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Pherecydes of Syros

Pherecydes of Syros

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Pherecydes of Syros: Ancient Theologian and Genealogist Author(s): D. L.

Toye Reviewed work(s): Source: Mnemosyne, Fourth Series, Vol. 50, Fasc. 5 (Oct., 1997), pp. 530-560 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4432771 . Accessed: 25/11/2012 07:36
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PHERECYDES ANCIENT THEOLOGIAN

OF AND

SYROS: GENEALOGIST

BY

D.L. I. Introduction1). Both cydes' tion of 1947, ancient Felix'

TOYE

as one of the earliest

scholars

a 'Phererecognized writers. Since the prose publicaThe First Athenian Prose Wntery in article, Jacoby's his view that there were have generally accepted and modern scholars have Greek

1) The following works are cited by author's name only or in abbreviated form: A. Boeckh (ed.), Pindari Interpretano Latina (Hildesheim 1963); W. Burkert, ?or? and Sciencein AncientPythagoreanism (Cambridge, MA. 1972); L. Cohn, Didymos, RE 5.1 (1905), 445 fi.; H. Diels (ed.), DoxographiGraeci(Berlin 1958); H. Diels, W. Kranz (ed.), Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (Berlin 1934-35); W. Dindorf (ed.), Scholia Graeca in Homeri Odysseam(Amsterdam 1962); M. J. Edwards, Numenius, Pherecydes, and the Cave of the Nymphs, CQ 40 (1990), 258-262; H. Erbse (ed.), Scholia Graecain Homeri Iliadem (Berlin 1983); D. Fehling, Die sieben Weisen und die fr?hgriechische (New York 1985); C. Fornara, The Nature of History in Ancient Greeceand Chronologie Rome (Berkeley 1983); P. M. Fraser, PtolemaicAlexandria (Oxford 1972); K. von LiteraturFritz, Die griechische (Berlin 1967); J. Geffcken, Griechische Geschichtsschreibung geschichte (Heidelberg 1926); O. Gigon (ed.), Aristotele Opera (Berlin 1987); A. Gudeman, Scholien, RE 2A.1 (1923), 623 fT.; F. Jacoby, The First Athenian Prose zur griechischen Writer,in: H. Bloch (ed.), Abhandlung (Leiden 1956), Geschichtschreibung Historiker(Leiden 1923-58) 100-143; F. Jacoby (ed.), Die Fragmenteder griechischen (Cam{FGr Hut); G. S. Kirk, J. E. Raven, M. Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers bridge 1983); R. Lamberton, Homer the Theologian(Berkeley 1986); S. Lilja, On the Style of the Earliest GreekProse (Helsinki 1968); L. Pearson, Early Ionian Historians From the Beginnings to the (Oxford 1939); R. Pfeiffer, The History of Classical Scholarship End of the HellenisticAge (Oxford 1968); R. Pfeiffer (ed.), Callimachus(Oxford 194953); E. Rohde, Kleine Schriften (Hildesheim 1969); W. J. Slater, Aristophanesof Byzantium on the Pinakes of Callimachus,Phoenix 30 (1976), 234-241; R. Thomas, Oral Traditionand WrittenRecordin ClassicalAthens(Cambridge 1989); F. Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles(Basel 1967-78); C. Wendel (ed.), Scholia in Apolhnium Rhodium and the Orient(Oxford 1971); Vetera (Berlin 1958); M. L. West, Early GreekPhilosophy M. L. West, The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women(Oxford 1985); M. L. West, The Orphic Poems (Oxford 1983); M. L. West, R. Merkelbach (ed.), Hesiod (Oxford 1990); M. L. West (ed.), Iambi et Elegi (Oxford 1971); Ulrich von Wilamowitz-MoeUendorff, Pherekydes, Sitzungberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Kl. (1926), 125 ff. ? Koninklijke Brill, Leiden, 1997 Vol. L, Fasc.5 Mnemosyne,

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PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST two from and Greek writers named

531

early

prose

Syros, who an historian

has supopinion genealogies the views of Wilamowitz both of Geffcken, andj. planted opposing of the Athenian and idenwhom rejected the existence Pherecydes tified The the Syrian as the only early prose writer with that name3). review of the ancient for a 'Pherecydes' and the testimony of attributed to the Athenian and the Syfragments 'Pherecydes' rian suggests that Jacoby's is the incorrect one. position Jacoby was scholars concerning the by a controversy among Hellenistic who a a of both identity single 'Pherecydes' composed theogony It can be shown through the examination and heroic genealogies. misled of the surviving of this work that its author was Pherefragments of who lived at the end of the sixth century B.C. Syros cydes Before we begin this examination, we must first summarize Jacoby's cydes Dionysius views. from He inferred the existence of the Athenian Pherethe testimony of three Hellenistic authors, Eratosthenes, of Halicarnassus, and Strabo. Eratosthenes (FGr Hist 241 of Syros and between the theologian FIO) distinguished Pherecydes the genealogist of Athens. (1.13) declared Pherecydes Dionysius that among the genealogists of Athens was second to Pherecydes none. noted that Pherecydes of Athens had lived (10.487) more than Pherecydes of Syros. Jacoby identified this recently Athenian with an historian named who was listed in Pherecydes Eusebius' chronicle and whose acme was assigned to the 81st OlymStrabo

a theogony composed from Athens, who recorded in the fifth century B.C.2). Jacoby's

Pherecydes: in the sixth

a theologian century B.C., heroic myths and

2) Jacoby, 100-143. Jacoby assembled the fragments which he assigned to the Athenian in FGr Hist 3. Jacoby was not the first to posit the existence of an Athenian and Syrian Pherecydes. This conclusion was first reached by G. J. Vossius (1577-1649), De histori?isGraecisLibri IV (Westmead, England 1970), 445. Many scholars before Jacoby's article accepted this view. See F. G. Sturz, Graecorum v. 2 Pherekydis Fragmenta(Leipzig 1824); K. M?ller, Fragmentahistoricorum des Pherekydes, in: W. Burkert (ed.), (Paris 1853), 70-99; H. Diels, Z? Pentemychos Kleine Schriftenzur Geschichte der antiken Philosophie(Hildesheim 1969), 23-35; DielsKranz, 7; J. B. Bury, The Ancient GreekHistorians (London 1909), 8-21; Richard Laqueur, Pherekydes(genealoge),RE 19 (1938) 1991-2024. Since Jacoby's work, scholars have studied the fragments as assigned to the Athenian or the Syrian in the collections of Diels and Jacoby. See West, Early GreekPhilosophy, 1-75; Kirk, von Athen. Grundriss 50-71; Schibli, 132-134; Von Fritz, 84-86; A. Uhi, Pherekydes und Einheit des Werkes(Munich 1963); Fornara, 4-12. 3) Wilamowitz, 125-136; Geffcken, 98-99, note 106.

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165. of Eratosthenes.Ol. and other fifth century prose Pherecydes. 169. Pherekydes for the Lerian Pherecydes in the Suda. Herodotus.532 D. Jacoby supposed aware of a work by the Athenian which would have Pherecydes. who reportedly (480/77 a little B. an historian menflourished that around this Lerian the the 75th Phere- piad (456/53 Pherecydes tioned by cydes flated Olympiad was with The Jacoby argued Hellenistic writer whom Suda conir- Pherecydes4). Thucydides.1).). 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .218 on Sun. Suda were derived insisted that Eratosthenes was stating a fact concerning Jacoby an assertion.) (Eus.168. 130.L. The absence of the ethnic that many appears to indicate to distinguish one that knew in the majority of the citations ancient authors were not compelled thereby suggesting that name. 156. s. 90d.C. There are 224 citations of simply "Pherecydes" in the collections of Jacoby and Diels. 6. the date of a Pherecydes the Suda. 12. 166. 162. 174. Diels-Kranz 7 A8. Pherecydes of a only single author with the absence ethnic in the citaof a qualifying and lexicograthat the scholiasts Lerios . la. 2. and five of these are by a single author. Chron. Jacoby further argued that EratosCallimachus by an Athenian since this Pherecydes this Pherecydes thenes labeled would have identified his native city in the opening of his work been just as did writers. 10.C. FGr Hist 3 F35c. 91. Jacoby. 110-136. 5) In ancient literature there are nine citations of the Athenian Pherecydes. despite of Athens or Syros speciwhile only rarely citing a Pherecydes fically5). FGr Hist 3 136c. ???? B. There are eleven citations of Pherecydes of Syros.v. See Rohde. a Byzantine lexicon. 9. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. by arguing eliminated the distinguishing many fragments phers who preserved of earlier ethnic Athenaios when the commentaries epitomizing they however. testimony Jacoby of the Athenian refutable evidence for the existence dates the earlier Athenian provided and the by both Eusebius supplied research. The verb gegono's can signify both. Jacoby. the Athenian and not simply making Pherecydes cited the fact that ancient scholars usually 'Pherecydes'.82. refers to his birthdate or to his acme (40 years). Bl. but in most cases in the Suda the verb is used to mean acme. explained tions of 'Pherecydes' from another. It is unclear whether the date 4) Suda s. The among the books in the Library which had been catalogued in the Pinakes. maintained. He also ascribed to this of Leros. Since Eratosthenes from his ultimately chronological prethat he was sided over the Alexandrian Library. 177-178. known 81. 11.

Hellenistic scholars derived biographies of poets by interpreting remarks in their works as personal experiences and studying references to them by contemporary authors. for the Ancient of ethnic in the citations of a qualifying also whose works survive unabridged and lexicographers. any biographical He simply stated that there was none Jacoby. teaching (T9). as fields of study in antiquity all three of the above mentioned weaknesses are sufficient to bring into the these question Athenian three the validity Pherecydes. They conducted such studies to learn something about prose writers as well. for example. the Athenian is one reason to Pherecydes question was the cited often Hellenistic commentators so 'Pherecydes' by Athenian. scholars author as Jacoby have would whose opinion it is unlikely that Alexandrian maintained. problem explanation 'Pherecydes'. Pherecydes did not need to add an the other of the citation. as did scholiasts 'Pherecydes' lack writers cited consistently and genealogy were not so distinct ancient Furthermore. Scholars probably obtained these "facts" from Hellani- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. R. The many citations 6) Wilamowitz. in genealogy due to the context Jacoby. to separately clarify of of problems the of a biographical tradition absence surrounding (1) The If his existence. The Lives of the GreekPoets (Baltimore 1981). See M. them. and even the place of his death and his age at that time (Tl. yet ancient scholars recorded information regarding his family {FGr Hist 4T1). Jacoby adequately information the Athenian concerning Pherecydes. theology. of Jacoby's for the existence argument each let us now examine Therefore. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A second flaw in his argument is his complete faith in the testimony of Eratosand less was much more thenes. recorded heroic myths and genealogies. First. 25-39. Criticism of Jacoby's Arguments. a number of is impressive. Lefkowitz. 2. 125-136. Hellenistic speculative scholarship A is his insufficient than third Jacoby empirical supposed. but is not without Jacoby's argument the of not account for absence does flaws. 117-121). an about been content to know nothing they regarded highly6). Citations of his work in the scholia are fewer than those of * Pherecydes'.28). 121). 7-8.82. Hellanicus.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST Hellenistic He one further when was an ethnic scholars reasoned citing who that either in had in fact cited 533 ancient author scholars and of Athens. theology as Jacoby assumed. Taken together.168. travels (Tl). authority 102-105.218 on Sun.

In the scholia to the Odyssey. 625-651. 448-453. Wendel. 330-341. the Odyssey. Max.82. the comic poet (28). Ion of Chios in an epigram Syros In the middle of the fifth of 'Pherecydes' in number to those in the scholia of these works is in of the most cus* works or from those of his contemporaries. 5. Cohn. In the scholia to the Argonautica.50. See index to Dindorf.112. Sophocles. 851the citations of 'Pherecydes' (55) outnumber 855. FGr Hist 5 T4. Not counting the citations of Pindar and his Hellenistic commentators.again excluding the citations of Homeric commentators and Homer. 452465. modesty Theopompus Aristotle in the fourth century B. XLV-LVIII. all these poets except for Homer. Hesiod (51). Erbse. Euripides (27). See index to Boeckh. antiquity and the Athenian tragic poets8). discussed certain strange and from his life such as his various wondrous incidents prophetic and utterances9). was Pherecydes of Syros It is more likely that this 'Pherecydes' rather than the little known Athenian of Pherecydes. 'Pherecydes' and Apollonius Rhodius as a testify to his importance Euripides. Sophocles (45). Later writers followed Theopompus in attributing prophetic powers to this Pherecydes.534 of D.C. only the citations of Homer. Aristotle mentioned the strange disease which afflicted Pherecydes in HA 556b-557a. Pherecydes praised him for his virtue The historian and (Ion. Aristotle discussed since Pherecydes was reportedly Pherecydes' life in his lost work On the Pythagoreans the teacher of Pythagoras. and Euripides among the poets exceed in number those of "Pherecydes". 6:535-634. 5. 'Pherecydes' is cited 21 times in the scholia to Pindar.L. 7) Byzantine scholars compiled the various codices of the scholia to these works from epitomes of the commentaries of Didymus of Alexandria and other Hellenistic grammarians. Pindar. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. The citations of these authors are listed in the index to Erbse. XVIII. century B. Hesiod. Tert. ???? in the scholia to the Iliad.C. and Aristophanes. Aristotle F71 Gigon. only five authors are cited more frequently: Homer (281). See Damastes. Euripides (51). Callimachus. 19. In the scholia to Euripides. Early Peripatetic philosophers in their works on the appears often in ancient literature. See Gudeman.192. FGr Hist 115 F64-76. 9) Theopompus. the number of citations of 'Pherecydes' (17) is only exceeded by those of Hesiod. Tyr. 8) Excluding the citations of Homer and the Homeric commentators. Dindorf. 669-670. Callimachus (60). De an.218 on Sun. Hesiod. the number of citations of 'Pherecydes* in the scholia to the Iliad (19) is outnumbered only by seven other authors: Hesiod (125). Gudeman. was a "fact" derived from similarities between their works. Div. F30 West). See index to Wendel.168. Callimachus (36). Pliny HN 2. Hellanicus' reported relationship with his student Damastes. 795-805. The citations authorities comparable respected for Greek myths?Homer.5. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fraser. See Cic. Apollonius Mir. 1. for example. 28. XV-XVII. heroic and source of information for myths concerning genealogies Hellenistic commentators from whose works the scholia derive7). Pindar (68). Aeschylus (39). and Sophocles (22). Pindar.

Lactant. Inst. Satyrus in D. Tuse. Clem. D. Tyr. 7. 1. Tert. Pherecydes education12).L. Div. 7. VH 4. FGr Hist 115 F70-71. 2. Strom. 3.252. Ancient writers described his of the immortality and includtheologoi sages also circulated concerning of his tomb16). relations with other ancient ing Pythagoras15). Ap. Arist. C.8. FGr Hist 76 F22.). 10. 14) Cic. 3.14.7.40. Pythagoras' relationship with Pherecydes was mentioned by many authors.14.118. Sull. 4. 279. Neanthes of Cyzicus. period the life of Pherecydes of Syros was treated in the works of various writers: Duris ander Neanthes of Cyzicus. Al. FGr Hist 84 F30. Rohde.16. See Aristotle F71 Gigon. Hermippus F17 Wehrli. FGr Hut 76 F22. Tuse. Mir. Alexander. Chron. Bibl.29. FGr Hut 84 F30. 36. 8.116-122. Dicaearchus F34 Wehrli. Suda s. Iambi. Al. soul14). D.16. Pherekydes. 16) Cf.5.28.S. Dicaearchus F34 Wehrli. De an. Conflicting the manner of his death and or not these are reports the location or of such reports lore the biographical surrounding Syrian Pherecydes strongly sugof a 'Pherecydes' without gests that any citation any qualification can only be a reference to this famous wise man and not to Pherefiction. 12) Alexander Polyhistor.20. Pel. 11) D. 3. 1. D. 88. Hermippus. De an. Aristoxenus F14 Wehrli. 1. VH 4. Phot. Duris. FGr Hist 273 F85.S. Max. HA 556b-557a. Al.s.v. Hermippus F17 Wehrli. Theopompus. The of drew material from the works of these earlier information provided by these authors concerning is abundant. Lactant.L. Ael. 8. Aristotle F21 Gigon. Fior. Porphyry's History of Philosophywas the source for Hesychius' account of the sage's life preserved in the Suda. D. Porph.533a. Clem. 1. Duris. Pherekydes. In the Hellenistic Syros and Pythagoras. Strom. to investigate. biographies of Laertius and Pherecydes Syros by Diogenes (third Porphyry century writers11).38. Hermippus F6.L. VP 30.3.40. Antig. Paus.4. the existence Whether the of Samos. FGr Hist 790 Fl. Plu. Cic.???8.14. Polyhistor. 1. Tatianus Ad Gr. Clem. 1.37. 15) Hermippus F6 Wehrli. Aristoxenus F14 Wehrli. Apul. F//4. 8. 1. and A. Satyrus in D. Eus. FGr Hist 273 F85. Philo. cydes of Athens. 2.7. Acad. August. 10.v. Origen Cels. Tatianus Ad Gr.168.82.218 on Sun.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 535 mentioned the relationship between of Pythagoreans Pherecydes his pupil. 1. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 114-126. Pliny HN 7. Suda s. 7. Ael.4. 15. 17 Wehrli.172.8.116-118. Div. 1. J. Inst.28.1. D.59. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Tert.D. Syros views concerning travels13).3. and Diodorus Later of Siculus10). Strom. 15.2.L. Apul.18.3-110. Neanthes. Ael. 6. 21. VP 55. 13) Aristoxenus F14 Wehrli.Ol. 1. Flor.13. Plu.9-13. 1. about whose life no ancient scholar even bothered fact attribution of the fragments of 'Pherecydes' which (2) Jacoby's concern heroic myths and genealogies to an Athenian Pherecydes 10) Dicaearchus F34 Wehrli.L. AlexSatyrus.L.

218 on Sun. and that it was Eratosthenes who first attributed the latter work. 18) This approach differs from that of Wilamowitz who maintained that the work of 'Pherecydes' was a compilation of prose works concerning heroic genealogies written by anonymous Ionian authors and attributed to Pherecydes of Syros just as Ionian epics and medical treatises were ascribed to Homer and Hippocrates. authors.C. see Pfeiffer. sited the However. Jacoby mention the Athenian that Eratosgenealogos. 117. Eratosthenes. from his history of Geography. Jacoby was convinced thenes could not have invented tained17)." Jacoby. See FGr Hist 3 with commentary. for that it was unqualified we learn from him and from the witnesses dependent on him. 126-136. Eratosthenes was prompted to create an Athenian Pherecydes due to uncertainty about the identity of the author of a work by a A great deal of interpretation and speculation was 'Pherecydes'. not to mention the method of Kallimachos in the Pinakes. it may be sufficient to say that such an unqualified assertion on the part of Eratosthenes is quite inconceivable. in the process involved Alexandrian which scholars attributed by books were to not specific unusual. Jacoby successfully refuted Wilamowitz's theory of a corpusPherecydeum by demonstrating that the fragments of 'Pherecydes' belonged to a single work which was similar to other prose genealogical works of the late sixth and early fifth centuries B. 17) "Against the theory of Wilamowitz that before Eratosthenes the Pentamychos and the Historiae were regarded as having been written by the well-known theologian from Syros. Those ancient principles cited Pherecydes of Athens were following Eratos- and did not reflect the views of most scholars who opinion cited and saw no need to distinguish between simply 'Pherecydes' one Pherecydes and another. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . According to Wilamowitz. as even entirely on the testimony since Eratosthenes was the first ancient writer to admitted.168. 19) Concerning Callimachus' Pinakes.L.g. as Wilamowitz mainthat Eratosthenes logically po- thodological writers who thenes' based on the mePherecydes that prevailed in his day18). existence it can be shown of an Athenian this author.82. Wilamowitz maintained. though it was written in the Ionic dialect. Wilamowitz's assumption contradicts all we know about Eratosthenes* method e. History. Moreover. Hellenistic for some these scholars Disagreements among for scholars. Wilamowitz. example. these authors completed and continued the theogony composed by Pherecydes of Syros. 123-133. questioned of works to various authors in the Pibooks only the name of the author Callimachus' attribution nakes^9).536 is based almost D. ???? of Eratosthenes. to an Athenian author invented by him for this purpose. recognized that these books were not written by the Syrian and assigned them to an Athenian Pherecydes since some of them dealt extensively with Attic myths. and the opinions as well as prejudices of ancient scholars generally. Dionysius of This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.

Eraand identified this 'Phereon name and stylistic conflicted the dating of the style and dialect employed by 'Pherecydes'. Schibli. cydes' as Pherecydes Eratosthenes the Syrian as the author rejected since his own for this Pherecydes grounds chronology with Callimachus Syros by that name. Laertius in his Diogenes (1. to an Epigenes instead of Ion of Chios.C. Eratosthenes his chronology constructed for both Pherecydes of and around the 48th Olympiad Syros Pythagoras (588/5 B.168. Eratosthenes' subsequent accepted apHalicarnassus disagreed with Callimachus' attribution of certain speeches to Demosthenes.121) of Pherecydes of Syros quoted the incipit of this work as biography it appeared in Callimachus' of Pinakes. unknown20). 129-133. Str. See Slater. 1. see Fraser. note 10. Concerning the editing and classification of books by Alexandrian scholars.C. it is clear that some scholars his chronology23). the Triagmoi. since homeland. Callimachus attributed this work tosthenes to the famous with wise man from disagreed of Athens22).) since in his Chronographiai he identified the philosopher Pythagoras of Samos and with of Pherecydes as to the sixth as well teacher. Callimachus F444. Pearson.) in recognizing Pherecydes of Syros as a student of Pittacus.C. See Pfeiffer.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 537 was while his homeland remained Such a known. Eratosthenes rejected Callimachus' assignment of early prose works to specific authors. Callimachus F449. an Olympic victor in that year with Eratosthenes would have assigned the same name This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 21) Diels-Kranz 7 Al. Syros. and there is no mention either the author's name or homeland21). dated the former to the early sixth century B.7.82. Although thenes for the date of Pherecydes of Syros. 234-241. he distinguished between those writers with an ethnic and those without one. 465-473.1) was consulting some Pinakes when. 5. 23) Alexander Polyhistor (first century B.218 on Sun. Scholars also questioned Callimachus' attribution of the treatise. 20) Varr? in his Res Rustica (1. situation existed in the case of the work of 'Pherecydes' since it did not contain a sphragL? at the beginning in which the author stated his homeland. Eratosthenes also disagreed with Callimachus' attribution of plays to the comic poets. History. 447 Pfeiffer. 31-32. Callimachus in the Pinakeslisted the tides of each author's books and quoted the opening phrase of each composition in order to avoid confusing different works with the same or similar tides as was often the case with prose works. early Pythagoras' century no ancient writer cited Eratos{FGr Hut 211 F10-11). 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . listing all Greek authors on agriculture. 305-335. 22) It would not have been unusual for Eratosthenes to disagree with Callimachus' attribution of works to specific authors.

Porphyry reported that this Pherecydes' acme occurred during the 45th Olympiad (600/597 B. L.). FGr Hut 244 F27. Apollodorus of Athens (second century B. Pfeiffer. Porphyry was ultimately the source for the article on Pherecydes of Syros in the Suda. Fornara 19. 23)25). Pritchett. 7. Since Eratosthenes he could of Syros to the early sixth century. History. Eratosthenes uage employed in works use did examine for the purpose Pittacus reportedly flourished around that time.L.82. Dionysiusof Halicarnassuson the First Greek Historians. The stylistic analysis of this work placed its author among the ranks of the 'ancient historians' to {archaioi sungrapheis). 279-302. According of these 'ancient historians' recorded Halicarnassus. FGr Hut 273 F85. Aristode F415-462 Gigon. 159-160. Demetrius of Phaleron listed the Athenian archons and the important events that had occurred during their terms of office. the Peloponnesian Dionysius historians' cient the labeled unadorned War prose and lived either shortly before or were contemporaries of it {Th. Eratosthenes published his own list of Olympic victors. See Ath. The Peripatetics possessed a scholarly interest in such lists and in archives. see W.C. Dionysius myths in simple. 25) For a translation and commentary to this passage in this work. analysis of the fragments historians' listed by Dionysius this classification since supports the characteristics which fragments stylistic generally possess authors One (Lilja. assigned Pherecydes not accept this Pherecydes as the author of the work of which he dated to a later 'Pherecydes' period based on its literary style. 14-49. 79-81. Theophrastus may have been the first to conceive of this classification of writers which Dionysius used. FGr Hut 241 F4-8. K. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. this classification of early accepted of it to attribute works to certain literary style and the langof classifying writers into to these attributed Dionysius can conclude that Eratosthenes and made prose writers authors. Toye. 5. 24) Aristotle compiled lists of victors in the Olympic and Pythian games as well as the winners of the Athenian dramatic festivals. 305-335. Alexander Polyhistor. and he consulted AristoUe's earlier list. Eratosthenes was a student of the Peripatetic Arist?n of Ceos. 73-116). 3.538 D. For a discussion of this passage. Rohde.C. ???? the date for this Pherecydes and Pythagoras proach to determining was the same as Peripatetic scholars who used lists of magistrates and contest winners to construct their chronologies24). FGr Hist 228 Fl-3. First.) in his Chronicleidentified Pittacus' acme as the 42nd Olympiad (612/9 B. Fraser. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 50-54. AJP 116 (1995).13. note 38.). Phainias F17-19 Wehrli with commentary.C.1). Phainias' Prytaneisof the Eresians was similarly arranged. Dionysius of Halicarnassus:On Thucydides (Berkeley 1975). of Athens as one of these 'ancient Pherecydes Modern of those 'an(1.168. Peripatetic thought influenced the Alexandrian Museum and Library. see D.218 on Sun.281c.

Third. 27) Eratosthenes in his geographical work cited Damastes and Xanthus.82. and Hecataeus as 'ancient historians'. It is therefore probable that Eratosthenes dated this Pherecydes to the middle of the fifth century B.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 539 categories and ascribing works to authors who fell into these catestudied the writings of the 'ancient Eratosthenes Second. Str.C. He also maintained that Hecataeus was the author of the two books of the Periegesisbecause of the similarities between these books and his others. Dionysius {Th. Hellanicus was one of the 'ancient historians' listed by Dionysius.49. The Suda's date for Hellanicus in its article on this author {FGr Hist 4 Tl) is listed as shortly before ta Persika(480/79). 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is not a coincidence that the acme for both this Pherecydes and Hellanicus is identical (456/5 B.C. Jacoby correctly maintained that the Suda confused the date of this historian with Eratosthenes' Athenian Pherecydes. by Eratosthenes person Timaeus concluded that there were two Spartan logical problem. 299 years after the Trojan War. Eratosthenes {FGr Hist 241 F1-2) and Apollodorus {FGr Hist 244 F61) agreed that Lycurgus flourished in 885 B. He also supposedly lived six generations after Proeles. 5) identified Damastes. in his Chronographiai in order to make him a of other 'ancient historians'28). In both the articles on Pherecydes of Leros and Hellanicus gegon?srefers to the birthdate rather than the acme. FGr Hist 244 F7 with commentary. 29) Timaeus. historians' listed by Dionysius27). we can assume that Dioin of Athens as an 'ancient historian' Pherecydes nysius labeling was the opinion of Eratosthenes since the latter was the following first to posit the existence of this Pherecydes. 234-241. The Suda assigns the same date to Pherecydes of Leros {FGr Hut 3 T3). Timaeus therefore concluded that the elder Lycurgus lived a litde later than Homer while the younger Lycurgus flourished at the time of the the double of a famous methods of respectable historian to only reputable in order to resolve a chrono- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. gories26).168.C. contemporary The invention of the Athenian Pherecydes would not have been He a violation was not of the the Hellenistic posit scholars. The scholars who determined Lycurgus' date using this information arrived at a date far earlier than 776 B. statesmen named to account for the different dates Lycurgus to this legendary Other historians resorted to assigned lawgiver29).. FGr Hist 566 F127. (Aristode F541 Gigon). 1. 28) Jacoby correctly maintained that the acme of the Pherecydes mentioned in Eusebius' Chroniclewas derived ultimately from Eratosthenes' Chronographiai.47.C. Str. 26) Eratosthenes established rules for proper Attic usage among Athenian comic poets and assigned works to those writers whose language followed these rules.7. 1.218 on Sun. See Apollodorus of Athens.G). Lycurgus reportedly established the first truce for the celebration of the Olympic games in 776 B. Slater. one of the first kings of Sparta. Xanthus.

1. Hellenistic homeland. own doublet. Aristotle'sInterestin Biography. Lye. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Strabo.82. 1. Plu. the Roman king Numa was a disciple of Pythagoras. Strom. first Olympiad. 240-241. Other scholars rejected this account and dated the philosopher to the second half of the sixth century B.65. 31) G. the Ionian migration (F155). This reconstruction Hellenistic and and research is speculative. treated Athenian myths Eratosthenes' of 'Pherecydes' indicate that this author and genealogies between extensively32).C. Huxley.) when Numa was king. 203-213. ???? the In for of the conflicting his determining philosopher Pythagoras30). and the heroic ancestry of the elder Miltiades (F2).15. Athenian But whatever identify in accepting his statement must be cautious scholar who was thenes was a controversial cient quent tioned critics Eratosthenes we Pherecydes. Clem.45. Num. only a handful and cited or menEratosthenes' assertion scholars accepted the Athenian Pherecydes specifically34). as fact since Eratos- often attacked by anof subsefor his errors33).218 on Sun.540 the same device to resolve D. 1). D. D. 32) Pherecydes' account of the exploits of Theseus was one of Plutarch's important sources in his biography of the hero.GRBS 15 (1974). Athenian the Syrian and for the past. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Chron. authors did not need a sphragis to identify an author's critic Crates both maintained that the Aristotle and the Hellenistic a native of Lydia because of was originally Spartan poet Alem?n identithe many allusions to this land in his poetry31). Apollodorus {FGr Hist 244 F63) reported that Homer's acm? was 944 B.L. 1. Eratosthenes' method was not unique. Al. 30) According to one report (Plu. 33) Str.168. Tatianus Ad Gr. Slater. 41. In positing the was not unlike that of other of Eratosthenes' line of chronologies the homeland distinction his chronology Pherecydes supported his method existence of the Athenian. Num.3. 1-3.63. 8.L. but it is less speculative reasoning that Erathan Jacoby's better supported position by the evidence from a sphragis. Eus. See Plu.s. Thes. The fragments also mention king Codrus (F154). Plu. Dionysius of Halicarnassus.Ol. tosthenes derived the native city of the Athenian for whose motivated existence there is no evidence to an whatsoever. and the grammarians Herodian and George Choeroboscus all cite the Athenian Pherecydes. Moreover. scholars. Hyginus. 10.S. 34) Philodemus. Eratosthenes as the native city of his Pherecydes fied Athens using the same the fragments criteria. Some historians therefore maintained that Numa was an associate of another Pythagoras from Sparta who was an Olympic champion in the 16th Olympiad (712/709 B.26. 19.C.1.C.

XXXIII-XXXV. 2\.15) indicated his familiarity with Eratosthenes' works and Chronographiai. Jacoby argued. even Athenian35). Thes. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . epithet and therefore to the name FGr Hist 3 T5. 90d. De comm. sally recognized otherwise.1. le Boeuffle.592 (F169). 42. 60. One of Athenaeus' citations was an excerpt from the work of the earlier Alexandrian scholar Istrus (third century B. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Hyginus in De astronomiasimply reproduced in Latin prose Eratosthenes' Katasterismoi. Agis 10. 162.218 on Sun. 18a. as Jacoby maintained. Erbse. 469-471. 153.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 541 of the Athenian Pherecydes by these authors (3) The citation that all ancient scholars univerdoes not necessarily demonstrate writers named two the early prose Pherecydes. In Pherecydes36). 36. 87. See Cohn. Herodian is the source for the scholia A to //. expressed his admiration for this scholar. 1:310. Pel.2. 971. It is evident that at least three of these authors were directly acquainted with the works of Eratosthenes and repeated his opinion.). 155. 69a. The of citations of just 'Pherecydes' suggests frequency did not result. of a distinguishing epithet in these citations from its omission scholiasts. not. 48.3. FGr Hist 244 F201-203 with commentary.Sull.168. 67.82. 92a. 122a. of other Alexandrian that ancient writers who were citing however. Apollodorus thirteen times. recydes' though he was aware 'Pherecydes' Athenian without a distinguishing citing 'Pherecydes' his Deipnosophists was following the practice scholars37). Athenaeus' work is representative of a literary genre that was popular among Alexandrian scholars. 156.4. Apollodorus in his On the Gods simply cited "Pherecydes".1. Dionysius in his own chronological research (1. One of Strabo's citations (F139) occurs in a section of his work which was drawn from Apollodorus' Catalogueof Ships. adv. In citing Therecydes' Strabo may have been following the usage of his sources. absence Plutarch eight in all his without works either cited or mentioned between times making in the Bibliotheke made Strabo cited of Eratosthenes' a distinction 'Pherecydes' a Syrian and an reference to 'Phefive times. See Apollodorus of Athens. 89. 169. 938d. Schulz. by epitomizing The extant works of ancient authors often simply cite Therecydes'. 1064a. Strabo: FGr Hist 3 F18b. Stoic. 52. 35) Plu. RE 8 (1912). 36) Apollodorus: FGr Hist 3 F22c. either the Athenian or Syrian Pherecydes could simply cite 'Pherereaders since "the scholars who used one cydes' without confusing of the naturally two works belong always did not add to widely different a distinguishing circles. 2. Hygin. Defac. FGr Hist 334 FIO with commentary.74) cited Eratosthenes' Strabo (1. 37) See FGr Hist 3 F 13a. Ilia. in Athenaeus ethnic.C. 19. A. 157. 26. Non posse suav. FGr Hist 244 F95. 139. 53. H. Istrus. L'astronomie (Paris 1983). 1089f. Herodianos. 142. F130. a student of Callimachus.

L. of Syros. while historians of Athens false were since examined by Pherecydes shown to be whose works theologia cited discussing and 'Pherecydes' as an authority for certain myths. 24). philosophers of Athens. such poets as authorities ing Throughout as Homer the prose writers 'Pherecydes' nassus labeled both Acusilaus Hesiod. (Jacoby. and Acusilaus. these theologi compiled term listed these 'anwritings of the Greeks' (priscis Graecorum litteris). stated (1. of the wondrous theologia consisted myths In a section of his work dealing with the Strabo declared that the study of (10. of the theologi the various genealogies of the gods.466-474). in nature who and was a suitable this and discussion had to uncover subject of the hidden meanStrabo cited but he also cited of Halicarof Athens eviby Curet?s mythical such myths was theological inquiry for the philosopher of enigmatic myths. antiqui equivalent archaioi sungrapheis as Cicero was aware of this classification of early Believe TheirMyths? (Chicago 1988).218 on Sun.19-20) about gods and that heroes. According interpreters divine genealogies from the 'ancient Cicero. Cicero cited the antiqui historia for the genealogy of historia are certain These to Dionysius' gods.168. In the Hellenistic the works of the 'ancient period entered ancient into discussions by philosophers. some 'ancient historians' were can be theologoi In fact. had the Sceptic In Cotta one section of this work discuss the absurdities (3. Dionysius {Th. 5) and Pherecydes (1. Cicero's On the Nature of the Gods provides further dialogue dence for the examination of the works of 'ancient historians' Hellenistic Cicero who the philosophers. ???? because there was no danger of for this argument was that premise the work of the theologos Pherecydes of consulted the heroic genealogies recorded quoted. Did the Greeks This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Among cient writings'. ancient philosophers studied Syros.13) as 'ancient historians'. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 38) Paul Veyne.39-60). 59-70. Some myths for understanding Stoics maintained that these myths were an important source of if interpreted such knowledge.82.542 of the author whom D. Pherecydes historians' they Jacoby's misapprehension". The Stoic Strabo allegorically38). Pherecydes the value of by philosophers concerning the nature of the gods. Cicero understood and theologus to signify both the ancient mythographers to the Hellenistic of myth (Lamberton. This premise 102-104).

Antr. 225-278. %u PhilodemsSchrift ?ber die Fr?mmigkeit. Dionysius reported (Th. Philippson. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192..53) he attributed 543 to the first and simple prose style as did Dionysius. 6) that these writers related the mating of gods and mortals and the offspring of such unions. 6 ff. treated the same subject in On the Cave Porphyry of the Nymphs and discussed these poets and Pherecydes Since Pherecydes the views of an as did of Athens the hidden meaning of Syros41). 2. it would of a theologos such as Phereopinions have been necessary to add always a dis- ethnic when citing either of the two writers in order to tinguishing avoid confusing if indeed two different authors existed. all of whom were identified as archaioi sungrapheis by Dionysius39). Hermes 55 (1920). 39) The "ancient historians" did discuss divine genealogies. Diels -Kranz 7 B6-7. It follows then that they would have recounted to a certain extent the genealogy of the gods.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST historians.218 on Sun. On Piety was a Epicurean treatise sophers' opinions concerning the gods. in the Stoic's on theologia which criticized various the gods and the myths related ancient cited philoabout historians the same for these poets as authorities and Acusilaus of frequently Pherecydes Philodemus' list of authorities resembles Strabo's sources discussion of the Curet?s. theological Later Platonists those of interpreted myths allegorically including Numenius in his On the Incorruptibility of the Soul dis'Pherecydes'. Hellanicus. and Acusilaus as early historians. and 'Pherecydes'. 'ancient historian' and into the in the myths of as of the nature cussed entered the genealogos such discussions theological philosophers just cydes of Syros.82. Philodemus cited myths. 258-262.168. Greek In another treatise {De or. 40) R. he listed 'Pherecydes'. readers. allegorically myths by theologoi. 41) Porph. On Piety also demonstrates Philodemus' that the works of 'ancient historians' were examined in the study of ancient theobgia. The absence of such an ethnic in the majority of the fragments of thus leads to the conclusion that there was no fear of 'Pherecydes' confusion and that a single author named 'Pherecydes' in antiquity was an authority on myths. of the soul and supported his views by analyzing related the ancient Hesiod. and he also Athens40). Edwards. Homer. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

544 3. who is cited in the passage. The restored text is reproduced by Schibli. as one of the in the fragments of both the literary activity of Pherecydes scholars recognized Pherecydes the fragappear to confirm the of of fragments would Philodemus cited Syrian42). Pindari Carmina(Oxford 1935). Jacoby. suggests Pherecydes that he did not from another to the Athenassigned (2) Analysis of the style of the fragments stem the view that these fragments ian and the Syrian supports the who have examined scholars Modern from a single author. We must now a theogony and heroic genealogies. the same conhave come to writer of either separately fragments clusions about their style.218 on Sun. to distinguish his Athenian of the same name43). since the text of the papyrus breaks off at the citation the restoration where occurs. elsewhere. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of have of Syros to one fragPherecydes On Piety in the context of Philodemus' this citation in his collection included If this restoration different of two authors is valid. W. 43) FGr Hist 3 F83. Bowra. he also the Athenian. Neither did C. Cf. T. Moreover. 77.L. Why Syros? D. is missing. examine of the view that Pherecydes (1) Only one fragment supports and of Syros each wrote separate and Pherecydes Athens works. the information concerning most ancient testimony as Pherefragments by the and as the first prose writers and historians. been aware of this restored the content However. ed. ?ber Fr?mmigkeit (Leipzig. ???? of reasons to identify this writer are a number is no hard evidence from the of there cydes Syros. since Finally. 102. making it therefore very spepoint 'Pherecited simply Philodemus culative. Diels accepted is questionable. cydes' without feel compelled author which an ethnic epithet. note 10.168.. 1865) 19. the authenticity of this fragment of both the restoration of the name Diels the mentary citation of the line of Philodemus' of authorities. H. K. Syros author Third. Gomperz. Gomperz in his publication of On Piety did not restore Pherecydes' name to the passage. Syrian and Athenian does not to the Syrian and Athenian ments attributed There differ. Luetke studied only those fragments 42) Diels-Kranz 7 ?13. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.82. 164. were which works existed. C. each of these points separately. ancient Syros. W. that two separate composed the style of Second. T. respectively. Bowra accept this reading of the text in his edition of the fragments of Pindar. First.

A. note 32. A. this Pherecydes wrote simple and clear ian. S. differences. and he noted that the fragments of both consisted of the repetition of certain words. simply editors have assigned 115 lines of text to the Athenian and only 16 to the Syrian. 46) Geffcken. 1-2. Early GreekPhilosophy. Pherecydes wove the past and present tenses into the same narrative. K. Geffcken observed that the characterized by its simple paratactic and primitive repetition with Geffcken's in to the was style of the fragments sentence use of the structure. Lilja disagreed there were subtle differences Syrian's fragments. Lilja also argued that the Syrian alternated the while the Athenian past and present tenses in a narrative. Luetke. simply in the present. An Anthologyof GreekProse (Oxford 1991).PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 545 which he attributed to the Athendealing with heroic genealogies to Luetke. determinative the opposite was true for qualificative adjectives the Syrian. 83. Lilja 44) K. K. just as position style the used and of the but varied more maintained Athenian's that and present tense. L. in folk tales46). Yet she also observed sentences that strung together are numerous. Luetke examined those fragments attributed to the Athenian by M?ller. M. but he did not equate the two. of words and phrases. example. D. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 45) West. more complex sentences than the Syrian. lines This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.).168. According Ionic prose. 26-27. among the early prose writers whose fragments only of and of Athens interAcusilaus. According Lilja. In one of the the subordinate in the aorist clause is Syrian's fragments followed the main in clause the stressed order this by present. note 106. Because and Syrian. J. R?ssel (ed.218 on Sun. Geffcken of the Athenian that fragments proposed all these fragments from the composition of a single originated the author. unassigned style of the fragments in the of the stylistic homogeneity affected Ionic prose45). 98.82. R?ssel observed that the fragments assigned to both the Athenian and the Syrian "illustrate a simple style of storytelling". in complex for reflects that the fact sentences.9. West described to the Syrian as simple. that the Athenian Lilja also maintained rather than while Athenian employed his tenses less. disappear modern one eliminates editors' two sets of distinction between The Athenian's more varied use of subordinate clauses fragments. D. often using the present tense44). Von Fritz also saw stylistic similarities in the fragments of the Athenian and the Syrian. Pherekydea(G?ttingen 1903). These perceived once however. Pherecydes Syros. Von Fritz.

and number of determinative Lilja equal qualificative adjectives. Yet Lilja to to the Syrian as sufficient also considered the 16 lines assigned between these the differences reach conclusions stylistic concerning fragments 116). while "historians" used writers more whom determinative she designated to determinative of Athens adjectives. according while "historian" the to emphasize only desired to clarify key ideas. See FGr H?t 3 F22.218 on Sun. alternative Theologia whose and the Alexandrian and the Th?ogonie). in the fragments Instead. Pherekydes Babyos. ???? as an example of the Syrian's variety in his use of tenses. Pherecydes ty the of a single work in ten books entitled with the composition Syros. assumptions his stories. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 95. of tenses in the subordinate and exact same sequence occurs three times in the Athenian's like also proposed that "philosophers" qualificative as Pherecydes fragments47). Lilja noted that both often repeated words and served the "philosopher" to Lilja. 114-125. ingrained for different do not constitute evidence Such 128-129). than "philosophers". taken from epic. Theokrasiais a rare word. 50-51. 48) Suda s. only appearing in This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.546 of tenses Yet main this D. v.168. but. the stylistic similarities a to common source. Theokrasia. but. the "philosopher" epic words and phrases adopted which was the epic language while the "historian" simply repeated was in in which he retelling myths prose (Lilja. and the Athenian point Syrian of was the work of Pherecydes source (3) That from the correlation between the content of both the evident about and the ancient testimony of Therecydes' of Syros Suda credited of of The Pherecydes Syros. as is of the fragments the literary activi- titles were the Heptamychos. Similarly.82. adjectives was Acusilaus the "historian". of Alexandria Clement 47) Lilja. Heracleitus and adjec- clauses Lilja of Syros preferred Pherecydes such tives. repetition phrases. both borrowed styles. language for emphasis.L. who employed an as Lilja admitted. It would and the 115 lines ascribed to the Athenian (Lilja. 73- and "philosothat such labels as "historian" appear in of the Athenthe inclined assume to differences style Lilja pher" ian and the Syrian. Lilja maintained "historians" used more determinative generally that those The stumbling block to this theory. since that one could not generalize Acusilaus argued concerning there were only 15 lines of text preserved of his work.

It can therefore be concluded that the Theogonia was the title of the work whose ten books are cited in the scholia. Book Three: 1.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST 547 also attributed to Pherecydes of Dyscolus grammarian Apollonius and the Syros Therecydes' respectively Theologia.188. which. the former's work was either a forgery or a false citation from the later Hellenistic period. Strom. Heroologia. Hellenistic authors likened their own invented authorities to famous writers so as to increase their credibility.218 on Sun. The scholia to the Argonautica provide with specific book numbers50). The other titles arose similarly.740.R. See West. and the word became identified with the title. note 6. See Fehling. all the fragments dealing with from histories only an Alexana this information.1248. 38-49.1212.1179. Al. the refer to Pherecydes of Syros. The title Theogoniaconcerns the birth of gods which was also described in Pherecydes' work. Book Eight: 1. Schibli.156. A. Book Six: 2. Neoplatonists used the term to mean "merging with god". Since the Theogonia was an alternative cited in the scholia Therecydes' title for the must Syrian's Theologia. 2. Jacoby. 2. Therecydes' the existence of ten books. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This information. Jacoby demonstrated that this Pherecydes was not the same as Eratosthenes' Pherecydes. 31-36.89. Jacoby. 136-143. Historia. Book Nine: 1.1091. note 8.5. Some Neoplatonist commentator may have applied the term to interpret some aspect of Pherecydes' work. 49) Clem.168. 51) FGr Hist 3 F35a. All those maintained that however. There is another possible explanation for the same number of books attributed to both authors. Jacoby argued that the Suda incorrectly attributed to the Syrian a work in ten books. 101. Book Ten: 1. according to Jacoby. Book Four: 3. Book Two: 2. Book Seven: 4.R 4. alternative drian name for the scholars bestowed of Syros. None many citations of Therecydes' of these citations mention a title.102. 102. Cf. A clever forger would have bestowed upon his work the same number of books as the genuine work of the Syrian. 50) Book One: Schol.1186. heroic genealogies to the Athenian and stemmed belonged work entitled Historial since some cite the fragments of But the title Historial is instead {historial) Therecydes'51). crept into the article on the Syrian from the article which followed concerning an Athenian Pherecydes who reportedly lived earlier than the Syrian and wrote about Attic archaiobgiain ten books.8. Early GreekPhilosophy. Apollonius informs us. Theologia by Pherecydes such titles as Genealog?a. was written in the Ionian dialect49). but one scholion does cite the in Ionic and the fragments citations without Theogonia of Therecydes' (Schol.1149. 18a. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. literature in Late Antiquity. stating the book number A.82. Jacoby. Diels-Kranz 7 B10-11. Book Five: 3. The fragments of whether to the Athenian or the Syrian conTherecydes' assigned firm written which are excerpts are of attest to prose. The title Heptamychosrefers to the mychoi mentioned in Pherecydes' cosmology.1210).

5.1. The theologia. ???? by early prose writers who related divine and genealogies myths. 4. underlying all mythology as this outlook and considered the task of the of the Theobgia in ten books.119. was simply another title for this work. Bibl.L. 8. and the Heroohgia. 73. F2-5. The Neoplatonists' allegorical interpretation of myth included both cosmological and heroic myths. a theogony titled the to a work the Alexandrian titles for this work were the Histori?e*^).8. mythical and related the divine exploits of Zeus55). Pearson. Max.168. 166-167. Suda s. F37). These names were interchangeone work often had several titles52). He recounted the deeds of such adventures as the described such Perseus. Alternative Hist and the the 2 Tl. Historial. 1. shared Neoplatonists a type of theologia56).175. 279.3-4.7-9) maintained that myths spoke in riddles (ainittontai). Syrian's theogony was entitled the Genealogia and the Theogonicr**). applicable genealogies. The genealogies. 1. Strom. Zeus: F54.v. 258262. Edwards. D.82. Plotinus (5.D. title for this work since its fragThe Theologia was an appropriate a compendium of Greek ments suggest that Pherecydes prepared the gods and heroes.Proclus (in ??. in R.218 on Sun. 5-14. Lamberton 199-201. Lamberton.122. FGr Hist 1 T3. as reSyrian's composition not conflict with other ancient testimony the does Suda. Clem. Babyos. Genealogiai Theogonia {FGr a which also included both and heroic Theobgia. Geneabgiai.533a. therefore. 122). voyage of the Argonauts. by ported to Diogenes Laertius wrote little.15-21. Historial.548 and Historial and on works D. 32c) described the work of the theologos Therecydes' as "full of riddles" (aiIn the second and third centuries A. The of these meaning myths. 80. 53) FGr Hist 2 Fl. what Strabo (1. According that this Pherecydes a work which Diogenes (1. 9-12. Al. Porphyry was indebted to Numenius for his allegorical interpretation of Pherecydes' work. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 10.18-21. L. 54) Helladius apud Phot. the work of Pherecydes of Syros a enigmatic. Pherecydes single composed 52) The fragments of Hecataeus of Miletus refer to his work as the Historia. Von Fritz. 31. Similarly. 7a. Pherekydes 55) Perseus: FGr Hist 3 F10-12. Proci. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Historial was also a generic title for the works of Hellanicus. Argonauts: Fl 11. a number of writers described nigmatodes). These titles were which contained of Acusilaus fragments in a work which The a theogony indicate as well as heroic that he composed scholar Didymus en- and heroic able. 56) See Herrn. Proclus understood the Trojan Epic Cycle as an allegory for the descent of the soul into matter and its return. Tyr. It was to uncover the to according philosopher. in Phdr.19-20) defined as Such subject matter constituted myths heroes about as ancient Strabo. K.

4. (4) Pherecydes recognized of Syros as the author of the Theobgia and hailed him as one of the first the prose sense that heroic writers even myths and historians. Bickermann. but faithfully recorded historical traditions (mnemai)about the ancient past which were passed down from generation to generation.82. 157. Or?genes Gentium. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . See D. the "ancient historians" told many silly myths. 1. 67-78. The Hellenistic scholar Sotion maintained that Pythagoras' poems were written by an Aston of Croton. Pherecydes {Ap. Eratosthenes or ascribed their any writings others denied that Pherecydes works to of Syros to an Athenian PherePherecydes works were of also Syros not along considered this work Theobgia and attributed which listed why Josephus explains whose with these two other authors authentic by all58).CQ. J. L.174-202. 65-81. 13 (1963). note 5. but the works which some scholars were handful not any less substantial of works attributed of questionable authentiattributed to Pythagoras than the ten books of the to these authors would Theologia. Josephus that this little and placed literature. The number of works attributed to Tha?es and Pythagoras pales in comparison to the literary output of the Stoics Chrysippus and Cleanthes. wrote the cydes. Most scholars however. It writers to represent by Pherecydes historical events 57) M. CP 47 (1952). 59. Ancient literary critics who analyzed literary works about the Heroic Age recognized the stories of heroes as accounts of historical events.139c.L. West. and Tha?es not only not numerous.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST referred to 549 describe use of the word biblion to as a graphe and biblion. Other authorities ascribed a prose work by Pythagoras to Lysis of Tarentum. 58) Diogenes Laertius (1. The word biblion of the Suda concerning testimony also related was applicable to a multi-volume work57). only designating those stories as myths which seemed fabulous or impossible.218 on Sun. Diogenes' does not necessarily contradict the this composition the Theobgia. E. in antiquity.168. The have certainly by the Hellenistic appeared negligible period when to the multitude of books written more by compared contemporary authors. See D. Just as some Hellenistic scholars denied that Pythagoras and Tha?es left behind and others. Veyne. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Th. Didymus reportedly wrote 3500 books. Greeks He was an "historian" in the educated recounted actual throughout antiquity and other of the distant considered early prose past59).L. 7.6-8. Ath.14) produced him in the company of Tha?es and Pythagoras as authors whose works were Yet city. ThreePresoaatu:Cosmobgies. 5-7). 8. such as the transformation of men This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.23) reported that Tha?es wrote two treatises on the solstice and the equinox and a work on nautical astronomy which some scholars credited to a Phocus of Samos.

note 11. This work existed since Theophrastus quoted from it.218 on Sun.13) and as the first prose writer 12. Eusebius' source for his chronicle was the chronicle of Porphyry who was well acquainted with Alexandrian scholarship.v. into animals. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .59. Jacoby. Apollodorus of Athens (FGr Hist 244 F29) recognized 571/0 B.C. 2. 111. Pherekydes.v. ???? as an "historian" which earned him Pherecydes' reputation consideration ancient scholars as one of the first writers. Helladius (fourth century A. 62) Diogenes Laertius reported (2. Edwards. J. 61) Besides Pherecydes of Syros.533a) referred to the work of Pherecydes of Syros as the Genealogia. l:xlv-lviii.248-268. Gudeman. 1. Hekataios.TAPA 125 (1995).19) recognized him as one of the first prose writers. Pherecydes' acme was the 59th Olympiad (544/1 B. 100.550 was D. Kirk. as Anaximander's acme.) was also This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 1. Str. while Strabo (1. 630-635. 15. s. 60) Str. Bibl.205.L.13. Helladius (in Phot. Erbse. See Diels-Kranz 12 A9. De or. Jacoby either ignored or dismissed such references. 279. Flor. Cic. Jos.v. Porphyry recognized Pherecydes of Syros as the first prose writer and apparently did not recognize any other writer with the same name. 23) listed Pherecydes of Syros among those historians who lived a long life. Cadmus. The Suda (s. Although the term in this case the word sungrapk? can apply to any prose composition. 1. See Sextus Empiricus Ad.C. Historia in the Commentary of Servius.s. Hekataios) placed Hecataeus' acmein the 65th Olympiad (520/17 B. Ps-Lucian (Macr.D. B.). Pliny HN 7. 260. note 35. According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGr Hist 244 F338 with commentary).19).82.Ol. Pherekydes-.v. Pherecydes of Syros and Hecataeus received credit as the first prose writers even though they lived later. and Acusilaus were listed as the first prose writers and historians as well. Suda s. The Suda identified Hecataeus as the first to write a history in prose. Apul. Pliny HN 7. Akousilaos. See Porphyry. Gram 1. Hecataeus. Ap. Chron. Ap.v.168. Acusilaus was listed as one of the first historians (Suda (Pliny ??5? s.). Cadmus was named as the first historian (Suda s.205. Eus. Kadmos Pandionis.v. D. 1.18. by prose A number of ancient sources of Syros as recognized Pherecydes the author of the first prose work {sungraphe)60).s. No anthe philosopher Anaximander as the first a prose work and this recognition62).C. refers specifically to an historical work. refer to Pherecydes of of a work he reportedly left behind prose writer although flourished to who those authors received prior A number of ancient sources do in fact Syros specifically on heroic myths as either an historian or as the author and genealogies63).53). Such a scenario would have been highly unlikely if indeed Hellenistic scholars had universally recognized two distinct authors with the same name. 61-97. 63) Eusebius labeled Pherecydes of Syros as an historian.2) that there was a prose summary of Anaximander's doctrines. concluding that these later writers had confused the Syrian with the Athenian. FGr Hist 261 Fl-3. Hellenistic scholars identified all the the other equated cient scholar first prose writers with the first historians mentioned as historians and apparently first prose writers61). Dietz.

In familiar with Hellenistic literature and scholarship. suggest that this author the of the of the Greek historians' (West. West. such as Inachus or Atlas recounted beginning the with {Metaph. "Pherecydes"' account of the birth of Asclepius may have occurred in the context of his discussion of the house of Peneius. 3. in the Hesiod of the historians HellaniAcusilaus. Catalogue. 6. The author of the Hesiodic Ehoiai in the middle of the sixth the this poem to be a continuation of century B.168. Both Achilles and Ajax were descended from Asopus.530-536) includes citations of Hellenistic scholars and poets. but he was also an historian he related the deeds of heroes. Catalogue. Josephus for example.13. Apollod. 1000a) and subsequent in the sense that as a theobgos. intended Taken two related the these together. He theogony composed In antiauthor with such a reputation. 65) Citations of Therecydes' from book one discuss the heroes Achilles.6-3. and Asclepius. West.218 on Sun. in a discussion and Timaeus Ephorus. 1. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hes. The fragments his work around the great that the author of this work organized families of and myths its patriarch Aristotle Hesiod which it into sections dividing of members clan the of each genealogy myth. FGr Hist 3 F60 with commentary. their conflicting The fragments of 'Pherecydes'. Book one also treated the theogony. composer beginning as Ehoiai was the the He was theogony just by Theogony. Geneabgiai in its Alexandrian of three related Book one contained books.12.6. Apol- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 101-103. Theogony. heroic descendants of the river gods Asopus and Peneius65). ancient writers identified assigned to the Athenian his work just as work his with a Ehoiai. whether or the did Syrian. The summary of his Chrestomatheia in Photius (279.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST There torian was not is no difficulty 551 who in viewing of Syros as an hisPherecydes a and heroic genealogies.82. F208-214 West. 64) FGr Hist 2 Fl. preceded not alone since the fragments of another 'ancient listed historian' organized of Halicarnassus indicate that his work was structured by Dionysius Acusilaus' edition consisted similarly. FGr Hut 3 F1-3. 31-125). placed company cus. Acusilaus also the myths and genealogies of the houses of Deucalion and The of Syros began with a Inachus64). Theobgia of Pherecydes as did the work of Acusilaus.15-18). {Ap.C. accounts of own past. a theogony. Ajax. Catabgue. the only ancient both was recognized as the author of both the Theogony quity Hesiod and the Ehoiai. 23-38 with commentary. poems genealof the Ehoiai indicate ogy of both gods and heroes.

70) Zoilos of Amphipolis and Anaximenes of Lampsacus (fourth century B. FGr Hist 3 F124. D. 109.1-3. Strabo observed (10. 66) FGr Hist 3 F10-22 with commentary. 67) FGr Hist 3 F23-36 with commentary. FGr Hist 3 F37-38 with commentary. FGr Hist 72 Tl. was descended from Adas.218 on Sun.7. All Lapith kings were reportedly descended from Peneius.S. 97-98. 9. families of Pelasgus dian and Athenian In prewith these fragments69). Cf. five through eight concerned discussed the descendants of rids66). He also discussed the descendants of Peneius in a fragment which. Cf. Catabgue. 71) The Neoplatonist Damascius (Pr.7.472) that 'Pherecydes' and Acusilaus offered different genealogies for the Cabeiri. does not include a book number.69. Catalogue. 'Pherecydes* placed the birth of Asclepius in Thessaly which was the home of the Lapiths.1. Cf. 95-96. West. F2-3. Philodemus in On Piety noted that Acusilaus and Pherecydes of Athens identified a different deity as the messenger of the gods.L. West. the wife of Pelops. P. 85-86.28. Catalogue76-85. ninth. 2. 4. 124) compared the views of Pherecydes of Syros and Acusilaus concerning cosmology. FGr Hist 2 F22. "Pherecydes".6) by discussing the nature of the gods and the origins of the cosmos and humanity. Acusilaus. literary Ancient activities commenand focused often on compared by side71). Jacoby. Catabgue. In book nine 'Pherecydes' recounted the descendants of Lacedaemon. 69) FGr Hist 3 F145-153. 156-161 with commentary. Theobgia also recounted the genealogies of the Arcabut there and Erechtheus. West.9. associated are no book numbers the "hisof the Heroic Age with a theogony. the daughter of Adas. See West. unfortunately. 68) Fragments from book eight mention the myths of Pelops and his sister Niobe.) both composed histories which began with a theogony. Gomperz. to the were indebted of Syros and Acusilaus Both Pherecydes Hesiodic tators tradition mythopoetic observed the similarities their opinions side in their in their works. 103. Catalogue.82. Pi. Apollod. 1. FGr Hist 71 Tl. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . facing their account a precedent of Syros and Acusilaus established torians" Pherecydes which later historians followed70).C.50-69.7. the son of Zeus and Taygete.552 books which two through was divided D.10. FGr Hist 4 F21. may have discussed the Pelopids in his account of the Atlantids since Hippodameia. Diodorus Siculus began his universal history (1. Apollod. West. the Belids and the Agenothe Deucalionids67). tenth books The Atlas68). Philosophers lo murdered Ischys for being the lover of Coronis.2-1. Hellanicus told the story of Niobe in his Atlantis.168. Catalogue. See West. the mother of Asclepius. 41. Cf. The scholia also put their This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Books while the eighth. ???? five the Theobgia discussed the house of Inachus into two branches. Ischys was the son of the Lapidi king. Book ten related the deeds of the twins Amphion and Zethus. FGr Hist 3 F39 with commentary.1-2. like the author of the Ehoiai. 43.71. FGr Hist 3 F41 with commentary. See FGr Hist 3 F57. 14. These two heroes were also descended from Atlas.

and Proclus (in ??. ? Horn.According to one doxographical tradition. Celsus (Origen CeL?. Schol.57.30. Hes. Hes. while others observed ily from Hesiod with Hesiod and corrected his errors73). 89-93. Plato (Smp. See FGr Hist 3 F1-41.20) informs us that the first historians {historikoi) myths.58-65. In the (phusikoi) mythographers opinions side by side. ideas from author of may hesitate accepting Pherecydes of a work concerning heroic genealogies and him as a Presocratic studies have regarded philo1091a) who made such a distinction as Hesiod himself not and early poets did not express statement {Metaph. FGr Hist 2 F25. A. 6.82. some labeled Pherecydes of Syros as one of the seven wise men. 77. Strom. the negate about heroic This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. that this Pherecydes 'Pherecydes' entirely does a work composed Strabo (1. among through possiblity as the since most too heavthat Similarly. The fragments dealing with heroic myths occur in the scholia. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. Th. 3. Acusilaus* genealogies were often in agreement with those of the Hesiodic Ehoiai. Ancient commentators undoubtedly made note of this shared view of Hesiod and Pherecydes since the doxographical tradition began with Theophrastus and the Peripatetics. 3) maintained that Pherecydes of Syros agreed with Hesiod and called Chaos the first principle (arche). Adv. 989a) attributed this belief to Hesiod. see Schibli. 358. citing Aristotle the theobgoi between the since the latter But Aristotle's myth75). On the development of this tradition. FGr Hist 2 F6. Hes. 75) For a discussion of this passage in Aristode. FGr Hut 2 F36.2.14). 37. In antiquity by some critics. Ps-Galen in Diels.296. According to Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Aristode (Metaph. 1091a). see Diels. 1. 32) discussed the theogony of Pherecydes of Syros. F160. of accounts while the 553 his- Heroic Acu- Acusilaus was accused of borrowing Age72). while others replaced Pherecydes on the list with Acusilaus. and philosophers were {muthographoi).6. Yet Acusilaus disagreed with the author of the Ehoiai concerning the origins of the Arcadian house of Pelasgus. Haer.218 on Sun. 74) Achilles Tatius (Intr. 4. S. 23. 610.E. Al. while the fragments relating heroic myths are often contained in the same scholia which preserve the fragments of "Pherecydes".R.16.168. 178ab) noticed the similarities between Acusilaus' and Hesiod's th?ogonies. Cf. Epiph. J.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST their torians because th?ogonies and grammarians of their studied interest their in cosmology. Plato (Smp. 73) Clem. Some modern Syros myths sopher. See Schol.42). Cf. The fragments substantiate these different assessments. silaus disagreed ancient critics declared scholars that Pherecydes too took his Hesiod74). See FGr Hist 2 F23-45. However.505. 178ab) and Damascius (Pr. P. Cf. 124) examined the theogony of Acusilaus. F10a. 72) Aristode (Metaph. Aral. 102-118. Acusilaus placed the birth of Metis at an earlier stage in his theogony than did Hesiod. Pherecydes of Syros made the earth the arche. Ap.

Cf. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. A History of the GreekCity-States(Berkeley 1976). see R. Therecydes' also invented a new stemma for Dictys and Polydectes which did not appear in the Ehoiai. of recognizing Pherecydes and heroic genealogies. West. F8 West. in Ab. Sealey. Olymp. For a general discussion of the chronology of the Messenian Wars.C. FGr Hist 3 F4 with commentary. 164. Pel.L. According dated Pherecydes to the seventh century to enabled the sacrificial death Ephesians Pherecydes' Hermippus. Greek JHS 92 (1972). 167e.C. 66-69.218 on Sun. 'Pherecydes' which ancient of ancient historian account historians is the most estimates The the middle of the seventh cydes served as an advisor to the Spartans. Hes.C. G. 76) Schibli. 21. 13c. F38 190.C. FGr Hut 3 FIO. Cf. Modern an assigned innovative reflects the with to the Syrian and creative influence heroic same Pherecydes have mythographer The fragments of Hesiod76). and genealogies belong myths agreed that whose work of to fragments myth the fragments he was nonetheless 'Pherecydes' an author followed with Although Therecydes' description. Plu. 114. Catabgue. some of the Modern the fragscholars who have only studied of have depended on the testimony of the Syrian's theogony of the Syrian since these for their chronology ancient historians historians' conThese material.554 D. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Cf. fall of Messene seventh also The century that this PhereTheopompus reported the to the Spartan kings and foretold an event Hellenistic which occurred in the trustworthy. S. contain no historical fragments flicting ground dates to of for establish of Pherecydes an accurate which Syros do not provide any firm the one chronology. fragments can determine The range century from B.168. 84-85. a new stemma for the Ehoiai on certain points and recorded the basic outline of both a Syros as the author it is possible to date him accurefer to hisof 'Pherecydes' fragments dealing who fits this heroes77). life of Pherecydes B. Hes. theogony By rately torical ments since events. FGr Hist 115 F71. West. 78) Theopompus. Hes.82. Kirk. to the late sixth B. Mythobgy:SomeNew Perspectives. FGr Hut 3 F104. he disagreed of the Hesiodic genealogies. 132-134.78). F129. 77) 'Pherecydes* slighdy altered the genealogies found in the Ehoiai in the case of the heroes Jason and Heracles. ???? and the Syrian the approach to assigned to the Athenian commentators who have examined appears similar. biographer Hermippus century to B. 74-75. He was in total agreement with the Ehoiai in regard to the genealogy of the heroes Perseus and Proetus. Early Greek Phibsophy. do contain for the By examining historical data. Cf.54.

567). 14. to ancient coincided with the floruit of Aesop. 454-455.). note 46.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST defeat two and 555 cities in battle. 83) Burkert. Diogenes Laertius (1. just as Eratosthenes on Samos the death and burial of Pherecydes cording to Aristotle. FGr Hist 244 F336. since he Dicaearchus would have agreed with this chronology stated that Pherecydes fell ill and died on Samos before his student conSamos for Italy. 1. 32-33 (Gigon.C.31. and Hermippus in their prose works drew material from the Peripatetics and the historians Ephorus and Theopompus. century proposed in a date for the the first half of scholars sage Peripatetic posited would do later. 700-701. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Str. Hellenistic historians Pythagoras departed of nected to Italy with the establishment emigration Pythagoras' to the on which dated 62nd Samos. middle life to the early part to death intended with his date for Pherecydes' Dicaearchus refute was absent from Croton who claimed that Pythagoras his teacher on Delos when the PythaPherecydes nursing dying In his biography of Pyin Croton was overthrown. For Pythagoras' absence during the uprising at This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. FGr Hut 244 F339 with commentary.1297) dated the death of Aesop at Delphi to 563/2 B.C. Since Theopompus and Hermippus are the only known authors to tie Pherecydes with events of the seventh century B. Archilochus F20 West. those 79) Hermippus F17 Wehrli. and of the sixth century. See L. century reports. 115-117. Philostephanus.81). Burchner. 7-9. 2778-2789. Strom. For the date of the two poets.C.C. see Apollodorus.168.218 on Sun. Apollodorus. since Callinus to this conflict in their poetry79). Schibli. who..647. Clem. RE 5 (1905). The ChroniconRomanum (FGr Hut 252 = IG 14.)82). 82) Dicaearchus F34 Wehrli.C. Ephesos.C. they Polycrates' tyranny death prior to (532/29 B. according in the sixth half lived the first of B.82.72) placed Aesop's acme in the 52nd Olympiad (572/69 B. See Fraser. This war between the the neighboring Magnesians can be dated to the seventh century B. one can conclude that Hermippus was following Theopompus. made allusions Archilochus most likely source for this information was Theopom- Hermippus' pus80). 81) Constitutionof Samos apud (Heracleides) Pol. Alex. gorean regime an was ineffective Dicaearchus that argued Pythagoras thagoras statesman who was responsible for his own political downfall83). Some later B. For the date of Pythagoras' departure. By placing Pherecydes' Olympiad would have dated Pherecydes' Dicaearchus Pythagoras' departure.C. Acthe sixth century B. Callinus F3 West.. in the latter half of the fourth contemporaries Theopompus' a date for Pherecydes of Syros.C. 80) Callimachus and his pupils Istrus.

B. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . death since they The Athenian and a assigning Pherecydes of between 584/1 and 499/6 thereB.3. Satyrus in D. According the Attic deme of Daidalidai (F146) the the Pherecydes reforms of Cleisthenes date wrote after 508/7 in Athens Three Pherecydes. 85) FGr Hist 244 F338 with commentary. it will is the most reliable.82. 84) Iamblichus (VP 254-262) stated that the people of Croton under the leadership of the demagogues Cylon and Ninon overthrew the Pythagorean oligarchy while Pythagoras was absent. Modern scholars as well in search of a terminus post quern have scrutinized certain fragments are certain for of the Athenian literary activity ments have been considered. The chronological of these different accounts of the accuracy account The earliest writers to discuss his Syrian's life is very questionable. which Pherecydes of the of Therecydes' for the (F59) genealogy Croton..). D. 105.40. Aristotle.C. Diodorus Siculus (12. lived by their own calculation cenlife (i.218 on Sun.. 10.C. Aristoxenus F14 Wehrli.. a reference to was B.9-10) dated the destruction of Sybaris by Croton to 510/9 B. 8. Neanthes of Cyzicus. If one can therefore in Pherecydes' later work prompted what information conclusions account ancient his life.C. eighty-five years lifespan by dating the sage's death after the sack of Sybaris85). FGr Hist 84 F30. see Iamb. (Jacoby.C.84). This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. See Burkert. Beginning scholars writers writers assess There determine which drew from information earlier Greek biographical concerning the works which they left behind.S.C. Aristoxenus (F18 Wehrli) described Cylon as a violent enemy of Pythagoras. Theopompus) in the fourth century turies after their subject. B..C. about be possible to chronographer Apollodorus the latter tradition. encouraged people to posit a date for Pherecydes of Syros. accepted rejected Dicaearchus' to make of Therecydes' to known fragments pertaining scholars and which could have ancient events. evidence the year that which this saw Athenian proposed is based on a citation for the Athenian Another 114-116). 450 is ca. because this regime had not equally divided the conquered land of Sybaris among them. 63 years before the archonship of Callimachus in Athens (447/6 B. L. fragto Jacoby.168.4. VP 252-256..C. Cf. ???? with his date for Pherecydes' opponents disagreed coincided the death of Pherecydes with the dein mise of the Pythagorean Croton which ocregime reportedly curred after the destruction of Sybaris by Croton in 510/9 B.L.556 Dicaearchus' D.e. This account can be traced back to the early Peripatetic biographers of Pythagoras.

D. Von Fritz. 113-114. On Soranus.44 the terminus post quern as 514 Pherecydes. 1114-1130. Kind. but also is the basis mining the chronology for the hypothesis that Pherecydes of Syros composed a both and heroic genealogies.)?may by Hippocrates to the genealogies of Heracles and Asclepius. 5. Jacoby. 89) Jacoby.168. Miltiades. note 18. the Suda alone mentions this Pherecydes.C. which 'Pherecydes' did discuss. RE 3A (1927). Thomas. 87) Momigliano. for Pherecydes of Syros and conIt therefore estabof Syros. the citation F174 cerns lishes contains an historical a specific citation event which can of Pherecydes be dated. was since B. The Attic deme mentioned other two fragments in F146 while existed prior to the reforms of Cleisthenes88). 83.D. GRBS 14 (1973).)86). Wellman. Areius was a physician who wrote a biography of Hippocrates and lived in the first century A. Any one of these authors could have constructed a genealogy for Hippocrates and cited 'Pherecydes' for the genealogies of Heracles and Asclepius. It is possible that this Pherecydes is the invention of some late This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Whitehead. Huxley.pherecydes: theologian and genealogist 557 (ca. T. Jacoby argued that Clement had confused the Syrian with the Pherecydes of Leros mentioned in the Suda. 137-143. in F59?a of 'Pherecydes' from the fragment of Soranus biography (second century A. 129-136. 346-351 . 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For a discussion of this expedition's date. physician Hippocrates that a suitable maintained Athenian Pherecydes in 514 B. the authenticity of this of the Syrian to confuthat accepts the position 86) K. Soranus cited Eratosthenes. not the could have Scythians cited the against = {Strom. The Date of Pherecydes of Athens. see F. and others have have Athenian Momigliano and fragment sion attributed questioned the citation Yet if one on the part of Clement90). The historical of the theogony implications are not as clear. Of these three fragments. 626. see ?. The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986). from only pertain whom others traced the descent of the physician89). F174 is not only the key to deterF174) of Pherecydes of Syros.218 on Sun. RE 2 (1895). note 40. Arms. 346-351. Apollodorus. 90) Momigliano. 88) G. Soranos. 217. Arnaldo terminus post quern for the Darius' Persian expedition Clement of Alexandria 476-400 Momigliano work of the of Syros for an incident which occurred Pherecydes accused of confusing Clement Momigliano during this campaign.JHS 71 (1951).D.8. note 6. and Areius of Tarsus in addition to "Pherecydes". 159. However.C. Wade-Gery. the Syrian with the Athenian87).82. 364-368. Jacoby determined that this Pherecydes was a Hellenistic writer based on the titles attributed to this author by the Suda. See M. E. In contrast.

558 D. among the Scythians following The discussion of these events served in the work of prompted Apollodorus 499/6 B. The Cult of Achilles in the Euxine. 294-302. see J.168. Athenian Families (Oxford 1971). and probably story of Pythagoras to date the death of Pherecydes 'Pherecydes' of Syros to tending basis for the as the chronological on Delos after the destrucPherecydes grammarian to account for a host of ancient forgeries attributed to the Syrian or to 'Pherecydes'. OrphicPoems. story in which the with some minor alterations. 161-173. like Herodotus.131-132) expected interpret. it is certainly posthe foundation cydes' mentioned the Persian sible that this same author. G. See West. the fathTelam?n. 91) FGr Hut 3 F2. and Peleus. Fehling. Among only Miltiades. recounted Miltiades invasion dom of Scythia and the of Ionia. Hedreen. 313-330. The ethnic of this fictional writer could have been derived from the work On Leros which the Suda assigned to this author.L. had lived again er of Achilles who. Thomas. there question this citation. Hesperia 60(1991). In the Hellenistic period writers passed off their own works as the works of ancient wise men and cited non-existent books written by ancient sages. Propertied 92) See FGr Hist 3 F60. For a discussion of this genealogy. 39-61. in Herodotus' role of Miltiades account allows one prominent between Clement's citation of Pherecydes of draw a bridge and a of which relates the descendents 'Pherecydes' Syros fragment the hero who counts an incident down to the elder generations Ajax for fourteen Since 'Pherefounded the colony at Chersonese91). In Herodotus' narrative this incident is followed to persuade the Ionians by the efforts of the Scythians the across the Danube to desert their Persian guarding bridge overlords the the Ionians. of Chersonese.133-138). Davies. This fragment during Darius' campaign against the Scythians Darius with war after the Scythian king threatened with his army by sending him the latter's crossing of the Danube certain which Darius was symbolic message through objects to Herodotus told the same (4. In 'Pherecydes' cated the Scythian proposal Miltiades' younger plea for the free' narrative Miltiades may have advobetween because of the friendship the ancestor of Chersonese's oiktstes. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of the the Ionians to follow the advice of Chersonese. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. (4.82. according to popular tradition.218 on Sun. K. 31-36. his death at Troy92). tyrant urged the The to of Scythians and liberate themselves from Persian domination. ???? of Syros composed both a theogony and heroic genealPherecydes is no reason to reogies.C.

96) Schibli. FGr Hist 244 F338-339 with commentary.131-132).) based on Pherecydes the Syrian's fictional relationship with his famous pupil Pythagoras. and undoubtedly We can therefore of his theogony mate for the currents of Syros and the composition Pherecydes heroic genealogies to ca.) maintained that Sappho and Anacreon addressed each other in their poetry even though they lived more than a half-century apart. 18-20. OrphicPoems. JUS 108 (1988). West. determined jects' works93). 94) Apollodorus. The ScythianUltimatum(Herodotus4.599d.C. 207211. 95) S. West. Conseof the Syrian's of period on the terminus post quern of 514 B.PHERECYDES: THEOLOGIAN AND GENEALOGIST tion of Sybaris the mentioned explain the in 510/9 Scythian B. Pherecydes' of the symbols. The testimony of Eratosthenes uish between two prose writers who led Jacoby shared and others the same name.C. cally accurate than Herodotus' older95). Ath. in of the 59th Olympiad (544/1 Syros B. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to distingBut if Orphic of the sixth 93) The Peripatetic Chamaeleon (third century B. B. whose quently.82. Apollodorus. 500 B.)94).218 on Sun. report. 11-13. 1-2) had to prove on chronological grounds that Demosthenes could not have consulted Aristotle's Rhetoricwhen composing his speeches. as some Peripatetics claimed. see Schibli. question. This period also Orphic beliefs were in circulation the literary activity of the early prose writers Hecataeus witnessed and Acusilaus whose works resembled Pherecydes' Theobgia in both their style and content. if indeed in his 559 Yet. 120-165. and Pythagorean By the end and century in Ionia96).C. provided of the Persian invasion of Scythia must have Olympiad the date literary activity based by F174. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Amm.C. This estidate is consistent with the intellectual Syrian's and Modern commentators have observed certain concepts in the theogony of Pherecydes. 13.C. as preserved is more historisending by Clement.C. On Chamaeleon's work as a literary critic and historian.C. his life? To answer this even respected literary references their sub- chronological information from the acme of for example. 124-127. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Burkert. Concerning the fictional relationship between these two. His account been written version of the shortly after this event.168. sometimes critics in antiquity ignored in their efforts to extract biographical conflicting it is necessary expedition for chronologies to understand that such of Syros Pherecydes how does one work. both Pythagorean doctrines date in his work. own acme was the 62nd to estimate it is best (532/29 B. see Chamaeleon F24-42 Wehrli with commentary.

560 we accept this hypothesis.82. so frequently by Hellenistic was cited scholars refer to the Syrian as an grammarians? Why historian and place him in the company of historians as one of the first prose writers? Why did ancient writers consistently cite 'Pherecydes' and not include for confusion.168.218 on Sun. ???? certain data who unanswered on the arise: Why questions Athenian if Pherecydes. 4102 as the composer Bradford Ln. Tennessee 37601 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 25 Nov 2012 07:36:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Johnson City.L. potential Ionic prose on ancient dismisses the statement a distinguishing given the fact theobgia? All these of Eratosthenes sage epithet when there was the that both authors wrote in if one problems disappear as a mistaken conjecture of a theogony and did ancient and recognizes the Syrian heroic genealogies. is there no biographical indeed he is the author D.

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