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Energy Eﬃciency Comparison of Electrical Systems for Wind Turbines
Andreas Petersson and Stefan Lundberg
Department of Electric Power Engineering Chalmers University of Technology SE-412 96 G¨ oteborg, Sweden e-mail: andreas.petersson, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract — The eﬃciency of the electrical system of doublyfed induction generators, for variable speed wind turbines, in comparison to other electrical systems has been investigated. It has been found that there is a possibility to gain a few percent in energy eﬃciency using a doubly-fed induction generator compared to an ordinary induction generator equipped with an full-power inverter.
I. Introduction IND TURBINES (WT) can operate with either ﬁxed speed or variable speed. For ﬁxed-speed WT, the generator (induction generator) is directly connected to the grid. Since the speed is almost ﬁxed to the grid frequency, and most certainly not controllable, it is not possible to store the turbulence of the wind in form of rotational energy. Therefore, for a ﬁxed-speed system the turbulence of the wind will result in power variations, and thus aﬀect the power quality of the grid . For a variable-speed WT the generator is controlled by power electronics equipment, which makes it possible to control the rotor speed. By this way the power ﬂuctuations caused by wind variations can be absorbed with rotor speed variations . Hence, the power quality impact caused by variable-speed wind turbine can be improved compared to the ﬁxed-speed turbine . In  Grauers has thoroughly described and analyzed the losses of the permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) for a WT application. When the stator of the IG is connected to an inverter (or the grid) the system is referred to as singly-fed induction generator (SFIG). Another possibility for the IG is to have the stator circuit directly connected to the grid and the rotor circuit connected to an inverter, which is referred to as doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The purpose of this paper is to make a theoretical investigation of the energy eﬃciency for the electrical systems of WT with DFIG compared to a WT with ﬁxed-speed IG (FSIG), SFIG or PMSM. The rotor-speed range and the stator-to-rotor turns ratio of the IG are important aspects that will be studied. II. Wind Energy Conversion Theory Some of the available power in the wind is converted by the rotor blades to mechanical power acting on the rotor shaft of the WT. For steady-state calculations of the mechanical power from a wind turbine the so called Cp (λ)curve can be used. The mechanical power, Pmech , can be
0 b) Rotor Speed [rpm]
15 Wind Speed [m/s]
25 20 15 10 5 10 15 Wind Speed [m/s] 20 25
Fig. 1. Typical characteristic for a variable speed wind turbine. a) Mechanical power as a function of wind speed. b) Rotor speed as a function of wind speed.
determined by  Pmech = 1 ρAr Cp (λ, β )w3 2 Ωr rr w (1) (2)
where Cp is the power coeﬃcient, β is the pitch angle, λ is the tip speed ratio, w is the wind speed, Ωr is the rotor speed (on the low speed side of the gear box), rr is the rotor plane radius, ρ is the air density and Ar is the area swept by the rotor. In this paper it is assumed that the WT is equipped with pitch control that limit the input power. Fig. 1 shows an example of how the mechanical power, derived from the Cp (λ)-curve, and the rotor speed vary with the wind speed for a variable speed WT. The rotor speed in the variable speed range is controlled in order to keep the optimal tip speed ratio, λ. The rotor-speed range is an important design parameter for a WT equipped with a DFIG. The two most commonly used probability density functions to describe the wind speed are the Weibull and the Rayleigh functions . The Weibull distribution is de-
The transformer can be treated as ideal since it is actually included in the IG.8 kV but have a maximum rotor voltage of 690 V and obtain the same eﬀect as with 690 V stator voltage and a turns ratio of 1:4. The ﬁxed-speed WT with an IG (FSIG) can be seen as a special case of the variable-speed SFIG-system with no inverter. The inverter is designed so that the IG can operate in a limited variable-speed range. For the SFIG and the PMSG a major advantage is its welldeveloped and robust control ..2 replacements Grid Inverter IG/SG ωr Inverter IM ωr PSfrag replacements Fig. This implies that it is possible to reduce the conducting losses of the inverter. 2.2 m/s correspond. For the Rayleigh distribution the scale factor. . III. The gearbox ratio is set so that the nominal speed of IG corresponds to the middle value of the rotor-speed range of the WT. i. This is done on order to minimize the size of the inverter. wmean = 0 wf (w)dw = 1 c Γ k k (4) where Γ is Euler’s gamma function. Some of the drawbacks of this method are that it is not possible to decrease the rotor speed below synchronous speed. This causes oscillations in the air-gap ﬂux. Thus. (6) π A wind speed of 5. 3. synchronization and oscillatory transients . the Weibull distribution is known as the Rayleigh distribution. . Since the PMSG can be designed with multiple poles there is no need for a gear-box in the PMSG-system. The FSIG-system is equipped with two generators one that can handle the full power and one smaller generator with lower synchronous speed (low wind speed operation). consists of a WT equipped with an inverter connected to the stator of the generator. This means that the stator is directly connected to the grid while the rotor winding is connected via slip rings to an inverter. (5) If the shape parameter equals 2. which will vary with the rotor-speed range. SFIM. i. The generator could either be a SFIG or a PMSM. can be expressed in synchronous coordinates as vs vr = Rs is + = Rr ir + dψ s dt dψ r dt + jω1 ψ s + j(ω1 − ωr )ψ r (7) (8) .e. and π) Γ( 1 ) = 2 2 c = √ wmean . consists of a wind turbine with a variable-speed constant-frequency induction generator (DFIG). B. 3 is to indicate and highlight the stator-to-rotor turns ratio. Grid scribed by the following probability density function k w k−1 −(w/c)k e (3) c c where k is a shape parameter. according to . i. respectively to a medium and a high wind site in Sweden respectively. energy is unnecessary dissipated in the external rotor resistances and that it is not possible to control reactive power. The control of the DFIG is more complicated and has all the limitations that the line-fed synchronous generator has. The transformer between the inverter and rotor circuit in Fig. is approximately determined by the ratio between the stator and rotor voltage.g. e. c is a scale parameter and w is the wind speed. here only the case with a 690 V nominal stator voltage has been considered. the IG is directly connected to the grid. Using space-vectors the Park model. DFIM. ∞ Γ(z ) = 0 tz−1 e−t dt. let’s say 2. General Description In this section two variable speed systems will be presented: a stator-fed generator and a doubly-fed IG. (or the equivalent T-model).e.) However. . The stator-to-rotor turns ratio can be designed so that maximum voltage of the inverter corresponds to the desired maximum rotor voltage to get the desired slip.. the mean wind speed (or the expected wind speed during a year) can be calculated from f (w) = ∞ Fig. given √ the mean wind speed can be found from (k =2. The ﬁrst system. The third system. the slip.4 m/s and 7. The speed range. The advantage of the Rayleigh distribution is that it only depends on the mean wind speed. There exist a variant of the DFIG method which uses external rotor resistances which can be controlled (compare to slip power recovery). 2. starting problem. see Fig. In  it is shown that the DFIG dynamics contains poorly damped eigenvalues with the natural frequency near the line frequency. with the inclusion of iron losses. 3.. With this inverter it is possible to control the speed (or the torque) and also the reactive power on the stator side of the IG. presented in Fig. c.. Electrical System Models for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines A. (Note that there is a possibility to use a higher stator voltage. The Induction Generator A commonly used model for the IG is the Park model.e. but in the case of an IG the gear-box is designed so that maximum rotor speed corresponds to rated speed of the IG.
C.41 mH.6 mΩ.0 mΩ. for the values in this paper . This implies . For the diode the switching losses mainly consist of turn-oﬀ losses . Lsλ = 0. 5. Inverter scheme.R (12) 0 = dψ m Fig. mi is the modulation index. the variables will be dc quantities in the steady state and the derivatives will be zero. as ∗ (14) Te = 3np Im ψ m i∗ r = 3np Im ψ r ir where np is the number of pole pairs. The duty cycle of the transistor and the diode determines whether the transistor or a diode is conducting in a transistor leg (e.T + Pc. Lrλ = 0.15 mH. operated at 690 V 50 Hz the following parameters are used: 1 MW: Rs = 3. Park model of the IG in stator coordinates (ω1 = 0). where Lm is the magnitizing inductance.R vs r T4 T5 T6 ⇔ VT 0 rT Fig.e. If the IG is equipped with slip rings. is equipped with a reverse diode.1 mΩ. . Te . reverse-recovery energy. Lm = 7 mH and np = 2 0. VCE 0 and VT 0 . 5. Rm = 85 Ω. used in this paper. an equivalent circuit of the inverter is drawn. rotor and air-gap ﬂuxes in (7) to (9) are given as Rm im. 4. The conduction losses can. Lsλ is the stator leakage inductance and Lrλ is the rotor leakage inductance. The turn-on and turn-oﬀ losses for the transistor and the reverse-recovery energy loss for a diode can be found from data sheets.R = Lsλ is + ψ m (10) Lm is + Lr ir + Lm im.R |2 ) (13) and it is possible to express the electro mechanical torque. see Fig. Lrλ = 0.4 MW: Rs = 4..R = Lrλ ir + ψ m (11) Lm is + Lm ir + Lm im. Rm = 200 Ω. The switching losses of the transistors are the turn-on and turn-oﬀ losses. The transistor and the diode can be modeled as constant voltage drops. be written as √ 2V Irms 2 2 Pc = Pc. T1 to T6. where each transistor. Since the model is described in synchronous coordinates. due to applied stator voltage and frequency have also been neglected.3 Rs + vs s - Lsλ is s is r s replacements Lrλ PSfrag Rr jω r ψr + + - T1 T2 T3 ⇔ VCE 0 rCE Lm Rm is m. Rm .0 mΩ.D = + π 2 6 2 2 r T I mi 4rT Irms mi cos(φ) √ − √ rms + (16) 3 cos(φ)6π 45π 3 where Irms is the root mean square (RMS) value of the (sinusoidal) current to the grid or the generator. Simpliﬁed expressions of the transistor’s and diode’s conducting losses.R + ψs ψr ψm = = = Ls is + Lm ir + Lm im. vs stator voltage ψ m air-gap ﬂux vr rotor voltage Rs stator resistance stator current Rr rotor resistance is rotor current Rm magnitizing resistance ir magnitizingsynchronous im.14 mH. Inverter In order to be able to feed the IG with a variable voltage and frequency source. rCE and rT . 4. the IG can be connected to a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter.  (see Table I for actual values).D = + rIrms . r = rCE ≈ rT and V = VCEO ≈ VT O it is possible to model the transistor and the diode with the same model.g. for a transistor leg. The losses of the inverter can be divided into switching losses and conducting losses. Lsλ = 0. are (with a third harmonic voltage injection)  √ 2 VCE 0 Irms 2 Irms VCE 0 mi cos(φ) rCE Irms √ + + Pc. (9) + jω 1 ψ m dt where the following notation is used.R ω1 resistance current angular speed ψs stator ﬂux ωr rotor angular speed rotor ﬂux ψr An equivalent circuit of the IG in stator coordinates can be seen in Fig. A PWM circuit switches on and oﬀ the transistors. and a resistance in series. Since. Rr = 1. The stator.15 mH. For the IG:s. Lm = 12 mH and np = 3. Rr = 4. Ls is the stator inductance. In Fig. The conducting losses arise from the current through the transistors and diodes. Lr is the rotor inductance. Variations in the magnetizing resistance. i. (17) π A reasonable assumption is that the switching losses of the transistor is proportional to the current . The resistive losses of the IG is Ploss = 3(Rs |is |2 + Rr |ir |2 + Rm |im. with the above mentioned approximation. 5.T = π 2 6 2 2 rCE Irms mi 4rCE Irms mi cos(φ) √ +√ − (15) 3 cos(φ)6π 45π 3 √ 2 VT 0 Irms 2 Irms VT 0 mi cos(φ) rT Irms √ − Pc. T1 and T4). and φ is the phase shift between the voltage and the current. the voltage drop across the slip rings has been neglected.
(20) IG Losses [%] 2 1 0 5 10 15 Wind Speed [m/s] 20 25 Fig. Total System Losses When calculating the losses for the system we will take into account the IG losses. 6 the losses of the generators for the FSIG. Maximum active power (solid) and maximum reactive power (dashed) that the inverter supply the DFIG. For the DFIG system the reactive power at the stator has been set to 0 VAr. The reason for this is that the ﬂux level of the SFIM-system can be optimized while for the DFIM the ﬂux level is ﬁxed to the stator voltage. during a year.T = (Eon + Eoﬀ ) IC. However. for a 1-MW gear box.4 that the switching losses from the transistor and the inverse diode can be expressed as √ 2 π 2Irms fsw (18) Ps. Fig. In Fig.inverter = Ploss. for the transistor. 3. According to . is shown in Fig. it is possible to calculate the losses of the backto-back inverter according to Section III-C. The mean value of the produced power.GB = ηPlowspeed + ξPn Ωr Ωrn (22) where η is the gear mesh losses constant and ξ is a friction constant.D ). at diﬀerent wind speeds. SFIG (dashed) and DFIG (dash-dotted). is. The total losses of the system. 7 shows the maximum power and the maximum reactive power that is fed to the DFIG by the inverter as a function of the rotor speed range.GB + Ploss.nom Ps. One way of calculating Irms for the GSI is by using the current that produce the active power in the machine. from Table I. gear-box losses. The total system losses become Ploss = Ploss.GB . as well as machine-side and grid-side inverter losses. depends on the maximum peak current through the valves. Thus it is now possible to calculate the losses of the back-to-back inverter as Ploss.nom is the nominal current through the transistor.D = Err fsw (19) where Eon and Eoﬀ is the turn-on and turn-oﬀ energy losses respectively. 6. as a function of the wind speed. The transistor that is chosen. The losses of the slip-rings for the DFIG-system and friction losses of the IG are neglected. Err is the reverse recovery energy for the diode and IC. E. Ploss. The back-to-back inverter can be seen as two inverters which are connected together: the machine-side inverter. Since the stator current. 7. in percent of maximum shaft power. Gear-Box Losses One way to estimate the gear-box losses. Irms . with low inverter losses. In this paper the switching frequency is set to 5 kHz.MSI . stator voltage. As can be seen in the ﬁgure the losses of the DFIM are higher than those of the SFIM for low wind speeds. Induction generator losses. are plotted as a function of wind . The reactive current is assumed to be stored in the dc link capacitor. indicated by the transformer in Fig. adjusted with the ratio between machine-side voltage and the grid voltage. one thing that has to be kept in mind is that the variable-speed range becomes very limited for the system with a stator-to-rotor turns ratio of 1:11.GSI + Ploss. and the grid-side inverter (GSI).GSI + Ploss. Ploss. D.T + Ps. (MSI). Active power is in percent of maximum active power and reactive power is in percent of maximum reactive power respectively that is handled by the inverter in the SFIG system. Result of Calculations Steady-state calculations will be carried out in this section in order to determine the losses of the two systems.005 are reasonable. IV. rotor current and rotor voltage for diﬀerent wind speeds have been calculated. the constants η = 0. For the MSI the current through the valves. In Fig. where Ploss.MSI (23) speed. are the stator current for the SFIG system or the rotor current for the DFIG system. Therefore the inverter losses for the DFIG are calculated and shown for three diﬀerent turns ratio in the ﬁgure. the SFIG and the DFIG cases. 8 the inverter’s total losses as a function of the wind speed can be seen.IG + Ploss. . It is possible to reduce the current through the inverter by the stator-to-rotor turns ratio. (21) 0 Power [%] −10 −20 −30 −40 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm] Fig. This implies that it is possible to reduce the conducting losses of the inverter.02 and ξ = 0. FSIG (solid). The total losses from the three transistor legs of the inverter becomes Ploss = 3(Pc + Ps.IG are the losses of the IG. 9.
8. 6. The break-even point of the total losses or the rated values of the inverter determines the switch over point. In Fig.e. The gain in energy for the system with a Y-∆-coupling performs approximately 30 % better than the system with short circuited stator. e.5 Inverter Losses [%] SFIG 2 1 0 5 10 15 Wind Speed [m/s] 20 DFIG 1:1 DFIG 1:3 DFIG 1:11 25 Energy Gain [%] Energy Gain [%] Fig. The produced energy can be found by multiplication of time. In Fig. Conclusions In this paper the gain in total energy produced. and PMSG. for the DFIG. 2) By having the stator in ∆-connection at high wind speeds and in Y-connection at low wind speeds. for a WT application. It was found that if the range of the variable speed is set properly. This is due to that the FSIG-system is equipped with two generators that can operate at two diﬀerent synchronous speeds.. −10 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm] b) 5 Energy Gain [%] (24) 3 a) 0 −5 Total Losses [%] 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 Wind Speed [m/s] SFIG DFIG 1:1 DFIG 1:3 FSIG 0 −5 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm] c) 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −8 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm] Fig. of a doubly-fed induction generator system compared to a singly-fed generator system. the Y-∆ coupling. is adjusted so that maximum rotor voltage is 75 % of the rated voltage. and take all power out through the inverter. Inverter losses at diﬀerent wind speeds in percent of maximum shaft power. during a year. 75 % of 690 V.e. It can be seen in Fig. for the PMSG generator is taken from . SFIG. with a mean wind speed of 6. 6.g.3 % extra energy. The average eﬃciency. 11 the increased gain in energy by reducing the magnetizing losses.4 m/s. for mean wind speeds of 5.2 m/s (dotted). It can also be seen in Fig. 10. b) SFIG. has been studied. 10a that the FSIG-systems performs better than the DFIG-system. The gain in energy is in comparisons with a) FSIG. The stator-to-rotor turns ratio. This can be done by: 1) By short circuit the stator of the IG.2 m/s). 25 Fig. One reason for this is due to the fact that the inverter at low wind speeds only handles a fraction of the total power compared to when the stator is short circuited and the inverter handles the total power.. 9.8 m/s (dashed) and 7.4 m/s (solid). The eﬃciency is scaled linearly with the mean wind speed.8 m/s and 7. Total losses of the system as a function of wind speed. there is the possibility to gain a . Gain in energy for a DFIG-system. as a function of the rotor speed range. as a function of the rotor speed range. the systems produce the same amount of energy. can be found from ∞ Pmean = 0 P (w)f (w)dw where f (w) is the probability density function. For high-mean wind-speed sites there might be a slight gain in energy. i. are presented. c) PMSG.8 m/s. 10 the gain in energy for a DFIG-system compared to FSIG. It is possible to lower the magnetizing losses of the DFIGsystem and increase the gain in energy even further. at low wind speeds. 11 that the Y-∆-coupling has approximately the same gain in energy independent of the rotor speed range. For the ﬁrst case it is possible to gain about 0. For the comparison to the SFIG-system it is possible to gain a few percent if the variable-speed range is set properly. for diﬀerent mean wind speeds (5. by the two above mention methods. i.9 % extra energy. for a high wind speed site. and up to 0. for a low wind speed site. The inverter losses of the PMSGsystem are assumed similar to the SFIG-system. In comparison to the PMSG-system there is no gain in energy (for medium mean wind speeds). V.
Power Electronics – in Theory and Practice.” in 2000 IEEE Nordic Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics (NORpie/2000). F.A. for a DFIG-system when it is equipped with: a) Short circuited stator at low wind speeds. Nice. 1993. on Energy Conversion. Chalmers University of Technology. Semikron. Acknowledgments The ﬁnancial support provided by the Swedish National Energy Agency and ABB Power Systems is gratefully acknowledged. “Active ﬂicker reduction from a seabased 2. 11.3 mΩ Reverse recovery Err 81.5 1 0. Semikron. A. Design of Direct-Driven Permanent-Magnet Generators for Wind Turbines. Grauers.nom 1200 A Operating dc-link voltage VCC 1000 V VCEO 1.2 V Lead resistance (IGBT) rCE 3. ˚ A. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives. 1993. Institute of Energy Technology. “Voltage quality change by grid-connected wind turbines.T. March 2001.” Data sheet. “Grid impact of variable speed wind turbines. “SKiiP 603GD122-3DUW.” in Proceedings of 7th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. Heller and W. Department of Electric Power Enginering. and Santjer F. Aalborg. “SKiiP 2403GB122-4DL. March 2001. P. Boulaxis. Brussels. G¨ oteborg. Papathanassiou. Larsson. Chalmers University of Technology. CRC Press LCC.P. P. Aalborg University. Transient Phenomena in Electrical Machines. Royal Institute of Technology. pp. Kov´ acs. Papadopoulos. Studentlitteratur. Stockholm. the doubly-fed induction generator system might perform slightly better than the permanentmagnet synchronous generator. G.D thesis. Petru and T.2 V Lead resistance (diode) rT 0.nom 600 A Operating dc-link voltage VCC 1000 V VCEO 1. L. Wind Energy Systems.L. Nasar.7 mΩ Reverse recovery Err 40 mJ energy (diode) few percents in energy eﬃciency compared to a single-fed induction generator. for mean wind speeds of 5. A. 1985. Electric Drives. Synchronous Generator and Frequency Converter in Wind Turbine Applications: System Design and Eﬃciency.D thesis.8 m/s (dashed) and 7. 1999.1 mΩ Turn-on and turn-oﬀ Eon + Eoﬀ 183 mJ energy (IGBT) VT O 1.-P. Inverter Characteristics 1 (IGBT and inverse diode) Nominal current IC. Sept.5 1 0. Leonhard. pp. France. Nice. Denmark. If the stator of the doublyfed induction generator is equipped with a connection device for Y-∆-connections the gain in energy can be increased even further. Linders. The stator-to-rotor turns ratio is an important design parameter for lowering the losses of the doubly-fed induction generator system.5      Energy Gain [%] 0 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm] b) 1. Sweden. February 2000. T. However a direct-driven permanentmagnet synchronous generator will approximately perform as the doubly-fed induction generator system. References  M. Sørensen. 8. Ph. 1984. Grauers.G.8 mΩ Turn-on and turn-oﬀ Eon + Eoﬀ 733 mJ energy (IGBT) VT O 1.” Data sheet. 1997. France. M. Appendix TABLE I Inverter Data.5 0 24−25 22−25 20−25 18−25 16−25 14−25 12−25 Rotor Speed Range [rpm]        Fig. Thorborg. pp. b) Y-∆ coupling. Denmark. Abrahamsen. K. 520–6. pp. 2. K. 6.” in European Wind Energy Conference. 2000. W. “Control by variable rotor speed of a ﬁxed-pitch wind turbine operating in a wide speed range. T. 1996. Thiringer. N. as a function of the rotor speed range. March 2001.7 mΩ Reverse recovery Err 163 mJ energy (diode) Inverter Characteristics 2 (IGBT and inverse diode) Nominal current IC. Harnefors and H. Belgium. Electrical Machines and Power Electronics. Dept. 3.2 m/s (dotted). October 1996. 783–785. no. of Electrical Engineering. Elsevier.6 Energy Gain [%] a) 1.” in European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition (EWEC 99).nom 300 A Operating dc-link voltage VCC 1000 V VCEO 1.2 V Lead resistance (IGBT) rCE 0.6 mΩ Turn-on and turn-oﬀ Eon + Eoﬀ 367 mJ energy (IGBT) VT O 1. Thiringer and J.4 m/s (solid). Springer-Verlag. Nee. I. A. Semikron. EPE Assoc. Johnson. S.2 V Lead resistance (diode) rT 1.3 mJ energy (diode) Inverter Characteristics 3 (IGBT and inverse diode) Nominal current IC. Control of Variable-Speed Drives. Aalborg. Department of Electric Power Enginering. 707–710 vol. Boldea and S. and S. Schumacher. Ph. Control of Electrical Drives. Sweden. 1999.5 MW wind park connected to a weak grid. Prentice-Hall.” Data sheet. 7–11. Tentzerakis. vol. G¨ oteborg. For a site with a high mean wind.2 V Lead resistance (IGBT) rCE 1. “Stability analysis of doublyfed induction machines in stator ﬂux reference frame.     .” IEEE Trans. “SKiiP 1203GB122-2DW. 2nd edition.. Increased gain in energy. May 1994. 1999.2 V Lead resistance (diode) rT 2. Licentiate thesis. 2000.
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