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Physics thermodynamics

Physics thermodynamics

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course introductory 4420 physics
course introductory 4420 physics

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PHYS-4420 THERMODYNAMICS & STATISTICAL MECHANICS SPRING 2006

Homework Solutions
Assignment 2. Due Friday 2/03/06 : 4-9, 4-15, 5-4, 5-5, 5-11, 5-13
4-9. a) Tv
γ
–1
= !nstant, s!
1
2 2
1
1 1
− −
=
γ γ
v T v T and
1
2
1
1
2









=
γ
v
v
T
T
. "#en,








− =








2
1
1
2
$n ) 1 % $n
v
v
T
T
γ
&) Find t#e 'a$ue !( γ t#at is needed (!r t#is )r!ess.
32 . 1
2
1
$n
5
2
$n
$n
$n
1
2
1
1
2
=












=
















= −
v
v
T
T
γ
, s! γ = 2.32. "#e #ig#est 'a$ue !( γ is 1.6*, (!r a
m!nat!mi gas, s! t#is )r!ess is im)!ssi&$e.
4-15. "#e re$ati!ns#i) &et+een tem)erature and '!$ume is ,n!+n, and t#e '!$ume is
)r!)!rti!na$ t! t#e radius u&ed.
1
2 2
1
1 1
− −
=
γ γ
V T V T , s!
2
1
1
1
2
T
T
V
V
=








− γ
, and
1
1
2
1
1
2









=
γ
T
T
V
V
. "#en,
1
1
2
1
3
1
2









=








γ
T
T
r
r
s!,
( ) m) 15 % 100 m) 15 %
- 10 3
- 10 3
2 . 1 / 1
) 1 4 . 1 % 3
1
3
5
1
) 1 % 3
1
2
1
2
=








×
×
=








=
− −
r
T
T
r
γ
r
2
= 696 m
5-4. First )re)are an e.)ressi!n t#at an &e used (!r )arts a) and &). /!nsider h = h%T,P).
dP
P
h
dT
T
h
dh
T P








+








=
. "#is an &e +ritten in sim)$er (!rm &eause,
P
P
c
T
h
=








, and t#e y$ia$ re$ati!n an &e used !n
T
P
h








.
µ
P
h P T
c
P
T
T
h
P
h
− =
















− =








. "#en, dh &e!mes, dP c dT c dh
P P
µ − =
0it# t#is e.)ressi!n )art a) an &e d!ne, &ut )art &) in'!$'es dv. "! &ring t#at in, !nsider
P = P%T,v). "#en,
dv
v
P
dT
T
P
dP
T v








+








=
. Again, t#e )artia$s an &e re)$aed.
T
P
v
v








− =
1
κ
, s!
κ v v
P
T
1
− =








. Fr!m t#e y$ia$ re$ati!n, as +as s#!+n is $ass
κ
β
=
















− =








T
P
v
P
v
T
v
T
P
. "#en, dv
v
dT dP
κ κ
β 1
− = . 0#en t#is is )ut in t#e e.)ressi!n (!r
dh, t#e resu$t is 





− − = dv
v
dT c dT c dh
P P
κ κ
β
µ
1
, !r
dv
v
c
dT c dh
P
P
κ
µ
κ
µβ
+






− = 1
a) "#en, (!r !nstant v, 





− =








κ
µβ
1
P
v
c
T
h
&) F!r !nstant T,
κ
µ
v
c
v
h
P
T
=








) Again, (r!m t#e y$ia$ re$ati!n
1 − =
























v T h
T
h
h
v
v
T
, s!
( ) κ µβ
µ
κ
µβ
κ
µ
κ
µβ
κ
µ

=







− =







− =
















− =








v
v c
v
c
T
h
v
h
v
T
P
P
v
T
h
1 1
5-5.
5-11. 1W| = 1Q
1
1 2 1Q
2
1 3 1Q
3
1, and
0
3
3
2
2
1
1
= − +
T
Q
T
Q
T
Q
200 4 = 1200 4 2 1Q
2
1 3 1Q
3
1 and 0
- 300 - 200 - 400
4 1200
3 2
= − +
Q Q

1Q
3
1 3 1Q
2
1 = 1000 4 and 4/- 3
- 200 - 300
2 3
= −
Q Q
"#ese t+! e5uati!ns must &e s!$'ed (!r 1Q
2
1 and 1Q
3
1 . 6u$ti)$y t#e se!nd &y 300 -.
1Q
3
1 3 1Q
2
1 = 1000 4 and 1Q
3
1 3 1.5 1Q
2
1 = 900 4.
7u&trat t#ese t+! e5uati!ns, and get 0.5 1Q
2
1 = 100 4, s! 1Q
2
1 = 200 4
"#en, 1Q
3
1 = 1Q
2
1 2 1000 4 = 200 4 2 1000 4 1Q
3
1 = 1200 4
5-13. a)
1 2
2
1 2
2 2
T T
T
Q Q
Q
W
Q
c

=

= =
&) "#e tem)eratures must &e !n'erted (r!m 8F t! -.
328F = 08/ = 2*3 -, and 698F = 208/ = 293 -
- 2*3 - 293
- 293
1 2
2

=

=
T T
T
c
c = 14.6

. ∂v    ∂T  P β β 1  ∂P   = . Then. from the cyclical relation   ∂v  h  ∂h T  ∂T v b) For constant T. the result is dh = cP dT − cP µ  dT − vκ  κ c µ  µβ  dh = cP 1 − dT + P dv κ  vκ   ∂h   µβ    = c P 1 −  a) Then.  ∂h  cP µ   µ µ ∂ v  ∂T   T = − vκ =− =   =−  ∂h   µβ   µβ  v( µβ − κ )  ∂v  h c P 1 − vκ 1 −     κ  κ   ∂T v   5-5. so c) Again. or dh. dP = dT − dv . κ   ∂T v  c µ  ∂h    = P  ∂v T vκ  ∂T   ∂v   ∂h       = −1 . for constant v. When this is put in the expression for   =− κ  ∂v  κ vκ  ∂T v    ∂P T 1 β  dv  .

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