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Cathode Anode Alignment coils
Objective aperture assembly
Current and Voltage
Voltage = electrical potential (volts) consider as the speed or energy of electrons SEMs 1-50 kV (or keV)
Current = number of electrons/unit time (amps) 1 coulomb ~ 6 x1018 electrons 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec
SEMs typically operate in the picoamp (10-12A) to nanoamp (10-9A) range (final beam current at sample) so at 1nA ~ 9X109 electrons/sec
Current and Voltage
Carl Zeiss EVO50
Filament heating current
Gun emission current Beam current At sample
Beam current Control (condensers) Filament heating current
Electron Guns Purpose: Provide source of electrons Large. stable current in small beam Located at the top of the column Topics: 1) Thermionic emission 2) Tungsten cathode 3) LaB6 / CeB6 cathodes 4) Field emission and Schottky sources .
Thermionic emission Work function of metal: Energy required to elevate an electron from the metal to vacuum Metal E Ef = Fermi level highest energy state in conduction band in this case Vacuum Ew E Ef E = Work necessary to remove electron to infinity from lowest state in metal Ew = Work function Ew = E – Ef Interface Heat electrons to overcome work function x .
attempt to follow the highest potential gradient (perpendicular to field lines) Forms first lens Anode α0 Beam current ib .Self – biased electron gun Filament heating supply Filament (Cathode) Wehnelt Cylinder Bias Resistor Vbias=ieRbias Wehnelt cylinder surrounds filament and has small opening at base Biased negatively between 0 and -2500V relative to the cathode Equipotentials = field lines 0 + Equipotentials High voltage supply + d0 Emitted electrons are drawn toward anode by applied potential (usually +15kV in probe) converge to crossover .
Cathode current density (emission current density) Richardson Law: Jc = AcT2exp(-Ew/kT) in A/cm2 Ac = material dependant constant T = emission temperature k = Botzmann’s constant For W: T = 2700K Jc = 3.4 A/cm2 Improve current density? Use cathode material of lower Ew Ew = 4.5ev Emitted electrons repelled by Wehnelt Column lenses produce demagnified image of the gun crossover to give the final beam spot at the sample .
Biasing of electron gun and saturation Variable bias resistor in series with negative side of HV power supply and filament Apply current to heat filament negative voltage will be applied across Wehnelt cylinder Change in resistance produces directly related change in negative bias voltage Major effect: Field topology Filament heating supply Filament Bias Resistor Vbias=ieRbias 0 + Equipotentials High voltage + supply d0 Change in constant field lines near cathode Field topology also affected by filament-Wehnelt distance Wehnelt Cylinder Anode α0 Beam current ib .
see only .Low bias negative field gradient weak Focussing action weak Emitted e.field from Wehnelt = return to filament Emission current → 0 .see only + field from anode = high emission current Cathode tip Down column toward anode Produces large crossover size Poor brightness High bias negative field gradient strong Focussing action strong Emitted e.
An optimum bias setting exists in conjunction with the filament – Wehnelt distance for maximum brightness Bias and distance are adjustable parameters on most instruments 200 Emission Current (mA) Emission current 200 Brightness Optimum bias voltage 200 -300 -400 -500 Bias Voltage (V) .
Saturation Carl Zeiss EVO50 Filament heating current Cameca SX50 Gun emission current Filament heating current .
0 4.0 Filament Current (A) Increase if – heat filament to overcome Ew of cathode = emission Proper bias = ib does not vary as if increased above critical value = saturation plateau As if increases.Saturation Want a well regulated beam current 200 Emission Current (mA) Operating filament current 100 50 0 2. bias increases also negative field increases and limits the rise in ib .
0 .Saturation 200 Emission Current (mA) Operating filament current 100 50 0 2.0 Filament Current (A) 4.
Improvements in beam performance: Increase current density (more potential signal in smaller beam spot) Can increase the current density at the gun crossover by increasing brightness Higher brightness = More current for same sized beam Smaller beam at same current Increase brightness by: Increase voltage (E0) Increase current density by lowering work function (Ew) .
Cathode types: Tungsten LaB6 – CeB6 Field Emission cold thermal Schottky Tungsten cathode Wire filament ~ 100μm diameter hairpin – V shaped operating temperature = 2700K Jc = 1.5ev electrons leave from emission area ~ 100x150 μm .75 A/cm2 Ew = 4.
Could theoretically increase brightness by increasing temperature D0 = 100μm α = 3x10-3 rad At 2700K and 25kV Jc = 1.2 A/cm2 β = 4.4x105 A/(cm2sr) ~23 hrs .75 A/cm2 β = 6x104 A/(cm2sr) Filament life ~ 320/Jc (hrs) brightness = measure of radiant intensity 180-200 hrs Increase temperature to 3000K Jc = 14.
but tungsten: reliable stable relatively inexpensive Failure due to W evaporation at high temperature in good vacuum Sputtering from ion bombardment in poor vacuum .Brighter sources are attractive.
1eV reduction in Ew → increase in Jc by 1.LaB6 – CeB6 cathodes From Richardson equation: Jc = AcT2exp(-Ew/kT) in A/cm2 Ac = material dependant constant T = emission temperature k = Botzmann’s constant So current density (and brightness) increase by lowering work function (Ew) At ~ 2700K.5X REE hexaborides have much lower Ew compared to W . each 0.
Principle: Use LaB6 or CeB6 single crystal La atoms are mobile in B lattice when heated .5eV for W) Crystal made by electric arc melting of REEB6 powder stick in inert atmosphere Graphite blocks Mo-Re supports Can equal W current density at 1500K Jc then nearly 100A/cm2 at 2000K 5000 psi Mini Vogel Mount .4eV (~ 4.Evaporate during thermionic emission -La (or Ce) replenished at tip by diffusion -Low work function relative to W ~2.
one at 3000K low T source = twice as bright Advantages: Long lifetime Small d0 = high resolution .600JcE0/(πT) two sources of same current density and E0 one at 1500K.2 results: 1) Low evaporation rate at low temperature → long lifetime 2) From Langmuir relation: β = 11.
Disadvantages of REE hexaboride cathodes Very chemically reactive when hot (forms compounds with all elements except C – poisons cathode Requires exceptionally good vacuum (10-7 torr or better) Expensive Ew depends on crystal orientation As crystallites evaporate.0eV Better processing has improved performance lowest Ew better stability Mechanical failure eventually… . emission can change Best orientation = Ew less than 2.
LaB6 vs. CeB6 CeB6 has generally lower evaporation rate and is less sensitive to C contamination .
Field Emission (Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling) Principle: Cathode = tungsten rod. very sharp point (<100nm) Apply 3-5kV potential relative to first anode (very strong field at tip. >107 V/cm) Electrons can escape cathode without application of thermal energy Field Emission Tip V1 First Anode Second Anode V0 Very high vacuum (10-10 torr or better) Use second anode for accelerating electrons Etched carbide tip (AP Tech) .
the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant.Werner Heisenberg and the uncertainty principle (1927. and unexcited electrons “leak” through the barrier ∆p • ∆x ≈ ħ/2 Heisenberg uncertainty implies an uncertainty in position ∆x . uncertainty paper. 1927 Tunneling: Quantum effect by which electrons can “pass” through the potential barrier to overcome the work function The applied field deforms the potential barrier. age 25) The more precisely the position is determined. --Heisenberg. and vice versa.
Werner Heisenberg Ralph Fowler .
there will be a finite probability of finding an electron on either side Ew Cathode Vacuum Thermionic Ew(SE) Ef for ZrO2/W Field emission Ef for W 0 1 2 nm 3 4 5 .Tunneling: If ∆x is on the order of the barrier width.
Field emission = very high current density ~105 A/cm2 (recall ~3 A/cm2 for W thermionic cathodes) Very small emission region (~ 10nm) So brightness = 100s of times greater than thermionic emission at the same voltage Advantages: Long lifetime Very high resolution High depth of field Disadvantages: Easily poisoned Requires very high vacuum (better than 10-10 torr) Current instabilities prevent practical application to microanalysis Expensive Limited current output .
Using both high tip potential and thermal activation (2073K) to enhance emission Suppressor cap eliminates unwanted emission away from the tip Results in larger and more stable current compared to cold field emission Resolution approaches that of cold field emission. .Schottky emitters: Thin layer of ZrOx further lowers work function.
Now down to 0. Cold Field 3 0.2-0. Tungsten >104 1.0-3.0 106 <1 102-103 hrs . LaB6 104 1.3 109 4-6 >1yr.15ev with monochromator Schottky Source Size (nm) Energy Spread (ev) Brightness (A/cm2SR) Short-term beam Current stability (%RMS) Typical service life 15 0.0 107 <1 >1yr.0 5x108 <1 >1yr.3-1.
Monochromator gun concept • Extend two mode approach to make a monochromator: 1) use an off-axis extractor aperture and 2) a strong C0-lens setting to create dispersion: gun tip on-axis aperture extractor C0 lens (Segmented electrode gun lens) off-axis aperture 30 C0 on >20 nA C0 on beam off-axis .
15 eV – Extra deflector below slit: • steers off-axis beam onto optical axis – Geometry fits into Elstar gun module 2nd gun aperture slit deflector 31 .UC gun optics design tip axial beam extractor C0 lens off-axial beam – UC = “UniColore”: monochromator gun – 2 extractor apertures: • 1 for on-axial beam: normal beam • 1 for off-axial beam: UC beam – C0-lens focuses off-axial beam: • select beam energies with aperture • dispersion is in 1 direction: use slit • ΔE ≈ 0.
Magellan XHR SEM: three beam modes available SchottkyFEG extractor. 2 apertures segmented gun lens aperture and slit deflector Standard High current Monochromated (UC) .
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