unpleasant to the eye . of one of those forms. cylinders or cones. which corresponded to the cardinal points of heaven. ^ Mystic reasons for this shape have been given. attribute the shape of the pyramid to the prevailing Egyptian desire to turn one face of their another to the come. The most simple of all would have been the tcfralicdron.The Tomb under the Ancient or prisms. But not a single pyramid of that kind has been discovered in Egypt. 197 They present the general appear- ance. this early As soon as architectures. and in most instances upon one with sides practically equal. or pyramid built upon a triangular base." We are not yet sufficiently well acquainted with the genesis of the Egyptian religion to be able to decide traced : how but far into the past the four it powers of Amen may be is quite possible that they were derived from the four faces of the strictly oriented pyramids. 1 The base of the great pmniid at Sakkarah is a rectangle. The whole of the pyramids. The form adopted for the royal tomb was one of the most simple which could be chosen for a building. perhaps. Empire. p. - Mariette. and 347 from east to west. the abode of the dead. measuring 390 feet from north to south. Itincraire de la Haute-Egypte. and so in the end to form national forms can alone be given. and east. large or small. are built upon a right-angled base. an arrangement.

43^ which may it' w '%(r '-'S'I'f. ^1 'WS: •'.- ill m Mi -^'m J:'A-f Fig.igS A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Now.. in this whole number there are not two which resemble each other in all We do not particulars. or which seem to be copies of one model. differs in an refer only to their height. and 218 feet which have been e. 454.^. — Plan of the Pyramid of Cheops. sixty-seven of by Lepsius. about one hundred have been discovered. characteristic possessed in common by is those rehcs of Empire which we an attentive call pyramids. extreme degree. 1 28. be called the northern and southern boundaries of the pyramid field. The one the Ancient ness.( !:: ' 'W4 •i ">> (!) . which The three large pyramids at Gizeh are 482.. these their four-sidedoffer To observer in the buildings more diversities than in would at first sight be believed. in a fashion seem to counterpoise and sustain each other which is impossible in the case of the tetrahedron. north is From Meidoum a distance of the south to Abou-Roash flies. miles as the crow Between these two points.xamined .

near Sakkarah. one of the largest of those at Abousir is about 165 feet hieh . Between these two extremes many of intermediate sizes may be The Stepped Pyramid. Every Egyptian. that those finished. the well and the mummy chamber. as soon as he arrived He dug at years of discretion. he caused the sarcophagus to It often happened be carved and the funerary chapel to be built. 129. which thenceforward remained //i statu quo. On one wall we find paintings and sculptures carried out with the greatest care and finish.The Tomb under the Ancient hiq^h respectively. little 199 while at their feet are several pyramids which hardly exceed from 50 to 70 feet of vertical height. Thus only can we explain the state in which several important tombs have been discovered both at Memphis and at Thebes. Empire. mummy in its grave with the prescribed ceremonies. who had ordered such works died long before they were and it would seem that their heirs were content with They placed the doing no more than was strictly necessary. ElG. they did not chapel. —The great pyramid and the siaall pyramijs at its foot . those at Dashour is not quite 100 feet. while on . from Perring. is about 190 inserted. they filled up but being the well and sealed the private parts of the tomb . occupied with the preparations for their continue the decoration of the own funeral. set about building his own tomb. . These differences in height are easily explained by one of those national habits to which we have already alluded.

therefore.200 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. The same builders of the Ancient Empire and their materials both at their best. became its in time nothing but the nucleus or many times size. The higher and wider his pyramid. in case his life and his reign should be cut short. by the witness of ancient authors. so to speak. pressed workmen to clothe it in layer after layer of dressed stone or brick. But. by the artist charged with the undertaking. the more efficient a guardian of his body would it be. pyramid moderate of When this a point had been reached. We have no reason to believe that each coat had to be finished within a certain period.^ The construction was thus and was developed outwards. each successive coat. like the timber As the pyramid grew in extent and height. he began with those constituents of the tomb which were He pressed on the work until he had raised absolutely necessary. and the more impressive would be the message carried down by it to posterity as to the power of its builder. that the kings who built the three great pyramids at Gizeh. required more hands and more time. These layers are by no means equal in the excellence either of the workmanship or Some show supreme negligence in others we find the of the materials employed. Voyag. namely. was the same with the sepulchres of the kings. may be easily recognised in the Pyramid of That curious structure was built in concentric layers round a nucleus. Year after year. in red paint. so that the edifice raised in comparative haste at the beeinnine of his kernel of one reisfn. The comple- work must have been suddenly arrested by the death of the destined inhabitant of the tomb. . each reigned about sixty years.e de la Haute' This method of construction Meidouni. the longest reigns. and so it would be futile to attempt to found any calculation as to the duration of the different reigns upon the number of these concentric layers but we may assert in a general way that the highest pyramids correspond to We know. History thus confirms the truth of the induction which arises from begun in the centre of a tree in successive years. his immediate anxiety came to an end but that was no reason for interrupting the course of the work. (Mariette. p. Chephren. size with its mummy chamber. first another nothing tion of the to be seen but the rough outhne. Each sovereign began the construction of his pyramid as soon as he found himself upon the throne. he emplo)'ed crowds of imIt . Egypte. whose consciences varied greatly in elasticity. Cheops. . fact has been observed in regard to the Stepped Pyramid and the pyramids at It would seem that the work was assigned in sections to different corvees. 45-) . and Mycerinus. Abousir.

from which he received the paper entitled Ueber den first hint of this explanation). from the south. yEgypU?i. 130.. in the Alonatsbericht of the Berlin Academy. Hke Perring. If we deduct from its total volume the core of rock which it incloses^ and the openings which it contains. D D . 177-203. encounters several grave objections. has been suggested by Mr. he could not have counted upon giving it the colossal dimensions which it jjresents even in its actual injured condition. First part. Lepsius. 1843. and Mariette. nucleus of rock under is commonly supposed. During he ascertained that a profile from the Mokattam across the Nile valley into the western desert would present the contours expedition in March. — The three great pjTamids . 42 (in speaking of the Pyramid . . 201 monuments and from a comparison of the conprocesses made use of by the architects of the pyramids. 1.See also of his Meidoum. It 341. ^ '' pp. 1878. though very ingenious. 41. VOL.^ not The author of Baedeker's Guide has been content with believing. his the great pyramids was originally Cope Whitehouse that the much more important than 18S2. objections while He has brought forward an elaborate theory of construction. Ban dcr Pyramiden. p. pp. that the pyramid grew by the appHcation of successive envelopes of stone round the central mass. which. The area of the great pyramid is more than double that of Saint Peter's at Rome. Briefe aus y£gypteii. the masonry first When Cheops 1 Lepsius.The Tomb under the Anxtext the study of those structive Empire. point out those itself We shall we endeavour '-' to explain the system by the help of special illustrations drawn for us by the author of the Guide in question. either in horizontal courses or in courses sloping towards the axis of the building.^ — — Flu. began to think about building his tomb.

or three years after the scale. those pyrainids \va^ obtained upon their concludes that a large part of the material of sites. monuments. 125)33 conveying in imperfect form the tradition that the pyramids were "constructed from above. must have felt great reluctance to order the cessation of the work which had gone on Even four or five thousand years before our era. men were too For of an heir. Supposing that. had to be entrusted to the same hands.479. or to arrest that course of sliown in the annexed woodcut. the external completion. in the case long and costly matter. moreover.600 cubic yards. commencement of its a death had carried off projector. he Moreover. two work upon this colossal can we believe that any successor. gratitude piety or upon the sagacious to reckon the closing and final sealing up of the pyramid. there still remains the detached stances has been enormous mass of 3. of the accumulated material and collected labour of his predecessor. son who was sincerely devoted to the memory of would have burthened himself with the continuation and completion of such an enterprise ? The new sovereign would have enough to do in commencing and carrying on the erection of his own tomb. for its construction. its builder and destined inhabitant was obliged to depend upon his survivors.202 A its History of Art integrity in Ancient Egypt. and carried away. so long as he was not too sternly reminded of the end by disease or the infirmities of age. could not do it himself. would be irresistibly tempted to make use. even a his father. when so much of its sub3. must have been a greater of the which. and. The reigning king. He cites (ii.600 cubic yards. to in primitive must have amounted a total of Even now. and quarried above the level at which LEVEL OF / THE 3 Mill SCALE OF MILES O mT~ 2 4 S iiiinm~ MEDITERRANEAN 10 Herodotus an the Stones were finally placed.246. under his own eye for so many He years." .

have been finished in most of their details with a care which would seem to indicate that Cheops. in leno-th as thev neared the summit. We are ignorant as to the condition of the three great pyramids of But they appear to Gizeh at the death of their projectors. on the other hand. his pyramid would still present the aspect which necessarily belonged to it during the period of its construction an aspect which has again distinguished the great pyramid since it was despoiled of its casing. 203 being a continual source of pride and pleasure to himself. and Mycerinus. Chephren. Other pyramids. As each course was set back from that upon which it was placed. whose infinite power seems to have made them forget the eternal limits of time and space ? Sometimes Fortune has been cruel to them but often she seems to have placed herself entirely at their that his . a large base which had never received either its cope-stone or its casing.The Tomb under the Ancient development Avhich. These observations theory to which that furnish us with an initial objection to the referred. or. the final ensemble looked like an enormous staircase with steps gradually diminishing the final cope-stone . So too with those of Mj-cerinus and Chephren. have presented to us a shape like that of some other edifices of the same kind. perhaps. still incomplete. with be surprised by death with his tomb still upon the ground. seem to have been left in a comparatively imperfect state. disposal. But why should he not have done so ? If he had died at the end of a few years. or from some other motive. its failed to carry on the enterprise of their predecessors to destined conclusion. even when that had been put in place so as to show the total height. after Empire. of the Egyptian princes There were many who from want of patience or zeal. Have not absolute monarchs existed at all times. must have been there to overlook the smallest details of their execution. very unfinished. might end in giving him a monument still surpass- ing those of his famous predecessors. his pyramid would. we have Some may refuse to believe pyramid should Cheops intended from the beginning have the dimensions and the internal arrangements which we now see. therefore. Upon two-thirds or three-quarters of each face. with the casing of polished stone which was destined to hide the inner courses of the masonry and the entrances. likely to He was. Among the causes which combine to make the roj-al tombs of .

six dynasties so unequal in height and appearance. is cut out of the living rock upon which the pyramid stands. which is not nearly so carefully oriented as the others. were much better than when dynasty succeeded dynasty. . which distinguishes that edifice. as in that of Cheops. it This arrangement is to be found. Finally there are pyramids built chiefly of stone which is kept in place by a carefully constructed skeleton. The pyramids differ also in the materials employed. sometimes descending. where the whole complicated system of corridors and cells. If we were better acquainted with the condition of Egypt in those remote epochs. so that the building itself is absolutely solid. to pyramid. we should. . be enabled to give other reasons for their want of uniformity. giving access There is narrow galleries. at the entrance to the Fayoum . so to speak. The chances of completion and even of preservation in its complete state enjoyed by a pyramid must have greatly depended upon the descent of the When king succeeded king in one family those chances crown. sometimes. (Fig. in the pyramid of Mycerinus. is cut in the Most of the rock. The great pyramids at Gizeh are built of fine limestone from Mokattam and Toura the chief one at Sakkarah of a bad clayish limestone from the neighbouring rocks at Dashour and Abou-Roash there are pyramids of unburnt brick. This construction is to be found in the pyramid of lllahoun. In the subterranean part of the Stepped Pyramid This the proportion of voids to solids is far less insignificant. the same variety in the position of the mummy Sometimes this is within the sides of the pyramid itself. It is even possible that some of those pyramids which are now to outward appearance mere heaps of ddbris never received the mummy for whose reception they were designed and built. sometimes ascending. the is very unequal length of the reigns the most important. chamber. which lead to one or two chambers of very small dimensions when compared to the enormous mass which rises above and around them (Fig. no doubt. for instance. 132). after the example of the mastaba. whether the break were due to internal revolution or to the failure of the legitimate line. pyramids have no more than one or two entrances. 131).204 the first A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of brick. where the roof of the mummy chamber is about 33 So too in feet below the lowest course of the pyramid itself the Stepped Pyramid.

words must not. . 131. and ' make egyptologists The weight of this stopper is about four tons. could be raised and lowered. . — The pyramid of Illahoun. a sort of large well. It is which make it little else than a its subterranean labyrinth. E 259. all its galleries converge. as it The end of Fig. a feet square and eighty ^ feet high. 134). Egypfe a pelites Jounu-es.— The Tomb under the Ancient Empikk. the purpose of which is too small even to have contained a sarcophagus. M. The of the surface were usually taken advantage of so as to economize material. horizontal section of Perrircr. 20: has four entrances and a series of internal passages. in the block of granite cut into as to open at wilj chamber about twenty pavement of which a huge the shape of a cork or plug was so placed free passage for the descent into a is and leave a second chamber. Perrot's Ed. But the pyramid of Mycerinus is just : the reverse of filled this. p. central axis singular also in having. therefore. be taken too literally. upon and at the point upon which. and it has long been a puzzle to how it. It is built over a hollow inequalities in the rock which is up with masonry. at various heights. in perspective. horizontal galleries.- more than obscure. which is embraced by the lower courses of their masonry. staircases and cells. from the phn the long passage which leads to the thirty chambers which have been counted beneath this pyramid has been found in the neighbouring sands (Fig. and others like it. Another point of difference most of the pyramids are built round a core of living rock.Arthur Rhone.

more unlike the Gizeh type. their images have been multiplied to infinity by engraving and photography. 133). or the summit ?^ 'a '. Its angle-ridges are not unbroken straight lines from base to summit. the same regular slope from smooth and polished casing which disting.uished those great monuments when they were in complete to base. the builder No has yet been discovered as still of this pyramid.2o5 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 130 and PI. less a greater show with in the plateau. — Section of the pyramid of Cheops . The lower This part of sides make angles fall of 54° 41' with the horizon. They do not all present the same simplicity of form. 2). 132. labour. preservation. A second variation. I. from Perring. i. iol i? FjG. latter slope does not greatly to differ the 43" 36' of the other pyramid in the same neighbourhood. Mycerinus. is to be . is no less diversity the the We are most familiar with the shapes of the great pyramids at Gizeh (Fig. The slope of its faces becomes its less steep at about half their height. while above they suddenly back to from an angle of 42° indication 59'. did not his fear to increase his task by rearing in pyramid over a depression external aspects of There pyramids. however. The southern pyramid of Dashour otters us one of the most curious variations upon the original theme (Fig. " ' !. but we make a great mistake when we imagine all the royal tombs at Memphis to be built upon this one model.

or Apis tomb. considered by Mariette as the oldest of them all.The Tomb under the Ancient found in Empire. was which Taking a passage from Manetho as his authority. . therefore. Does this want of completion result from accidental causes. — The southern pyraaiid of Dasbour . It The width it . of the Ancient Empire. of each step this building it nearly 7 feet. from 38 feet is 2 inches to 29 feet 6 inches. that rather tends to the pyramidal form than achieves is a rough sketch for a pyramid. J •» /. Ouenephes or Ata. Each of its sides is divided hori- zontally into large steps with inclined faces. ^'CC Fig. and he was inclined to see in the J 3 Fig. The height of these steps decreases progressively. from Perring.x 190 feet. from the base to the sunimit. from tlie measurements of Perring. elevation is Its present about si.Serapeum. 133. he thought himself justified in attributing it to the fourth king of the it first dynasty. 207 the great pyramid of Sakkarah. . the Stepped Pyramid. will be seen. — Section of the Stepped Pyramid . 134.

full be referred to ignorance of the pyramidal form on the part of its builders ? of Mariette is beauties of the If the conjecture Pyramid is not only the most ancient building in Egypt but in the whole world and in the remote century which witnessed its construction men may not yet have learnt to fill up the angles left in their masonry. a pyramidion of a single stone. or. if the builder were still sanguine as to time. it erecting a very narrow and perpendicular pyramid crowned by a pyramidion. we give. with the of this pyramidion of the the first mass.2oS or must A it History of Art i\ Ancient Egypt. 136 a to 142). like stumpy obelisk This finished. sloping masses were erected against so as to form. a second pyramid. the Stepped . on the opposite page. where the slopes of the pyramid left the earth. 135. restored from the measurements of Perring. . a series well founded. The space between the sides of the pyramid and the inner faces Then. four perpendicular walls were erected to the height of the pyramidion. A commencement was made by (Fig. — The Stepped Pyramid . might be put in place and work considered at the line finished (Fig. 137) . Fig. 136). they may have been quite satisfied to leave their work in a condition which to us seems imperfect. The apex pyramid. of representations of such a pyramid in different stages of completion (Figs. In order that this system may be more easily understood. The Germans have evolved a complicated system of construction from notes made by Lepsius upon the details of the masonry in different pyramids. he might seek to push on farther.

141. as the casing of stone went on increasing in thickness. 138). or huge obtained (Fig. E .52. 136. 1. 140 and 142). — Successive of a pyramid. ir and over again (Figs. 139). F'iG. 139. slope (Fig. and thus a kind of terrace. 137. This again disappeared under core for a new pyramid (Fig. In the case of a long reign this operation might be repeated over KiG. I. 209 filled in. The mummy-chamber was either cut in the rock before the laying of the first course of stone. 140). according to the system advocated Baedeker's Guide. Figs.The Tomb under the Ancient of these walls was Empire. whose gentler and section larger a pyramid of sides reached the ground far beyond the foundations of the terrace. Fig. I". which served as the was rectangular block. galleries were left for ventilation and VOL. states Fig. or it was contrived in the thickness of the masonry itself. A large pyramid would thus be composed of a series of pyramidal envelopes placed one upon another. 13S. 136 — 142. Fig. Fig.

less. The builders became final less sure of the morrow all . 5. the angles left by the At thus be unfinished pyramids. . pyramids. The upon the axis of the mummy-chamber is always found pyramid.^ Sakkarah. {Description de At Matarieh. he adds. upon whose life the whole operation depended. at all hazards. x. as each new envelope was commenced. it also. about 140 feet Its height is divided into five stages. But although this theory seems satisfactorily to explain some puzzling appearances. in their search for lost galleries and hidden chambers. and there is VEgypte. for the introduction of the sarcophagus and the either mummy. successive stages would be waiting for their filling in would have been pyramid of gentle slope the upper part of a constructed upon the nucleus which was first erected. he says. cut for themselves a passage through the masonry. It is. vol. when tested by facts. among the southern one example of such construction at Gizeh. We into are told that the system of construction here set forth the fact that " the is rendered almost certain by the pyramid the deeper we penetrate the construction. encounters some very grave objections. but neither in these breaches made by violence. but the continuation of the slope to the ground would have been pre. the exterior is which approached. the size of the to monu- ment. each being set back about 1 1 feet high. This system of pyramid building would explain the curious shapes which we have noticed in the Stepped Pyramid and the Both of those erections would southern pyramid of Dashour. they pressed on so as to increase.." the chances of being completed became The mass of stone to be worked and placed was greater. and trusted the casingr to conceal defects of workmanship. while the king. or in its immediate neighbourhood. p. there is a like that at pvTamid with a double slope Dashour. Jomard describes one of crude and much crumbled brick at Dashour. vented by the stoppage of the works at the point of intersection of Hence the the upper pyramid and its provisional substructure.2IO A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and always nearer the base than the summit. at Dashour. nor in the ancient and 1 There are other stepped pyramids besides that at Sakkarah. broken slope which has such a strange effect. an effect which could not have entered into the original calculations of the architect. was older and nearer his death. more careful do we becomes more and more careless In its find as fact. The explorers of the pyramids have more than once. between Sakkarah and Meidoum. behind the one below.) These steps are often found.

the galleries leading to the where a practised eye could hardly fail to note the transition. a proceeding which. the nearly upright sides of the cubic mass with which the pyraniid began. the chambers and the structural voids above them. of the junctions of different surfaces and slopes which must have existed according to the theory to find which we are noticing. we are told. These and fin- pyramid. if were built ished separately. without numerous through bonding-stones. properly fitted to the earlier and the the later parts were to be of the final stability monu- would have demanded a minute and scrupulous care which was not common with Egyptian workmen. How. How is system to explain the position of the mummy-chamber in certain pyraIf its internal if mids ? Let us take that of Cheops as an example. discovered. 2 1 which they were the means of been. another difficulty in their way. arrangements had been fixed irom the beginning. giving access. contrasting with the comparatively gentle slopes which were built against different parts of the it. at about one-third of the whole height. the intention had been from the first to place the now find it. mummy-chamber where we why should the builders have complicated their task these ever difficult junctions to build the ? Wouki ? by imposing upon themselves it not have been far better in its pyramid at once to the required height. We should expect. Not a sign is to be found of those more or less well-veiled transitions which are never absent when the work of one time and one set of hands has to be united with that of another. leaving thickness the necessary galleries The same observation applies to the discharging chambers above the mummy-chamber. namely. could those slides and settlements be prevented to which the want of homogeneity in the structure would otherwise be sure to lead ? But we are not told of that any such junctions old and new work are to be found even ment assured. We do not say that there are no such transitions. in internal chambers. but we think the advocates of the new theory should have begun by There is pointing them out ii they their exist. The whole of these arran<jements.1 The Tomb under the Ancient carefully constructed passages to Empire. appear to have been conceived and carried out at one time. Or are we to believe that they commenced by one building a hill of stone composed of those different jjyramids . have any signs reported. the his:h vestibule with its wonderful jiiasonry. and by the same brains and hands. at least. or at least. in those points where they would be most conspicuous.

The difficulty of deciding upon the position of the chambers in advance. Upon the external sloping face of each step he found two casing-walls. either in Egypt or elsewhere. could have had sufficient in adherence one to another. they found a true resisting base upon which they rested. The observations made by Lepsius in the Stepped Pyramid and in one at Abousir seem to prove that some pyramids were constructed in this manner. so that in the flat mass (see Fig. 143) Moreover. we mean Now we find that the whole the . In both of those buildings all necessary of precautions were taken to guard against the weaknesses of such a system. The disintegration to which it ever thought of employing it. but these did not extend from the ground monument. made use indeed of some such method in giving doors and windows to his newly-built house. the fantastic Crespel. though much less complicated. Lepsius made a breach the southern and the examination which he was thus enabled to institute led him to suggest a rather more probable system of construction. 134). would lead may easily be imagined. the architect provided for the lateral tying of the different sections of his work. We may here call attention to a circumstance which justifies all our reserves. face of this pyramid. and the builder was able to devote all his attention to increasing the size of the monument.Stepped Pyramid of Sakkarah. within anotlier. of the complicated net-work of chambers and passages in that pyramid is cut out of the living rock beneath its base. . as Lepsius proves to us by a partial section of the pyramid of Abousir. but we may be sure that no architect. by multiplying those parallel wedges disposed around a central core of which it is composed. resembled that which we are noticing in some degree. was thus avoided. It is difficult to understand how separate slices masonry. There is but one pyramid which seems to have been built upon a system which. and that they afterwards carved the necessary chambers and corridors out of its mass ? One of the heroes of Hoffmann. and that they are approached from without by subterranean passages. placed one upon the other in the fashion shown by the section which we have borrowed from Perring's work (Fig.2 12 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. they reached no higher than the to the apex of the single step. and of constructing the galleries through the various slopes of the concentric masses which were to form the pyramid.

.) Fig. s of his paper. Veber den Beiu der Pyramiden. abutting. 144.A. its is Two to walls of fine limestone blocks inclose a which they are bound by perpend stones which penetrate This method of construction has its faults. but it so rapid that its employment is not to be wondered at. its courses formed a kind of inverted vault. xxvii.. 1824. 8 of his paper. substance. 3. transverse section in perspective from the geometrical section of Lepsius. et - Voyage au Temple de Jupiter Amnion fig. (Berlin. — Section of the Stepped Pyramid at Sakl<arah . -^V\sx<S«WS«S$S^^--5S.^ courses of stone laid out to the segment of a circle. ^ and folio. 143. from Lepsius.~'--- FlG. dans la Haute. fillinj^ in 213 of rubble. at ' These edges. 4to. upon Fig.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. pi.' Do first these parallel walls reach from top to bottom ? A detail discovered by Minutoli would seem to indicate that a base was constructed of sufficient extent for the whole monument. Fig.Egyte. — Construction of the Pyramid of Abousir in parallel layers. In the lower part of the Stepped Pyramid Minutoli^ shows concave ^^'. Ueber den Ban der Pymmiden.

which has. chambers have yet to learn that they were ever made use of in those pyramids which inclose the mummy-chamber and its avenues in their own substance. and their truth seems to be demonstrated case of belong to that category of some pyramids. As we do not know whether these curves exist upon each face or not. Variety is universal in that Egypt which has so often been described as the land of uniformity and immobility no two of the pyramids resemble only. monument is concerned. The pages remains were edited in great part by Professor Ebers. we cannot say what their purpose may have been. so far. The views of We Lepsius as to the enlargement of the pyramid by the addition of parallel slices are worthy of more in the respect. however. But these all monuments which have subterranean Fig. been lately put forward. 145 — Partial section of the Stepped Pyramid . namely. fear that this system must be regarded merely as an intellectual plaything. 136. This curious arrangement should be studied upon the spot by some competent observer.2 14 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. which some Pyramid of at least. they afford another argument against the notion that all the great pyramids were built round such a pyramidoid core as that represented by our Fig. . as the former i. ^ dealing 'with the These two monuiiiental ' B/EDEKER. from Mimitoli. or whether they meet each other and penetrate deeply into the structure or not. Egypt. be. We have yet to speak of two ancient monuments in would recognize unfinished pyramids. part 1878. We — each other exactly. the Meidoum and the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. We do not aeree with this opinion. But however this may the rock.

215 sepulchres seem to us to represent a different type of funerary architecture. It is oriented like the the pyramids. The remains of a fourth story may be distinguished on the summit of the third some see in them the remains of a small j^yramid.^ The Mastabat-el-Faraoun or " Seat of Pharaoh. It 340 is long.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. resemble those galleries. strictly speaking. i. . by the ancient empire. is a huge rectangular mass with sloping sides . by in Arabs the Haram-el-Kabbab. Judging from the names found in the neighbouring mastabas. this is the tomb of Snefrou I. 45. one of the greatest kings of the third dynasty. as a mass formed of three square towers with slightly inclined sides superimposed one upon the other. vol. 146 —The Pyramid of Meidoum . ^ last kings of the fifth dynasty (Figs. 109 Voyage dans la Haufe-Egypfe.. . a type created special notice at our hands. or "the fact. same great lateral structure Upon a block lying at the foot of the of which had once formed a part. and the third than the second. which were opened and examined by ]\Iariette. and meriting conspicuously from the jalain The monument which rises so near the village of iMeidoum on the road to the Fayoum. false pyramid. Mariette found a quarry-mark traced in red ochre which seemed to him to form part of the name of Ounas. is called It is. in the pyramid of Mycerinus same sloping niches.. one of the and 147). a royal tomb with the internal arrangements which . the second being less in area than the first.'' not so much a pyramid." as the Arabs call it. it is about 66 feet high. p. and 240 deep. others those of a cone. it the same chambers. Fig. from Perrins.

the whole ending This in one of those small pyramids which we call pyramidions. i. 34. from their position. The royal Forage dans la HauteEgypU. p. Who can say asks Mariette. such as the large tomb situated near the south-eastern angle of the second pyramid at Gizeh. Among of Fig. — Tlie Mastabat-el-Faraoun . from Lepsius. 148.2l6 A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. must have been to hint. Mariette cites. From these he the principles of — mastaba and the pyramid were sometimes combined under the ancient empire. 14S. 147. that it is not the Mastabat-el-Faraoun itself?^ M. those of priests attached to the service of we often come upon some monument with a form similar to that represented by our Fig. . tombs in the Memphite region were not always pyramids. and the little monument which Righa. either that the was never finished. vol. it bonding-stones. the that is called the Pyramid of concludes Fig. in support of this conjecture. they were sometimes composed of a mastaba and of one or more high square tower-like erections upon it. the titles The latter hypothesis the more probable. certain other structures of a similar character. Funerary monument represented in the inscriptions. or that has lost its former crown. people buried in the necropolis at Sakkarah. certain blocks Upon are the platform of the Mastabat-el-Faraoun be found which. structure They seem is therefore.

were built in connection with the labyrinth and upon the islands of Lake Mceris respectively. or in the representations of them upon bas-reliefs. These. a few pyramids of crude brick. as they did not allow of those varied beauties of construction and decoration which its architects had gradually mastered. Judaea. 217 many of which are to be monuments of a later period. either in those sepulchral edifices which are still extant. was the chief reproducer of the Egyptian pyramid as it was created by the kings of the ancient Napata. discovered in the Empire. Ihcir Tenants. 45. part p. and elsewhere. indeed. at the very gates of the capital and upon the boundary between the desert and the cultivated land. VOL. Voyage dans la Haute-F. There are. Like all the . T/ielvs. some of which seem to belong to Entefs of the eleventh dynasty but they are small and carelessly constructed.The Tomb under the Ancient type allowed of numerous combinations. were the last of the pyramids. Those nations who came under the living influence of Egypt could hardl)^ then. Their venerable antiquity the memories. .^ When the art of Egypt had arrived at its full development. But the pyramid properly speaking was confined to the Wemphite period. escape from the desire to imitate her pyramids in their own manner. all combined to heighten their effect. 94. 80. I. so far as we can judge. which were attached to them by popular tradition their colossal mass and the vast space of ground which they covered. pi. the southern annexe of Egypt and the copyist of her civilization. The pyramids of Hawara and lUahoon correspond to those which. The princes of the twelfth dynasty seem to have constructed some in the Fayoum. The pyramids have never failed to impress the imaginations of those foreign travellers who have visited Egypt. and other jalaces have pyramids which empire. Mariettk. they are the tombs of the native monarchs. Tombs and p. i. We shall not attempt any study of these remains. Both Thebes and Abydos offer us many examples of its use. We shall find the pyramidal form employed But the to crown buildings in Phoenicia. ' Lepsius. The pyramid was employed as a terminal form throughout the whole of Egyptian history. Like those in Egypt. such purely geometrical forms would seem unworthy of its powers.i^ypte. vol. F F . . Denkiiur/cr. its ii. kingdom of Ethiopia. in the necropolis of Thebes. partly fable. upon the rocks of Drah-abou'1-neggah. we are told. Meroe. Rhind. may be counted by dozens. partly history.

We must return. The Ethiopian guishes the great structures of pyramids were generally so narrow and steep in slope that In their whole character was different from those of Egypt. The upon the Upper Nile the proportions were reversed. unintelligent taste overspread them with ill-devised decoration. indeed. give to her royal pyramids the air of grandeur which distinMemphis.2i8 other A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. taken against the the violation of the royal tomb ' (Fig. but the height of base and nearly 50 feet high. take ill-designed variations the first dynasties. no further notice of these more or upon the type which was created less by the Egyptians in the early days of their civilization and fully understood by themselves alone. Even during the monarchs reigned over a remained the clumsy She never learnt to pupil and imitator of the northern people. affords The Great Pyramid elaborate us a curious example of the precautions 132). At point where the ascending gallery one side at the Thus the Great Pyramid was 4S2 is feet high. the Nubian pyramids is always far greater than the length of one side at its base. in as few words as possible. independence a thousand years before gifted our short era.^ latter edifices thus lost some of that appearance of indestructible They remind one solidity which is their natural expression. how far the art of workinsf and fixine stone had advanced even at the time of shall. and one which expresses nothing either to the eye or the mind. while the length of " at base is 764 feet. in order to show. to that type for a moment. On the other hand. Egypt the base line was always greater than the vertical height. The people of who inhabited the region which we now by the reconquered call names Nubia not their political and the Soudan. for they are oriented. however. period the when Ethiopian divided and weakened Egypt. . Gebel-Barkal (Napata) " fifth" is 39 feet square at the 35 feet square at the base and 60 feet high the Their proportions are not constant. but they were by nature with power to assimilate the lessons of their former masters. Add to this that an at once of the obelisk and the pyramid. cornice. Ethiopia Thus the upper generally part of their eastern faces. had. the " third pyramid . bears a false window surmounted by a about as incongruous an ornament as could well be conceived. they are neither original nor interesting. We therefore. products of Ethiopian art.

from Prisse. or if they guessed the deception and persevered till they found the entrance to the ascending gallery. ii. when followed to the end. 5 1 itself Four blocks granite. which. and. 1 sliding in 50 and 1 masked the entrance to the latter show the arrangement of these portcullis The narrow passage leading to the discharging chambers above the mummy-chamber. and would search no farther. at which The upper the first. tells us of a subterranean conduit which Fic 149. being of limestone. which tools brought against it. This block was so heavy and so well adjusted. 124. we suppose them arrived. admitted the waters of the Nile. the mouth of the former was closed by a block of granite which exactly fitted it. stones. because Herodotus. — Plan and eIe\ation of a iiyramicl at Meroe . would be likely to lead our supThe posed robbers into the upper part of the pyramid. This seems to have been intended by the constructor. did not offer such an unyielding resistance to the Formerly the mouth of a gallery. . remained open. still opens upon a small vestibule which would separate flat them ol from Figs. the sarcophagus-chamber grooves. they would find another obstacle to their success which would be likely to arrest them longer than extremity of the great gallery. The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. seemed to be the continuation of the entrance corridor.^ The violaters of the tomb would believe the corpse to be in this unsuspected reservoir. 219 branched off from that descending' corridor which was the only entrance to the pyramid. led to an unfinished If chamber cut in the rock at about the level of the Nile. ' Hfrodotus. this had been finished the waters would perhaps have invaded it by infiltration.. that entrance could only be obtained by cutting a passage through the surrounding masonry. who no doubt thought the work had been completed.

Du Barry de Merval. result. The unbidden visitors would thus have explored the interior of the pyramid high and low without _ 1 _^-' ' Fk. high up the end wall of the grand it was left open. . and trouble and even supposing that they expended considerable time in the search. alluded. 130./^///"/'^''^''^^^^^^Sj^"/yy ^ //A Fro. — Portcullis closed.. not without trouble. from the southern pyramid of Drawn in perspective from the plans and elevations of Perring.^ . they might easily have failed to penetrate into the mummy-chamber itself.220 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. jip. Etudes snr T Architecture £gyftien9ie. 150. — Method Dashour. of closing a gallery by a stone portcullis. that Another ingenious arrangement which demands our notice is of those discharging chambers to which we have already These chambers were explored. 151. in entrance to this passage gallery . 129.

The Tomb under the Anxiext

Empire.

221

by Colonel Howard Vyse and. J. L. Perring, who at once comprehended their use. The roof of the sarcophagus- chamber consists of nino slabs of fine red granite, like those which form the walls They are i8 feet 9 inches long and their of the same chamber. In spite of their ends rest upon the side walls of the chamber. thickness and of the hard nature of the rock of which they are composed, it was feared that they might give way under the enormous weight of the masonry above, for the floor of the

zdx^^S^S.
ElG. 152.

— Transverse

section, in perspective, through the s.arcophagiis-cliamber

and the

chamber
pyramid.

is

still nearly 340 feet below the actual apex of the This danger was met in the fashion figured above.

As
five

the structure

grew above the roof of the mummy-chamber,
left,

one above the other, to a total height of 56 feet, which would relieve the flat ceiling of the mummy-chamber of the weight to be placed above it. The first four of these chambers were of similar shape and had flat roofs, but the roof of the fifth was formed of sloping slabs.

small chambers were

222

A

History of Art
ridcje,

in

Ancient Egypt.
chamber a
triano-ular section

meetino- in a

and

privinsf

the

(see Fig. 152).

Thanks

to this succession of voids

immediately
discharged

over the main chamber, and to the pointed arch which surmounts
them,
the vertical pressure of the
itself

superstructure

is

and distributed over the lateral parts of the pyramid. These precautions have been quite effectual. Not a stone has been stirred either by the inward thrust or by
the crushing of their substance
;

from the chamber

not a block

is

out of place but
of

those which have been disturbed by the violence

man

;

and,

moreover, the whole structure
ruption nor settlement in
galleries

is

so

well

bonded and so well
disin

balanced that even his violent attacks have led neither to
the

apartment of Cheops or

the

which lead

to

it.^

Fig.

153.

— Longiludinal

section tlu-ough the Imver

chambers

;

perspetti\e after Pening.

Pyramid is which opens immediately into the vestibule of the King's Chamber. As this corridor is 28 feet high and 7 feet wide, the visitor can breathe more freely than in the low and narrow passages which lead to
built

The

glory of the

workmen who

the Great
gallery

the

masonry of the Grand

Gallery, the

The discovery of these chambers was interesting from another point of view. The name of Choufou was found continually repeated upon the blocks of which
^

was written in red ochre, and, in places, it was upside down, must have been written before the stones were put in place. It cannot therefore have been traced after the tradition which assigned the pyramid to Cheops, that is, to Khoufou, arose and so it affords conclusive
they are formed.
It

thus proving that

it

;

corroboration of the statements of Herodotus.

The Tomb under the Ancient
it,

Empire.

223

and can examine at his ease the beautitul blocks of Hmestone from Mokattam of which its poHshed walls are composed. The faces of these blocks have been dressed with a care which is not to be surpassed even by the most perfect examples of Hellenic The internal faces architecture on the Acropolis at Athens. with equal care. No cement has been must have been worked

employed in the fixing, and the adherence is so perfect that, in the words of Abd-ul-Latif " not a needle, not even a hair, These joints arc not even can be introduced into the joints." ^
to

be

distinguished
is

without
with

careful

examination.
care.-

The

roof

of this gallery

built

no

less

Each of the upper
it,

courses

is

slightly set off

from the one below

so that in time

they come so near together that the opening

may be

closed by

These, beinof held a sinsfle stone, or rather, row of stones. between the two upper courses of a quasi vault, play the part This method of vaulting has been employed in of key stones. other parts of the pyramid, especially in what is called the Queens Chamber, which is almost directly beneath the king's, or sarcophaguschamber. The same care is conspicuous in those linings of red granite which form the walls of the two chambers. Even the fine limestone used for the walls of the Grand Gallery was not considered rich and solid enough for the walls of the apartment in which the prince in whose honour the whole of the colossal and it was determined to use edifice w'as reared would repose the richest and most costly material of which the Egyptian
;

architect could dispose.^

The
which

plain sarcophagus, without either
is

inscription or ornament,

still

in

the King's Chamber,

is

also of red granite.

The

external casing of the pyramid has entirely disappeared, as

we have
1

already said.

On

account of their moderate size the
effect ahiiost

This

in the
^

is no exaggeration. Jomard expresses himself to the same same terms. {Description de l' Egypfe, vol. v. p. 628.) The extremity of this gallery appears on the right of Fig. 152.

^

The presence

of this lining in the " Queen's

Chamber

" also

led to

its

being

dubbed a funerary chamber, for no trace of a sarcophagus was found in it. If we had any reason to believe that the pyramid was built in successive wedges, we should look upon this as a provisional chamber, made before it was certain that the pyramid would attain its present dimensions. As the work went on, it would be decided that another, larger, and better defended chamber should be built. In this case the first may never have been used, and may always have been as empty as
it

is

now.

!24

A

History of Art
it

in

Ancient Egypt.
to

stones of which
fitted for

was composed would seem

be especially well

use in building those great cities which, after the collapse

of the ancient civilization, succeeded each other, under different

neighbourhood of the Memphite necropolis. This made of more than one kind of stone, if we may believe an ancient text which has been interpreted by Letronne with the skill and sagacity of which he has given so
names,
in the

casing seems to have been

many proofs.^ The author, named Wonders of the World,
this

work

"

upon the Seven tells us that the Egyptians employed upon the most brilliant and varied stones, which were
Philo,

of

a

treatise

carefully fixed."
result

He

mentions as contributing to the splendid
is

white marble, basalt, porphyry, and a green breccia from
called verde antique.

Arabia, which must have been what
as for his white marble,
it

And

must have been the white limestone from Mokattam, which, in its best strata, is almost as white and Marble, properly speaking, was only fine in grain as marble. introduced into Egypt by the Greeks, and that in very small
quantities, for the use of sculptors.

Philo says nothing of granite,

its use was so general that it must have found a place in the scheme of decoration." The various kinds of stone must have been so placed as to form zones, and perhaps patterns, of different colours, white, red, black, rose, green, and so on. To form an idea of the effect we must think of Giotto's campanile at Florence and various other Italian buildings of the same kind. It has been questioned whether the testimony of this Philo is to be depended upon, as few of those who have busied themselves with the pyramids seem to have laid much stress upon it. It seems to us to be worthy of great respect. We do not know

but

'

Their presence
I'f

These observations are to be found in one of the early works of Letronne. Rechenhes Geographiqiies is in no way hinted at by the title, which is
:

Critiijues

sur

le

Livre

'

De

mcnstcra orhis term'' (8vo. 1844).

The

treatise, IlEpt

rmi

kiTTa. 6ea/xaTojr,

Byzantium.

may have been written either by Philo They both belonged to the third century

of Heraclea or Philo of

before our era, but the

and numerous errors incline us to believe that the little work must have been from the pen of some unknown rhetorician of a later date. - These are the words of Philo, which we have translated rather freely HoiKiAai
bombastic
style
:

8e Kai 7rop<^i'pai
IJ.a.pix.apin)'!' rrj

kWoiv

<^i'o"€is

dA\7;A.ais eTriScSo/iei'at, koI

tu

fih' idTiv

r)

Trcrpa Xcvkij Kai

8t AWiottlki] Kat /AcAatra Koi /xera TavTr/v 6 /caXoi'p.O'OS aljiaTiTy]';

XWo%'

eira jroiKt'Aos kui 8iu;^Aojpo5 airu -nji A/aa/St'as KeKOixLafji.wo<s, p. 2,259, A.


The Tomb under the Ancient
when
Philo lived, but

Empire.

225

pyramid was Middle Ages, because in the time of Abd-ul-Latif it had almost its original height, and its ascent was still very difficult.^ On the other hand we have proofs that, although the author of the Seven Wonders of the World may have written more in the tone of a rhetorician than of an eyewitness of the wonders which he describes, he took some of his
that the casinq- of the
still

we know

in place, at least in

part, durino- the

information from excellent sources.

In fact with the exception of

Pliny, he is the only ancient writer who gives us an approximately true statement of the length of the base line of Cheops' Pyramid. While the measurements of other writers are very far from accurate, the figure given by Philo is only 16 feet 6 inches in

excess of the truth.
'

The

idea of decorating such an expanse of

According to the calculations of Letronne, the Great Pyramid must have been In the time of Diodorus it was slightly over feet high when it was complete. feet in that of Abd-ul-Latif it measured 477 feet 3 inches. In 1795 it was only 456 feet and a few inches, so that it lost about 24 feet in the course of eighteen This lowering of the summit was mainly caused by the destruction and centuries. removal of the outer casing. Since it disappeared the Arabs have been in the

482 480

;

habit of loosening the stones

on the top and launching them down the

sides for the

amusement
this.

of travellers

;

the smooth casing alone could prevent such outrage as

The common
is

world
at

erroneous.

least

Cheops is the highest building in the Even if we take its height when complete, it is surpassed by two modern buildings, as may be seen by the following table of the

idea that the Pyramid of

most

lofty buildings

now

existing

:

Feet.

Spires of Cologne Cathedral

Fleche of the Cathedral at
Spire of
St.

Nicholas,

Rouen Hamburg

533 500 480

Dome

of

St. Peter's,

Rome

476
473 456 450 443 417 411

Spire of Strasbourg Cathedral

Pyramid of Cheops
Spire of
Spire of
St.
St.

Stephen's, Vienna
Martin's, Landshut

Spire of the Cathedral of Freiburg, Breisgau Spire of

Antwerp Cathedral, not including the
Cathedral at Florence
St.

cross

Spire of Salisbury Cathedral

Dome of
Doine of

404 396
371

Paul's,

London

Fleche of Milan Cathedral

363

Tower of Magdeburg Cathedral
Victoria Tower, Westminster

344 336
293 287 266

Rathhaus Tower, Berlin
Spire of Trinity Church,

New York

Pantheon, Paris

Towers of Notre Dame, Paris
vol..
I.

226
(;

G

226

A

UlSlDRY OK

A RT

I\

AnCIENT
in

EgVI'T.

surface with varied colour
taste.

was quite

accordance with Egyptian
;

They loved polychromatic ornaments
surface

they covered every
in

available

with the gayest hues
the

;

they delighted

the

most brilliant tones. They could hardly think of covering such an immense surface with paint, and as it was necessary, in any case, to cover it with a smooth casing, it would be no more difficult to employ many kinds of stone than one. They would thus obtain a kind of gigantic mosaic which may perhaps have been heightened in effect by the use of gold. We know that the pyramidion of an obelisk was frequently gilded, and it is probable enough that similar means were sometimes taken, in the case of the more magnificent and carefully finished pyramids, to draw the eye to their topmost stone and thus to add to the impression made by their height. No more fitting adornment could be imagined for the sharp peak of a pyramid rising nearly five hundred feet into the pure blue of an Egyptian sky. But this is a conjecture which can never be verified. Even if the topmost stone were still in place upon any of the pyramids it would, after all these ages, have lost all traces of gilding but the whole of those edifices have their apex more or less truncated. Even before our era, Diodorus found the Great Pyramid crowned by a plateau six cubits square.
juxtaposition
of
;

sometimes been supposed that the pyramids, when complete, were terminated by such a plateau as that described by Diodorus, and that it bore a statue of the king whose mummy rested below. This hypothesis is founded upon the passage of Herodotus which treats of the Lake Mceris. " There are," he says, "in the middle of the lake, two pyramids, each fifty fathoms high (309 feet) each of them is .surmounted by a colossal stone statue seated upon a throne." ^ Herodotus insists so often upon having seen the Labyrinth and Lake Moeris with his own eyes, that we cannot affect to doubt his assertions we shall therefore confine ourselves to a few observations upon
It

has

;

them.
In the descriptions which he gives of the three great pyramids,

and among

construction,

comments upon the methods employed in their Herodotus does not say a word which can be construed into the most distant allusion to statues upon their If he had seen colossi perched upon those lofty summits.
his
I

Diodorus,

i.

63. 64.

-

Herodotus,

ii.

49.

The Tomb under the Ancient
pedestals,

Empire.

227

whose he had heard trom his dragomans exaggerations he has elsewhere so naively reproduced that they had formerly existed, would he not have made some allusion to them in that passage, at least, where he explains how they raised such huge stones to so great a height, and describes the successive
or
if

stages in the construction of a pyramid

?

^

Would he

not have

found
of

room,

in

the elaborate antithetical passage in which

he

contrasts the virtues of IMycerinus with the imaginary wickedness

Cheops and Chephren, for moral and critical reflections called up by the sight of their statues upon their respective pyramids still more if one of them had happened to be missing ? Would he not have attempted, through some popular tradition, to have accounted for the presence of one statue and the absence of another ? It is evident, therefore, that Herodotus neither saw any statues upon the Pyramids of Memphis nor had he any reason to suppose those structures had ever been crowned in such a fashion. He lays stress upon the seated statues of the pyramids in Lake Moeris because they were new to him, because he had seen nothing of the same kind in the neighbourhood of the ancient capital.
;

Unless we are very much mistaken, this superposition of a colossus upon a pyramid was a novelty devised by the architects
of
the

middle

empire,

when,

under

the

Ousourtesens

and

Amenemhats, it was proposed to revive the pyramidal form of tomb with which the early Pharaohs had obtained such imposing
results.

Although most conservative on the whole, the
at

art

of

Egypt attempted,
this

each period of renascence, to introduce
details, at least, of the ancient forms,

new
and
the

combinations into the

was one of the number. Another innovation of the same kind

is

to

be found

in

decoration which covered, ag-ain according to Herodotus,- another

I M. Maspero has given in the Aiinuaire de F Association pour F Enanu-agement des Etudes Grecques and elsewhere, several extracts from a commentary upon the second book of Herodotus, which we should like to see published in its entirety. We may point out more particularly his remarks upon the te.xt of the Greek historian in the

matter of the 1,600 talents of silver which, he says, was the value of the onions,
radishes,
(ii.

and

garlic

consumed by

the

workmen emi)loyed upon

the Great Pyramid

125).

He

has no difficulty in showing that Herodotus

made

a mistake, for
p.

which he gives an ingenious and probable explanation.
^

{Annuaire de 1875,

16.)

Herodotus,

ii.

148.

Diodorus

(1.

Strabo, who also appears to have seen it, He says it was four plethra (393 feet) both

89) speaks of the same pjTamid, and asserts its funerary character (p. 1165, c).
in

width and height.

This

last

dimension

228

A

History of Art

i\

Ancient Egypt.

pyramid constructed at about the same time, namely, that which formed one side of the Labyrinth. " It had," says the historian, " forty fathoms, and it was sculptured with animals of large size. The entrance was by a subterranean passage." From the Greek word used {eyytyXv-n-rai) we see that Herodotus means that the faces, or perhaps only the principal face, of this pyramid about two hundred and fifty feet high, were covered with bas-reliefs. There is in Egypt no other example of a pyramid so decorated. The architectural works of this period have almost entirely vanished, but we may, perhaps, look upon it as one of their characteristics that the bareness which they had inherited from the early creators of Egyptian art, was relieved and adorned by
the intervention of the sculptor.
It

their

was the desire for such ornament pyramids into gigantic pedestals

that
for

made them convert
statues.

According

all the analogies afforded by later ages, these statues must have been those of the princes who built the pyramids in question. We have no reason to suppose that any of the kings of the first six dynasties erected any colossal figures like those which were set up in such numbers by the Theban dynasties with the single exception of the Sphinx, none of the statues left to us by the ancient empire greatly exceed the natural size. But it is evident that such figures as would be fit to crown the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren would have to be of extravagant size even if no more than their general outlines were to be visible from below. Seen from a point nearly 500 feet below, and in consequence of the inclination of the pyramid faces, at some considerable distance laterally, even a statue fifty feet high, like the two colossi of Amenophis III. on the plain of Thebes, would appear small enough to a spectator. Its artistic results would be very slender, and yet its erection would require prodigious mechanical efforts. It would have required all the multitudes of labourers, the patience, and the time, which the But Egyptians alone dared to expend upon their monuments. perhaps it may be said that these colossi were statues built-up of comparatively small stones. To this we must answer that

to

;

every colossus as yet discovered in Egypt is a monolith. A statue, of whatever size, made in different pieces would form
is

obviously exaggerated, because in
is

all

the Egyptian pyramids that are

known

to us

the shortest diameter of the base

far in excess of the height.

The Tomb under the Ancient
an
exception
it.

Emph^e.

we know

whole practice of Egyptian sculpture as Until such works are proved to exist we decline
to

the

to believe in

them.
a

The problem was
mids
ing
in

much

simpler one in the cases of the pyralofty.

to

Lake Moeris. They were not nearly so Herodotus they were about 309 feet
Herodotus could not himself
sank as
is

Accorddoubtless

high,

including their statues.

Situated as they were in the middle of

the

lake,

have measured
below the
level

them,
of the

and

his statement that they
it

far

water as they rose above
reserved, as in the cases

an obvious exaggeration.
other

When

the bed of the lake was formed, two masses of rock were no doubt
of the

pyramids,
it

to

form the

core of the projected edifices, and therefore

is

likely

enough

dipped In his amazement at the below the surface of the lake.^ scale upon which the Egyptian Ijuildings were conceived, Herodotus has too often attributed excessive dimensions to them thus he says that the height of the Great Pyramid was
that the lowest courses of the constructions themselves

but

little

;

eight plethra, or about

820

the

truth. for

It

is

therefore

nearly 340 feet in excess of probable that the figures which he
feet,

gives

the

lake

pyramids

are

also

exaggerated.

These

pyramids were, on account of their comparatively modest dimensions, much better adapted to the ideas of the Ousourtesens and Amenemhats than the gigantic piles of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus. Finally there is not a te.xt to be found, outside the pages of Herodotus, which mentions pyramids surmounted by statues, and upon none of those monuments which in one way or another bear representations of the pyramids are they shown in any other way than with pointed summits. Thus do we find them in the papyri, upon those steles of the Memphite necropolis which
'

If the

passage

in

which Herodotus makes the statement here referred

to be

taken in connection with the remarks of Diodoriis, a probable expLanation of the
old historian's assertion

may be

arrived

at.

Diodorus says that the king 6pvTTo»'
iv

Tavryp' {Xifxvqv Sub.) KaTeAtTrev ev
TT/i' /ici'

filirr/ tottoj',

w

Ta<j6oi^

wKOOo^rjrre sat ovo Ti-upa^t^a?,

By this it would ajjpear that, in excavatmg the bed, or a part of the bed, of the famous lake, a mass of earth was left in order to bear future witness to the depth of the excavation and tlie general This mass would probably be reveted with stone, and, in magnitude of the work. order that even when surrounded and almost hidden by water, its significance should not be lost, the pyramids raised upon it were made exactly equal to it in height.
lavTov, T7)v 8t T^s ywi/atKo?, trraSiat'as to
vij/o'S.

—Ed.

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

commemorate the priests devoted to their service, and in those tombs at Memphis, Abydos, and Thebes where the pyramid,
placed upon rectangular figures of various heiglits,
terminal
eleinent.
is

used as a

Neither

in

the

small

number

of

pyramids

which have come down to us comparatively intact, nor in those which are represented in reliefs, is there the smallest sign of a truncated summit or of any platform which could by any possibility have borne a statue. We may say the same of those small px'ramidions which have been found in such great numbers in tombs and which fill our

museums.

It

is

well

known

that

these are votive offeringfs in

Fig. 154.

— Pyiamidion

:

l.ouvie.

connection with the worship of the sun.
says

"

The
hand

principal figure,"

M. de Rouge,

" is

generally

shown

in

a posture of adoration,
is

with his face turned to the sun.
to the

On

his left

the invocation

rising, and on his rio-ht that to the settinsf sun. These arrangements are modified in various ways, but they are always upon the same genera lines as the orientation of the tombs themselves." ^ These minute pyramids also end in a point whether they be of basalt, granite, or calcareous stone, and it is

natural that
^

we should

look upon them as the faithful reproductions
Egypiiens exposes dans
Ics

Notice somiiiaire des

Aloniiiiients

Galeries dii Louvre

(4th edition, 1S65, p. 56).

and forming the only safeguard its against the degradation of the pyramid by removing or its copestone violation by breaking into the passages Avhich led to the mummy-chamber. the workmen charged with the final completion of the edifice worked downwards from one course to another.The upon a small To-Mh unuer the Axchint ELmpire. and. consecrated by the most venerable of the national traditions. So long as the pyramid preserved its cuirass intact. if The casing gave to the its continuous lines which were necessary to the materials make pyramid those beauty complete. above all. use of the steps for their own locomotion. covering the immense steps which each face displayed five or six thousand years ago and now displays again. These difficulties would have unnecessarily complicated an operation which was a simple The masons could then make matter when begun from the top. their footing upon such a surface. sloping at such an angle that no foot could rest upon it. that the pyramid terminated in of the ancient empire in a pyramidion. points of resistance could not have been obtained for the elevation heights of the materials to ever increasing without cutting or leaving holes in the casing. by means of a complicated arrangement of ropes and ladders. And again. it was difficult tor those ' 'E^tTTOiiy^T.^ proceeding would have been too dangerous after the slope of the sides had been made smooth and continuous by the completion of Workmen could only have kept the casing of polished granite. We may believe. nothing could be easier than to fi. Even Herodotus saw that this must Any other way of have been the method of completion. . employed were varied in the way suggested.K windlasses by which the largest blocks could be raised with facility. and when the stones were too large to be lifted from hand to hand. then. it furnished colour effects which had their beauty also. But. (ii. it was a protection. great scale of those funerary monuments which which furnished a type. 6 ur Tu a! Mrara aiTT/s wpi'iTa. a defensive armour. This apex once fixed place. As the workmen approached of the base they left above them an ever increasing extent polished surface. of that structure facing the four cardinal points we may call the normal Egyptian tomb. which would afterwards have to be filled up. /i«Tu 6e Tu e— o/xeru TOiTwr iii—oUvv . with the final casing which protected ihem for so many centuries. 125). with its 51 or 52 degrees of elevation. . .

of various materials. ^ Joiinial des Savants. but it is most likely that the methods of proceeding changed with the progress of time and the succession of architects. in which the and the stones were soft pyramidal form Philo. In such a matter we should ' find. harder and . The and easily cut. A. sunk into the upper face of the course below by mortices which would correspond to the trench in the living rock As to whether the external in which the first course was fixed. " tells us with what extreme care the casing was put in place. carefully built than the casing was comparatively easy to learn inner mass was much less the joints were comparatively open. 640) but according to Philo. if we entered into details. The lower part of this pyramid is still covered with long blocks of the finest granite. v. to who seems be so well informed. At the foot of the Great Pyramid several blocks have been found which seem to have formed part of the casing of that edifice.They are trapezoidal in form. diversity similar to that 2i'>'ap/xoj' h\ Kai KaTiti(T\t. The whole work. and so thoroughly polished." he says. the casing stones of the Great Pyramid were "a compact more homogeneous than those of the body of the building " {Description tie F Egypte. to "Est So. Hence we see that some pyramids. p. rather less precision: 12). faces of these blocks were dressed to the required angle before they left the quarry. to who meditated But all know where it begin their attack. fixed and polished in the most perfect manner. They were not. and it is to that of Mycerinus that we must now turn if we wish to have some idea of the care with which the work was done. have been reduced by the action of time into heaps of debris. this obstacle once pierced the secrets of the building. as we have already said. this casing was formed. . p.ivov to ttum €pyov. and they show. " is so well adjusted." ^ The pyramid of Cheops has been entirely despoiled of its outer covering. the elder Pliny. and adjusted by their external faces. though with 2259. so we need feel no surprise if blocks of granite or other rock are shown to have formed jart of it. too. According grey limestone. .232 A History of Art violence to ix Ancient Egypt. " Jomard. that the v/hole envelope seems but one block of stone. is hardly to be recognised. or whether the work were done after they were in place we cannot say with any certainty. as was at first supposed. xxxvi. autem saxo naturali elaborata et lubrica " {JVat Hist. especially those which were built of bricks. uiixTe BoKeiv okov tov KaracrKfr'acr/LiaTos fiiav eliai TrtVpas av/j-^tviav.. that the casing stones were placed one upon another. t. as Letronne " long ago remarked. Ang\x%U 1841.

these awkwardly shaped prisms offered less inducement to the pyramids as those who looked upon their places I. their internal arrangements. H 11 VOL.- The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. or become dislocated from natural causes. which seem to have formed part Such a section seems. to the faces of the graded core. of 187S). 2 On the other hand. By Ethiopian Syene. . Egyft. . stone we must understand. open quarries than the easily squared blocks of Cheops. was of this stone.. first p.nmids . The prisms had no alliance one with another they had to depend for their security entirely upon their adherence foot of the Thus some . clra\Mi in jier^pective from the elevation of Perrinc. upon paper. seems thickness of the pyramid. In his time the pyramid was in a good state of preservation. parti. This system.R. while their position in the angles of the internal masonry enabled to them keep independently of the lower courses of the casing. but it is far inferior in solidity to the trapezoidal section. Herodotus (ii. ^ '""-^ — j~ —— -v TiG. The casing of the Second Pyramid. triangular prisms ot granite have been found at the pyramid of Chephren. 338 (ed. moreover. and he never thought of asking whether or no the core was of the same material as the outer case. ^ ^g^ . did not give a its homogeneous envelope with a thickness of own. — En. does not seem to have been carried out on the same principle from top to bottom. throughout the His mistake was a natural one. and partly independent of the monument which it protected. 155 — The casing of the pyr. unlike the first described. and the materials of which they were composed. ' B.EDEKF. 127) says that the course of the Great Pyramid was built of a parti-coloured Ethiopian stone TrpwTov So/xoi' (iiTToStt'/ias Toi' \iOov AWtoTTLKov TToiKiXov). the of its lower casing.^ simplest that could be adopted for the filling in of the angle between two of the steps. so that they could easily be carried off. as historian several to illustrations prove. 233 which we have already shown to have characterized the forms of the pyramids. the granite of The Greek have thought that the whole of the first course.

Mariette caused of the Egyptian religion. but rather that they should ever have been completed. and pieces of burnt brick. p. 155. vol. ' The determination to use a concrete such as that described affords a good It reason for the prismatic shape of the granite blocks used in the lower courses. The upper part. The The variety which is so conspicuous in the architectural conis struction of the pyramids first also to be found in their epigraphy.^ In other pyramids we find at different combinations again. too. upon which blocks of granite are to be found which are still rough in face. . 7. no doubt. of which full details are yet wanting. Sometimes we polish. with mortar. which still remains in place. but without their Such is the case with the Second Pyramid. while the difficulty would be enormously increased if the coat were to have a — considerable thickness of its own independently v. They may have wished Philo speaks. Recent discoveries.^ while a brick pyramid — the final most northern — in the same locality. gypsum. . Antiqiiiles. Description de f Egypte. three pyramids at Sakkarah to be opened. is composed of a hard cement formed of chalk. and it is quite possible that yet other materials entered into the composition of the casing. which bears an inscription of some length. explorers of the Pyramids of Gizeh were surprised at the all absence of beyond the masons' marks the silence of those enormous structures seemed amazing but soon Colonel Vyse discovered in the pyramid of Mycerinus the sarcophagus of that king. would evidently be easy enough to cover the pyramid with a coat of cement working downwards if its surface did not greatly overpass the salient angles of the steps. In the double-sloped erection Dashour. now in the British Museum. by to obtain the parti-coloured effect of which making simultaneous use of granite and concrete. the blocks in place. prove that some of the pyramids contained long texts. which contain the names of kings and other information which is of great importance to the historian In 1879 and 1880. fixed. and the mummy case. the courses of casing stones are vertical instead of horizontal. Ed. of the pyramid. find the revetment in a state of . which until then had inscriptions . like the casing shown '^ in Fig. was covered with semi-completion slabs of limestone. and cut to the proper angle. But we ought in fact to be surprised. It would seem that the patience required for the minute completion of such a terribly long and tedious piece of work was not forthcoming. not so much at the unfinished state of a pyramid here and there.— 234 — in A History of Art Ancient Egypt.

Without presenting any very considerable difficulties. Mariette of the excavations. . 1881. the sixth and the tenth dynasties a great gap exists. so far as monumental remains are concerned. This wall with is like which precedes alabaster. of the passage was found. IMaspero. . and is effectively is decorated painted ornaments. In this pyramid. 235 and empty. The side the second of the close-grained limestone of Tourah. those which walls are covered with fine hieroglyphs painted green. upon the spot. ordered a second pyramid to be opened. upon the walls of which the inscription continued. . Pleasure at this discovery. . recognised certain formulae and phrases which had already struck him in another place. the successor of M. . Empire. The sarcophagus of black basalt. Maspero. without inscription. M. opened a pyramid belonging to a difterent group. The passage opens that chamber half is it. M. . " M. These texts make up a composition analogous to one which covers the walls of certain little known Theban tombs. is The mummy-chamber. has the advantage of being M.^ In March as director 1881. whom Mariette had previously entrusted with taking squeezes from the inscription in the tomb of Papi. but complete. ments of a Ritual of the Dead were recognized among them. portcullis the last Pharaoh of the similar to dynasty. that the G. Papi and his son Merenzi. with the exception of the finest of the wall opposite to the entrance.The Tomb under the Ancient remained unexplored. He w-ished to verify. in ^he He has observed FebruanS. . Maspero has always believed that there ' is no such gap. brightened the last days of Mariette. they demand careful examination from those who would comprehend their meaning. Charmes. were found. encouraged by this first success. the last which he was destined to of One them was silent make in the soil of Egypt. but in the others the inscriptions and sarcophagi of two kings of the Fragsixth dynasty. covered with hieroglyphs. IMaspero. which turned out fifth to be the tomb of Ounas. filled with debris. a theory which he had long upheld in spite of the adverse opinions It is well known that between of the majority of egyptologists. . The text of the inscription which covers the walls it is almost identical with that in the tomb of Papi. . the first part of polished granite. . Journal des Dehats. have already been figured were stones When these obstacles were passed " the continuation found. the roof finally sprinkled with stars of the into a same hue.

. Maspero thinks that the pyramids erected by the sovereigns of the seventh. Maspero the is pyramids will tell us much. and tenth dynasties are those between Sakkarah and the Fayoum. and fulfilled their own well-defined offices in the general monumental ensemble. ninth. similar remains . and elsewhere. all those accessory structures which surrounded them. 1881. an Arab writer of the thirteenth century.236 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Hitherto they have attracted but little of that examination which discovers the most curious secrets.^ After having afforded an unyielding roadway for the transport of so many heavy materials. Where. March 15." he cries. The excavations the tombs of the fifth and sixth dynasties to have been at Sakkarah. these three pyramids are wonderfully well In their presence. to at pyramids south . preserved. seems no fear more than fears the last natural. " its but Time time has done work during the . are to be found. here and there it rises as much as eighty-six feet above the surface of the plateau. ' * Moniteur Egyptien. are those wide and substantial causeways. The causeway which led to the Pyramid its of Cheops still exists for some 400 yards of length . have either been destroyed by the violence of man or engulfed by the encroaching sand. Considering their age." ^ cross-examined by such questioners as M. those of the twelfth of Marietta as well as his Fayoum. even in their actual state of partial ruin. In any case science will profit by the new own showed excavations which he When about to undertake. for example. similar causeway is to be distinguished on the eastern side At Abou-Roash. A of the Third Pyramid. the oriental hyperbolism of Abd-ul-Latif. Hence M. but their size and the beauty of their masonry will ever make the three great pyramids of Gizeh the most striking objects to the traveller and to the historian of art. they formed truly regal avenues by which the funeral processions of the Egyptians reached the centre of the necropolis as long as Time. " All things " Pyramids! And yet few hundreds of years. The summits of the great structures have been slightly lowered the gaping breaches in their flanks have been gradually widened and although In spite of their stripped flanks and open wounds they still rear their heads proudly into the Egyptian sky. . are. so to speak. those of the in the Abooseer. The future will show whether he is right or wrong. grouped chronologically from north fifth those of the fourth dynasty at Gizeh. whose large and carefully adjusted blocks excited the wonder of Herodotus. at Abousir. eighth.

Immovable among the dead of the vast cemetery.^N Fig. His head alone now rises above the sand. he personified In the plain they the idea of the resurrection. His features have now been disfigured by all kinds of outrage. or the Rising Sun. like the morning sun. Empire. but in the thirteenth centurv. the image of Harmachis. Abd-ul-Latif .The Tomb under the Ancient their civilization lasted. although even then he had been mutilated. —Plan of ihe Pyramids of Gizeh and of that part of the necropolis which immediately suiTOunds them. was well calculated to prepare the eye of the traveller for the still more colossal masses of the pyramids. was placed at the threshold of the plateau. but in the days of Herodotus his vast bulk. F ^- •n {) •i^ E3 M&K^' a5 w <4^ V~ J:jW^-^ ^^ . is ever destined to triumph over darkness and death. The great Sphinx. cut from a rock nearly 70 feet high. 237 were above the level of the highest inundations. 156. and their gentle slope gave easy access to the western plateau. of that eternal life which.

157. but a painted decoration. vol. . v.^ an opening towards the east. vol. The with soil around each pyramid was carefully levelled and paved dressed limestone slabs. no doubt. Fig. his head enframed in a richly carved wig which added to its size and dignity. funerary chapel of the pyramid. which is less foundations of surrounding pyramid. and a plinth about - 3 feet high. 2. According to Jomard. in front of which the temple. the surbase of the second pyramid was a stylobate. which had bases. His body was never more than roughly blocked out. traces of them have been proved to They added somewhat to the imposing effect of those exist. compensated in some degree for the deficiencies in the modelling. but at the pyramid of Chephren. in two parts — See also in the plates. pi. p. Antiqiiitcs. was raised. or The latter. 643. xvi.238 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. and gave additional definition to their The area thus paved was inclosed with a wall. ' Description de VEgypte. — The Sphinx. the stylobate Upon this pavement rested the the Both stylobate and pavement are now in almost every case concealed by sand and dSris. banked up than the others. was able to admire his serene smile. fig. of which traces may still be found. v. monuments upon the eye. 10 feet high and 5 feet thick.

friends and relations of the dead rites. Of smaller pyramids were raised for their wives and children. about whom Herodotus tells one of those absurd stories invented by the Egyptians of the decadence. 239 was magnificently decorated. it was the giant forms of ' Herodotus. On the days appointed for the commemoration of the dead. from Perring.The Tomb under the Ancient Empire. driving before them the bleating and lowing victims for the funeral Priests in white linen. At the foot of the mountains of stone under which reposed the ashes of the Pharaohs themselves. reigns. the long rows of mastabas stretched away for miles through the vast necropolis. each being provided with a stele. 158. with their hands full of fruit and flowers. and a few with statues Upon the causeways which connected placed upon their facades. grouped Distributed thus by their tombs as closely as possible about his. we might almost say its festivals. with which his dragomans took such delight in imposing upon his simple faith. But amid the coming and going. lanes. being adorned with painted upon which the name of the deceased was inscribed. and blind alleys which gave access to the private tombs. all this The city of the must have afforded a curiously animated scene. flitted hither and thither. most of them bas-reliefs. Memphis with the necropolis. One of Gizeh. upon the esplanades erected by the Pharaohs to the memory and for the adoration of their ancestors. The great ones of Egypt. or sepulchral tablet KiG. — Pyramid with itb iiiclosuie. . like that of the living. advanced endless processions of mourners. ii. dead had its peculiar life. Abousir .'' Around the space which was thus consecrated to the adoration of the dead monarch. all those who had been near the Pharaoh and had received some of his reflected glory. in the countless streets. the private tombs were erected in close ju. these some haU' dozen still exist upon the plateau of them has been recognized as the tomb of that daughter of Cheops. amid all the bustle of the Egyptian jour des marts.xtaposition one with another. 126.

When quite close to them their summits and anHes can no longer be seen. that gave the scene a peculiar solemnity and a character of its own.240 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. and thousands of others which are but little less. to be oppressed. look like those of high mountains standing out against the sky. symbolized the royal dignity and the almost superhuman majesty of the kingly the pyramids. with their poUshed slopes and their long office. Their summits. which relects the rays of the sun and declares its identity to people at a vast distance. do possession of the Pyramid of Cheops. possesses. in their its honours to the curious visitor. de Memphis et dcs Pyramidcs. It is the sense of their simple grandeur of form and of the disproportion between the individual power and stature The eye can of man and these colossal creations of his hands. hundreds of stones each containing two hundred cubic feet and weighing some thirty tons. and thus. hardly embrace them. We touch them with our hands and endeavour ' Jomard remarks " It still that the upper part of the second pyramid its still reflects the rays of the sun. But despoiled though they be of their ornaments and of their proper surroundings." he says. ^ shadows turning with the sun. The wonder which they cause is not like that caused by a great work of art. " a portion of polished casing. nor the imagination grasp their mass. Of all this harmonious conception but a few fragments remain. we arrive within a very short distance of their sides a totally different impression succeeds . its by the footsteps of a few casual visitors hurrying along deserted avenues. we begin to be amazed. the pyramids are yet among those monuments of the world which are sure to impress all who possess sensibility or powers In a remarkable passage in the Description gdnerale of reflection. As we approach them this effect diminishes but when : ." . almost to be stupefied by their size. Jomard has well defined the effect which they produce upon the traveller and the impressions which " The they leave behind general effect produced by the pyramids is very curious. The silence is only broken by the cry of the jackal. when seen from a distance. and by the harsh voices of the Bedouins who have taken own fashion. Morning and evening this shadow passed over hundreds of tombs. We then begin to form some idea of the prodigious quantity We see of dressed stone which goes to make up their height. and. in a fashion. The necropolis is almost as empty and deserted as the desert which it adjoins.

upon the bank of the Description de V Egypie. and by the caprices of fashion. and in localities more or less removed from that in which she gave her first tokens of power. the most form of tomb in the necropolis of Memphis. especially the case very carefully studied. because they are the . the royal tombs of the Ancient Empire. again in the pyramids. to In one place we shall find it modified by the nature of the soil to which the corpse had to be committed.The Tomb under the Middle to realize the Empire. ancient We works created by a people results of the sincere is in its infancy. Upper Egypt. we are able to understand for ^ all these thing-s. . vol. by the development of art. and how many years it must have taken and the less dress. explained in No other race has given birth in its funerary architecture. a type which well defined. 241 power which must have been required to quarry and fix such a number of colossal blocks." the patience and power which overcame such § 3. the greater is our admiration obstacles. are the most interesting to the historian. v. carry. was an expression. to a type so pure. to and unfettered expansion of vital forces this when there is no possibility of a desire The mastaba deserved therefore to be imitate foreien models. 1. which was no more stationary in Egypt than elsewhere. what machines they used. The most ' important necropolis of the First in Theban Empire left 597. may be every detail by a master-idea at once original and We therefore dwelt upon it at some length and We found it described it with the care which it demanded. that is to say. in another by the inevitable progress of ideas. We have yet to follow the development of the same idea through the later years of Egyptian civilization. p. are yet penetrated by the same spirit. of the ideas In literature and in art the of the Egyptians as to a future life. by the colossal dimensions which the pride of the Pharaohs gave one part of their tomb. The ToDid under the Mieidle Empire. which though sensibly modified by the great change in proportion. A?iti'juili-s. both in arrangement and in decoration. how many men must have been employed on the work. or at least in its youth. have shown how the mastaba. [ i was that of Abydos VOL. .

" The richest and most influential Egyptians." its life. of the myths which the opening through which the setting sun sank into the bowels of the earth to According the Egyptian belief. like him. 1881). over darkness and death. Maspero themselves. upon which the tomb actually containing his body could be represented and unmistakably identified with its original by the formula inscribed upon it. know how . of all the Egyptian gods. be explained by the peculiarly sacred and by the great popularity. A The History of Art in Ancient Egypt. to from one end of the Nile valley centred in it. which had been dispersed by Set. xx. January 31. after the death of could deposit upon the ladder of Osiris a stele. head. he is but hidden for a moment from the eyes of man. the Holy Sepulchre of Egypt. no " All the tombs which have yet been discovered at Abydos. At all events.242 river. c. This sun of the infernal regions is Osiris. and thence through the opening to the west of that town which gave access to the regions of Ament. "are those of Egyptians domiciled at Abydos. 159). were re-united by Isis and Nephthys. Although many Egyptian towns could show tombs in which the members of Osiris. none of them were so famous." says a well informed Greek writer. But the author from whom this Plutarch derived his inspiration must have known the ancient fiction according to which the soul could only pass into the next world by betaking itself to Abydos. The sun is not extinguished. conclude that to the spot in choosing a final resting-place as near as possible where the great luminary seemed to make its nightly plunge. or any Egyptian during his own . as that at Abydos." he says {Revue Critique. was most universally adored. as the mummy would be reposing . who. On Isis and Osiris. " were ambitious of a common tomb with Osiris. if we may be permitted to use such a phrase. or the object of such deep devotion. character of the city of Abydos. in the early centuries of Christianity. M. the family. it. Pseudo-Plutarch." ^ Under such conditions it may readily be understood why Mariette should have concentrated so 1 much of his attention upon finds. the faithful laid great stress upon burial in the neighbourhood of some holy martyr. We the Egyptian intellect had established an analogy between the career of the sun and that of man we may therefore for its nightly transit. the other. safely at Thebes or Memphis (Fig. which took place in the end of the great first number is of sepultures from the years of the monarchy to until ancient civilization. Hence the voyage of the dead to Abydos which we find so often represented on tombs an imaginary voyage. It was. they believed they were making more completely sure of triumphing. As. was situated to the west of Abydos. confirmation of this statement in the monuments however.

tomb of Osiris but vet dieeino- campaigns afforded results which is are most interesting and important from every point of view. folio. " The hard and impenetrable stir M. Mariette thought that the sacred tomb was 1869 vol. vol. Maspero has set forth the considerations which lead him to think that the staircase of Osiris.The Tomb under the Middle Abydos. 159. — The river transport the of the Mummy. but on a smaller scale the same funerary chambers. Arrangements similar to those of the mastabas at Sakkarah are found. . Consequently the tomb of Osiris. upon which the consecrated steles were placed. ii.^ One district of this necropolis made up by a vast number of tombs dating from the time of the ancient empire. M. In the article which we quote above. the same materials. where is central cemetery. and particularly from the sixth dynasty. which may cover its very site. In spite the of" Empire. T Emplacement de cette -Ville.. which — Fig. the is subsoil ' remainder of the space occupied by the tombs the of a very different nature. Abydos. pi. probably in the immediate neighbourhood of the artificial mound called Koum-esSoulian.^RiETTE. Mariette calls to has allowed arrangements be adopted similar to those on the plateau of Memphis. the sand it the only covering to a stratum of living rock in which to cut the well was easy In and the mummy-chamber. Dcscnpiitni des Fcuilks exccutees i. (ChampolHon. would be upon the roof of his temple. succeed his M3 in all his researches he did not itself. 1S80. . the same wells. The situation of this tomb-district. at Abydos as at Denderah. sometimes horizontal as in the tomb of Ti and the pyramids. was the flight of steps which led up to the temple of that god. discoverine. sometimes vertical.

eround has been excavated down over-lies the hard rock. This of Mariette calls the northern cemetery. formed into a clumsy cupola by means of roughly built oft'-sets. drawn in perspective from the elevation of Mariette. 161. Hence the peculiar aspect which the necropolis of Abydos must have intact. twelfth. not dug. and These pyramids always stand upon a plinth. and within they are Fig. and especially of the thirteenth. are The tombs properly speaking. the which opening has been lined with " rujjble. carelessly oriented or not at all. all Abydos have no subterranean story. i. and being always left ' Mariette.Egypte. at others it. Well. pre- sented when Imagine a inulti- tude of small pyramids five or six metres high. dynasties. — Tomb at Abydos " ." ^ so soft that but few This formation extends over nearly the whole of the ground upon which the tombs of the eleventh. mummy-chamber. the door of the mumm)\ by masonry. i6o. and funerary chapel In the few instances in which the to the friable sandstone constructed. 1879. The pyramid stands directly over a chamber in its foundations which shelters As soon as the latter was in place.244 rock this is is A friable History of Art in Ancient Egypt. uniformly built of crude brick. — Section of the above tomb. some points. vol. are entrusted to mummies have been Fig. - Ibidem. there covered with a sandstone in course of formation at . Voyage dans la Haute."^ An exterior chamber its chamber was closed was often built in front of the pyramid. . they are hollow. packed closely together.

could be closed. 162. tive privacy assured and comparaeven in the which for absence of a funerary chapel. and when the friends of the deceased met to do him honour. was This multitude of little hidden under a layer of white stucco. — Section of the above tomb. for funeral offerings. . when complete. . When this part of the work was Fig. — Tomb at Abydos . as a rule. tombs. no doubt. The pyra- midal form was given by setting each course of the bricks slightly back from one below it. sometimes let into its face. all of the same shape and of much the same size. served for the Empire. were no most constructed with the were part without casing.The Tomb under the Middle open. sometimes this chamber was absent and then those rites were carried through in the open air. the entrance the foot of the stele. Sometimes tomb had a surrounding wall of the same height as its plinth this served to mark out the ground which belonged to it. 163. This latter was sometimes erected upon the plinth. monuments. must. These generally great care. before the stele of the deceased. which. in its turn. was covered. each face army. with a coat of rough concrete. rites 245 but performance of the sepulchral . have looked like the tents of an encamped finished. A little cube of masonry is sometimes found at the Fig. drawn in perspective from the elevation of Mariette. destined.

ill Abydos.) although these constructed edifices. Drawn by Bauigoin. As these tombs were all upon the surface of the ground they have suffered more than any others from the attacks of man. serried ranks round the sepulchre The only remains of this necropolis which are likely to . 164. And rg mrrnFrmM imt: lilil!llill:y$^ll-vv|i IKflil ^^ MW^^^^Mr^ETt^iti ^sr^^f! stAlti Fig. so far as their materials still are concerned. are standing. —Stele of the eleventh dynasty. they will soon follow the in many thousands which once stood of Osiris. Those which are reproduced among these lines of text were only recovered by Marietta by dint of patient excavation.246 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. (Boulak.

1 . 165.Fig. Drawn by Bourgoin.— Stele of Pinahii. (Boulak. priest of Ma : Abydos. New Empire.

.

Such a tomb was called a a-Trtoy by the Greeks. T.The Tomb under the Middle Empire. The most examples of these constructions are offered by the tombs of the twelfth dynasty at Beni. to their inscriptions. about half-way up their total height. This portico leads to a chamber which is lighted only from the door. sometimes opposite to It once contained the door. the most important of which have been reproduced by Champollion. the other their Whenever to motives did not affect choice. Most of the tombs have but one the statue of the deceased. 1880. which are as interesting and social have alluded above to the varied scenes which cover the walls of their chambers. therefore. much of the attention of egyptologists. with the arrangement of the tombs themselves.Hassan antl at Siout. Champollion was the first to appreciate the importance of the grottos of Beni. both situated between Memphis and Abydos. two or three columns were left to form a portico. Monuments d' Ahydos. the deep shadows of which stand out strongly against the whiteness of the rock. cut their tombs horizontally out of some rocky eminence. however. Its ceiling is often cut into the form of a vault. Lepsius. We are at present concerned. ' All these steles are figured in the last gene7-al des 4to. in which some have thought they saw the original model of the oldest and most beautiful of the Grecian orders. We have already referred organizations. to the historian of ideas as to the student of political We . When the cutting was made. of those They form about four-hfths of the total number monuments now preserved in the museum at Boulak. figure religious Middle. and Prisse d'Avennes we have finally to speak of those famous protodoric columns. 164 and 165). These are the same. high above the surface of the river. for the smallest and most simple tombs as for those which are largest anci most elaborately decorated. one belonging the New Empire (Figs. interesting for various reasons. They are. as they are called. the Catalogue pendant les Fouilles de cette ]'itlc. These facades are cut into the cliff-like sides of the hills of the Arab Chain. with but slight variations. the Egyptians preferred.Hassan. A deep square niche is cut. Ever since his time they have received. sometimes in one of the angles. thioiivcrts work published by Mariette. during the period we are now considering.^ to the We to two of them. K K . Paris. VOL. i \o\. 249 be preserved are the numberless steles which Mariette rescued from its debris.

the place of reunion for the friends and relations of the As INIariette very truly remarks. — Fa9ade of a tomb at Beni-Hassan. chamber. which is excavated at a lower level. In a corner either of the only chamber or of that which is farthest from the door. from the in in first step which the traveller makes that. the . he perceives differences of situation. the spite tomb of Numhotep of all at Beni-Hassan. the opening of a square well is found this leads to the mummy. but a few have two or three. Fig.250 A History of Art ix Ancient Egypt. The chamber upon which dead. i66. the portico opens is the funerary chapel. chamber.

the decorators ol governed the tomb of Ti at spirit which Sakkarah still insjaired the painters who covered the walls of the The defunct is at home tomb of Numhotep at Beni-Hassan. his people build boats. or give themselves up to gymnastics or to games of skill and chance. cut down trees. We have already found pictures like these in the mastabas of the Ancient Empire. — Facade of a tomb at Beni-Hassan. 251 " The Ancient Empire are still lull of vitalit)-.The Tomb under the Middle traditions of the Empire. Fig. showing some of the adjoining tombs. and among them the figure of the dead is carried hither and thither in a palanquin. his cattle defile . and here we find them again. cultivate the vine and gather the grapes. 167. before him. till the earth. among his own possessions he fishes and hunts. .

in the Libyan chain. a of feudal prince the twelfth dynasty. ' Mariktte. 169. that all objects of value and interest must have been abstracted from the mummybe found so easily. Drawn pi. 51. It is the most remarkable. i.ihove tomli. decoration the But Beni-Hassan the painted becomes more enter personal occupant of the ^ tomb. and. and with the e. which are never found elsewhere.!5- A at to History of Art this IxNt Ancient Egypt. in perspective from the elevation of The ot necropolis of Siout. nor any other movable objects have been found air in these grottos. The mummy-pit is reached from the innermost of these chambers. . princes of the The tomb of Hapi-Tefa. mummies. this should not cause surprise. which are mentioned in one of the situation texts at Beni.Hassan. p. and consequently a contemporary of those nome Meh who is are buried at Beni-Hassan. vol. Voyage dans la Haute-Egvpte. the mouths of the wells could and could so readily be cleared. inscriptions into precise and copious biographical details. Many centuries ago the acacia doors. i68. When their accessible Fig. — Interior of a tomb at Beni-Hassan.xternal by a wide portico. in spite of the accumulation of sand. Lepsius (i. otters the same general characteristics. — riaii of tlie . Neither statues. composed of three large chambers communicating one with another. and their conspicuous appearance is remembered." I'iG. disappeared. 6c).

Maspero has discovered. some remains of the royal tombs of the eleventh dynasty. Beni. all Happily.Hassan. two obelisks were reared. Thus the sepulchre of the King Ra-AiioiibKhopcr-EiiteJ is what the Greeks called a hcmi-spcos.e E^^'IRE. that is. Several of these tombs resemble in their general arrangements those of the feudal princes of Meh and . M. has destroyed the whole of one in wall.Hassan. very remote times. which was nowhere more complete than preserving souvenirs of all places of interest. The smoke of torches has also done its work reducing the brilliant tones and blunting the delicate contours. perhaps before the fall of the antique The inscriptions and the painted walls alone remained intact practically down to the commencement climate. Before the facade thus built against the mountain.The Tomb under the chambers in JMiddi. 170. 253 civilization. however. The dryness of the and at difficulty detaching them from the wall contributed to their preservation.) The rich necropolis ot Thebes has not preserved any nionuments from this period in such good condition as those of Abydos. and for begun. pi. it was partly built and partly hollowed out of the living rock. They were structures . reproduced in those we have already had such frequent occasion Fig. 369.Siout.Tmpollion. or Siout. Beni. The tombs of the other i)rinces belonging to the family of Entef were built upon the open plain. — Chess players. the more interesting examples are great works to which to refer. (Ch. in the district knowni as the Drah-Abonl-Ncgs^ah. But since travelling in Egypt became the fashion their sufferings have The mania for carving names upon every surface. Deni-H. of the the present of century.assan.

Rapport sur 1 tine Mission en Italie list (in the Recueii dc Travaiix. the large internal development. and seem at one time to have been crowned by pyramids. It is difficult to form an accurate idea of the appearance of those monuments when complete. Finally. frequent use of one mode of sepulture which had previously been quite exceptional. but the Memphite architects have left nothing which cut tomb at all resembles the grottos in the mountain sides of Beni-Hassan Neither in the neighbourhood of the pyramids nor and Siout. p. No mastaba is known which dates from this epoch. . and the figured decoration of their walls. and the simple and dignified lines of the artificial chambers in the Arab and Libyan chains. while their character was complicated. and in their present state it is impossible to verify the assertions of Herodotus as to But it the peculiarities of their casing and crowning ornaments. \o\.254 in A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. masonry.^ To complete our observations upon the tombs of the first Theban Empire. had that of the speos or rockto the primitive Egyptians. arrangement had occurred So. ii. The Abbott Papyrus gives a of these little pyramids. discontinued some of the ancient arrangements. but merely as the They were built culminating points in a more complex ensemble. has any sepulchre been discovered which shows the monumental facades. by the colossi with which they are said to have been surmounted. ^ Maspero. it will be sufficient to recall what we have already said about the pyramids in the Fayoum. not as self-contained monuments in themselves. is quite certain that the Middle Empire made no original inventions It appears to have in the matter of sepulchral architecture. Some idea of their shape may be obtained from our illustrations of the Abydos. too. they were often employed. to some extent. but in those which at tombs were confined to putting old elements It made together in a new fashion and with new proportions. upon a rectangular platform or tower with walls slightly inclined from it preserved its efforts the perpendicular. Time has treated them with great severity. in any other district where the tombs of the early epoch are found. but these were no longer of such colossal dimensions as under the Ancient Empire. which were the work of the thirteenth dynasty. 66). but the kings had not ceased to confide their mummies and the perpetuation of their glory to pyramids. It would seem that the idea of this .

Five-and-twenty of these tombs are royal the rest belong to wealthy subjects. had shown so marlced a preference. Every traveller visits the royal tombs which lie in the gloomy ravine called the Babel-Molouk. be directed to the royal tombs. are in no way inferior to the tombs of the sovereigns. warriors. therefore. priests. The Tomb under the Neic Empire. The word speos seeming to the Greeks to give an inadequate idea of the depth of these excavations and of their narrow proportions. after the Hyksos. They were.The Tomb under the New Empire. the eighteenth. enabled to indulge their employers' tastes for magnificence. and the twentieth. by whom the glory of Egyptian arms and culture was spread so widely. they called them avpl'^^es. hardly made use of any sepulchre but the chamber hollowed laboriously in the rocky sides of that part of the Libyan chain which lies to the west of Thebes. . and starting sometimes from the slopes. became firmly seated in pubhc We do not know what the funeral customs may have been during those centuries when but. first The subterranean tombs for which the Theban Empire favour during the succeeding centuries. the nineteenth. were masters of Egypt . In them the art of the New Empire gives a clearer indication of all the changes which the progress of ideas had brought about in the Egyptian conception of a future life. and high officers In extent and richness of ornament some of the latter of state. The three miles is about in length and has a mean valley width of about eleven hundred yards its sides are riddled with galleries penetrating more or less deeply into the mountains. and to give to certain . too. The architects of Seti and Rameses had resources at command far beyond those of which their early . because in them we find the most original types. the great Theban dynasties. or shepherd kings. Our studies must firs't. 255 § 4. . however. or pipes and modern archDeologists have often employed the same picturesque term in speaking of the Theban tombs. or the Gate of the Kings. the Egyptian taste for ample dimensions and luxuriant decoration is more freely indulged. the most important variations upon those which have gone before. their expulsion. which here and there attain a height of 400 feet. In them. rivals could dispose. sometimes from the base of the clifts.

The disWhen the pyramids were built. the art of architecture was yet in its infancy. not till much later that it learnt to raise the pylon before the sacred inclosures. in their turn. . Supposing the latter to be decorated with all the taste and richness which we find in the tomb of Ti. In such a system the important point was this envelope of the mummy- chamber. been previously unknown. In order that all access to the sarcophagus might be more safely guarded against. was the stability of the monument. And such parts were never those upon which the pyramid builders had lavished most of their attention. in the thirteenth and eighteenth dynasties.>56 A of the History of Art in Ancient which Egyi'T. therefore. workman. could. had little more to learn. the funerary chapel was separated from the mountain of hewn stone which inclosed the mummy-chamber. the . an envelope composed of thousands of the most carefully dressed and fixed blocks of stone. They had to distinguish the royal from the private tomb. Two periods of national renascence. which. by one process of accretion. and no means to such an end could be more obvious than to make use of a form of construction which allowed the height and extent to be added to ad infinitum without compromising Their one idea. it would still be comparatively small and unimportant beside the colossal mass which overshadowed it. were covered with a cuirass of still harder and more durable materials. had to intervene before these marvels could The earlier of these two periods is only known be realized. proportion is easily explained. to push the apex of the pyramid as far up into the sky as they The height erew as the flanks swelled. and to greet the visitor to the temples with long naves clothed in all the o-lorv of colour. to throw solemn colonnades about their courts. the actual mason. He was a thorough master of the dressing and fixing of stone and other materials but. whose services and high social position are indicated for us by more than one stele from the Ancient Empire. and to which it belonged. ever more imposing and better fitted parts tomb a splendour had to safeguard the precious deposit hidden within it. Nothinc^ could be more simple than the course of proceeding of the earlier architects. so that it became. on the other hand. It had no suspicion of those rich and varied effects which the later Egyptians were to obtain by the It was majesty of their orders and the variety of their capitals.

VOL. L L . I.

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in porticoes and forests of columns. For this purpose it was necessary to give increased dimensions and greater importance to a part of the royal sepulchre which had been hitherto comparatively neglected. The highest expression of the new form of art was in the temple. The second Theban Empire may be studied under very different The architects of that epoch excelled all their skill predecessors in the with which they used their materials. the architect who was charged with the building of the royal tombs could dispose of artistic and the ability with all the resources of an empire which stretched from the southern boundaries of Ethiopia to Damascus and Nineveh. at as we have nothing but descriptions. in honour of the great deities of the country. into a temple where the . In a word. He would have fulfilled the wishes of neither prince nor people had he not found means to give an amplitude and a beauty to those tombs which should stand a comparison with the sumptuous edifices which the same kings liad erected. In the century which saw the construction of the great temples of Abydos. The funerary chapel had to be expanded into a temple in miniature. for the contrasts of light and shadow and splendour of decoration which distinguished the epoch. the development of which was rather in a horizontal than in a vertical direction in the long avenues of and colossal statues of the kings. and their genius is still to be seen in Iniildings which. and of Luxor. in another part of the city. They afforded no opportunity for the happy combinations of horizontal and vertical lines. The experience of the Middle Empire proved that it was better to make a fresh departure than to attempt to foist upon the pyramid a class of ornament which was destructive to the simplicity in which so much of its grandeur consisted. to guide our imaginations.The Tomb under the New to us Empire. sphinxes. The problem. they realized the ideal towards which Egyptian builders had been tending for many centuries. charm by the grandeur of their conception and the finish of their execution. which are once incomplete and exaggerated. We are forced Quess at its architecture. conditions. therefore. which they laid their plans. even in their ruin. The simple and massive forms of the pyramid did not lend themselves to success in such an enterprise. of Karnak. 259 by a few works of sculpture to in our museums. was to embodv some of these elements in the design of the tomb. in the pylons .

the kings chose for their place of sepulture the wild and deserted valley in which Belzoni found the tomb of that conqueror. which is but an exaggerated form of the exploits of these princes. in which the streets had so often resounded to the cries of triumph which greeted his return from some successful campaign. or had seen him pass in some of those long processions which are figured upon the walls of Medinet-Abou (Fig. to which previous The situation of the sepulchre. onwards. was no longer a matter of question. A who had History of Art in Ancient Egypt. rejoined the deities from whom he was descended. flanks of the Libyan chain that all its inhabitants sought that asylum for their dead which the inhabitants of Memphis found upon the eastern edge of the desert. must have helped to suggest the temple form of their tombs. . The speos. In order more important groups within the scope of one page. . tradition had so closely allied it.26o king. which consists principally of columns to bring the of hieroglyphs.^ His tomb was a cavern like that of Fashion and the physical conditions of the country his subjects.b proper. where the rocks split and crumble under the sun. and to give it effect nothing more was required than the separation of the chapel from the tom. In the time of the Ptolemies it contained the bones of no less than forty Egyptian monarchs. after Thebes had become a populous city and the real capital of It was in the rocky Egypt. could receive tlie homage and worship of his people. governed him as well as his inferiors in rank. 172). would be difficult to imagine any site better calculated for the isolation and concealment of the mummy than this valley. It ' Fig. the sovereign loved to take his last repose in the immediate neighbourhood of the city in which he had dwelt during his life. and the sand blown hither and thither by the winds from the desert fills up every crevice in the cliffs. Like the chief men among his subjects. we have been compelled to omit the central portion. 172 reproduces only a part of the long plate given in Wilkinson. From the reign of Seti I. Its cliffs and intersecting ravines offer no sites for constructed works hence the ordinary form of Theban tomb is the spcos. which were greater than anything of which Egypt had to boast in the whole of its glorious past. The Libyan chain to the west of Thebes offers no platform like that of the necropolis of Memphis. or the pipe. To this form the general movement of the national art also pointed.

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The Tomb under the New Empire. on the other hand. however.^ But the plain at the foot of the range offered all that the It was still within the district consecrated architect could wish. Their general arrangements do not differ from those of other religious edifices. until within the It is few years. From the princes of the ^ dynasty down to the Ptolemies. properly The speaking. life by the king. to the worship of those great deities the principles of race. a difference itself. They were certainly temples. 26 J Nothing could be easier than to mask the entrance in such a place. and even to Nubic of Champollion See the description of the Valley of the Kings in the Ldlirs fp. extant. and yet its level surface presented no obstacles to an unlimited extension of any buildings which might be placed upon it. translation of the inscriptions and royal ovals which cover their walls has sufficed to show that they were national monuments. public sanctuaries consecrated the people. The famous buildings at Lu. but. in its richest and most complete development. as the representative of who were at once and the faithful protectors of the Egyptian century they never ceased to found Century twelfth after such the de temples. and elsewhere in Egypt. both in Thebes There is. us are still in sufficiently good preservation to enable us to discern and define their true character. all To Mariette belongs the credit of having at last removed doubt but on the subject. those probable enough that the number of these greater than to it buildings was formerly much which have come down is at present. 1S3 of the second edition). certain edifices were raised which Their funerary signification was are still.xor and Karnak may be taken as typical examples of the temple. We have here then the facts which determined the course ot the Egyptian architects. effect in spite of the confused hints to that last given by the Greek writers. which was not perceived until the texts which contained the history of each temple and of the prince who claimed the credit of its erection were deciphered. to the dead. In the space inclosed between the left bank of the river and the first slopes of the Lib)an chain. no constructed building of any importance was possible except at a great expenditure of time and labour. never completely understood. to increase and to embellish them. a character which was doubtless left common to all the temples on the bank of the Nile. in great part. d! Egypte et .

character of the great buildings at secrated to Ptah and Neith.xor the collective too. If we accept this opinion. The foreign conquerors themselves. set themselves with zeal to obliterate the traces of their own sovereigns. whether his contribution to any or small. They are not. that of the three great Theban " dynasties. especially by Physco. prove that it was so. 235. found something of the same kind in the temple of Abydos. upon both posterity and temple as we see it his own contemporaries is to bear witness to his piety. indeed. the accumulated results of 1 Ebebs. set themselves to repair the by time and the violence of man. and the nature of the subjects represented in the interior. He found there a cenotaph consecrated to his own memory by Seti I. 234. . particularly in the Western Chamber. nineteenth. The Greek prince was interred far from it. they lifted damage caused They strengthened foundations. they restored the faded colours of the painted decorations. Roman emperors. and thus violence. took care to inscribe his to call Each of these work had been great own name upon it. or a court surrounded by a colonnade another added to the long rows of human or ram-headed sphinxes which lined the approaches a third added a pylon. Nothing exactly like them is to be found elsewhere ^ and they all belong to one But on the left bank of the Nile. it every successive family which occupied the its throne held predecessors.264 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the eighteenth. a point of honour to add to the creations of One prince . and it could have formed no The beautiful and finished part of his tomb. period. we must look upon the temple as a mere freak of fancy. who reigned in periods of recuperation after civil Avar or barbaric invasion. Some kings. temples at Karnak and Luxor. It is alleged that the situation of the temple in the necropolis. and successive work of many generations. This cenotaph was near the tomb of Osiris. whether Ethiopians. Persians. was the con- Memphis which were and in the neighbourhood of the Theban necropolis. . and a fourth a laboriously chiselled obelisk. has often been considered a funerary monument. . we find a group of temples whose physiognomy is peculiar to themselves. suggested to Ptolemy Philopator by a journey to Thebes. and twentieth. built a hypostyle hall. as soon as they believed themselves to have a firm hold upon the country. while the king himself was buried in the Theban necropolis. 2 {. fallen columns. The at Karnak and Lu. pp.^ These temples are monuments raised by the kings themselves to their like the own glory. or Greeks.-Egypferi.) little temple of Dayr-el-Medinet. begun by Ptolemy Philopator by his successors. Such.

40 pages VOL. Leipsir. laid the foundations of an edifice destined to carry the memory of his glory and piety down to the latest posterity. he . or in his great hunts and thus.. § letterpress." ^ 1^'lk. bunting sides .). Di'ir-el-Bahari. In those cases where the decoration was incomplete at the it death of the royal builder. so far at least as construction was concerned. oldest of them is that at Dayr-el-Bahari. while yet alive. // ( Jl VI /. was represented either worshipping the gods._ The Tomu under the New Empire. y < ^. or in the eventful moments of his military career. I. i. ^ >^^ yf /*^ *> J^^ y \JiJi^ \ j_ f^^^ —Rameses in. 4to. his successor finished In these decorations the founder of the temple in his name. 265 Each temple was begun and left finished by the king who planned it. know witli that -1 Mariette. several generations. . It was built by the regent Hatasu. 173. folio.rr^^lWK-ii'ftlf'"""'^'^^ ^\t€^i '-11 ^'H. of whose career we know enough to strongly The excite. these temples are separated from Bab-el-Molouk only by the slopes of the surrounding El-Assassif. our curiosity.Surrounded on all by tombs and packed into a comtlie paratively narrow space. M M . (Atlas. We 1877. from Medinet-Abou. but too little to satisfy. > iJu-Ui^^^ Fig.

it Thothmes Where does mummy repose Is in that ravine on the south-west of the Bab-el-Molouk which is called the Valley of the Queens. the king and his comrades in arms. than the so-called Tomb of Osymandicis which is described at such length by Diodorus. like force in repose. a distant region which must have been either seems to southern Arabia. perfunerary origin to the sistent tradition ascribed a The . as it be. His prowess was cele- brated by Pentaour. Next which is in point of age to the building of Queen Hatasu . in trust brother. for seventeen years. when surrounded by the enemy. §§ 47-49- . sister of Hatasu. which seems to have made a great impression upon . governed Egypt with for her ? and energy III. won safety for himself by his own personal valour and presence of mind. with his threatening hand raised over the heads of his conquered enemies. there menacing and terrible. fifty-six feet in height. The artists to whom the decoration of the temple was committed. it proves that. Numerous sepulchral and many mummies have been drawn from their recesses. Diodorus. although their works do not give us a detailed history of her eminently successful administration. the great here conqueror seemed to live and breathe on every stone majestic and calm. in an epic canto which Rameses is there made to ascribe his has survived to our day. An episode of the war against the Khetas may be walls. whole temple. as the members of the Institut d' Egypte have clearly proved. or the eastern coast of Africa. they deal at length with the enterprise of which the regent herself have been most proud. were charged to represent the chief actions of Hatasu as regent. because the tombs of many Theban Or is it in the slopes of the princesses have been found in if ? mountain behind the temple itself? excavations have been found there. this latter designation is by no means edifice. a contemporary poet.. i. at the time of Diodorus. to-day it lies broken upon the was raised in the courtyard Battle scenes are to be distinguished upon the remains ground. the country of the Somalis. inside and out. is that called the Ranicsseiim this is no other. and. the wife and skill Thothmes her II.^ Erroneous though without interest. recalled Rameses II.. namely. of the recognized. His seated statue. the maritime expedition aeainst Ptint. in which Rameses.266 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. It deals with that battle fought upon the bank of the Orontes.

which might be called 77ie Second Ramesseum. no doubt formed 18 part of a this similar and near the site of the The temple Ramesseum has almost pi. situated in the same district of Thebes. and the temple of Gournah.^ This must h.. continued by his son. maritime races. and suesrest that the buildino. still by prince entirely disappeared. Tiir: Tomb under the New Empire. in ancient. and the similarity of sound must have helped to perpetuate the mistake 1 to among all the foreign travellers who visited the country.must have been one of rare magnificence. precipitating himself into the milc'e. Rameses II.. The famous building (fig. enumerate the sources of revenue set aside by the king. and near which he seems to place the two colossi (xvii. just noticed had but a They were each . A curious passage in . is Rameses III. colossi of Amenophis vi). what the pretended tomb of Osymandias is to Rameses II. Its bas-reliefs its represent one of the greatest events in Egyptian. history namely. of those who were called the This victory was mainly instrumental in driving westwards certain peoples who were destined. His presence pervades both the temple itself and adjoining pavilion. and finished by his grandThe first Rameses and Seti figure in it with son. to play a great part in the politics of the Mediterranean. 267 safety and all the honour of his victory to his father Amen. we might almost say. Each of the buildings which we have single proprietor. Seti I. The true name of the author of both temple and colossi might easily be confused with that of the mythical Greek person.ige which the Hellenic imagination persisted in discovering everywhere in Egypt. in more recent times. the victory won by Rameses over a confederation of the nations of the north and west. It was commenced by Rameses I. 816). to his appeal for help and. in each nome.. p. III. for the service of and thus the building reveals the annual sacrificial celebrations itself as a temple to the perpetual honour of the two first princes of a race which did so much to add to the greatness and prosperity the attributes of Osiris. inscriptions . who heard snatched him from the very hands of his enemies. Medinet-Abou.. known built to the ancients as the Statues of RIemnon. the founder of the nineteenth dynasty. dedicated to the memory of the some one to individual but there was nothing to prevent this course association in a single temple of two sovereigns who might happen was taken in be united by strong ties of blood. The of Egypt.ive been the structure which Strabo calls the Memnonium. but the slight traces which exist cover a vast space.

Memnon. who is often accompanied by Mout and Khons. and Thothmes III. ' than by a colossal statue which I saw beyond the Nile the sun. became the supreme at gods. spite ot comparatively small river. namely. 232) of the visit of the sorcerer to ruins. like almost all the other sacred buildings of Thebes. vi. p. the temple at Medinet-Abou which bears the ovals of Thothmes II. This colossus is a statue of Memnon. some of the additions having been made as recently as in the time of the in Roman Emperors. after the establishment of that city national as the capital of the A\hole country. Those gods were as much home in the temples of Pausanias knew how foreigners : {Attica. It is said that Memnon came from Ethiopia into Egypt. consecrated." he says. respect the its it resembles. and more particularly those of Thebes. of having been frequently enlarged and added to. 1. However this may have been. to those local deities which. How to account for its exceptional situation we do not know. that the Eg)-ptian scholars of his time properly to convey the name of the prince represented in the colossi to " I was less struck by that marvel.268 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. according to the common tradition. not far from the pipes. in speaking of some sonorous stone which was shown to him at !Megara. It shows signs. that in his time the colossus was surrounded by nothing but '' such as broken columns and architraves. fragmentary walls and shattered statues. the Theban god par exellence. the new t)pe became a success . The great deities of Egypt. But the Thebans themselves deny that it is Memnon. are They contain numerous representations never forgotten in them. its In this size. moreover. princes in whose honour they were erected performing of the acts of worship before Amen-Ra. however. shows . and that he penetrated as far as Susa. . as soon as was invented all the other temples in the district may be more or less immediately referred to it. or of in Egypt.-Xmenophium had vanished. Every century added its stone. and each successive king engraved his name upon its walls. Only one of those Theban temples which rise upon the left bank of the river is free from all trace of a funerary or commemorative purpose. creation was a gradual and impersonal matter. great temples upon the right bank of the Like them. It is possible that those funerary temples of which we have spoken were an original invention of the successors of perhaps that constructed by Hatasu at Dayr-elThothmes Bahari was the first of the series. They declare that it represents " Phamenoph (l>a/Aao<^). These temples were therefore it . \2) shows us. Even then the monumental completeness of the " . the other two members of the Theban triad. who was born in their own country The story told by Ph£Lostrati'S [Life of Apollonius.

In both places they received the same homage and sacrifices. of the pleasures and the It is more serious occupations of a rich the Egyptian. the more historic incidents in life of an individual. both in the statues which were placed against the piers in the courtyard and in the bas-reliefs upon the long flat surfaces closely of the walls. Amen-Ra. capacity the deceased prince in was worthe shipped as a god by his of Gournah. paredral as the Greeks would say. Thus. at one and This presentation of ofterings to the deified king. but in the funerary temples ot the left bank they found themselves associated. as represented in the chambers of these temples. greater variety and more detail. at least. pictures tion of the every-day life. Khons. but they contain an epitomized representa- private tombs. with the progress of civilization. homage same of his grandson. the own I. and. to was a king. worshipping the Rameses II. easy to understand how. By these attributes they deity became more the alHed of with the In the great who was of common future protector dead this and the guarantor their resurrection. 269 which we are speaking as in their own pecuHar sanctuaries on the right bank of the river. came more general in conqueror with be figured of and especially when that individual in preference to those which were their application. The images presented to our gaze by the chamber walls of the mastaba are not. so personal and anecdotical as those of the temples. and would help to relieve the ennui of the monotonous life after death. with the princes to whose memory the temples were raised. in the bas-reliefs on the internal walls of the mastabas. Hence the tendency which . To embellish the tomb of a pictures his battles and victories was to surround him after death with the images. temple we find Rameses seated in a naos and receiving .The To. of some famous feat of arms would give joy to the double ot him who had performed them. and Rameses again. These princes were represented with the attributes of Osiris. The analogy which we the western temples at the the are endeavouring to establish between Thebes and the funerary chambers of is completed by the biographical nature ot which form almost the sole decoration of those temples. and with time. of those things Pictures which made his happiness or his honour while alive. family. the latter I.mb under the New Empire. indeed. recalls the scene which is carved upon almost all the steles.

sometimes another. to the epoch of the Ptolemies. or one god presenting the king to another (Fig. 174). is not so striking and conspicuous as to be readily perceived by the first comer who crosses from the one bank of the river to the odier but the variations are quite sufficiently marked to justify According to him the the distinction propounded by Mariette. especially when kings or other . are. motives as these continually repeated. from the first Theban kings . or the king paying homage to sometimes one. histori- On cal the right bank of the river pictures of a mystically religious left character are universal on the bank those with an aim are more frequent. the invariably on the outer walls. hardly find any subjects treated but those which are purely . 14 and 176). thus came in time to play an important part in sepulchral decoraroyal personages were tion. campaigns of Rameses H. the first so the bas-reliefs of Theban Empire. temples in the necropolis are funerary chapels which owe their It . In the interiors of all these courts and halls we are sculptured. will be seen that the difference between the two kinds of temple. indeed. 33) . for instance. of his We find such religious divine protectors (Figs. as may be seen by a glance at the bas-relief figured upon the opposite page (Fig. but in such cases they are At Luxor.270 is A marked History of Art in in Ancient Egypt. or taking their breasts. . and Rameses II. between that of the necropolis and that of the city. Similar pictures are to be met with here and there in temples proper. a him upon their knees and nourishing him from theme which is also found in royal tombs (Fig. such as female deities assisting at the birth of a king. against the peoples of Syria are thus displayed and at Karnak it is upon the external walls of the hypostyle hall that the victories of Seti I. concerned. . especially in those at Beni-Hassan. religious . . y^) i . frequently met with in the Theban tombs but it is evident that in many cases scenes were sought out for reproduction which would have a more particular application there is an evident desire to hand down to future generations concrete presentments of any political or other events which History and biography might appear worthy of remembrance. The constant and universal themes which sufficed for the early centuries of the Egyptian scenes similar to those of the monarchy were not abandoned mastabas. upon wall and column alike.

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Fig. (Champollion. ^- . 160. But it is enough for our present purpose to have indicated the places which they occupied in the vast architectural compositions which formed the tombs of a Set! or a Rameses.The Tomb under the New Empire. 273 increased size and the richness of their decoration to the general magnificence and highly developed taste of the century In which they were built.^- . Auienophi^ H. Hpon the lap of a o-odde " pi. 175. I.— Painlins in a royal tomb at Gournah. renewed VOL.) They had each a double function to fulfil. chapels In which be kept and the memory of his achievements but they were at the same time temples in which the national gods were worshipped by himself and his descendants. They were foundations made to the perpetual honour of a deceased king. In which those gods were perpetually adored for the services which his fete-day could .

the elements fat . The different parts of the royal tomb were closely connected under the Memphite Empire. 177). until we come shall to religious architecture of We here content our- selves with remarking that the separation of the tomb and the funerary chapel by some mile or mile and a half was a novelty in Egvpt. they had done him while aHve and for those which they might In their latter capacity these buildings still do him when dead. and the change in arrangement must have been a consequence of some modification in the Egyptian notions as to a second life. the portraits in bas-relief upon the between /-n 1 walls of the public chamber.2/4 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. the statues in the serdab. reached his attentive senses. mastaba the double had everything within reach of Without trouble to himself he could all make use of of the matters which had the been provided corpse in the for the support : of his precarious existence mummy pit.— Amenophis III. the chinks of broken StOUe by the pieCCS '^ which the wcU was hlled up. and we consideration of their architectural shall defer the differ arrangements. have a right to be considered temples. the purely religious buildings. burnt of the victims (Fig. presenting an offering Decoration of a pier at Thebes. 176. and through the conduits conof the trived in the thickness of the walls. to Amen. which in only details from those of speak of the Egypt. the magic formulae the of and incense. the grateful scent of from Prisse. Brought thus into juxtaposition one with another. the funerary prayers. Through Fig. In the his hand.

which from time to substance and life consistency to the phantom upon which the future of the deceased depended. which had for their aim the preservation of the deceased for a second term of life. This concentration of all the acts and objects. They so lent themselves to that intermittent act of condensation. hidden away in the depths of those horizontal wells in the flank of the ''%]-r'\ ^^'^^.-'. At such a distance it its honour would neither hear the prayers nor catch the scent of the ofterings.:.:._ _ ^ :i. . — Flaying the fimeiaiy victim.?. 275 tomb were mutually time gave renewed helpful...'/ >*^--'''"' «''*.^ .. ^. i'^:** ' . would seem in to be danoer of losinof the benefit of the services held in upon the Theban Is it plain. :_. y ''V -V " \ !i - . 177. to speak.. The mummy.e^' ' ' • "- ' ^' ../:^ '. and the chamber in which the corpse reposed ? Before they could have accepted this divisii^n of the tomb into two parts the Egyjjtians must have arrived at some less childish conce|)ti(in of the fulin'c life than that ol th(-ir earlv civilization. ''• " '3' a FlU. 'r -''-: "^ -(. From a tomb of the 5lh dynasty at Sakkaiali... . to And the double ? in be supposed that he oscillated between the colossi the temple where the funerary sites were celebrated. \t~S/i'e '"i ' -^^i ~^l\ 1 --.) Western Range of which we have spoken. .The Tomb under the New of the Empire. was obviously destroyed as soon as the division of the tomb into two parts took place. (Lloulal..

passed a period of probation and purgation in the under world. they were less opposed . These various hypotheses are contradictory enough from a they exclude and destroy one another. was at last enabled to return to earth and rejoin the body The problem of death and which it had formerly inhabited. is Contradictions do not its adaptability practically infinite. the in strictly human intelligence is singularly content to it rest . already been made under the eighteenth dynasty. they added Tartarus and the Elysian Fields to their beliefs. or a Rameses. But when of being embarrass it is a question of notions which are essentially incapable defined. from their evidence of its persistency is.. entirely banished That primitive conception was not minds . to the subdivision of the sepulchre than the more primitive idea and this subdivision was necessary if the public and commemorative part of the tomb were to receive a splendour and amplitude befitting the exploits of a Thothmes. but it was not until the nineteenth that it became definitely adopted. thanks to the protection of Osiris and the other deities of the shades. although certain of its parts date from the most ancient times. but a more intelligent and less material notion gradually superimposed itself upon the ancient belief. they . logical point of view the just . which we have just described tended for many They were taught centuries to become more and more general. The indescribable being which was the representative of the deceased after death became gradually in time it escaped from its less material and more spiritual enforced sojourn in the tomb and approached more nearly to This soul. vague generalities. plentiful. The beliefs material. introduced the heroic fathers of their race into the councils of the gods. did not take its complete and definite Being more spiritual and less form until the Theban epoch. Dayr-el-Bahari proves that the change had a Seti. and they described and figured the joys which awaited upon the Happy Islands. that which we call the soul.76 A History of Art i\ Ancient Egypt. like the nocturnal sun. in that Ritual of the Dead which. a future life was resolved in much the same way by the Greeks and by all other races who drew much of their inspiration from the They all looked upon the corpse as still alive when Egyptians. indeed. The more progress of ideas and of art had then advanced so that . far. they expressed their hopes that the earth upon which they poured After a time out wine and milk would like lie lightly upon it. and.

17S.»»- 31^^ Vi'. were it not that the Egyptians. . — EiiUMiice tu a rov. believed in the real presence of their dead in the were original to religious buildings erected in their honour. dead. pi.) The and to other division of the tomb the is that which contains the well dwelling-place of the royal sepulchre the mummy-chamber. the problem placed before the architect to that was diametrically op|)Osed which he had to solve in the other part of his task. eternal illustrious The second half of in tlie its had but be as sumptuous and lu. like all the other races of antiquity. 79. like the temples of the two Rameses. We should call them cenotaphs.The Tomb under the New ambitious desires could be satislied. In constructing and decorating the iunerary temple upon the plain. ^vhich.. filled 277 with and the country magnificent edifices.xurious way as the first. for their benefit and lor that of the remotest posterit)'. Empire. (Dt:scrip:ion dc 1' Egypie.. he was working before the ejes of the public.il tomli. — ^. ii. in so far as they belonged at one and the same time and funerary architecture.

Belzoni. is of the utmost simplicity. c^c. fact. 81. He and his assistants cut and carved the living rock by the light of torches. (^Voyage dans la Haiite-Egypte.) . In order that this blessing of undisturbed peace in his eternal dwelling should be secured. who disengaged the entrances to the royal tombs. The tombs of private individuals usually had a walled courtyard in front of them to which access was obtained by tower. found them The doorway. t. Bruce and others. Those prodigies of skill were executed for the benefit of the deceased Important though it was that the sepulchre of a great man should be ornamented to the greatest extent possible. But the task of hewing out the tomb was a very different one. p. because the passage was blocked with big stones to such an extent as to be impracticable {Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids. When Belzoni's workmen found advance any tomb of Seti. 4to). the royal tomb seems to have been constructed without any such external its show as would call attention to situation. to which all access was no doubt forbidden to the curious. and another it. after the introduction of the mummy. and his best ingenuity was taxed to devise means for preserving from the sight of all future generations those with which patience and alone. it was of still greater moment that his last resting-place should not be troubled ..^ the rock. in Mariette also believed that as soon as the mummy Egypt and Nubia. or a small pyramid. 1820. The tomb 2 of Seti for instance.278 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. cut vertically in without propylEea of any kind. I. with inclined sides and crowned by But the explorers. The workmen did not see the entrance of the latter. ii. and were. suppose that. made it was carefully masked with sand and rocky deh'isr The that 1 existence of the temples in the plain it unnecessary that final fine the tombs themselves should be entered after 111 many cases the sites are wanting for such external constructions. the external door was closed and earth heaped against it in such a way as effectually to conceal It is thus that the clashing between the tomb of Rameses III. was in place. the walls works of the best artists of Egypt were to be covered. opens upon a ravine which the entrance to the is filled with the waters of a mountain torrent at certain seasons. by the visits of the living and the more completely the mummy was concealed. and we have every reason to a kind of porch. in is accounted for. unaware of its existence until they encountered it in the bowels of the rock. they declared that they could not farther. the greater were the deserts of the faithful servant upon whom the task had been placed. For long years together he pursued his enterprise in the mystery and shadow of a subterranean workshop.

were open in the time of the Ptolemies several of them seem to have been shown. It was open. to the Roman and other travellers who visited Egypt. of interest. because twenty-one tombs have already been discovered in the Bab-el-Molouk. 46). although to one of the most frequented paths in the had been previously unknown. 46. only seventeen remained. no more than seventeen If through the plans made of their entrances had been discovered. It was difficult. The course. some of them in a state of semi-completion. The royal precautions taken to hide and obstruct the openings of the tombs were thus successful in many cases." This assertion cannot be accepted literally. of attention." says Straeo (xvii. that at the time of the Ptolemies. no doubt. that Anemenheb. its obstacles. Some of these have only been discovered in our own times. We know. by the inscriptions upon their walls. "there are royal tombs cut rock to the number of forty their workmanship is excellent and well the . "The priests say that their registers attest the existence of forty-seven royal tombs. situated close necropolis. which. Some words Diodorus are significant in this direction. - "Above in the living •s'orthy Memnonium. and we have still good reason to to suppose that there are others which yet In remain beautiful be found. who used the tomb as a hidingplace from the recruiting officers of the viceroy. for their construction and preserved in the national archives there were some who knew their situation. which makes twenty-five in What the priests meant when they spoke to Diodorus was all. but that at the time of Ptolemy the son of Lagus. They would remain concealed in it for weeks at a time until the officers had left their village.- The Tomb under the New operation Empire. through the ardour and patience which characterize modern research. they preserved the secret. as national objects ." . The royal cemetery of the Ramessides has possibly much more to tell us before its secrets are exhausted. of the survival of some tradition as to the Diodorus. but the opening had been carefully concealed with rough pieces of rock and general rubbish by the fellahs. besides four in the ravine which is called the Valley of the JFes/. private 1S72 of Professor Ebers discovered a tomb. that fitteen of the tombs which are now accessible. of 279 had been performed. ' entrance to the tomb always ran a certain chance of being discovered to and freed from prevent i.

or to a second series of galleries might be obtained. . and two feet and a half high. that of Set! I. as if to discourage any one who might penetrate beyond the well and pierce It seems likely that the the barrier beyond its gaping mouth. e>r. Belzoni arrived. 233 et seq. and a new enlarged. by which access to a lateral chamber.. Let either us take as an example the finest and most complete of all the tombs of the Ramessides. as in the case of the pyramids.^ remarked that throughout the whole course of the excavation the doors of the chambers showed evidence of having been walled up. the opening was series of galleries and chambers was reached. A plank bridge was road opened for him by earlier explorers. and that upon the first steps of one of the staircases a heap of stone rubbish had been collected. thrown across the well. and there was no sign of a passage. walls The A had served the purpose of some previous visitor to the tomb. either open or concealed. at an oblong chamber 13 feet 6 inches by 12 feet. and it was after well ended in nothing that the screen of masonry on the other Belzoni had therefore only to follow the side had been pierced. But Belzoni was too old an explorer to be deceived by such On his first arrival at the edge of the well he had appearances. which led at last to the sarcophagus-chamber itself.Across the well a beam was still lying. that the discovering cord hune from this beam. which himself to be lowered into the well. This had been about two feet wide. Belzoni ' Belzoni. and traversing two long and or anything that looked like After descending two richly decorated corridors.28o A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. were everywhere hard and firm. against a forced entry into the gallery by an enemy or by some robber in search of treasure. . yarrafh'e of Optrations. seemed to indicate that the Belzoni caused extremity of the excavation had been reached. llights of steps. perceived in the wall on the farther side of it a small opening. in a wall covered with stucco and painted decorations. and without resonance. which here barred the passage. Provision had to be made. without discovering either sarcophagus the site of a sarcophagus. pp. whereabouts of the burial-places of those great sovereigns whose memory was a consolation to Egyptian pride in the clays of national abasement and decay. made. at some unknown period. and we find that the precautions adopted were similar to those which we have described in noticing the royal tombs at Memphis. A wide and deep well.

These subterranean tombs are hardly less astonishing than the colossal masses of the pyramids for the sustained effort which they imply if we take the trouble to reflect upon the peculiarly difficult conditions under which they were constructed. it is not astonishing that. that of Siptah 370 feet. tioned a figure which gives their passages . in these narrow and heated galleries. In the sarcophagus-chamber of the Belzoni discovered a contrivance same kind place. another entrance to the tomb. he says. in " . fact. of ' Rameses and although no one of the other tombs quite many approach it in dimensions. the lid had been raised and broken. We have already men- was in . r.xploration. as that which had failed to stop him almost upon the threshold of the tomb. and consequently that its first opening took place in very ancient times. The tomb III. beyond which a settlement of the superincumbent rock put an end to all advance after a distance of fiftyone yards had been traversed. in a chamber at the end of this corridor ? The point at which the fallen rock arrested his progress is tour hundred and eighty-three feet from the external opening. some idea of the surprising length of equals that of Seti. placed to deceiv^e unbidden visitors like himself. in spite of his admirable perseverance. Belzoni held his hand before completing the e. He cut a hole and brought to light the first steps of a staircase. and is This beautiful sarcophagus now in the Soane Museum. O . A wall had been raised at the foot of these steps. and that the mummy was deposited. into Ed. . ^ Behoni beheved that this passage led again " I have. all 281 violator of the tomb knew the secret of these arrange- ments. At such a depth. where there is no ventilation and where the smoke of the torches rapidly becomes stifling. and was the work of some native Egyptian robber. he does not give his reasons. which led to an inclined plane by which the interior of the mountain was deeply penetrated. and still lies. is 416 feet long. "reasons to think so but \OL. Is it not possible that Belzoni only discovered a false sarcophagus. they may even impress our imaginations more profoundly than the artificial mountains of Cheops and Chephren. sound given out by the floor when struck the explorer From the perceived that there must be a hollow space under the base of the sarcophagus. The sarcophagus of oriental alabaster but empty. and about one hundred and eighty below the level of the valley." the open air that it was.— The Tomb under the New first ^ Empire.

and carried up by narrow and steep corridors to be " shot " in the open air.//'/w/////w//.'v//////////'///. piers. there is not a single surface. 179. of men and of such places an enormous Fifi.. figures are in too numerous here to count. with ornamental designs. These swarm like ants many hundreds. . 270 feet. In the tombs of Seti and of Rameses III. A ( 11' J5 . . Still more surprising is the elegance and completeness of the decoration. the same tomb from Prisse. — Han of the tomb of Ramefes 11. others varied between 200 and For the construction number of cubic yards of rocky debris had to be cut from the interior of the mountain. The general arrangements are pretty is much same those of Seti's tomb. Colour everywhere it is used to give there it salience to the delicate contours of the figures in 1 relief. from Prisse. we have thought is better to give the plan and section of that of Rameses the II. ^__-x^//////////.-0 55 ?. or ceilings.y////'r'. — Horizontal section of far .y/////////^^^^^ "^^^iTZx^ZTTm-^ m M Thev T Fig. an anthill is a single chamber often contains .y. it is The tomb of Seti having been so often reproduced. which is not covered with the work of the chisel and the brush. iSo. which as less generally known. animals. but the plan a little more complicated. whether of walls.?82 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. with the figures of gods and genii.

that the patient artists of exquisite Egypt drew these masterly contours. were all inspired by a single desire. iSi. in the ' tomb of Rameses VI. . harmonious effect no It was by the smoky of little glare of torches. and yet no human eye was to enjoy them after that day upon which the final touch was to be given to their beauties.The Tomb under the New laid flat Empire. But yet all this work was not labour lost. stucco.mailer sarcophagus-chamber H. would be eternal.) never reached greater perfection than in these characteristic productions of its genius. — The -. and elaborated the harmony of their colour compositions.li de la Nubic. and all tended to the same ' Piuioraina dc l' Ei^vpti. or by the flickering flame tarra-cotta lamps. 283 In upon the carefully-prepared surfaces of white is these sealed-up caverns. Egyptian art Fig. the pictures have preserved their freshness of tint in the most startling light fashion. upon which they were to be inclosed in a night which.ireau. folio. In which the details change continually from one tomb to another. (I'rom pi. These ijictures. it was hoped. in which the air constantly warm and dry. 21. suspended from the roof by metal threads. And to obtain all this but an artificial one was available.

Fig. pi. 183). beyond a doubt. Like the hunting tomb (Fig. they had a sort of magic virtue. Osiris. The all-powerful influence of prayer and faith. . (From Horeau. these pictures have. destined for the service and the food of a shadow. a sovereign power to save and redeem..2 84 A History of Art ix Ancient Ecyi't. still It will suffice common enough in the royal if we notice those which are Rameses III. Ideas had progressed to some purpose since the days of the Memphite kings. turned these shadows into realities. Both in its scene which take from the walls of a private we general arrangement and in the details of its ornamentation. Like those which we have found in the tombs of the Ancient Empire. 21. to be seen in the sepulchre of the first in the series of small chambers in two passages. But in the Theban tombs their significance is only secondary. the same meaning and value as those in the mastaba. working through end. The personages and articles of food represented on the mastabas were shadows of people and shadows of material sustenance. 182. the double of the defunct proprietor of the tomb.) Representations of this kind are tombs of Thebes. —Entrance to the tomb of Rameses III.

in all probability. They believed that the judges in question were living men. and their tribunal an earthly one. just and the unjust were to come to one and the same end. and we know how it has served as the foundation for that of Bossuet. and kept alive in Good or bad. and sometimes not esjjecially intelligent. told them as to this matter. Instead of vegetating in the interior of the tomb. by that high moral instinct of which the oldest first The conception tomb. was that of the double. somethino. to the hieroglyphics Ever since the key was found. according to its conduct during the (ew short years passed by it on earth and in company with the body to which it had belonged. gave currency to this belief. From this jjeriod of trial it would emerge with more or less honour. This something was the soul pages of their literature give evidence. It had to appear before the tribunal of Osiris-KhentAment. the Sun of Night. more philosophical. in from the time of Diodorus to can find nothing either the figured monuments or in the written texts which hints at the existence of such a custom. Their powers of apprehension were quickened. In the fragments of some funerary inscription or of some of these manuscripts. One of the early tra\'ellers. N K\V E. inhabiting the it by sacrifice and prayer. A\'e much fine writing.^ imitation of the sun — rise to in the appearance of the dead before Osiris and his assessors gave one of the most curious errors made by tlie Greeks in speaking of Egypt. they found frequent allusions to this act of the importance attached trial and judgment. But in time the Egyptians would appear to have realized that the double was not the only thing that remained after the death of a human unit. every and prosperity of which Unless the depended in no way upon his merits or demerits. they do not seem to have always understood what the dragoman. hastily translated for them by the accompanying priests. always in a hurry. The scene in cpiestion is figured upon many of the tombs visited by the Greek travellers. we do not know which. the continuance [ba). but.— Tllli ToMli UNDER Till'. man had a double. without whom they could not stir from the frontier.Ml'IRE. and in many of the illustrated papyri which were unrolled for their 1 This belief gratification. They were greatly struck by by the Egyptians to the sentence of this tribunal. and that they were charged to decide whether sepulture should be granted to the dead or not. and more moral conception which had come to overlie the primitive beliefs. 285 the sepulchres in the Bab-el-Molouk gave expression to the new. his . this soul had to perform a long in and difilcult subterranean journey and almost upon his footsteps during which it had to undergo certain tests and penances.more was wantino-. in Every Egyptian was placed a sepulchre befitting his station anil fortune. egyptologists have been agreed upon this point. around whose seat the forty-two members of the infernal jury were assembled.

it was modified by their lively imaginations into that \\ivnp<natTia. and had to fear the sentence gives a translation of into of an august tribunal. They weighed its actions in a pair of scales and gave judgment according to their weight. with an amount of assurance and success which would depend upon its conduct in There.) 291-307 . and. 171. ox ic<cighing of souls.- The impious soul was flogged. (Champollion. pp.^ But those incorruptible judges were not guided solely by the testimony of the ba in its own favour. of the " Book of the Dead" which contains an epitome of Egyptian morality. The just soul. 1S44. it French in his Histoire Ancimne. pi. had to conquer in many a combat before ^(«% Fig. Revue archeologique. pp. hideous forms of evil sprang up before relations and did their best to arrest its progress by and friends liad to ask no permission before tliey placed him in was in the other world that he was brought up for judgment. 707-717. 1844.}86 A History of Art " in Ancient Egypt. and perhaps upon those monuments decorated with Egyptian motives which were sprinkled by the Phoenicians over the whole basin of the Mediterranean. 235-249. ibidem. that negative confession which we read in chapter cxxv.) it was admitted it contemplate the supreme verities. ^ This weighing of the actions of the deceased was represented in the illustrated specimens of the Ritual of the Dead and upon the walls of the tombs. and there it had to repeat. before the the light. 183. Lords of truth and justice. pp. 647-656. it its transit across the infernal regions. where success in a combat between two heroes depends upon the result of that operation. and De Witte. pp. underwent a second death. was delivered to storm and tempest. 1S45. (See Alfred Maurv. on the other hand. \s\\\&i\s(i find in the Iliad (xxii. 208-212). the death of annihilation." the soul had to plead its cause. During terrifying it. Coming under the eyes of the Greeks. ^ Maspero 44 and 45. . after centuries of suffering. — Hunting scene upon a tamb to at (Joumah.

although they did not escape the operation of the their temperament was sufficiently servative to give to each of their creations a peculiar consistency. — The weighing of actions. arrived surely at last at those celestial dwellings where it became incorporated among the gods.r .l Hifual of Museum.) tJu D. But the Egyptians were accustomed. and features which varied but little throutrh a . imagination spared no effort to represent ^YIth The Egyptian soul had to the greatest possible precision those mysterious regions where the undergo its appointed tests. and accordingly we find that they were modified with a rapidity . Empire.'C|5»?ifv t*»'-^i->-=s-v-| aLMlmi.xity and Their Hades. British (From an illustmte. took on a very definite form.. :-:y^lwgittgt<. obstacles. as it to the help protecting gods. the sun Osiris and of other soultriumphed in the end over all reappears each morning upon the of it eastern horizon. On con- the other hand.. such as Anubis.-* T=^m^ Fig. -Eiitt^. Such beliefs afforded a wide scope for the individual influence of the artist and the poet.fS_ . from such early times. 184. fi. if we may call it so.'i^f^rt!r!j?i!^i9SiS5?^ Li%k — f l. that they were sure to clothe the plastic expression of this theme in a richness and brilliancy of colour which we do not find to the same degree eternal law of change. in any other people of antiquity. to give a concrete form to all their ideas. 287 Thanks and."t Aasaj.The Tome under the New threats.ad in the which is unique in Egyptian art.

for in a country Nile for its principal highway. its gaping depths and the mazes To complete the of its intersecting and twisting corridors.. Anubis.288 A History of Art . every journey. were fixed the terrible in these defiles. Their subterranean corridors were a reproduction upon a small . which the walls seemed to close in upon the soul and bar its progress tortuous corridors and gloomy gulfs tion placed in . in a funerary 1S5. chambers where the infernal gods and their and so the acolytes sat enthroned in all the majesty of their office passages of the tomb were expanded here and there into oblong or square chambers. had its snares and narrow passages. therefore. was looked upon as a Spacious saloons were imagined to exist among navigation. long course of centuries and this form is practically that which we find in the sepulchres of the great Theban kings and in some belonging to private individuals. the punishment of the wicked helps to give (fc/a/ to the royal apotheosis by the contrasts which it affords. A boat carried it which had the over the subterranean river. aipiy^. escorted by Amen-Ra and the other divinities whom he had worshipped during life. pavilion . The tomb. On either side of the audience chambers the imagina- narrow passes and defiles. Thus the tombs of the Theban period embody the Egyptian solution of the problem which has always exercised mankind. On one side the pious king may be seen. — geance held prepared to harass the march of souls not yet absolved. advancing to plead his cause before Osiris on the other. and to overwhelm themselves with frightful ambush. tortures those against . pi. left in the living rock. in Ancient Egypt. that the perilous like those of the voyage of the soul had to be undertaken. and monsters who peopled the regions below. their roofs supported by pillars . in which ven- ministers of divine in Fig. even that of the sun through space. whom sentence had already been pro74-) nounced. resemblance nothing more was required than to paint and chisel upon the walls the figures of those gods. genii. from a bas-relief. {Description de V Hgvpte. i. those galleries. It was through long and gloomy galleries.

His gestures and the written formulse which appeared beside him on the walls. most of them are of rose granite Irom Svene the smallest are from the two . 155-159. and should have a better chance of duration. Did the royal tombs contain statues of the defunct ? None have been found in any of those already opened. The tombs why then should none have been put in those of the The commemorative sanctuary.^ The chisel which created such tangible deities gave them something more than the appearance of life. the 289 of the leading characteristics of we should commit series of jsictures a great mistake were which decorate its and display. pp. even when they had painted or carved them with their own hands. before To The represent the king in his act of self- justification that justification. VOL. ' Rccua'/ ih- Titi'-aiix. and to look upon the walls as mere ornament we power. Maspero has shown by an ingenious collation of various texts. the remains of these huge figures are to be counted by dozens. was image often repeated. than to ascribe the power of speech and movement to the images of the gods. with their pedestals. commingled to separate in in some measure to anticipate and the image were so intimately the mind of the believer that he was unable Osiris was reality one from the other. P P . are as much as from 55 to more than 60 feet. and yet there is a chamber in the tomb of Rameses IV. The two colossi of Amenophis III. while another for the funerary its neighbourhood is reserved of private individuals contained statues . This M. In the inclosures of the temples of Rameses and upon the site of the Amenophium. and some. was better its proportions. 24 to 28 feet high. I. i. or to the Ethiopian who was his pupil.. which appears from its inscriptions to apartment statuettes. each had their protective or resulting from a desire for luxury liberating under world. the external funerary adorned with might be in colossal in his sovereigns ? temple.The Tomb under the New scale Empire. vol. in have been called the Statue c/iamber. Nothing seemed more natural to the Egyptian. Between the ideal models of these pictures and the pictures themselves the Egyptians established one of those mutual confusions which have always been readily accepted by the faithful. which in order that it keeping with the magnificence of its surroundings. Each god exercised his own proper function in that tomb which was a reproduction in small of the regions of the other world.

35). . 168). It is known that tombs were sometimes thus some of the doors have been found in place. but by an only wells which have been discovered in Bab-el-Molouk are. They should be seen in autumn and from a little distance as they raise their solitary and imposing masses above the inundated plain. the approach to the mummy-chamber is not by a well. but in the Theban tomb it is always descending. {Anfiqtiitis. vol. all the work of Egyptian artists . when their size and the simplicity of their lines will have an effect upon the traveller which he will never forget (Fig. In the tomb of Ti easily recognized traces of a door were found (B. It is doubtful whether the sarcophagus-chamber was closed by a door or not. at Beni. vol. dishonoured in they have been. generally a very simple one of red granite. Description de I'Egypte. 94 and 95).igo A Pharaoh height. In the royal tombs at Thebes. 20. ancient state. mutilated. is sometimes an mummy-chamber the leads to which the corridor inclined plane.' and in a closed which has hitherto. but no trace of hinges or of the leaves It is possible that they of a door itself have been found. is At the end of the long descent the its mummy. as in those at Memphis. p. false wells.).chamber reached with sarcophagus. they had been closed. in every instance. 2 See one of the great inscriptions i. The the tombs of the ascending plane. if we may use the term. put in place. reached as the latter Flayed. In the pyramids false wells as existing in the tomb of Seti. One was found in . The exact and accurate spirit which if marks would lead them to prepare for the placing of a door at the entrance to each chamber but at the same time it is obvious that a iew panels of sycamore would do little to stop the progress of any one who should attempt This latter consideration may to violate the royal sepulchre.edeker. interpreted by M. the whom gigantic the Greeks are called Memnon. etc." ^ were never. p. 3 p. .. pp. Uiiter nothing but a new door was required to put the opening in its j-E^^pten. been found empty. iii. 405) i . these statues still place.Hassan. Maspero {Recueil.a Theban tomb opened by Rhind {Thebes. as at Thebes."^ but not the slightest vestige of one has yet been discovered in the royal sepulchres " All the doorways have sills and grooved jambs. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. ingeniously contrived to throw any would-be violator We have already mentioned one of these off the right scent. &c. and Plate vi. few of the texts mention is made of doors.

. the length of reign enjoyed by their respective Cheops. at merely buried in the sand. it is difficult to find place for all the sovereigns of the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties in the two Valleys of the Kings. no doubt. Many an extraordlnarv things lead us to believe that . reigns which were glorious would give us larger and more beautiful tombs than those which were obscure and marked by weakness in the sovereign. of the nineteenth dynasty. V Egxpte a petitcs jounices. and was decorated with jewels which now form some of the most priceless treasures of the Boulak Museum. Like other mummies found on the same place. several of those princes were some of them may have been Thus Mariette discovered. The three great Theban dynasties included several of those monarchs who have been called the Louis the Fourteenths and the Napoleons of Egypt. to the height and mass of their tombs until death put an end to the work. Apart trom the question of duration.Molouk. Even when we admit that a certain number of royal sepulchres have so far escaped discovery. Seti and Rameses never ceased while they lived to prolong the quarried galleries in the Babel. 104. Chephren. this prolongation was caused. for the excavation and decoration of their own is tombs. by the desire to develop to the utmost possible extent those pictures which were to be so powerful for good over the fortunes of the defunct in the under world. As these galleries were meant to be sealed from the sight of man. Drah-Aboit l-A"eggah. which are much content with very simple tombs ' A. These tombs seem to have varied greatly in size from reasons similar to those which determined the dimensions of the pyramids. the mummy of Queen Aah-hotep. 291 have caused them to abstain from expending time and trouble upon a futile precaution. The private tombs in the Theban necropolis. it seemed never to have been disturbed since it had been placed beneath the soil. In the same way. there between king and king in the matter of their tombs. ^ and it was but natural that they should employ the crowd of artificers and artists which their enterprises gathered about them. p. namely.The Tomb under the New Empire. and Mycerinus continually added makers. The mummy chamber consisted of a few ill-adjusted stone slabs. Rhone. Either for this reason difterence or for some other. some few feet beneath the surf^ice. It was gilt all over.

. On the other hand. But by far the greater number belong to that epoch which saw Thebes promoted to be the capital of the whole country. and the last date back to the eleventh dynasty. but in neither case does it ever fail to form an integral part of the tomb. pi. do not. belong ancient a single period in the national history. of the . sides A funerary chapel cut the mountain would obviously be too small for the purposes to which the commemorative part of the tomb of a Rameses or a Seti would be put.) like those of the kings.29: A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. 1S6. the conqueror of the Hyksos. between Amosis. These tombs are distinguised by great noticing the jDrincipal types to which they points variety. sometimes above it. of the Ramessides. like the latter. before may be is referred. Sometimes it is in front of it. so that the latter preserves at once its traditional divisions and its indissoluble unitv. but. the which distinguish them from the royal burying-places should be indicated. a contemporary with the Ptolemies and the Roman emperors. no private individual could hope to receive royal honours nor to associate his memory with the worship of the great Egyptian gods. more numerous than those to of kings. ^ /W "^ ^ // ^ Fig. — Plan and section of a royal tomb. We find that for him the chapel always remains closely connected with the mummy chamber. vol. ii. This subdivision is to be explained by in the exceptional position of the sovereign mid-way between his subjects and the national deities. (Dcscriplion de V Egypte. namely. to the centuries. 79. The most among them There are and few some also of the Sait period. The private sepulchre never subdivided hmmimmm^i .

xceeds from 20 to 30 feet but its arrangement is similar to those in the early necropolis.).The Tomb under the New Empire. It is seldom so deep or . received the mummy. the tombs of private individuals seem to have had no well. 78. every instance the mummy chamber is reached by a well. Passalacqu. and of unequal heights. which plays the same part in the private tombs of the New Empire as in the ]Mastaba and In almost the S/>cos of the Ancient and Middle Empires. In more than in one of these a usurpations the for comer has been placed chamber constructed new some other object. The venerable mummies. the well filled the door of the mummy chamber was built up in. but the second. {Antiquith^ plates. p. sometimes for more ignoble . chambers of different sizes arranged round " pi. 5. . when one is found in such a chamber.Sakkarah its depth hardly e. whether the tomb be constructed in the plain or in the side as those of Gizeh of the mountains. there are two chambers facing each other at the foot of the well. One of the two chambers had been ' ct historique opened and stripped. which was facilitated by notches cut in two faces of the well. In the tomb opened by Rhind {Thebes.^ After the introduction of the corpse. dating from the time of Rameses. mummy .- is very necessary to make sure that explorers have not been deceived by appearances. ^ Rhind describes one of the most curious of these substitutions in his chapter IV. escaped the notice of the violators (pp. arms of a ii. were thrown into a corner their cases were made use of. which opened lower down the 1 well. . Desci-iption de V Egypfe. Such usurpations are by no means unknown. cross. visited and pillaged at some unknown epoch. such as priests and military functionaries. all his In that case an usurper of the time of Ptolemy established himself and family in the chambers at the foot of the well. its Tombs. 1826). may say the same of the well. sometimes for the mummy of the usurper. the well gave access to four like the vol. etc.^ In the time of the Ptolemies. it v. In a few exceptional instances. influential people. .v describes a tomb of this kind in detail in his Cafa/c's^/te raisonniTliis tomb had been des Antiquith dccoicvcrtcs en Egypte (8vo. Sometimes The mummy chamber opens directly upon it. purposes. In these dusty interiors the carefully sealed opening might easily escape any but the most careful research and as for a sarcophagus. and the innermost — chamber. as in In such cases the case of it roj-al tombs. 18-120). 293 We. after relegating the statues and mummies of the rightful owner and his people to the room above. made them without scruple. and on the other side. it may have been placed there long after the making of the tomb.

a square or rectangular structure with slightly sloping walls was surmounted by a small pyramid. band which widens a little between the long spurs which In these land-gulfs the mountains throw out towards the river. We mean the gentle sandy slopes between the foot of the cliffs and the cultivated fields.xt Egypt. . was marvellously well-fitted both which a narrow -TrrmwrmnnTrr FiG5. In this. which Their tombs have left but slight and ill-defined traces. principles same the upon tombs which it contained were built the as those of Abydos . iSS. varies according to but the form of the rest of the tomb date Those sides.) for the construction of the tomb and for the preservation of the mummy. may be called the level part of the necropolis. in the plain are it arranged differently to those the hill But must be understood that when the Theban tombs. then. found almost universally. in The mummy its chamber and in site. being above the reach of the annual inundation.Such a soil. what they tell us with the figured representations in bas-relief and manuscript. ch. 1S7. the rock are. some and yet disappeared. xvi. and nowhere is it covered by more than a thin layer of sand. waters lie the of the we speak of the plain in connection with we do not mean the space over which spread TJile.— Theban tombs from the bis-relicls. There .2 94 A well History of Art and in Anxif. we may form some idea of the aspect which The this part of the cemetery must formerly have presented. the rock crops up here and there. (From Wilkinson. superstructures have almost entirely which have now completely vanished were seen by travellers By comparing to Thebes in the first half of the present century.

xauU qua/re Apis . with the eighteenth dynasty. tomb from a (From Wilkinson. on the other hand. the the two. Mariette at Sakkarah. m ii i ii ii i /////: boldly projecting cornice at the top. oldest of the known tombs of The Apis may class. 190). architect !95 however. architectural character and of the decoration of the royal sepulchres. and were discovered by M. 55 {RcnseignfDioits Scrapeuin de Memphis). to be free from soil all danger of settlement or disintegraregion is The of all this mummy pits. the an essential difference between At to . 1S9. At Thebes the rock was soft enough to be cut with sufficient ease. ' AthencEuin Fraiicais^ le trouvh dans 1S55. there was nothing to prevent him from being faithful to a tradition which had manifest advantages.i'^-relief. was built above the well and Someinclosed the funerary chapel. and to intrust the corpse to the keeping of the earth. which must also have been represented These are contemporary Thebes. \ siir /es soi. been destroyed 185 1 or covered ch.^ at These little monuments have since either — Tlieban b. by the sand (see Fig. with a pilaster at each angle and a now filled structure . and yet firm enough tion. which have long ago been pillaged and are honeycombed with The superup with sand. have here seen that it dates from the Ancient Empire.) The Tomb under the New was. xvi. p. times it was surmounted by a small sometimes it was a quadpyramid rangular mass standing upon a surbase. but came into general employment and obtained its full development under the First and Second We have already given some idea of the Theban Empires. be taken as specimens of this latter A Fig. Abydos at nature of the subsoil in compelled contrive the mummy chamber the interior of his own structure Thebes. We . One of the points of difference has already been noticed the other type is The that of the Spcos. we must now indicate the peculiarities which in these respects distinguish the tombs of the kings from those of their subjects. at a depth below the surface which would ensure it greater safety both from violence and from natural causes of decay. Empire.

instance. - Rhind. etc. those of Rekhmara. in A considerable number o-ives The door hio-h which case the first acts as a sort of vestibule. besides which there are a large number of But this chambers. beyond the chamber without arriving at the mummy pit.^ that of a private individual. Rhind tells us that he followed one of these corridors for about Fig. 191). are composed of two or three chambers at most. passage opens which is nearly wall a posterior From its to 12 wide. The great majority. united by corridors. Theban catacombs Petamounoph (Fig. and others excavated in the hill of Sheikh-Abd-elGournah. 190.296 A History of Art vertical in Ancient Egypt. Thebes. the air then became too bad for further progress. ' which extends. This view is obtained by a series of horizontal and vertical sections in the By this operation we are enabled to show the rock to the right of the galleries.^ The chamber for the funerary celebration is easily recognized by its decorations. of tombs are very simple in arrangement. p. sometimes upon the innermost chamber. chapel. It is sometimes the first. access to a rectangular chamber. in a direction parallel to This chamber is the funerary for from 12 to 24 feet. The most extensive of In this the galleries have not less than 895 feet of total length. but more often the 300 feet second in order. The mummy pit opens sometimes upon the corridor between two of the chambers. From Mariette. the priest tomb for is quite exceptional. 43. subterranean parts of the tomb. — A tomb of Apis. sometimes upon a corrider opening out of the latter. from 6 to 10 feet and 10 the wall. . the whole being covered with painted reliefs. of inclined employment all of wells instead planes as approaches to the the mummy is chamber.

kmmm Mima I VOL. I. Q Q .

.

The Tomb under the New
equal in height and width to the chamber.

Empire.
It

299

has a gentle slope

and penetrates
terminating,
in

into the rock to a distance of

some

cases,

in

the

mummy

some 25 chamber

to 35 feet,
itself

but

more frequently
a

in a small

apartment containing the opening of

mummy
It

pit.^
;

must not be imagined that all the tombs were decorated there are many which have received neither painted nor carved ornament, and in others the ornament has never been carried beyond the first sketch. But even in those which are quite bare,
the
Vv'alls

are, in

nearly every instance, covered with a coat of

white stucco.

no effort could be made to mask or conceal the entrance, which accordingly was taken advantage of for the display of ornament.
the
itself,

As

the funerary chapel was contained in

tomb

Fig. 192.

The most simple form of Theban tomb from Rhiud.
;

Fig. 193. Tomb as represented upon a bas-relief ; from Khind.

But no attempt was made to cut architectural facades in the cliffs not more than one or two sepulchres like tho.se at Beni-Hassan have yet been discovered which have facades made up of those The makers of columns which have been called protodoric. these tombs were usually content with dressing the surface of The latter, with its the rock above and around the entrance. sloping lintel above a cornice, stands in the centre oi an almost In perpendicular wall which acts as its frame or background. the uninjured state of the sepulchre this wall was more or less concealed bv a construction similar to those which we have According to described in speaking of the tombs in the plain. all appearances, one of these little buildings, a cube of masonry crowned by a pyramidion, was placed before the doorway of
; '

RniND,

Thebes, etc. pp. 56, 57.

A
every tomb.

History of Art
It is difficult to

in

Ancient Egypt.
was of sufficient size It may have been no more meant only to mask the
it

say whether
not.
size,

to contain a funerary

chamber or
of small
its

than a solid erection
wealthy,
public

entrance and to indicate
indeed,
attention

situation to those concerned.

The
call

may have been
to

only too

pleased

to

thus

the

position- of their

gorgeously decorated
find

selpulchres.

The

little

pyramids of crude brick which we
is

upon the
little

irregular rocky slopes of the Koiwuet-el-Moiirrayi, above the

honeycombed, some are still standing, and others have left unmistakable traces upon the They seem to have existed in great numbers in this part slope. of the necropolis, which seems to have been set apart, about the
window-shaped openings with which the rock
probably answered a similar purpose.

Of

these

time of the eighteenth dynasty, for the priests.

Although they hardly varied from the two or three types little buildings could easily have been made to present slight differences one from another. When they existed in their entirety, they must have given a very different aspect to the cemetery from that which it presents with its rocky slopes burnt by the sun into one harsh and monotonous tint, varied only by the black and gaping mouths of the countless tombs. The sides which they turned to the city and the river were adorned with those brilliant colours of which the Egyptian architects were so fond, and, spaced irregularly but never very far apart, they were sprinkled over the ground from the edge of the plain to the topmost ridges of the hills. Nearly all of them ended in a pyramid, but the varying dimensions of their bases and their different levels above the plain, gave diversity to the prospect, while here and there the slender apex of an obelisk rose above the private tombs and signalized the sleeping-place of a king. It has been very justly remarked, that the best idea of an Egyptian cemetery in its best time is to be gained by a visit to one of those Italian Campo-Santos, that of Naples, for example, where the tombs of many generations lie closely together under a blazing sun.^ There, too, many sepulchral facades rise one above another upon the abrupt slope of a hill into which the graves are sunk. A comparison with the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, or with that at Constantinople, would not be
consecrated by custom, these
'

Rhind,

Tlubes, etc. p. 55.

The Tomb under the New
just because

E>hure.
the

no trees could

flourish

in

Theban

rocks,

at

least in the higher part of the necropolis.

In those districts

which
to

border closely upon the irrigation channels, the tombs seem

Palms and sycamores have had their gardens and fountains. appear to have been planted about them, and here and there, perhaps, the care of survivors succeeded in rearing flowers which would shed their perfumes for the consolation of the dead.^ Were there statues in the courtyards by which many of these tombs were surrounded ? There is no doubt that such statues were placed in the rock-cut sepulchres all the museums of which come Europe have specimens from the Theban tombs. The latter were opened and despoiled, however, at such an early period that very few of these figures have been found in place by those who have visited the ruins of Egypt for legitimate motives. We have, however, the evidence of e.xplorers who have penetrated into tombs which were practically intact. They tell us that the statue of the deceased, accompanied often by that of his wife and children, was placed against the further wall of
;

the innermost chamber.-

In some tombs, a niche
is

is

cut in the

wall for this purpose,^ in others a dais

raised three or four
too, is

steps above the floor of the chamber.^

Here,

found the

sar-

cophagus,

in

basalt

when

the defunct was able to afford such a

luxury, and the canopic vases, which were sometimes of stone,
especially alabaster,

sometimes of terra
hold the

cotta,

and now and then
of

of wood, and were used to

viscera

the

deceased.

by the and Selk (Fig. goddesses Isis, Nephtys, Neith, 196). During the period of which we have just been treating, the taste for these huge rock-cut tombs was not confined to Thebes and
four in number, protected respectively
'

These vases were

Maspero, Recueil
:

de Travaiix, vol.
steles

ii.

p.

105.

The formula which

is

generally

found upon the funerary
this

of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties hints at

rest

"That I may walk daily upon the border of my fountain; that my soul may upon the branches of the funerary garden which has been made for me, that each day I may be out under my sycamore " These desires may be taken literally, as is proved by two steles in the museums of Turin and Boulak, which bear representaThe latter, which we reproduce, comes tions of tombs upon their lower portions.
!

from the Theban necropolis.
^

Most of these

statues
vol.
iii.

r Egypte {Antiguites,
^

p.

were of calcareous stone, but in the Description de 34) two granite ones are mentioned.
See
iii.

In the tomb of .Amenemheb, for instance, discovered by Professor Ebers.
p.

also Description de F Egypte, vol.
*

41.
iii.

Description de fEgvpie {Antiguites, \o\.

p.

34).

A
its

History of Art
;

in

Ancient Egypt.

immediate vicinity we find obvious traces of them in the city which then held the second place in Egypt, namely, in Memphis, where a son of the sovereign resided as viceroy. It was in the reign of Rameses II., that the fourth of his hundred and seventy

Fig. 194.

— Stele

in the

Boulak Museum, showing tombs

witli

gardens about them.

From Maspero.

children

began what is now called the neighbourhood of the Great Pyramids.^
'

little

Serapeum,

in

the

Until then each Apis
which did so much honour

It is

no part of our plan

to describe this discovery,

We refer all those wlio are both to the perspicacity and the energy of Marietta. interested in the matter to the article contributed by M. E. Desjardins to the
jRriiie dcs

Deux-Mondes of March

15,

1874, under the

title:

Les Dkottvertes de

The Tomb under the New
bull

Emph^e.

305

had had a tomb apart, a tomb in \vhich everj-thing was of This royal prince was especially vowed to the small dimensions.

Fig. 196.

— Canopic vase of

alabaster.

Louvre.

w

.^rship

He

of Ptah and Apis, for whom he inaug^urated new rites. began the excavation of a grand gallery, and lined it on each
les

r Egyptologie fran^aise,
details will also

Missions

et les

Ti-avaux de

M. Marie fie.

Many

precious

be found, some of them almost dictated by Mariette, in ihe L' Egvpte a petiies Jounices of M. Arthur Rhone (pp. 212-263). This work includes two plans, a general plan and a detailed plan of the subterranean galleries, which were supplied by tiie illustrious author of the excavations himself; views of the galleries are also given, and reproductions of various objects found in the course of the exploration. We may also mention the Choix des Alonumcnts du Serapeum, a collection of ten engraved plates published by Mariette, and the great work, unfortunately incomplete, which he commenced under the title Le Serapmvi de Memphis (folio, Paris, Gide, 1858). In the second volume of Fouilles et Decom'ertes (Didier,
:

8vo, 1873, 2 vols.)

Beule has given

a very

good description of the bold but fortunate

VOL.

T.

R R

3o6

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

chambers which were increased in number as each This gallery and successive Apis died and required a sepulchre. its chambers served for 700 years (see Figs. 197 and 198). The funerary architecture of the Sait epoch seems to have had an originality of its own, but we are unable to form an opinion from any existing remains. Not a trace is extant of. those tombs
side with small

which the princes of the twenty-sixth dynasty were, according Here are the words to Herodotus, placed one after another. Egyptians) /j,iv (A pries) of the Greek historian Be (the ol
in
:

UTreTTVi^ai',

Kai
Trjs

tTretra

eOa-^av

ev

rycrt

TrarpMrjai

ra^yai,

at

be

eiat

Iv

T(p

X'^poi

ipw

'A6r]i'airji,

aj)(0TdT(i3

Tov
t/c

jxeydpov
vofxov

eaiovTi

opiarept]?

'tda\jfav
ecro)

St ev

Saifrat

irdvTas
kcu

toi'S

tovtov
ai)fia

yeuof^evovs

/Sao-'tXtay

rco Ipti.

^dp to tov \\ixaatos

eKaartpu) fitu

Fig. 197.

— View of the
»;

gr.-ind gallery in

the Apis

Mausoleum

;

from Mariette.

eoTL TOV /xeydpov
/juevTOi

to tov

Anpieoi)

nai

tcov

tovtov irpoTraToprov'
fj.eja\T],

eari

Kol ToiiTo Iv Ty av\y tov Ipov, iraaTas XiOcvr)
re
ev
tCTTi.

Kai

TjaKT]/j,tv7]

aTvXoiai
eao]
I'l

(polvixas to,
Trj

BevSpea

fie/jUfinfievoicn,,

Kai
ev

ttj

aWrj
TOicrt.

BaTravr/.

Be

TraaTaBi,

Bi^a dvpajfiaTa

eaTrjKe'

Be

dvp(v/j.aai

Ol'lKf}

campaign which, begun

in the

month of October,

1850, brought fame to a young

man who
'

had, until then, both open enmity and secret intrigue to contend against. Herodotus, ii. 169. "The Egyptians strangled Apries, but, having done so,

This tomb is in the temple of they buried him in the sepulchre of his fathers. Athene {Ncifh). very near the sanctuary, on the left hand as one enters. The natives of .Sais buried all the kings which belonged to their nome within this temple, and,
in fact,
it

also contains the
is

tomb of Amasis,

as well as that of Apries

and

his family,

but the former

not so close to the sanctuary as the former, but

still it is

within the

buildings of the temple, in a large chamber constructed of stone, with columns in the shape of the trunks of palm trees, and richly decorated besides, which incloses

The Tomb under the New

Empire.

307

Preceding centuries afford no example of a tomb placed within
a temple like
First of
artificial
all

this.^

the royal

mummy
it

was entombed

in the

bowels of an
in

mountain, secondly, under the Theban dynasties,
;

those

above the soil, in the precincts come and go at their will, and nothing but a pair of wooden doors protects it from disturbance. Such an arrangement seems inconsistent with all that we know of the passionate desire of the Egyptians to give an eternal duration to their mummies. We have every reason to believe that this desire had shown no diminution at the time of the twenty-sixth dynasty, and we can hardly admit that Psemethek and his successors were less impelled by it than the meanest of their
of a real one

but at Sais,

rests

of a temple, where curious visitors

subjects.

The

e.xplanation of the apparent

anomaly

believe, in the peculiar nature of the soil of

Sait princes were determined to leave their which they had filled with magnificent buildings and had turned into the capital of all Egypt. Both s/>i'os and mummy pit, however, were out of the question. Sais was built in the Delta upon an alluvial soil which was wetted through and through, as each autumn came round, by the water of the Nile. Neither hill nor
;

is to be found, we Lower Egypt. The mummies in the city

rock existed for

many

miles in every direction.

It

was, therefore,
is

a kind of niche or shrine with folding doors, in which the

mummy

placed."

one of the most dififttult passages in Herodotus, and has given much trouble to translators and commentators. See Larcher's note (ii. 565), and the passage in Stobseus (serm. .xli. p. 251), which he cites in justification for the sense which is here given to the word dvptlifiara. Strabo is content with but a line on this subject Sais," he says, " especially worships Athene (Neith). The tomb of Psammitichos is in the very temple of that goddess" (xvii. 18).
This
is
''
:

Herodotl's affirms (ii. 129-132) that Mycerinus caused the body of his daughter be inclosed in the flank of a wooden cow, richly gilt, and he says that " the cow in question was never placed in the earth." In his time it was exposed to the view of all comers in a magnificently decorated saloon of the royal p.alace of Sais. We may be allowed to suggest that Herodotus was mistaken in the name of the prince
'

to

;

Mycerinus

is

not likely to have so far abandoned
at Gizeh.

all

the funerary traditions of his

entombed the body of his daughter in a spot so distant from his There is one hypothesis, however, which may save us from the necessity of once again accusing the Greek historian of misunderstanding what was said to him in their desire to weld together the present with the past, and to collect into their capital such national monuments as might appeal to the imaginatime, or to have

own pyramid

;

may have transported such a curiously shaped sarcophagus either from the pyramid of Mycerinus or from some small pyramid in its neighbourhood.
tions of their subjects, the Sait princes

;

3o8

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

absolutely necessary that the

tomb should be a constructed one upon the surface of this soil. It would seem that the pyramid would have been the best form of tomb to ensure the continued
existence of the

mummy,

but, to

say nothing of the difficulty of

finding a satisfactory foundation for such a structure

the pyramid had, for Egyptian art was entirely occupied with richer and more varied forms, forms which admitted of the play of light and shade, and of all the splendour of carved and painted decoration. The pyramid being rejected, no type remained but that of

and yielding

soil,

upon a soft many ages, been completely

out of fashion.

Fig. 198.

— Sepulchral chamber of an Apis bull
should
inclose

;

from Mariette.

a

building

which

both

mummy

chamber and

funerary chapel under one roof,
wall.

or, at least,

within one bounding

also, it is true, the Abydos type of sepulchre, chamber hidden in the thickness of its base but it was too heavy and too plain, it was too nearly related to the pyramid, and it did not lend itself readily to those brilliant

There was

with

its

mummy

last renascence of Egyptian But the hypostyle hall, the fairest creation of the national genius, was thoroughly fitted to be the medium of such picturesque conceptions as were then required, and it was adopted as the
art.

compositions which distinguish the

The Tomb under the New
nucleus of the tombs at Sais.
aisles

Empire.

309

A
of

hall divided, perhaps, into three

by

tall

shafts covered with figures

and

inscriptions, afforded
for

a meeting-place and a place

worship

the

living.

The

mummy
in

chamber was replaced by a

niche,

placed,

doubtless,

which faced the entrance, and the well, the one essential constituent of an early Egyptian tomb, was suppressed. Such arrangements as these afforded much less security to the mummy than those of Memphis or Thebes, and to compensate
the wall
in

some measure

for their manifest disadvantages, the

tomb was

placed within the precincts of the most venerable temple in the

and the security of the corpse was made to depend upon the awe inspired by the sanctuary of Neith. As the event proved, this was but a slight protection against the fury of a victorious enemy. Less than a year after the death of Amasis, Cambyses tore his body from its resting-place, and burnt it to ashes after
city,

outraging

it

in

a childish fashion.^
of these Salt kings, consisting of so

The tombs

many comremind us

paratively small

buildings
in

in

one sacred inclosure,

of what are called,

the

modern

East, furbchs, those sepulchres

of

which are found in the immediate neighbourhood of the mosques. Vast differences exist, of course, between the Saracenic and Byzantine styles and that of Ancient
saints or priests

Mohammedan

Egypt, but yet the principle
Cairo or
of visitors
Constantinople,

is

the same.
or

iron

At Sais, as in modern wooden gratings must have

barred the entrance to the persons while they admitted the glances

were hung before the niche, as the finest shawls from India and Persia veil the coffins which lie beneath the domes of the modern burial-places. Perhaps, too, sycamores and The most palm-trees cast their shadows over the external walls.hasty visitor to the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn can hardly fail to remember the suburb of Eyoub, where the /itrbe/is of the Ottoman princes stand half hidden among the cypresses and
;

rich

stuffs

plane trees.

The
'

material

condition which compelled

the Salt

princes to

break with the customs of their ancestors, affected the tombs of Herodotus, iii. 16. Upon this subject see an interesting article by M. Eugene
Revh.lout, entitled
Egyptologique,
^
:

Le Hoi Amasis
de
seq.)

et

d' Heiodote et les Renseigiiements
first

la

la merceiiaires Gtecs, selon les Donnes {Rei'ue Chronique Dbiiotique de Faiis.

year; p- 50 et

There are two passages in Herodotus (ii. 91, and 138) from which we may infer that the Egyptians were fond of planting trees about their temples.

;

3IO
private

A

History of Art

in

Ancient Egypt.

individuals also. Throughout the existence of the Egyptian monarchy the inhabitants of the Delta were obliged to set about the preservation of their dead in a different fashion their to that followed by their neighbours in Upper Egypt mummies had to be kept out of reach of the inundation. Isolated monuments, like those of Abydos, would soon have filled all the available space upon artificial mounds, such as those upon which The problem to be solved the cities of the Delta were built. Since there could be no question of was, however, a simple one.
;

a lateral development, like that ot the

Theban tombs,

or of a

down-

ward one, like that of the Memphite mummy pits, it was obvious development must be upwards. A beginning was made by constructing, at some distance from a town, a platform of crude brick, upon which, after its surface had been raised above the level of the highest floods, the mummies were placed in small chambers closely packed one against another. As soon as the whole platform was occupied, another layer of chambers was commenced above it. Champollion discovered the remains of tvvo such cemeteries in the immediate neighbourhood of Sais. The larger of the two v/as not less than 1,400 feet long, 500 feet an enormous mass " which resembled," he wide, and So feet high No doubt said, " a huge rock torn by lightning or earthquake." was possible as to the character of the mass Champollion found among the debris both canopic vases and funerary statuettes. Within a few years of his death Mariette undertook some fresh they led to no very excavations in the same neighbourhood
that the
;

^

;

;

important
in a

results,

but

they confirmed

the justice

of the

views

enunciated by Champollion.

Most

of the objects recovered were
;

the materials had been too and in time the dampness, which had impregnated the base of the whole structure, had crept upwards through the porous brick, and turned the whole mass into a gigantic sponge. These tombs resemble those of the kings in having no well and as for the funerary chapel we do not as yet know whether it

very bad state of preservation

soft,

existed

at

all,

Perhaps each of
divided into

was arranged, or what took its place. more carefully constructed tombs was two parts, a chamber more or less decorated and a
it

how

the

niche contrived in the masonry, like the rock-cut ovens of the

Phoenician catacombs.
'

As

soon as the munmiy was introduced,
de Ntd>ic, 2nd edition, 1868, p. 41.

Lett res Eciites

d' Ei^xpte et

The Tomb under the New
the niche
for the

Empire.

311

was walled

up, while

the

chamber would remain open
and
in the

funerary celebrations.

In order that the tombs situated

at

some height above the

level of the soil,

middle of

the block of buildings, should be reached, a complicated system
of staircases and inclined planes of centuries the tombs of the
first

was necessary.

In the course

layer and especially those in the

overwhelmed and buried from sight and above and around them. The families to which they belonged, perhaps, became e.xtinct, and no one was left to watch over their preservation. Had it
centre of the mass, were
access by the

continual

aggregation

not been for the infiltration of the Nile water, these lower strata
of tombs would no doubt have furnished
to explorers.

many

interesting objects
that,
if

In any case

it

would seem

likely

deep

trenches were driven through the heart of these vast agglomerations of

unbaked

brick,

many

valuable discoveries would be made.^
;

Such a system

left slight

scope to individual caprice

space must

out to each claimant, and the elbow room than when he was cutting less into the sides of a mountain or building upon the dry soil of the desert. In the royal tombs alone, if time had left any for our inspection, could we have found materials for judging

have been carefully architect had much

parcelled

of the funerary architecture of Sais, but, as the matter stands,

we are obliged to be content with what we can gather from Theban and Memphite remains as to the prevailing taste of
the epoch.

Upon
Colonel

the plateau of Gizeh, to the south of the Great Pyramid,

cleared, in 1837, an important of Colonel Campbell, then which gave the name to he British Consul-General in Egypt. The external part of the tomb had entirely disappeared, but we may conclude that it was in keeping with the subterranean portion. The maker of the

Vyse discovered and

tomb

tomb had taken the trouble
around
it

to

define

its

extent by a trench cut

in

the rock.

The

external measurements of this trench
its

are 89 feet by 74.
faces to the well,

A

passage had been contrived from one of

which had been covered in all probability by an The well opens upon a point nearer to the north than the south, and its dimensions are quite exceptional. It is 54 feet 4 inclies deep, and 31 feet by 26 feet 8 inches in horizontal
external structure.
'

Similar structures exist in lower ChaldK.i.

and have furnished many

inscriptions

of great interest and value to assyriologists.

A
section
;

History of Art
in

ix

Anxient Egypt.
is

it

terminates
thick.

a chamber which
It

II feet 2 inches

was not however
in

in

covered by a vault this chamber, but
grottos
in

small

lateral

that

several
basalt,

sarcophagi

granite,

white quartz,

&c.,

found.

The

remains

of

other wells

tomb dates Psemethek
In the
there
the
Fig.

were traced. from the time
I.

were two This
of

necropolis

of

Thebes

is

a whole

district, that of

hill

El Assassif, where most
tombs
belong
dynasty.
is

Sectim in perspective of 199. "Campbell's tomb," from the plans and elevations of Perring.

of

the

to

the

twenty-sixth
external aspect

Their
to

very different
the

from

that

of

the

Theban
is

sepulchres.

The
a

entrance

subterranean

galleries

preceded

by

spacious

rectangular

Fig. 200.

— Vertical

section in perspective of the sarcophagus charuber of the above compiled from Perring.

tcmb

;

courtyard, excavated in the rock to a depth of 10 or

12

feet.

This court was from 80 to 100 feet long and from 40 to 80 feet

The Tomb under the New
wide by a
;

Empire.

was surrounded by a stone or brick wall, and reached flight of steps. A pylon-shaped doorway gave access to the
it

courtyard from the side next

the rock,

another door of similar

shape opened upon the plain
(see Fig. 201) except

;

but some tombs are entirely closed

towards the mountain, from which side they
in size.

may be The
of

entered by one or two openings.

subterranean part of these tombs varies
to

In

some
rooms

them a gallery of medium length leads

a single chamber.
is

In others, and these form the majority, there

a suite of

connected by a continuous gallery.

To

this latter

group belongs

ElG. 201.

— A Tomb on EI-Assasif (drawn
all

in per?]iecli\*e

from the plans

.ind

eksations of Prisse).

the largest of

the subterranean

Theban tombs,

that of Peta-

have already noticed the extraordinary there are also two wells which lead to lower sets of chambers. All the walls of this tomb are covered with sculptured reliefs. In the first chambers these are in very bad condition, but they improve as we advance, and in the farthest rooms are remarkable for their finish and good preserva(Fig.
191).

mounoph

We
;

dimensions of

its

galleries

tion.

The exterior of tliis sepulchre is worthy of the The open court, which acts as vestibule, is 100 feet

interior.

long by

80 wide. An entrance, looking towards the plain, rises between two massive walls of crude Ijrick, and, to all appearance, was once crowned by an arcade within it a flight of steps leads
;

vol.,

I.

s s

with bare walls and often extremely minute in size. themselves Finally. in wells are much wider than others It is upon the external temple. each with a ^ carefully embalmed mouse etc. hundreds of small chambers. ^ are of mummified animals Rhind saw some also found among the human graves. Neither at Memphis nor at Thebes do the tombs of this late period contain any novel elements. They were each enveloped in bandages of mummy cloth. cut in cliffs. that courts and to upon those double gateways which play a part similar that of the successive pylons before a Theban extra care is bestowed. tombs Someat they are . Private tombs become as large and similar tendencies are to be found genius was becoming exhausted. etc. deep mummy pits. each chamiber of which the Pits full mummies of labourers and artisans were crowded.Operations. hundreds of the mummies of hawks and ibises taken from a tomb at the foot of the Drah-Abou'1-Neggah. the rock In the mountains the sides of the in honeycombed with there are graves between the border of the cultivated land and the foot of the Libyan chain. which and The With a double vestibule chamber is feet square. their decoration. 167. 51. Belzoni. .314 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in the sculpture. and these two great saloons there was no lack of space for 7. times as at Thebes. Vaults are frequently employed and effect. The Egyptian A chronological classification is only possible in the cases of those tombs which bear inscriptions and figures upon their walls.7. the remains of thousands of are to be found which give no indication of their date. Thehcs. slightly is expanding the bottom sometimes. Rhind. pierced through the limea second and smaller court which is surrounded this peristyle From a sculptured portal leads to is first subterranean its once had next 53 feet by 23. and beside theni numerous small boxes. the by their size and the luxury of usual . down by a the into the court. as at Thebes. often with the instruments of their trade by their sides. help to give variety of as those of sovereigns. Another door. Narrative of thi. At Memphis. p. but they are distinguished In some. chamber. p. there are the vast catacombs. Catherines of the friends and relations of the deceased. roof supported by a double range of columns. and it endeavoured to compensate for its want of invention and creative imagination by an increase in richness and elegance. stone rock. leads to portico.

. of those different periods were. because the Egyptian civilization. The tombs. pre-eminent importance. crocodiles. Being mostly subterranean and hidden from the eye of man. when not hollowed from the living rock. sheep. See Belzoni. while the have perished and left no trace. etc. Narrative. ' Those among the which Rhind. contained the germ of all the development that has followed and to thoroughly understand the origin and constitution of this enough from those to . mouse upon it. at Tliebes. as we know it through the still existing monuments. sometimes gilt. carries us much farther back than any other towards the first awakening of individual We thought and consciousness early in mankind.The Tomb under the New inside it. the tomb did not lose its The chief care of the Egyptian in all Rich or poor. were built with such ages was his place of rest after death." with which his thoughts were far more preoccupied than Avith that home in the light. The art of Egypt is the oldest of all the national arts. was covered with magnificent temples even then. Empire. 315 The lids of these boxes had each a wooden were found. he looked with comparative indifference. Wilkinson also mentions p. development it was necessary to follow it up to its source. as soon as he arrived at full age he directed all his spare resources towards the construction and decoration of his tomb. whether it were a miserable mud hut or a vast edifice of brick or wood. cats. and the temples which have been preserved are very few in number. By these alone the is earliest history which we call Ancient Empire known and sumptuous to us. upon which. but. his happy. of course. 52.^ have endeavoured to notice all that is of importance in the funerary architecture of Egypt. monkeys. regarding it as an encampment for a day or a mere hotel for a passing traveller. Among the mummified animals found cows. 1S7. and the oldest that monuments epoch of in Egypt are its its tombs. solidity sepulchres preserved the deposits entrusted to them much latter better than buildings upon the surface. which mankind was l^rought by they were the premises. to the clearness and transparency of its springs. they but nevertheless later reflection. The primitive conceptions. In later ages the country palaces. his eternal " dwelling. p. palaces of great sovereigns and care that they have survived in thousands.

classes of the people appear in them in their every-day occupations and customary attitudes.3i6 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt.200 years 1 When Marietta discovered the of sixth year of the reign before. p.) . The whole national life is displayed before us in a long series of scenes which comment upon and explain each other. to what its general arrangements and its principal to follow out the various details responded it was necessary modifications which were brought about by the development of religious conceptions. were. The brilliant architectural revival which distinsfuished the first and second Theban Empires was mainly due to this development of religious thought. and paintings which have been found in them. But when mature reflection evolved necessary to explain sentiments and beliefs . Almost all the peculiarities of the Memphite tomb are to be explained by the hypotheses with which primitive man is content. tomb of the Apis which had died in the twentyRameses II. in many instances. The statues. and " when I entered the sarcophagus-chamber I found upon the thin layer of dust which covered the floor the marks made by the naked feet of the workmen who had placed the god in his last resting place 3. Almost all that we know concerning the industrial arts of Egypt has been derived from a study of her tomb-houses. stripped. what the tomb meant to them. colossi and bastells us nothing beyond the reliefs often broken and disfigured pomps and triumphs of official history. in were not damaged. to have been the work of the very men whose footprints were found in the sand which covered their floors when they were opened. bas-reliefs.. seem. In every hundred of such objects which our museums contain at least ninety-nine come from those safe All that subsists of their decoration — — shattered depositories. the fingers of the Egyptian mason who laid the last stone of the wall built across the entrance to the tomb were found marked upon the cement. The tombs have suffered much less severely. and mutilated a thousand ways. In order to give a true idea of the national character of the Egyptians and to enable the originality of their civilization to be thoroughly understood. completely very in remote times. pillaged.^ The pictures offered to our eyes by the walls of the private tombs are All very different from those which we find in the temples. 239. it was necessary to show the place occupied in their thoughts by the anticipation of death it was . destroyed. from the time of the first six dynasties to that of the Theban Empire." (Quoted by Rhonk in L' Egypte a F<:tiks /ouriias.

for majestic colonnades when polytheism came and massive pylons river. 2^7 to be superimposed upon fetishism. but mainly by the superiority of her civilization. united by those erections on the left bank of the Nile. to The temple was be erected on the banks of the life-giving later than the tomb. under the Theban necropolis. but it followed closely upon its footsteps. and the two were. in a fashion. . which partook of the character of both. The temple is the highest outcome of the native genius during those centuries which saw Egypt supreme over all the races of the East. EiviriRE. supreme partly by force of arms.The Tomb under the New higher types for the national gods. the hour arrived for the temple to take its proper place in the national life.

and that Egypt was even in those early days much farther advanced. if we may use the expression. an exaggeration. more capable of analysis and reflection. Others affirm that the absence of gods is due to the fact that the Egyptian people were so near to the first creation of mankind that they had not yet forgotten those religious truths which were that at that early period the revealed to the fathers of our race. THE SACRED ARCHITECTURE OF EGYPT. known which can be confidently Hence it has sometimes been referred asserted Egyptian gods were not born. and found in their nomenclature most of the sacred names which. shall not It is attempt to discuss the latter hypothesis scientific in these a matter of faith and not of first demonstration. at least. We pages. designate the principal deities of the . — The Temple under is the Aiicicnt Eii2pire. ^ I. They believe that began with monotheism. in his desire for enlightenment upon this point. searched the epitaphs of the ancient empire. No statue of a god to the first six dynasties. than is generally imagined.CHAPTER IV. oppose certain undoubted facts which prove it to be. that they were still content with those fetishes which retained no slight hold upon their imaginations until a much later period. in later phases But to the hypothesis we shall of the national civilization. Some writers incline to believe that Egyptian thought had not yet reached the point where the polytheistic idea springs up. Maspero. that the notions of the people had not yet been condensed into any definite conception upon the point. and that its polytheistic due to the gradual degradation of pure doctrine which took place Egypt system was among all but the chosen people. M.

Nephthys. //rw//. Histoirc Ancieime. represented by those animals which. served them that can The most be said . Setekh.-fs exposes dans /es Ga/eru's pn'r/s. that it These statues would seem to have bronze and wood. Hathor-En-Khcou {588). (Edition of 1S76. Horus in as the avenger of his Harpocrates. they had not yet arrived at complete definition external unchanging features and them those had not yet given characteristics which they retained to the last days of paganism. 590). (ORhBAULX. Ra-Our (25). the wooden of the (Maspkro.' a AiiimoiiRa. (Boulak Catalogue. or is . i>art iii. or.) . 41. Amen uas a Theban god. Osiris. and some connection between the latter and the mortal These who bore his name and lived under his protection. even during the so New lelic On of nt attempting the to venerable a of author greatest Ra-Hotep We may take a few of those in the Boulak Museum random : (No. li. more often than not. restore ' is a restoration made during Empire.) This is natural enougli. now in the British Museum. for symbols.The Temple under the Ancient Ei^ryptian to to Empire.) never mentioned on the monuments of the Ancient Empire contemporary with the twelfth dynasty. in more enlightened times. have already been in existence in is the that minds of the Egyptians. Ra-Nefer (23). p. we must monarch restored the principal statues of the Egyptian gods and made them pretty much what we see them in monuments belonging to times much more recent than his. It is quite possible that they were. 582. Sokar-Kha-Ca-u (993). the the middle. art. however. Horus. Mariette. is A priest of in Apis is mentioned upon of the sixth a tomb fourth dynasty. that perhaps. then. 75). express indicate divinities must. Osiris invoked the steles d> nasty. Noum-Hotep (26). p. and Apis. Ptah-Asses (500). Amen. his appearance is - Notice des principaux Moini/iier. silver. 319 pantheon. been gold. Selk. first Amnion. the inscription and the figured representations certain stele still existing upon a which was found a short distance eastward of the pyramid of Cheops^ are to be taken believe that that literally. Thoth. perhaps. &c.i/vs ilu Mmce d'Aiiliqiiilh E^vptienncs a Boulak. Isis in several different forms. father. No. is this inclined to think stele does not date from the time of Cheops. introduction. and 'I'hebes does not seem to have existed in the time of the Ancient Empire. The upper part ot the stele in question shows the god of generation.^ The composite proper names often seem individual devotion to some particular deity. No. Ptah. The names of several deities are to be found in the inscription upon coffin or mummy-case of Mycerinus. Hathor-Nefer (41). 136. Ptah-Hotep.

besides which a vast number them have perished in the lime-kilns. allow. ancient text. to the well-concealed serdabs. equally doubtful. but that they have failed to survive to our day. accept as fact only this existing : that it Cheops restored an already sacred silver. nothing very figures. The to a ingenuity of man combined to with the process of nature to preserve these figures generations in the time when they could and all. The material of those which were of gold. silver. enough to save them eternal existence. moreover. to and. third and the sixth dynasties the multiplication of these portrait statues went on at a prodigious number may be judged from the fact that twenty were taken from the scrdab alone of the tomb of Ti. We paid see. the greater was the chance that one of them would and their escape destruction. to wooden ones be destroyed or damaged by The stone statues might be overthrown replaced by others of a later of and broken and fashion. in their desire to aftbrd a proper support to their double.320 architectural A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The greater their number. or bronze. from. would excite dangerous cupidity. sooner or later. bronze. the scribes figures treated in the style of their It is may have allowed own day we need. and restored the statues of gold. and wood. work themselves to add to the in their country. did they owe their preservation through the troublous times which were in store for Egypt. assigned to certain offerings as revenues. while the were pretty fire. temple. portraits of so many private individuals have been preserved an extent as their because. in Ptah total and Hathor. which adorned the sanctuary. excite interest remote future. they multiplied their own images Between the to as great means would rate. destruction to ensure them a chance of To laid the thick walls of the mastabas. In their more exposed situations in the temples and private houses. whether the text itself dates back to the earlier period. more than the constantly increasing mask of sand upon the cemeteries of Gizeh and Sakkarah by the winds from the desert. It may be that the divine effigies were abundant even in those The early days. the images of the gods ran far greater risks than the private statues. that supposing Cheops and Chephren to have before statues their devotions there is of Isis and Osiris. astonishing the disappearance of those To argue frorii their absence . then. sure. and perhaps.

V. Between these several of the j)aws a little Theban kings all temple was contrived. to the restoration of the Sphinx. to the stele or ' Horus in the shining Sun. the is mouth 7 feet 9 inches. namely. 321 gods of the Egyptians were not yet and consequently that there were no temples erected in their honour. We possess. \0L. The same work (vol. wide. is to hazard a gratuitous assertion which may at any time be disproved by some happy discovery. but the ensemble. I. authentic. that in those early days the created. above quoted. moreover. out ot a natural rock which reared its head above the sand in this part of the necropolis here and there the desired form was made out bj' additions in masonry. nor Diodorus. dates from the time of the ancient monarchy. and the aspect which has presented at difterent epochs. Few traces of them are to be found. Egypt had gods she must have had temples. Caviglia was it the first to bring these matters to light. of the Greeks. the difterent restorait has undergone.The Temi'l?: under the Ancient Empire. Ques/toiis relatives aiix noircelks Fouilles. If cleared entirely of sand the Sphinx would thus be it higher than a five-storied house. long before the time of Cheops. Our plan (Fig. mention the Sphinx. only dates back to the Roman epoch. twenty years ago. pi. represents Hor-em-Khou. or rising sun. however. the early Egyptians 1 The is total height of the Sphinx is 66 feet. some of the information ^^hich he obtained was valuable and . see Mariette. as now exists. The Denkmaler of Lepsius (vol. As Before they began to erect stone buildings. Before that statue was found it might similarly have been contended that the series of royal effigies only commenced with the first Theban Empire.^ corresponding to the According . pi. the ear is 6 feet 4 inches high. nor Strabo. but was mixed with errors it was said to be. he tells us. in 1S17. H. and their almost total disappearance is mainly owing to causes which merit primitive careful notice. Pliny speaks of it (N. but he knows that the whole figure was painted red. at least one divine effigy which. 68) contains a reproduction of the great stele of Thothmes relative i. 30) gives three sections and a plan of the little temple between the paws. T T . It is curious that neither Herodotus. 157)combining the body of a crouching lion with the head of a man. it 1 7) . the great Sphinx at Gizeh (Fig. it was carved. The greatest width of the face across the cheeks tions which 14 feet 2 inches.' Harmachis. in the opinion of all contemporary archaeologists. ^^'^ learn from epigraphic WTitings that this gigantic idol. the nose 6 feet. For the history of the Sphinx. xxxvi. where the steles consecrated by in honour of the Sphinx were arranged. 204) shows the wide flight of steps which was constructed in the time of Trajan to give access to a landing constructed immediately in front of the fore-paws. the tomb of the king Armais. the statue of Chephren now in the Boulak Museum. such as that which gave us.

we see constructions so closely imitated believe that under the but to it wood then played a Theban princes. in the their skill. a structure could be quickly and easily restored. The island of Phite. With either the help of colour and metal. and the time came when the comparative simplicity of the primitive erections was unable to satisfy the longing of the people for magnificence and splendour. Under both the temples at Ombos. The national taste changed with the centuries. Champollion discovered the Ptolemaic temples almost always replaced structures dating from the great Theban or Sait dynasties. 143. because they alone had sufficient durability. they could then state of have done without any serious The chief cause of the disappearance of the early temples was the construction of those that came after them. is quite possible that most of the temples were of wood. When. ages. a or some symbolic the portico which surrounded the inner court. Either of wooden we are constrained to much more important part than the characteristics in stone. Memphis. pp.A History of Art of ix Anxikxt Egypt. affords an exception to this rule. New temples. as a matter of course. We may admit. however. 125. and the substance of their predecessors was. brick or stone was absolutely necessary for a tomb. temples of stone. was never entirely came into general use it was usually employed in rapidity of those lighter and more ephemeral edifices in which construction was the chief point required. which.^ ' These temples Champollion. here and there. more vaSt and sumptuous than the old. statue wood could be easily made The shrine which enclosed object. and 166. that from the epoch of the Pyramids cities onwards. inscriptions on the later building go so that far as to preserve the at name of the architect of the first. and others. the high palisade which enclosed the sacred precinct. ChampolHon discovered remains of a building of the . the furniture. but after stone and brick it was reserved for special purposes. employed in their construction. were constructed. as Thinis. Leftres d'Egypte et de A'ulne. An instance of this occurs Denderah. such constructed architectural difficulty. inscription or a piece of sculpture betrays the and. such of wood. Sometimes a fragmentary restoration . might all have been When destroyed by accident or damaged by time. however. the doors. made constant use and paintings wood for many Various bas-reliefs prov^e that this latter material abandoned. fulfil all the conditions of a temple. in the remains of the early dynasties. Abydos.

nothing that shows any power of eftort. the building. by its arrangement. a few still sacred buildings of the early period were in existence during Roman occupation of the countr)-. in ancient times. is its most striking characteristic. and by means of a flight of steps well protected from the sand. After having described. temples without sculptured decorations. This we may gather from a passage \\ith in Strabo. 128 Oi-Sev cxei ^(^apier uvBi ypa<^i. the disposition of which are easily recognized as temples built under the princes of the New Empire. etc. good reason to beUeve that in the time of the Ancient did not exist. apart from the great size of the columns. ." spite of But in some cases they were third or even fourth editions. ^ 3 'A^odl'Ol vqoi.K6v. which runs almost in an easterly direction through the massive masonry which constitutes the external wall. Mariette cleared the whole of the interior. etc. their number design and in their position in several long rows. at about 50 yards distance from the right foot ot the Sphinx in a south-easterly direction. as Strabo calls them. and that the cataract was then at SilsiUs. was thinking of the same building in his treatise upon the Syrian goddess. which recalls. certain buildings much precision. however. But the in all these rearrangements and restorations. that on the right leads to a small chamber. About midway along this passage two small galleries branch off. is have been discovered in the small building disinterred by Mariette in 1S53. and about 83 feet long by 23 wide.- One of these to ' barbarous ' temples. : We thing occurred at Edl'ou and at Esneh. that on the left to a staircase giving access to the terrace above. and impotent eftort. he calls " second editions. too. and were then shown as curiosities. These are monoliths 16 ported by six quadrangular piers. The entrance is by a passage about 66 feet long and 7 wide. running north and The roof is supsouth. - LL'CIAX. because.The Templk under the Anckuxt Empire. time of Thotnmes III. there is nothing graceful artistic . and so they still supposed remain. The same is : Strabo. when he said that the Egyptians had. because there Empire ' that island xvii. he adds " At Heliopolis. At the end of the passage we find ourselves at one of the angles of a hall. the barbarous style . there is a certain buildinof with several ranees of : columns. But he left the external walls buried as he found them. he provided easy access to it. except Philse." ^ Lucian.

From in the south-west angle of the first hall there is a short the corridor which leads to six deep niches in the masonry. — The Temple of the Sphinx (from an unpublished plan by Mariette). and apparently intended for reception of mummies. arranged pairs one above the other. Fic. In the middle of the eastern wall of this same large chamber there is a short and wide passage which leads to a third and last to the is. but there floor. it has no supporting a pillars. it Mariette cleared from the sand with which 1 deep well which was filled. consequence of the different . their spacing varies Exact symmetry has been sacrificed stones which formed the architrave. lengths of the The piers are not q^uite equidistant in . and its roof was supported by ten columns similar to those we have already mentioned. There by some centimetres. These are stones 10 feet in about length. parallel one with six columns in the centre of the . hall.^ From the eastern side of this hall another opens at right angles. high and 3 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 8 inches in section. Several of their architraves are still in place. This second hall is about 57 feet long and 30 wide.A feet 6 inches History ok Art in Ancient Egypt.. 202.

this hall there is a small chamber communicating by short corridors. Ernest DesjardinsK' The materials employed in the interior of this building are piers are rose granite and alabaster. a moulding pillars are or at any other sort of ornament to be found. The supporting and the is of granite. At each end of it with Fig. plain rectangular . the king at different periods of his life. and there not a trace of any inscription on external walls are any part of the building. — Interior of the Temple of the Sphinx (from a sl<ctch by M. that in the northern angle of the temple. alabaster. . At the bottom nine broken statues of Chcphren were found they were not copies. The of the largest limestone blocks which are to be found in Egypt. one from the other. One of these. The the is walls are without either basconstructed reliefs or paintings. 203. the lining slabs of the walls ceiling. these materials are dressed and fixed with care and but in no part of the temple monoliths the slightest hint at Both knowledge. seems to have communicated with the outward air by an irregular opening in the masonry. because it was sunl-: below the level of the Nile. Several stone cynocephali were also found.Tiiii Temple under the Ancient Empire. but represented . 325 had been water in it.

427-473. several other tombs in the neighbourhood. archaeologist. it must be confessed. and that very small." - This to latter hypothesis seems to have found most favour with rectangular niches. doubtless. iS77. 99. which it but slightly excelled The six deep niches which exist in the interior recall in size.dates from but is it a temple or a tomb ? the time of the pyramids Its external appearance is. . but to some extent Every mastaba of any importance has funerarv representations upon it. and Teniplc of ? " Harniacliis. very naturally. had inspected them by means of temporary excavation. were accounted for in " May they not be here. decorated w-ith long vertical and horizontal grooves skilfully interlaced in one corner there is a door. . . more that of a tomb than From a distance it must have looked not unlike a of a temple. Comptes Rendiis des Seanees de VAnnee. that the hypothesis which would make it a sepulchre might be upheld without violating the rules which should guide the the other hand it ma)'. as the Sphinx is a god.xplained the walls display his portrait and the whole The humblest of these tombs course of his posthumous life.326 In these A days History of Art in Ancient Egypt. therefore. which at first Mariette. mastaba from Sakkarah or Abousir. . The seemed to him another way. \). emplo)' the And he does not hesitate Temple of the Sphinx. " what the at the temple of Denderah terms them. and inscriptions containing both the name of the deceased and those magical formulae which we have already e. He does not give his reasons. nothing is to be seen but " smoothlv polished surfaces. the only one.On of the Sphinx. the internal arrangements of the pyramid of Mycerinus and the Mastabat-el-Faraoun. shows at least a stele upon which the name of the defunct is inscribed together with the prayer which is to insure him the benefit of can supply . be asserted that. Questions relatives aitx iiouvelles Fouilles a /aire en Egypte. none of their outward faces are visible.pp. who. we 1 Mariette. . {Acadhnie des Inscriptions. crypt to is be intended for funerary purposes. and the general plan resembles that of It appears. it must be the Temple .) Itineraire des /mites dii ]'ice-roi." ^ For the last thirty years there has been much controversy as to the true character of this curious monument. Mariette himself allows us to see that he could not convince himself of its real meaning: "It cannot be doubted that this building. but according to Mariette." he asks.

An the examination of the well leads to the same conclusion. tlie different purposes of the buildings which he erected. Its character of these arrangements. The anomalous temple. is In the mastaba the well simply a vertical corridor of approach to mummy to chamber. funerary offerings mentioned upon it. in itself furnish it it. can hardly attributed want ot means on the It is part of the proprietor. of an individual whose name is placed upon it. total size . and was never intended to be one. is difficult to see how • such an anomaly this is to be accounted for e. disappears bareness .xcept by the supposition that not a tomb. The architect of this temple seems. Here there is neither sarcophagus nor no enlargement of the well of any kind. It It is the only one of three which is absolutely indispensable. A well for providing the water required by the Egyptian ritual and by the ablutions of the priests would be in its proper place in such an edifice. building to be a tomb. is rather excess of that of the largest mastaba yet discovered are finer its materials and its construction more be careful. true that in many tombs the the decorative works have never although the advanced building sign is beyond is sketch state stage of . In this temple there Its is no sign in of such individual appropriation. The forms at his command were too few and too rigid to enable him to mark.The Temple under the Ancient the Empire. all the necessary elements of a place oj sepulture. while the similarity between its general arrangements and those of the mastabas may easily be accounted for by the inexperience of the early architect. speaking. put one . the most important is the mummy chamber. not the slightest to be discovered that any funerary ornamentation had It is ever been attempted. in a good preservation. with any certainty. but here. and who is exclusive owner ot it and its contents to all eternity. The to bareness of the walls. therefore. The tomb is thus consecrated to the use of some particular person. supposing the when it is looked upon as a and simplicity agree entirely with the descriptions given by Plutarch and the pseudo-Lucian of those early Egyptian temples which the one saw with his own eyes and the other knew by tradition. because could ensure the safety and repose of the corpse entrusted to Where strictly there is no mummy chamber there can hardly be a tomb. But of the three parts into which the t\'pical Egyptian tomb may be divided. any place could.

. we are told. " recently published memoir. must formerly have been arranged in one of the " : . is p. at we are discussing. In the absence of any decisive evidence either one way or the other. erected by Thothmes IV. " Why. and it is a considerable distance from the second pyramid. It is very near the Sphinx. moreover. In none of the Memphite mastabas do we find such spacious chambers or so many large and well-wrought monolithic columns. to have done his best to express the distinction. - The actual ilistancc about 670 yards. the funerary chapel would be in the immediate neighbourhood of the mummy was erected. had a temple of for its own.''" This question we may answer by two more Why did not that king decorate the walls of his tomb ? and why did he have neither sarcophagus nor sarcophagus chamber ? Others have seen in it the chapel in which the funerary rites of Chei^hren were performed ^ a theory which was of course suggested by the discovery of that king's statu.o 28 A HisTuRV OF Art in Ancient E(. in his but we cannot discuss them here. According to all analogy. however. was benefit it : whose placed against the right shoulder of the Sphinx. and it seems to us to be hazarding too much to affirm that." which. to commemorate the works of restoration undertaken by him. some moment of political tumult. in a word.es in the well.. Many hypotheses have been put forward in the attempt to reconcile these two explanations of the " Temple of the Sphinx. the most reasonable course is to look upon this building as the temple in which the worship of the neighbouring Colossus was carried on as the temple of Harmachis. 350. Guide to Lower Egypt. This solution confirmation derives from the following facts mentioned by Mariette: "The granite stele. they must have been cast into the well either by foreign enemies or by the in chambers.vpt. that the point nearest to the building which later is to say. because the statues of that kine were found in it." asks Mariette. irritated populace. In and some others representing scenes of adoration which were added by Rameses II. These statues. were combined into years this stele ' B. and.R. the building we are discussing must have been In all probability insult to the his funerary chapel.tDEKB'. we shall never learn the true cause of this memory of Chephren. should not the temple of the Sphinx be the tomb of the king who made the Sphinx itself.

have already mentioned them. and is exactly opposite to the centre of the pyramid. . On its eastern side there square. U U . two lateral openings or posterns beyond this there are several spacious saloons. fail to keep it free between it round from sand in antiquity. the description given by Jomard The French of the temple belonging to the third pyramid. . its extent. and their materials could readily be carried deceased kings in away for the construction of other buildings. Nothing remains but the lower courses of the walls and their footings. The honour they were erected were worshipped within their walls even down to the time of the Ptolemies. which almost directly faced any one cominoout of the temple. The ' Mariette. to clear all the space and the temple (see Fig. We saw many things which have disappeared since " their time. building situated to the east of the third . . come to even as to their ground however. protected by the sand. shall quote. must We We return to them for a moment whose in their capacity as temples. Questions relatives aux nouvelles Foiiilles. 127). five of which are still in existence the farthest of these is the same size as the vestibule. and the whole group of sufficient height the future. 329 a sort of small building. Outside the vestibule there is a vast courtyard with wide. from which it is but 43 feet distant." clear the sphinx ^ One of Mariette's favourite projects was to finally to build a wall down to its base. being 177 feet by 186. savants. so that no exact agreement has yet been plan. and would help us to reconstitute the most ancient group of religious buildings in existence. pyramid is remarkable for its arrangement. w-hose visit to Egypt took place nearly a century ago. than that of the pyramids. They are in a much worse state of preservation than Unlike the latter they were not the Temple of the Sphinx. I. and the enormous size In plan it is almost of the blocks of which it is composed. perhaps.The Temple under the Ancient Empire. In any case would lay open the material connection between the great idol and its temple. however. In Mariette's opinion such an operation could hardly to bring to light more than one monument of great of an antiquity greater. Those structures which are generally called the temples of the it pyn-amids belong to the same class of architecture (Fig. VOL. and explained how they are to the pyramids what the funerary chamber is to the mastaba. 204). . etc. a vestibule or annexe 103 feet long and 46 is.

either carved or painted. There is the same multiplicity of internal chambers. " The eastward prolongation or annexe is formed of two huge walls. seeing that had they been of only half the thickness they would have been quite as durable and solid. them. and he adds that some second pyramid. p. and leading up to it. " After havine studied the construction and the materials of the Theban edifices. may well be asked why such walls should have been constructed.or about the same height as the . ot which Description de I'Egypte. however." ^ Jomard appears to have found no traces of pillars in any part but Belzoni.forms. It which are not less than 13 feet 4 inches thick. of its blocks were 24 feet high. suffices prove the connection between the two buildings. were same squareness of plan. be carried off and used elsewhere. 654.330 But " to I A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. decorated or not . . vol. 261-2.. I was astonished by the size of the stones here and the care with which they were fixed. to be found upon We is see. could see no opening in that part of the wall which faced the pyramid. are 6 feet 9 inches thick . ect. then. It is now impossible to say whether these buildings. " This building. be the first to Such blocks would. seems to have found them in the temple of the He speaks oi portico. Narrative of the Operafious. both of the edifice short and confused. made use of. as it were. At first I took these blocks for the I face of the rock itself. The general symmetry of the arrangement. and might not have discovered my mistake but for the cemented joints betvt'een the courses. pp. of the stones employed. v. -Sl monoliths in the Temple of the Sphinx. Belzoni. the same employment of huge masses of stone and the same care and skill in dressing and fixing them. the continuation of an enclined plane or causeway laid out at right angles to the base line of the third pyramid. of course. however. In spite of this difference many the of the peculiar arrangements of the sphinx temple are repeated in these buildings. that the religious architecture of the early empire represented by a very small number of monuments. it is certain that at the present day no sign of is any ornamentation. when complete. ^ Ant. whose description is. elaborately worked and dressed. The walls a thickness which is determined by that Their length varies from 12 to 23 feet.

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first Theban empire are now and yet the Egyptians had then generally adopted the worship of all those deities whose characters and attributes have been made known to us through the monuments of the NewEmpire. insignificant in height. of which we have spoken. The monolithic pillars. They give slight earnest of the magnificent edifices which the country was to texts rear some ten or fifteen centuries afterwards at the command of the great Theban pharaohs. is in a good state of preservation. had advanced so far that there any difficulty in marking the the tomb. that the worship of the dead held the largest place in their religious life. Their temples were small in size. and the forms employed in these rock-cut in constructed buildines. Amen. and severe in their absence of ornament. Wiien we recall the which we have quoted. identified with Ra. a supreme deity for the nation as a whole. neither the worship of the local deities. or Amnion. however. we must acknowledge that the energies of the Egyptians during the early dynasties were mainly directed to their resting-places after death. In the sepulchres we find two was nothing to prevent chambers from beincr made use of twelfth dynasty. Amen an uncontested superiority throughout the whole valley of the Nile. give some slight foretaste of a feature which was to reach unrivalled majesty in the hypostyle halls of Karnak and Luxor. when we compare the temple of the Sphinx with tombs like the pyramids or the sepulchre of Ti. there was no longer distinction between the temple and at Beni. already showed a tendency to No temples constructed under the . in existence . become war. the god to whom they looked for happiness beyond the grave. which affected.The Temple under the Middle only one Empire. seeing especially how skilful the PZgyptians had shown themselves to be . T/ie Temple under the Mieietle Empire. nor the homage paid by every man and woman in Egypt to Osiris. however. To him and acquired successful sovereigns attributed their successes both of peace As the god of the king and of the capital.Hassan which date from the very different kinds of support. TiT^t. Art. at this period. The Theban triad received the homage of the Ousourtesens and Amenemhats its principal personage.

have multiplied to infinity those stone supports which his distant predecessors had employed. of buildings dated from the time of at Theban empire. narrates Ousourtesen. is no more than a At Semneh. is sufficient to prove their existence. Ludwig Stern in 1873. nothing is left to us beyond tradition and the mere mention of them in various texts. This. It is Berlin. according to the pictures and inscriptions which cover its walls. apparently with some inkling of their future possibilities. which. if he had chosen. the fortress on the left bank of the river contains a temple of Thothmes HI. the site of the sanctuary properly speaking. Fig.. at least. and the obelisks of the New Empire differed from those of the Middle Empire rather in their extent and in the magnificence of their decoration. however. it is not improbable that time of Ousourtesen were prefaced understood in his time. It forms the central nucleus around which the later buildings of Karnak have been erected. those at BeniTIassan. because a MS. but we know that a the first part. it is believed. between the granite chambers and the buildings of Thothmes III. period are figured. temple marked the plan which forms plate 6 of Mariette's A'lm/ak. published by Herr the dedication of a chapel by probable that the obelisk was in the portion then built and consecrated to the god Ra. The name of Ousourtesen is to be read upon the remains of the polygonal columns which mark. the pylons. proves that the cutting and polishing of those monoliths was as the obelisk seems always to have the pylon. these columns. . the only one which has is left was erected at Thebes by the twelfth princes of the dynasty to the honour of Amen. In plate 8 the remains of all statues and inscriptions which date from the same See also pages 36. working the excellent materials provided for them by nature. and been closely combined with the religious edifices of the by those huge pyramidoid masses. 37.334 in A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. in 1 The is little that now remains in of the columns and foundations of the ancient a. Of all the temples then constructed. Nothing has been found of that great tem[)le at Heliopolis which all the Greek travellers visited its and described. are hexagonal in section. The obelisk set up by Ousourtesen at Heliopolis. than in their orener^l arranrrement. Nubia. like any apparent traces that which . The architect could.^ Of many other buildings erected at this period. We shall choose examples of them from the two extremities of Egypt. and 41-45 of the text. The hypostyle halls.

prince is represented doing whom Ousourtesen homage to the local deities. The later additions. and that his death. The Temple under tlie Nezo Empire. halls. there a courts a colonnade. and we have little difficulty in restoring them. nineteenth. in it may be its convenient to describe their external and accessory parts it approaches. all the energy of an unconquered people was combined with the knowledge and experience resulting from an old and complex social system. Many more the second instances might be given. or a few the chambers . and colonnades. Each temple had which had their share the relieious ceremonies of which was . was reconstructed by Thothmes. Before porticos we cross the threshold of the great Theban temples and attempt to evolve order out of their complexity of courts. on paper. at the moment when. fail to hide or materially affect the general characteristics of the buildings. This latter prince was deified at Semneh after and his worship continued for more than ten centuries. and in no way prevent us from recognizing and defining the originality of their conception. among may be discovered presenting his pious monuments of A Thothmes all successor to the other gods. in tlie first instance. and twentieth dynasties. edifices so great and splendid that they ran no risk of being destroyed in later times for the sake of constructing others built at in still more sumptuous . although they render the ground-plans more complicated. besides which they were the zenith of the national greatness. Egyptian character. In the later ages of the monarchy a few unimportant additions were made.The Temple under the New restoration Empire. His temple. could dispose of the resources of a and of an aged civilization for the construction of their edifices. but the great temples of the New Empire have come down to us with few modifications beyond those caused by the three thousand years through which they have existed. spirit and § 3. which had fallen into ruin during the first reigns of the eighteenth dynasty. an obelisk or a pylon here. but the attention. honour of Ousourtesen III. Theban empire demand our rich country or an Amenophis. a Seti or a Rameses. in 335 of one built. to the condition in which they were left by the great monarchs of the eighteenth.

there must.of. between the first and second pylon.200 yards long. would be diiticult to make its economy understood unless we began by noticing them in detail. The space between one sphinx and another The dronws on the same side of the causeway was about 1 3 feet. . that is to say a paved causeway bordered on each side with rams These or sphinxes. that at Karnak is 76 feet between the the theatre. — Ram. One of the first signs which denoted to visitors the proximity of an Egyptian temple was what the Greek travellers called a Bpofj. which led from Luxor to Karnak was about 2. edifice. within the precincts of the sacred Fig. this width underwent a considerable increase. or A'riosphinx. therefore. their heads being turned inwards to the road. and inner faces of the pedestals ^ . At the Serapeum of Memphis the sphinxes which Mariette found by digging 70 feet ' downwards ]>. avenues vary in width.i^ A History of Art it in Ancient Egypt.2. have been five hundred sphinxes on each side of it. from Karnak. 205. Karnak. into the sand Mariette. 4.

are straight. but as their upper parts have disappeared through the perishable nature of the material.. Karnak. VOL. are not so.650 yards long. placed in the interior of a temple. L XX . probably. We had find the same thing tombs between which its course lay. to avoid the at build- The Serapeum dronws undergoes in order. 4 inches. These avenues of sphinxes are always outside the of the temple. At Karnak they are about 33 feet thick. . We find. Following our modern notions we should. Description ginerale de Tlicbes.xes of Horus succeed to those sphinxes without inscriptions the date of which Mariette found the impossible to determine. all performed within this space. the axis of the avenue inclines gently to left. expect to find They these causeways laid out upon an exactly rectilinear plan. were still nearer to one another ^ the dromos which they lined was found to be 50 feet wide and about 1. perhaps. Mariette. The two ^ Description. where the architect must have different motives for his abandonment of a straight line. several slight changes of direction. It is within these gates only that the sacred inclosure called The religious ceremonies were by the Greeks the Tefi€vo9 commences. p. or Traces of this hatred are rather hatred.^ We may infer from what Mariette says that they were separated from one 1 2 another by a distance of ^ feet 5. were found in one of the inner halls of the temple at Karnak. Karnak.- TiiK Temple under the New Empire. it is impossible to say with certainty what ' their original height may have been. which was inclosed by an encircling wall built at sufficient distance from the actual temple to allow of the marshalling of processions and other acts of ritual. Some of the great temples have several of these avenues leading up to their different gates. . and without religious signification. from which it actual walls has been inferred that they were merely ornamental. They date. no doubt. however. It has sometimes been said that one of the characteristic features of Egyptian architecture is its dislike. however. These outer walls are of crude brick. § i. to whom this part of the building owes its existence. At it the point where the man-headed sphin. section viii. those which extend between one pylon and another. The very short ones. to but those which are prolonged for ings of the some distance outside the temple almost always make some abrupt turns. that sphinxes were sometimes fine sphinxes in rose granite which form the chief ornaments of the principal court of the Boulak museum. from the time of Thothmes III. of a rigorous symmetry. etc. such as be found in these avenues.

Our only means of estimating their original height is by comparing. These inclosing walls served more than one purpose. be proceeded with in strict isolation from the outer world. they acted as an impenetrable between the profane curiosity of the external crowd and the and when they had to serve their last named purpose they were constructed in such a fashion that those without could neither hear nor see anything that passed. except a few chapels. and other places."These walls were pierced in places by stone doorways.338 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. these portals expanded into those towering masses which by their form as well as their size. They protected it against injury from without. under the colonnades. When their height was considerable. Sais. that on the north. so greatly impress the traveller who visits the ruins of ancient Egypt. state of preservation . and all the sacred parts of the building. At those points where the sphinx avenues terminated. is not less than 33 feet high. Their height was at least sufficient to prevent any part of the inside from being overlooked from any (quarter of the city. They marked the external limits of the temple. These masses have by 1 The wall of the principal inclosure at Denderah. or upon the lakes could "It is probable purposes. - Mariette. p. . 206). must have afforded a continuous platform connected with the flat tops of the pylons by " flights of steps. . Denderah. pp. embedded in the masses of crude brick. Karnak. connected one with another by avenues of sphinxes. generally at the principal entrance of the temple but sometimes at secondary gateways. and those centuries have had their effect upon the masses of crude brick. and between 30 and 40 thick at the base. without ornament of any kind. Their summits. while they would keep all those who had not been completely initiated at a respectful distance from the holy places within. as at Denderah. 27. . ^ We may therefore perceive that. that the walls of Karnak served all three There are four of them. in the representations furnished to us by certain bas-reliefs. so that the ceremonies in the halls. curtain mysteries performed Avithin . or even rough-cast (Mariette. on certain occasions. 6. whose highest parts always rose more or less above the battlements of the wall (Fig. 5. with their crenellated parapets. these inclosures would afiord a sanctuary which could not easily be violated. the height of walls with that of the pylons on which they abut. . are in one of the four inclosures. Its surface is perfectly smooth and naked.) At Karnak the bounding walls are in a much worse they are ten or twelve centuries older than those of Denderah.

.Fig.dary wall of a temple . 206. — Gateway and boui. Lhipiez. restored hy Cli.

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cuts oft' from the cornice and from the uneven line which marks the From the base junction of the sloping walls with the sandy soil. iii. 47) made use of the so-called tomb of Osymandias. see Ad. which are. Fig. surfaces of the pylon. which would have been an . . covered with bas-reliefs It serves as a frame for all this decoration. Another representation of the same kind will be found illustrated in bas-reliefs Khons one of the upon the same building. 1 great door (upon the augmentative force of the suffix wr.) show /a Langue Grecque.. 57. It is taken from a rock-cut tomb between Dayr-el-Medinet and Medinet-. and pylon to the great doorways which form one of the most striking features of Egyptian architecture. towers terminate above in that hollow gorge which forms the Each angle of the cornice of nearly all Egyptian buildings. § doorway with its 84). great favour with the architects of Egypt.. i. and is so well known that we refrained from giving it in these pages. iii. It shows the masts and banners in all their details. Traitc de la Formation des in PoLVBius {Thesaurus. of the pylon spring those vertical masts from whose summits many coloured streamers flutter in the sun. p. . moreover. towers is accentuated by a cylindrical moulding. Fig. ' The word tt-dAiui' strictly means the pl. We learn the part played by these masts and banners in Egyptian decoration ''' entirely from the representations is in the bas-reliefs. The fai^ade of the temple of That relief was reproduced in the Description dc I'Egypte (vol. or would have had to follow the inclination of the wall to which they were attached.Strabo (xvii. term was employed to signify a Mots dans s. Modern usage has restricted the word propylaum to Greek buildings. Regnier. were some distance from the face of the pylon at its upper part. i. vol. 9). these masts. vol. pi. in They seem to have been in who succeeded by their more original than they rendering their buildings still would have been without them. 64.In consequence of the inclination of the walls. 29S.The Temple under the New common means consent been Empire. in Cailli. v. 341 named />j/o//s. being themselves perpendicular. Voyage a Mi-roe. it We may therefore understand in his description of 28) preferred to use the why Diodorus (i. Several passages that in the military language of his time the fortified flanking towers and other defences. which it and paintings. . ii. word irp6TTv\iav. pi.aud.\bou. plates.^ The pylon is composed of three parts intimately allied one with another a tall rectangular doorway is flanked on either hand by a Both portal and pyramidal mass rising high above its crown. or rather uivo%. which adds to the This moulding bounds all the flat firmness of its outlines.. See in the text. Brackets of wood were therefore contrived. through which the masts passed and by which their upright position was preserved without some such support they would either have been liable to be blown down in a high wind.ice before the door (hke dvpwv).

it may be called an external pylon. At Karnak. behind the narrow court which seems to cut the great mass of buildings into two almost equal parts. the doors in their centres would have been kept in rear of the flanking towers. No attempt has been made to reconstruct by conjecture any of those edifices which are at present nothing but confused heaps of debris. 1 pylons which. courtyard of the ' from in another front of . when connected with curtain walls.342 A they History of Art in Ancient Egypt. But instead of that being the case they are slightly salient. as in more modern fortifications. in approaching the great temple from the temple of Mouth. the visitor passes under four pylons. there are those again. progressively diminishing in size. is connected with the inclosing wall. the most southern. which. only one of which. So. The interiors of the pylons hollow inclosed small . Mariette counts six pylons. to make use of the word proposed by M. " were partly chambers to which access was obtained by narrow staircases winding round a central square newel. too. A glance at our "general view of the buildings of Karnak will give a good idea of the various uses to which the Egyptian archiThere is the pro-pylon there are those tect put the pylon. (iv.) is The temple . At Lu. there are three more at very slight intervals. Ampere. on the west. The pylon which we have taken as a type of such erections.Kor there are three. another has to be passed before the hypostyle hall is reached. for instance. or a pro-pylon. Thus M. is one of those which inclose a doorway opening in the centre of one of the sides of the brick inclosure. because when the latter were in place. The object of these chambers seems to have been merely to facilitate the manoeuvring of the masts and their floating banners. separate one unsightly arrangement. . . If the pylons had been intended for defensive purposes. the placed immediately hypostyle halls. the small openings which gave light to the chambers were entirely obscured. form the fa9ades is always conmerely a This plate not a picturesque restoration it is map in relief. which lie in the way of the visitor entering Karnak by the west and passing to the east. After passing the pylon in the outer wall. Then. which proves conclusively that their object was purely decorative. and a third immediately afterwards. temples properly speaking. Only those buildings are marked upon it which have left easily traceable remains. but in all temples of any importance several pylons have to be passed before the sanctuary is reached.

[The Cleopatra's Needle on the Victoria Embankment Ed. or about equal times. proportions than this 76 feet high. Empire. or outer. is less gigantic in its it is. 100 feet. Each of the successive pylons which met the visitor during the last centuries of Egyptian civilization had been at one time the front of the whole edifice. To complete our description of the external i:)arts of the temple of the temple. however. The first pylon wide at the widest part and 50 feet thick. This produced an effect upon the visitor at the earliest moment. which was built by Rameses II. and that of Queen Hatasu. the colossi vary from four to six for each pylon. erected a few feet in front of the pylons..aterano. or 76 feet. each of 100 feet wide. in contact with the pylons themselves. Its two chief masses are 146 feet high. 343 whose summit rises above it while its two wings stretch beyond it laterally until they meet the rectangular wall which incloses the sanctuary. that of San Giovanni I. This pylon is 376 feet to the \'endome column in Paris. before the St. 83 feet 9 inches . 207). were jDlaced those colossal statues by which every Egyptian monarch rated his connection with commemo- the structures which his time. 32-20 metres. .^ Obelisks and colossal statues seem to have been peculiarly necessary outside the first. 22-80 metres. at Luxor. that in the piazza Rome. In those temples which were really complete.— The Temple under the New cealed behind a pylon. ' The obelisk of Ousourtesen at Heliopolis high. Luxor obeHsk Peter's in is at Paris. according to the magnificence The obelisks range in height from about 60 to and the statues from 20 to 45 feet. The dimensions of pylons vary with those of the temples to which they belong. or 67 feet 6 inches. the tallest in Europe. The largest still existing is the outer pylon It was constructed in Ptolemaic of the great temple of Karnak. This is the highest obelisk known. still standing Karnak. and the portal in the its two great masses is middle is 56 feet high (see Fig. obelisks were . is 20"2 7 metres. or 107 feet 4 inches. a repetition which is explained by the fact that such temples as those of Karnak and Luxor were not the result of a single effort of construction.] only 68 feet 2 inches high. The obelisks are generallv two in were reared in number. before he had entered the sacred inclosure itself But they are also to be found before the inner pylons. and immediately behind the obelisks. pylon of a temple. amid the is ruins at 107 feet 2 inches .

all its parts any monarch who desired that his name too should be connected with it in the eyes of posterity. and we must attempt to describe and define that edifice. colossal statues and obelisks. had no resource but to add some new building to it. the less complex structures we soon find that many of these numerous chambers. under the circumstances supposed. in spite of their curious differences. so that other purposes intending worshippers could discharge . When we cast our eyes for the first time either upon the confused but imposing ruins of Karnak themselves. could be nothing but a mere replica of some part already They took some element of the general plan. however. Their position wuthin the inclosing walls suggests that they for were used beyond such ablutions as those which are prescribed for all good Mohammedans. The temple of Ptah — the site of which seems to be determined by the colossal . or upon one of the plans which represent them. from such a tangled mass of halls and porticos. bearing the images or emblems of the gods. suggests that they had to play a part in those religious mysteries which could not be performed within sight of the profane. columns. and at Memphis Greek travellers. which. we have yet to mention tliose small lakes or basins which have been found within the precincts of all the g-reater temples. it seems a hopeless task to evolve order from such a chaos of pylons.^ ' We At Thebes.344 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. by studying some of and narrow chambers. corridors If we begin. distinguishing from each other its essential and accessory parts. such in existence. that part of their duty before crossing the sacred threshold but their situation behind the impenetrable veil of such walls as those we have described. it may easily be understood how a miniature voyage by water came to have a place in the worship of deities their character. were set afloat upon these lakes. If nothing but washing was in view they might have been outside the inclosure. who were more or less solar in have now arrived upon the threshold of the temple itself. were repetitions of one another so far as their significance in the Wlien a temple was complete in general plan is concerned. as we know from the statements of the be the case. Upon certain festivals richly decorated boats. As the diurnal and nocturnal journeys of the sun were looked upon as voyages by navigation across the spaces of heaven and through the shadows of the regions below. still existing inscriptions prove this to the same custom obtained.

.^'S^ I M^ p-in-' J- voi. I. \ V .

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Sesostris (a Rameses) erected several colossal monoliths. xvii. he attempted Rameses which still lies there upon its face must have rivalled Karnak According to Diodorus and in the number of its successive additions. Herodotus attributes to two other kings. and could follow their arrangement with an easy certainty which is impossible in our day. surpassed all their rivals in magnificence. giving rise to Karnak. but we shall endeavour to give our descriptions in better sequence than his. from 20 to 30 cubits high. and to fill up some of the gaps in his account by the study of those remains which are in the best state In our descriptions we shall advance from of preservation. soon lose the thread of our argument if we were to begin by attacking temples which are at once so complicated and so mutiThe character of each of lated as those of Karnak and Luxor. 28. At a much later period. ii. Strabo. take Strabo for partly hidden by modern ruins. whom he names R/iampsinite and Asychis. 347 as the hypostyle hall at again. constructed courts and pylons. which. Strabo. statue of in extent . arrangement and decoration. when so many of them present nothing but a confused mass of ruins. It says nothing of some accessory parts which were by no means without their importance. built the southern propylons and the pavilion where the Apis was nursed after his first discovery. Maris (Amenemhat III. attempted the work of discrimination which it is now our duty to the clear undertake. and to give them some idea of the Egyptian temple. Herodotus. then. 153. which would seem to be that in which the visitor from without would meet them in his course from the main door to the sanctuary.The Tilmple under the New Empire.) who built the southern propylons of this (i. One of the most intelligent of the ancient travellers.^ His description is. such as the temple at Luxor. — .) I. and added to it over and over interesting changes in the proportion. our guide. Finally Psemethek I. 140) at the same time he must have raised obelisks and cap. the construction of two more pylons on the eastern and western sides of the temple (ii. such as he found it in that Heliopolis whose buildings made such an impression upon all the Greeks who saw them. and those details which most strongly attracted the author's attention are not mentioned in their natural order. . But Strabo had one great advantage over a modern writer. are We shall. perhaps. according to the same authority. He saw all these great buildings in their entirety. rather superficial. and some indeed. We should simple buildings to those which are more complex. He wrote for people accustomed to and simple arrangements of the Greek temple. namely. in front of the same tem]3le (Diodorus. Ivii. i. ii. Herodotus. 50) it was temple. 121 and 136).

or prop\lon. xvii. Strabo says that the space proiaos. We have searched in vain for such a form among the plans of those pharaonic 1 This is the temple which the members of the Egyptian institute call the Great In the background of our illustration (Fig.aa Trrcprr Ictti oe rai'Ta TrXeoi'.-^ Time has not treated very badly.tui' jXiKpov ei5 to TrAaros •njs Kpyj—iSoi TOV vew. . KaT (ipp^as fxh' dc^eoTcTjTa utt" aAX)/A. fulfils that which it most completely these conditions. Of to the all the ruins at Thebes the Temple of Khons. between these walls diminishes as they approach the sanctuary. is They that lead up to a pylon of much more modest dimensions than of Ptolemy. StrAEO. or perhaps their small size may have led to their removal. hall and the southern pylons of the Great Temple are seen. and without those successive additions which do so much to complicate a plan. it may not have been thought worthy of such ornaments. simple in arrangements. ^ Tov Se Kpova. Immediately behind pylon lay a rectangular court sur- rounded by a portico of two rows of columns standing in front of In this wall and in the columns in front of it we a solid wall. although the painted decoration of several successive princes.— A History of Art 348 in Anxiext Egypt. As the whole temple ho trace of either obelisks or colossal is no more than about 233 feet long and 67 feet wide. which stands is south-west of the great temple at Karnak. which stands some forty metres in front of the whole building and was erected by Ptolemy Euergetes. 28. simplicity of the plan that may be the work we are inclined to believe from the most of the architectural part of the work was begun and completed by Rameses III. His court must therefore have been a trapezium with side opposite to its smallest the pylon. n'hieh are prolongedin front of the There is but one difficulty. rather than a rectangle. I. recognise the tuings of which Strabo speaks the two walls of the same height as those of the temple. the elements of an Egyptian temple of this period will be readily perceived well if we begin our researches with one which its is at once preserved.uv Trap' iKaTtpoi' irpoKurai Tii Xey(>/j. edifices in In any case. Ittut TTii'Tr/KOVTa 1/ to Trpofrfi'ev irpoiovTi kot eTrivtuoutras ypafi/jLas I'-tXP'- T^X"'^ Ifi^KOi'Ta. front of Strabo appears to have seen religious which there were neither obelisks nor the this statues of royal founders. In front of this pylon there figures. The really ancient part of the structure begins with the rows of sphinxes which border the road behind the propylon. may be omitted from our examination. and. 208) the hypostyle Southern Temple. r. Icrovtf/T] TU) e'cTTt raio Tii)0 Si'o. The advanced pylon..

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sacred inclosure to priests ' resting places or The crowd of and others who had been 1^ initiated but i. It must. We can easily understand how Strabo saw in it the equivalent to the />ro7iaos of the Greek temples. were of Description de Egypte. apparently. with a double and sometimes a triple row of columns. 5. hall . " Description de i'Egypfe. have been in a Ptolemaic temple that Strabo noticed these converging sides. Ed/on. vol. roof of this hall is The the supported by eight columns. name in those texts which treat of it is . those of DcudcraJi. vol. Antiquiti's. but in every case those courts In the great temple of Philae alone do we find the absence of parallelism of which Strabo speaks. construction the large Hall of Assembly and the Hall of the terms which explain Only the kings and Appearance themselves.- room that name of hypostyle hall has been given. iii. From the courtyard of which we have been speaking. 351 In every instance the sides temples which have been measured. the Egyptian hypostyle Its is had much the same appearance as its the Greek pronaos. a high portal opens into a hall of presence of this example of the trapezium form quite possible that in the temples of little depth but of a width equal to that of the whole temple. which have perished. We know how in the great peripteral buildings of Greece and Italy.^ the peristylar court which follows the second further pylon is rather narrower at its extremity than immediately behind the pylon. To return to the Temple of Khons. 55. are rectangular. among the remains of so many buildings. In we may allow that it is Lower and Middle Egypt. but also called the priests were allowed to penetrate into the sanctuary for the purpose of bringing forth the emblem the tabernacle or other receptacle in or statue of the which which it god from was kept. the central It is to this four beinof rather hio-her than the others.The Temple under the New Empire. of the peristylar court form a rectangular parallelogram. pi. have all a court as preface to the sanctuary. . This emblem the or figure was placed either in a sacred boat or in one of those portable wooden tabernacles various in it was carried round altars. the form in question was more frequently employed than in those of Upper Egypt. that it pronaos prefaced the entrance to the cclla Except is entirely inclosed by its walls. Esiic/i. \\\e. The Ptolemaic temples which we know. we find it but once. where. and even then he was mistaken in sup- posing such an arrangement to be customary.

209). in rank awaited the appearance of the deity in the hypostyle which the cortege was marshalled before emerging into division of the temple. The second tuary. which filled the spaces between the In this hall fragments of a corridor and the external walls. for Strabo. or is A?. was the sancwas a rectangular chamber.A inferior hall. — The ban.inline. closed by a folding . granite pedestal have been discovered. History of Art in An'ciext Eovrx. In this Temple of Khons it =-^^^"^1 Fig. tabernacle. or shrine.-? so often figured upon the bas-reliefs some other in receptacle containing the peculiar emblem of the local divinity. 209. must have was no doubt correct of the Greek temple but nevertheless it saying that the it a-qKos differed Strabo been placed. or a'r)Kos. separated by a wide corridor running round its four sides from two smaller chambers. from the kind of less little must have had something to distinguish it This something was a sacred parts of the building. which (Fig. from the cclla in that contained no statue of the divinity. chapel. or sacred boat . from the temple of Eleph. upon which either the or sacred boat. the courts.

(Upon the ground floor and the stair- No. Makri/i tells us case.. admiration a monolithic tabernacle which existed in his time among the ruins of Memphis. there was. that 3 it was broken up ii. 29. The tabernacle in the Turin Museum (Fig 210) is of this kind it is still in place in the Ptolemaic temple of Edfou I. belongs to the Louvre and bears the red granite and (Fig. 211).'It is name entirely covered with inscriptions Amasis it is of and sculpture must resemble. a well preserved tabernacle in the {Aniiquitts de la Niibie.^ . Sometimes tliis slirine was no more than an inclosed niche in the wall.) Rougk.) Moniiiih'iiti Divers. in 1S17. 572. Notice dcs Moniiiiiciits. A monolithic chapel behind. 353 divinity. in 1349. Figs. which so greatly excited the admiration prepared in the of Herodotus. at Sais. the tabernacle Elephantine workshops. 573. One of of the finest . it has generally disappeared and left no trace one of the few objects of the kind which have escaped complete destruction. After noticing the capture of at Memphis he the tells us that he stopped Heliopolis in order that he might sacrifice to the gods fashion '' : in the royal He mounted in steps which led to the ' According to Gau. pji. The king and the chief priest alone had the right to open them before the image or symbol which seems clearly proved by the following passage from the famous stele discovered by Mariette at GcbclBarkal. . ^ Nubia. etc. v. upon which the Ethiopian conqueror Piankhi-Mer-Amen celebrates his victories and the occupation of Egypt from south to and to pay their devotions they inclosed. vol. on a smaller scale. A7it. but it seems to us to lack precision. The Greeks used the word Abd-el-Latif describes with great vao's or I'Ews to signify the temple as a whole. In temples of any importance the shrine was hollowed out of a block of granite or basalt.) Herodotus. The term imos has generally been applied to these monuments. pi. This north. I. A De and B. like the ark of the Hebrews. and was called by the Egyptians the Green Chamber. and containing either an emblem or a statue of the before which prayers were recited and rehgioiis ceremonies per- formed on certain stated days. v.^ The doors of the shrine were kept shut and even sealed up. 175.xamples are to be found the important European museums.The Temple under the New door. 182 1. VOL. sanctuary of the temple at Dtbout. under Amasis. sometimes it was a little In those cases in edifice set up in the middle of the sanctuary. Emph^ie. bears the royal oval of Nectanebo in all E. which it was a structure of painted and gilded wood. Z 7. {Description de I'Egypte. for the temple of Neith.

19th dynasty. From the description of Strabo we should guess that the Egyptian temple ended with the sanctuary. 385. at the rear. Ijeen tr." . upon the boat Mad. and swung open the folding doors he looked upon the face of his father Ra in Ha-benben. into a second hypostyle hall which is smaller than the first and has its roof supported ' Translated by Maspero. case however. Like most of the Greek temples. — Portable taLernacle of painted wood. Histoire Andeniu\ into p. C. and the then he closed the doors. Thus same the Temple of Khons. the Egyptian further chambers which owiadcF^o/^oi temple had its served nearly the in purposes as the of the Greeks. great sanctuary in order that he might see the god who resides Standing alone. T. the sanctuary opens. and published of .54 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. — Ed. In the Turin Museum. . of Ra.' . he set sealing boat Seket. he drew the bolt. The wliole inscription lias in vol. Cook. Such was not the Fig. English by the Rev. face to face. 210.-inslated Ri-cjrds of tlie Past. in Ha-benben. of Shou clay upon them and impressed it with the royal signet. ii.

135). question is In the last named the complicated by the existence of numerous blind rffmm -• ' i lillL I . as the arrangement in question was a favojrite one with Egyptian constructors. passages contrived in thickness of the walls. — Granite tabernacle the : in the Louvre.- Fig.The Temtle under the New Empire. . were both 1 As M. Herodotus's story was founded upon fact. Similar general arrangements to those of the Temple of Khons are to be found in even the largest temples. . Their absolute darkness and the coolness which accompanied it. they are comparatively well preserved. M. It is not easy to determine the object of each of these small apartments . p. the architect of Rhamjjsinit contrived in the wall of the royal treasure-house which he at least was commissioned to build. The stone which stopped the opening into these passages seems to have been manipulated by some secret mechanism. these secret passages remind usof ihe movable stone which. 121). The second hypostyle hall is however much larger and the chambers to which it gives access much more numerous. 211. but in some of the Ptolemaic buildings. Upon this hall open four small and separate chambers which fill up the whole space between it and the main walls. in the Pharaonic temples they are usually in very bad condition. such as the temples of Edfou and Denderah.^ Some of the sacred images and such emblems as were made of precious materials were kept in these hiding places. according to Hkrodotus (ii. od:> by only four columns instead of eight. i&IT.ASPERO has remarked {A?iintaiie de T Association dis Etudes Grccqiics.

is. as in every other building of the same kind and Thebes. they communicate with long and wide galleries. these apartments might be multiplied to any extent and might At Karnak. to however. of the Greek traveller. the preservation of delicately ornamented objects of the temple. such reserved as certain strictly circumscribed the friezes and pediments of the temples. inclosed the material objects of worship. The last feature noticed by Strabo in the small temple taken by him as a type. In the temple at of Khons. no space inclosed by a solid by its purpose. 'ArayAi'^as 5' i)^o\•cnv 01 TOijj^ot ovtoi /xtyaAoji' cidwAcui' . XVll. It such a climate as that of Egypt. I.356 conducive in It A to History of Art in Ancient Egypt. but we can divine from the perceiveil to the principles which be different he makes use. ^ is which. were consecrated to particular divinities and seem have had somewhat of the same character as the apsidal chapels of a Roman Catholic Church. was the sculpture with which its walls were These works reminded him of Etruscan sculplavishly covered. still the same edifice to notice. then. while in itself Egypt it spreads indiscriminately over every surface. ol Mariette has shown the their interesting nature these representations the historian. where present great varieties of aspect. Some its chambers. of which places for sculpture. therefore. they are very numerous. in represented the act of worshipping kings on the Egyptian throne. was of this part that the Greeks called the treasure-house. as a whole had been dedicated. 28). known as the Hall of Ancestors. that he governed the Egyptian sculptor The Greek architect from those of the Greeks. answers to (StRABO. always keeping two original points in the characteristic physiognomy of the Egyptian temple which seem to have escaped the attention We have in view. chosen from his predecessors among ture and of Greek productions expressions ' of the archaic period. in In it Thothmes sixty III. They built are material witnesses to the piety of the princes who and who wished to associate the divinities in they were raised with the worship of the god to whom the temple Whether store-rooms or chapels. value to we find this uninterrupted decoration. them whose honour It is fact. In the Greek temple there wall but that of the cclla. One of them was that small chamber which was dismantled thirty years ago by Prisse d'Avennes and transported to Paris.

hypost)le hall especially in those is of the Ptolemaic period. the reliefs visible Both the peristyle and all comers . But in larger buildings the box is. From the outside nothing is to be seen but a great retangular mass of building. This outer wall is absent only on the side closed by the inner pylon. The partitions which separate its various halls and chambers are kept within the main wall. This arrangement is repeated in the position of the two walls.x (Fig. but those parts were less sacred character than the inner . In the The appearance of The peristylar court. and the eye rejoices freely both of sculpture master- pieces and in the long files of columns. the withdrawn some distance behind the courtyard. which vary in effect as they are looked at from different points of view. the box is a simple rectangular one. open to the sky. the inclined faces of which seem to be endeavouring to meet at the top so as to give the greatest possible amount of privacy and security to the proceedings which take place within. partially at least. of the friezes in are all from outside. and its adjuncts. When we examine a plan of the great temple at Karnak. the other describes three sides of a rectangle at leaving a wider space at the back of the temple than pylon.The Temple under the New the arinos Empire. be compared to a bo. hypostyle hall. 357 of the Egyptian buildings. the Egyptian temple is altogether dissimilar. the sanctuary some temples. in a word. we see that all the back part of the vast the pile. lies between the outer wall and that which immediately surrounds the various chambers. this wall must be passed. Before any idea of the richness and architectural magnificence of the temple itself can be formed. The Egyptian temple may. is surrounded by a curtain wall which is at least as high as the buildings which it incloses. This outer at has no opening of any kind. The as we have said. A sort of wide corridor. and the sanctuary behind the hypostyle hall. wall the sides. The inner one embraces the chambers of the temple and follows their irregularities . is inclosed by a double wall. a double one. supplies the It fourth is side. the pronaos are open to the air and to the view of the statues of the pediments. 61). and in such buildings as that dedicated to Khons. all that lies to the west of the open passage and fourth pylon. in a word the whole combination of chambers and courts which form the temple proper. true that in Karnak lateral openings exist in the hypostyle hall and in their the courtyard.

j 358 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. that is from the posterior wall of the hall. which dependencies like closed the sanctuary and its a was no doubt intended to avert the possicuirass. 1 he evident desire of the architect to hide his porticos and saloons be- hind an inpenetrable curtain of limestone or sand- stone suffices to prove that shadow rather than sunshine was wanted in the inner parts of the temple. ( « til' I 4> _ ' I ## » » » # 9» <» bility I of clandestine visits «a 4i (k ##* & 41 # «t » <«' o3 to the holy place. When the slabs roofs which formed the of the temple of Khons were all in place — they are now the ground it must have been very dark mostly on indeed. 212. lUUU hypostyle there are no more external openings of any kind. and by an ample doorway with the open courtyard. hall — The hypostyle comiTiunicated directly Fig. — General plan uf the Great Temple at K. To reach the presence of the deity the doors fifth of the fourth ilSjpn and pylons had to be passed. without opening of any kind. The high and in- thick wall.trnak. chambers to which they gave access. which was bathed in the . From the point where the wall becomes double.

vertical section than in one taken horizontally. and best lighted chambers are those nearest to the entrance. and shall discuss the various . As we leave the last pylon behind and penetrate deeply into the temple.The Temple under the New Emhre. which is the same temples. with the it four supporting columns and the chambers which surrounded were the first named was worse provided than the sanctuary feebly illuminated by small openings in the stone roof the latter were in almost complete darkness. however. and it is certain that the sanctuary was permanently closed in some fashion against the unbidden visits of the curious. When the door was open. they also noticed traces of bronze pivots upon which the doors swung (p. which they believed to be intended to receive the leaves of the great door when it was open (p. number of There are even some temples which become gradually narrower and lower from front to back this is especially the case with those which have a double wall round their more sacred parts. until the building comes to is an end in a small apartments in which the darkness unbroken. the light gradually becomes less and the chambers largest- The diminish in size. Anfi/juites. have enjoyed a little light was that have been closed. vol. although would be softened darker. 359 besides which there were openings just tlie under the cornice and above it capitals of the columns. . 219. sufficient if we indicate their general character. they seem to methods made use ot to ensure sufficient light for the enjoyment of the sumptuous will be it decorations lavished upon them here. The . After the Description de TEgypte. 248). constant sunlight of Egypt . and they actually found a pivot of sycamore wood. there would be no want of light. therefore. but. The authors of tlie Descrip- tion ghiirale de Thebes noticed recesses sunk in the external face of one of the pylons at Karnak. p. Marks of hinges have been found in the Egyptian temples. A few feeble rays may have found their way to this chamber when the doors of the temple were open. The hall sanctuary borrowed still from hypostyle hall. in all the religious edifices in the country. 234). The pylon is much higher than any ' other point in the building. to a light much The the was which came through the door was certain extent. This progressive diminution is even more clearly marked in a . i. The only one which could which lay on the central axis of the building.^ We shall return elsewhere to the illumination of the Egyptian as a rule.

At Karnak a considerable flight is interposed between the courtyard and the vestibule of the hypostyle hall.360 pylon. As the roofs of the temple chambers are gradually lowered. Between the large hypostyle hall and the smaller one there is a difference in height amounting to a quarter of the whole height of the former. court is higher than that of the first. The interiors of the temples were only to be visited by the priests. The longitudinal section temple of Luxor (Fig. and the roof of the last small apartment which rests upon the inclosing wall. In the most important temples. Next come in height from front to rear holds good. Luxor. in A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. but not to four steps lead up from the court to the and one step from the hall to the sanctuary. Similar arrangements are found elsewhere. but. their carefully paved floors are raised. an equal degree. with the exception that in their cases it is the hypostyle hall which is the highest point in the their building after the pylons. such as those of Karnak. In this it hall architects have the raised the loftiest columns. \vhich surrounds the temple of Khons. no such similarity between one building and another be found as in the great temples of Greece. the roof of the chamber with four columns. except on a few stated days and in a fashion prescribed by the Egyptian ritual but the general public were allowed to mount to the roofs. The numerous ^77?^7/. some in the hieroglyphic. In the Ramesseum there are and second hypostyle hall. this fact. even to Thebes. by which their flat roofs may be reached. In passing from .) illustrate this statement. These roofs seem to have been freely opened to the people. 213) and the general view of Karnak (plate iv. comes the portico in columns of the hypostyle hall. attest three flights of steps between the first All these buildings are provided with staircases . the same laiu of constant diviiniition their order the the courtyard. and is after these that the proof gressive diminution begins. others in the demotic character. We united at is thus find the characteristic features of Egyptian architecture in a single building in this temple of Khons . just as with us they are allowed to ascend domes and belfries for the sake of the view over the surrounding buildings and country. At Luxor the level of the second In the temple Khons hypostyle hall. the roof of the sanctuary. which are still to be seen upon the roof of the temple of Khons. and the Ramesseum.

The Temple under the New the Partheno n to the temple of Empire. 361 The seus I ^ .G B LES .

. .ft- t. ^\^.

pro- portion and decoration are seen. We shall endeavour to demonstrate this by glancing rapidly at each of the more celebrated ings in Theban build- turn. as we have already done iv?r the case of the temple of Khons. After the well attentive study of some simple and like marked building. Luxor. 361 that of Jupiter Olympius. differences are never sufficient But the to embarrass the student of those buildings. they are of little help in unravelling the mazes of or Luxor. to all such buildings . the Ramesseum. but they are not so great as they seem at the first glance. we be content with noticing their VOL. . the visitor proto !t->tT ceeds inspect the ruins of Karnak. the temple of Khons. fact. from a Doric to an Ionic.amongr But in vain are the rules remembered which were thought to apply their ruins. certain changes of style.xities begin anew. The variations are. and from an Ionic to a Corinthian building. Our purpose does not require that them in in we should describe any of detail.The Temple under the New the Parthenon to the temple of Theseus or to Empire. and at each Karnak new in ruin explored the visitor's perple. certain well marked variations. Medinet-Abou or Gournah. In Egypt the variations are much greater even amontj buildincrs erected during a single dynasty and by a single architect. very great. They are generally to be explained by those developments and repetitions of which Egyptian architects were so fond. and attempts to restore something like order in his mind while walking. and shall I. of The object part remains sufficiently well and immutable to be easily recognised by one who has mastered a single each defined example.

The outside curtain wall of brick is from 2. liad to overpass the limits of our page. that Great Temple. 46. on the plan) we find our- selves in a peristylar court answering to that in the temple of Khons. 74-76) occupies entire pages. 215 on page 367). the Two of the most important are consecrated to those deities who. We reproduce.700 yards in length. on a much larger scale and in two parts (Fig.560 yards. Voyage dans ii. There is Khons to the south. The total circumference of the bounding wall is about 3. which corresponds closely to the 13 stadia said by Diodorus to be the circumference pylon. the most colossal assemblage of ruins which the world has to show. This. the plan given on page 35S (Fig. greatest width that of the first namely 376 feet.165 feet.Egypie. north to south it The Karnak Temple first is is thing that strikes us in looking at a general that Egyptian temples were not oriented. 7. form The highest and largest of them all. i. A few figures will suffice to give an idea of the Theban is triad. comprises no less than eleven separate temples within brick. From Its the external doorway of the is first w^estern pylon to the eastern extremity of the building. 214 on on page 363. with Amen. - p. the length. upon the type established by our study of the minor monument.212). that of some doubt as to the name which should be driven to several of these buildintrs.362 variations A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. its transverse axis is 620 yards long. . We are here concerned with the latter building only. pi. which called the several dimensions. is dedicated to Amen-Ra. la Haute.500 to 2. of the oldest of the four great Theban temples. one of which (C on plan) cuts through the outer wall and ' These measurements are taken from Mariettf. its four inclosing walls of crude is that from measures about 1. Let us take Karnak first. either have it vol. over all. The whole circuit of the walls is nearly two English miles and a half ^ The longest axis of this collection of ruins . that of IMouth to the north. On our right and left respectively we leave two smaller temples. and Pig.^ i After passing the first pylon (No. Our plan fourth plate will give a sufficiently accurate idea of in its ment. is 1. or In order to do so we should we should have had to give (part upon too arrangethree small a scale. We have not given a general map.215 f^et.^ map of The Great turned to the west. Diodorus. 3 The Lepsius's Dviikinakr i.

-rian of the anterior portion of tlie Great Temple at Karnak. n iu:!. BiTiiie. j:'L--J" -.. 214._-i~L I li ii 1 n p. J3 Cl^ '"»//-:• LET © © HSSgBfiSScrr L^ c (O G C =C1 ~i_^ rL-j„.r I ^. J'l r~ /J e<n Q 2J Ju >\_ Fig. From the plan of M. ti nj- .. ..i_..

.

which. The cathedral of Notre Dame. Diodorus ascribed to the temple of which he spoke a height of 45 cubits (or 69 feet 3 inches). or rather to the town of palaces. or rather did once support. If my expressions were to convey but a thousandth part of what I felt. all that I had entluisiastically admired on the left bank of the river.. the most massive pillars ever employed within a building. either ancient or modern. p. I shall not attempt to describe what I saw. the wonder of Karnak. so that. I'^'om the ground to the summit of the cube which supports the architrave. We may here quote the terms in which Champollion describes the impression which a first sight of these ruins made upon him " Finally I went to the palace. which is lower than that of the bulk. they refrained from destroying those their ancestors. at least for an enthusiast. central avenue the remaining 122 columns form a forest of pillars supporting a flat roof. There all the magnificence of the Pharaohs : is collected . Other authorities give 340 feet by 177. was the author of the other (D). monuments to the piety of We also may regard these temples as mere accidents in the general arrangement. had seen at Thebes. ^ One hundred and thirty-four colossal columns support. in the central portion. sunk into insignificance before the gigantic structures among which I found myself. at Karnak. they are equal to the central part by 33 feet. was not less than 76 feet above the floor in this central portion. in the dimmest colours. This is slightly below the true height. I shall content myself with saying that no people. the others form an avenue in these columns are t. have had a national architecture at once so sublime in scale. 79. perhaps for a madman. and the largest room constructed by the Egyptians (E).^ i i feet 10 inches diameter and more than feet in circumference. so grand in expression. if I succeeded in tracing but a faint sketch. 365 was built by Rameses III. The Temple under the New Empire. a thousandth part of all that might with truth be said of such objects. without a doubt. They are. It is 340 feet long by 170 wide. they are Right and left of the 70 feet high. When the princes of the twenty-second dynasty added this peristyle to the already constructed pnrts of the great temple. Seti 1 1. We may follow the path marked out down the centre of the court by the remains of an avenue of columns which dates from the times of the Ethiopian conquerors and of the Bubastide kings (E). and so free from littleness as that of the ancient l-'gyptians.) . in column of Trajan. 135). After the second pylon {2) comes the hypostyle hall. at ' These are the figures given byMARiETTE {Ttiiu'rairc dc la Haute-Egyptc. So. twelve pillars of larger proportions than . of the marvels of Karnak." [Ltffirs 1/' Egy/>h\ pp.. there the greatest artistic conceptions formed and realised by All that I mankind are to be seen. Those two buildings are older than the court and its colonnades. I should be taken. the roof.

it is constructed on the same principle and lighted in the same fashion. Or must we follow Rlariette when he places the sanctuary in the middle of the eastern court (I in plan) ? All traces of it have now almost vanished. Its proportions are very different from those of the correspond- chamber in the little temple of Khons. ^ Including a postern of comparatively small dimensions. it because a passage. or. for those carefully built granite apartments which seem to most visitors to be the real sanctuary. as well as position. at least. would stand upon the surface covered by (see Plate V). as the early observers — thought.— o 66 A History of Art easily in Ancient Egypt. part of the ^ we have here a real pronaos or ante-temple. plan to ? in those granite apartments which are marked locality H on the This was suggested by the extra solicitude as the strength and beauty of those chambers betrayed by the use of a more beautiful and costly material upon them than upon the rest of the temple. this hall Paris. but Mariette based his opinion upon the fact that in the ruins of this court alone are to be found any traces of the old temple dating back to the days of the Amen- emhats and Ousourtesens of the twelfth dynasty. but yet it fills same office in the general conception. in the case of which no doubt was possible. the chamber (H) which bears a is upon the major axis of the temple in strong resemblance shape. intervenes between building which contains the sanctuary. To use the ing the expression of Strabo. to the sanctuary of the temple of Khons. He does not attempt to account. situated Moreover. Ed. It is certain however that between them they constitute the uaos. open to the sky. In which of these chambers are we to find the a^]Kos 1 Was it. and that four The doorways with which this vast hall is provided seem to indicate that it was more accessible than the parts beyond the passage just mentioned. however. They are surrounded by a double wall and there is but one door by which they can be reached precautions which suffice to prove the peculiarly sacred character of this part of the whole rectangle. the sanctuary of the temple as reconstructed and enlarged by the princes of the second Theban Empire. there are five doorways to the hypostyle hall. . We cannot pretend to determine the uses of all those chambers which encumber with their ruins the further parts of the great building. or temple properly speaking.

inner portion .Fig. 215. from the plan of M. Bru . — The Great Temple at Karnak .

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KARNAK .

INTERIOR OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL C .

and It is X B . The in roof of this saloon supported by twenty columns disposed standing free of the walls. irremovable.The Temple under the New Empire. perhaps. I. Temple (J). The ruins of a pylon and of the hypostyle hall. as in the Temple of Khons. — Karnak as it is at present. vol.. The two temples is completed by both of a minor hypostyle hall behind the hall of four columns of the smaller building the the corresponds to the large saloon called in the Great Hall of is Thothines. 57 feet deep. But the final determination of the question would be of no particular moment to our argument. Fig. the sanctuary was surrounded and followed In the Great by a considerable number of small apartments. For our purposes it is sufficient to note that in the Great Temple. similar to those in the TerhpJe of Khons. Temple these chambers are very numerous and some of them are large enough to require central supports for their ceilings in In other respects they are the form of one or m^re columns. 216. 569 In the actual state of the ruins the doubts on this point are. two rows and by square piers 146 feet wide. The resemblance between the existence in sanctuary. and from 53 to Immediately before the granite apartments.

which form. . the architecture to use the words of Champollion. the Temple first There. they capitals.3/0 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. we have only to apply the method of analysis and reduction suggested by examination of simpler monuments. The plan of Luxor is more simple than that of Karnak it was built in two " heats " only. also with two ranges of columns but not so deep as the last. the original type. organs. some order out of find the seeming chaos ruins the essential Karnak if we wish the vital to characteristics. the pylon to the innermost architecture of giants. . of the Egyptian temple. Its position shows it to be meant for a vestibule to the naos properly speaking. as we • have shown. The complete title of the work is as follows Karnak. from the ground up to the base of their more than 50 feet high the capitals and the cubes above them measure about 18 feet more. The same information is given in another form in pages 36 and 37 of the text. penetrate into for a similar If ot Coni't of tJic Caryatides with its chamber entered by the visitors who the temple proper. The same remark may be applied on the too. Plates in folio text in a 4to of 88 pages (1875). rightly examined the gigantic ruins of the great temple of Amen betray those simple lines and arrangements. Etude topographupie ct archeo1 A plan of the successive accretions is given in plates 6 and different periods and their work are : logiqtie. would be. Osiride pillars. " to the other great building of Luxor. 7 of Mariettes' of tint. were they not buried for two-thirds of their height. and. and to take account of the long series of additions which resulted These in the finally stupendous dimensions of the whole mass. left bank of the is. another hall. by its tall and finely proportioned pillars rearing their majestic capitals among the palms and above the traveller can avoid No huts of the modern village. to borrow an expression from the rather . being deeply impressed by the first sight of its lofty colonnades.^ additions may be distinguished from one another by their scale When of proportions and by their methods of construction. river. to evolve . then. between the fifth and sixth pylons. we wish." From the recesses of the sanctuary the building measures about 850 feet. avec un Appendice coinprenant : les principaux Textes hieroglyphiqius. The changes shown by work. among its if we may put it so. . seems to have been designed fine The first the purpose (G). These columns belong to the first hypostyle hall. is introduced.

It is true that the proper character of the iiaos is better marked a at Luxor than elsewhere. always temple. . for it granite has been used doors. exactly upon the major axis of the building. this part of a is So in then. neither has it so in many some chambers. nothing to embarrass thing is us every• • • e conformity with the principles which have been laid down. we were in the larger temple. It is narrower than its grreat neisfhbour. halls. may It be determined consists of a rectanofular chamber larcje standing in the middle of a square hall in . one in each end. III. and yet we are respects more at a loss in attempt- ing to assign their proper uses to its apartments and in finding some than equivalent for them in the elementary type from which we started. The at sanctuary glance. In later periods underwent some insignificant reand that is all. Empire. hall in The which • it is placed is preceded by a those vestibule. and surrounded by small chambers which are found in far. and covers a very much less space of ground. is us the and examine the hypostyle as elsewhere. it is the only chamber which has two the whole building . real difficulty begins for when pro- we look round Here. and it Rameses touches. The naos. there . there sions a hall of modest the dimenIt beyond sanctuary.The Temple under the New athletes. 371 under Amenophis II.

but it differs profoundly from the superb edifice which bears that name at Karnak. again. This gallery is in effect a hypostyle hall.372 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. . from the second to the third pylon. to suppose that a great cential nave was constructed. and that the builders contented themselves by inclosing and preserving their work as far as it had gone. It is long and narrow and looks more like a mere covered corridor than an ample hall in which the eager crowd . and richly decorated. of great size and height. by force of circumstances unknown. of which we have been 1 speaking. which is considerably lower than the highest parts of the building. in front of the naos it has thirty-two of those lofty columns of which we have already spoken. again unlike the Karnak hall. . perhaps. some 76 feet long. was built by Amenophis III. therefore. so far as the interior of the building is concerned. The greatest elevation and the most imposing proportions. the aisles were never begun. is tempted to look which was never finished. while all the rest of the building. like the hypostyle halls which we have already described and others which we have yet to notice. We is can at hardly tell. without any external wall towards the court so that it may be called a portico with four ranges of columns. situation. it is by no means the most imposing feature of the whole edifice. could find elbow-room. it reminds us of the hypostyle hall of Karnak. The place occupied by this hall in the whole composition is equally singular. so is The separated from the naos by an open to be classified as what the Greeks called a propyla-um but yet it is a hall. By its design. are to be found in the great gallery which leads from the first to the second court. that is where to look for the true it pronaos Luxor. and the spacing of its columns. ' In jiresence of this double range of superb columns one as the beginning of a hypostyle liall upon them . from what is at present the second pylon inwards. There is another. great colonnade. court. It has been ascertained that the first pylon and the peristylar courtyard behind it date from the time of Rameses II. inclosed and covered. is supported by twelve columns. In part of the ground plan where generally found there nothing but an open portico. It differs from it in being open.. Moreover. much wider and deeper. The doorway in the second pylon leads immediately into the grand gallery.' that it ought. and that.

5" 3 .I ''j< %M 111 .

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. The built first not parallel with is the two by Amenophis one. and Gournah. the angle at which they stand is a very perceptible Neither the doorway of this pylon in alignment with the other doorways on the major axis of the building.^ It is also called by the Institut d Egyptc. should be carefully noticed. descendants of the upper chambers in the which no rudiment of such a thing is to be found. yet the difference in general appearance is But is not great far . On the other hand. 0/ . a name which has never been satisfactorily explained. The inner portions of the Ramesseum and of Medinet-Abou are so ruinous that the question cannot be settled by the examination of their remains. if it goes to prove the peculiar character of these buildings. one distinction which.The Temple under the New Another peculiarity of Luxor pylon. If Ave cross the Nile and land upon the plain which stretches between the river and the Libyan hills. or even explanation of this irregularity. which is No justification unique among the Theban temples. there however. lineal in ' Diodorus. they are cenotaphs filled with the memories of the great Theban princes. in the great temples of the right bank. we may judge from plans which have been made. been arranged like those of the right bank. is its cliange of axis. is Empire. we have reason to believe that the great Theban divinities were associated in the worship paid to deceased If that were so these funerary temples might well have kings. These are royal chapels erected in connection with the royal tombs in their neighbourhood. as such they would require no depository for those mysterious symbols contained : they were the mastabas. The Ramesseum certainly appears to have been the monument described by Diodorus as the Tomb of Osyiuandias. we find ourselves in the presence of those temples. as In no one of them. i. Consequently we do not find in them those complications which. . that of Rameses. the Ramesseum. mark the successive dynasties to which their final form was due. whose funerary destination we have already noticed. and with representations of their exploits. 47 49. the Palace of Memnon and the Memnonium. has any chamber or structure been found which corresponds temples of Amen or Khons. The absence of such a chamber might easily be explained by our to the sanctuary or (njxos of the supposition that these buildings were funerary chapels of this or that deity which the temples proper . has been discovered. Medinet-Abou.

leads to a second court. i. Although seated. i. the size of the Ramesseum would astonish us anywhere but in Egypt.) among Egyptian [Description gencrale de Thebes. Temple of Khons. counting from front to rear. The scale of our cut is too small. 42. section This pylon stands in the foreground of our view (Fig. At the further end of this court and directly facing the back of the pylon. The face which as \ve may judge from the parts which remain is here shown was formerly covered —with pictures of battles and that we might not have to actually invent scenes of combat for our restoration. In another passage (xvii. each with a figures. feet eight Five ranges of six each. were made. but they often defer travellers. of these eight ranges are still standing and still afford support This latter is painted with golden stars to a part of the ceiling. 46) he seems to place the would. was a colossal statue of Rameses. upon the It is faith of Strabo's identification of Isniandes and Memnon." the remains of which have been discovered in the immediate neighbourhood of the two colossi. if not larger.xvii. in and 103 deep. pierced siderable amount of the courtyard. however. The French snvaii/s suspected this close to the two famous colossi. that opposite to it On are still the side of the entrance and on single ranges of Osiride . must have been as large as Luxor before the additions The first pylon II. When it was comto ChampolHon true title. remains of a double colonnade e. which must at one time have extended along at least two sides of the quadrangle. a first. little less extensive than the Right and there left there are porticos. of the details.^ _^76 A History of Art in An'cient Egypt. Without being so colossal as Karnak. to show any . a conits fragments now cover was more than 56 feet high A grand doorway. Khetas is painted. double range of columns. it of Rameses . therefore. Immediately behind this pylon comes a vast peristylar court. we have borrowed the ornamentation of the first pylon — . this statue plete. On the left the almost square on plan (186 feet by 173). seem rather to have had in view an " Amenophium. 2 to the opinions of their immediate predecessors iii. Three flights of steps lead up from this court into a vestibule ornamented with two colossal busts of Rameses and with a row of columns. was 226 feet wide the whole of its upper part is destroyed. 1 Straeo. through the centre of the wall upon which the defeat of the . 220). It measures 136 Its roof is supported by forty-eight columns.^ that this building owes the restoration of its under \vhich it is now generally known. to Memnonium He be the case. Many of these figures are standing they are 31 feet high. From this vestibule the hypostyle hall is reached wide by three doorways of black granite. .xist.

o 05 O o u 0^ . o z [1.X a.

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Deiikmakr. ' Lepsius. sixty columns. ill a blue ground. hall. supported by columns thicker and higher than the rest. i. — Plan of the Ramesscum (from Lepsiiis.. The in its . The engineers of the Iiistitut They failed to notice that it it was smaller than the second and they accordingly gave p." ^'r l^^y^-m iji^ii^ij -I •- D "v lzz3j^ jo ?o 30 .) arrangement same there is in both a wide passage down the centre.^ This hall resembles that at Karnak. L ^ C .aig. {Description gaierale de Thebes.The Temple under the New uj^on Empire. in its plan is and general The mode of lighting the same the . in imitation of tlie vault of heaven. vol.o so I'lG.^.^^^.) VOL. 132. d'Egypte into an error in speaking of this court. side walls have entirely disappeared. is the . part fell i. plates 88 and 89.in I it^^ fe.. both appearance.. from which they are also distinguished by the nobility of At Karnak the hall was begun by their bell-shaped capitals. n :::::::: v.

for its completion. rival more charmed although we are when complete. and we can easily understand that he was thereby its happy arrangement and majestic proportions in the great temple which he was erecting in his own honour on the left bank of the river. but at the Rames- seum we see that. pp. Beyond them again there is a fourth and smaller chamber which has only four columns. did no Rameses the work and Seti . In the Ramesseum an attempt was made to compensate for inferior size by extra care in the details The tall columns and by the beauty of the workmanship.'^ The Ramesseum was preservation building. Ambitious though he was. situated upon the major axis of the building. after all. On the other hand. more than carry on of his predecessors. He heard the chorus of admiration with which the completion of such a superb building must have been hailed. Round these rooms a number of smaller ones are gathered they are all in a very fragmentary state. it must have had a less surprised. almost with stupefaction. their proportions. some of which are yet to be found in good about 50 metres from the north face of the They consist of a double range of vaults closely at See Ebers. Ibid. the others were only twenty-five feet but they surpassed the pillars at Karnak by the elegance of incited to reproduce . two of them very long ones.378 A I. The great hall at Karnak required three reigns.^ Beyond the hall there are wide chambers. could not attempt to give the colossal dimensions of the great temple of Amen to what was.. the bas-reliefs in one . his description of the of Osymandias. vol. ii. p. '^ . 309 et seq. that the library was placed in this part of the building. Rameses II. 1 formerly surrounded by brick structures of a peculiar character. ALgypten. Rameses II. The admiration excited are in us by the ruins of Karnak is mingled with astonishment. and each with its roof supported by eight columns. of the larQfer rooms in seem to confirm the Toiiib assertion of Diodorus. and among them no vestige of anything like a secos has been found. no more than the chapel of his own tomb. We its larger share than of that beauty into which merely colossal dimensions do not enter. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of the central nave were no more than thirty-six feet high. 312. including base and capital.

Ch.mm -mt^t Fig. . 220. — I he Ramesstum. Bird's-eye view of the general arrangement. restored by Chipiez. M.

.

The first of the three which we encounter in approaching the group from the river is known as the Royal Pavilion or Pavilion of Rameses III.. and surmounted by a platform. Additional probability is given to this conjecture M ^ both by certain discoveries which have been made in tombs near the Ramesseum and by the evidence of several papyri. a or sort of university. Ninety yards farther to the north we come upon the great temple. and to avoid r. ii. They both lie upon the same axis. The group is composed of three distinct buildings in one enclosure. time of Rameses III. was not until the second half of the present century had commenced that they were cleared from the debris and modern huts which concealed many of their parts. 11 i\ About the a thousand yards south-west of Ramesseum rises the group of buildings which is known by the name of the It modern village of Medinet-Abou. yEgypti'u. the in included was situated within the outer bounding wall of the temple. It is a second Rauicsscuni. — General plan of the and the Roman Emperors (A on biiildinirs at Medinet-Abou. by the side of his tiirbch and inosquc.. as well as In that case Rameses would deserve chambers for the priests. ' Ebers. the founder of the twentieth dynasty.The Temple under the New abutting- Empire. may have contained rooms for lodging and instructing students. 3 1 2. vol. they are connected by a sphinx avenue. structures. The oldest is a temple built by Thothmes II. the credit of having founded. like the )iit-d}'css(-\ Mussulman sovereigns.^ But for these texts we should be inclined to believe that these remains are the ruins of storehouses. and Thothmes III. and they must certainly be considered as two parts of one whole. the funerary character of which we have already explained (C). and afterwards enlarged by the Ptolemies 221. numbering.from ten to twelve in each If it be true that a library range. (B). which are these curious building. The other two date from the plan). p. . 38 f on each other.

Brune.) — with caryatides of Osiris. ii. 4) does not go beyond the back wall of the second — the hypostyle it hall. deserves to be carefully considered even in our generally known We shall return to the summary ing review. where a double colonnade. 222.) Ours is much more comprehensive was communicated to us by M. it That of Lepsius goes to the back of pi. counting vol. Royal Pavilion presently. part. whose picturesque ruins attract every visitor to Thebes. Medinet-Abou is 210 feet The two courts which follow isolate the i t and feet second pylon are severally 3 feet by 140. as the Great Temple of Medinet-Abou. The first pylon wide. 92. its really It ancient portion is of too little importance to detain us long. as for the Temple of Thothmes. at Their dimensions nearly the same. leads to the pronaos. by a block containing six small chambers (Fig. 314. Osiride piers These in repeated the second court. however. row of are pillars faced =OG= Fio. The latter seems too small for the in twenty-four supporting columns. consists merely of an isolated sccos surrounded on three sides by an open gallery upheld by square piers and. {Deiikmceler. pi. i. upon the fourth.x each. The plan of Me- dinet-Abou does not differ (223) in any very important points from that of the Ramesseum. and 126 by 136. 222). p. The plan in the Description de F Agypte [Antiguilh. consists of a of a visitor entering the temple. It has only four rows of si. The great temple. who measured the building . Plan of the Temple of Thothme (Champollion. five steps above the pavement.382 confusion A it is History of Art in Ancient Egyi't.^ It bears a strik- resemblance to the Ramesare seum. court. . which was consecrated to Amen. the first quadrangle of these the right has colonnades. those which are at right angles to the face of the pylon. goes three stages farther back in 1866. Upon two of its sides only. and. that One on colonnades. 1 two peristyles. Notices descripiives.

^ This hypostyle hall therefore. — Plan of the great Temple at Medinet-Abou. Perrot is in error. These columns smaller in are section than those of the peristyles.) . of the two periexcept that their bases are flattened laterally in a somewhat unFig. as may be seen by reference plan. some of the distinguishing characteristics its rivals of elsewhere. eiofht and the concentral which the stitute nave do not differ from their companions. usual fashion. to his own The columns of the central passage of hall the hypostyle similar in are to section those styles. lacks. The hall effect of is still the farther lessened by the fact it does not occupy the whole width of the build- 9 fl S fl S fi fi fi that 1 Here M. Its unambitious apis pearance ter the all the af- more surprising portions noble pro- and rich decorations of the two external courts.— The Temple under the New Irom front to back of Empire. Ed. (Communicated by M. Brune. 223. '8^ the building.

affording one of the most effective compositions in the The type rest whole range of Egyptian architecture. it Ranges of apartments are introduced between there a sanctuary behind this hypostyle hall ? and the It external walls of the temple. . practically. little that can be discovered as to this point has its importance in establishing a comparison between the and that of Rameses III.^ have good reason to believe that the type of temple which we have described was a common one in other parts of Egypt The temples of Memphis.. each supported by eight columns. the are in comparatively good o(: So/c/>. and need not be noticed in detail. which decide their present state of mutilation it is impossible to temple of Rameses was the finer of the two in their complete state.— 384 ing. extended to the sanctuary and its dependencies in the rear. so far as can be judged through the discrepanIII. Temple ophis by Thothmes III. on the right of the great lake seem to have been very peculiar in arrangement. Cailliaud only allows 1 it one peristylar court. Was would seem rather. Medinet-Abou could oppose the Royal Pavilion which rose in front of the temple and grouped itself so happily with the first pylon. cies in the available plans of the first-named building.. according to the recent investigations of INIariette. querors outside built the limits of Egypt proper. have perished and. because it mio-ht prove that the similarity. while Hoskins and Lepsius few of these buildings that. like those in the Ramesseum around these many small chambers would be grouped in the fashion which is almost universal in this part of an Egyptian religious building. The last of the great Theban Pharaohs certainly drew much of In his inspiration from the work of his illustrious predecessors. . but their remains are in such a state of confusion that it is A — at present impossible to describe their plans. of Heliopolis and of than Thebes. One of these. left no trace behind but the great buildings constructed by the Theban con- we have We . the Delta cities. that upon the major axis of the temple there were two small halls. for instance. in Nubia. The II. A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. of the temples in this neighbourhood and within the enclosures at Karnak are all more or less intimately allied to the established. To the fine hypostyle hall of the Ramesseum. preservation. and reconstructed by Amenmust have borne a strong resemblance to the Ramesseum. which we have mentioned as existing between the more public parts of the two edifices.

pi. the remains of which are very confused. LErsifs. 117. for the simplicity of A heart single sanctuary of forms the centre but anterooms and. In temple Karnak. columns. 116. I. The smaller faces of the whole rectangle are continuallv carried farther from ' Cailliaud. this accumudl'bris are high and wide. All tlie pjlans show a kind of gallery. but development is always in the direction of the length. : . The plan given by Hoskins agrees more with that of Lepsius than with Cailliaud. These divergences are easily understood when it is remembered that nothing but some ten columns of two different types remain in situ. In the plan given by Lepsius there are two h}post\le halls with a wall between them. i. Tra-i-eh in EtJiiopia. peristylar courts dependencies this are developed to an extraordinary extent. the the whole and hypostylar halls. but it only shows the beginning of the first hypostyle hall and nothing of the second. HosKlNS. in its forty-six columns . . we pass into a hypostylar hall containing behind this hall comes the sanctuary. and 42. while the small apartments which surround it afford the necessar)accommodation for the material adjuncts of Egyptian worship. rather than its situation. and that the mounds of In order to obtain a really trustwovtliy plan. an arrangement which The outer one nuist have had twentyis also found at Abydos. formed of six columns. with call this its cjitoiiragc of small chambers. or to speak more accurately. and the second forty. vol. so to speak. usual position. however. ii. part pi. two.^ We find analogous arrangements in the great temple of Napata Built by Amenophis III.8. tem.The Temple under the New give it Empire. We may the classic type of Egypt. the largest in the building. remarkable composition. its hypostj-le hall. plates. this temple resembles the buildings in its Theban plan.ples The which we have hitherto examined are chiefly their plan. contained forty-eight columns. are and vestibules to this all important chamber. with a roof supported by twelve columns. After it came another hall. D . Voyage a Mirot. q VOL. and repaired by Tahraka when Ethiopia became supreme over Egypt. plates 40. According seat of an Egyptian pro-consul. when Napata was the (Gebel-Barkal). of four rather less diameter the remainder of the temple has disappeared. the at anterior the great and posterior Pjlons. to Cailliaud. in front of the first pylon it reminds us in some degree of the great corridor at Luxor by its general form. DcnknuTlcr. This was surrounded by small chambers. 41. O^D which must have been a very beautiful one. lation would have to be cleared away over the whole area of the temple. 9-14. From a peristylar court enclosed between two pylons. of the depth of the building. .

224). thanks to his efforts. . and. It was begun by Seti I. \vith more or less regular alternation. Still more surprising than the eccentricity of its plan. The courts and the pronaos compose a narrow and elongated corresponding rectangle.complete it with another wing at the opposite angle. with which the parts to the sanctuary and its dependent chambers form a right angle (see Fig. there After these comes the pronaos. each preceded by a pylon. The only thing of the kind is a row temple. Their absence. of square pillars standing before the inner wall of the second court (see plan). Mariette freed it from the cfcbris and modern hovels which encumbered it. which are distributed. however. The Egyptians were never greatly enamoured of that exact symmetry which has become one of the first artistic the building unfinished. is not allowed to aftect the eeneral lines of the olan. It deprives them of the rich by the long colonnades and their roofs of the Theban temples. and finished by Rameses II. therefore. 224). are the peculiar arrangements which this are to be found in the interior of Medinet-Abou and the Ramesseum. each other by the additions of fresh chambers and architectural features. at As are two courts. there are now few monuments in Egypt whose inner arrangements can be more clearly and certainly perceived. and the long walls must have seemed rather cold and monotonous in spite of the bas-reliefs and paintings which shadows cast covered them. We might consider no sign whatever that the architect meant to . a great effect The suppression of the portico has upon the appearance of these two courts. The courts differ from those at Thebes in having no peristyles or colonnades. The building. but that there is necessities of our time. But all the great buildings in the service of religion were not so simply Egypt which were constructed for designed. instance of a great temple at Its general shape is singular. in spite of many successive additions always contrives to preserve its the unity of organic constitution. This is a poor equivalent for the majestic colonnades and files of caryatides which we have hitherto encountered. on the right and left of the major axis \Yhich always passes through the centre of the scros. This salient wing has no corresponding excrescence on the other side.386 A History of Art ix Axciext Egypt. A good more complex arrangement is to be found in the Abydos (Fig.

studied rather as an egyptologist than as an architect. in the first hypo- We take this fact from the Description. because neither the one nor the other was to be had. where the measurements all are given in a fashion which forbids doubt of their fidelity. I? Fig. to at A little farther on we shall have speak of a peculiarity which exists is . — Flan of the Temple at Abydos (from Marietta. too.' . but which the not hinted at in adjoining plan some of the columns are coupled style hall.ooy oofj o o o ooooo ^ ca La La isa La £ni oo oooooooooo oooooooooooo oooooooooo O'O oooooooooooo oooooooooooo have given neither an elevation nor a section of the temple at Abydos. The building was hardly We anaaaa QaDoata known until Mariette freed it from the debris with nhich it was engulphed. and was content with making known its internal arrangements by a plan. 224. 3E Abydos. He. This plan does not appear to be minutely exact.

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upon all the surfaces presented bj' the aisle which leads up to the disposition to which no central nave. by their form. The decoration of the southern wing of the temple seems never to have been completed. all of one size and completely isolated one from another.The Temple under the New It is Empire. Harmachis. Thus one of the chambers referred to was placed under the protection of Osiris. halls. and opening upon seven oblong vaulted saloons. By their situation on the plan. whom we thus find assimilated with the greatest of the Egyptian a collection of thirty-six pictures. corresponding to the last named. The seven Horus. beoinninir at the riirht. Each chamber contains which are repeated from one to another with no changes beyond those rendered necessary by tlie substitution of one god for another. two hypostyle halls. This part of the temple is in a very fragmentary condition. They are separated by a wall pierced with seven doorways. and Seti himself. gods. Ptah. and by the of their walls. leading to the closed door of the sanctuary. the second by thirty-six columns. Behind hall. temple. are Amen. Very little is left of the bounding walls. there are seven more doorways. these vaulted decoration chambers declare Each one of them is themselves to be so many sanctuaries.several of these chambers were dedicated to one or other of the deities between whom the naos was apportioned. thus honoured. whose name and image appear in the decorations of the chamber itself and also upon the lintel These names and images are again repeated of the door outside. another under that of Horus. that of Osiris. It contains a long corridor. several small . Isis. the first supported by twenty-four. deities Osiris. a rectangular court with an unfinished peristyle. but it has been ascertained that . sanctuary there just as we find it is a secondary hypostjle behind the single scros of the ordinary Its roof was supported by ten columns. and access to it was obtained through the third sanctuar)-. with its the door. each doorway corresponding to one of the aisles In the farther wall of the second of these between the columns. These pictures this septuple deal with the rites which w'ould be celebrated by the king in each of the seven sanctuaries. There is columns of extra size and more careful There are design. 389 to recognize when we arrive at the pronaos that we fail we have grown accustomed. and a third under that of Isis. dedicated to some particular deity.

and a the by a floor flight of steps leading up on to dark apartment or crypt. the temple would not betray parts same number of sanctuaries. and ending in the vaulted chambers which form the Seen from 1 outside. clearly understood. 225. for that is at present our business to Fig. and Chnouai.390 A flat roof. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. — Seti. Full particulars of the in Mariette's first more obscure temple at Abydos will be found volume. chambers wiih columns. divided into two stories of large stone slabs. make the differences between the temple at Abydos and that of Khons and its congeners. its want of unity of the . to whom he is paying homage. the construction of the seven parallel vaults in the naos a future opportunity will be found ^ . beginning with the seven in doors the facade of the hypostyle hall. These sort farthest apartments seem to have been arranged into such in no as of order. with the attributes of Osiri--. between Amen. The distinction lies in the seven longitudinal subdivisions. may have been used as a A storehouse. We shall not here enter matters . .

its roof is supported by six columns similar to those of the portico already mentioned. enclosures round the temple. It is probable that they were originally the doorways through brick walls. and ranged around it are nine sm. Fig. The most important and elaborate of the three compartments is the middle one. is sometimes shown doing homage to the Theban triad of gods. one inscriptions it is called the House of Sell. the pictures in which illustrate the apotheosis of Seti. The another . portico of simple design. The central one of these chambers opens upon a hall where the roof is supported by four square pillars. the Palace and sometimes the Temple of Gournah . These can hardly be mere storehouses. seven independent temples under one roof^ At Thebes also we find a temple which. It is eighteen metres long. which formed successive The dromos led up to the pronaos. the whole being 166 feet long by 10 feet deep.gypten. funerary character of the great temple at Abydos. Eight of these fine columns are still erect. The front of the naos is a which was reached by a tew steps. . 235. ^. by its internal It is called sometimes arrangements. but they have suffered so greatly that no certain ' Upon tlie ii. form an outwork to the main building. about fifty yards in front of the other. 234. resembles that of Abydos. now demolished. pp.The Temple under the New Empire. They are isolated from one another by walls which run from front to back of the naos. see Ebers. vol.all chambers. who. 391 it was surrounded by a single wall. with which they are connected by an avenue of sphinxes. only feature in which these compartments resemble one is their independence. and more especially to Amen-Ra. in the Two propylons. 226). to which three distinct compartments or divisions of the interior correspond (see plan. sometimes as himself the object of worship. the complex naos was prefaced by courts and pylons in the same fashion as in the temples of Thebes which we have already noticed. consisting of ten columns between two square pilasters. The wall at the back of the portico is pierced by three doorways. Its entrance doorway opens directly upon a hall which is the largest in the whole temple. often indued with the attributes of Osiris. and it would not be until the building was entered and explored that the fact would become evident that it was seven shrines in one. and upon this hall again four small apartments open.

opinion can be lormed as to their real purposes. right-hand is com partment but in a very bad enough of it its remains to show that different arrangements were quite from those of its neighbour and much complex.392 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. Ik. the two set one I. has in and style contains no hypohall. behind the other. 226. son by his honoured Seti I. the larger part it was taken up with a court or hall peristylar seventy-six feet long and forty-six wide. and his grandson Rameses II. It six chambers placed sets of three. arrangements like those of are the and its more central It is part of the naos. Here the we find Rameses of founder the dynasty. paying his devotions to the Theban The is left compartment preservation .. Rameses gods. in better than the right. however. Behind this the site of three rect- angular chambers distinguished may be wall Every which bears is still standing of representations II.— Plan cf the Tuiiplc of Gouniah. . not so it large. The state.. of less So far as we can judge.

I.h-I - s o _. -.:^ fe Tjl I^V^ jk~ VOL. 3 E ..

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Abydos. Seti I. and to the conquered provinces. but there were a few temples of the same kind erected under the Ptolemies. or seven. vol plates 62-65).The Temple under the New The great temples of Empire. and in the neighbourhood of. the naos never has any great depth. almost to infinity without losing its unity. division is tripartite. or in the angles of the sanctuary itself. With such slight differences of detail as this. We might call them chapels. too. Temple {Antiquiles. Perhaps. ^^ differs from the Pharaonic temples of the same class in having square piers only at the angles. the Little i. as well as to Egypt proper. either on one side. In Upper Egypt and Nubia a few examples of the class are still to be seen. On the other hand. therefore. their The resemblance plans were traced by the same architect. and Rameses II. As a rule they date from the eighteenth dynasty. the routine of worship were grouped round as at it. 395 Abydos and Gournah were built by the same sovereigns. or for the purpose oi commemorating the passage of some conquering prince and epoch the building at Edfou. the rest of the portico being supported by columns. that they were common to all the periods of Egyptian history. They were erected within. seems as if the absence of a true orfjanic centre arrested the development of the building we find no signs of an edifice which. the subsidiary chambers which were required for of the other. But whether these are numerous or few. there were a few temples in which a severe and extreme unity was the distinguishing characteristic. of a type which is distinguished by the juxtaposition of similar parts grouped laterally one by the side Each of the chapels which we have described was self contained. in the Dcsciiption. between them is so great that they may be looked upon as variants of one type. at Abydos they are seven in number. ' We may cite as a peripteral temple of the Ptolemaic railed. might be developed It . and the three compartments vary in their arrangements . reminds us of the seed-pods of certain plants. fertilizinfj A Q-rain is divided between several cells. of Memphis or Sais. as at Gournah. like the temple of Amen at Karnak. the two At Gournah the buildings were built upon the same principle.^ It seems probable. . in which the similar in design. those cities whose importance was not sufficient to demand such great monumental works as the temples of Thebes or Abydos. and exactly temple thus cut into three parts. raised either to the honour of the local deities.

^ ^1 j The raised total area of the temple. It was of upon a well-built rectangular base Fig. . There seems to have been no means of access to it. Templeof i- of the Eleph. consisting of a few pairs of sphinxes. The best of this class proportioned and perhaps the most interesting building is the at Elephantine. upon the southern frontier of Egypt.. lent dignity to the approach. 35-) — Plan almost the same lateral dimensions. enclosed between two walls of the same height as the stylobate. It was destroyed in 1822 by the Turkish Governor of Assouan. which we reproduce. either from without or within. the paid by him to the deity to whom he looked for protection and victory. at the floor level of the cella. and the circular columns on each side afforded a base for the piers of the entrance alone stood directly upon the pavement of the gallery. Antiquitis. 1 " Description dc i'Egypte. of each of the smaller faces the latter were introduced in the centre of the building. vol. There is. plates 34-38- This base contained a crypt. no doubt for the sake of economising the material. inclusive of those at the angles. Happily the jalans and drawings. and. but a rectangular chamber and a portico about cases. who had a mania for building.-396 A homage History of Art in Ancient Egypt. led up to the portico. in fact.no loncrer exists. it it. oblong chamber enclosed by this portico had two entrances. From the earth level to the top of the cornice the temple was 21 feet 6 inches in height. in most would appear that a short dromos. i. and were thus higher by about three feet than either the The piers or the columns in the corresponding facade at the rear. In these chapels there are neither internal peristyles nor hypostyles it is there are none of those subsidiary chambers among which sometimes so easy to lose our way. and named by them the Temple of the South} This little buildino. was 40 feet by 31. A . A flight of steps. The portico Two of itself was composed of square piers and round columns. while the side galleries were enclosed by seven dwarf wall about three feet in height bounded the gallery on the outside. one at square piers.and 7 feet 6 inches high to the pavement of the portico. nothing . sandstone temple built by Amenophis III. 229. seem to have been made with great care. It was dislittle covered at the end of the last century by the draughtsmen of the French Expedition.\n(ine. (Dcicripiioniier Jigy'/'le.

concealed diminutive size. etc. . Fig. in our examination of the temple we may disregard an addition which appears have been so awkwardly inanaged. placing it behind the large hall as a sort of opisthodomos . Its it this temple was without it neither beauty nor grandeur. shows the temple as must have the hands of the architect. The lines are vertical . in some it its degree. — Mew in per?pective of the Temple of Elephantine (from i. This the architect had a good reason for neglecting the traditions of his profession. showed no trace of the This chamber was therefore a later addition. 230. and by its position with regard to the steps. by the increased size of the columns in front of it. he gave to his small creation a would otherwise have missed.The Temple under the New the top of the steps. this alteration dates from the Roman period. 35. not the effect of caprice and horizontal. One more peculiarity must be noticed.\[pire. In spite of its modest dimensions. 35). and in a different bond. became engaged. Jomard (pi. Neither in piers nor in walls do we find that inward slope which is almost universal in its Egyptian is exteriors. the other at the back. and one only obtained at the expense of the continuous portico. 1 stylobate raised left well above Our plan. and. the back part of which was enclosed with a wall in which the columns sculptured decoration which covered the rest of the temple. inclination By avoiding the usual dignity which towards the centre.^ of E. 597 The first named was indicated as the true entrance to the building by the shght salience jambs and lintel. from the rest all of the temple. has imported a small chamber into his plan. the Descrijttion a'e VEgyfte. i) according to the authors of the Description de PEgypte. Fig. but he bids us remark that it was constructed of It different materials. According to to Jomard. but however that maybe.

The its general arrangement of the Elephantine structure has even in name the technical language of the it Greek the architects." . is Elephantine (from the Description. and emphasized the well-balanced architects nature of the composition. . pleasing as a whole. because it. the result of its lines are not its only claims to The pleasure which it causes us to feel is partly resemblance to a well-known and much admired In all type." . a cella raised upon an important base and surrounded by a colonnade. that of the Greek temple. Its symmetry and just proportion appeal directly to those whose artistic ideas are founded upon the creations of the Greeks and Romans. — Longitudinal section of the Temple of monument. completely round we colonnade goes find such a striking for the mouldings. But .398 A History of Art in Anxient Egypt. But the purity and harmony of our admiration. its The Temple of Eleand commands our attention. its the plain. The piers on the flanks were more closely spaced than the columns of the faradc. and the richly decorated be seen contrast was heightened by the simplicity of their form. i. ] . 35). Jomard. essentials the arrangements are the same. The wide spacing doorway to of the columns in front allowed the in effective grouping with the long perspectives of the side galleries. " is a model of simplicity and phantine purity.1 231. Nowhere else do resemblance between Greece and Egypt. This sympathy was conspicuously the little felt by those who discovered saj's " The arrangement. The Egyptian never pro- duced a building better calculated to please modern tastes. The dignity of the entablature and the bold projection of the cornice added to the effect of the whole. while the steps in front gave meaning and accent to elevation. they would call a peripteral temple.

excejat the form pilaster. we should be Such tempted to see in it a building of the Ptolemaic period. In we are asked to believe. These are more or less marked accordin^r to race characteristics or material surroundincjs. the temples built must . We shall not here discuss the delicate question of the indebtedness of Greek artists to those of Egypt. In coming to this conclusion they were right. In no pursuit does . and have attracted very little notice indeed from strangers dazzled by the wonders of Sais. but the general physiognomy of the to prevent it building told them that could boast of a venerable antiquity. if Greek been any direct imitation of an Egyptian model. but they should have stopped there instead of attempting to establish a direct connection. They were unable to read the hieroglyphics. be impossible in these days. The French savanis knew enough them falling into such an error. but are Greek peripteral temples the external colonnades always made up exclusively of circular columns. Would arts it not be much simpler to admit that we have here one in of those coincidences which are so frequent the history of the Human nature is pretty much the same all over the world. however. between the Egyptian building and the temples of Greece. as cause and effect.The Temple under the New Empire. The Greek in the architect in hardly of a ever made to use give of the square the pier. 399 the sculptured decorations. ? When human skill has been employed at different times and in wants and solving almost in it different countries. in supplying similar identical problems. Greek in in conception and plan. buildings in those great cities did not offer the peculiar characteristics which. inspired the early place. but decorated at the the Egyptian taste. Memphis. a mistake would. but first we may allow ourselves to make two observations. has been led to results which vary only variations the minor details. and the inscribed texts. and even end of the last century. strength to extremities of a wall. and Thebes and the place. When examined closely the circumstances of mankind are never found unchanged from one period or one race to another. the second there had . but a superficial resemblance is enough to ensure that their artistic creations shall have many important points in common. In the upon this plan were very small. we should have found in the copy at least some passing trace of those square piers which were so continually and successfully used by the Egyptian architects architects.

but it Figs. 71. Antiquitis. however. 3 Descriptioti. i. The sanctuary is there surrounded on three sides by a portico of square piers (Fig. . The only difference noted by Jomard was in the ornamentation of the capitals. 4. we might have omitted all mention of it. any knowledge of each other's work ? From this point of view only. and 15 feet 8 inches high. at Medinet- Abou presents an analogous arrangement. i. pi. The But purpose of the building on the one hand. pi. vi. on the left bank of the river. part is i. 222). letterpress. differs from that Elephantine . 113. it exists only in their drawings. Figs. i. . those upon the facade all the The oldest part of rest of the peristyle consists of square piers. 31 wide. If the temple at Elephantine had possessed no other interest but that belonging to it as an example of Egyptian temple building. or at least devoted but a few words to it. . and 3).^ A third has been discovered in Nubia. and Thothmes III. The possible combinations are therefore far from Take two races placed in conditions of climate and which may fairly be called analogous put the same materials in the hands of their architects and give them the same programme to carry out is it not almost certain that they would produce works with many features in common. in Upper Egypt. ^ the temple built by Thothmes II. and that without numerous. and it has been ascertained that this portico consisted both of square piers and columns. traces of a portico are to be found about the cella. which must resemble the two at Elephantine very strongly we mean the temple constructed by Thothmes III. it there at is a temple constructed upon the same plan in . i. ch. Although it has suffered greatly. 2 In the Description de I'Egypte it is called Tlie Northern Temple (see vol. as it seems to us. Finally.400 the A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. - Lepsius Denknitcler. And yet such types are scarce. The French explorers found a second temple of the same class not far from the first now."^ . at El-kab (Eilithya). pi. having only two circular columns. the purposes for which important buildings are erected are very few. vol. 3. should the type of building just described be regarded. vol. This temple 50 feet long. human mind turn in a narrower circle than in architecture. neither are the materials at the command of the architect very many. 38. 2. civilization . There is nothing to forbid the supposition that these temples were once much more numerous ' in the valley of the Nile. at Semneh. exercise a great intluence upon form. and the qualities of the material on the other.

and beautify The Greek Egypt.^ When we compare these remains with one another and call to mind the words of Strabo and of other ancient travellers as to the monuments which have been destroyed. which is IS a constant prmciple m architecture. Amenophis HI. 127. portance to the cella. and VOL. — Temple of . plates 125. L . part i. for plans of these buildings. if the word chance had any place in of interest for the historian of art. we are forced to this gr-eneral conclusion. it. we find the columns situation of their colonnades. around courts support the roof without help. be called history. those of Sais and Memphis. Ramesseum. When the^ portico was outside it was so placed because there was no room for it within. When the temple was reduced to a single narrow chamber. so small that there was no room for columns and that the walls could buildings. the colonnade was relegated to the exterior. As long ^ See Lepsius 128. Denkmaler. 232. where it served to give imFig. Medinet-Abou and . that it was the within the high external walls of their open to the sky or as supports for wide and lofty halls. that the Egyptians loved to group their mighty piers and columns. and to clothe at Eilithyia from Lepsius. the temples of Thebes had vanished and left some of in this no trace behind. which might a chance likeness. It 401 like appears certain that they were always of small dimensions. no more than a rare accident in that of But in spite of this difference the similarity. it is full The following facts are sufficient to prove that was the small size of these peripteral temples that first suggested the external as the cella was large enough to admit supports of the ordinary diameter without encumbering the space or destroying its proportions. we might have been led to believe that the great religious buildings of the Egyptians had been form but we have Luxor and Karnak. Gournah and Abydos we have several important temples built in Ethiopia by Egyptian conquerors. . and others erected by the Ethiopian sovereigns in imitation of Egyptian architecture. peripteral arrangement.The Temple under the New Empire.

we are told. as a rule. grotto. A niche contrived in the further wall of the naos acted the part of a secos. a fact which has sometimes been explained by the natural configuration of the soil. parti. there is some exaggeration. 232 and It is prefaced by a chamber. was nothing more than an epitome of the temple. but the naos to admit. This is cropped and the by natives.402 inside. who live. III. the chapel. a plan and section of which we take from Lepsius (Figs. and wider than it is deep. but at present there are only the remains of one to be found. or prefaced by architectural in They In that are chiefly found Lower Nubia. and there is no need for insistance upon the variations which it presents upon a single theme. a rectangular chamber measuring The roof might very posinternally 28 feet by 22 feet 6 inches.^^. Thus arranged. the use of never entered the architect's head to surround and even to with a portico externally.) . It is now difficult to say whether this was an uncovered court or a hypostyle hall. These strips of 2 The it Denkmaler. or dry tilled little the river far enough to allow a considerable intervening fringe of level ground. 100. according to whether they are entirely rock constructions. pi. which mountains. If flows that site for a con- In this. have been difficult to find a structed temple. upon a first principle which sometimes was developed into a colossal structure lilce that at Karnak.. Here too we find beine laree enough internal columns. We may say the same of those subterranean temples which are called speos or hcmi-speos. it it a very simple form of temple. Lepsius gives four columns. at this temple of Amenophis Eilithyia. sometimes reduced until it resulted in buildings where a few paces carry the visitor from one extremity to the other. demand. internal measurements of to this chamber were 26 in the feet by t. we examine a map of either one or the other of the Nubia we shall find many places where two chains of hills fall back from groups of the mouth of those wadis. 233). (Lepsius. sibly have been supported by the four columns.Immediately abutting upon it comes the naos. cut. as their bases were 4 feet in diameter. or half-grotto. pi. however. parti. 115.^ is an instance. portion of the Nile Valley the it river is it embraced so closely by the rocks between which would. be found Temple oi Sedeiiiga. A Of History of Art the in Ancient Egypt. as we have called these buildings. Almost the same arrangements are Denkmirlef. at intersect torrent 1 beds. very ruinous.

. or to cut a in sort of courtyard in the slope of the which a small temple In might have been erected. for the soldiers in the nearest military post. ? How are ^ we to account for this difterence. from Lepsius. would. architectural Even Egypt proper there are is chapels cut in the flanks of the the Speos Arteuiidos. and the priests resided. unless it be the excavations at Thebes. they sometimes rise to first Below the cataract. for Gebel Lepsius. Silsilis. close to the quarries of another.^ there is these grottos are as other side of the frontier. for the multiplication of these rock the Nubian section Nile Valley either in natural conditions or in the want resource. or rather contrast Silsilis. of the of We must not seek.The Temple under the New Empire. part i. for these little Nubian temples. — Temple of Amoiiophis HE at Eilithvia . 102. See. not be very oratories as difficult to obtain a site for such were required lor the scanty population. would be required. The Egyptian architect did not hesitate to cut awa\. therefore. then. rare Gebel ever. It would always have been easy with pick and hill. loiigitudinni section. choose some deserted of Even supposing site in pleased the king to a conquered province for the erection his prowess. can give an idea. The same thing might have been done. pi.Hassan there near Assouan. 233. a level site for buildintr. and hills near Beni. finest of the sepulchral hownumerous on the where. Great temples were reserved for populous in which the kincj. In this fashion Seti obtained a site for his great temple at Abydos. chisel to adapt some ridge or cornice of the clifts for their reception. the militarv commanders. Fig. Dcnkmalcr. for a reason temples in . as they are a magnificence of which nothing else in Egypt. at much less cost. some durable memorial of no very large building cities. 403 It little arable land are always either level or of a very gentle slope. indeed. in which the popular ceremonies of religion were performed. for the engineers and that it workmen in some neighbouring quarry.part of the side of a mountain when it was the only means open to him of obtainino.

when the Egyptian sceptre ruled as far south as Napata and the great bend of the Nile. and Napata for instance where there was a large urban Soleb population. especially when of small size. too. Everywhere else it was found more convenient to confide the temple to the guardiansliip of its own materials. But chambers cut in the living rock would offer a much the decorations might be scraped down or stouter resistance daubed Over. Hyksos the eighteenth dynasty had. it regained . that subterranean architecture was preferred throughout this region because the political condition of the province was always more or less precarious. Reconquered by the kings of the first Theban as in morrow Egypt period. men did not feel so sure Between the sixth and the eleventh dynasty the hold of Egypt upon Ethiopia had been lost at least once. . to begin the it its work more Then. as at Semneh and Kumneh. the most probable. and in suppressing the warlike tribes who lived within the conquered frontier. Although they were closely connected as early as the sixth dynasty. therefore. . and therefore fortifications and troops for their defence. than This question more easily asked answered. the living rock. however. than because the configuration of the country required security Where was assured by the presence of a strong and permanent garrison. the former never lost its character of a conquered province.404 A History of Art is in Ancient Egypt. A constructed temple. The following explanation seems to us. and the did thoroughly than any of its predecessors. we find constructed temples They are found. by the weapons of the invaders could readily be repaired when the raid was over. work of subjugation all over again. At such times the king himself must often have been compelled to take the field and lead his armies in person. but the time and patience required for any serious attack upon the limestone or granite sides and piers would not be Such damage as could be done in a short time and forthcoming. of the In Ethiopia proper. Ethiopia was not Egypt. rather it. would be in great risk of destruction in a country exposed to the repeated incursions of savage tribes columns and piers would soon be overturned by their ruthless arms. and to bury • — — . in those localities just as we do in Egypt. the governors of the southern provinces must have been continually employed in repelling the incursions of the negroes from Upper Ethiopia. its independence during the domination of therefore. We think it probable.

Karnak and the pylons Temple of Seti and the Ramesseum. was per- For many centuries they had fectly easy to Egyptian workmen. nor because boldness and novelty of the enterprise. to hollow out the flanks of their mountains. continued to II. the art which imitated the forms of a stone building by excavations in the living rock. to go through a works boul. been accustomed. had its wxMght in leading the conquerors of Nubia to fill it with Such a method of construction was at underground temples. the hall of Luxor on the leit bank. 405 in faces of the This kind of work. of to-day. the For these he could have imagined no pendant more original or more imposing than the great temple carved from a natural hill. regular of course. and in that of the First course of tomb of . moreover. on the of right . and to decorate the chambers thus obtained. The hypostyle hall at Karnak was a marvel of constructed architecture. for same process itself. higher than any of those which adorned the courtyards at Thebes. The military supremacy of Eg\pt and the security of her conquests seemed to be assured. In the execution of such works they must have arrived at a degree of practised skill which made it as easy for them to cut a speos like the great temple at This fact probably Ipsamboul. as we have seen. and the temples of IpsamIn the necropolis of Memphis. up and down the Nile. a double advantage. Subterranean architecture had. New Empire. in the early years of the the occupation of When be security was love established. in front of which statues of the sovereign. as the development before it w'as capable of such Seti. facades. with their gigantic figures. would see countless generations of Egyptians pass before their feet in their journeys At Thebes he had built. once expeditious and durable. the great temple at Ipsamboul was the masterpiece of that art which had been so popular with the Egyptians from the earliest periods of their civilization. as to build one of the same size. The Egyptian monarch carved the cliffs of Ipsamboul into gigantic images of himself because he wished to astonish his contemporaries and their posterity with the time. used from the art When whose Rameses travellers cut those two caves in the rock at Ipsamboul. it have such an eft'ect upon the was neither because he was pressed tor he was doubtful of the tenure of his power. which would be greatly appreciated the province.The it Templp: under the cliffs. at Thebes. for the last resting-places of their dead. hand of the river.

Theban Empire. has been known The goddess Sekhet.4o6 A History of Art its in Ancient Egypt. rock-cut temples were of very modest dimensions They date from the eighteenth dynasty.. to which it was as the Speos Ar'temidos. It was I. as also is that of Addeh two lateral chambers. too.. Greek Artemis. carried have been finished. and a sanctuary. It is composed latter was cut by the king Harmhabi (or Armais) of a hall supported by four columns. the first ambition was more easily So. ever since antique times. and seems never The temple proper is prefaced by a kind on by Seti . the other at Feraig. in the Two of them are to be found neighbourhood of Ipsamboul but on the other side of the The river. Beni-Hassan. satisfied. one near the castle of Addeh. There is an equally small it is the grotto speos in Egypt which dates from the same period — at — . had been identified with the begun by Thothmes to III. which. consecrated.

on the right and left sides of which stood piers faced with colossal statues of ^ - rectfive Rameses II. P)eit-el-\\ of ^peos at Prisse. A pylon gave access to a angular court. decorated with statues and sphinxes. ah . There are also a hemispeos or two of the Ptolemaic period. on account of the grimacing figures which stand before It dates from the time of Tahrak the piers. -I — — —•— I ' 1 7. namely. part i. . Fig. as we ascend the Nile. that which It is is cut the flanks of the Gebel-Barkal at Napata. near Kalabcheh (Figs. 237.Wali .' called the Typlwniinn. in 407 known to us. of which but a \nv ".. and Ipsamboul. 23S and It was approached from the river by a broad flight of 239). 127. of which the plans are given in plate 101 was begun by Ptolemy EuerCTctes 11. Beit-el-\Vali. from example of the hemispeos (Figs. from Prisre.. . GherfHossein. pi.^: fe%'.'.^^/„. . — Longitudinal fection of the specs at Beit-el. Deiikmceler... they are. for instance. of Lepsius's first That. We may J '^ give Gherf-Hossein as a good & ^35— Plan 'V^.. part.The Temple under the New is Empire.All the other rockcut temples were the work of Rameses II. 236 and 237). few fragments now remain.i. or Gircheh. Wadi-Seboua. These statues Lepsius. Dayr. steps. and was one of the works with which the famous Ethiopian decorated his capital in the hope that it might become a formidable rival to those great Egyptian cities which he had taken and occupied.

in the rock. and four is only there caryatid pillars . to the back of the niche. the of the temple. was about fifty-five yards long. . a hypostyle hall Next. vol.-Asseboua. its shape. Four deities are sculptured in this niche. from which open two lateral chambers. . but a an open court with hypostyle hall and a sanctuary cut de I'Art Egyptieii. those forming the avenue being of caryatid form and higher than the others. again.' find chief god We (Figs. from first commencement rest of the the foot of the pylon. probably be referred to the bad condition of the structural According to Prisse's measurements the dromos. central The subterranean part of the temple begins with a passage cut in the rock on the further side of this hall. may to of the building. were about twenty-six level. This passage leads to a long transverse vestibule. one of them can still be identified as Ptah. and three from its further side. however. and at a slightly higher its roof was supported by twelve square piers. The furthest chamber on the major axis of the whole building was the sanctuary. and in spite of the ill-usage to which they have been subjected. between it and both the inscription of Isambert and the plan of discrepancies which part its Horeau {Panorama d'Egypte et Ntibie). . At the back of This description has been mainly taken from the plate given by Prisse {Hisfoire i. There are neither dromos nor pylon. and the niche which in its is cut further wall. — That of Derri and 241) is more simple. Plan of the hemispeos of Gherf-Hossein from Prisse. The resemblance between is Gherf-Hossein and Horeau's plan of Wadi-Asseboua so great as to suggest that one of the two writers may have made a mistake. was about as Prisse's plan of much The = rock-cut part was only about ten yards deep. There are discrepancies. 23S.- Fig. in Ancient Egypt. almost in the the same arrangements 240 hemispeos of Wa4i.).4o8 A came History of Art feet high. properly speaking. This is proved by its position. and the temple.

240. ?1_ ia_ 1 - > %ft-Y.J.. the statues and they I..^i^i^. 239. longitudinal section .v. it was impossible have any dromos and yet between the doorway of the speos and the river bank there were steps which are now either worn away by the action of the floods or hidden by the position. '•a Fic. 409 sanctuary there is a stone bench upon which three statues were seated. of Derri tlie hemispeos from Horeau. The two temples of Ipsamboul are so well known and have been so often illustrated and described. high that they could .%.. debris from the cliffs.^/'j-..ii. Fig. that they need not detain us long.w/<: ///. Fig.nder •iiie New Empire. surfaces covered with circumscribed by a moulding and to and crowned by a of cornice in bold relief.' >'^-. they are inclined from the perpendicular. is that they are their without any external and constructed and that from •..The Temple the u. however. The prototype of these facades trapeziform is Theban pylon./. .>{. afford a background the king VOL.-. — Gherf-Hossein. Derri from Horeau.--ii^-4*. — Plm of . — Lingitudinal the section.'i .//-/''-'^'^-'/^^/y/. 241. as richly decorated and as monumental in in their way as those of the most sumptuous buildings Thebes.^..£i--.//'''/.'. above the river and close to it.--i.'Vr:. The facades of these temples were. figures They have the same inscriptions. The chief thing to be noticed here part. from Prisse.-'->/'/^.

are yet by no means similar.410 A History of Art to ix Ancient Egypt. that the whole edifice should be homogeneous. two temples close to one another. and having a good deal in common in their design. ficfure Above the doorway a colossal in the rock. The front is 90 feet wide and nearh' 40 high. but perhaps its design is the happier and more skilful of the two. and on each side of him This low relief. These statues. They of a are not less than seven high. They of Ra is carved in Rameses is depicted . two of them acting as jambs for the door. in A frieze. substance of the pylon itself. That of the temple of Hathor. as we have seen. four ot them Rameses himself. but to recede a pace or two so as to be incorporated in the pylon. executed by the same processes. The skill gentle salience oi these buttresses forms a framework for the statues (see Fig. But the most striking feature of the building is supplied by the four colossi of Rameses placed two and two on either side of the door. in the fine vellow The facade of the Great Temple is is much larger. for many reasons. the case of a built temple they are monoliths. It is about other. The colossi had The way to do this was obvious. chief difference is who caused them be made. consisting dedicatory inscription carved deep and firmly drawn hiero- glyphs runs below the cornice. It is ornamented by six colossal upright statues. Each of these is only connected with the its face of the rock by a small part of feet posterior surface. above which they unite and become a wide band of flat carvinof markingf the centre of the facade. generally called the Smaller Temple. is on a smaller scale than the Great Temple. At Ipsamboul there are. which are chiselled with orreat care and sandstone of which the mountain consists. the other two his wife Nefert-Ari. it has a bold cornice not divided by buttresses like the of twenty-two cynocephalic made up figures seated with their animals is sculptured in the round. though conceived in the same spirit. group occupies the middle of the facade. brought from a distance and erected in front of the But space was wanting for such an arrangement at Ipsamboul besides which it was better. In The in the situation of these statues. in the act of adoration. 242). and that the statues should be carved in the rock from which its chambers were to be cut. are separated one from another by eight buttresses. Their facades. which are about 34 feet high. . and hands upon their knees. but It 130 feet wide by 92 high.

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. Fig. his hands upon his thighs. travellers an which has been noticed by still all who have written upon Ipsamboul. 4U are the largest in Egypt.. precedes in the the The latter nothing but a narrow gallery. about ninety feet. 243. 244. made use of for the royal statues at the temples. of the Great Temple. is The single total depth of the smaller edifice supported sanctuary. especially. From the sole of the feet to the apex of the pschent which the king bears on his head. — Plan of temple. tlie the workmanship is very fine. — Plan exteriors. the variations are entirely in favour of the greater monument. in this instance. countenance. and. In spite of these enormous dimensions c I Q D D I ^ the smaller f'^pifw isir^v^ Fio. Fig. : ' ^ l_ J Fig. . — Perspective The of of the principal chamber in smaller temple from Horeau. 245. — Longltvulinal section of the -mailer temple from Horeau. The Interiors of the two temples are more different than the ^. .' ^mm.. middle of which a small . force is remarkable expression for its combination and the sweetness. in the pose ordinarily entrances of the Rameses is seated. 4%^'f^^jwm'^ U^. they are about sixtyfive feet in height. :ki. h hall. by six square is Hathor-headed pillars. 246.TiiK Temple unuer the New Empire.

The is a great deal larger. as wide as the second.it Temple . while that in the centre. chamber. The other temple Its total length is about i8o feet. in chamber or niche may be seen with a statue between . but only 10 feet deep. was an altar. those on the left and right being very small indeed. against each of which a colossal figure 33 feet high A doorway in the middle of the further side leads to a is placed. table In the middle of this chamber . is about to a third . Karnak. the adytum. They represent . 247. from Horeau. i\ Ancient Egypt. and the Ramesseum. and supported by Three openings in its furthest side lead four thick square pillars. first hall is 60 feet long and 53 wide the roof is supported by eight pillars. 13 feet by 23. Fig. The walls of both temples are covered with pictures like those of Luxor. — Peri-pecl ive nf the principal linll in tlie Gre. which the rock-carved cow of Hathor its legs. second chamber not quite so large as the first. Through this the innermost parts of the speos are reached they consist of three small chambers. or for offerings at the back of it a bench with four seated statues.414 A History of Art is cut.

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. and at Ipsamboul the whole temple temple.The Temple under t. and the king seated upon the laps of goddesses. or sanctuary . but some- times one. others falling upon it obliquely. a hypostyle hall We — Fir. 417 the battles and triumphs of Rameses. a colonnaded court. 249. sometimes living rock. a naos with its secos. ol We have was the interior how scantily of the Egyptian temple its innermost chambers were plunged in almost complete darkness. so that the absolute night which was involved in their being excavated in the heart of a mountain was no very the constructed edifice as mieht at first already explained . have now briefly noticed the principal rock-cut temples in Egypt and Nubia. from the secos to those colossal statues which generally form the preface to the pylon of the constructed Except in the case of the peristylar court. who act as the tenderest of nurses.Several of these do not seem to have been finished. There are indications that they were utilized as depositories for the objects worshipped in the temple. The elements of the building are the same. acting as a pronaos.. Neither in plan nor in decoration do they materially differ from the temples of wrought masonry. lighted VOL. is in the mountain. colossi before the entrance.|ie New Empire. L \ II . from Horeau. Besides the halls which form the main body of the temple. — Longitudinal section of tlie Great Temple . many of these divisions are excavated in the Sometimes only the sanctuary is subterranean. the plan shows eight lateral chambers. the interior of the rock-cut temple did not differ so much in appearance from that be imagined. and they are arranged in the same order ^an avenue of sphinxes when there is room for it. sometimes the hypostyle hall is included. some perpendicular to the major axis of the building.

sometimes in desert solitudes.^ Even those chambers which correspond to the hypostyle hall by their places in the excavation and the general characteristics of their form. a at these considerations ' suggested instead shrine Beni-Hassan containing in the There are two polygonal columns resembling those small . as in the case of the Speos Arteviidos. Another and more constant peculiarity of the underground is the existence in them of one or more seated statues left in carved from masses of rock expressly of the excavation. which represent the presiding deity of the place and his acolytes. great change from the obscurity caused by the thick walls and heavy roofs of the edifices in the plain." in their temples. The column occurs very seldom in these subterranean temples. But their position. to a " dim religious light. in the quarries at Silsilis for instance. but the Egyptians were so thoroughly accustomed to a mysterious solemnity of shadow. that the darkness of the speos would seem no drawback in their eyes. rendered in it impossible that they could be served fashion which was easy and guarded the the ample temples of Memphis. In the latter the tabernacle which stood to hold in the secos was too small anything larger than a statuette or emblem. Abydos that. At they the time these rock temples were cut. or in provinces which had been conquered by lost to Egypt and might be enough All in her again. 237). that In the great temple of Ipsam. the furthest recesses These statues. We think that the cause of this difference may be guessed.xistence intermittent period. boul the daylight does not penetrate beyond the second hall point from onwards artificial light is necessary to distinguish objects. but these piers are is often clothed with an elaborate decoration which unknown in the works of the primitive architects.speos at Beit-el-Wali (Fig. do not occur in the constructed temples. and of Thebes. temples.S 41 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. are hardly ever supported by anything but the' rectangular piers in use in the early ages of the monarchy . sometimes in places only inhabited for an their e. the Pharaohs to whom owed no doubt assigned a priest or priests to each. . In the case of a hemi- speos the internal effect must have been almost identical with that of any other religious building. is This preference for the pier easily to sufficient be explained by the necessity for having supports of strength and solidity to bear the weight of the super- incumbent mountain.

l^rune. according to .-nrms:r | (? SpbosvuNoud -TiiM 7£R'?>5 S J5 D77 Centre _xrl^ k r ad • acaa aooaiif''.^-- W C I S . TeI^J\ASS£ J)t L Es h rfifc«i#i2ak ^' f' c ^ <^%*>«^'^'' ^ ^ %!^»>. '' Fig. — Dayr-el-Bahari .S^FEnS DE L'OvEST • -ffe Tehrasss m j. 250. TO 20 30 40 L_ SO^ M.

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. We have not yet described them because they do not belong to any of the categories which we have been treating they form a class by themselves their general arrangement has no parallel in Egypt. . For Beit-d-Wali and Ginheh. surprised especially at our so little about them hitherto. size and by their incorporation with the rock out of which both should they and their surroundings were cut. statues of a considerable size. The building in question a chain. Those who know having said Thebes will. is situated at the foot of the Libyan deep amphitheatre hollowed out by nature in the yellow limestone rocks which rise on the north-west of the necropolis. it rests against perpendicular walls of rock cut by the picka. and that they be actually chiselled in the living rock itself and left By their attached to it by the whole of their posterior surfaces. 30 and 31 in Gau. On two sides. . on the right and at the back.The Temtle under the New some Empire. The name is derived from an abandoned Coptic convent which existed among the ruins of the ancient building. when they wtre drawn by him. as they are older than most of the buildings over which we have been occupied.^ they represented. On the left this natural wall is absent and is replaced by an inclosure of bricks (Figs. and the peculiar nature of their situation. these ruins have always had a great effect upon be foreign visitors. Antiquitcs de la It seems that the statues.xe and dominating over the built part of the temple. their picturesqueness. 250 and 251). should be employed. were in a fairly good state. such statues would defend themselves efticientJy against all attempts on the part of enemies. perhaps. and therefore we have reserved them to the last. see plates 13. 2 These words mean Convent oj the North. In spite of their age several of these statues a sufficiently good state of preservation to allow came down to us in ChampoUion and personages his predecessors to recognize with certainty the divine whom During the last fifty years they have suffered as much at the hands of ignorant and stupid tourists as they did in the whole of the many centuries during which they were exposed to all the vicissitudes of Egyptian history. in ' Nubie. 421 small figure or emblem. from six to eight or ten feet high. Our study of the Egyptian temple would not be complete without a few words upon the buildings called Dayr-cl-Bahari!^ By their extent.

42 2 A History of Art conditions in Ancient Egypt. more ample and . left was excavated sanctuary. of steps given majestic. ^ Here the arrangements which con- The whole between the pylon and the commencement of the speos. we have placed a pylon with a couple of obelisks in front of it. a few of the last being shown (P^ig. The whole arrangement may be compared to the system of three in the rock. rising in terraces one above another like the steps of a gigantic staircase. courts. of Hatasu. a dromos of sphinxes had to be traversed of which very scanty traces are now to be found. Brune's plan of the actual remains at Dayr-el-Bahari. At a point immediately to the door in the external pylon. We have done so not only because nearly preface. all the important temples had such a says that he but also because Sir Gardner Wilkinson saw the foundations of two obelisks and of a doorway. unlike the other funerary chapels at a triple then. intervals alone the inner faces of their walls ' . but in the time of the Iiistitiit d' Egyptc there were still two hundred of them 251). interior of the temple. After passing the pylon. The mausoleum Thebes. hemispeos. which first communicated with a second by an inclined plane stretching almost across its width. in the restoration figured upon the opposite page At the end of the dromos. a chamber about sixty-five feet deep This must have acted the part of a and at a shorter distance from the entrance. consisted of four courtyards. than the narrow flight restoration . opposite is. upon the spot where a few traces of the bounding walls still remain. apsidal chapels which cathedrals.his work against the mountains this fashion the architect impelled by a desire to make use of the facilities must have been partly which it afforded. no surprise at finding part Under such of the we need feel temple subterranean. The walls upon which these inclined planes and terraces were constructed In order to furnish the vast are still to be traced in places. but at the other extremity of the building. his the effect. better. is so common at the east end of European In approaching this temple from the river bank. there are two more groups of rock-cut apartments. is to us. in such matters of indications This wide inclined plane agrees in better. a courtyard was entered. as it seems too. with the in M. to be distincruished. we have supposed them to contain seated statues at regular stituted the real originality of Dayr-el-Bahari began. in In backing. Right and of it.

by Ch. —Restoration in perspective of Dayr-el-Bahari. .Fig. Chipiez. 251.

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of the third suggested the secos hidden in the flanks of the mountains.^ ornamented the further side of the which As for the portico second court.The Temple under the New decorative detail Empire. facing the gateway in the pylon though far above it." says RIariette. in obtaining the materials for a restoration which gave us for the first time some idea of what Plate 2 interesting monument must have . informs us that he found no trace of any such sphinxes. Brune. by M. We have attempted to give an idea of the building as a whole. instantly seized by the beauty and commanding position of this doorway. and that little an Egyptian temple as ' as possible '^ Some have thought steps between The same . VOL. which. " ! that the temple it of Dayr-el-Bahari a strange construction. 1858 led to the discovery of There seems to have been only a plain wall on the left of this court. who recently investigated the matter. 425 conjecture may perhaps be allowed. a distinction which is to be explained by its central situation. in 1866. while on the right there was a long colonnade which masked a number of chambers cut Facing the in the rock which rose immediately behind it. moreover. L X I . We must refer those who work devoted to it by M. to which all the courts were but the prelude. this temple in detail to the The plan which forms plate i in the said an architect. by its broad and mysterious shadows. there was also the court a colonnade entrance to which was cut in two b}^ the steps leading to the fourth and highest terrace. contains a restored plan plate 3 a in perspective of the three highest terraces and of the hill which forms their in support. letterpress. been view is in the great days of Egypt. by this intelligent and conscientious examination of all the remains. ^ Our view some of Mariette."^ Those excavations have the porticos since court. p. Maspero. but except the less important details. Dayr-cl-Bahari. it does not gieatly differ from his. Ecole des Beaux Arts. work w-as drawn. While all the rest of the temple was of limestone. " visitors to the " cenotaph resembles No one is will deny. taken from a more distant point than that of M. Brune to jilace sphinxes upon the the he thought that some small heaps of debris at the ends of the steps indicated their situation but M. idea caused M. M. its remains were visible even before the excavations a little of Mariette. 10. all These terraced courts have surprised of Hatasu. this doorway was built of fine red granite. " wish to study the remains of Mariette. who is now a professor at the Brune succeeded. In the middle of this terrace a fine doorway leading to the principal speos was raised. and forming the culminating point of the long succession of terraces and inclined The attention of the visitor to the temple would be planes. courts . Brune.

the temple of Karnak. attention to Twelve hypostyle different or thirteen centuries later the Persians. carried back with them the notion of those halls which gave to the buildings of Persepolis so an aspect from those of Assyria. Histoire booty thirt)'-two Aitcicniie. although the decorative details were all borrowed from the latter country.426 A to History of Art was it in Ancient Egypt. . never imitate it the arrangements of this imposing building elsewhere. It seems by no means unlikely that one of their architects acclimatize an artistic conception to should have attempted to which was so well calculated impress the imaginations of the people and none of the . that who they as a rule were fond of repeating themselves became almost incapable of inventing new forms. Among perfume shrubs. p. may be distinguished these shrubs were planted by the orders of Hatasu in the gardens of Thebes. see Maspero's paper entitled : Navigatio}is des Egxptiens siir 1878). this . that " Are we consider had. 285. . an accident. after their conquest of Egypt. to which access was obtained by majestic flights of steps. trodden the time. 202. 203. ° Maspkro. civilization. On the subject De quelques of Hatasu and her expedition. So too the Egyptians. in spite of the pride which they to felt in their ancient may have been unable in the control their admiration when they found themselves. than the high spirited in the . Ics Coles de la Afer Ervthrce (in the Revue Hisfori'jiie. the stepped building at Dayr-el-Bahari was built shortly after an army for in under Thothmes.and who was the first to launch a fleet upon the waters of the Red Sea. in its soil of Egyptian Mesopotamia the first and found monumental buildings constructed great cities so ? terraces Why did the Egyptians. asks Ebers. before those loft)' towers with their successive terraces. The materials are wanting for a definite answer but the suggestion of Professor Ebers is probable enough. /Egypten. pp. in baskets. one of them being the highest that has remained erect who made the first recorded attempt at acclimatization . in its foreign influence to be traced arrangements. sovereigns of Egypt was better fitted to preside over such an attempt queen who reared two obelisks and enterprising Hatasu. unless was because its forms reminded them of their foreign enemies and therefore seemed to be worthy of condemnation ? " ^ We are content with asking the question and with calling its interest. ' Ebers. wide plains of Persia. The bas-reliefs at Dayr-el-Bahari represent the booty brought back by flatasu from the expedition into Fount.

religious is architecture of Egypt. work was. in all its richness and known to us only through the monuments of the second Theban Empire. or his whether he drew his ideas entirely from his own In brain. and easy gradients like these. most parts of the Nile Valley sites are to be found which lend them- selves readily to such a building. could defile with great effect. cartouches and replaced her It is titles with those of her brothers. deserving of high praise. and in which subterranean Upon a series of wide platforms chambers could be excavated. which played such an important part in the Egyptian ritual. in either case." ' nowhere in Eg) pt has any building of conbeen discovered in which the peculiar arrangements of Dayr-el-Bahari are repeated. they preferred a different combination. When the princes of the nineteenth dynasty wished to raise funerary temples to their memory in their own capital. Why did such a model find no imitators } Must we seek for the reason in the apparent reaction against her The Egyptian memory which followed the death of Hatasu } people chose to look upon her as an usurper they defaced the they eftaced her inscriptions which celebrated her campaigns '' . upon which the erection of successive terraces would involve no architectural difficulties. At most it may be said that something of the same kind is to be found in those rock-cut temples of Nubia which are connected with the river bank by a dromos and flights of steps. to find sites upon the slopes of the western chain similar to that which Hatasu had employed with such happy results but certain that siderable dimensions . Histoire Aiicieime. ' We are Maspero. . . as time went on. through the great works of the kings belonging to the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. The variety. and there no lack of rocky walls against which porticoes could be erected. 427 artistic crea- was inspired by those tions of the Chaldees which. The is soil has a gentle slope. and they chose not essentially differ from that of the great temples on the opposite bank of the Nile. were multiplied over the whole basin of the Euphrates and even spread as far as northern Syria. while under every portico and upon every landing place they could find resting places and the necessary shelter from the sun. had they chosen. a form which did They erected their ceno- taphs in the plain. 203. it would have been easy. p.The Temple under the New Whether Hatasu's architect Empire. at some distance from the hills. the pompous processions.

tempted. that is. architects the earlier or some other purpose made the mistake of seeking for difficulties merely to show how cleverly they could overcome them. but they were never used except when they were required. and decorations of those temples which the princes of the twentysixth dynasty. The contractors of an earlier age were also in the habit of employing blocks which seem astonishing to us from their length and size. which Amasis transported from the quarries at great cost in order that it might be erected in the sanctuary of the said temple unhappily it was so much injured on the journey that his intention had to be abandoned. ecstasies over the propylsa. for grace. ii. and described by him in of the whole of 175. but simply to impress their contemporaries with an exaggerated idea of their wealth and power. It is probable that the same qualities existed in the religious architecture of Sais. confided to their skill. and the Greek writers have but vague accounts to supply their place. there is a new desire for elegance.' All that we learn from the historian is that the Sait princes made use of colossal stones in their buildings without much regard to their appropriateness. He describes in great detail a chapel carved out of a single block of Syene granite. to believe that the architects of the Sait period must have introduced fresh beauties into the plans. in their desire that their capital and the other cities of the Delta should rival or excel the magnificence of Memphis and Thebes. carried sometimes to an extreme which is not free from weakness and affectation. never attributed by Herodotus to Psemethek. which Amasis added to the temple of Neith at Sais. and over the enormous size of the stones employed. In all that we possess from this last period of artistic activity in Egypt. however. Both the statues and the royal tombs of the Sait period have characteristics which distinguish them from those of earlier epochs. .. the followinof & terms : — " Havine become master Herodotus. proportions. Unhappily all the buildings constructed in Memphis and Lower leaving left Egypt during the Sait supremacy have disappeared hardly a trace behind. It is to be regretted that we know so little of the monument to cover a void . us nothing into Herodotus goes the pylons and outer courts. 428 A History of Art in Ancient Egytt.

Colossal statues. 153. of which. in which the arrangements must have i:een very different from those required in the abode of an inanimate deity. In it the god was present in flesh and blood. and to exhibit him to the crowd or conceal him. of which stable or cattle-shed was one of the primitive meanings. The architect of Psemethek borrowed a motive which had long been disused." and of the means by which they hoped to rival their predecessors. it Herodotus does not instance. . and did not themselves uphold an entablature. and special arrangements were necessary in order to provide for his wants. in the It was a peristyle ^ peristyles of the fore-courts or the hypostyles of the pronaos. The problem was solved. tlic " Herodotus uses word a'-Xy. in taking account merely of the general effect. Psemethek made use of it t'or the decoration of what was no more than a cattle stable. It is tell us what form the caryatides took in this unlikely that they were Osiride figures of the king. in temples. there are many examples at Thebes. as in other Egyptian buildings. propylaea he also caused to be constructed an edifice in which Apis was nourished as soon as he had manifested himself these ornamented with figures." We may assume that these colossi were. Psammitichos constructed those propylaea of the temple of In front of Hephaistos which he to the south of that building. The most important point to be noticed in this short extract from the Greek historian is the hint it contains of the attempts at originality made by the later generations of Egyptians. and employed it under novel conditions. as in the ' Theban ii.The Temple under the New Empire. it must be confessed. The caryatid form of pier is generally found. a god for its inhabitant. the building with an insistance which led the historian to pay special attention.^ The stable in question had. were employed as supports. he doubtless used an expression which is not quite accurate. Herodotus was not an architect. but as Apis was the incarnation of Herodotus. 429 Egypt. temples. and. in a method satisfactory to the Egyptians. as the ritual demanded. and so far it might be called a temple but it was a temple of a very pecu. however. placed immediately in front of the real supports. by " men born too late in too old a century. instead of columns. apparently.liar kind. twelve cubits high. as the guide who attended Herodotus called his attention to .

. island. 406. and upon which they discharged their loads. This is not the place for its detailed consideration. which grew into frequent use in the Ptolemaic epoch.to every prying eye be a temple ? Ebers is Close to it the disposed to look upon it as a waiting-room. Here. Egypt temporarily recovered her independence more than once. Between the days of Camb)ses and those of Alexander. Its aims. We may. richly-decorated wall. Thus the faithful who came to be present at the rites of Isis would assemble in the waiting-hall. cattle-shed at Memphis. whose image is carved all over it but could an edifice thus open to the outward air and . mention a work carried out no more than years before the Greek conquest. therefore. which forms a kind of screen between the lower part of the columns. the great deity of Memphis. whence they would be conducted by the priests to that sanctuary which became the object of so many pilgrimages in the later years of the Eg\-ptian monarchy. etc. The art of that period during which numerous works were carried out and many others restored was a prolongation of the art of the Salt princes. but one must point it out as a second result of the .^ remains of a wide staircase are to be traced. This screen does not extend quite half-way up the columns these latter support an entablature. methods. in the island of Philse.430 A in History of Art in An'ciext Egypt. are here encountered for the first time. There are no internal subdivisions of any kind. Certain peculiarities in the management of the column. . Ptah. in spite of the limits which we have imposed upon ourselves. nothing which resembles a secos. as in the ' monumental p. or rather rectangular court. desire shown by the architects of the period to achieve new developments without breaking the continuity of the national traditions. but there has never been a roof of any kind. According to all the plans which have been published. and taste were entirely — — similar. they may very possibly have been carved • the imao-e of that god. all the rest It is sometimes called the southern the oldest building upon the being Ptolemaic or Roman. Egypfe. There can be no doubt that the building was consecrated to Isis. fifty We mean the Its temple. in the reign of Nectanebo small building which is I. it contained only one hall. inclosed by fourteen graceful columns and a low. against which boats were moored. arrangements are different to anything we have hitherto encountered in religious architecture.

li^iW 'f\ [^. i -? >i5Sad r.li&j\.I i^a_.MU^iX-^^^ l^B^^^'jyS r^' m..-— y^'i . "^- '-1^.> -^-j^^^ 'vBN^ .fi^ r'\i= I m^:M^::::^Jtf !\ J H^:Cj ts'^!?^- ® -^^^ •^ .

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But must all hope of recovering something from the ruins of Sais be abandoned ? Mariette himself made some excavations upon its site. the suuimer-housc of rises Tiberijis. We should find in it at least hints and foreshadowinofs of those origfinal features of which we shall have to speak when we arrive at the Unhappily. &c.Egyptian temples. but the repetition of forms in a much later generation proves that answered in to a real change in the national taste and to new and aspirations the national genius. It is nothing more than a replica of Nectanebo's its creation it is larger and similar. amid a bouquet of palm-trees. 252). . deeper and more prolonged excavations might bring to light sufficient indications of the ordonnance and plans tecture of the Sait period of the more important buildings to permit of some attempt at restoration being made. Perhaps. the point of the island is certainly novel in form . 433 no invention of new forms all the architectural elements It is the general introduced are to be found in earlier buildings. the eastern temple of the drawing is seen on the right. We have omitted to speak of those little temples known since the time of Champollion as iiiaiiimisi or places for accouchement. Painting. the eastern temple. and their successors have been recovered from the sands of Egypt. Whatever by edifice erected Nectanebo at the southern we may call it. we have found its it nothing like it either in Egypt or in Nubia. of Kerdasch or Gaiiasse in its Nubia resembles the Eastern Temple at Philse in plan date appears to be unknown.^ proportions are more lofty. as none of the temples Graeco. and confessed that he was discouraged by their result. It has been variously called the bed of Pliaraoh. we shall be reduced to conjecture on this point. engraving. however.^ ' The temple . photography have building given us countless reproductions of the picturesque which on the eastern shore of the island. or rather by their want of result. If we knew it better. built by Psemcthek. Empire. Amasis. L K . we should probably find that the archi- formed the transition between that of the second Theban empire and that of the Ptolemies. The best preserved is that of Denderah. because the existing examples all belong to the Ptolemaic period. aspect and physiognomy of the building that is new. while the filled up with the pylons of the great temple of Isis (Fig. but its plan is quite In the sketch lent to is us by M. the great hyperthra.The Temple uxder the New there is . Hector left Leroux. X It is VOL.

in a continual attempt to improve it. We borrow the words of No one has become more thoroughly Mariette upon the subject. and to the as we see it in its finest and most comjjlete expression. Itincraire. (Eeers. began the have an influence upon many of the important not upon general not be aspects of the national architecture. and he published circumstantial descripIn tions of Abydos. i. General Charactcj-istics of the Egyptian Temple. p. 19 . We shall freely extract from his pages all those expressions which seem to us to give the best rendering of their author's ideas.. vol. that tlie custom of building these little edifices by the side of those great temples where a triad of gods was worshipped dated back as far as the Pharaonic period. that he was imported into Egypt from the country of the Aromati. if art. We now know that his name was Bes. This deity has.^ " The Egyptian temple must the Christian not be confused the with that of Greece. and to bring out most clearly the originality which belongs to the monuments cannot do better for our purpose than of \vhich he treats. . he explored their ruins and sounded most of them down to their foundations. 157-159 ' ' Karnak.434 A History of Art in Anciekt Egypt. pji. the enemy of Osiris. to make it clear and precise. 15. and Denderah. monographs and in the Itindraire these de la Haute-Egypte. however. § 4. The mammisi symbolised the celestial dwelling in which the goddess gave birth to the third person of the triad. with church. however. pji. 255. from the effigy of a grimacing deity which figures in their decoration. and that he presided over the toilette of women. or with Mohammedan probable. The authors of the Dtscription called them Typhoiiia. in the buildings of the great Theban Pharaohs. Karnak. etc. that before The reader will surprised to find we conclude our study we wish latter to give a resnnid of the in leading ideas which seem to be embodied define the temple. he returned to his definition again and again. We from the most ancient monument to the period have now conducted our history of the Egyptian temple to which that title can be given when Greek details. Dayr-el-Bahari. 13-16. with acquainted the temples of the Nile valley. introduced into the country by the to Macedonian conquest. 16. L'EgypU. Voyage dans la Haufe-Egypte. p. He visited them all at his leisure.) Mariette. nothing in common with Set-Typhon.

temples are covered point of departure.). precious representations This fact explains of battles which the presence of those adorn the external walls of certain temples. in Fig. according I. the meeting of the faithful. This arrangement never varies. The hands whole decoration of a temj^le consisted therefore in an act of adoration on the part of the monarch repeated in various forms. in them by employing them upon the construction of their temples. flowers." The piety and gratitude of the monarch also found expression in the splendour of the great festivals of which the temple was the " The ceremonies scene several times in the course of the year. 254 was. The king makes an flowers. . By such deeds he proved his piety and merited the continuation of those favours for which the erection of a temple was meant to be an acknowledgment. The temple was prince by therefore the exclusive personal it emblems) to the god and asks for some favour in his answer the deity grants the favour demanded. common prayers a no public it ritual was celebrated no one was admitted to except the priests and the roj-al The temple was kind of oratory. It was not a place for . at the compositions. 435 mosque. on the other.General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple. monument in reared by the king in token of his own and the order to of the purchase the favour of the gods. " The elaborate decoration is with which all ' walls e. a piety. these are the subjects offering (meats. issuing from the sanctuary to be marshalled in the hypostyle hall. and tiers above tiers of pictures cover the walls from floor to ceiling. . within king. the one dug by Seti fortifications. for the recital of it . This canal was defended by and is called in inscriptions the Cutting {L'Egypte. one or of all more deities .^ all The king ascribed his successes in the field to the immediate protection of the gods. and afterwards traversing the open courts which lay between the buildings of thousands to the ' The canal figured in front of the Chariot of Rameses. . and the limbs of the animals sacrificed. only to be The essential : the king. fruits. in bringing capital. his monument of the whom was founded and decorated. consisted for the most part of great processions. and the same may be said of the general significance of the pictures on the one hand. to Ebers. etc. he was performing an act as agreeable to the ofods as when offerinof incense.xplained by admitting this element of this decoration is many pictures are arranged symmetrically side by the picture side. In combating the enemies of Egypt. the oldest of the Suez Canals.

xtensive store-rooms.^ul Pierret. with the sacred images. 253.) deposited priest to in Upon the occurrence of a festival. like the sanctuary had almost darkness ' in order to preserve the sacred vestments and other To follow these processions was an act of piety." translated into French Upon Amen-Ra " I am one of The stele of Suti and Har.' The ensigns of the gods. 328. pi. by P." A ritual to which so much material " pomp and circumstance scale. and it was . at the head of a brilliant other city. —The battle against the Khet. in Recueil de Travatix. the duty Luxor. the coffers in which their effigies or symbolic representations were inclosed. They a few perambulated the terraced sacred roofs. the temple and the great wall which incloses the whole. 72.436 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. their shrines and sacred barques were carried in these processions. called " ' flotilla. of the reputed conductors. : the following words addressed to when thou goest abroad. directed their course to some either by the Nile or by the waterway which they " ' the sacred canal. to which. a those Theban stele we find who follow thee at architects Tliebes. the naos. . which the kings were At other times all these objects were Fig. and. sallied from the inclosure which ordinarily shielded their rites from profane eyes. " was attached required preservation of so appliances on a great be kept in The total much apparatus itself. the was delegated by the king entered the naos and brought out the mysterious emblem which was hidden from all other eyes he covered it with a rich veil.is. required e. Upon rare occasions the priests. whom then carried under a canopy. p. (From ChampoUion. they launched upon the lake the barque with its many-coloured streamers.

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dust. 439 There is nothing in insects which they engender. Such duties. part of the ritual was performed in the open air. and the few liturgical acts in the naos were short and took place before a They consisted of a few prayers said by very restricted audience. except the king and the priests. less fortunate. any of the public were admitted into the building. Certain privileged individuals or classes were admitted into the latter on the occasion of a festival others. for the periodical festivals had also to go on in that part of the temple. The huge and closely spaced columns would embarras the movements and intercept the view of those who crowded about their bases. objects from the deteriorating effects of sun. There is nothing to lead us to suppose that. could be readily discharged by the practised and disciplined jsriests in the half light of the sanctuary. There seems to have been no necessity for anything beyond the most subdued All the important daylight within the chambers of the temple. heat. and power of the king who constructed it. " The temples show no trace of dwelling-places for the priests. It offered no place in which the faithful could assemble to listen to religious discourses. and even the almost total darkness of the apartments which were ranged behind it. the king or by the chief priest. however. nor of any contrivance for divination or the giving of oracles. and the the texts which . It was their rio-ht to be the first to see the god as he emerged from the sanctuary on the shoulders of the priests. The hypostyle hall was lofty and wide in order that it might be a vestibule worthy of the god who dwelt in the sanctuary beyond it. were compelled to wait in the courtvards. to sing and pray in common. It was only in the central aisle that sufficient space was left for the easy passage of a procession. seems to hint at the celebration of any rites in the dark parts of the temple by artificial light. wealth. these halls would have been ill fitted for the uses to which the spacious naves of a church or mosque are put.General Characteristics of the Egyptian Temple. to unite in the expression of their faith and hope. . and no trace of the discoloration caused by smoke has been found upon the walls. nor of places for initiation. and in order that it might bear witness by its magnificence to the piety. But in spite of their vast dimensions." at least beyond the hypostyle hall. and in the presentation of the The cares of maintenance and of preparation traditional offerings.

his son nucleus. the temple was him the dwelling of the god. should find the chief point of distinction between the temples of Egypt and those great religious edifices of our own times with which we half involuntarily compare all other works of the kind. the pronaos. But the Greek temple was no more a church than its Egyptian rival. and }-et they created types which differed very greatly. the terrestrial resting-place to which the and the nursling of the goddesses. Could we see them as they left their architects' hands. its In virtue of the sanctuary which was king. in the first place. it is difficult enough to form a true idea of the former appearance of the Egyptian temples. in virtue of those numerous chambers which surrounded the sanctuary. had the same points of departure the problems which they had to solve strongly resembled each other. by the door and by a few openings contrived in the roof. Such being the origin and purpose of the temple. of the wall which divided the really secret parts of the building from . the custody of the sacred furniture. It was not a place of assembly for public praise or religious Its cella was an inclosed chamber. came in to offer thanks and to do homage return for the protection and support which he received. . This fortification consisted.440 A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The temple was also. and now that all the roofs and ceilings have fallen and encumbered the floors. The . and preservation of holy objects a huge sacristy to which access was forbidden to all but those who were specially attached to the service of the god and charged with . secondly. we need feel no surprise at the triple fortification behind which it was entrenched. of the wall of masonry which embraced the temple proper. consecration. a place for the preparation. leaving a narrow passage only wide enough for the walk of a sentry thirdly. Egyptian and Greek. illuminated only teaching. we should be struck by the jealous severity of their isolation. Now that the line of the external wall is only indi- cated by a gentle swell of the ground. of the inner walls are now that the best preserved broken down in many places. of the brick wall which formed the outermost inclosure . by the austere monotony of the screen of stone which was interposed between the eyes of the In this we people and the internal splendours of the building. reserved for the god who inhabited it. and The two architects in fact.

and although the task of both their alternate voids solids. this trans- position of the elements employed was sufficient in to cause a profound difference in the of their several works. 441 Greek temple was not it isolated all and hidden behind a stone curtain its . . from Horeau. still the physiognomy. play of light and shadow afforded by reserved The colonnades by the Fig.General Characteristics of the Egyptian. while they charmed eyes with the and Egyptian for the decoration of courts and halls were placed by the Greek upon the external faces of his temples.Temple. Bcit-Wali .. architects was almost identical requirements. outward expression. in tlie tact that more characteristic difference is to the Greek temple is not susceptible. I. could be seen from sides in commanding all position to . — The goddess AnouKe suckling Ramcses to fulfil II. its encircling band of porticos seemed to invite all comers the shelter of their galleries. 255. Another and perhaps be found VOL.

and the elements of which it was to be composed could only vary within very narrow limits. When we know its a plant is seen bursting from the seed. and It its is fruit will be like. the centuries when she the taste for the colossal eclipsed the love for the great. The is trench dug to to receive footing is stones of the cella walls the hole into which the seed is which the whole temple spring. all these parts there was an intimate and clearly defined degree of luxury desired. from the day upon which the foundation was had been virtually complete. as well as the height of the columns and Between the projection of the entablature. and of the bas-reliefs of the frieze. These walls thrown from rise above the level of the ground. but this portico would only be a kind of adornment. to a great extent. but from the day upon which the seed was sown. the temple certain definite limits. flower. it we to are able. the law which governed its development. never dreamed or imagined anything of the kind. produced anything like Karnak or Luxor even . just as the modelling of the human form may be distinguished under the The cella drapery of a statue. the In accordance with would be either surrounded by a simple wall or would be encircled by a portico. and the foretell the limits of its height.442 like A History of Art in Ancient Egypt. The Greek temple had the unity of a living organism. Behind the lonof files of columns on either side. was proportioned to the sacred figure which was to be its inhabitant. the cella connection. the body of the temple could always be discerned. Like an organic body. Such was not the case with the Egyptian temple. and forbade it in advance to excede laid. in spite of the folds which cover it. Given the main dimensions. were determined. again. the same. behind the double or triple rows which veiled the two facades. which. of almost infinite extension. the Greek temple inclosed within itself the principle of its own growth. with the Greek temple. to say beforehand what leaves. a vesture which would be more or less rich and ample according to circumstances. afforded a standard by which the proportions and subjects of the groups which filled the pediments. . Greece never in that of Egypt. In those of small or moderate dimensions this unity and simplicity of plan . if the species to which its belongs. the building progresses to completion.

imposing It is significant that even among such an pile of buildings as those of Karnak. being dominated by Abydos or Gournah. in the manner of an inorganic body. wedged tog^ether. In another we find a succession of courts. she found herself obliged either to sacrifice the unity of the temple by dividing it up into distinct naves and sanctuaries. The peripteral temple of Elephantine Khons may be given as instances of this impression received The still from the ruins of more from those of Karnak or Luxor. of Sometimes hypostyle halls and chambers. which. The temple was enlarged by additions made at its two extremities. We are sometimes at a loss to decide the uses of all the chambers of so vast and complex a structure. When Egypt of herself had arrived to wished to erect temples summit of her greatness and her gods which should be worthy both at the and of them. so that no limit could be logically assigned to its development. exists to a certain extent. egyptologists have found it impossible to agree as to the situation of the heart and organic centre all of the whole. General Characteristics of the EgvptiaxX Temple.. because our knowledge of the circumstances of ancient Egyptian worship is still far from complete. is not the loftiest part of the building. of forests of columns. as it was left by the Pharaohs and their successors. hypostyle hall and pylons. There we find several sanctuaries closely is very different. and there was nothing to prevent him doubling the number if he had chosen to do so. in one place the architect has built seven in a row. That centre exists . and yet our imagination can give to it even greater dimensions artistic than it actually If possessed without it injury to its expression. it existed before those sumptuous additions of which it was the cause. the worship of which was the scene . The vestibule and other subsidiary parts mask the real dwelling of the god. it requires considerable search to pitch upon the sanctuary. But it would seem that its influence failed to make itself felt beyond a certain distance. is the most colossal work of architecture which has come down to us from antiquity. Karnak. or to hide the main parts by the accessories in such a fashion that the sanctuary seems to be lost among the annexes which envelop it in front and rear. 445 and even the temple of in them there is much with which the most exclusive philo-Greek can sympathize. all of the same size and decorated in the same fashion. again.

END OF VOL. it would have been easy to add new pylons. AMI TAYI 'JR. SONS. rEINTERS. 9nw/^ .444 A History of Art in Ancient Egyi'T. I. new courts. it would have been impossible to make additions to the Parthenon as it left the hands of Ictinus and Phidias. . and new hypostyle halls to those already existing but had the worship of Athene endured through as many ages as that of Ptah or Amen. LONnON : R. had endured a few centuries longer. CLAY.