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Basic Data Analysis

Basic Data Analysis

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Exploring Marketing Research

William G. Zikmund

Chapter 20: Basic Data Analysis

Descriptive Analysis
• The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information

Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Type of Measurement

Type of descriptive analysis

Two categories

Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode

Nominal
More than two categories

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Type of Measurement

Type of descriptive analysis

Ordinal

Rank order Median

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Type of Measurement

Type of descriptive analysis

Interval

Arithmetic mean

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Type of Measurement

Type of descriptive analysis Index numbers Geometric mean Harmonic mean

Ratio

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Tabulation
• Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format • Frequency Table • Percentages

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Frequency Table
• The arrangement of statistical data in a rowand-column format that exhibits the count of responses or observations for each category assigned to a variable

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Central Tendency

Type of Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval or ratio

Measure of Central Tendency Mode Median Mean

Measure of Dispersion None Percentile Standard deviation

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Cross-Tabulation
• A technique for organizing data by groups, categories, or classes, thus facilitating comparisons; a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables • Contingency table- The results of a crosstabulation of two variables, such as survey questions
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Cross-Tabulation
• • • • Analyze data by groups or categories Compare differences Contingency table Percentage cross-tabulations

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Base
• The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages

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Elaboration and Refinement
• Moderator variable
– A third variable that, when introduced into an analysis, alters or has a contingent effect on the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. – Spurious relationship
• An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic.

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Quadrant Analysis

Two rating scales

4 quadrants two-dimensional table

ImportancePerformance Analysis)

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Data Transformation
• Data conversion • Changing the original form of the data to a new format • More appropriate data analysis • New variables

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Data Transformation
Summative Score = VAR1 + VAR2 + VAR 3

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Collapsing a Five-Point Scale
• Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree • Strongly Agree/Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree/Strongly Disagree

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Index Numbers
• Score or observation recalibrated to indicate how it relates to a base number • CPI - Consumer Price Index

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Calculating Rank Order
• Ordinal Data • Brand Preferences

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Tables
• Bannerheads for columns • Studheads for rows

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Charts and Graphs
• Pie Charts • Line Graphs • Bar Charts
– Vertical – Horizontal

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Line Graph

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Bar Graph
100 80 60 East 40 20 0 1st Q tr 2nd Q tr 3rd Q tr 4th Q tr W est N orth

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Computer Programs
• • • • SPSS SAS SYSTAT Microsoft Excel

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Computer Programs
• Box and Whisker Plots • Interquartile range - midspread • Outlier

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Interpretation
• The process of making pertinent inferences and drawing conclusions • concerning the meaning and implications of a research investigation

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